National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for automatic ac voltage

  1. Automatic voltage imbalance detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bobbett, Ronald E.; McCormick, J. Byron; Kerwin, William J.

    1984-01-01

    A device for indicating and preventing damage to voltage cells such as galvanic cells and fuel cells connected in series by detecting sequential voltages and comparing these voltages to adjacent voltage cells. The device is implemented by using operational amplifiers and switching circuitry is provided by transistors. The device can be utilized in battery powered electric vehicles to prevent galvanic cell damage and also in series connected fuel cells to prevent fuel cell damage.

  2. Switch contact device for interrupting high current, high voltage, AC and DC circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Via, Lester C.; Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Ryan, John M.

    2005-01-04

    A high voltage switch contact structure capable of interrupting high voltage, high current AC and DC circuits. The contact structure confines the arc created when contacts open to the thin area between two insulating surfaces in intimate contact. This forces the arc into the shape of a thin sheet which loses heat energy far more rapidly than an arc column having a circular cross-section. These high heat losses require a dramatic increase in the voltage required to maintain the arc, thus extinguishing it when the required voltage exceeds the available voltage. The arc extinguishing process with this invention is not dependent on the occurrence of a current zero crossing and, consequently, is capable of rapidly interrupting both AC and DC circuits. The contact structure achieves its high performance without the use of sulfur hexafluoride.

  3. A statistical approach to designing mitigation for induced ac voltages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, J. [Electro Sciences, Inc., Crystal Lake, IL (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Induced voltage levels on buried pipelines collocated with overhead electric power transmission lines are usually mitigated by means of grounding the pipeline. Maximum effectiveness is obtained when grounds are placed at discrete locations along the pipeline where the peak induced voltages occur. The degree of mitigation achieved is dependent upon the local soil resistivity at these locations. On occasion it may be necessary to employ an extensive distributed grounding system, for example, a parallel buried wire connected to the pipe at periodic intervals. In this situation the a priori calculation of mitigated voltage levels is sometimes made assuming an average value for the soil resistivity. Over long distances, however, the soil resistivity generally varies as a log-normally distributed random variable. The effect of this variability upon the predicted mitigated voltage levels is examined. It is found that the predicted levels exhibit a statistical variability which precludes a precise determination of the mitigated voltage levels. Thus, post commissioning testing of the emplaced mitigation system is advisable.

  4. An Annotated Bibliography of High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission and Flexible AC Transmission (FACTS) Devices, 1991-1993.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litzenberger, Wayne; Lava, Val

    1994-08-01

    References are contained for HVDC systems, converter stations and components, overhead transmission lines, cable transmission, system design and operations, simulation of high voltage direct current systems, high-voltage direct current installations, and flexible AC transmission system (FACTS).

  5. Halbach array generator/motor having an automatically regulated output voltage and mechanical power output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2005-02-22

    A motor/generator having its stationary portion, i.e., the stator, positioned concentrically within its rotatable element, i.e., the rotor, along its axis of rotation. The rotor includes a Halbach array. The stator windings are switched or commutated to provide a DC motor/generator much the same as in a conventional DC motor/generator. The voltage and power are automatically regulated by using centrifugal force to change the diameter of the rotor, and thereby vary the radial gap in between the stator and the rotating Halbach array, as a function of the angular velocity of the rotor.

  6. A statistical approach to designing mitigation for induced AC voltages on pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, J. [Electro Sciences Inc., Crystal Lake, IL (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Induced voltage levels on buried pipelines co-located with overhead electric power transmission lines are usually mitigated by grounding the pipeline. Maximum effectiveness is obtained when grounds are placed where the peak induced voltages occur. Mitigation depends on the local soil resistivity. It may be necessary to employ an extensive distributed grounding system. Over long distances, however, the soil resistivity generally varies as a log-normally distributed random variable. The effect of this variability is examined.

  7. Fast switching, modular high-voltage DC/AC-power supplies for RF-Amplifiers and other applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alex, J.; Schminke, W. [Thomcast AG, Turgi (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    A new kind of high voltage high-power Pulse-Step Modulator (PSM) for broadcast transmitters, accelerator sources, for NBI (Neutral Beam Injection for Plasma Heating), gyrotrons and klystrons has been developed. Since its first introduction in 1984 for broadcast transmitters, more than 100 high-power sound broadcast transmitters had been equipped with the first generation of the PSM modulators, using Gate Turn-Off Thyristors (GTOs) as switching elements. Recently, due to faster switching elements and making use of the latest DSP technologies (Digital Signal Processing), the performance data and areas of application could be extended further. In 1994, a precision high voltage source for MW gyrotrons was installed at CRPP in Lausanne. Supplementary very low cost solutions for lower powers but high voltages had been developed. Hence, today, a large area of applications can be satisfied with the family of solutions. The paper describes the principle of operation, the related control systems and refers to some particular applications of the PSM amplifiers, especially the newest developments and corresponding field results.

  8. Digital ac monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, George W.; Kern, Jr., Edward C.

    1987-06-09

    An apparatus and method is provided for monitoring a plurality of analog ac circuits by sampling the voltage and current waveform in each circuit at predetermined intervals, converting the analog current and voltage samples to digital format, storing the digitized current and voltage samples and using the stored digitized current and voltage samples to calculate a variety of electrical parameters; some of which are derived from the stored samples. The non-derived quantities are repeatedly calculated and stored over many separate cycles then averaged. The derived quantities are then calculated at the end of an averaging period. This produces a more accurate reading, especially when averaging over a period in which the power varies over a wide dynamic range. Frequency is measured by timing three cycles of the voltage waveform using the upward zero crossover point as a starting point for a digital timer.

  9. Digital ac monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, G.W.; Kern, E.C. Jr.

    1987-06-09

    An apparatus and method is provided for monitoring a plurality of analog ac circuits by sampling the voltage and current waveform in each circuit at predetermined intervals, converting the analog current and voltage samples to digital format, storing the digitized current and voltage samples and using the stored digitized current and voltage samples to calculate a variety of electrical parameters; some of which are derived from the stored samples. The non-derived quantities are repeatedly calculated and stored over many separate cycles then averaged. The derived quantities are then calculated at the end of an averaging period. This produces a more accurate reading, especially when averaging over a period in which the power varies over a wide dynamic range. Frequency is measured by timing three cycles of the voltage waveform using the upward zero crossover point as a starting point for a digital timer. 24 figs.

  10. Temperature controlled high voltage regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiaro, Jr., Peter J.; Schulze, Gerald K.

    2004-04-20

    A temperature controlled high voltage regulator for automatically adjusting the high voltage applied to a radiation detector is described. The regulator is a solid state device that is independent of the attached radiation detector, enabling the regulator to be used by various models of radiation detectors, such as gas flow proportional radiation detectors.

  11. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line ...

  12. Experimental validation of a high voltage pulse measurement method.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cular, Stefan; Patel, Nishant Bhupendra; Branch, Darren W.

    2013-09-01

    This report describes X-cut lithium niobate's (LiNbO3) utilization for voltage sensing by monitoring the acoustic wave propagation changes through LiNbO3 resulting from applied voltage. Direct current (DC), alternating current (AC) and pulsed voltage signals were applied to the crystal. Voltage induced shift in acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically for DC and AC voltages and linearly for pulsed voltages. The measured values ranged from 10 - 273 ps and 189 ps - 2 ns for DC and non-DC voltages, respectively. Data suggests LiNbO3 has a frequency sensitive response to voltage. If voltage source error is eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the sensor's U95 estimated combined uncertainty could decrease to ~0.025% for DC, AC, and pulsed voltage measurements.

  13. AC Transit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    AC Transit (or the Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District) is based in Oakland, California, and provides transportation services to the East Bay of San Francisco. The 360-square-mile service area includes 13 cities and adjacent unincorporated areas in Alameda and Contra Costa counties. AC Transit's approximately 638 vehicles serve more than 65 million annual passengers.

  14. Automatic control and detector for three-terminal resistance measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.

    1976-10-26

    A device is provided for automatic control and detection in a three-terminal resistance measuring instrument. The invention is useful for the rapid measurement of the resistivity of various bulk material with a three-terminal electrode system. The device maintains the current through the sample at a fixed level while measuring the voltage across the sample to detect the sample resistance. The three-electrode system contacts the bulk material and the current through the sample is held constant by means of a control circuit connected to a first of the three electrodes and works in conjunction with a feedback controlled amplifier to null the voltage between the first electrode and a second electrode connected to the controlled amplifier output. An A.C. oscillator provides a source of sinusoidal reference voltage of the frequency at which the measurement is to be executed. Synchronous reference pulses for synchronous detectors in the control circuit and an output detector circuit are provided by a synchronous pulse generator. The output of the controlled amplifier circuit is sampled by an output detector circuit to develop at an output terminal thereof a D.C. voltage which is proportional to the sample resistance R. The sample resistance is that segment of the sample between the area of the first electrode and the third electrode, which is connected to ground potential.

  15. VOLTAGE REGULATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Von Eschen, R.L.; Scheele, P.F.

    1962-04-24

    A transistorized voltage regulator which provides very close voitage regulation up to about 180 deg F is described. A diode in the positive line provides a constant voltage drop from the input to a regulating transistor emitter. An amplifier is coupled to the positive line through a resistor and is connected between a difference circuit and the regulating transistor base which is negative due to the difference in voltage drop across thc diode and the resistor so that a change in the regulator output causes the amplifier to increase or decrease the base voltage and current and incrcase or decrease the transistor impedance to return the regulator output to normal. (AEC)

  16. AC resistance measuring instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hof, P.J.

    1983-10-04

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

  17. AC Resistance measuring instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hof, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument.

  18. Protecting a HVDC link against accidental isolation from its receiving AC system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehouse, R.S. )

    1993-07-01

    When an HVdc scheme is isolated from its receiving ac system, the inverter may continue to operate, generating its own ac bus voltages; this is defined here as islanding. If islanding is allowed to continue unrestricted, then main circuit components may in some conditions be damaged and it is therefore necessary to provide a suitable protection system. This paper outlines the protection scheme developed for the McNeill Back-to-Back HVdc link in Alberta, Canada, to prevent damage due to islanding while still permitting the link to automatically restart on reclosure of the isolating breaker. Oscillograms showing the protection in operation on both the GEC ALSTHOM HVdc simulator and during tests carried out as part of the commissioning of the McNeill HV dc link are included.

  19. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-07-01

    Disclosed is a voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means. 15 figs.

  20. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    1997-01-01

    A voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means.

  1. Dynamic voltage-current characteristics for a water jet plasma arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Jiaxiang; Lan Sheng; Xu Zuoming

    2008-05-05

    A virtual instrument technology is used to measure arc current, arc voltage, dynamic V-I characteristics, and nonlinear conductance for a cone-shaped water jet plasma arc under ac voltage. Experimental results show that ac arc discharge mainly happens in water vapor evaporated from water when heated. However, due to water's cooling effect and its conductance, arc conductance, reignition voltage, extinguish voltage, and current zero time are very different from those for ac arc discharge in gas work fluid. These can be valuable to further studies on mechanism and characteristics of plasma ac discharge in water, and even in gas work fluid.

  2. Voltage modulation of propagating spin waves in Fe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nawaoka, Kohei; Shiota, Yoichi; Miwa, Shinji; Tamura, Eiiti; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Mizuochi, Norikazu; Shinjo, Teruya; Suzuki, Yoshishige

    2015-05-07

    The effect of a voltage application on propagating spin waves in single-crystalline 5?nm-Fe layer was investigated. Two micro-sized antennas were employed to excite and detect the propagating spin waves. The voltage effect was characterized using AC lock-in technique. As a result, the resonant field of the magnetostatic surface wave in the Fe was clearly modulated by the voltage application. The modulation is attributed to the voltage induced magnetic anisotropy change in ferromagnetic metals.

  3. Model Repair Specifications for Low Voltage Induction Motors | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Repair Specifications for Low Voltage Induction Motors Model Repair Specifications for Low Voltage Induction Motors These Model Repair Specifications are intended to cover routine repair and rewind of low-voltage random-wound three-phase AC squirrel cage induction motors. Model Repair Specifications for Low Voltage Induction Motors (November 1999) (1.31 MB) More Documents & Publications DOE Navigant Master Presentation Improving Motor and Drive System Performance - A Sourcebook

  4. A Matter of Quantum Voltages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sellner, Bernhard; Kathmann, Shawn M.

    2014-11-14

    Voltages inside matter are relevant to crystallization, materials science, biology, catalysis, and aqueous chemistry. Electron holography is able to measure the variation of voltages in matter and modern supercomputers allow the calculation of quantum voltages with practically unlimited spatial and temporal resolution of bulk systems. Of particular interest is the Mean Inner Potential (Vo) - the spatial average of these voltages. Voltages are very sensitive to the distribution of electrons and provide metrics to understand interactions in condensed phases. In the present study, we find excellent agreement with measurements of Vo for vitrified water and salt crystals and demonstrate the impact of covalent and ionic bonding as well as intermolecular/atomic interactions. Furthermore, we predict Vo as well as the fluctuations of these voltages in aqueous NaCl electrolytes and characterize the changes in their behavior as the resolution increases below the size of atoms. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  5. AUTOMATIC COUNTER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, H.P.

    1960-06-01

    An automatic counter of alpha particle tracks recorded by a sensitive emulsion of a photographic plate is described. The counter includes a source of mcdulated dark-field illumination for developing light flashes from the recorded particle tracks as the photographic plate is automatically scanned in narrow strips. Photoelectric means convert the light flashes to proportional current pulses for application to an electronic counting circuit. Photoelectric means are further provided for developing a phase reference signal from the photographic plate in such a manner that signals arising from particle tracks not parallel to the edge of the plate are out of phase with the reference signal. The counting circuit includes provision for rejecting the out-of-phase signals resulting from unoriented tracks as well as signals resulting from spurious marks on the plate such as scratches, dust or grain clumpings, etc. The output of the circuit is hence indicative only of the tracks that would be counted by a human operator.

  6. ACS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ACS Jump to: navigation, search Name: ACS Place: Madrid, Spain Zip: 28036 Sector: Solar Product: Madrid based construction company involved in the development of solar thermal...

  7. Non-contact current and voltage sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Gary D; El-Essawy, Wael; Ferreira, Alexandre Peixoto; Keller, Thomas Walter; Rubio, Juan C; Schappert, Michael A

    2014-03-25

    A detachable current and voltage sensor provides an isolated and convenient device to measure current passing through a conductor such as an AC branch circuit wire, as well as providing an indication of an electrostatic potential on the wire, which can be used to indicate the phase of the voltage on the wire, and optionally a magnitude of the voltage. The device includes a housing that contains the current and voltage sensors, which may be a ferrite cylinder with a hall effect sensor disposed in a gap along the circumference to measure current, or alternative a winding provided through the cylinder along its axis and a capacitive plate or wire disposed adjacent to, or within, the ferrite cylinder to provide the indication of the voltage.

  8. System and method for determining stator winding resistance in an AC motor using motor drives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G; Zhang, Pinjia

    2013-02-26

    A system and method for determining the stator winding resistance of AC motors is provided. The system includes an AC motor drive having an input connectable to an AC source and an output connectable to an input terminal of an AC motor, a pulse width modulation (PWM) converter having switches therein to control current flow and terminal voltages in the AC motor, and a control system connected to the PWM converter. The control system generates a command signal to cause the PWM converter to control an output of the AC motor drive corresponding to an input to the AC motor, selectively generates a modified command signal to cause the PWM converter to inject a DC signal into the output of the AC motor drive, and determines a stator winding resistance of the AC motor based on the DC signal of at least one of the voltage and current.

  9. Methods, systems and apparatus for controlling operation of two alternating current (AC) machines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel; Nagashima, James M.; Perisic, Milun; Hiti, Silva

    2012-02-14

    A system is provided for controlling two AC machines. The system comprises a DC input voltage source that provides a DC input voltage, a voltage boost command control module (VBCCM), a five-phase PWM inverter module coupled to the two AC machines, and a boost converter coupled to the inverter module and the DC input voltage source. The boost converter is designed to supply a new DC input voltage to the inverter module having a value that is greater than or equal to a value of the DC input voltage. The VBCCM generates a boost command signal (BCS) based on modulation indexes from the two AC machines. The BCS controls the boost converter such that the boost converter generates the new DC input voltage in response to the BCS. When the two AC machines require additional voltage that exceeds the DC input voltage required to meet a combined target mechanical power required by the two AC machines, the BCS controls the boost converter to drive the new DC input voltage generated by the boost converter to a value greater than the DC input voltage.

  10. HIGH VOLTAGE GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zito, G.V.

    1959-04-21

    This patent relates to high voltage supply circuits adapted for providing operating voltages for GeigerMueller counter tubes, and is especially directed to an arrangement for maintaining uniform voltage under changing conditions of operation. In the usual power supply arrangement for counter tubes the counter voltage is taken from across the power supply output capacitor. If the count rate exceeds the current delivering capaciiy of the capacitor, the capacitor voltage will drop, decreasing the counter voltage. The present invention provides a multivibrator which has its output voltage controlled by a signal proportional to the counting rate. As the counting rate increases beyond the current delivering capacity of the capacitor, the rectified voltage output from the multivibrator is increased to maintain uniform counter voltage.

  11. Local Voltage Support from Distributed Energy Resources to Prevent Air Conditioner Motor Stalling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baone, Chaitanya A; Xu, Yan; Kueck, John D

    2010-01-01

    Microgrid voltage collapse often happens when there is a high percentage of low inertia air-conditioning (AC) motors in the power systems. The stalling of the AC motors results in Fault Induced Delayed Voltage Recovery (FIDVR). A hybrid load model including typical building loads, AC motor loads, and other induction motor loads is built to simulate the motoring stalling phenomena. Furthermore, distributed energy resources (DE) with local voltage support capability are utilized to boost the local bus voltage during a fault, and prevent the motor stalling. The simulation results are presented. The analysis of the simulation results show that local voltage support from multiple DEs can effectively and economically solve the microgrid voltage collapse problem.

  12. AC Resonant charger with charge rate unrelated to primary power frequency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watson, Harold

    1982-01-01

    An AC resonant charger for a capacitive load, such as a PFN, is provided with a variable repetition rate unrelated to the frequency of a multi-phase AC power source by using a control unit to select and couple the phase of the power source to the resonant charger in order to charge the capacitive load with a phase that is the next to begin a half cycle. For optimum range in repetition rate and increased charging voltage, the resonant charger includes a step-up transformer and full-wave rectifier. The next phase selected may then be of either polarity, but is always selected to be of a polarity opposite the polarity of the last phase selected so that the transformer core does not saturate. Thyristors are used to select and couple the correct phase just after its zero crossover in response to a sharp pulse generated by a zero-crossover detector. The thyristor that is turned on then automatically turns off after a full half cycle of its associated phase input. A full-wave rectifier couples the secondary winding of the transformer to the load so that the load capacitance is always charged with the same polarity.

  13. Ac resonant charger with charge rate unrelated to preimary power requency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1979-12-07

    An ac resonant charger for a capacitive load, such as a pulse forming network (PFN), is provided with a variable repetition rate unrelated to the frequency of a multi-phase ac power source by using a control unit to select and couple the phase of the power source to the resonant charger in order to charge the capacitive load with a phase that is the next to begin a half cycle. For optimum range in repetition rate and increased charging voltage, the resonant charger includes a step-up transformer and full-wave rectifier. The next phase selected may then be of either polarity, but is always selected to be of a polarity opposite the polarity of the last phase selected so that the transformer core does not saturate. Thyristors are used to select and couple the correct phase just after its zero crossover in response to a sharp pulse generated by a zero-crossover detector. The thyristor that is turned on then automatically turns off after a full half cycle of its associated phase input. A full-wave rectifier couples the secondary winding of the transformer to the load so that the load capacitance is always charged with the same polarity.

  14. Preventing Delayed Voltage Recovery with Voltage-Regulating Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adhikari, Sarina; Li, Fangxing; Li, Huijuan; Xu, Yan; Kueck, John D; Rizy, D Tom

    2009-01-01

    With the large use of residential air conditioner (A/C) motors during the summer peaks, the potential of motor stalling events have increased in the recent years. The stalled motor loads have been found to be the most important cause of delayed voltage recovery following severe system disturbances, such as a subtransmission fault. The proper modeling of the stalled motors is a very important factor in identifying the effect of these motors in voltage recovery after the fault. This paper presents a methodology for modeling the stalled low inertia induction motors based on a sample utility system and a small primary distribution circuit. The prevention of the stalling of motors plays an important role in maintaining the voltage profile of the system after system disturbances. Distributed Energy Resource (DER) is used to prevent the motor stalling events so that the delayed voltage recovery of the system may be avoided.

  15. Eliminate Voltage Unbalance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Voltage unbalance degrades the performance and shortens the life of a three-phase motor. Voltage unbalance at the motor terminals can cause current unbalance that is far out of ...

  16. ETA-AC004

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review of Test Results Prepared by Electric Transportation Applications Prepared by: ... Appendices Appendix A - Test Results Review and Approval Form 11 Procedure ETA-AC004 ...

  17. ETA-AC003

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Preparation and Issuance of Test Reports Prepared by Electric Transportation Applications ... Review and approval of test documentation shall be in accordance with ETA-AC004, "Review ...

  18. System and method for determining stator winding resistance in an AC motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G.; Zhang, Pinjia; Theisen, Peter J.

    2011-05-31

    A system and method for determining stator winding resistance in an AC motor is disclosed. The system includes a circuit having an input connectable to an AC source and an output connectable to an input terminal of an AC motor. The circuit includes at least one contactor and at least one switch to control current flow and terminal voltages in the AC motor. The system also includes a controller connected to the circuit and configured to modify a switching time of the at least one switch to create a DC component in an output of the system corresponding to an input to the AC motor and determine a stator winding resistance of the AC motor based on the injected DC component of the voltage and current.

  19. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y+36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Schamiloglu, E.; Cular, S.

    2015-08-11

    A comparison study between Y+36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y+36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to bothmore »crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y+36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz–100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y+36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10–273 ps for DC voltages and 189–813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250–2 ns and the Y+36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115–1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. Furthermore, when the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.« less

  20. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y+36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Schamiloglu, E.; Cular, S.

    2015-08-11

    A comparison study between Y+36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y+36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to both crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y+36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz–100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y+36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10–273 ps for DC voltages and 189–813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250–2 ns and the Y+36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115–1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. Furthermore, when the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.

  1. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y+36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Schamiloglu, E.; Cular, S.

    2015-08-11

    A comparison study between Y+36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y+36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to bothmore » crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y+36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz–100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y+36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10–273 ps for DC voltages and 189–813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250–2 ns and the Y+36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115–1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. Furthermore, when the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.« less

  2. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y + 36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Cular, S.; Schamiloglu, E.

    2015-08-15

    A comparison study between Y + 36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y + 36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to both crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y + 36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz–100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y + 36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10–273 ps for DC voltages and 189–813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250–2 ns and the Y + 36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115–1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. When the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.

  3. Optical voltage reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rankin, Richard; Kotter, Dale

    1994-01-01

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.

  4. Optical voltage reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

    1994-04-26

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

  5. Voltage Control Technical Conference

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1-08-Voltage-Control-Technical-Conference Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects &...

  6. Eliminate Voltage Unbalance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2000-01-01

    This two-page abstract provides tips for plant managers on checking and monitoring motor voltage unbalance to improve performance and life-span of industrial motors.

  7. Microfabricated AC impedance sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krulevitch, Peter; Ackler, Harold D.; Becker, Frederick; Boser, Bernhard E.; Eldredge, Adam B.; Fuller, Christopher K.; Gascoyne, Peter R. C.; Hamilton, Julie K.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Wang, Xiao-Bo

    2002-01-01

    A microfabricated instrument for detecting and identifying cells and other particles based on alternating current (AC) impedance measurements. The microfabricated AC impedance sensor includes two critical elements: 1) a microfluidic chip, preferably of glass substrates, having at least one microchannel therein and with electrodes patterned on both substrates, and 2) electrical circuits that connect to the electrodes on the microfluidic chip and detect signals associated with particles traveling down the microchannels. These circuits enable multiple AC impedance measurements of individual particles at high throughput rates with sufficient resolution to identify different particle and cell types as appropriate for environmental detection and clinical diagnostic applications.

  8. Voltage verification unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Edward J.

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  9. Automatic insulation resistance testing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyant, Francis J.; Nowlen, Steven P.; Luker, Spencer M.

    2005-06-14

    An apparatus and method for automatic measurement of insulation resistances of a multi-conductor cable. In one embodiment of the invention, the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, a plurality of input relay controlled contacts, a plurality of output relay controlled contacts, a relay controller and a computer. In another embodiment of the invention the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, an input switching unit, an output switching unit and a control unit/data logger. Embodiments of the apparatus of the invention may also incorporate cable fire testing means. The apparatus and methods of the present invention use either voltage or current for input and output measured variables.

  10. ACS Symposium Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    224th ACS National Meeting Division of Analytical Chemistry Symposium on Chemical Science Using Synchrotron Radiation Wednesday, August 21, 2002 Sheraton, Boston, MA This symposium has been organized by the Division of Analytical Chemistry and co-sponsored by the Divisions of Biological Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry, Chemical Education, Geochemistry, and Inorganic Chemistry as part of the ACS Division of Analytical Chemistry Meeting held this year from August 18-22 in Boston, MA. Organized

  11. High voltage DC power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Droege, Thomas F.

    1989-01-01

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively.

  12. High voltage DC power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Droege, T.F.

    1989-12-19

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively. 7 figs.

  13. Automatic Differentiation Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-03-01

    Sacado is an automatic differentiation package for C++ codes using operator overloading and C++ templating. Sacado provide forward, reverse, and Taylor polynomial automatic differentiation classes and utilities for incorporating these classes into C++ codes. Users can compute derivatives of computations arising in engineering and scientific applications, including nonlinear equation solving, time integration, sensitivity analysis, stability analysis, optimization and uncertainity quantification.

  14. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with separate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-06-24

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations. 15 figs.

  15. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    2001-04-03

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  16. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    1997-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  17. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Knoxville, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Blacksburg, VA)

    2002-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  18. Time varying voltage combustion control and diagnostics sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chorpening, Benjamin T.; Thornton, Jimmy D.; Huckaby, E. David; Fincham, William

    2011-04-19

    A time-varying voltage is applied to an electrode, or a pair of electrodes, of a sensor installed in a fuel nozzle disposed adjacent the combustion zone of a continuous combustion system, such as of the gas turbine engine type. The time-varying voltage induces a time-varying current in the flame which is measured and used to determine flame capacitance using AC electrical circuit analysis. Flame capacitance is used to accurately determine the position of the flame from the sensor and the fuel/air ratio. The fuel and/or air flow rate (s) is/are then adjusted to provide reduced flame instability problems such as flashback, combustion dynamics and lean blowout, as well as reduced emissions. The time-varying voltage may be an alternating voltage and the time-varying current may be an alternating current.

  19. High voltage pulse generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.

    1977-03-08

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator has been provided which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of a first one of the rectifiers connected between the first and second of the plurality of charging capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. Alternate circuits are provided for controlling the application of the charging voltage from a charging circuit to be applied to the parallel capacitors which provides a selection of at least two different intervals in which the charging voltage is turned "off" to allow the SCR's connecting the capacitors in series to turn "off" before recharging begins. The high-voltage pulse-generating circuit including the N capacitors and corresponding SCR's which connect the capacitors in series when triggered "on" further includes diodes and series-connected inductors between the parallel-connected charging capacitors which allow sufficiently fast charging of the capacitors for a high pulse repetition rate and yet allow considerable control of the decay time of the high-voltage pulses from the pulse-generating circuit.

  20. Device for monitoring cell voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doepke, Matthias; Eisermann, Henning

    2012-08-21

    A device for monitoring a rechargeable battery having a number of electrically connected cells includes at least one current interruption switch for interrupting current flowing through at least one associated cell and a plurality of monitoring units for detecting cell voltage. Each monitoring unit is associated with a single cell and includes a reference voltage unit for producing a defined reference threshold voltage and a voltage comparison unit for comparing the reference threshold voltage with a partial cell voltage of the associated cell. The reference voltage unit is electrically supplied from the cell voltage of the associated cell. The voltage comparison unit is coupled to the at least one current interruption switch for interrupting the current of at least the current flowing through the associated cell, with a defined minimum difference between the reference threshold voltage and the partial cell voltage.

  1. AC/RF Superconductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2015-02-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  2. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rink, John P.

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure.

  3. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rink, J.P.

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure. 3 figs.

  4. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendel, C.W.; Savage, M.E.

    1992-03-17

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors. 5 figs.

  5. Voltage controlled current source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casne, Gregory M.

    1992-01-01

    A seven decade, voltage controlled current source is described for use in testing intermediate range nuclear instruments that covers the entire test current range of from 10 picoamperes to 100 microamperes. High accuracy is obtained throughout the entire seven decades of output current with circuitry that includes a coordinated switching scheme responsive to the input signal from a hybrid computer to control the input voltage to an antilog amplifier, and to selectively connect a resistance to the antilog amplifier output to provide a continuous output current source as a function of a preset range of input voltage. An operator controlled switch provides current adjustment for operation in either a real-time simulation test mode or a time response test mode.

  6. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendel, Clifford W.; Savage, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors.

  7. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanacek, D.L.; Pike, C.D.

    1982-07-13

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly having a tubular insulator extending between the ground plane ring and the high voltage ring. The insulator is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring to the high voltage ring, producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall of the insulator to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly.

  8. Low-temperature transport in ac-driven quantum dots in the Kondo regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, Rosa; Aguado, Ramon; Platero, Gloria; Tejedor, Carlos

    2001-08-15

    We present a fully nonequilibrium calculation of the low-temperature transport properties of a quantum dot in the Kondo regime when an ac potential is applied to the gate. We solve a time-dependent Anderson model with finite on-site Coulomb interaction. The interaction self-energy is calculated up to second order in perturbation theory in the on-site interaction, in the context of the Keldysh nonequilibrium technique, and the effect of the ac voltage is taken into account exactly for all ranges of ac frequencies and ac intensities. The obtained linear conductance and time-averaged density of states of the quantum dot evolve in a nontrivial way as a function of the ac frequency and ac intensity of the harmonic modulation.

  9. Voltage Regulator Chip: Power Supplies on a Chip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    ADEPT Project: CPES at Virginia Tech is finding ways to save real estate on a computer's motherboard that could be used for other critical functions. Every computer processor today contains a voltage regulator that automatically maintains a constant level of electricity entering the device. These regulators contain bulky components and take up about 30% of a computer's motherboard. CPES at Virginia Tech is developing a voltage regulator that uses semiconductors made of gallium nitride on silicon (GaN-on-Si) and high-frequency soft magnetic material. These materials are integrated on a small, 3D chip that can handle the same amount of power as traditional voltage regulators at 1/10 the size and with improved efficiency. The small size also frees up to 90% of the motherboard space occupied by current voltage regulators.

  10. Control voltage and power fluctuations when connecting wind farms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berinde, Ioan Bălan, Horia Oros, Teodora Susana

    2015-12-23

    Voltage, frequency, active power and reactive power are very important parameters in terms of power quality. These parameters are followed when connecting any power plant, the more the connection of wind farms. Connecting wind farms to the electricity system must not cause interference outside the limits set by regulations. Modern solutions for fast and automatic voltage control and power fluctuations using electronic control systems of reactive power flows. FACTS (Flexible Alternating Current Transmision System) systems, established on the basis of power electronic circuits ensure control of electrical status quantities to achieve the necessary transfer of power to the power grid. FACTS devices can quickly control parameters and sizes of state power lines, such as impedance line voltages and phase angles of the voltages of the two ends of the line. Their use can lead to improvement in power system operation by increasing the transmission capacity of power lines, power flow control lines, improved static and transient stability reserve.

  11. Automatic switching matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlecht, Martin F.; Kassakian, John G.; Caloggero, Anthony J.; Rhodes, Bruce; Otten, David; Rasmussen, Neil

    1982-01-01

    An automatic switching matrix that includes an apertured matrix board containing a matrix of wires that can be interconnected at each aperture. Each aperture has associated therewith a conductive pin which, when fully inserted into the associated aperture, effects electrical connection between the wires within that particular aperture. Means is provided for automatically inserting the pins in a determined pattern and for removing all the pins to permit other interconnecting patterns.

  12. Marine High Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Storage DE-EE0003640 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Hoffmann, PhD; Aspinall, Rik

    2012-12-10

    Design, Development, and test of the three-port power converter for marine hydrokinetic power transmission. Converter provides ports for AC/DC conversion of hydrokinetic power, battery storage, and a low voltage to high voltage DC port for HVDC transmission to shore. The report covers the design, development, implementation, and testing of a prototype built by PPS.

  13. AC power systems handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, J.

    1991-01-01

    Transient disturbances are what headaches are made of. Whatever you call them-spikes, surges, are power bumps-they can take your equipment down and leave you with a complicated and expensive repair job. Protection against transient disturbances is a science that demands attention to detail. This book explains how the power distribution system works, what can go wrong with it, and how to protect a facility against abnormalities. system grounding and shielding are covered in detail. Each major method of transient protection is analyzed and its relative merits discussed. The book provides a complete look at the critical elements of the ac power system. Provides a complete look at the ac power system from generation to consumption. Discusses the mechanisms that produce transient disturbances and how to protect against them. Presents diagrams to facilitate system design. Covers new areas, such as the extent of the transient disturbance problem, transient protection options, and stand-by power systems.

  14. High voltage pulse conditioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Springfield, Ray M.; Wheat, Jr., Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

  15. High Voltage Connector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurita, C.H.; /Fermilab

    1987-03-06

    The originally designed high voltage connectors were to be made of brass. However, if treated like a Bellevile spring with the initially given dimensions, the stresses of the connector when crimped were calculated to be much higher than the yield stress of brass. Since the flange and outer diameters of the connector are to remain small, it was necessary to alter the other dimensions and choice of material in order to bring down the stresses applied to the connector.

  16. HIGH VOLTAGE GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwemin, A.J.

    1959-03-17

    A generator is presented for producing relatively large currents at high voltages. In general, the invention comprises a plurality of capacitors connected in series by a plurality of switches alternately disposed with the capacitors. The circuit is mounted for movement with respect to contact members and switch closure means so that a load device and power supply are connected across successive numbers of capacitors, while the other capacitors are successively charged with the same power supply.

  17. HIGH VOLTAGE ION SOURCE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-04-19

    A device is described for providing a source of molecular ions having a large output current and with an accelerated energy of the order of 600 kv. Ions are produced in an ion source which is provided with a water-cooled source grid of metal to effect maximum recombination of atomic ions to molecular ions. A very high accelerating voltage is applied to withdraw and accelerate the molecular ions from the source, and means are provided for dumping the excess electrons at the lowest possible potentials. An accelerating grid is placed adjacent to the source grid and a slotted, grounded accelerating electrode is placed adjacent to the accelerating grid. A potential of about 35 kv is maintained between the source grid and accelerating grid, and a potential of about 600 kv is maintained between the accelerating grid and accelerating electrode. In order to keep at a minimum the large number of oscillating electrons which are created when such high voltages are employed in the vicinity of a strong magnetic field, a plurality of high voltage cascaded shields are employed with a conventional electron dumping system being employed between each shield so as to dump the electrons at the lowest possible potential rather than at 600 kv.

  18. APPARATUS FOR REGULATING HIGH VOLTAGE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrison, K.G.

    1951-03-20

    This patent describes a high-voltage regulator of the r-f type wherein the modulation of the r-f voltage is accomplished at a high level, resulting in good stabilization over a large range of load conditions.

  19. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanecek, David L.; Pike, Chester D.

    1984-01-01

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly (10) having a tubular insulator (15) extending between the ground plane ring (16) and the high voltage ring (30). The insulator (15) is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring (16) to the high voltage ring (30), producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall (27) of the insulator (15) to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly (10).

  20. Charge-pump voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, John P.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  1. Neutron burst form a high-voltage discharge between palladium electrodes in D sub 2 gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Y.E. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-12-01

    In this paper a recent experimental observation of a neutron flux burst at a rate of 2 {times} 10{sup 4} times the background rate during a high ac voltage stimulation between two deuterated palladium electrodes in D{sub 2} gas is explained in terms of the experimentally measured deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion cross sections. Theoretical criteria and experimental conditions for improving D-D fusion rates with the use of pulsed high-dc voltages are described.

  2. HVDC-AC system interaction from AC harmonics. Volume 1. Harmonic impedance calculations. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breuer, G D; Chow, J H; Lindh, C B; Miller, N W; Numrich, F H; Price, W W; Turner, A E; Whitney, R R

    1982-09-01

    Improved methods are needed to characterize ac system harmonic behavior for ac filter design for HVDC systems. The purpose of this General Electric Company RP1138 research is to evaluate the present filter design practice and to investigate methods for calculating system harmonic impedances. An overview of ac filter design for HVDC systems and a survey of literature related to filter design have been performed. Two methods for calculating system harmonic impedances have been investigated. In the measurement method, an instrumentation system for measuring system voltage and current has been assembled. Different schemes of using the measurements to calculate system harmonic impedances have been studied. In the analytical method, a procedure to include various operating conditions has been proposed. Computer programs for both methods have been prepared, and the results of the measurement and analytical methods analyzed. A conclusion of the project is that the measurement and analytical methods both provided reasonable results. There are correlations between the measured and analytical results for most harmonics, although there are discrepancies between the assumptions used in the two methods. A sensitivity approach has been proposed to further correlate the results. From the results of the analysis, it is recommended that both methods should be tested further. For the measurement method, more testing should be done to cover different system operating conditions. In the analytical method, more detailed models for representing system components should be studied. In addition, alternative statistical and sensitivity approaches should be attempted.

  3. Reactor component automatic grapple

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenaway, Paul R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  4. Automatic sweep circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keefe, Donald J.

    1980-01-01

    An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found.

  5. AUTOmatic Message PACKing Facility

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    AUTOPACK is a library that provides several useful features for programs using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). Features included are: 1. automatic message packing facility 2. management of send and receive requests. 3. management of message buffer memory. 4. determination of the number of anticipated messages from a set of arbitrary sends, and 5. deterministic message delivery for testing purposes.

  6. AC Propulsion | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc. is a California Corporation founded in 1992 to develop, manufacture, and license system and component technology for electric vehicle drive systems. References: AC...

  7. HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRODES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, J.J.

    1963-04-23

    S>This patent relates to electrode structure for creating an intense direct current electric field which may have a field strength of the order of two to three times that heretofore obtained, with automatic suppression of arcing. The positive electrode is a conventional conductive material such as copper while the negative electrode is made from a special material having a resistivity greater than that of good conductors and less than that of good insulators. When an incipient arc occurs, the moderate resistivity of the negative electrode causes a momentary, localized decrease in the electric field intensity, thus suppressing the flow of electrons and avoiding arcing. Heated glass may be utilized for the negative electrode, since it provides the desired combination of resistivity, capacity, dielectric strength, mechani-cal strength, and thermal stability. (AEC)

  8. Automatic Fault Classification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Automatic Fault Classification of Photovoltaic Strings Based on an In Situ IV Characterization System and a Gaussian Process Algorithm. C. Birk Jones ∗ , Manel Mart´ ınez-Ram´ on ‡ , § Ryan Smith † , Craig K. Carmignani ∗ , Olga Lavrova ∗ , Charles Robinson ∗ , and Joshua S. Stein ∗ ∗ Sandia National Laboratories Solar PV & Grid Integration, Albuquerque, NM, USA. ‡ Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA, §

  9. High voltage feedthrough bushing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brucker, John P.

    1993-01-01

    A feedthrough bushing for a high voltage diode provides for using compression sealing for all sealing surfaces. A diode assembly includes a central conductor extending through the bushing and a grading ring assembly circumferentially surrounding and coaxial with the central conductor. A flexible conductive plate extends between and compressively seals against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, wherein the flexibility of the plate allows inner and outer portions of the plate to axially translate for compression sealing against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, respectively. The inner portion of the plate is bolted to the central conductor for affecting sealing. A compression beam is also bolted to the central conductor and engages the outer portion of the plate to urge the outer portion toward the grading ring assembly to obtain compression sealing therebetween.

  10. System and method for monitoring and controlling stator winding temperature in a de-energized AC motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin; Luebke, Charles John; Habetler, Thomas G.; Zhang, Pinjia; Becker, Scott K.

    2011-12-27

    A system and method for measuring and controlling stator winding temperature in an AC motor while idling is disclosed. The system includes a circuit having an input connectable to an AC source and an output connectable to an input terminal of a multi-phase AC motor. The circuit further includes a plurality of switching devices to control current flow and terminal voltages in the multi-phase AC motor and a controller connected to the circuit. The controller is configured to activate the plurality of switching devices to create a DC signal in an output of the motor control device corresponding to an input to the multi-phase AC motor, determine or estimate a stator winding resistance of the multi-phase AC motor based on the DC signal, and estimate a stator temperature from the stator winding resistance. Temperature can then be controlled and regulated by DC injection into the stator windings.

  11. Voltage Vehicles | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    distributor specializing in the full spectrum of electric vehicles (EV) and full-performance alternative fuel vehicles (AFV). References: Voltage Vehicles1 This article is a...

  12. System for transmitting low frequency analog signals over AC power lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Steven P.; Durall, Robert L.; Haynes, Howard D.

    1989-01-01

    A system for transmitting low frequency analog signals over AC power lines using FM modulation. A low frequency analog signal to be transmitted is first applied to a voltage-to-frequency converter where it is converted to a signal whose frequency varies in proportion to the analog signal amplitude. This signal is then used to modulate the carrier frequency of an FM transmitter coupled to an AC power line. The modulation signal frequency range in selected to be within the response band of the FM transmitter. The FM modulated carrier signal is received by an FM receiver coupled to the AC power line, demodulated and the demodulated signal frequency is converted by a frequency-to-voltage converter back to the form of the original low frequency analog input signal.

  13. A system for tranmitting low frequency analog signals over ac power lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, S.P.; Durall, R.L.; Haynes, H.D.

    1987-07-30

    A system for transmitting low frequency analog signals over ac power lines using FM modulation. A low frequency analog signal to be transmitted is first applied to a voltage-to-frequency converter where it is converted to a signal whose frequency varies in proportion to the analog signal amplitude. This signal is then used to modulate the carrier frequency of an FM transmitter coupled to an ac power line. The modulation signal frequency range is selected to be within the response band of the FM transmitter. The FM modulated carrier signal is received by an FM receiver coupled to the ac power line, demodulated and the demodulated signal frequency is converted by a frequency-to-voltage converter back to the form of the original low frequency analog input signal. 4 figs.

  14. Methods, systems and apparatus for controlling operation of two alternating current (AC) machines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel; Nagashima, James M.; Perisic, Milun; Hiti, Silva

    2012-06-05

    A system is provided for controlling two alternating current (AC) machines via a five-phase PWM inverter module. The system comprises a first control loop, a second control loop, and a current command adjustment module. The current command adjustment module operates in conjunction with the first control loop and the second control loop to continuously adjust current command signals that control the first AC machine and the second AC machine such that they share the input voltage available to them without compromising the target mechanical output power of either machine. This way, even when the phase voltage available to either one of the machines decreases, that machine outputs its target mechanical output power.

  15. Non-contact current and voltage sensor having detachable housing incorporating multiple ferrite cylinder portions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Gary D.; El-Essawy, Wael; Ferreira, Alexandre Peixoto; Keller, Thomas Walter; Rubio, Juan C.; Schappert, Michael A.

    2016-04-26

    A detachable current and voltage sensor provides an isolated and convenient device to measure current passing through a conductor such as an AC branch circuit wire, as well as providing an indication of an electrostatic potential on the wire, which can be used to indicate the phase of the voltage on the wire, and optionally a magnitude of the voltage. The device includes a housing formed from two portions that mechanically close around the wire and that contain the current and voltage sensors. The current sensor is a ferrite cylinder formed from at least three portions that form the cylinder when the sensor is closed around the wire with a hall effect sensor disposed in a gap between two of the ferrite portions along the circumference to measure current. A capacitive plate or wire is disposed adjacent to, or within, the ferrite cylinder to provide the indication of the voltage.

  16. Non-contact current and voltage sensing method using a clamshell housing and a ferrite cylinder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Gary D.; El-Essawy, Wael; Ferreira, Alexandre Peixoto; Keller, Thomas Walter; Rubio, Juan C.; Schappert, Michael

    2016-04-26

    A method of measurement using a detachable current and voltage sensor provides an isolated and convenient technique for to measuring current passing through a conductor such as an AC branch circuit wire, as well as providing an indication of an electrostatic potential on the wire, which can be used to indicate the phase of the voltage on the wire, and optionally a magnitude of the voltage. The device includes a housing that contains the current and voltage sensors, which may be a ferrite cylinder with a hall effect sensor disposed in a gap along the circumference to measure current, or alternative a winding provided through the cylinder along its axis and a capacitive plate or wire disposed adjacent to, or within, the ferrite cylinder to provide the indication of the voltage.

  17. Automatic range selector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNeilly, Clyde E.

    1977-01-04

    A device is provided for automatically selecting from a plurality of ranges of a scale of values to which a meter may be made responsive, that range which encompasses the value of an unknown parameter. A meter relay indicates whether the unknown is of greater or lesser value than the range to which the meter is then responsive. The rotatable part of a stepping relay is rotated in one direction or the other in response to the indication from the meter relay. Various positions of the rotatable part are associated with particular scales. Switching means are sensitive to the position of the rotatable part to couple the associated range to the meter.

  18. AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, C.F.; Salisbury, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    A control is described for automatically matching the frequency of a resonant cavity to that of a driving oscillator. The driving oscillator is disconnected from the cavity and a secondary oscillator is actuated in which the cavity is the frequency determining element. A low frequency is mixed with the output of the driving oscillator and the resultant lower and upper sidebands are separately derived. The frequencies of the sidebands are compared with the secondary oscillator frequency. deriving a servo control signal to adjust a tuning element in the cavity and matching the cavity frequency to that of the driving oscillator. The driving oscillator may then be connected to the cavity.

  19. Voltage sensor and dielectric material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2006-10-17

    A voltage sensor is described that consists of an arrangement of impedance elements. The sensor is optimized to provide an output ratio that is substantially immune to changes in voltage, temperature variations or aging. Also disclosed is a material with a large and stable dielectric constant. The dielectric constant can be tailored to vary with position or direction in the material.

  20. Ac traction gets on track

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Connor, L.

    1995-09-01

    This article describes inverter-based ac traction systems which give freight locomotives greater adhesion, pulling power, and braking capacity. In the 1940s, dc traction replaced the steam engine as a source of train propulsion, and it has ruled the freight transportation industry ever since. But now, high-performance ac-traction systems, with their unprecedented levels of pulling power and adhesion, are becoming increasingly common on America`s freight railroads. In thousands of miles of demonstration tests, today`s ac-traction systems have outperformed traditional dc-motor driven systems. Major railroad companies are convinced enough of the benefits of ac traction to have integrated it into their freight locomotives.

  1. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauritzen, Ted

    1982-01-01

    A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  2. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauritzen, T.

    A measuring system is described for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principle use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse of fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  3. DOE 10 CFR Part 431 EERE-2010-BT-TP-0036 RIN 1904-AC-38 Submission of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Comments by Howe Corporation | Department of Energy 0 CFR Part 431 EERE-2010-BT-TP-0036 RIN 1904-AC-38 Submission of Comments by Howe Corporation DOE 10 CFR Part 431 EERE-2010-BT-TP-0036 RIN 1904-AC-38 Submission of Comments by Howe Corporation Comments to the following DOE Proposed Rules: 10 CFR Part 431 [Docket No. EERE-2010-BT-TP-0036] RIN 1904-AC38 Energy Efficiency Program for Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Test Procedures for Automatic Commercial Ice Makers

  4. Intermodulation electrostatic force microscopy for imaging surface photo-voltage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borgani, Riccardo Forchheimer, Daniel; Thorn, Per-Anders; Haviland, David B.; Bergqvist, Jonas; Ingans, Olle

    2014-10-06

    We demonstrate an alternative to Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy for imaging surface potential. The open-loop, single-pass technique applies a low-frequency AC voltage to the atomic force microscopy tip while driving the cantilever near its resonance frequency. Frequency mixing due to the nonlinear capacitance gives intermodulation products of the two drive frequencies near the cantilever resonance, where they are measured with high signal to noise ratio. Analysis of this intermodulation response allows for quantitative reconstruction of the contact potential difference. We derive the theory of the method, validate it with numerical simulation and a control experiment, and we demonstrate its utility for fast imaging of the surface photo-voltage on an organic photo-voltaic material.

  5. Low voltage nonprimary explosive detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinegar, Robert H.; Kirkham, John

    1982-01-01

    A low voltage, electrically actuated, nonprimary explosive detonator is disclosed wherein said detonation is achieved by means of an explosive train in which a deflagration-to-detonation transition is made to occur. The explosive train is confined within a cylindrical body and positioned adjacent to low voltage ignition means have electrical leads extending outwardly from the cylindrical confining body. Application of a low voltage current to the electrical leads ignites a self-sustained deflagration in a donor portion of the explosive train which then is made to undergo a transition to detonation further down the train.

  6. AUTOMATIC HAND COUNTER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mann J.R.; Wainwright, A.E.

    1963-06-11

    An automatic, personnel-operated, alpha-particle hand monitor is described which functions as a qualitative instrument to indicate to the person using it whether his hands are cold'' or hot.'' The monitor is activated by a push button and includes several capacitor-triggered thyratron tubes. Upon release of the push button, the monitor starts the counting of the radiation present on the hands of the person. If the count of the radiation exceeds a predetermined level within a predetermined time, then a capacitor will trigger a first thyratron tube to light a hot'' lamp. If, however, the count is below such level during this time period, another capacitor will fire a second thyratron to light a safe'' lamp. (AEC)

  7. Monitoring Current, Voltage and Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monitoring Current, Voltage and Power in Photovoltaic Systems Anton Driesse 1 , Joshua S. Stein 2 , Daniel Riley 2 , Craig Carmignani 2 1 PV Performance Labs, Freiburg, Germany 2 Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico Abstract - Accurate photovoltaic system performance monitoring is critical for profitable long-term operation. Irradiance, temperature, power, current and voltage signals contain rapid fluctuations that are not observable by typical monitoring systems. Nevertheless

  8. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Current Versus Voltage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of devices, including: open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current (Isc), fill factor (FF), maximum power output of the device (Pmax), voltage at maximum power...

  9. Point of collapse and continuation methods for large ac/dc systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canizares, C.A. ); Alvarado, F.L. )

    1993-02-01

    This paper describes the implementation of both Point of Collapse (PoC) methods and continuation methods for the computation of voltage collapse points (saddle-node bifurcations) in large ac/dc systems. A comparison of the performance of these methods is presented for real systems of up to 2,158 buses. The paper discusses computational details of the implementation of the PoC and continuation methods, and the unique challenges encountered due to the presence of high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission, area interchange power control regulating transformers, and voltage and reactive power limits. The characteristics of a robust PoC power flow program are presented, and its application to detection and solution of voltage stability problems is demonstrated.

  10. 1997RMxAC...6..151L

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RMxAC...6..151L 1997RMxAC...6..151L 1997RMxAC...6..151L

  11. AC Solar Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Inc Jump to: navigation, search Logo: AC Solar Inc Name: AC Solar Inc Address: P.O. Box 128 Place: Florence, Colorado Zip: 81226 Region: Rockies Area Sector: Solar Product:...

  12. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  13. Automatic safety rod for reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Germer, John H.

    1988-01-01

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  14. Voltage distortion in distribution feeders with nonlinear loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emanuel, A.E.; Janczak, J. ); Pileggi, D.J.; Gulachenski, E.M.; Root, C.E.; Breen, M. ); Gentile, T.J. )

    1994-01-01

    The voltage of three real-life 13.8kV feeders supplying customers with non-linear loads was analyzed by means of computer simulations. Three classes of non-linear loads were considered. Each class is characteristic for different types of ac to dc converters such as the input dc supply used for adjustable-speed-drives, battery chargers, PC's, TV's and electronically ballasted lights. The analysis is based on the determination of the most harmonic susceptible busses and their response to each harmonic frequency. A new expeditive method that takes into account the background harmonic voltage phasor, and an equivalent bus impedance was developed and used to compute the maximum non-linear loads that yields VTHD = 5%, (Voltage Total Harmonic Distortion). The main conclusion of this work is that when mitigation methods are not used, for a 15kV class feeder with a maximum 10MVA installed load, the total non-linear residential load should not exceed 300kW if the ITHD <30% (Current Total Harmonic Distortion), and 100kW if ITHD >100%.

  15. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1994-07-26

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET. 2 figs.

  16. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  17. Simultaneous distribution of AC and DC power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polese, Luigi Gentile

    2015-09-15

    A system and method for the transport and distribution of both AC (alternating current) power and DC (direct current) power over wiring infrastructure normally used for distributing AC power only, for example, residential and/or commercial buildings' electrical wires is disclosed and taught. The system and method permits the combining of AC and DC power sources and the simultaneous distribution of the resulting power over the same wiring. At the utilization site a complementary device permits the separation of the DC power from the AC power and their reconstruction, for use in conventional AC-only and DC-only devices.

  18. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trennel, A.J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly. 10 figures.

  19. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trennel, Anthony J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for (1) automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, (2) automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, (3) manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and (4) automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly.

  20. High voltage photovoltaic power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haigh, Ronald E.; Wojtczuk, Steve; Jacobson, Gerard F.; Hagans, Karla G.

    2001-01-01

    An array of independently connected photovoltaic cells on a semi-insulating substrate contains reflective coatings between the cells to enhance efficiency. A uniform, flat top laser beam profile is illuminated upon the array to produce electrical current having high voltage. An essentially wireless system includes a laser energy source being fed through optic fiber and cast upon the photovoltaic cell array to prevent stray electrical signals prior to use of the current from the array. Direct bandgap, single crystal semiconductor materials, such as GaAs, are commonly used in the array. Useful applications of the system include locations where high voltages are provided to confined spaces such as in explosive detonation, accelerators, photo cathodes and medical appliances.

  1. TRANSISTOR HIGH VOLTAGE POWER SUPPLY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Driver, G.E.

    1958-07-15

    High voltage, direct current power supplies are described for use with battery powered nuclear detection equipment. The particular advantages of the power supply described, are increased efficiency and reduced size and welght brought about by the use of transistors in the circuit. An important feature resides tn the employment of a pair of transistors in an alternatefiring oscillator circuit having a coupling transformer and other circuit components which are used for interconnecting the various electrodes of the transistors.

  2. Electrical voltages and resistances measured to inspect metallic cased wells and pipelines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William Banning; Momii, Steven Thomas

    2000-01-01

    A cased well in the earth is electrically energized with A.C. current. Voltages are measured from three voltage measurement electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing while the casing is electrically energized. In a measurement mode, A.C. current is conducted from a first current carrying electrode within the cased well to a remote second current carrying electrode located on the surface of the earth. In a calibration mode, current is passed from the first current carrying electrode to a third current carrying electrode located vertically at a different position within the cased well, where the three voltage measurement electrodes are located vertically in between the first and third current carrying electrodes. Voltages along the casing and resistances along the casing are measured to determine wall thickness and the location of any casing collars present so as to electrically inspect the casing. Similar methods are employed to energize a pipeline to measure the wall thickness of the pipeline and the location of pipe joints to electrically inspect the pipeline.

  3. Electrical voltages and resistances measured to inspect metallic cased wells and pipelines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William Banning; Momii, Steven Thomas

    2001-01-01

    A cased well in the earth is electrically energized with A.C. current. Voltages are measured from three voltage measurement electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing while the casing is electrically energized. In a measurement mode, A.C. current is conducted from a first current carrying electrode within the cased well to a remote second current carrying electrode located on the surface of the earth. In a calibration mode, current is passed from the first current carrying electrode to a third current carrying electrode located vertically at a different position within the cased well, where the three voltage measurement electrodes are located vertically in between the first and third current carrying electrodes. Voltages along the casing and resistances along the casing are measured to determine wall thickness and the location of any casing collars present so as to electrically inspect the casing. Similar methods are employed to energize a pipeline to measure the wall thickness of the pipeline and the location of pipe joints to electrically inspect the pipeline.

  4. Electrical voltages and resistances measured to inspect metallic cased wells and pipelines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail III, William Banning; Momii, Steven Thomas

    2003-06-10

    A cased well in the earth is electrically energized with A.C. current. Voltages are measured from three voltage measurement electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing while the casing is electrically energized. In a measurement mode, A.C. current is conducted from a first current carrying electrode within the cased well to a remote second current carrying electrode located on the surface of the earth. In a calibration mode, current is passed from the first current carrying electrode to a third current carrying electrode located vertically at a different position within the cased well, where the three voltage measurement electrodes are located vertically in between the first and third current carrying electrodes. Voltages along the casing and resistances along the casing are measured to determine wall thickness and the location of any casing collars present so as to electrically inspect the casing. Similar methods are employed to energize a pipeline to measure the wall thickness of the pipeline and the location of pipe joints to electrically inspect the pipeline.

  5. Low voltage secondary network cable reliability study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    In an attempt to find clues to the causes of manhole fires and explosions, researchers removed several aged low voltage network cables from service on the United Illuminating Company system. Examination of their physical, chemical, and electrical properties indicated that any deterioration of the cables that had occurred during their approximately 35 year service life was minor and did not affect reliability for continued service. Cables were found to have retained excellent properties despite their long age in service. For example, AC breakdown strength, dissipation factor, and percent elongation were all satisfactory. Insulation was coherent, not brittle; and the jackets did not crack or craze on bending. The tested cables compare favorably, physically and electrically, with non-jacketed rubber cables presently in service.

  6. Eliminate Voltage Unbalance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Voltage unbalance degrades the performance and shortens the life of a three-phase motor. Voltage unbalance at the motor terminals can cause current unbalance that is far out of ...

  7. Multilevel-Dc-Bus Inverter For Providing Sinusoidal And Pwm Electrical Machine Voltages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Su, Gui-Jia [Knoxville, TN

    2005-11-29

    A circuit for controlling an ac machine comprises a full bridge network of commutation switches which are connected to supply current for a corresponding voltage phase to the stator windings, a plurality of diodes, each in parallel connection to a respective one of the commutation switches, a plurality of dc source connections providing a multi-level dc bus for the full bridge network of commutation switches to produce sinusoidal voltages or PWM signals, and a controller connected for control of said dc source connections and said full bridge network of commutation switches to output substantially sinusoidal voltages to the stator windings. With the invention, the number of semiconductor switches is reduced to m+3 for a multi-level dc bus having m levels. A method of machine control is also disclosed.

  8. MEDIUM VOLTAGE INTEGRATED DRIVE AND MOTOR

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Calnetix Technologies – Cerritos, CA This project will focus on integrating a high voltage SiC device with advanced high-speed machine technology, medium voltage stators, high efficiency magnetic bearings and sensor high frequency drive technology that can work directly with high voltages, switch at high frequencies for low machine losses, and do so very efficiently. The new medium voltage motors are expected to achieve up to eight times the power density of similar traditional systems. Fact sheet coming soon.

  9. Observation of multi-scale oscillation of laminar lifted flames with low-frequency AC electric fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryu, S.K.; Kim, Y.K.; Kim, M.K.; Won, S.H. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea); Chung, S.H. [Clean Combustion Research Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-01-15

    The oscillation behavior of laminar lifted flames under the influence of low-frequency AC has been investigated experimentally in coflow jets. Various oscillation modes were existed depending on jet velocity and the voltage and frequency of AC, especially when the AC frequency was typically smaller than 30 Hz. Three different oscillation modes were observed: (1) large-scale oscillation with the oscillation frequency of about 0.1 Hz, which was independent of the applied AC frequency, (2) small-scale oscillation synchronized to the applied AC frequency, and (3) doubly-periodic oscillation with small-scale oscillation embedded in large-scale oscillation. As the AC frequency decreased from 30 Hz, the oscillation modes were in the order of the large-scale oscillation, doubly-periodic oscillation, and small-scale oscillation. The onset of the oscillation for the AC frequency smaller than 30 Hz was in close agreement with the delay time scale for the ionic wind effect to occur, that is, the collision response time. Frequency-doubling behavior for the small-scale oscillation has also been observed. Possible mechanisms for the large-scale oscillation and the frequency-doubling behavior have been discussed, although the detailed understanding of the underlying mechanisms will be a future study. (author)

  10. High voltage RF feedthrough bushing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grotz, Glenn F.

    1984-01-01

    Described is a multi-element, high voltage radio frequency bushing for trmitting RF energy to an antenna located in a vacuum container. The bushing includes a center conductor of complex geometrical shape, an outer coaxial shield conductor, and a thin-walled hollow truncated cone insulator disposed between central and outer conductors. The shape of the center conductor, which includes a reverse curvature portion formed of a radially inwardly directed shoulder and a convex portion, controls the uniformity of the axial surface gradient on the insulator cone. The outer shield has a first substantially cylindrical portion and a second radially inwardly extending truncated cone portion.

  11. VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED TRANSISTOR OSCILLATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheele, P.F.

    1958-09-16

    This patent relates to transistor oscillators and in particular to those transistor oscillators whose frequencies vary according to controlling voltages. A principal feature of the disclosed transistor oscillator circuit resides in the temperature compensation of the frequency modulating stage by the use of a resistorthermistor network. The resistor-thermistor network components are selected to have the network resistance, which is in series with the modulator transistor emitter circuit, vary with temperature to compensate for variation in the parameters of the transistor due to temperature change.

  12. Method for voltage-gated protein fractionation (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Method for voltage-gated protein fractionation Title: Method for voltage-gated protein fractionation We report unique findings on the voltage dependence of protein exclusion from ...

  13. Low power, scalable multichannel high voltage controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James Frederick; Crocker, Robert Ward; Yee, Daniel Dadwa; Dils, David Wright

    2008-03-25

    A low voltage control circuit is provided for individually controlling high voltage power provided over bus lines to a multitude of interconnected loads. An example of a load is a drive for capillary channels in a microfluidic system. Control is distributed from a central high voltage circuit, rather than using a number of large expensive central high voltage circuits to enable reducing circuit size and cost. Voltage is distributed to each individual load and controlled using a number of high voltage controller channel switches connected to high voltage bus lines. The channel switches each include complementary pull up and pull down photo isolator relays with photo isolator switching controlled from the central high voltage circuit to provide a desired bus line voltage. Switching of the photo isolator relays is further controlled in each channel switch using feedback from a resistor divider circuit to maintain the bus voltage swing within desired limits. Current sensing is provided using a switched resistive load in each channel switch, with switching of the resistive loads controlled from the central high voltage circuit.

  14. Low power, scalable multichannel high voltage controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James Frederick; Crocker, Robert Ward; Yee, Daniel Dadwa; Dils, David Wright

    2006-03-14

    A low voltage control circuit is provided for individually controlling high voltage power provided over bus lines to a multitude of interconnected loads. An example of a load is a drive for capillary channels in a microfluidic system. Control is distributed from a central high voltage circuit, rather than using a number of large expensive central high voltage circuits to enable reducing circuit size and cost. Voltage is distributed to each individual load and controlled using a number of high voltage controller channel switches connected to high voltage bus lines. The channel switches each include complementary pull up and pull down photo isolator relays with photo isolator switching controlled from the central high voltage circuit to provide a desired bus line voltage. Switching of the photo isolator relays is further controlled in each channel switch using feedback from a resistor divider circuit to maintain the bus voltage swing within desired limits. Current sensing is provided using a switched resistive load in each channel switch, with switching of the resistive loads controlled from the central high voltage circuit.

  15. Commercialization of Medium Voltage HTS Triax TM Cable Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knoll, David

    2012-12-31

    The original project scope that was established in 2007 aimed to install a 1,700 meter (1.1 mile) medium voltage HTS Triax{TM} cable system into the utility grid in New Orleans, LA. In 2010, however, the utility partner withdrew from the project, so the 1,700 meter cable installation was cancelled and the scope of work was reduced. The work then concentrated on the specific barriers to commercialization of HTS cable technology. The modified scope included long-length HTS cable design and testing, high voltage factory test development, optimized cooling system development, and HTS cable life-cycle analysis. In 2012, Southwire again analyzed the market for HTS cables and deemed the near term market acceptance to be low. The scope of work was further reduced to the completion of tasks already started and to testing of the existing HTS cable system in Columbus, OH. The work completed under the project included: Long-length cable modeling and analysis HTS wire evaluation and testing Cable testing for AC losses Optimized cooling system design Life cycle testing of the HTS cable in Columbus, OH Project management. The 200 meter long HTS Triax{TM} cable in Columbus, OH was incorporated into the project under the initial scope changes as a test bed for life cycle testing as well as the site for an optimized HTS cable cooling system. The Columbus cable utilizes the HTS TriaxTM design, so it provided an economical tool for these of the project tasks.

  16. Automatic computation of transfer functions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atcitty, Stanley; Watson, Luke Dale

    2015-04-14

    Technologies pertaining to the automatic computation of transfer functions for a physical system are described herein. The physical system is one of an electrical system, a mechanical system, an electromechanical system, an electrochemical system, or an electromagnetic system. A netlist in the form of a matrix comprises data that is indicative of elements in the physical system, values for the elements in the physical system, and structure of the physical system. Transfer functions for the physical system are computed based upon the netlist.

  17. High voltage load resistor array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Monty Ray

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  18. High voltage feed through bushing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brucker, J.P.

    1993-04-06

    A feed through bushing for a high voltage diode provides for using compression sealing for all sealing surfaces. A diode assembly includes a central conductor extending through the bushing and a grading ring assembly circumferentially surrounding and coaxial with the central conductor. A flexible conductive plate extends between and compressively seals against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, wherein the flexibility of the plate allows inner and outer portions of the plate to axially translate for compression sealing against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, respectively. The inner portion of the plate is bolted to the central conductor for affecting sealing. A compression beam is also bolted to the central conductor and engages the outer portion of the plate to urge the outer portion toward the grading ring assembly to obtain compression sealing therebetween.

  19. Wind Power Plant Voltage Stability Evaluation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Zhang, Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    Voltage stability refers to the ability of a power system to maintain steady voltages at all buses in the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating condition. Voltage stability depends on a power system's ability to maintain and/or restore equilibrium between load demand and supply. Instability that may result occurs in the form of a progressive fall or rise of voltages of some buses. Possible outcomes of voltage instability are the loss of load in an area or tripped transmission lines and other elements by their protective systems, which may lead to cascading outages. The loss of synchronism of some generators may result from these outages or from operating conditions that violate a synchronous generator's field current limit, or in the case of variable speed wind turbine generator, the current limits of power switches. This paper investigates the impact of wind power plants on power system voltage stability by using synchrophasor measurements.

  20. Solar Electric Grid Integration - Advanced Concepts (SEGIS-AC...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Electric Grid Integration - Advanced Concepts (SEGIS-AC) Funding Opportunity Solar Electric Grid Integration - Advanced Concepts (SEGIS-AC) Funding Opportunity Through the Solar ...

  1. Solar Electric Grid Integration - Advanced Concepts (SEGIS-AC...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Solar Electric Grid Integration - Advanced Concepts (SEGIS-AC) Funding Opportunity Solar Electric Grid Integration - Advanced Concepts (SEGIS-AC) Funding Opportunity Through the ...

  2. Group 3: Humidity, Temperature, and Voltage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2013-05-01

    Group 3 is chartered to develop accelerated stress tests that can be used as comparative predictors of module lifetime versus stresses associated with humidity, temperature and voltage.

  3. Strategies for Voltage Control and Transient Stability Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    2013-09-25

    the impact of wind-power variability. It was also used to explore interactions between multiple wind-farms. Furthermore, these tools have been used to examine the impact of wind injection on transformer tap operation in subtransmission networks. The results of a tap operation simulation study show that voltage regulation at wind injection nodes increases tap change operations. The tradeo ff between local voltage regulation and tap change frequency is fundamentally important in optimizing the size of reactive compensation used for voltage regulation at wind injection nodes. Line congestion arising as a consequence of variable patterns of wind-power production has also been investigated. Two optimization problems have been formulated, based respectively on the DC and AC power flow models, for identifying vulnerable line segments. The DC optimization is computationally more e fficient, whereas the AC sensitivity-based optimization provides greater accuracy.

  4. Three phase AC motor controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vuckovich, Michael; Wright, Maynard K.; Burkett, John P.

    1984-03-20

    A motor controller for a three phase AC motor (10) which is adapted to operate bidirectionally from signals received either from a computer (30) or a manual control (32). The controller is comprised of digital logic circuit means which implement a forward and reverse command signal channel (27, 29) for the application of power through the forward and reverse power switching relays (16, 18, 20, 22). The digital logic elements are cross coupled to prevent activation of both channels simultaneously and each includes a plugging circuit (65, 67) for stopping the motor upon the removal of control signal applied to one of the two channels (27, 29) for a direction of rotation desired. Each plugging circuit (65, 67) includes a one-shot pulse signal generator (88, 102) which outputs a single pulse signal of predetermined pulsewidth which is adapted to inhibit further operation of the application of power in the channel which is being activated and to apply a reversal command signal to the other channel which provides a reversed phase application of power to the motor for a period defined by the pulse-width output of the one-shot signal generator to plug the motor (10) which will then be inoperative until another rotational command signal is applied to either of the two channels.

  5. Wide-range voltage modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider`s Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-{mu}s wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 {mu}s, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented.

  6. Negative hydrogen ion beam extraction from an AC heated cathode driven Bernas-type ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okano, Y.; Miyamoto, N.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M.

    2015-04-08

    A plasma grid structure was installed to a Bernas-type ion source used for ion implantation equipment. A negative hydrogen (H{sup −}) ion beam was extracted by an AC driven ion source by adjusting the bias to the plasma grid. The extracted electron current was reduced by positively biasing the plasma grid, while an optimum plasma grid bias voltage for negative ion beam extraction was found to be positive 3 V with respect to the arc chamber. Source operations with AC cathode heating show extraction characteristics almost identical to that with DC cathode heating, except a minute increase in H{sup −} current at higher frequency of cathode heating current.

  7. Kondo physics in the single-electron transistor with ac driving

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nordlander, Peter; Wingreen, Ned S.; Meir, Yigal; Langreth, David C.

    2000-01-15

    Using a time-dependent Anderson Hamiltonian, a quantum dot with an ac voltage applied to a nearby gate is investigated. A rich dependence of the linear response conductance on the external frequency and driving amplitude is demonstrated. At low frequencies a sufficiently strong ac potential produces sidebands of the Kondo peak in the spectral density of the dot, and a slow, roughly logarithmic decrease in conductance over several decades of frequency. At intermediate frequencies, the conductance of the dot displays an oscillatory behavior due to the appearance of Kondo resonances of the satellites of the dot level. At high frequencies, the conductance of the dot can vary rapidly due to the interplay between photon-assisted tunneling and the Kondo resonance. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  8. Voltage regulation in linear induction accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsons, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Improvement in voltage regulation in a Linear Induction Accelerator wherein a varistor, such as a metal oxide varistor, is placed in parallel with the beam accelerating cavity and the magnetic core. The non-linear properties of the varistor result in a more stable voltage across the beam accelerating cavity than with a conventional compensating resistance.

  9. Voltage regulation in linear induction accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsons, W.M.

    1992-12-29

    Improvement in voltage regulation in a linear induction accelerator wherein a varistor, such as a metal oxide varistor, is placed in parallel with the beam accelerating cavity and the magnetic core is disclosed. The non-linear properties of the varistor result in a more stable voltage across the beam accelerating cavity than with a conventional compensating resistance. 4 figs.

  10. Template for Electronic Submission to ACS Journals

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    submission was sponsored by a contractor of the United States Government under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the United States Department of Energy. The United States Government ...

  11. Template for Electronic Submission to ACS Journals

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Notice of Copyright This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The United States Government ...

  12. AC power | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for AC to DC converter that manages plasma in upgraded fusion machine The electric ... Without it, the magnetic coils the current drives cannot contain and shape the plasma that ...

  13. Automatic Commercial Ice Makers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automatic Commercial Ice Makers Automatic Commercial Ice Makers The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards. Automatic Commercial Ice Makers -- v2.0 (111.62 KB) More

  14. Voltage controlled spintronic devices for logic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    You, Chun-Yeol; Bader, Samuel D.

    2001-01-01

    A reprogrammable logic gate comprising first and second voltage-controlled rotation transistors. Each transistor comprises three ferromagnetic layers with a spacer and insulating layer between the first and second ferromagnetic layers and an additional insulating layer between the second and third ferromagnetic layers. The third ferromagnetic layer of each transistor is connected to each other, and a constant external voltage source is applied to the second ferromagnetic layer of the first transistor. As input voltages are applied to the first ferromagnetic layer of each transistor, the relative directions of magnetization of the ferromagnetic layers and the magnitude of the external voltage determines the output voltage of the gate. By altering these parameters, the logic gate is capable of behaving as AND, OR, NAND, or NOR gates.

  15. Flexible method for monitoring fuel cell voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowery, Kenneth D.; Ripley, Eugene V.

    2002-01-01

    A method for equalizing the measured voltage of each cluster in a fuel cell stack wherein at least one of the clusters has a different number of cells than the identical number of cells in the remaining clusters by creating a pseudo voltage for the different cell numbered cluster. The average cell voltage of the all of the cells in the fuel cell stack is calculated and multiplied by a constant equal to the difference in the number of cells in the identical cell clusters and the number of cells in the different numbered cell cluster. The resultant product is added to the actual voltage measured across the different numbered cell cluster to create a pseudo voltage which is equivalent in cell number to the number of cells in the other identical numbered cell clusters.

  16. Corona and Motor Voltage Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, J.S.

    2005-05-06

    It has been suggested that to meet the FreedomCAR objectives for cost, size, weight, efficiency, and reliability higher buss voltages be utilized in HEV and FC automotive applications. The reasoning is that since electric power is equal to the product of voltage and current for a given power a higher voltage and lower current would result in smaller cable and inverter switching components. Consequently, the system can be lighter and smaller. On the other hand, higher voltages are known to require better and thicker electrical insulation that reduce the available slot area for motor windings. One cause of slow insulation breakdown is corona that gradually erodes the insulation and shortens the life expectancy of the motor. This study reports on the results of a study on corona initiating voltages for mush-wound and bobbin-wound stators. A unique testing method is illustrated.

  17. 7AC Technologies, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7AC Technologies, Inc. America's Next Top Energy Innovator Challenge 498 likes 7AC Technologies, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Air conditioning is a very large contributor to U.S. and world energy consumption. Heating and cooling costs for commercial and industrial buildings exceed 25 percent of U.S. primary energy consumption (cooling alone accounts for 4.5 Quads out of 40 Quads) and typically accounts for almost half of a building's operating costs. Air conditioning is also a

  18. Caldyne Automatics Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    storage product manufacturer; also makes lighting systems based on solar, wind and solar wind hybrid systems. References: Caldyne Automatics Limited1 This article is a stub....

  19. Automatic Monitoring & Control of Polymer Reactions Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development and Implementation of an Automatic Continuous Online Monitoring and Control Platform for Polymerization Reactions Enabling energy and resource efficien- cy in polymer ...

  20. Automatic Mechetronic Wheel Light Device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, Mohammed John Fitzgerald

    2004-09-14

    A wheel lighting device for illuminating a wheel of a vehicle to increase safety and enhance aesthetics. The device produces the appearance of a "ring of light" on a vehicle's wheels as the vehicle moves. The "ring of light" can automatically change in color and/or brightness according to a vehicle's speed, acceleration, jerk, selection of transmission gears, and/or engine speed. The device provides auxiliary indicator lights by producing light in conjunction with a vehicle's turn signals, hazard lights, alarm systems, and etc. The device comprises a combination of mechanical and electronic components and can be placed on the outer or inner surface of a wheel or made integral to a wheel or wheel cover. The device can be configured for all vehicle types, and is electrically powered by a vehicle's electrical system and/or battery.

  1. Automatic toilet seat lowering apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guerty, Harold G.

    1994-09-06

    A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat. A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat.

  2. Electro-optical voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K.

    1998-01-01

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  3. Electro-optical voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, G.K.

    1998-03-24

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages is disclosed. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam`s polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured. 6 figs.

  4. Control method for peak power delivery with limited DC-bus voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edwards, John; Xu, Longya; Bhargava, Brij B.

    2006-09-05

    A method for driving a neutral point-clamped multi-level voltage source inverter supplying a synchronous motor is provided. A DC current is received at a neutral point-clamped multi-level voltage source inverter. The inverter has first, second, and third output nodes. The inverter also has a plurality of switches. A desired speed of a synchronous motor connected to the inverter by the first second and third nodes is received by the inverter. The synchronous motor has a rotor and the speed of the motor is defined by the rotational rate of the rotor. A position of the rotor is sensed, current flowing to the motor out of at least two of the first, second, and third output nodes is sensed, and predetermined switches are automatically activated by the inverter responsive to the sensed rotor position, the sensed current, and the desired speed.

  5. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1987-11-17

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile. 2 figs.

  6. Electro-optic high voltage sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James R.; Seifert, Gary D.

    2003-09-16

    A small sized electro-optic voltage sensor capable of accurate measurement of high voltages without contact with a conductor or voltage source is provided. When placed in the presence of an electric field, the sensor receives an input beam of electromagnetic radiation. A polarization beam displacer separates the input beam into two beams with orthogonal linear polarizations and causes one linearly polarized beam to impinge a crystal at a desired angle independent of temperature. The Pockels effect elliptically polarizes the beam as it travels through the crystal. A reflector redirects the beam back through the crystal and the beam displacer. On the return path, the polarization beam displacer separates the elliptically polarized beam into two output beams of orthogonal linear polarization. The system may include a detector for converting the output beams into electrical signals and a signal processor for determining the voltage based on an analysis of the output beams.

  7. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1985-08-05

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  8. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, Ronald S.

    1987-01-01

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  9. Spark gap with low breakdown voltage jitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, Gerald J.; Roose, Lars D.

    1996-01-01

    Novel spark gap devices and electrodes are disclosed. The novel spark gap devices and electrodes are suitable for use in a variety of spark gap device applications. The shape of the electrodes gives rise to local field enhancements and reduces breakdown voltage jitter. Breakdown voltage jitter of approximately 5% has been measured in spark gaps according the invention. Novel electrode geometries and materials are disclosed.

  10. Spark gap with low breakdown voltage jitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.

    1996-04-23

    Novel spark gap devices and electrodes are disclosed. The novel spark gap devices and electrodes are suitable for use in a variety of spark gap device applications. The shape of the electrodes gives rise to local field enhancements and reduces breakdown voltage jitter. Breakdown voltage jitter of approximately 5% has been measured in spark gaps according the invention. Novel electrode geometries and materials are disclosed. 13 figs.

  11. Constant voltage electro-slag remelting control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlienger, M.E.

    1996-10-22

    A system for controlling electrode gap in an electro-slag remelt furnace has a constant regulated voltage and an electrode which is fed into the slag pool at a constant rate. The impedance of the circuit through the slag pool is directly proportional to the gap distance. Because of the constant voltage, the system current changes are inversely proportional to changes in gap. This negative feedback causes the gap to remain stable. 1 fig.

  12. Constant voltage electro-slag remelting control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlienger, Max E.

    1996-01-01

    A system for controlling electrode gap in an electro-slag remelt furnace has a constant regulated voltage and an eletrode which is fed into the slag pool at a constant rate. The impedance of the circuit through the slag pool is directly proportional to the gap distance. Because of the constant voltage, the system current changes are inversely proportional to changes in gap. This negative feedback causes the gap to remain stable.

  13. Joint voltages resulting from lightning currents.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, William Arthur; Warne, Larry Kevin; Merewether, Kimball O.; Chen, Kenneth C.

    2007-03-01

    Simple formulas are given for the interior voltages appearing across bolted joints from exterior lightning currents. External slot and bolt inductances as well as internal slot and bolt diffusion effects are included. Both linear and ferromagnetic wall materials are considered. A useful simplification of the slot current distribution into linear stripline and cylindrical parts (near the bolts) allows the nonlinear voltages to be estimated in closed form.

  14. System for increasing corona inception voltage of insulating oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, Gerald J.

    1998-01-01

    The Corona Inception Voltage of insulating oils is increased by repetitive cycles of prestressing the oil with a voltage greater than the corona inception voltage, and either simultaneously or serially removing byproducts of corona by evacuation and heating the oil.

  15. Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages Motors are designed to operate within 10% of their nameplate rated voltages. When motors ...

  16. High-voltage miniature igniter development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willkens, C.A.; Axelson, S.R.; Bateman, L.S.; Croucher, D.D.

    1996-09-01

    In 1988, Norton introduced its line of low-voltage 12- and 24-V miniature igniters made from a patented ceramic/intermetallic material. These igniters demonstrated superior strength and speed in a compact low-wattage assembly for gas-fired ignition. High-voltage igniters are being developed to complete the family of igniters for gas-fired ignition. These igniters have extremely low power requirements in the range of 50--100 W, are designed to operate at line voltages of 120 V, and are leading to designs for operation up to 230 V. These were developed using compositional and dimensional changes to the low voltage igniters. The 120 V igniter has exceeded 200,000 cycles in life testing and has been submitted for agency approval. These igniters are also undergoing field testing in various demanding gas-fired appliances. The evolution of the low-voltage igniter into the high-voltage model, as well as performance and material development issues are discussed.

  17. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F.; Yee, Daniel D.

    2007-01-09

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC--DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC--DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  18. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F.; Yee, Daniel D.

    2010-05-04

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  19. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F.; Yee, Daniel D.

    2008-07-15

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  20. Real Power and Reactive Power Control of a Three-Phase Single-Stage-PV System and PV voltage Stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Huijuan; Xu, Yan; Adhikari, Sarina; Rizy, D Tom; Li, Fangxing; Irminger, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with power electronic interfaces can provide both real and reactive power to meet power system needs with appropriate control algorithms. This paper presents the control algorithm design for a three-phase single-stage grid-connected PV inverter to achieve either maximum power point tracking (MPPT) or a certain amount of real power injection, as well as the voltage/var control. The switching between MPPT control mode and a certain amount of real power control mode is automatic and seamless. Without the DC-to-DC booster stage, PV DC voltage stability is an important issue in the control design especially when the PV inverter is operating at maximum power point (MPP) with voltage/var control. The PV DC voltage collapse phenomenon and its reason are discussed. The method based on dynamic correction of the PV inverter output is proposed to ensure PV DC voltage stability. Simulation results of the single-stage PV system during system disturbances and fast solar irradiation changes confirm that the proposed control algorithm for single-stage PV inverters can provide appropriate real and reactive power services and ensure PV DC voltage stability during dynamic system operation and atmospheric conditions.

  1. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources ...

  2. Towards First Principles prediction of Voltage Dependences of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Towards First Principles prediction of Voltage Dependences of ElectrolyteElectrolyte ... Title: Towards First Principles prediction of Voltage Dependences of Electrolyte...

  3. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources A ...

  4. Electrochemical Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells Electrochemical Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle ...

  5. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric ...

  6. VPhase plc formerly Energetix Voltage Control | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    VPhase plc formerly Energetix Voltage Control Jump to: navigation, search Name: VPhase plc formerly Energetix Voltage Control Place: Capenhurst, United Kingdom Zip: CH1 6EH...

  7. Eliminate Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops Studies indicate that in-plant electrical distribution system losses-due to voltage unbalance, over- and undervoltage, low ...

  8. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries ...

  9. Voltage Quench Dynamics of a Kondo System (Journal Article) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Voltage Quench Dynamics of a Kondo System This content will become publicly available on January 18, 2017 Prev Next Title: Voltage Quench Dynamics of a Kondo System Authors: ...

  10. A Freely Available Matlab Script for Automatic Spatial Drift...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: A Freely Available Matlab Script for Automatic Spatial Drift Correction. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Freely Available Matlab Script for Automatic ...

  11. Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Sprinkler Automatic Shut...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Sprinkler Automatic Shut-Off Devices The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) identified sprinkler automatic shut-off devices as a water...

  12. ,"Table 6. Proposed High-voltage Transmission Line Additions...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...COT","-","AC","300-399",,,3,2013,"Gray"," Tesla",218,"OH",,,..."CTT",,100,"13TPIT0051",..."-","AC","300-399",,,9,2013,"Silverton"," Tesla",170,"OH",,,..."CTT",,100,"13TPIT0055",...

  13. ,"Geographic Area",,,"Voltage",,,"Capacity ","In-Service",,"Electrical...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...S","TRE","ERCOT","AC","300-399",,,3,2013,"Tesla","Edith Clarke",110.4,"OH",,,...3278,"AE...S","TRE","ERCOT","AC","300-399",,,6,2013,"Tesla","Riley",131.2,"OH",,,...3278,"AEP...

  14. Voltage-Gated Hydrophobic Nanopores (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI Identifier: 1024323 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: ACS Nano; Journal Volume: 5; Journal Issue: 9 ...

  15. ,"Geographic Area",,,"Voltage",,,"Capacity Rating (MVa)","In...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...C","TVA","AC",345,345,1947,"6-2007","J.K. Smith","North Clark",18,"OH - ...C","TVA","AC",345,345,1947,"6-2009","J.K. Smith","West Garrard County",36,"OH - ...

  16. ,"Geographic Area",,,"Voltage",,,"Capacity Rating (MVa)","In...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... ,"U","ECAR",,"AC",345,345,0,"applicationvnd.ms-excel","Avon","J.K. Smith",17,,,,0,,,0,0,5580,"C",0 ,"U","ECAR",,"AC",230,230,0,"application...

  17. High voltage testing for the Majorana Demonstrator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; et al

    2016-04-04

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing the Majorana Demonstrator, an ultra-low background, 44-kg modular high-purity Ge (HPGe) detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. The phenomenon of surface micro-discharge induced by high-voltage has been studied in the context of the Majorana Demonstrator. This effect can damage the front-end electronics or mimic detector signals. To ensure the correct performance, every high-voltage cable and feedthrough must be capable of supplying HPGe detector operating voltages as high as 5 kV without exhibiting discharge. R&D measurements were carried out to understand the testing system and determine the optimum design configuration of themore » high-voltage path, including different improvements of the cable layout and feedthrough flange model selection. Every cable and feedthrough to be used at the Majorana Demonstrator was characterized and the micro-discharge effects during the Majorana Demonstrator commissioning phase were studied. Furthermore, a stable configuration has been achieved, and the cables and connectors can supply HPGe detector operating voltages without exhibiting discharge.« less

  18. Install an Automatic Blowdown Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP steam tip sheet on installing automatic blowdown controls provide how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  19. Automatic safety rod for reactors. [LMFBR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Germer, J.H.

    1982-03-23

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  20. Principles of ground relaying for high voltage and extra high voltage transmission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, C.H.

    1983-02-01

    This paper is a tutorial discussion of the basic principles of ground relaying for high voltage and extra high voltage transmission lines. Three different HV configurations are considered: Long lines, lines with a weak mid-point station, and mutually-coupled lines. Application criteria for EHV circuits are also discussed, and specific setting calculations are included where appropriate.

  1. Allianz Climate Solutions ACS GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Allianz Climate Solutions ACS GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: Allianz Climate Solutions (ACS) GmbH Place: Munich, Germany Zip: 80802 Product: Munich-based subsidiary of...

  2. Compact high voltage solid state switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glidden, Steven C.

    2003-09-23

    A compact, solid state, high voltage switch capable of high conduction current with a high rate of current risetime (high di/dt) that can be used to replace thyratrons in existing and new applications. The switch has multiple thyristors packaged in a single enclosure. Each thyristor has its own gate drive circuit that circuit obtains its energy from the energy that is being switched in the main circuit. The gate drives are triggered with a low voltage, low current pulse isolated by a small inexpensive transformer. The gate circuits can also be triggered with an optical signal, eliminating the trigger transformer altogether. This approach makes it easier to connect many thyristors in series to obtain the hold off voltages of greater than 80 kV.

  3. ESR melting under constant voltage conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlienger, M.E.

    1997-02-01

    Typical industrial ESR melting practice includes operation at a constant current. This constant current operation is achieved through the use of a power supply whose output provides this constant current characteristic. Analysis of this melting mode indicates that the ESR process under conditions of constant current is inherently unstable. Analysis also indicates that ESR melting under the condition of a constant applied voltage yields a process which is inherently stable. This paper reviews the process stability arguments for both constant current and constant voltage operation. Explanations are given as to why there is a difference between the two modes of operation. Finally, constant voltage process considerations such as melt rate control, response to electrode anomalies and impact on solidification will be discussed.

  4. Distribution System Voltage Performance Analysis for High-Penetration Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, E.; Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01

    This report examines the performance of commonly used distribution voltage regulation methods under reverse power flow.

  5. Electronic circuit for measuring series connected electrochemical cell voltages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N.; Stuart, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    An electronic circuit for measuring voltage signals in an energy storage device is disclosed. The electronic circuit includes a plurality of energy storage cells forming the energy storage device. A voltage divider circuit is connected to at least one of the energy storage cells. A current regulating circuit is provided for regulating the current through the voltage divider circuit. A voltage measurement node is associated with the voltage divider circuit for producing a voltage signal which is proportional to the voltage across the energy storage cell.

  6. Qualification High Voltage Testing of Short Triax HTS Cables in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, David Randy; Sauers, Isidor; Ellis, Alvin R; Tuncer, Enis; Gouge, Michael J; Demko, Jonathan A; Duckworth, Robert C; Rey, Christopher M

    2009-01-01

    In order to qualify the electrical insulation design of future HTS cables installed in the electric grid, a number of high voltage qualification tests are generally performed in the laboratory on either single-phase model cables and/or actual three-phase cable samples. Prior to installation of the 200-m Triax HTS cable at the American Electric Power Bixby substation near Columbus, Ohio, in September, 2006, such tests were conducted on both single-phase model cables made at ORNL and tri-axial cable sections cut off from cable made on a production run. The three-phase tri-axial design provides some specific testing challenges since the ground shield and three phases are concentric about a central former with each phase separated by dielectric tape insulation immersed in liquid nitrogen. The samples were successfully tested and qualified for partial discharge inception, AC withstand, and lightning impulse where voltage is applied to one phase with the other phases grounded. In addition one of the phase pairs was tested for dc withstand as a ldquoworst caserdquo scenario to simulate the effect of VLF (Very Low Frequency) tests on the actual cable installed at the Bixby site. The model and prototype cables will be described and the high voltage test results summarized.

  7. DC-AC Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Boost Inverter With No Inductors for Electric/Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolbert, Leon M; Ozpineci, Burak; Du, Zhong; Chiasson, John N

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a cascaded H-bridge multilevel boost inverter for electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid EV (HEV) applications implemented without the use of inductors. Currently available power inverter systems for HEVs use a dc-dc boost converter to boost the battery voltage for a traditional three-phase inverter. The present HEV traction drive inverters have low power density, are expensive, and have low efficiency because they need a bulky inductor. A cascaded H-bridge multilevel boost inverter design for EV and HEV applications implemented without the use of inductors is proposed in this paper. Traditionally, each H-bridge needs a dc power supply. The proposed design uses a standard three-leg inverter (one leg for each phase) and an H-bridge in series with each inverter leg which uses a capacitor as the dc power source. A fundamental switching scheme is used to do modulation control and to produce a five-level phase voltage. Experiments show that the proposed dc-ac cascaded H-bridge multilevel boost inverter can output a boosted ac voltage without the use of inductors.

  8. Electro-optic voltage sensor for sensing voltage in an E-field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, G.K.; Renak, T.W.

    1999-04-06

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages is disclosed. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam`s polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured. 18 figs.

  9. Electro-optic voltage sensor for sensing voltage in an E-field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K.; Renak, Todd W.

    1999-01-01

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  10. High voltage pulse generator. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, G.E.

    1975-06-12

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator is described which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of the first rectifier connected between the first and second capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. The output voltage can be readily increased by adding additional charging networks. The circuit allows the peak level of the output to be easily varied over a wide range by using a variable autotransformer in the charging circuit.

  11. Group 3: Humidity, Temperature and Voltage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2013-09-01

    This is a summary of the work of Group 3 of the International PV QA Task Force. Group 3 is chartered to develop accelerated stress tests that can be used as comparative predictors of module lifetime versus stresses associated with humidity, temperature and voltage.

  12. Voltage control on a train system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Susanna P.; Evans, John A.

    2004-01-20

    The present invention provides methods for preventing low train voltages and managing interference, thereby improving the efficiency, reliability, and passenger comfort associated with commuter trains. An algorithm implementing neural network technology is used to predict low voltages before they occur. Once voltages are predicted, then multiple trains can be controlled to prevent low voltage events. Further, algorithms for managing inference are presented in the present invention. Different types of interference problems are addressed in the present invention such as "Interference During Acceleration", "Interference Near Station Stops", and "Interference During Delay Recovery." Managing such interference avoids unnecessary brake/acceleration cycles during acceleration, immediately before station stops, and after substantial delays. Algorithms are demonstrated to avoid oscillatory brake/acceleration cycles due to interference and to smooth the trajectories of closely following trains. This is achieved by maintaining sufficient following distances to avoid unnecessary braking/accelerating. These methods generate smooth train trajectories, making for a more comfortable ride, and improve train motor reliability by avoiding unnecessary mode-changes between propulsion and braking. These algorithms can also have a favorable impact on traction power system requirements and energy consumption.

  13. Electro-optic high voltage sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James R.; Seifert, Gary D.

    2002-01-01

    A small sized electro-optic voltage sensor capable of accurate measurement of high levels of voltages without contact with a conductor or voltage source is provided. When placed in the presence of an electric field, the sensor receives an input beam of electromagnetic radiation into the sensor. A polarization beam displacer serves as a filter to separate the input beam into two beams with orthogonal linear polarizations. The beam displacer is oriented in such a way as to rotate the linearly polarized beams such that they enter a Pockels crystal having at a preferred angle of 45 degrees. The beam displacer is therefore capable of causing a linearly polarized beam to impinge a crystal at a desired angle independent of temperature. The Pockels electro-optic effect induces a differential phase shift on the major and minor axes of the input beam as it travels through the Pockels crystal, which causes the input beam to be elliptically polarized. A reflecting prism redirects the beam back through the crystal and the beam displacer. On the return path, the polarization beam displacer separates the elliptically polarized beam into two output beams of orthogonal linear polarization representing the major and minor axes. The system may include a detector for converting the output beams into electrical signals, and a signal processor for determining the voltage based on an analysis of the output beams. The output beams are amplitude modulated by the frequency of the electric field and the amplitude of the output beams is proportional to the magnitude of the electric field, which is related to the voltage being measured.

  14. Technical-evaluation report on the adequacy of station electric-distribution-system voltages for the Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2. (Docket Nos. 50-282, 50-306)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selan, J C

    1982-09-17

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the adequacy of the station electric distribution system voltages for the Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2. The evaluation is to determine if the onsite distribution system in conjunction with the offsite power sources has sufficient capacity to automatically start and operate all Class 1E loads within the equipment voltage ratings under certain conditions established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The evaluation finds that with some minor transformer loading modifications, hardware changes and the results of equipment testing and manufacturer data, the offsite sources were demonstrated to supply adequate voltage to the Class 1E equipment under worst case conditions.

  15. CRYOGENIC LIFETIME TESTS ON A COMMERCIAL EPOXY RESIN HIGH VOLTAGE BUSHING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwenterly, S W; Pleva, Ed; Ha, Tam T

    2012-01-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) power devices operating in liquid nitrogen frequently require high-voltage bushings to carry the current leads from the superconducting windings to the room temperature grid connections. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is collaborating with Waukesha Electric Systems, SuperPower, and Southern California Edison to develop and demonstrate an HTS utility power transformer. Previous dielectric high voltage tests in support of this program have been carried out in test cryostats with commercial epoxy resin bushings from Electro Composites Inc. (ECI). Though the bushings performed well in these short-term tests, their long-term operation at high voltage in liquid nitrogen needs to be verified for use on the utility grid. Long-term tests are being carried out on a sample 28-kV-class ECI bushing. The bushing has a monolithic cast, cycloaliphatic resin body and is fire- and shatter-resistant. The test cryostat is located in an interlocked cage and is energized at 25 kVac around the clock. Liquid nitrogen (LN) is automatically refilled every 9.5 hours. Partial discharge, capacitance, and leakage resistance tests are periodically performed to check for deviations from factory values. At present, over 2400 hours have been accumulated with no changes in these parameters. The tests are scheduled to run for four to six months.

  16. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1993-01-12

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  17. High voltage supply for neutron tubes in well logging applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Humphreys, D. Russell

    1989-01-01

    A high voltage supply is provided for a neutron tube used in well logging. The "biased pulse" supply of the invention combines DC and "full pulse" techniques and produces a target voltage comprising a substantial negative DC bias component on which is superimposed a pulse whose negative peak provides the desired negative voltage level for the neutron tube. The target voltage is preferably generated using voltage doubling techniques and employing a voltage source which generates bipolar pulse pairs having an amplitude corresponding to the DC bias level.

  18. Distribution System Voltage Regulation by Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ceylan, Oguzhan; Liu, Guodong; Xu, Yan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a control method to regulate voltages in 3 phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems. A constrained optimization problem to minimize voltage deviations and maximize distributed energy resource (DER) active power output is solved by harmony search algorithm. IEEE 13 Bus Distribution Test System was modified to test three different cases: a) only voltage regulator controlled system b) only DER controlled system and c) both voltage regulator and DER controlled system. The simulation results show that systems with both voltage regulators and DER control provide better voltage profile.

  19. LOW VOLTAGE 14 Mev NEUTRON SOURCE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Little, R.N. Jr.; Graves, E.R.

    1959-09-29

    An apparatus yielding high-energy neutrons at the rate of 10/sup 8/ or more per second by the D,T or D,D reactions is described. The deuterium gas filling is ionized by electrons emitted from a filament, and the resulting ions are focused into a beam and accelerated against a fixed target. The apparatus is built in accordance with the relationship V/sub s/ = A--B log pd, where V/sub s/ is the sparking voltage, p the gas pressure, and d the gap length between the high voltage electrodes. Typical parameters to obtain the high neutron yields are 55 to 80 kv, 0.5 to 7.0 ma beam current, 5 to 12 microns D/sub 2/, and a gap length of 1 centimeter.

  20. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoff, Brian Douglas; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  1. High voltage electric substation performance in earthquakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eidinger, J.; Ostrom, D.; Matsuda, E.

    1995-12-31

    This paper examines the performance of several types of high voltage substation equipment in past earthquakes. Damage data is provided in chart form. This data is then developed into a tool for estimating the performance of a substation subjected to an earthquake. First, suggests are made about the development of equipment class fragility curves that represent the expected earthquake performance of different voltages and types of equipment. Second, suggestions are made about how damage to individual pieces of equipment at a substation likely affects the post-earthquake performance of the substation as a whole. Finally, estimates are provided as to how quickly a substation, at various levels of damage, can be restored to operational service after the earthquake.

  2. Low Voltage White Phosphorescent OLED Achievements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Universal Display Corporation (UDC) and its research partners at Princeton University and the University of Southern California have succeeded in developing a white phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED™) that achieved a record efficiency of 20 lumens per watt. This achievement is the result of the team's collaborative efforts to increase the efficiency of PHOLED lighting by focusing on two critical factors: lowering the drive voltages and increasing the amount of light extracted.

  3. HIGH VOLTAGE, HIGH CURRENT SPARK GAP SWITCH

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dike, R.S.; Lier, D.W.; Schofield, A.E.; Tuck, J.L.

    1962-04-17

    A high voltage and current spark gap switch comprising two main electrodes insulatingly supported in opposed spaced relationship and a middle electrode supported medially between the main electrodes and symmetrically about the median line of the main electrodes is described. The middle electrode has a perforation aligned with the median line and an irradiation electrode insulatingly supported in the body of the middle electrode normal to the median line and protruding into the perforation. (AEC)

  4. Electro-optic voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, Thomas M.; Davidson, James R.; Woods, Gregory K.

    1999-01-01

    The invention is an electro-optic voltage sensor head designed for integration with existing types of high voltage transmission and distribution apparatus. The sensor head contains a transducer, which comprises a transducing material in which the Pockels electro-optic effect is observed. In the practice of the invention at least one beam of electromagnetic radiation is routed into the transducing material of the transducer in the sensor head. The beam undergoes an electro-optic effect in the sensor head when the transducing material is subjected to an E-field. The electro-optic effect is observed as a differential phase a shift, also called differential phase modulation, of the beam components in orthogonal planes of the electromagnetic radiation. In the preferred embodiment the beam is routed through the transducer along an initial axis and then reflected by a retro-reflector back substantially parallel to the initial axis, making a double pass through the transducer for increased measurement sensitivity. The preferred embodiment of the sensor head also includes a polarization state rotator and at least one beam splitter for orienting the beam along major and minor axes and for splitting the beam components into two signals which are independent converse amplitude-modulated signals carrying E-field magnitude and hence voltage information from the sensor head by way of optic fibers.

  5. Electro-optic voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, T.M.; Davidson, J.R.; Woods, G.K.

    1999-08-17

    The invention is an electro-optic voltage sensor head designed for integration with existing types of high voltage transmission and distribution apparatus. The sensor head contains a transducer, which comprises a transducing material in which the Pockels electro-optic effect is observed. In the practice of the invention at least one beam of electromagnetic radiation is routed into the transducing material of the transducer in the sensor head. The beam undergoes an electro-optic effect in the sensor head when the transducing material is subjected to an E-field. The electro-optic effect is observed as a differential phase a shift, also called differential phase modulation, of the beam components in orthogonal planes of the electromagnetic radiation. In the preferred embodiment the beam is routed through the transducer along an initial axis and then reflected by a retro-reflector back substantially parallel to the initial axis, making a double pass through the transducer for increased measurement sensitivity. The preferred embodiment of the sensor head also includes a polarization state rotator and at least one beam splitter for orienting the beam along major and minor axes and for splitting the beam components into two signals which are independent converse amplitude-modulated signals carrying E-field magnitude and hence voltage information from the sensor head by way of optic fibers. 6 figs.

  6. Electrostatically screened, voltage-controlled electrostatic chuck

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott

    2001-01-01

    Employing an electrostatically screened, voltage-controlled electrostatic chuck particularly suited for holding wafers and masks in sub-atmospheric operations will significantly reduce the likelihood of contaminant deposition on the substrates. The electrostatic chuck includes (1) an insulator block having a outer perimeter and a planar surface adapted to support the substrate and comprising at least one electrode (typically a pair of electrodes that are embedded in the insulator block), (2) a source of voltage that is connected to the at least one electrode, (3) a support base to which the insulator block is attached, and (4) a primary electrostatic shield ring member that is positioned around the outer perimeter of the insulator block. The electrostatic chuck permits control of the voltage of the lithographic substrate; in addition, it provides electrostatic shielding of the stray electric fields issuing from the sides of the electrostatic chuck. The shielding effectively prevents electric fields from wrapping around to the upper or front surface of the substrate, thereby eliminating electrostatic particle deposition.

  7. Automatic visual inspection of hybrid microcircuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hines, R.E.

    1980-05-01

    An automatic visual inspection system using a minicomputer and a video digitizer was developed for inspecting hybrid microcircuits (HMC) and thin-film networks (TFN). The system performed well in detecting missing components on HMCs and reduced the testing time for each HMC by 75%.

  8. Solid Electrolyte: the Key for High-Voltage Lithium Batteries...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Solid Electrolyte: the Key for High-Voltage Lithium Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solid Electrolyte: the Key for High-Voltage Lithium Batteries Authors: Li, ...

  9. Fault-induced delayed voltage recovery in a long inhomogeneous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GrantContract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review E Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 91; Journal Issue: 2; ...

  10. Sensitivity of on-resistance and threshold voltage to buffer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource ... Subject: solar (photovoltaic), solid state lighting, phonons, materials and chemistry by design, ...

  11. Towards predicting voltage dependences of electrode/electrolyte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Towards predicting voltage dependences of electrodeelectrolyte interfacial processesnin lithium ion batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards predicting ...

  12. Plasma antennas driven by 5–20 kHz AC power supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Jiansen Chen, Yuli; Sun, Yang; Wu, Huafeng; Liu, Yue; Yuan, Qiumeng

    2015-12-15

    The experiments described in this work were performed with the aim of introducing a new plasma antenna that was excited by a 5–20 kHz alternating current (AC) power supply, where the antenna was transformed into a U-shape. The results show that the impedance, voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR), radiation pattern and gain characteristics of the antenna can be controlled rapidly by varying not only the discharge power, but also by varying the discharge frequency in the range from 5 to 20 kHz. When the discharge frequency is adjusted from 10 to 12 kHz, the gain is higher within a relatively broad frequency band and the switch-on time is less than 1 ms when the discharge power is less than 5 W, meaning that the plasma antenna can be turned on and off rapidly.

  13. System for increasing corona inception voltage of insulating oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1998-05-19

    The Corona Inception Voltage of insulating oils is increased by repetitive cycles of prestressing the oil with a voltage greater than the corona inception voltage, and either simultaneously or serially removing byproducts of corona by evacuation and heating the oil. 5 figs.

  14. Assessment of research directions for high-voltage direct-current power systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, W F

    1982-09-01

    High voltage direct current (HVDC) power transmission continues to be an emerging technology nearly thirty years after its introduction into modern power systems. To date its use has been restricted to either specialized applications having identifiable economic advantages (e.g., breakeven distance) or, rarely, applications where decoupling is needed. Only recently have the operational advantages (e.g., power modulation) of HVDC been realized on operating systems. A research project whose objective was to identify hardware developments and, where appropriate, system applications which can exemplify cost and operational advantages of integrated ac/dc power systems is discussed. The three principal tasks undertaken were: assessment of equipment developments; quantification of operational advantages; and interaction with system planners. Interest in HVDC power transmission has increased markedly over the past several years, and many new systems are now being investigated. The dissemination of information about HVDC, including specifically the symposium undertaken for Task 3, is a critical factor in fostering an understanding of this important adjunct to ac power transmission.

  15. Non-vanishing ponderomotive AC electrophoretic effect for particle trapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, Weihau; Park, Jae Hyun nmn; Krstic, Predrag S; Reed, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    We present here a study on overlooked aspects of alternating current (AC) electrokinetics AC electrophoretic (ACEP) phenomena. The dynamics of a particle with both polarizability and net charges in a non-uniform AC electric trapping field is investigated. It is found that either electrophoretic (EP) or dielectrophoretic (DEP) effects can dominate the trapping dynamics, depending on experimental conditions. A dimensionless parameter gamma is developed to predict the relative strength of EP and DEP effects in a quadrupole AC field. An ACEP trap is feasible for charged particles in salt-free or low salt concentration solutions. In contrast to DEP traps, an ACEP trap favors the downscaling of the particle size.

  16. Light Absorption of Primary Organic Aerosol Paper Named ACS Editors...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Absorption of Primary Organic Aerosol Paper Named ACS Editors' Choice For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.govsciencehighlights...

  17. Install an Automatic Blowdown-Control System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an Automatic Blowdown-Control System Install an Automatic Blowdown-Control System This steam tip sheet on installing automatic blowdown controls provide how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies. STEAM TIP SHEET #23 Install an Automatic Blowdown-Control System (January 2012) (408.53 KB) More Documents & Publications Minimize Boiler Blowdown Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for

  18. Voltage and current transducer harmonic sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domijan, A. Jr.

    1998-10-01

    This work presents the results of a study on the sensitivity of real power as a function of harmonic magnitudes and angles. These transducers are ones that are typical of those used, in combination with metering instruments, to measure the performance of variable-speed drives. Frequency response tests were performed on two different signal transducers (voltage and current) up to the 50th harmonic in accordance with Institute of Electrical and Electronics engineers (IEEE) Standard 519-1992. Results from these tests gave maximum magnitude percentage errors of {minus}2.2% (at 15th harmonic) and maximum phase shifts of +3.3 (at 50th harmonic) for voltage (at 120 V) and maximum percentage error of {minus}1.9% (at 2d harmonic) and maximum phase shift of {minus}4.3 for current (at 5 A). Using the percentage errors at 120 V and 5 A throughout the 60 Hz through 3,000 Hz range, in harmonic magnitudes and harmonic angles exhibited by the transducers, mathematical analysis was done on two sets of distorted signals and a sensitivity analysis was done to determine what would be the impact of the actual transducers` errors on the final calculation of real power. Variations of {minus}1.48% and {minus}1.60% were obtained. Then, assuming a maximum 5% change in current harmonic magnitudes and angles, a maximum real power percent variation of 0.02% and 2.47% were obtained for the same two sets of field-recorded voltage and current waveforms sets.

  19. A two-dimensional multispecies fluid model of the plasma in an ac plasma display panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, R.B.; Veerasingam, R.; McGrath, R.T.

    1995-08-01

    A time dependent, two-dimensional mode for simulating the plasma evolution in an AC plasma display panel (AC-PDP) is described. Reaction-convection (mobility)-diffusion equations for charged particles and excited heavy neutral species are solved along with Poisson`s equation, a radiation transport equation, a surface charge buildup equation, and an external L-R-C circuit equation using a fully implicit numerical method. Electron-driven rate coefficients are computed with a 0-D Boltzmann solver in the local field approximation. For studying the particle dynamics in pure helium, they consider a reduced model in which radiation transport is ignored and the excited species manifold is collapsed to composite metastable and excited states. The model predictions of breakdown voltage are quite sensitive to the value of the secondary electron emission coefficient assumed and the uncertainties in the electron-driven reaction rates. An initial comparison between the model predictions and I-V measurements from a specially constructed helium-filled panel is made with qualitatively similar behavior. The lack of quantitative agreement can be explained by a combination of uncertainties in the model input data and uncertainty in the initial surface charge state in the experiments.

  20. Apparatus for producing voltage and current pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirbie, Hugh; Dale, Gregory E.

    2010-12-21

    An apparatus having one or more modular stages for producing voltage and current pulses. Each module includes a diode charging means to charge a capacitive means that stores energy. One or more charging impedance means are connected to the diode charging means to provide a return current pathway. A solid-state switch discharge means, with current interruption capability, is connected to the capacitive means to discharge stored energy. Finally, a control means is provided to command the switching action of the solid-state switch discharge means.

  1. Capacitively coupled RF voltage probe having optimized flux linkage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, James A.; Sparks, Dennis O.

    1999-02-02

    An RF sensor having a novel current sensing probe and a voltage sensing probe to measure voltage and current. The current sensor is disposed in a transmission line to link all of the flux generated by the flowing current in order to obtain an accurate measurement. The voltage sensor is a flat plate which operates as a capacitive plate to sense voltage on a center conductor of the transmission line, in which the measured voltage is obtained across a resistance leg of a R-C differentiator circuit formed by the characteristic impedance of a connecting transmission line and a capacitance of the plate, which is positioned proximal to the center conductor.

  2. ,"Geographic Area",,,"Voltage",,,"Capacity Rating (MVa)","In...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...RCOT","-","AC","300-399",345,1631,0,2013,"TESLA","OKLAEHV7 ",60,"OH","S","T",1590,"ACSR",2...RCOT","-","AC","300-399",345,1631,0,2013,"TESLA","CRZPHAC ",75,"OH","S","T",1590,"ACSR",2...

  3. ,"Geographic Area",,,"Voltage",,,"Capacity Rating (MVa)","In...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...ral","AC",345,345,535,39507,"Hardin Co.","Smith OMU",-66,"OH","H-frame","wood",954,"ACSR",...,"SERC","Central","AC",345,345,535,39507,"Smith OMU","Daviess Co.",7,"OH","H-frame","wood"...

  4. Method for automatically scramming a nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Schultz, Richard R.; Terry, William K.

    2005-12-27

    An automatically scramming nuclear reactor system. One embodiment comprises a core having a coolant inlet end and a coolant outlet end. A cooling system operatively associated with the core provides coolant to the coolant inlet end and removes heated coolant from the coolant outlet end, thus maintaining a pressure differential therebetween during a normal operating condition of the nuclear reactor system. A guide tube is positioned within the core with a first end of the guide tube in fluid communication with the coolant inlet end of the core, and a second end of the guide tube in fluid communication with the coolant outlet end of the core. A control element is positioned within the guide tube and is movable therein between upper and lower positions, and automatically falls under the action of gravity to the lower position when the pressure differential drops below a safe pressure differential.

  5. Automatic detection of sweep-meshable volumes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tautges; Timothy J. , White; David R.

    2006-05-23

    A method of and software for automatically determining whether a mesh can be generated by sweeping for a representation of a geometric solid comprising: classifying surface mesh schemes for surfaces of the representation locally using surface vertex types; grouping mappable and submappable surfaces of the representation into chains; computing volume edge types for the representation; recursively traversing surfaces of the representation and grouping the surfaces into source, target, and linking surface lists; and checking traversal direction when traversing onto linking surfaces.

  6. Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbatiello, Leonard A.; Neal, Richard E.

    1978-01-01

    A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is provided. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun.

  7. High Voltage GaN Schottky Rectifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CAO,X.A.; CHO,H.; CHU,S.N.G.; CHUO,C.-C.; CHYI,J.-I.; DANG,G.T.; HAN,JUNG; LEE,C.-M.; PEARTON,S.J.; REN,F.; WILSON,R.G.; ZHANG,A.P.

    1999-10-25

    Mesa and planar GaN Schottky diode rectifiers with reverse breakdown voltages (V{sub RB}) up to 550V and >2000V, respectively, have been fabricated. The on-state resistance, R{sub ON}, was 6m{Omega}{center_dot} cm{sup 2} and 0.8{Omega}cm{sup 2}, respectively, producing figure-of-merit values for (V{sub RB}){sup 2}/R{sub ON} in the range 5-48 MW{center_dot}cm{sup -2}. At low biases the reverse leakage current was proportional to the size of the rectifying contact perimeter, while at high biases the current was proportional to the area of this contact. These results suggest that at low reverse biases, the leakage is dominated by the surface component, while at higher biases the bulk component dominates. On-state voltages were 3.5V for the 550V diodes and {ge}15 for the 2kV diodes. Reverse recovery times were <0.2{micro}sec for devices switched from a forward current density of {approx}500A{center_dot}cm{sup -2} to a reverse bias of 100V.

  8. Electrostatic coalescence system with independent AC and DC hydrophilic electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hovarongkura, A. David; Henry, Jr., Joseph D.

    1981-01-01

    An improved electrostatic coalescence system is provided in which independent AC and DC hydrophilic electrodes are employed to provide more complete dehydration of an oil emulsion. The AC field is produced between an AC electrode array and the water-oil interface wherein the AC electrode array is positioned parallel to the interface which acts as a grounded electrode. The emulsion is introduced into the AC field in an evenly distributed manner at the interface. The AC field promotes drop-drop and drop-interface coalescence of the water phase in the entering emulsion. The continuous oil phase passes upward through the perforated AC electrode array and enters a strong DC field produced between closely spaced DC electrodes in which small dispersed droplets of water entrained in the continuous phase are removed primarily by collection at hydrophilic DC electrodes. Large droplets of water collected by the electrodes migrate downward through the AC electrode array to the interface. All phase separation mechanisms are utilized to accomplish more complete phase separation.

  9. ESBWR response to an extended station blackout/loss of all AC power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, A. J.; Marquino, W.

    2012-07-01

    U.S. federal regulations require light water cooled nuclear power plants to cope with Station Blackouts for a predetermined amount of time based on design factors for the plant. U.S. regulations define Station Blackout (SBO) as a loss of the offsite electric power system concurrent with turbine trip and unavailability of the onsite emergency AC power system. According to U.S. regulations, typically the coping period for an SBO is 4 hours and can be as long as 16 hours for currently operating BWR plants. Being able to cope with an SBO and loss of all AC power is required by international regulators as well. The U.S. licensing basis for the ESBWR is a coping period of 72 hours for an SBO based on U.S. NRC requirements for passive safety plants. In the event of an extended SBO (viz., greater than 72 hours), the ESBWR response shows that the design is able to cope with the event for at least 7 days without AC electrical power or operator action. ESBWR is a Generation III+ reactor design with an array of passive safety systems. The ESBWR primary success path for mitigation of an SBO event is the Isolation Condenser System (ICS). The ICS is a passive, closed loop, safety system that initiates automatically on a loss of power. Upon Station Blackout or loss of all AC power, the ICS begins removing decay heat from the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) by (i) condensing the steam into water in heat exchangers located in pools of water above the containment, and (ii) transferring the decay heat to the atmosphere. The condensed water is then returned by gravity to cool the reactor again. The ICS alone is capable of maintaining the ESBWR in a safe shutdown condition after an SBO for an extended period. The fuel remains covered throughout the SBO event. The ICS is able to remove decay heat from the RPV for at least 7 days and maintains the reactor in a safe shutdown condition. The water level in the RPV remains well above the top of active fuel for the duration of the SBO event

  10. Method for voltage-gated protein fractionation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hatch, Anson; Singh, Anup K.

    2012-04-24

    We report unique findings on the voltage dependence of protein exclusion from the pores of nanoporous polymer exclusion membranes. The pores are small enough that proteins are excluded from passage with low applied electric fields, but increasing the field enables proteins to pass through. The requisite field necessary for a change in exclusion is protein-specific with a correlation to protein size. The field-dependence of exclusion is important to consider for preconcentration applications. The ability to selectively gate proteins at exclusion membranes is also a promising means for manipulating and characterizing proteins. We show that field-gated exclusion can be used to selectively remove proteins from a mixture, or to selectively trap protein at one exclusion membrane in a series.