National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for automated biodiesel blending

  1. Biodiesel Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-04-01

    A 2-page fact sheet discussing general biodiesel blends and the improvement in engine performance and emissions.

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Blends to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biodiesel Basics

  3. Quality Assessment of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quality Assessment of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends Quality Assessment of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends The results of a quality survey of B20 fuel in the United States were ...

  4. WI Biodiesel Blending Progream Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redmond, Maria E; Levy, Megan M

    2013-04-01

    The Wisconsin State Energy Office?¢????s (SEO) primary mission is to implement cost?¢???effective, reliable, balanced, and environmentally?¢???friendly clean energy projects. To support this mission the Wisconsin Biodiesel Blending Program was created to financially support the installation infrastructure necessary to directly sustain biodiesel blending and distribution at petroleum terminal facilities throughout Wisconsin. The SEO secured a federal directed award of $600,000 over 2.25 years. With these funds, the SEO supported the construction of inline biodiesel blending facilities at two petroleum terminals in Wisconsin. The Federal funding provided through the state provided a little less than half of the necessary investment to construct the terminals, with the balance put forth by the partners. Wisconsin is now home to two new biodiesel blending terminals. Fusion Renewables on Jones Island (in the City of Milwaukee) will offer a B100 blend to both bulk and retail customers. CITGO is currently providing a B5 blend to all customers at their Granville, WI terminal north of the City of Milwaukee.

  5. Effect of Biodiesel Blends on Diesel Particulate Filter Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R. R.; Ireland, J.; Fang, H. L.

    2006-11-01

    Presents results of tests of ultra-low sulfur diesel blended with soy-biodiesel at 5 percent using a Cummins ISB engine with a diesel particulate filter.

  6. A review of chromatographic characterization techniques for biodiesel and biodiesel blends.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pauls, R. E.

    2011-05-01

    This review surveys chromatographic technology that has been applied to the characterization of biodiesel and its blends. Typically, biodiesel consists of fatty acid methyl esters produced by transesterification of plant or animal derived triacylglycerols. Primary attention is given to the determination of trace impurities in biodiesel, such as methanol, glycerol, mono-, di-, and triacylglycerols, and sterol glucosides. The determination of the fatty acid methyl esters, trace impurities in biodiesel, and the determination of the biodiesel content of commercial blends of biodiesel in conventional diesel are also addressed.

  7. Empirical Study of the Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: Milestone Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R. L.; Westbrook, S. R.

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a database that supports specific proposals for a stability test and specification for biodiesel and biodiesel blends. B100 samples from 19 biodiesel producers were obtained in December of 2005 and January of 2006 and tested for stability. Eight of these samples were then selected for additional study, including long-term storage tests and blending at 5% and 20% with a number of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels.

  8. Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R. L.; Alleman, T. L.; Waynick, J. A.; Westbrook, S. R.; Porter, S.

    2006-04-01

    This is an interim report for a study of biodiesel oxidative stability. It describes characterization and accelerated stability test results for 19 B100 samples and six diesel fuels.

  9. Measurement of biodiesel blend and conventional diesel spray structure using x-ray radiography.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kastengren, A. L.; Powell, C. F.; Wang, Y. J.; IM, K. S.; Wang, J.

    2009-11-01

    The near-nozzle structure of several nonevaporating biodiesel-blend sprays has been studied using X-ray radiography. Radiography allows quantitative measurements of the fuel distribution in sprays to be made with high temporal and spatial resolution. Measurements have been made at different values of injection pressure, ambient density, and with two different nozzle geometries to understand the influences of these parameters on the spray structure of the biodiesel blend. These measurements have been compared with corresponding measurements of Viscor, a diesel calibration fluid, to demonstrate the fuel effects on the spray structure. Generally, the biodiesel-blend spray has a similar structure to the spray of Viscor. For the nonhydroground nozzle used in this study, the biodiesel-blend spray has a slightly slower penetration into the ambient gas than the Viscor spray. The cone angle of the biodiesel-blend spray is generally smaller than that of the Viscor spray, indicating that the biodiesel-blend spray is denser than the Viscor spray. For the hydroground nozzle, both fuels produce sprays with initially wide cone angles that transition to narrow sprays during the steady-state portion of the injection event. These variations in cone angle with time occur later for the biodiesel-blend spray than for the Viscor spray, indicating that the dynamics of the injector needle as it opens are somewhat different for the two fuels.

  10. Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-08-01

    Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

  11. Modeling the Auto-Ignition of Biodiesel Blends with a Multi-Step Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toulson, Dr. Elisa; Allen, Casey M; Miller, Dennis J; McFarlane, Joanna; Schock, Harold; Lee, Tonghun

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in using biodiesel in place of or in blends with petrodiesel in diesel engines; however, biodiesel oxidation chemistry is complicated to directly model and existing surrogate kinetic models are very large, making them computationally expensive. The present study describes a method for predicting the ignition behavior of blends of n-heptane and methyl butanoate, fuels whose blends have been used in the past as a surrogate for biodiesel. The autoignition is predicted using a multistep (8-step) model in order to reduce computational time and make this a viable tool for implementation into engine simulation codes. A detailed reaction mechanism for n-heptane-methyl butanoate blends was used as a basis for validating the multistep model results. The ignition delay trends predicted by the multistep model for the n-heptane-methyl butanoate blends matched well with that of the detailed CHEMKIN model for the majority of conditions tested.

  12. Low-Temperature Biodiesel Research Reveals Potential Key to Successful Blend Performance (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option. While biodiesel has very low production costs and the potential to displace up to 10% of petroleum diesel, until now, issues with cold weather performance have prevented biodiesel blends from being widely adopted. Some biodiesel blends have exhibited unexplained low-temperature performance problems even at blend levels as low as 2% by volume. The most common low-temperature performance issue is vehicle stalling caused by fuel filter clogging, which prevents fuel from reaching the engine. Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) reveals the properties responsible for these problems, clearing a path for the development of solutions and expanded use of energy-conserving and low-emissions alternative fuel. NREL researchers set out to study the unpredictable nature of biodiesel crystallization, the condition that impedes the flow of fuel in cold weather. Their research revealed for the first time that saturated monoglyceride impurities common to the biodiesel manufacturing process create crystals that can cause fuel filter clogging and other problems when cooling at slow rates. Biodiesel low-temperature operational problems are commonly referred to as 'precipitates above the cloud point (CP).' NREL's Advanced Biofuels team spiked distilled soy and animal fat-derived B100, as well as B20, B10, and B5 biodiesel blends with three saturated monoglycerides (SMGs) at concentration levels comparable to those of real-world fuels. Above a threshold or eutectic concentration, the SMGs (monomyristin, monopalmitin, and monostearin) were shown to significantly raise the biodiesel CP, and had an even greater impact on the final melting temperature. Researchers discovered that upon cooling, monoglyceride initially precipitates as a metastable crystal, but it transforms over time or upon slight heating into a more stable crystal with a much lower solubility and higher melting temperature - and with increased potential to cause vehicle performance issues. This explains why fuel-filter clogging typically occurs over the course of long, repeated diurnal cooling cycles. The elevated final melting points mean that restarting vehicles with clogged filters can be difficult even after ambient temperatures have warmed to well above CP. By examining how biodiesel impurities affect filtration and crystallization during warming and cooling cycles, NREL researchers uncovered an explanation for poor biodiesel performance at low temperatures. The observation of a eutectic point, or a concentration below which SMGs have no effect, indicates that SMGs do not have to be completely removed from biodiesel to solve low-temperature performance problems.

  13. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Biodiesel production capacity and production million gallons Period Annual Production ... B100 is the industry designation for pure biodiesel; a biodiesel blend contains both pure ...

  14. Biodiesel Basics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-07-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends and specifications. It also covers how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance (including in cold weather) and whether there are adverse effects on engines or other systems. Finally, it discusses biodiesel fuel quality and standards, and compares biodiesel emissions to those of diesel fuel.

  15. DPF Performance with Biodiesel Blends | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_williams.pdf More Documents & Publications Diesel Particulate Filter Technology for Low-Temperature and Low-NOx/PM Applications Impact of Biodiesel on Modern Diesel Engine Emissions Diesel Emission Control Review

  16. Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-06-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  17. Effect of Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_pedersen.pdf More Documents & Publications Key Benefits in Using Ethanol-Diesel Blends Diesel Injection Shear-Stress Advanced Nozzle (DISSAN) Lean NOx Trap Formulation Effect on Performance with In-Cylinder Regeneration

  18. Survey of the Quality and Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends in the United States in 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R. L.; Alleman, T. L.; Ratcliffe, M.; Moens, L.; Lawrence, R.

    2005-10-01

    Reports results gathered in 2004 from quality and stability surveys in the United States of biodiesel (B100) and 20% biodiesel (B20) in petroleum diesel.

  19. Rix Biodiesel Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rix Biodiesel Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Rix Biodiesel Limited Place: Hull, United Kingdom Zip: HU8 7JR Product: Manufacture, blends and resells biodiesel....

  20. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-07-21

    Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were developed and used to study the oxidation of two large unsaturated esters: methyl-5-decenoate and methyl-9-decenoate. These models were built from a previous methyl decanoate mechanism and were compared with rapeseed oil methyl esters oxidation experiments in a jet stirred reactor. A comparative study of the reactivity of these three oxygenated compounds was performed and the differences in the distribution of the products of the reaction were highlighted showing the influence of the presence and the position of a double bond in the chain. Blend surrogates, containing methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, methyl-9-decenoate and n-alkanes, were tested against rapeseed oil methyl esters and methyl palmitate/n-decane experiments. These surrogate models are realistic kinetic tools allowing the study of the combustion of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines.

  1. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, Olivier; Pitz, William J.; Westbrook, Charles K.

    2010-05-15

    Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were developed and used to study the oxidation of two large unsaturated esters: methyl-5-decenoate and methyl-9-decenoate. These models were built from a previous methyl decanoate mechanism and were compared with rapeseed oil methyl esters oxidation experiments in a jet-stirred reactor. A comparative study of the reactivity of these three oxygenated compounds was performed and the differences in the distribution of the products of the reaction were highlighted showing the influence of the presence and the position of a double bond in the chain. Blend surrogates, containing methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, methyl-9-decenoate and n-alkanes, were tested against rapeseed oil methyl esters and methyl palmitate/n-decane experiments. These surrogate models are realistic kinetic tools allowing the study of the combustion of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. (author)

  2. 2004 Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidelines (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-11-01

    This document is a guide for those who blend, distribute, and use biodiesel and biodiesel blends. It is intended to fleets and individual users, blenders, distributors, and those involved in related activities understand procedures for handling and using biodiesel.

  3. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Biodiesel production, sales, and stocks million gallons Period B100 production Sales of B100 Sales of B100 included in biodiesel blends Ending stocks of B100 B100 stock change ...

  4. Effect of Biodiesel Blending on the Speciation of Soluble Organic Fraction from a Light Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strzelec, Andrea; Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Daw, C Stuart; Foster, Prof. Dave; Rutland, Prof. Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel was volumetrically blended with 2007 certification ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel and run in a 1.7L direct-injection common rail diesel engine at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP). Engine fueling rate and injection timing were adjusted to maintain a constant load, while particulate samples were collected in a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and with a dilution tunnel sampling train. The samples collected at these two locations were found to contain different levels of soluble organic fraction (SOF) and the different hydrocarbon species in the SOF. This observation indicates that traditional SOF measurements, in light of the specific sampling procedure used, may not be appropriate to DPF applications.

  5. Analysis of Biodiesel Blends Samples Collected in the United States in 2008 (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alleman, T. L.; Fouts, L.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    NREL sampled and tested the quality of U.S. B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% petroleum diesel) in 2008; 32 samples from retail locations and fleets were tested against a proposed ASTM D7467 B6-B20 specification, now in effect.

  6. Automated titration method for use on blended asphalts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pauli, Adam T.; Robertson, Raymond E.; Branthaver, Jan F.; Schabron, John F.

    2012-08-07

    A system for determining parameters and compatibility of a substance such as an asphalt or other petroleum substance uses titration to highly accurately determine one or more flocculation occurrences and is especially applicable to the determination or use of Heithaus parameters and optimal mixing of various asphalt stocks. In a preferred embodiment, automated titration in an oxygen gas exclusive system and further using spectrophotometric analysis (2-8) of solution turbidity is presented. A reversible titration technique enabling in-situ titration measurement of various solution concentrations is also presented.

  7. Biodiesel Effects on Diesel Particle Filter Performance: Milestone Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R.; Ireland, J.

    2006-03-01

    Research results on the performance of biodiesel and biodiesel blends with ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a diesel particle filter (DPF).

  8. Biodiesel_Fuel_Management_Best_Practices_Report.pdf | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Biodiesel Outlook - An Engine Manufacturer's Perspective Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet), Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) Performance of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends

  9. South Texas Blending | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: South Texas Blending Place: Laredo, Texas Zip: 78045 Product: Biodiesel producer based in Texas. References: South Texas Blending1 This article is a stub....

  10. Biodiesel Handling and Use Guide: Fourth Edition (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-01-01

    Intended for those who blend, distribute, and use biodiesel and its blends, this guide contains procedures for handling and using these fuels.

  11. Impact of Biodiesel on Fuel System Component Durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry, B.

    2005-09-01

    A study of the effects of biodiesel blends on fuel system components and the physical characteristics of elastomer materials.

  12. Biodiesel ASTM Update and Future Technical Needs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Latest ASTM fuel specifications on biodiesel blends are summarized as well as future needs for improved fuel quality, process quality controls, and new performance testing procedures.

  13. 100,000-Mile Evaluation of Transit Buses Operated on Biodiesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation of Transit Buses Operated on Biodiesel Blends (B20) 100,000-Mile Evaluation of Transit Buses Operated on Biodiesel Blends (B20) Presentation given at DEER 2006, ...

  14. Biodiesel Basics (Spanish Version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-08-01

    This Spanish-language fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  15. Investigation and Optimization of Biodiesel Chemistry for HCCI Combustion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Investigation and Optimization of Biodiesel Chemistry for HCCI Combustion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Investigation and Optimization of Biodiesel Chemistry for HCCI Combustion Over the past 5 years, ORNL has run 95 diesel range fuels in homogene-ous charge compression ignition (HCCI), including 40 bio-diesels and associated diesel fuels in their blending. The bio-diesel blends varied in oxygen content, iodine number, cetane, boiling

  16. Investigation and Optimization of Biodiesel Chemistry for HCCI Combustion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Investigation and Optimization of Biodiesel Chemistry for HCCI Combustion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Investigation and Optimization of Biodiesel Chemistry for HCCI Combustion Over the past 5 years, ORNL has run 95 diesel range fuels in homogene-ous charge compression ignition (HCCI), including 40 bio-diesels and associated diesel fuels in their blending. The bio-diesel blends varied in oxygen content, iodine number, cetane, boiling

  17. Effect of Jatropha based Biodiesel, on Engine Hardware Reliability...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Performance of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends Development of High Performance Heavy Duty Engine Oils Biodiesel Progress: ASTM Specifications and 2nd ...

  18. Biodiesel Research Update | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: National Renewable Energy Laboratory PDF icon 2004_deer_mccormick.pdf More Documents & Publications Recent Research to Address Technical Barriers to Increased Use of Biodiesel Biodiesel ASTM Update and Future Technical Needs Performance of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends

  19. Biodiesel research progress 1992-1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyson, K.S.

    1998-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fuels Development began evaluating the potential of various alternative fuels, including biodiesel, as replacement fuels for traditional transportation fuels. Biodiesel is derived from a variety of biological materials from waste vegetable grease to soybean oil. This alkyl ester could be used as a replacement, blend, or additive to diesel fuel. This document is a comprehensive summary of relevant biodiesel and biodiesel-related research, development demonstration, and commercialization projects completed and/or started in the US between 1992 and 1997. It was designed for use as a reference tool to the evaluating biodiesel`s potential as a clean-burning alternative motor fuel. It encompasses, federally, academically, and privately funded projects. Research projects are presented under the following topical sections: Production; Fuel characteristics; Engine data; Regulatory and legislative activities; Commercialization activities; Economics and environment; and Outreach and education.

  20. WSF Biodiesel Demonstration Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington State University; University of Idaho; The Glosten Associates, Inc.; Imperium Renewables, Inc.

    2009-04-30

    In 2004, WSF canceled a biodiesel fuel test because of “product quality issues” that caused the fuel purifiers to clog. The cancelation of this test and the poor results negatively impacted the use of biodiesel in marine application in the Pacific Northwest. In 2006, The U.S. Department of Energy awarded the Puget Sound Clean Air Agency a grant to manage a scientific study investigating appropriate fuel specifications for biodiesel, fuel handling procedures and to conduct a fuel test using biodiesel fuels in WSF operations. The Agency put together a project team comprised of experts in fields of biodiesel research and analysis, biodiesel production, marine engineering and WSF personnel. The team reviewed biodiesel technical papers, reviewed the 2004 fuel test results, designed a fuel test plan and provided technical assistance during the test. The research reviewed the available information on the 2004 fuel test and conducted mock laboratory experiments, but was not able to determine why the fuel filters clogged. The team then conducted a literature review and designed a fuel test plan. The team implemented a controlled introduction of biodiesel fuels to the test vessels while monitoring the environmental conditions on the vessels and checking fuel quality throughout the fuel distribution system. The fuel test was conducted on the same three vessels that participated in the canceled 2004 test using the same ferry routes. Each vessel used biodiesel produced from a different feedstock (i.e. soy, canola and yellow grease). The vessels all ran on ultra low sulfur diesel blended with biodiesel. The percentage of biodiesel was incrementally raised form from 5 to 20 percent. Once the vessels reached the 20 percent level, they continued at this blend ratio for the remainder of the test. Fuel samples were taken from the fuel manufacturer, during fueling operations and at several points onboard each vessel. WSF Engineers monitored the performance of the fuel systems and engines. Each test vessel did experience a microbial growth bloom that produced a build up of material in the fuel purifiers similar to material witnessed in the 2004 fuel test. A biocide was added with each fuel shipment and the problem subsided. In January of 2009, the WSF successfully completed an eleven month biodiesel fuel test using approximately 1,395,000 gallons of biodiesel blended fuels. The project demonstrated that biodiesel can be used successfully in marine vessels and that current ASTM specifications are satisfactory for marine vessels. Microbial growth in biodiesel diesel interface should be monitored. An inspection of the engines showed no signs of being negatively impacted by the test.

  1. Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Biodiesel Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleBiodiesel&oldid267146" Feedback...

  2. Snohomish County Biodiesel Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terrill Chang; Deanna Carveth

    2010-02-01

    Snohomish County in western Washington State began converting its vehicle fleet to use a blend of biodiesel and petroleum diesel in 2005. As prices for biodiesel rose due to increased demand for this cleaner-burning fuel, Snohomish County looked to its farmers to “grow” this fuel locally. Suitable seed crops that can be crushed to extract oil for use as biodiesel feedstock include canola, mustard, and camelina. The residue, or mash, has high value as an animal feed. County farmers began with 52 acres of canola and mustard crops in 2006, increasing to 250 acres and 356 tons in 2008. In 2009, this number decreased to about 150 acres and 300 tons due to increased price for mustard seed.

  3. Maryland Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name: Maryland Biodiesel Place: Berlin, Maryland Product: Maryland Biodiesel operates the 3.7m liter biodiesel plant in Berlin, Maryland....

  4. CLV Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CLV Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name: CLV Biodiesel Place: Colider, Mato Grosso, Brazil Product: Biodiesel producer References: CLV Biodiesel1 This article is a stub....

  5. Better Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name: Better Biodiesel Place: Orem, Utah Zip: 84057 Product: Biodiesel producer References: Better Biodiesel1 This article is a stub. You...

  6. Upstate Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name: Upstate Biodiesel Place: New York Product: Biodiesel producer. References: Upstate Biodiesel1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  7. Crescent Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name: Crescent Biodiesel Place: Brazil Product: Brazilian biodiesel producer. References: Crescent Biodiesel1 This article is a stub. You...

  8. AZ Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AZ Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name: AZ Biodiesel Place: Chandler, Arizona Zip: 85225 Product: AZ Biodiesel is a biodiesel producer that announced plans in July 2008 to...

  9. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, February 2016 State Number of ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-22M "Monthly Biodiesel Production ...

  10. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel (B100) production by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-22M "Monthly Biodiesel Production ...

  11. Creating Biodiesel & Mitigating Waste

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Safety practices for handling the materials involved in producing biodiesel fuel cannot be overemphasized, especially if students attempt to synthesize biodiesel outside of class.

  12. Biodiesel Progress: ASTM Specifications and 2nd Generation Biodiesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Progress: ASTM Specifications and 2nd Generation Biodiesel Biodiesel Progress: ASTM Specifications and 2nd Generation Biodiesel Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel ...

  13. ABS Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name: ABS Biodiesel Place: United Kingdom Product: UK-based biodiesel producer developing a plant in Avonmouth, near Bristol. References: ABS...

  14. Soyminas Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Soyminas Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name: Soyminas Biodiesel Place: DIST. INDUSTRIAL, Brazil Zip: 37980-000 Product: Brazilian biodiesel producer located in Minas...

  15. Home Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Home Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name: Home Biodiesel Place: Marysville, California Zip: 95901 Product: Manufacturer of small scale biodiesel equipment. Coordinates:...

  16. Brasil Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name: Brasil Biodiesel Place: Piaui, Brazil Product: Brazilian holding which develops biodiesel projects. Coordinates: -6.83956,...

  17. Taua Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Taua Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name: Taua Biodiesel Place: Brazil Product: Biodiesel producer currently developing a 36m-litre plant in the Brazilian state of Mato...

  18. Biodiesel Triangulo | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Triangulo Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biodiesel Triangulo Place: Iturama, MG, Brazil Product: Brazilian biodiesel producer located in Minas Gerais will develop two biodiesel...

  19. Studies Highlight Biodiesel's Benefits

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studies Highlight Biodiesel's Benefits For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo., July 6, 1998 — Two new studies highlight the benefits of biodiesel in reducing overall air pollution and in helping to reduce the United States' dependence on imported oil. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted both studies: An Overview of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Life Cycles and Biodiesel Research Progress, 1992-1997. Biodiesel is a

  20. Effects of Biodiesel Operation on Light-Duty Tier 2 Engine and Emission Control Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatur, M.; Nanjundaswamy, H.; Tomazic, D.; Thornton, M.

    2008-08-01

    This paper documents the impact of biodiesel blends on engine-out emissions as well as overall system performance in terms of emissions control system calibration and overall system efficiency.

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biodiesel Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel on

  2. Buffalo Biodiesel Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Buffalo Biodiesel Inc Place: New York Product: Buffalo Biodiesel is a biodiesel producer that buys recycled and virgin oil to...

  3. V Fuels Biodiesel Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: V-Fuels Biodiesel Limited Place: United Kingdom Product: UK-based biodiesel producers. References: V-Fuels Biodiesel Limited1...

  4. Performance of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    12 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ft003_mccormick_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Quality, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends Performance of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends Recent Research to Address Technical Barriers to Increased Use of Biodiesel

  5. Kinetic Modeling of Combustion Characteristics of Real Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naik, C V; Westbrook, C K

    2009-04-08

    Biodiesel fuels are of much interest today either for replacing or blending with conventional fuels for automotive applications. Predicting engine effects of using biodiesel fuel requires accurate understanding of the combustion characteristics of the fuel, which can be acquired through analysis using reliable detailed reaction mechanisms. Unlike gasoline or diesel that consists of hundreds of chemical compounds, biodiesel fuels contain only a limited number of compounds. Over 90% of the biodiesel fraction is composed of 5 unique long-chain C{sub 18} and C{sub 16} saturated and unsaturated methyl esters. This makes modeling of real biodiesel fuel possible without the need for a fuel surrogate. To this end, a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed for determining the combustion characteristics of a pure biodiesel (B100) fuel, applicable from low- to high-temperature oxidation regimes. This model has been built based on reaction rate rules established in previous studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Computed results are compared with the few fundamental experimental data that exist for biodiesel fuel and its components. In addition, computed results have been compared with experimental data for other long-chain hydrocarbons that are similar in structure to the biodiesel components.

  6. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Inputs to biodiesel production million pounds Period Canola oil Corn oil Cottonseed ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-22M "Monthly Biodiesel Production ...

  7. Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

    2008-03-20

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel conventionally generated from vegetable oils and animal fats that conforms to ASTM D6751. Depending on the free fatty acid content of the feedstock, biodiesel is produced via transesterification, esterification, or a combination of these processes. Currently the cost of the feedstock accounts for more than 80% of biodiesel production cost. The main goal of this project was to evaluate and develop non-conventional feedstocks and novel processes for producing biodiesel. One of the most novel and promising feedstocks evaluated involves the use of readily available microorganisms as a lipid source. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities (MWWTF) in the USA produce (dry basis) of microbial sludge annually. This sludge is composed of a variety of organisms, which consume organic matter in wastewater. The content of phospholipids in these cells have been estimated at 24% to 25% of dry mass. Since phospholipids can be transesterified they could serve as a ready source of biodiesel. Examination of the various transesterification methods shows that in situ conversion of lipids to FAMEs provides the highest overall yield of biodiesel. If one assumes a 7.0% overall yield of FAMEs from dry sewage sludge on a weight basis, the cost per gallon of extracted lipid would be $3.11. Since the lipid is converted to FAMEs, also known as biodiesel, in the in Situ extraction process, the product can be used as is for renewable fuel. As transesterification efficiency increases the cost per gallon drops quickly, hitting $2.01 at 15.0% overall yield. An overall yield of 10.0% is required to obtain biodiesel at $2.50 per gallon, allowing it to compete with soybean oil in the marketplace. Twelve plant species with potential for oil production were tested at Mississippi State, MS. Of the species tested, canola, rapeseed and birdseed rape appear to have potential in Mississippi as winter annual crops because of yield. Two perennial crops were investigated, Chinese tallow tree and tung tree. High seed yields from these species are possible because, there stature allows for a third dimension in yield (up). Harvest regimes have already been worked out with tung, and the large seed makes shedding of the seed with tree shakers possible. While tallow tree seed yields can be mind boggling (12,000 kg seed/ha at 40% oil), genotypes that shed seed easily are currently not known. Efficient methods were developed to isolate polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters from bio-diesel. The hypothesis to isolate this class of fatty acids, which are used as popular dietary supplements and prescription medicine (OMACOR), was that they bind transition metal ions much stronger than their harmful saturated analogs. AgBF4 has the highest extraction ability among all the metal ions tested. Glycerol is a key product from the production of biodiesel. It is produced during the transesterification process by cleaving the fatty acids from the glycerol backbone (the fatty acids are used as part of the biodiesel, which is a fatty acid methyl ester). Glycerol is a non-toxic compound with many uses; however, if a surplus exists in the future, more uses for the produced glycerol needs to be found. Another phase of the project was to find an add-on process to the biodiesel production process that will convert the glycerol by-product into more valuable substances for end uses other than food or cosmetics, focusing at present on 1,3-propanediol and lactic acid.All three MSU cultures produced products at concentrations below that of the benchmark microorganisms. There was one notable isolate the caught the eye of the investigators and that was culture J6 due to the ability of this microorganism to co-produce both products and one in particularly high concentrations. This culture with more understanding of its metabolic pathways could prove a useful biological agent for the conversion of glycerol. Heterogeneous catalysis was examined as an alternative to overcome the disadvantages of homogeneous transesterification, such as the presence of salts in the glycerine phase and the continuous lost of catalyst. A maximum soy biodiesel yield of 85% was obtained by BaO in 14 minutes, whereas, PbO, MnO2, CaO and MgO gave a maximum yields of 84%, 80%, 78% and 66% respectively at 215°C. The overall reaction order of PbO, MnO2, BaO, CaO and MgO was found to be 1, 1, 3, 1 and 1 respectively. The highest rate constant was observed for BaO, which was 0.0085 g2.mole-2.min-1. The performance of biodiesel in terms of type (e.g., NOx, and CO) and quantity of emissions was tested using soy biodiesel, blends of biodiesel and ethanol, and differently aged diesel engines. It was determined that saturated methyl esters, and relatively high oxygen content in the fuel, caused by addition of ethanol, increased the NOx emissions from new diesel engines compared to petroleum diesel.

  8. Biodiesel Fuel Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Biodiesel is a domestically produced, renewable fuel that can be manufactured from vegetable oils, animal fats, or recycled restaurant greases.

  9. Acute aquatic toxicity and biodegradation potential of biodiesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haws, R.A.; Zhang, X.; Marshall, E.A.; Reese, D.L.; Peterson, C.L.; Moeller, G.

    1995-12-31

    Recent studies on the biodegradation potential and aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels are reviewed. Biodegradation data were obtained using the shaker flask method observing the appearance of CO{sub 2} and by observing the disappearance of test substance with gas chromatography. Additional BOD{sub 5} and COD data were obtained. The results indicate the ready biodegradability of biodiesel fuels as well as the enhanced co-metabolic biodegradation of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel mixtures. The study examined reference diesel, neat soy oil, neat rape oil, and the methyl and ethyl esters of these vegetable oils as well as various fuel blends. Acute toxicity tests on biodiesel fuels and blends were performed using Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout) in a static non-renewal system and in a proportional dilution flow replacement system. The study is intended to develop data on the acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels and blends under US EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards. The test procedure is designed from the guidelines outlined in Methods for Measuring the Acute Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater and Marine Organisms and the Fish Acute Aquatic Toxicity Test guideline used to develop aquatic toxicity data for substances subject to environmental effects test regulations under TSCA. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an LC50, a lethal concentration effecting mortality in 50% of the test population.

  10. Life-Cycle Assessment of the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel in Indian Locomotives (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G.

    2009-03-01

    With India's transportation sector relying heavily on imported petroleum-based fuels, the Planning Commission of India and the Indian government recommended the increased use of blended biodiesel in transportation fleets, identifying Jatropha as a potentially important biomass feedstock. The Indian Oil Corporation and Indian Railways are collaborating to increase the use of biodiesel blends in Indian locomotives with blends of up to B20, aiming to reduce GHG emissions and decrease petroleum consumption. To help evaluate the potential for Jatropha-based biodiesel in achieving sustainability and energy security goals, this study examines the life cycle, net GHG emission, net energy ratio, and petroleum displacement impacts of integrating Jatropha-based biodiesel into locomotive operations in India. In addition, this study identifies the parameters that have the greatest impact on the sustainability of the system.

  11. Analysis of Coconut-Derived Biodiesel and Conventional Diesel Fuel Samples from the Philippines: Task 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alleman, T. L.; McCormick, R. L.

    2006-01-01

    NREL tested Philippines coconut biodiesel samples of neat and blended fuels. Results show that the current fuel quality standards were met with very few exceptions. Additional testing is recommended.

  12. Northern Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Northern Biodiesel Place: Ontario, New York Product: Biodiesel producer. Coordinates: 34.06457, -117.647809 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemap...

  13. Fleet Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name: Fleet Biodiesel Address: 7710 Balboa Ave Place: San Diego, California Zip: 92111 Region: Southern CA Area Sector: Biofuels Product:...

  14. Infinifuel Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Infinifuel Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name: Infinifuel Biodiesel Place: Dayton, Nevada Zip: 89403 Sector: Geothermal energy Product: A Nevada-based firm developing the...

  15. Biodiesel Garware | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Garware Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biodiesel Garware Place: Maharashtra, India Product: Maharashtra-based biodiesel production facility which aims to attract joint venture...

  16. Washington Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Logo: Washington Biodiesel Name: Washington Biodiesel Address: 3401 Fremont Avenue N. Place: Seattle, Washington Zip: 98103 Region: Pacific Northwest Area Sector: Biofuels...

  17. General Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name: General Biodiesel Address: 4034 West Marginal Way Place: Seattle, Washington Zip: 98106 Region: Pacific Northwest Area Sector: Biofuels...

  18. Harmonization of Biodiesel Specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alleman, T. L.

    2008-02-01

    Worldwide biodiesel production has grown dramatically over the last several years. Biodiesel standards vary across countries and regions, and there is a call for harmonization. For harmonization to become a reality, standards have to be adapted to cover all feedstocks. Additionally, all feedstocks cannot meet all specifications, so harmonization will require standards to either tighten or relax. For harmonization to succeed, the biodiesel market must be expanded with the alignment of test methods and specification limits, not contracted.

  19. Fast gas chromatographic separation of biodiesel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pauls, R. E.

    2011-05-01

    A high-speed gas chromatographic method has been developed to determine the FAME distribution of B100 biodiesel. The capillary column used in this work has dimensions of 20 m x 0.100 mm and is coated with a polyethylene glycol film. Analysis times are typically on the order of 4-5 min depending upon the composition of the B100. The application of this method to a variety of vegetable and animal derived B100 is demonstrated. Quantitative results obtained with this method were in close agreement with those obtained by a more conventional approach on a 100 m column. The method, coupled with solid-phase extraction, was also found suitable to determine the B100 content of biodiesel-diesel blends.

  20. Southeast BioDiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BioDiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name: Southeast BioDiesel Place: Charleston, South Carolina Product: Biodiesel producer based in South Carolina References: Southeast...

  1. Wuhan Airui Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Airui Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wuhan Airui Biodiesel Place: Wuhan, Hubei Province, China Zip: 430070 Product: Airui is a biodiesel processing, R&D, technology...

  2. North American Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    North American Biodiesel Place: Menmonee Falls, Wisconsin Product: Biodiesel producer currently developing a biodiesel plant in Butler, Wisconsin and with plans to develop another...

  3. Green River Biodiesel Incorporated | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    River Biodiesel Incorporated Jump to: navigation, search Name: Green River Biodiesel Incorporated Place: Houston, Texas Zip: 77056 Product: Biodiesel project developer and...

  4. Biodiesel Aragon SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aragon SL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biodiesel Aragon SL Place: Altorricon, Spain Product: Spanish-based biodiesel project developer. References: Biodiesel Aragon SL1 This...

  5. Big Biodiesel LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Big Biodiesel LLC Place: Pulaski, Tennessee Zip: 38478 Product: Biodiesel plant developer in Pulaski, Tennessee. References: Big...

  6. Wyoming Biodiesel Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Co Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wyoming Biodiesel Co Place: Wyoming Product: Wyoming-based biodiesel project developer. References: Wyoming Biodiesel Co1 This article is a...

  7. Brownfield Biodiesel LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Brownfield Biodiesel LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Brownfield Biodiesel LLC Place: Ralls, Texas Zip: 79357 Product: Biodiesel producer in Ralls, Texas. Coordinates:...

  8. National Trail Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trail Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name: National Trail Biodiesel Place: Newton, Illinois Zip: 62448 Product: Owner of a planned 30m gallon per year biodiesel plant in...

  9. Pacific Biodiesel Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Pacific Biodiesel Inc Place: Kahului, Hawaii Zip: 96732 Product: Hawaii-based biodiesel plant designer, producer and distributor in...

  10. Heartland biodiesel LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    biodiesel LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Heartland biodiesel LLC Place: Rock Port, Missouri Product: Biodiesel producer which is currently developing a 113m liter plant in...

  11. Midwest Biodiesel Producers LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Producers LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Midwest Biodiesel Producers LLC Place: Alexandria, South Dakota Zip: 57311 Product: South Dakota-based biodiesel producer....

  12. Northwest Biodiesel Network | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Network Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Northwest Biodiesel Network Name: Northwest Biodiesel Network Address: 6532 Phinney Ave N Place: Seattle, Washington Zip: 98103...

  13. EOP Biodiesel AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EOP Biodiesel AG Jump to: navigation, search Name: EOP Biodiesel AG Place: Falkenhagen, Germany Zip: 16928 Product: German producer of biodiesel from rapeseed. References: EOP...

  14. Heartland Biodiesel Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Heartland Biodiesel Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Heartland Biodiesel Inc Place: Herrin, Illinois Product: Biodiesel producer currently developing a 7.5m plant in Marion,...

  15. Biodiesel International Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biodiesel International Corporation Place: Texas Product: Texas-based biodiesel production company and biodiesel production equipment...

  16. San Francisco Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name: San Francisco Biodiesel Place: San Francisco, California Zip: 94103 Product: Biodiesel producer based in California. The company is a...

  17. Silicon Valley Biodiesel Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Silicon Valley Biodiesel Inc. Place: Sunnyvale, California Zip: CA 94086 Product: Manufactures biodiesel for the local diesel fuel...

  18. East Fork Biodiesel LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fork Biodiesel LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: East Fork Biodiesel, LLC Place: Algona, Iowa Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Biodiesel producer and co-developer, with...

  19. Allegro Biodiesel Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Allegro Biodiesel Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Allegro Biodiesel Corporation Place: Los Angeles, California Zip: 90045 Product: Allegro Biodiesel Corporation...

  20. General Biodiesel Incorporated | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Incorporated Jump to: navigation, search Name: General Biodiesel Incorporated Place: Seattle, Washington Zip: 98136 Product: General BioDiesel", Inc. specializes in...

  1. Bay Biodiesel LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Bay Biodiesel LLC Place: Martinez, California Zip: 94553 Product: Biodiesel producers in Martinez, California. References: Bay...

  2. Blue Sun Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sun Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name: Blue Sun Biodiesel Place: Fort Collins, Colorado Zip: 80525 Product: Privately held Blue Sun Biodiesel is a breakthrough agriculture...

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    More Biodiesel Case Studies | All Case Studies Publications 2014 Vehicle Technologies Market Report Biodiesel Handling and Use Guide, Fourth Edition More Biodiesel Publications | ...

  4. Table 2. U.S. Biodiesel production, sales, and stocks

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Biodiesel production, sales, and stocks" "million gallons" "Period","B100 production",,"Sales of B100",,"Sales of B100 included in biodiesel blends",,"Ending stocks of B100",,"B100 stock change" 2014 "January",73,,50,,16,,26,,6 "February",76,,52,,20,,32,,7 "March",99,,67,,31,,36,,4 "April",93,,58,,33,,39,,3 "May",106,,67,,42,,36,,-2

  5. EERE Success Story-Washington: State Ferries Run Cleaner With Biodiesel |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy State Ferries Run Cleaner With Biodiesel EERE Success Story-Washington: State Ferries Run Cleaner With Biodiesel April 18, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Washington State Ferries, owned and operated by the Washington State Department of Transportation, is the largest ferry service in the United States and the third largest in the world. Thanks in part to an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) investment from EERE, the ferries now run on a blended biodiesel fuel

  6. Effects of Biodiesel on NOx Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R.

    2005-06-01

    A presentation about the effects of biodiesel on nitrogen oxide emissions presented at the ARB Biodiesel Workshop June 8, 2005.

  7. Biodiesel R&D at NREL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R.; Alleman, T.; Barnitt, R.; Clark, W.; Hayes, B.; Ireland, J.; Proc, K.; Ratcliff, M.; Thornton, M.; Whitacre, S.; Williams, A.

    2006-02-06

    Discusses NREL's biodiesel research priorities and some current research results, including those concerning biodiesel quality and stability.

  8. Los Alamos National Laboratory considers the use of biodiesel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matlin, M. K.

    2002-01-01

    A new EPA-approved alternative fuel, called biodiesel, may soon be used at Los Alamos National Laboratory in everything from diesel trucks to laboratory equipment. Biodiesel transforms vegetable oils into a renewable, cleaner energy source that can be used in any machinery that uses diesel fuel. For the past couple years, the Laboratory has been exploring the possibility of switching over to soybean-based biodiesel. This change could lead to many health and environmental benefits, as well as help reduce the nation's dependence on foreign oil. Biodiesel is a clean, renewable diesel fuel substitute made from soybean and other vegetable oil crops, as well as from recycled cooking oils. A chemical process breaks down the vegetable oil into a usable form. Vegetable oil has a chain of about 18 carbons and ordinary diesel has about 12 or 13 carbons. The process breaks the carbon chains of the vegetable oil and separates out the glycerin (a fatty substance used in creams and soaps). The co-product of glycerin can be used by pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies, as well as many other markets. Once the chains are shortened and the glycerin is removed from the oil, the remaining liquid is similar to petroleum diesel fuel. It can be burned in pure form or in a blend of any proportion with petroleum diesel. To be considered an alternative fuel source by the EPA, the blend must be at least 20 percent biodiesel (B20). According to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), biodiesel is America's fastest growing alternative fuel.

  9. Emerald Biodiesel Holdings GmbH EBHG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Holdings GmbH EBHG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Emerald Biodiesel Holdings GmbH (EBHG) Place: Germany Product: Biodiesel company Emerald Biodiesel Holdings is the...

  10. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Monthly Biodiesel Production Report With data for February 2016 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 April 2016 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Monthly Biodiesel Production Report This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or

  11. Business management for biodiesel producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerpen, Jon Van

    2004-07-01

    The material in this book is intended to provide the reader with information about the biodiesel and liquid fuels industry, biodiesel start-up issues, legal and regulatory issues, and operational concerns.

  12. Pacific Biodiesel: Renewable and Sustainable

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the Pacific Biodiesel topic and is given at the Spring 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting.

  13. Biodiesel Performance, Costs, and Use

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2004-01-01

    Biodiesel fuel for diesel engines is produced from vegetable oil or animal fat by the chemical process of esterification. This paper presents a brief history of diesel engine technology and an overview of biodiesel, including performance characteristics, economics, and potential demand. The performance and economics of biodiesel are compared with those of petroleum diesel.

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Related Links

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biodiesel Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Related Links to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Related Links on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Related Links on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Related Links on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Related Links on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Related Links

  15. SEP Success Story: Washington State Becomes Largest Public Consumer of Biodiesel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Thanks to a $165,000 Recovery Act loan through the State Energy Program, Washington State Ferries run on a blended biodiesel fuel that will prevent over 65 million pounds of carbon dioxide from being emitted into the environment each year. Learn more.

  16. Earthship BioDiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Earthship BioDiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name: Earthship BioDiesel Place: Taos, New Mexico Zip: 87571 Product: Supplier and retailer of biodiesel made from Waste Vegetable...

  17. Mid States Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    States Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mid-States Biodiesel Place: Hampton, Iowa Product: Iowa-based biodiesel producer. Coordinates: 37.027795, -76.345119 Show Map...

  18. Tri State Biodiesel LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tri-State Biodiesel LLC Place: New York, New York Zip: 10009 Product: A New York-based producer and retailer of biodiesel....

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on AddThis.com... More in

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: ASTM Biodiesel Specifications

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    ASTM Biodiesel Specifications to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: ASTM Biodiesel Specifications on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: ASTM Biodiesel Specifications on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: ASTM Biodiesel Specifications on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: ASTM Biodiesel Specifications on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: ASTM Biodiesel Specifications on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data

  2. Integrated Biodiesel Industries Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Industries Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Integrated Biodiesel Industries Ltd Place: Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Zip: 01418-200 Product: Sao Paulo-based biodiesel producer....

  3. Atlantic Biodiesel Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Atlantic Biodiesel, Inc. Place: Salem, New Hampshire Zip: 30790 Product: Privately-held corporation producing biodiesal in its...

  4. New York Biodiesel LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: New York Biodiesel LLC Place: Hamilton, Madison County, New York Product: Biodiesel producer using soybean oil as its feedstock References:...

  5. Biodiesel Technologies India Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    India Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biodiesel Technologies India Ltd. Place: Kolkata, West Bengal, India Zip: 700045 Product: Kolkata based manufacturer of biodiesel...

  6. Northeast Biodiesel Company LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Company LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Northeast Biodiesel Company, LLC Place: Massachusetts Zip: 1301 Product: Massachusetts-based biodiesel producer and project developer....

  7. Midwest Biodiesel Products | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Products Jump to: navigation, search Name: Midwest Biodiesel Products Place: Caseyville, Illinois Zip: 62232 Product: Midwest Biodiesel Products, Inc. is an Illinois based...

  8. Biodiesel Coalition of Texas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coalition of Texas Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Biodiesel Coalition of Texas Name: Biodiesel Coalition of Texas Address: 100 Congress Avenue Place: Austin, Texas Zip: 78701...

  9. Virginia Biodiesel Refinery | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Refinery Jump to: navigation, search Name: Virginia Biodiesel Refinery Place: West Point, Virginia Zip: 23180 Product: Biodiesel producer based in Virginia References: Virginia...

  10. Garden State Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name: Garden State Biodiesel Place: Harrisonville, New Jersey Product: Biodiosel producer based in Harrisonville, New Jersey. Coordinates:...

  11. Springboard Biodiesel LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Springboard Biodiesel LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Springboard Biodiesel LLC Place: Chico, California Zip: 95928 Product: Provider of products and technologies for the...

  12. Biodiesel Systems LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biodiesel Systems, LLC Place: Madison, Wisconsin Zip: WI 53704 Product: The core business of Biodiesel Systems is plan, design,...

  13. Tellurian Biodiesel Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tellurian Biodiesel Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tellurian Biodiesel, Inc. Place: San Francisco, California Zip: 94110 Product: String representation "Tellurian Biodi ......

  14. Biodiesel Industries Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Barbara, California Zip: 93110 Product: Biodiesel producer and facility developer. References: Biodiesel Industries Inc1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding...

  15. Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet), Vehicle Technologies Program ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet), Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet), Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) Fact sheet providing questions and answers on ...

  16. Biodiesel Investment Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Biodiesel Investment Group Place: Dallas, Texas Zip: 75205 Sector: Biofuels Product: Biodiesel Investment Group is a subsidiary established by Earth Biofuels to...

  17. Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doon, Ben; Quintana, Dan

    2011-08-25

    The Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project has demonstrated the compatibility of biodiesel technology and economics on a local scale. The project has been committed to making homegrown biodiesel a viable form of community economic development. The project has benefited by reducing risks by building the facility gradually and avoiding large initial outlays of money for facilities and technologies. A primary advantage of this type of community-scale biodiesel production is that it allows for a relatively independent, local solution to fuel production. Successfully using locally sourced feedstocks and putting the fuel into local use emphasizes the feasibility of different business models under the biodiesel tent and that there is more than just a one size fits all template for successful biodiesel production.

  18. DBD Deutsche Biodiesel GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DBD Deutsche Biodiesel GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: DBD Deutsche Biodiesel GmbH Place: Berlin, Germany Product: Developer of the DBD Regensberg biodiesel project....

  19. Biodiesel of Las Vegas Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel of Las Vegas Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biodiesel of Las Vegas Inc Place: San Luis Obispo, California Zip: 93401 Product: Biodiesel producer. Headoffice is in...

  20. Big Daddy s Biodiesel Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Daddy s Biodiesel Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Big Daddy's Biodiesel Inc Place: Hereford, Texas Zip: 79045 Product: Biodiesel producer in Hereford, Texas. References: Big...

  1. SeQuential Pacific Biodiesel LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pacific Biodiesel LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: SeQuential-Pacific Biodiesel LLC Place: Oregon Sector: Biofuels Product: JV between SeQuential Biofuels, Pacific Biodiesel,...

  2. NREL Survey Shows Dramatic Improvement in B100 Biodiesel Quality - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL Survey Shows Dramatic Improvement in B100 Biodiesel Quality April 15, 2013 The latest national survey of 100% biodiesel (B100) "blend stock" samples by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) found that 95% of the samples from 2011-12 met ASTM International fuel quality specifications. The ASTM standards serve as guidelines for industry and are designed to ensure quality at the pump for consumers - along with reliable operation of

  3. E85 and Biodiesel Deployment (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrow, G.

    2007-09-18

    Presentation outlines industry trends and statistics revolving around the use and production of ethanol and biodiesel.

  4. Development and Validation of a Reduced Reaction Mechanism for Biodiesel-Fueled Engine Simulations- SAE 2008-01-1378

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brakora, Jessica L; Ra, Youngchul; Reitz, Rolf; McFarlane, Joanna; Daw, C Stuart

    2008-01-01

    In the present study a skeletal chemical reaction mechanism for biodiesel surrogate fuel was developed and validated for multi-dimensional engine combustion simulations. The reduced mechanism was generated from an existing detailed methyl butanoate oxidation mechanism containing 264 species and 1219 reactions. The reduction process included flux analysis, ignition sensitivity analysis, and optimization of reaction rate constants under constant volume conditions. The current reduced mechanism consists of 41 species and 150 reactions and gives predictions in excellent agreement with those of the comprehensive mechanism. In order to validate the mechanism under biodiesel-fueled engine conditions, it was combined with another skeletal mechanism for n-heptane oxidation. This combined reaction mechanism, ERC-Bio, contains 53 species and 156 reactions, which can be used for diesel/biodiesel blend engine simulations. Biodiesel-fueled engine operation was successfully simulated using the ERC-Bio mechanism.

  5. BioDiesel One Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BioDiesel One Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: BioDiesel One, Ltd. Place: Southington, Connecticut Zip: 6489 Product: BioDiesel One plans to develop a biodiesel plant in...

  6. Quality, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biodiesel Blends

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  7. Microsoft Word - Biodiesel.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Biodiesel and the Renewable Fuels Standard The Energy Policy Act of 2005 amended the Clean Air Act to ... On December 19, 2007, President Bush signed into law the Energy Independence ...

  8. Investigation and Optimization of Biodiesel Chemistry for HCCI Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunting, Bruce G.; Bunce, Michael; Joyce, Blake; Crawford, Robert W.

    2014-06-23

    Over the past 5 years, ORNL has run 95 diesel range fuels in homogene-ous charge compression ignition (HCCI), including 40 bio-diesels and associated diesel fuels in their blending. The bio-diesel blends varied in oxygen content, iodine number, cetane, boiling point distribution, chemical composition, and some contained nitrogen. All fuels were run in an HCCI engine at 1800 rpm, in the power range of 2.5 to 4.5 bar IMEP, using intake air heating for combustion phasing control, and at a compression ratio of 10.6. The engine response to fuel variables has been analyzed statistically. Generally, the engine responded well to fuels with lower nitrogen and oxygen, lower cetane, and lower aromatics. Because of the wide range of fuels combined in the model, it provides only a broad overview of the engine response. It is recommended that data be truncated and re-modeled to obtain finer resolution of engine response to particular fuel variables.

  9. Biodiesel Energy Trading Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biodiesel Energy Trading Limited Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: W1J 8DY Product: London-based company focused on trading of biodiesel....

  10. Wyobraska Biodiesel LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wyobraska Biodiesel LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wyobraska Biodiesel LLC Place: Scottsbluff, Nebraska Zip: 69361 Product: Wyobraska operates a 37.9mLpa (10m gallon)...

  11. GS Global Biodiesel JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Biodiesel JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: GS Global Biodiesel JV Place: Iowa Product: JV between GS AgriFuels and Global Ethanol set-up to develop a plant that will...

  12. Biodiesel Esla Campos | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Esla Campos Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biodiesel Esla Campos Place: Spain Product: Company formed to build and own a biodiesel plant at Cabreros del R-o in Spain....

  13. Biodiesel's Enabling Characteristics in Attaining Low Temperature...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of biodiesel on improving low temperature diesel combustion PDF icon deer11jacobs.pdf ... by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine Experiments and Modeling of Two-Stage ...

  14. Biodiesel is Working Hard in Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    This 4-page Clean Cities fact sheet describes the use of biodiesel fuel in 6 school districts throughout Kentucky. It contains usage information for each school district, as well as contact information for local Clean Cities Coordinators and Biodiesel suppliers.

  15. Red River Biodiesel Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Red River Biodiesel, Ltd. Place: Houston, Texas Zip: 77006 Product: Red River operates a biodiesel plant in Houstion, Texas with a capacity of...

  16. Characterization of Biodiesel Oxidation and Oxidation Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-08-01

    Features a literature review of 130 technical references pertaining to fatty oil and fatty ester stability chemistry in biodiesel fuels.

  17. Biodiesel Analytical Methods: August 2002--January 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Gerpen, J.; Shanks, B.; Pruszko, R.; Clements, D.; Knothe, G.

    2004-07-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines that is receiving great attention worldwide. The material contained in this book is intended to provide the reader with information about biodiesel engines and fuels, analytical methods used to measure fuel properties, and specifications for biodiesel quality control.

  18. The Biofuel Project: Creating Bio-diesel

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    This activity introduces students to alternative fuels and gives them an opportunity to produce their own biodiesel fuel. The text of the exercise gives students a brief background in the environmental benefits of using biodiesel as a diesel substitute. The lab portion of this exercise demonstrates the basic chemistry involved in making biodiesel from vegetable oils and waste oils.

  19. Biodegradation of biodiesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, X.; Haws, R.; Wright, B.; Reese, D.; Moeller, G.; Peterson, C.

    1995-12-31

    Biodiesel fuel test substances Rape Ethyl Ester (REE), Rape Methyl Ester (RME), Neat Rape Oil (NR), Say Methyl Ester (SME), Soy Ethyl Ester (SEE), Neat Soy Oil (NS), and proportionate combinations of RME/diesel and REE/diesel were studied to test the biodegradability of the test substances in an aerobic aquatic environment using the EPA 560/6-82-003 Shake Flask Test Method. A concurrent analysis of Phillips D-2 Reference Diesel was also performed for comparison with a conventional fuel. The highest rates of percent CO{sub 2} evolution were seen in the esterified fuels, although no significant difference was noted between them. Ranges of percent CO{sub 2} evolution for esterified fuels were from 77% to 91%. The neat rape and neat soy oils exhibited 70% to 78% CO{sub 2} evolution. These rates were all significantly higher than those of the Phillips D-2 reference fuel which evolved from 7% to 26% of the organic carbon to CO{sub 2}. The test substances were examined for BOD{sub 5} and COD values as a relative measure of biodegradability. Water Accommodated Fraction (WAF) was experimentally derived and BOD{sub 5} and COD analyses were carried out with a diluted concentration at or below the WAF. The results of analysis at WAF were then converted to pure substance values. The pure substance BOD{sub 5} and COD values for test substances were then compared to a control substance, Phillips D-2 Reference fuel. No significant difference was noted for COD values between test substances and the control fuel. (p > 0.20). The D-2 control substance was significantly lower than all test substances for BCD, values at p << 0.01. RME was also significantly lower than REE (p < 0.05) and MS (p < 0.01) for BOD{sub 5} value.

  20. Federal and State Ethanol and Biodiesel Requirements (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    The Energy Policy Act 2005 requires that the use of renewable motor fuels be increased from the 2004 level of just over 4 billion gallons to a minimum of 7.5 billion gallons in 2012, after which the requirement grows at a rate equal to the growth of the gasoline pool. The law does not require that every gallon of gasoline or diesel fuel be blended with renewable fuels. Refiners are free to use renewable fuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, in geographic regions and fuel formulations that make the most sense, as long as they meet the overall standard. Conventional gasoline and diesel can be blended with renewables without any change to the petroleum components, although fuels used in areas with air quality problems are likely to require adjustment to the base gasoline or diesel fuel if they are to be blended with renewables.

  1. GHP Biodiesel GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GHP Biodiesel GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: GHP Biodiesel GmbH Place: Germany Zip: HRA 13253 Product: A provider of a solution package for the establishment of biodiesel...

  2. Biodiesel Sued GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sued GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biodiesel Sued GmbH Place: Stuttgart, Baden-Wrttemberg, Germany Zip: 70567 Product: Biodiesel Sued is biodiesel producer and...

  3. Marina Biodiesel GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Marina Biodiesel GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Marina Biodiesel GmbH & Co.KG Place: Brunsbttel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany Zip: 25541 Product: Marina Biodiesel...

  4. US BioDiesel Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BioDiesel Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: US BioDiesel Group Place: San Francisco, California Zip: 94111 Product: San Francisco-based developer of biodiesel production...

  5. JCN Neckermann Biodiesel GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    JCN Neckermann Biodiesel GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: JCN Neckermann Biodiesel GmbH Place: Halle, Germany Zip: 6118 Product: Biodiesel producer with interests in four...

  6. Galveston Bay Biodiesel LP GBB | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Galveston Bay Biodiesel LP GBB Jump to: navigation, search Name: Galveston Bay Biodiesel LP (GBB) Place: Houston, Texas Product: Developer of a 75.8m litre per year biodiesel...

  7. Biodiesel Kyritz GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kyritz GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biodiesel Kyritz GmbH Place: Nordhorn, Lower Saxony, Germany Zip: 48527 Product: Biodiesel Kyritz is a biodiesel producer and...

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biodiesel Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel on Delicious Rank Alternative

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuels Education in Alabama

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biodiesel Fuels Education in Alabama to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuels Education in Alabama on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuels Education in Alabama on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuels Education in Alabama on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuels Education in Alabama on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuels Education in Alabama on Digg Find

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Distribution

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biodiesel Production and Distribution to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Distribution on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Distribution on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Distribution on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Distribution on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Distribution on Digg

  11. West Central Biodiesel Investors LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Investors LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: West Central Biodiesel Investors, LLC Place: Ralston, Iowa Zip: 51459 Product: Iowa-based body raising capital to support...

  12. The California Biodiesel Alliance CBA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Alliance CBA Jump to: navigation, search Name: The California Biodiesel Alliance (CBA) Place: California Product: California-based non-profit corporation promoting...

  13. Planet Resource Recovery Inc formerly American Biodiesel Fuels...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Planet Resource Recovery Inc formerly American Biodiesel Fuels Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: Planet Resource Recovery, Inc. (formerly American Biodiesel Fuels Corp.)...

  14. Centre for Jatropha Promotion Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jatropha Promotion Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name: Centre for Jatropha Promotion & Biodiesel Place: Churu, Rajasthan, India Zip: 331001 Product: Indian-based non-profit...

  15. Biopar Producao de Biodiesel Parecis Ltda | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biopar Producao de Biodiesel Parecis Ltda Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biopar Producao de Biodiesel Parecis Ltda Place: Nova Marilandia, Mato Grosso, Brazil Zip: 78415-000...

  16. EIA-22M, Monthly Biodiesel Production Survey Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    22M, Monthly Biodiesel Production Survey Page 1 Instructions for the EIA-22M Monthly Biodiesel, Biojet, Biokerosene, and Renewable Diesel Report General Information Questions If...

  17. American Biodiesel and Community Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel and Community Fuels Jump to: navigation, search Name: American Biodiesel and Community Fuels Address: 336 Encinitas Blvd Place: Encinitas, California Zip: 92024 Region:...

  18. A Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates with Low Temperature...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates with Low Temperature Chemistry Title A Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates with Low Temperature Chemistry Publication Type...

  19. Impacts of Rail Pressure and Biodiesel Composition on Soot Nanostructu...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rail Pressure and Biodiesel Composition on Soot Nanostructure Impacts of Rail Pressure and Biodiesel Composition on Soot Nanostructure Fractal dimensions of particle aggregates and ...

  20. Emission Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel Emission Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel This study presents full quantification of ...

  1. Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity, Oxidation and Corrosion Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity, Oxidation and Corrosion ...

  2. Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced ...

  3. Development and Validation of a Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates for Compression Ignition Engine Applications Development and Validation of a Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates for ...

  4. Comprehensive Assessment of the Emissions from the Use of Biodiesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Comprehensive Assessment of the Emissions from the Use of Biodiesel in California Comprehensive Assessment of the Emissions from the Use of Biodiesel in California Overview of a ...

  5. Seattle Biodiesel aka Seattle BioFuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Seattle Biodiesel aka Seattle BioFuels Jump to: navigation, search Name: Seattle Biodiesel (aka Seattle BioFuels) Place: Seattle, Washington Sector: Renewable Energy Product:...

  6. Life Cycle Assessment Comparing the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel in the Indian Road and Rail Sectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G.

    2010-05-01

    This life cycle assessment of Jatropha biodiesel production and use evaluates the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emission (not considering land-use change), net energy value (NEV), and net petroleum consumption impacts of substituting Jatropha biodiesel for conventional petroleum diesel in India. Several blends of biodiesel with petroleum diesel are evaluated for the rail freight, rail passenger, road freight, and road-passenger transport sectors that currently rely heavily on petroleum diesel. For the base case, Jatropha cultivation, processing, and use conditions that were analyzed, the use of B20 results in a net reduction in GHG emissions and petroleum consumption of 14% and 17%, respectively, and a NEV increase of 58% compared with the use of 100% petroleum diesel. While the road-passenger transport sector provides the greatest sustainability benefits per 1000 gross tonne kilometers, the road freight sector eventually provides the greatest absolute benefits owing to substantially higher projected utilization by year 2020. Nevertheless, introduction of biodiesel to the rail sector might present the fewest logistic and capital expenditure challenges in the near term. Sensitivity analyses confirmed that the sustainability benefits are maintained under multiple plausible cultivation, processing, and distribution scenarios. However, the sustainability of any individual Jatropha plantation will depend on site-specific conditions.

  7. A Study of the Use of Jatropha Oil Blends in Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, C.R.

    2010-10-01

    Executive Summary: This project investigated the combustion performance of blends of unrefined Jatropha oil and its blends in laboratory boilers. Although a very limited amount of testing blends in distillate oil, ASTM No. 2 oil or heating oil was conducted, the primary interest was in testing the performance of blends with residual ASTM No. 6 oil. The basic idea is to provide a renewable fuel option to residual oil used in space heating and in industrial applications. The intent also was to explore the use of non-edible plant oil and one that might be potentially cheaper than biodiesel. The characteristics of No. 6 oil, such as high viscosity at ambient temperature, which requires it to be kept heated, make the blending with such oils feasible. Jatropha oil is one such oil and there is currently considerable interest building up in its use as a source for making biodiesel and jet fuel. A 10% blend of Jatropha oil with heating oil was burned using a standard burner in a residential boiler. Combustion performance was shown to be comparable with that of burning heating oil by itself with some noticeable differences. Typical heating oil has about 2000 ppm of sulfur, while the Jatropha oil has about 50 ppm leading to lower levels of sulphur dioxide emissions. Stack measurements also showed that the NOx emission was lower with the blend. We have previously reported similar reductions in NOx with blends of biodiesel in heating oil as well as slight reductions in PM2.5, particulates below 2.5 microns in size. Long term tests were not part of this project and hence deleterious effects on pumps, seals etc., if any, were not measured. The majority of the work involved testing blends of Jatropha oil with residual oil in a 1.5 million Btu/hr boiler with a burner modified to burn residual oil. Blends of 20 and 60% Jatropha oil and 100% Jatropha oil were burned in the combustion performance tests. The residual oil used had a sulfur content of over 2000 ppm and hence dramatic reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions are measured with the blends. Again, consistent with our past experience with biodiesel blends, significant reductions in nitrogen oxide emissions nearing 50% with 100% Jatropha oil, were also measured. This is in contrast with the use of biodiesel in diesel engines, where the NOx has a tendency to increase. In addition to the gaseous emission measurements, particulate emissions were measured using an EPA CTM-39 system to obtain both particulates, of sizes below 2.5 microns, so-called PM2.5, and of sizes larger than 2.5 microns. The results show that the particulate emissions are lower with the blending of Jatropha oil. Overall, one can conclude that the blending of Jatropha oil with residual oil is a feasible approach to using non-edible plant oil to provide a renewable content to residual oil, with significant benefits in the reduction of pollutant emissions such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulates.

  8. Program Automation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Residential Network Data and Evaluation Peer Exchange Call Series: Program Automation, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, November 21, 2013. This data and evaluation peer exchange call discussed program automation.

  9. Blue Sun Biodiesel LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel LLC Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Blue Sun Energy, Inc. Name: Blue Sun Energy, Inc. Address: 14143 Denver West Parkway Place: Golden, Colorado Zip: 80401 Region:...

  10. Biodiesel Solutions Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solutions Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biodiesel Solutions Inc Place: Sparks, Nevada Zip: 89431 Product: Designs and manufactures processing equipment and accessories to...

  11. Biodiesel - SSC Process - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biodiesel - SSC Process Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Fact Sheet (1,290 KB) Technology Marketing Summary INL's...

  12. Biodiesel Technologies Inc BT | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BT Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biodiesel Technologies Inc (BT) Place: Syracuse, New York Zip: 13066 Product: A technology oriented company which has developed a continuous...

  13. Student Entrepreneurs Driving Loyola Biodiesel Program | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... On any given day, she's immersed in biodiesel production, methanol recovery, community outreach or her own pet project, creating a bar soap to complement the liquid soaps the ...

  14. Biodiesel - Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and biodiesels at current and future engine conditions. ... and speciation in broad temperature and pressure ranges. ... low-temperature-combustion diesel-type engines, and in jet ...

  15. Regulated Emissions from Biodiesel Tested in Heavy-Duty Engines Meeting 2004 Emission Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Black, S.; Ireland, J.; McDaniel, T.; Williams, A.; Frailey, M.; Sharp, C. A.

    2005-11-01

    Biodiesel produced from soybean oil, canola oil, yellow grease, and beef tallow was tested in two heavy-duty engines. The biodiesels were tested neat and as 20% by volume blends with a 15 ppm sulfur petroleum-derived diesel fuel. The test engines were the following: 2002 Cummins ISB and 2003 DDC Series 60. Both engines met the 2004 U.S. emission standard of 2.5 g/bhp-h NO{sub x}+HC (3.35 g/kW-h) and utilized exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All emission tests employed the heavy-duty transient procedure as specified in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. Reduction in PM emissions and increase in NO{sub x} emissions were observed for all biodiesels in all engines, confirming observations made in older engines. On average PM was reduced by 25% and NO{sub x} increased by 3% for the two engines tested for a variety of B20 blends. These changes are slightly larger in magnitude, but in the same range as observed in older engines. The cetane improver 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate was shown to have no measurable effect on NO{sub x} emissions from B20 in these engines, in contrast to observations reported for older engines. The effect of intake air humidity on NO{sub x} emissions from the Cummins ISB was quantified. The CFR NO{sub x}/humidity correction factor was shown to be valid for an engine equipped with EGR, operating at 1700 m above sea level, and operating on conventional or biodiesel.

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Offers an Easy Alternative for

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fleets Biodiesel Offers an Easy Alternative for Fleets to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Offers an Easy Alternative for Fleets on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Offers an Easy Alternative for Fleets on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Offers an Easy Alternative for Fleets on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Offers an Easy Alternative for Fleets on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alabama City Leads With Biodiesel and

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Alabama City Leads With Biodiesel and Ethanol to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alabama City Leads With Biodiesel and Ethanol on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alabama City Leads With Biodiesel and Ethanol on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alabama City Leads With Biodiesel and Ethanol on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alabama City Leads With Biodiesel and Ethanol on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Station Locations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fueling Station Locations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Station Locations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Station Locations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Station Locations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Station Locations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Station Locations on Digg Find More places to

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Biodiesel

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biodiesel Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Biodiesel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Biodiesel on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Biodiesel on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Biodiesel on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Seattle Bakery Delivers With Biodiesel

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Trucks Seattle Bakery Delivers With Biodiesel Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Seattle Bakery Delivers With Biodiesel Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Seattle Bakery Delivers With Biodiesel Trucks on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Seattle Bakery Delivers With Biodiesel Trucks on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Seattle Bakery Delivers With Biodiesel Trucks on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data

  1. Enterprise converting buses to biodiesel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rental car customers may be able to breathe a little easier during their next trip to the airport. Alamo Rent A Car, Enterprise Rent-A-Car, and National Car Rental, all brands operated by the subsidiaries of Enterprise Holdings, are converting their airport shuttle buses to run on biodiesel fuel. The move is a good one for the environment, and will ultimately reduce the company’s carbon emissions. “We are saving 420,000 gallons of petroleum diesel,”  says Lee Broughton, director of corporate identity and sustainability for Enterprise Holdings.    

  2. Biodiesel 2014: FAME and Misfortune?

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel 2014: FAME and Misfortune? William Woebkenberg - US Fuels Technical and Regulatory Affairs Mercedes-Benz Research & Development North America July10, 2014 Page 2 Daimler and Diesel: A Tradition over 75 Years in the Making Diesel passenger cars are a part of the Daimler heritage dating back to 1936, with the introduction of the 260D. There have been Mercedes-Benz diesel passenger cars in every decade since. Diesel is not just a powertrain option, it is tradition. Page 3 Diesel fuels

  3. Biodiesel and Other Renewable Diesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-11-01

    Present federal tax incentives apply to certain types of biomass-derived diesel fuels, which in energy policy and tax laws are described either as renewable diesel or biodiesel. To understand the distinctions between these diesel types it is necessary to understand the technologies used to produce them and the properties of the resulting products. This fact sheet contains definitions of renewable and biodiesel and discusses the processes used to convert biomass to diesel fuel and the properties of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels.

  4. Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chia-fon F. Lee; Alan C. Hansen

    2010-09-30

    In accordance with meeting DOE technical targets this research was aimed at developing and optimizing new fuel injection technologies and strategies for the combustion of clean burning renewable fuels in diesel engines. In addition a simultaneous minimum 20% improvement in fuel economy was targeted with the aid of this novel advanced combustion system. Biodiesel and other renewable fuels have unique properties that can be leveraged to reduce emissions and increase engine efficiency. This research is an investigation into the combustion characteristics of biodiesel and its impacts on the performance of a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engine, which is a novel engine configuration that incorporates technologies and strategies for simultaneously reducing NOx and particulate emissions while increasing engine efficiency. Generating fundamental knowledge about the properties of biodiesel and blends with petroleum-derived diesel and their impact on in-cylinder fuel atomization and combustion processes was an important initial step to being able to optimize fuel injection strategies as well as introduce new technologies. With the benefit of this knowledge experiments were performed on both optical and metal LTC engines in which combustion and emissions could be observed and measured under realistic conditions. With the aid these experiments and detailed combustion models strategies were identified and applied in order to improve fuel economy and simultaneously reduce emissions.

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Steel tanks are listed under UL 58 for flammable fuels and do not test with specific fuels. Fiberglass tanks are listed under UL 1316, which does not offer a biodiesel test fluid. ...

  6. Biodiesel Technologies Inc BTI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BTI Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biodiesel Technologies Inc (BTI) Place: Lonodn, United Kingdom Zip: W4 5YA Product: Owns the license to a process enabling the continuous...

  7. Biodiesel Filling Stations UK | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Filling Stations UK Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biodiesel Filling Stations UK Place: United Kingdom Product: A website providing a list of places in the UK where people can...

  8. Impact of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the particulate morphology and soot nanostructures from a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Peng; Vander Wal, Randy; Boehman, Andre L.; Toops, Todd J.; Daw, C. Stuart; Sun, Chenxi; Lapuerta, Magin; Agudelo, John

    2014-12-26

    The effect of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the morphology of exhaust particulate agglomerates and the nanostructure of primary particles (soot) was investigated with a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. The engine was operated at steady state on a dynamometer running at moderate speed with both low (30%) and medium–high (60%) fixed loads, and exhaust particulate was sampled for analysis. Ultra-low sulfur diesel and its 20% v/v blends with soybean methyl ester biodiesel were used. Fuel injection occurred in a single event around top dead center at three different injection pressures. Exhaust particulate samples were characterized with TEM imaging, scanning mobility particle sizing, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and XRD analysis. Particulate morphology and oxidative reactivity were found to vary significantly with rail pressure and with biodiesel blend level. Higher biodiesel content led to increases in the primary particle size and oxidative reactivity but did not affect nanoscale disorder in the as-received samples. For particulates generated with higher injection pressures, the initial oxidative reactivity increased, but there was no detectable correlation with primary particle size or nanoscale disorder.

  9. Impact of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the particulate morphology and soot nanostructures from a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ye, Peng; Vander Wal, Randy; Boehman, Andre L.; Toops, Todd J.; Daw, C. Stuart; Sun, Chenxi; Lapuerta, Magin; Agudelo, John

    2014-12-26

    The effect of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the morphology of exhaust particulate agglomerates and the nanostructure of primary particles (soot) was investigated with a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. The engine was operated at steady state on a dynamometer running at moderate speed with both low (30%) and medium–high (60%) fixed loads, and exhaust particulate was sampled for analysis. Ultra-low sulfur diesel and its 20% v/v blends with soybean methyl ester biodiesel were used. Fuel injection occurred in a single event around top dead center at three different injection pressures. Exhaust particulate samples were characterized with TEMmore » imaging, scanning mobility particle sizing, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and XRD analysis. Particulate morphology and oxidative reactivity were found to vary significantly with rail pressure and with biodiesel blend level. Higher biodiesel content led to increases in the primary particle size and oxidative reactivity but did not affect nanoscale disorder in the as-received samples. For particulates generated with higher injection pressures, the initial oxidative reactivity increased, but there was no detectable correlation with primary particle size or nanoscale disorder.« less

  10. Impact of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the particulate morphology and soot nanostructures from a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Peng; Vander Wal, Randy; Boehman, Andre L.; Toops, Todd J.; Daw, C. Stuart; Sun, Chenxi; Lapuerta, Magin; Agudelo, John

    2014-12-26

    The effect of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the morphology of exhaust particulate agglomerates and the nanostructure of primary particles (soot) was investigated with a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. The engine was operated at steady state on a dynamometer running at moderate speed with both low (30%) and mediumhigh (60%) fixed loads, and exhaust particulate was sampled for analysis. Ultra-low sulfur diesel and its 20% v/v blends with soybean methyl ester biodiesel were used. Fuel injection occurred in a single event around top dead center at three different injection pressures. Exhaust particulate samples were characterized with TEM imaging, scanning mobility particle sizing, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and XRD analysis. Particulate morphology and oxidative reactivity were found to vary significantly with rail pressure and with biodiesel blend level. Higher biodiesel content led to increases in the primary particle size and oxidative reactivity but did not affect nanoscale disorder in the as-received samples. For particulates generated with higher injection pressures, the initial oxidative reactivity increased, but there was no detectable correlation with primary particle size or nanoscale disorder.

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Blends to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on AddThis.com... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Blends E15

  12. Physical properties of bio-diesel & Implications for use of bio-diesel in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakravarthy, Veerathu K; McFarlane, Joanna; Daw, C Stuart; Ra, Youngchul; Griffin, Jelani K

    2008-01-01

    In this study we identify components of a typical biodiesel fuel and estimate both their individual and mixed thermo-physical and transport properties. We then use the estimated mixture properties in computational simulations to gauge the extent to which combustion is modified when biodiesel is substituted for conventional diesel fuel. Our simulation studies included both regular diesel combustion (DI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). Preliminary results indicate that biodiesel ignition is significantly delayed due to slower liquid evaporation, with the effects being more pronounced for DI than PCCI. The lower vapor pressure and higher liquid heat capacity of biodiesel are two key contributors to this slower rate of evaporation. Other physical properties are more similar between the two fuels, and their impacts are not clearly evident in the present study. Future studies of diesel combustion sensitivity to both physical and chemical properties of biodiesel are suggested.

  13. Campa Biodiesel GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Campa-Biodiesel GmbH & Co. KG Place: Ochsenfurt, Bavaria, Germany Zip: 97199 Product: Campa Biodiesel is a producer and marketer of...

  14. BullDog BioDiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BullDog BioDiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name: BullDog BioDiesel Place: Ellenwood, Georgia Zip: 30294 Product: BullDog operates a 68.2mLpa (12m gallon) capacity,...

  15. Impact of Biodiesel Metals on the Performance and Durability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impact of Biodiesel Metals on the Performance and Durability of DOC and DPF Technologies ... and the Role of the DOC Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic ...

  16. Biodiesel's Enabling Characteristics in Attaining Low Temperature Diesel Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses reasons and physical significance of cool-flame behavior of biodiesel on improving low temperature diesel combustion

  17. Biodiesel Revs Up Its Applications | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel Revs Up Its Applications Biodiesel Revs Up Its Applications March 3, 2011 - 3:41pm Addthis A presentation at the 2011 National Biodiesel Board's Conference and Expo A presentation at the 2011 National Biodiesel Board's Conference and Expo Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program Transforming America's transportation system to reduce our reliance on imported oil will strengthen our economy, our security and our environment. A number of solutions exist to help

  18. Biodiesel Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-07-01

    This document lists codes and standards typically used for U.S. biodiesel vehicle and infrastructure projects.

  19. Biodiesel and the Advanced Biofuel Market | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel and the Advanced Biofuel Market Biodiesel and the Advanced Biofuel Market The Success of Advanced Biofuels Anne Steckel, Vice President of Federal Affairs, National Biodiesel Board PDF icon b13_steckel_biodiesel.pdf More Documents & Publications Biomass 2013 Agenda Advanced and Cellulosic Biofuels and Biorefineries: State of the Industry, Policy and Politics Quarterly Biomass Program/Clean Cities State Web Conference: May 6, 2010

  20. Emission Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy This study presents full quantification of biodiesels impact on emissions and fuel economy with the inclusion of DPF regeneration events. PDF icon p-21_williams.pdf More Documents & Publications Impact of Biodiesel on Modern Diesel Engine Emissions Impact of Biodiesel Metals on the Performance and Durability of DOC and DPF Technologies Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Oil Dilution

  1. Acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, B.; Haws, R.; Little, D.; Reese, D.; Peterson, C.; Moeller, G.

    1995-12-31

    This study develops data on the acute aquatic toxicity of selected biodiesel fuels which may become subject to environmental effects test regulations under the US Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). The test substances are Rape Methyl Ester (RME), Rape Ethyl Ester (REE), Methyl Soyate (MS), a biodiesel mixture of 20% REE and 80% Diesel, a biodiesel mixture of 50% REE and diesel, and a reference substance of Phillips D-2 Reference Diesel. The test procedure follows the Daphnid Acute Toxicity Test outlined in 40 CFR {section} 797.1300 of the TSCA regulations. Daphnia Magna are exposed to the test substance in a flow-through system consisting of a mixing chamber, a proportional diluter, and duplicate test chambers. Novel system modifications are described that accommodate the testing of oil-based test substances with Daphnia. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an EC50, an effective concentration producing immobility in 50% of the test specimen.

  2. Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Dilution During Active Regeneration of Aftertreatment Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, X.; Williams, A.; Christensen, E.; Burton, J.; McCormick, R.

    2011-12-01

    Experiments were conducted with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) to compare lube oil dilution levels and lubricant properties for systems using late in-cylinder fuel injection for aftertreatment regeneration. Lube oil dilution was measured by gas chromatography (GC) following ASTM method D3524 to measure diesel content, by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry following a modified ASTM method D7371 to measure biodiesel content, and by a newly developed back-flush GC method that simultaneously measures both diesel and biodiesel. Heavy-duty (HD) engine testing was conducted on a 2008 6.7L Cummins ISB equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particle filter (DPF). Stage one of engine testing consisted of 10 consecutive repeats of a forced DPF regeneration event. This continuous operation with late in-cylinder fuel injection served as a method to accelerate lube-oil dilution. Stage two consisted of 16 hours of normal engine operation over a transient test cycle, which created an opportunity for any accumulated fuel in the oil sump to evaporate. Light duty (LD) vehicle testing was conducted on a 2010 VW Jetta equipped with DOC, DPF and a NOx storage catalyst (NSC). Vehicle testing comprised approximately 4,000 miles of operation on a mileage-accumulation dynamometer (MAD) using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Highway Fuel Economy Cycle because of the relatively low engine oil and exhaust temperatures, and high DPF regeneration frequency of this cycle relative to other cycles examined. Comparison of the lube oil dilution analysis methods suggests that D3524 does not measure dilution by biodiesel. The new back-flush GC method provided analysis for both diesel and biodiesel, in a shorter time and with lower detection limit. Thus all lube oil dilution results in this paper are based on this method. Analysis of the HD lube-oil samples showed only 1.5% to 1.6% fuel dilution for both fuels during continuous operation under DPF regeneration events. During the second stage of HD testing, the ULSD lube-oil dilution levels fell from 1.5% to 0.8%, while for B20, lube-oil dilution levels fell from 1.6% to 1.0%, but the fuel in the oil was 36% biodiesel. For the LD vehicle tests, the frequency of DPF regeneration events was observed to be the same for both ULSD and B20. No significant difference between the two fuels' estimated soot loading was detected by the engine control unit (ECU), although a 23% slower rate of increase in differential pressure across DPF was observed with B20. It appears that the ECU estimated soot loading is based on the engine map, not taking advantage of the lower engine-out particulate matter from the use of biodiesel. After 4,000 miles of LD vehicle operation with ULSD, fuel dilution in the lube-oil samples showed total dilution levels of 4.1% diesel. After 4,000 miles of operation with B20, total fuel in oil dilution levels were 6.7% consisting of 3.6% diesel fuel and 3.1% biodiesel. Extrapolation to the 10,000-mile oil drain interval with B20 suggests that the total fuel content in the oil could reach 12%, compared to 5% for operation on ULSD. Analysis of the oil samples also included measurement of total acid number, total base number, viscosity, soot, metals and wear scar; however, little difference in these parameters was noted.

  3. Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Gerpen, J.; Shanks,B.; Pruszko,R.; Clements, D.; Knothe, G.

    2004-07-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines that is gaining attention in the United States after reaching a considerable level of success in Europe. The purpose of this book is to describe and explain the process and issues involved in producing this fuel.

  4. Low-Level Ethanol Fuel Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-04-01

    This fact sheet addresses: (a) why Clean Cities promotes ethanol blends; (b) how these blends affect emissions; (c) fuel performance and availability; and (d) cost, incentives, and regulations.

  5. TJ Automation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TJ Automation Jump to: navigation, search Name TJ Automation Facility TJ Automation Sector Wind energy Facility Type Small Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner TJ Automation...

  6. Impact of Biodiesel on the Oxidation Kinetics and Morphology of Diesel Particulate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strzelec, Andrea; Toops, Todd J; Daw, C Stuart

    2011-01-01

    We compare the oxidation characteristics of four different diesel particulates generated with a modern light-duty engine. The four particulates represent engine fueling with conventional ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), biodiesel, and two intermediate blends of these fuels. The comparisons discussed here are based on complementary measurements implemented in a laboratory micro-reactor, including temperature programmed desorption and oxidation, pulsed isothermal oxidation, and BET surface area. From these measurements we have derived models that are consistent with the observed oxidation reactivity differences. When accessible surface area effects are properly accounted for, the oxidation kinetics of the fixed carbon components were found to consistently exhibit an Arrhenius activation energy of 113 6 kJ/mol. Release of volatile carbon from the as-collected particulate appears to follow a temperaturedependent rate law.

  7. Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zummo, Michael M; Munson, J; Derr, A; Zemple, T; Bray, S; Studer, B; Miller, J; Beckler, J; Hahn, A; Martinez, P; Herndon, B; Lee, T; Newswanger, T; Wassall, M

    2012-03-30

    Many obvious and significant concerns arise when considering the concept of small-scale biodiesel production. Does the fuel produced meet the stringent requirements set by the commercial biodiesel industry? Is the process safe? How are small-scale producers collecting and transporting waste vegetable oil? How is waste from the biodiesel production process handled by small-scale producers? These concerns and many others were the focus of the research preformed in the Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation project over the last three years. This project was a unique research program in which undergraduate engineering students at Messiah College set out to research the feasibility of small-biodiesel production for application on a campus of approximately 3000 students. This Department of Energy (DOE) funded research program developed out of almost a decade of small-scale biodiesel research and development work performed by students at Messiah College. Over the course of the last three years the research team focused on four key areas related to small-scale biodiesel production: Quality Testing and Assurance, Process and Processor Research, Process and Processor Development, and Community Education. The objectives for the Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation Project included the following: 1. Preparing a laboratory facility for the development and optimization of processors and processes, ASTM quality assurance, and performance testing of biodiesel fuels. 2. Developing scalable processor and process designs suitable for ASTM certifiable small-scale biodiesel production, with the goals of cost reduction and increased quality. 3. Conduct research into biodiesel process improvement and cost optimization using various biodiesel feedstocks and production ingredients.

  8. Biodiesel Handling and Use Guide | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Handling and Use Guide Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Biodiesel Handling and Use Guide AgencyCompany Organization: National Renewable Energy...

  9. Mid America Biodiesel LLC MAB | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LLC MAB Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mid-America Biodiesel, LLC (MAB) Place: Enfield, Illinois Zip: 62835-2328 Product: Illinois-based company producing biological products....

  10. Biodiesel Utilization: Update on Recent Analytical Techniques (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alleman, T. L.; Fouts, L.; Luecke, J.; Thornton, M.; McAlpin, C.

    2009-05-01

    To understand and increase the use of biodiesel, analytical methods need to be shared and compared to ensure that accurate data are gathered on this complex fuel.

  11. Impact of Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity, Oxidation and Corrosion Development of High Performance Heavy Duty Engine Oils Performance of Biofuels and Biofuel ...

  12. Coolidge Petrosun Optimum Biodiesel Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Coolidge PetrosunOptimum Biodiesel Plant Place: Coolidge, Arizona Sector: Biofuels Product: Joint venture between PetroSun Biofuels (a wholly-owned subsidiary of...

  13. Washington: State Ferries Run Cleaner With Biodiesel | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addthis Related Articles Auto and passenger ferries operated by the Washington State ... SEP Success Story: Washington State Becomes Largest Public Consumer of Biodiesel Auto and ...

  14. Investigation and Optimization of Biodiesel Chemistry for HCCI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS HCCI; biofuels; biodiesel; statistics; optimization Word Cloud More Like This Full Text Conferences Events Please see ...

  15. Investigation of the Potential for Biofuel Blends in Residual Oil-Fired Power Generation Units as an Emissions Reduction Strategy for New York State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, C.R.; McDonald, R.

    2009-05-01

    There is a significant amount of oil, about 12.6 million barrels per year, used for power generation in New York State. The majority of it is residual oil. The primary reason for using residual oil probably is economic, as these fuels are cheaper than distillates. However, the stack emissions from the use of such fuels, especially in densely populated urban areas, can be a cause for concern. The emissions of concern include sulfur and nitrogen oxides and particulates, particularly PM 2.5. Blending with distillate (ASTM No.2) fuels may not reduce some or all of these emissions. Hence, a case can be made for blending with biofuels, such as biodiesel, as they tend to have very little fuel bound sulfur and nitrogen and have been shown in prior work at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to reduce NOx emissions as well in small boilers. Some of the research carried out at CANMET in Canada has shown potential reductions in PM with blending of biodiesel in distillate oil. There is also the benefit obtaining from the renewable nature of biofuels in reducing the net carbon dioxide emitted thus contributing to the reduction of green house gases that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere. The present project was conceived to examine the potential for such benefits of blending biofuels with residual oil. A collaboration was developed with personnel at the New York City Poletti Power Plant of the New York Power Authority. Their interest arose from an 800 MW power plant that was using residual oil and which was mandated to be shut down in 2010 because of environmental concerns. A blend of 20% biodiesel in residual oil had also been tested for a short period of about two days in that boiler a couple of years back. In this project, emission measurements including particulate measurements of PM2.5 were made in the commercial boiler test facility at BNL described below. Baseline tests were done using biodiesel as the blending biofuel. Biodiesel is currently and probably in the foreseeable future more expensive than residual fuel. So, another task was to explore potential alternative biofuels that might confer emission benefits similar to those of biodiesel, while being potentially significantly cheaper. Of course, for power plant use, availability in the required quantities is also a significant criterion. A subsidiary study to determine the effect of the temperature of the filter used to collect and measure the PM 2.5 emissions was conducted. This was done for reasons of accuracy in a residential boiler using distillate fuel blends. The present report details the results obtained in these tests with the baseline ASTM No. 6 fuel and blends of biodiesel with it as well as the results of the filter temperature study. The search for the alternative 'cheaper' biofuel identified a potential candidate, but difficulties encountered with the equipment during the testing prevented testing of the alternative biofuel.

  16. Method to blend separator powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guidotti, Ronald A.; Andazola, Arthur H.; Reinhardt, Frederick W.

    2007-12-04

    A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

  17. Biodiesel Outlook - An Engine Manufacturer's Perspective | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy The engine's fuel systems and the fuels they deliver are increasingly critical to the overall performance as engines change to reduce levels of both regulated and non-regulated emissions. PDF icon deer08_gault.pdf More Documents & Publications Biodiesel ASTM Update and Future Technical Needs Recent Research to Address Technical Barriers to Increased Use of Biodiesel

  18. 100,000-Mile Evaluation of Transit Buses Operated on Biodiesel Blends (B20)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs.

  19. Western Kentucky University Research Foundation Biodiesel Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Cao, Yan

    2013-03-15

    Petroleum-based liquid hydrocarbons is exclusively major energy source in the transportation sector. Thus, it is the major CO{sub 2} source which is the associated with greenhouse effect. In the United States alone, petroleum consumption in the transportation sector approaches 13.8 million barrels per day (Mbbl/d). It is corresponding to a release of 0.53 gigatons of carbon per year (GtC/yr), which accounts for approximate 7.6 % of the current global release of CO{sub 2} from all of the fossil fuel usage (7 GtC/yr). For the long term, the conventional petroleum production is predicted to peak in as little as the next 10 years to as high as the next 50 years. Negative environmental consequences, the frequently roaring petroleum prices, increasing petroleum utilization and concerns about competitive supplies of petroleum have driven dramatic interest in producing alternative transportation fuels, such as electricity-based, hydrogen-based and bio-based transportation alternative fuels. Use of either of electricity-based or hydrogen-based alternative energy in the transportation sector is currently laden with technical and economical challenges. The current energy density of commercial batteries is 175 Wh/kg of battery. At a storage pressure of 680 atm, the lower heating value (LHV) of H{sub 2} is 1.32 kWh/liter. In contrast, the corresponding energy density for gasoline can reach as high as 8.88 kWh/liter. Furthermore, the convenience of using a liquid hydrocarbon fuel through the existing infrastructures is a big deterrent to replacement by both batteries and hydrogen. Biomass-derived ethanol and bio-diesel (biofuels) can be two promising and predominant U.S. alternative transportation fuels. Both their energy densities and physical properties are comparable to their relatives of petroleum-based gasoline and diesel, however, biofuels are significantly environmental-benign. Ethanol can be made from the sugar-based or starch-based biomass materials, which is easily fermented to create ethanol. In the United States almost all starch ethanol is mainly manufactured from corn grains. The technology for manufacturing corn ethanol can be considered mature as of the late 1980s. In 2005, 14.3 % of the U.S. corn harvest was processed to produce 1.48 x10{sup 10} liters of ethanol, energetically equivalent to 1.72 % of U.S. gasoline usage. Soybean oil is extracted from 1.5 % of the U.S. soybean harvest to produce 2.56 x 10{sup 8} liters of bio-diesel, which was 0.09 % of U.S. diesel usage. However, reaching maximum rates of bio-fuel supply from corn and soybeans is unlikely because these crops are presently major contributors to human food supplies through livestock feed and direct consumption. Moreover, there currently arguments on that the conversion of many types of many natural landscapes to grow corn for feedstock is likely to create substantial carbon emissions that will exacerbate globe warming. On the other hand, there is a large underutilized resource of cellulose biomass from trees, grasses, and nonedible parts of crops that could serve as a feedstock. One of the potentially significant new bio-fuels is so called "cellulosic ethanol", which is dependent on break-down by microbes or enzymes. Because of technological limitations (the wider variety of molecular structures in cellulose and hemicellulose requires a wider variety of microorganisms to break them down) and other cost hurdles (such as lower kinetics), cellulosic ethanol can currently remain in lab scales. Considering farm yields, commodity and fuel prices, farm energy and agrichemical inputs, production plant efficiencies, byproduct production, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and other environmental effects, a life-cycle evaluation of competitive indicated that corn ethanol yields 25 % more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas soybean bio-diesel yields 93 % more. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12 % by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41 % by bio-diesel. Bio-diesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. Bio-diesel has advantages over ethanol due to its lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion. Thus, to be a viable alternative, a bio-fuel firstly should be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. In this aspect, larger quantity supplies of cellulose biomass are likely viable alternatives. U. S. Congress has introduced an initiative and subsequently rolled into the basic energy package, which encourages the production of fuel from purely renewable resources, biomass. Secondly, a bio-fuel should also provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits and be economically competitive. In this aspect, bio-diesel has advantages over ethanol. The commonwealth of Kentucky is fortunate to have a diverse and abundant supply of renewable energy resources. Both Kentucky Governor Beshear in the energy plan for Kentucky "Intelligent Energy Choices for Kentucky's Future", and Kentucky Renewable Energy Consortium, outlined strategies on developing energy in renewable, sustainable and efficient ways. Smart utilization of diversified renewable energy resources using advanced technologies developed by Kentucky public universities, and promotion of these technologies to the market place by collaboration between universities and private industry, are specially encouraged. Thus, the initially question answering Governor's strategic plan is if there is any economical way to make utilization of larger quantities of cellulose and hemicellulose for production of bio-fuels, especially bio-diesel. There are some possible options of commercially available technologies to convert cellulose based biomass energy to bio-fuels. Cellulose based biomass can be firstly gasified to obtain synthesis gas (a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}), which is followed up by being converted into liquid hydrocarbon fuels or oxygenate hydrocarbon fuel through Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis. Methanol production is regarded to be the most economic starting step in many-year practices of the development of F-T synthesis technology since only C{sub 1} synthesis through F-T process can potentially achieve 100% conversion efficiency. Mobil's F-T synthesis process is based on this understanding. Considering the economical advantages of bio-diesel production over ethanol and necessary supply of methanol during bio-diesel production, a new opportunity for bio-diesel production with total supplies of biomass-based raw materials through more economic reaction pathways is likely identified in this proposal. The bio-oil part of biomass can be transesterified under available methanol (or mixed alcohols), which can be synthesized in the most easy part of F-T synthesis process using synthesis gas from gasification of cellulose fractions of biomass. We propose a novel concept to make sense of bio-diesel production economically though a coupling reaction of bio-oil transesterification and methanol synthesis. It will overcome problems of current bio-diesel producing process based on separated handling of methanol and bio-oil.

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    County Schools Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas County Schools to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas County Schools on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas County Schools on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas County Schools on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel

  1. Emissions From Various Biodiesel Sources Compared to a Range of Diesel Fuels in DPF Equipped Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; Burton, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.; Tester, J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of various sources of petroleum-based and bio-based diesel fuels on regulated emissions and fuel economy in diesel particulate filter (DPF) equipped diesel engines. Two model year 2008 diesel engines were tested with nine fuels including a certification ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), local ULSD, high aromatic ULSD, low aromatic ULSD, and twenty percent blends of biodiesel derived from algae, camelina, soy, tallow, and yellow grease. Regulated emissions were measured over the heavy duty diesel transient test cycle. Measurements were also made of DPF-out particle size distribution and total particle count from a 13-mode steady state test using a fast mobility particle sizer. Test engines were a 2008 Cummins ISB and a 2008 International Maxx Force 10, both equipped with actively regenerated DPFs. Fuel consumption was roughly 2% greater over the transient test cycle for the B20 blends versus certification ULSD in both engines, consistent with the slightly lower energy content of biodiesel. Unlike studies conducted on older model engines, these engines equipped with diesel oxidation catalysts and DPFs showed small or no measurable fuel effect on the tailpipe emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM). No differences in particle size distribution or total particle count were seen in a comparison of certification ULSD and B20 soy, with the exception of engine idling conditions where B20 produced a small reduction in the number of nucleation mode particles. In the Cummins engine, B20 prepared from algae, camelina, soy, and tallow resulted in an approximately 2.5% increase in nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) compared to the base fuel. The International engine demonstrated a higher degree of variability for NO{sub x} emissions, and fuel effects could not be resolved (p > 0.05). The group of petroleum diesel test fuels produced a range of NO{sub x} emissions very similar to that caused by blending of biodiesel. Test cycles where an active regeneration of the DPF occurred resulted in a nearly threefold increase in NO{sub x} emissions and a 15% increase in fuel consumption. The full quantification of DPF regeneration events further complicates the accurate calculation of fuel impacts on emissions and fuel consumption.

  2. Intrinsically safe moisture blending system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hallman Jr., Russell L.; Vanatta, Paul D.

    2012-09-11

    A system for providing an adjustable blend of fluids to an application process is disclosed. The system uses a source of a first fluid flowing through at least one tube that is permeable to a second fluid and that is disposed in a source of the second fluid to provide the adjustable blend. The temperature of the second fluid is not regulated, and at least one calibration curve is used to predict the volumetric mixture ratio of the second fluid with the first fluid from the permeable tube. The system typically includes a differential pressure valve and a backpressure control valve to set the flow rate through the system.

  3. Multiplex automated genome engineering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Church, George M; Wang, Harris H; Isaacs, Farren J

    2013-10-29

    The present invention relates to automated methods of introducing multiple nucleic acid sequences into one or more target cells.

  4. Investigation of the Effects of Biodiesel-based Na on Emissions Control Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brookshear, D. William; Nguyen, Ke; Toops, Todd J; Bunting, Bruce G; Howe, Janet E

    2012-01-01

    A single-cylinder diesel engine was used to investigate the impact of biodiesel-based Na on emissions control components using specially blended 20% biodiesel fuel (B20). The emissions control components investigated were a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), a Cu-zeolite-based NH{sub 3}-SCR (selective catalytic reduction) catalyst, and a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Both light-duty vehicle, DOC-SCR-DPF, and heavy-duty vehicle, DOC-DPF-SCR, emissions control configurations were employed. The accelerated Na aging is achieved by introducing elevated Na levels in the fuel, to represent full useful life exposure, and periodically increasing the exhaust temperature to replicate DPF regeneration. To assess the validity of the implemented accelerated Na aging protocol, engine-aged lean NO{sub x} traps (LNTs), DOCs and DPFs are also evaluated. To fully characterize the impact on the catalytic activity the LNT, DOC and SCR catalysts were evaluated using a bench flow reactor. The evaluation of the aged DOC samples and LNT show little to no deactivation as a result of Na contamination. However, the SCR in the light-duty configuration (DOC-SCR-DPF) was severely affected by Na contamination, especially when NO was the only fed NO{sub x} source. In the heavy-duty configuration (DOC-DPF-SCR), no impact is observed in the SCR NO{sub x} reduction activity. Electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) reveals that Na contamination on the LNT, DOC, and SCR samples is present throughout the length of the catalysts with a higher concentration on the washcoat surface. In both the long-term engine-aged DPF and the accelerated Na-aged DPFs, there is significant Na ash present in the upstream channels; however, in the engine-aged sample lube oil-based ash is the predominant constituent.

  5. Washington State Becomes Largest Public Consumer of Biodiesel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With a $165,000 Recovery Act loan, the state of Washington is advancing its efforts toward clean energy and is now the largest public consumer of biodiesel in the country.

  6. Atlanta Suburb Greases the Path to Savings with Biodiesel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A community of 51,000 located just northwest of Atlanta, Smyrna will soon begin producing biodiesel made primarily from used cooking oil in order to cut fuel costs and reduce fossil fuel consumption.

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Codes, Standards, and...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    ... Depending on the standard, UL allows listing for B20 andor B100. Notably, test standards for fiberglass underground tanks and piping do not have the ability to list for biodiesel ...

  8. Impacts of Rail Pressure and Biodiesel Composition on Soot Nanostructure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fractal dimensions of particle aggregates and the fringe lengths and fringe tortuosity within the primary soot particles has been assessed as functions of load, rail pressure, and biodiesel content.

  9. Biodiesel of South Florida LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of South Florida LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biodiesel of South Florida, LLC Place: Miami, Florida Zip: 33176 Product: Florida-based wholesale marketer of soy-based...

  10. Fact #662: February 14, 2011 World Biodiesel Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Europe has been the dominant region for biodiesel production with increased production each year since 2005. North America has been a distant second led by the United States until 2009. In 2009, U...

  11. Biodiesel Offers a Renewable Alternative | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    new oils such as soy or used vegetable oils like restaurant grease. Manufacturers take these oils, filter them, and then chemically react them with an alcohol to form biodiesel. ...

  12. Life cycle inventory of biodiesel and petroleum diesel for use...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biodiesel is made by chemically combining any natural oil or fat with an alcohol such as methanol or ethanol. Methanol has been the most commonly used alcohol in the commercial ...

  13. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    San Francisco Public Utilities Commission; URS Corporation; Biofuels, Blackgold; Carollo Engineers

    2013-01-30

    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities have typically been limited to the role of accepting wastewater, treating it to required levels, and disposing of its treatment residuals. However, a new view is emerging which includes wastewater treatment facilities as regional resource recovery centers. This view is a direct result of increasingly stringent regulations, concerns over energy use, carbon footprint, and worldwide depletion of fossil fuel resources. Resources in wastewater include chemical and thermal energy, as well as nutrients, and water. A waste stream such as residual grease, which concentrates in the drainage from restaurants (referred to as Trap Waste), is a good example of a resource with an energy content that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. If left in wastewater, grease accumulates inside of the wastewater collection system and can lead to increased corrosion and pipe blockages that can cause wastewater overflows. Also, grease in wastewater that arrives at the treatment facility can impair the operation of preliminary treatment equipment and is only partly removed in the primary treatment process. In addition, residual grease increases the demand in treatment materials such as oxygen in the secondary treatment process. When disposed of in landfills, grease is likely to undergo anaerobic decay prior to landfill capping, resulting in the atmospheric release of methane, a greenhouse gas (GHG). This research project was therefore conceptualized and implemented by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) to test the feasibility of energy recovery from Trap Waste in the form of Biodiesel or Methane gas. The research goals are given below: • To validate technology performance; • To determine the costs and benefits [including economic, socioeconomic, and GHG emissions reduction] associated with co-locating this type of operation at a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP); • To develop a business case or model for replication of the program by other municipal agencies (as applicable). In order to accomplish the goals of the project, the following steps were performed: 1. Operation of a demonstration facility designed to receive 10,000 to 12,000 gallons of raw Trap Waste each day from private Trap Waste hauling companies. The demonstration facility was designed and built by Pacific Biodiesel Technologies (PBTech). The demonstration facility would also recover 300 gallons of Brown Grease per day from the raw Trap Waste. The recovered Brown Grease was expected to contain no more than 2% Moisture, Insolubles, and Unsaponifiables (MIU) combined. 2. Co-digestion of the side streams (generated during the recovery of 300 gallons of Brown Grease from the raw Trap Waste) with wastewater sludge in the WWTP’s anaerobic digesters. The effects of the side streams on anaerobic digestion were quantified by comparison with baseline data. 3. Production of 240 gallons per day of ASTM D6751-S15 grade Biodiesel fuel via a Biodiesel conversion demonstration facility, with the use of recovered Brown Grease as a feedstock. The demonstration facility was designed and built by Blackgold Biofuels (BGB). Side streams from this process were also co-digested with wastewater sludge. Bench-scale anaerobic digestion testing was conducted on side streams from both demonstration facilities to determine potential toxicity and/or changes in biogas production in the WWTP anaerobic digester. While there is a lot of theoretical data available on the lab-scale production of Biodiesel from grease Trap Waste, this full-scale demonstration project was one of the first of its kind in the United States. The project’s environmental impacts were expected to include: • Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by prevention of the release of methane at landfills. Although the combustion product of Biodiesel and Methane gas produced in the Anaerobic digester, Carbon Dioxide, is also a greenhouse gas; it is 20 times weaker for the same amount (per mole) released, making its discharge preferable to that of Methane. • The use of Biodiesel in place of fossil-fuel derived Diesel was expected to reduce net Carbon Dioxide, Ash Particulate, Sulfate, Silicate, and Soot emissions, thereby improving air quality.

  14. Quantitative NMR Analysis of Partially Substituted Biodiesel Glycerols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagy, M.; Alleman, T. L.; Dyer, T.; Ragauskas, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphitylation of hydroxyl groups in biodiesel samples with 2-chloro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane followed by 31P-NMR analysis provides a rapid quantitative analytical technique for the determination of substitution patterns on partially esterified glycerols. The unique 31P-NMR chemical shift data was established with a series mono and di-substituted fatty acid esters of glycerol and then utilized to characterize an industrial sample of partially processed biodiesel.

  15. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report Municipal wastewater treatment facilities have typically been limited to the role of accepting wastewater, treating it to required levels, and disposing of its treatment residuals. However, a new view is emerging which includes wastewater treatment facilities as regional

  16. Shoe-String Automation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, M.L.

    2001-07-30

    Faced with a downsizing organization, serious budget reductions and retirement of key metrology personnel, maintaining capabilities to provide necessary services to our customers was becoming increasingly difficult. It appeared that the only solution was to automate some of our more personnel-intensive processes; however, it was crucial that the most personnel-intensive candidate process be automated, at the lowest price possible and with the lowest risk of failure. This discussion relates factors in the selection of the Standard Leak Calibration System for automation, the methods of automation used to provide the lowest-cost solution and the benefits realized as a result of the automation.

  17. Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project report, FY 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, L.; Jarvis, E.; Dunahay, T.; Roessler, P.; Zeiler, K. ); Sprague, S. )

    1993-05-01

    The primary goal of the Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project is to develop the technology for growing microalgae as a renewable biomass feedstock for the production of a diesel fuel substitute (biodiesel), thereby reducing the need for imported petroleum. Microalgae are of interest as a feedstock because of their high growth rates and tolerance to varying environmental conditions, and because the oils (lipids) they produce can be extracted and converted to substitute petroleum fuels such as biodiesel. Microalgae can be grown in arid and semi-arid regions with poor soil quality, and saline water from aquifers or the ocean can be used for growing microalgae. Biodiesel is an extremely attractive candidate to fulfill the need for a diesel fuel substitute. Biodiesel is a cleaner fuel than petroleum diesel; it is virtually free of sulfur, and emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulates during combustion are significantly reduced in comparison to emissions from petroleum diesel. Biodiesel provides essentially the same energy content and power output as petroleum-based diesel fuel.

  18. Impact of Biodiesel-based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Biodiesel-based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx by NH3 Over Cu-zeolite Catalysts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Impact of Biodiesel-based Na on the ...

  19. Fact #700: November 7, 2011 Biodiesel Consumption is on the Rise for 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration began tracking biodiesel consumption in 2001. For the first few years biodiesel consumption remained relatively low – well under one thousand barrels per...

  20. Biodiesel Effects on the Operation of U.S. Light Duty Tier 2...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Duty Tier 2 Engine and Aftertreatment Systems Biodiesel Effects on the Operation of ... PDF icon deer07tatur.pdf More Documents & Publications Biodiesel Effects on the Operation ...

  1. Biodiesel Effects on the Operation of U.S. Light-Duty Tier 2...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light-Duty Tier 2 Engine and Aftertreatment Systems Biodiesel Effects on the Operation of ... More Documents & Publications Biodiesel Effects on the Operation of U.S. Light Duty Tier 2 ...

  2. Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx Using Cu-zeolite Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx Using ...

  3. Matrix Optimization for the MALDI-TOF-MS Analysis of Trace Biodiesel Components (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAlpin, C. R.; Voorhees, K. J.; Alleman, T. L.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-01-01

    Trace biodiesel components that could reduce the fuel's operability in cold weather are analyzed using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

  4. Biodiesel Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Chart (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    This chart shows the SDOs responsible for leading the support and development of key codes and standards for biodiesel.

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: St. Louis Airport Relies on Biodiesel and

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Natural Gas Vehicles St. Louis Airport Relies on Biodiesel and Natural Gas Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: St. Louis Airport Relies on Biodiesel and Natural Gas Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: St. Louis Airport Relies on Biodiesel and Natural Gas Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: St. Louis Airport Relies on Biodiesel and Natural Gas Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: St. Louis

  6. Factors Affecting the Stability of Biodiesel Sold in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R. L.; Ratcliff, M.; Moens, L.; Lawrence, R.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a survey of biodiesel quality and stability in the United States, 27 biodiesel (B100) samples were collected from blenders and distributor nationwide. For this sample set, 85% met all of the requirements of the industry standard for biodiesel, ASTM D6751.

  7. Tropexx - Blending System - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Tropexx - Blending System Y-12 National Security Complex Contact Y12 About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Fact Sheet (784 KB) PDF Document Publication Patent (88 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryThe Tropexx Blending System is a high-resolution blending system that works with gases, vapors and volatile (readily vaporizable) liquids in addition to moisture. Tropexx can be used to check

  8. Performance of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends Robert McCormick Vehicle Technologies Program Merit Review - Fuels and Lubricants Technologies May 16, 2013 Project ID: FT003 This ...

  9. Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Preparation, Injection and Combustion of Supercritical Fluids Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced ...

  10. Heavy Alcohols as a Fuel Blending Agent for Compression Ignition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Avoidance Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Hydrated Ethanol and Diesel Fuel BiodieselFuelManagementBestPracticesReport.pdf

  11. A Multicomponent Blend as a Diesel Fuel Surrogate for Compression...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Multicomponent Blend as a Diesel Fuel Surrogate for Compression Ignition Engine Applications Title A Multicomponent Blend as a Diesel Fuel Surrogate for Compression Ignition...

  12. Detailed HCCI Exhaust Speciation - ORNL Reference Fuel Blends...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HCCI Exhaust Speciation - ORNL Reference Fuel Blends Detailed HCCI Exhaust Speciation - ORNL Reference Fuel Blends *Accurately measure exhaust profile from an HCCI engine with a ...

  13. Sandia Energy - Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers Show Ionic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers Show Ionic Liquids Effective for Pretreating Mixed Blends of Biofuel Feedstocks Home Renewable Energy Energy Transportation Energy Biofuels...

  14. Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-11-01

    This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the US today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations.

  15. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 Updated Feb 2009 Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and ...

  16. EffectsIntermediateEthanolBlends.pdf | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 Updated Feb 2009 Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test ...

  17. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-02-22

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

  18. Green emitting phosphors and blends thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Setlur, Anant Achyut; Siclovan, Oltea Puica; Nammalwar, Prasanth Kumar; Sathyanarayan, Ramesh Rao; Porob, Digamber G.; Chandran, Ramachandran Gopi; Heward, William Jordan; Radkov, Emil Vergilov; Briel, Linda Jane Valyou

    2010-12-28

    Phosphor compositions, blends thereof and light emitting devices including white light emitting LED based devices, and backlights, based on such phosphor compositions. The devices include a light source and a phosphor material as described. Also disclosed are phosphor blends including such a phosphor and devices made therefrom.

  19. Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind Biodiesel Project Green

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmiston, Jessica L

    2012-09-28

    Through extensive collaboration, Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind (AIDB) is Alabama's first educational entity to initiate a biodiesel public education, student training and production program, Project Green. With state and national replication potential, Project Green benefits local businesses and city infrastructures within a 120-mile radius; provides alternative education to Alabama school systems and to schools for the deaf and blind in Appalachian States; trains students with sensory and/or multiple disabilities in the acquisition and production of biodiesel; and educates the external public on alternative fuels benefits.

  20. RTD Biodiesel (B20) Transit Bus Evaluation: Interim Review Summary

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    RTD Biodiesel (B20) Transit Bus Evaluation: Interim Review Summary K. Proc, R. Barnitt, and R.L. McCormick Technical Report NREL/TP-540-38364 August 2005 RTD Biodiesel (B20) Transit Bus Evaluation: Interim Review Summary K. Proc, R. Barnitt, and R.L. McCormick Prepared under Task No. FC05.9400 Technical Report NREL/TP-540-38364 August 2005 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy

  1. Coalition Cooperation Defines Roadmap for E85 and Biodiesel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2007-06-01

    This Clean Cities success story relates how Colorado's Colorado Biofuels Coalition was formed and provides guidance on forming other such coalitions. This Colorado's coalition sucessfully increase the number of fueling stations providing biofuels and has goals to the number even more. Plans also include assisting with financing infrastructure, making alternative fuels available to more fleets, and educating about E85 and biodiesel use.

  2. Process Intensification in Base-Catalyzed Biodiesel Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, Joanna; Birdwell Jr, Joseph F; Tsouris, Costas; Jennings, Hal L

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel is considered a means to diversify our supply of transportation fuel, addressing the goal of reducing our dependence on oil. Recent interest has resulted in biodiesel manufacture becoming more widely undertaken by commercial enterprises that are interested in minimizing the cost of feedstock materials and waste production, as well as maximizing the efficiency of production. Various means to accelerate batch processing have been investigated. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has experience in developing process intensification methods for nuclear separations, and this paper will discuss how technologies developed for very different applications have been modified for continuous reaction/separation of biodiesel. In collaboration with an industrial partner, this work addresses the aspect of base-catalyzed biodiesel production that limits it to a slow batch process. In particular, we have found that interfacial mass transfer and phase separation control the transesterification process and have developed a continuous two-phase reactor for online production of a methyl ester and glycerol. Enhancing the mass transfer has additional benefits such as being able to use an alcohol-to-oil phase ratio closer to stoichiometric than in conventional processing, hence minimizing the amount of solvent that has to be recycled and reducing post-processing clean up costs. Various technical issues associated with the application of process intensification technology will be discussed, including scale-up from the laboratory to a pilot-scale undertaking.

  3. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2007-09-17

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO2 production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

  4. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2007-09-20

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO{sub 2} production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

  5. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, Olivier; Pitz, William J.; Westbrook, Charles K.

    2008-08-15

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran and co-workers for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet-stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO{sub 2} production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels. (author)

  6. Emissions with butane/propane blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    This article reports on various aspects of exhaust emissions from a light-duty car converted to operate on liquefied petroleum gas and equipped with an electrically heated catalyst. Butane and butane/propane blends have recently received attention as potentially useful alternative fuels. Butane has a road octane number of 92, a high blending vapor pressure, and has been used to upgrade octane levels of gasoline blends and improve winter cold starts. Due to reformulated gasoline requirements for fuel vapor pressure, however, industry has had to remove increasing amounts of butane form the gasoline pool. Paradoxically, butane is one of the cleanest burning components of gasoline.

  7. Two glass transitions in miscible polymer blends?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudowicz, Jacek; Freed, Karl F.; Douglas, Jack F.

    2014-06-28

    In contrast to mixtures of two small molecule fluids, miscible binary polymer blends often exhibit two structural relaxation times and two glass transition temperatures. Qualitative explanations postulate phenomenological models of local concentration enhancements due to chain connectivity in ideal, fully miscible systems. We develop a quantitative theory that explains qualitative trends in the dynamics of real miscible polymer blends which are never ideal mixtures. The theory is a synthesis of the lattice cluster theory of blend thermodynamics, the generalized entropy theory for glass-formation in polymer materials, and the Kirkwood-Buff theory for concentration fluctuations in binary mixtures.

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ethanol can be combined with gasoline in blends ranging from E10 (10% or less ethanol, 90% gasoline) up to E85 (up to 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). The Renewable Fuels Standard (under the Energy...

  9. Electrochemical method for producing a biodiesel mixture comprising fatty acid alkyl esters and glycerol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, YuPo J; St. Martin, Edward J

    2013-08-13

    The present invention relates to an integrated method and system for the simultaneous production of biodiesel from free fatty acids (via esterification) and from triglycerides (via transesterification) within the same reaction chamber. More specifically, one preferred embodiment of the invention relates to a method and system for the production of biodiesel using an electrodeionization stack, wherein an ion exchange resin matrix acts as a heterogeneous catalyst for simultaneous esterification and transesterification reactions between a feedstock and a lower alcohol to produce biodiesel, wherein the feedstock contains significant levels of free fatty acid. In addition, because of the use of a heterogeneous catalyst, the glycerol and biodiesel have much lower salt concentrations than raw biodiesel produced by conventional transesterification processes. The present invention makes it much easier to purify glycerol and biodiesel.

  10. Meikle Automation Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Meikle Automation Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Meikle Automation Inc Place: Kitchener, Ontario, Canada Zip: N2E 3Z5 Product: Canadian manufacturer of automation systems...

  11. LANL to certify automated influenza surveillance system

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LANL to certify automated influenza surveillance system LANL to certify automated influenza surveillance system A compact automated system for surveillance and screening of...

  12. System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The objective of the current research is to assess differences in NOx emissions between biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuels, resulting from fundamental issues and system-response issues.

  13. System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Biodiesel's Enabling Characteristics in Attaining Low Temperature Diesel Combustion Fuel-Induced System Responses The Role Unconventional Fuels May ...

  14. Automated gas chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowry, Curtis D.; Blair, Dianna S.; Rodacy, Philip J.; Reber, Stephen D.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and process for the continuous, near real-time monitoring of low-level concentrations of organic compounds in a liquid, and, more particularly, a water stream. A small liquid volume of flow from a liquid process stream containing organic compounds is diverted by an automated process to a heated vaporization capillary where the liquid volume is vaporized to a gas that flows to an automated gas chromatograph separation column to chromatographically separate the organic compounds. Organic compounds are detected and the information transmitted to a control system for use in process control. Concentrations of organic compounds less than one part per million are detected in less than one minute.

  15. Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-06-01

    Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

  16. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. Our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. The first two of these areas have resulted in valuable information about the limitations of lubricity and viscosity additives that are presently available in terms of their impact on the viscosity of DME and on wear rates on injector hardware. The third area, that of development of an injector durability test stand, has not resulted in a functioning experiment. Some information is provided in this report to identify the remaining tasks that need to be performed to make the injector stand operational. The key observations from the work are that when blended at 25 wt.% in either diesel fuel or Biodiesel fuel, DME requires more than 5 wt.% additive of all viscosity and lubricity additives tested here to even approach the lower limit of the ASTM diesel fuel viscosity requirement. To treat neat DME sufficiently to make DME comply with the ASTM diesel fuel viscosity requirement would require a viscosity additive with 10{sup 45} cSt viscosity, which is not possible with current additive technologies.

  17. Biodiesel - Energy Explained, Your Guide To Understanding Energy - Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Biodiesel Energy Explained - Home What Is Energy? Forms of Energy Sources of Energy Laws of Energy Units and Calculators Energy Conversion Calculators British Thermal Units (Btu) Degree-Days U.S. Energy Facts State and U.S. Territory Data Use of Energy In Industry For Transportation In Homes In Commercial Buildings Efficiency and Conservation Energy and the Environment Greenhouse Gases Effect on the Climate Where Greenhouse Gases Come From Outlook for Future

  18. Biodiesel and the Environment - Energy Explained, Your Guide To

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Understanding Energy - Energy Information Administration Biodiesel & the Environment Energy Explained - Home What Is Energy? Forms of Energy Sources of Energy Laws of Energy Units and Calculators Energy Conversion Calculators British Thermal Units (Btu) Degree-Days U.S. Energy Facts State and U.S. Territory Data Use of Energy In Industry For Transportation In Homes In Commercial Buildings Efficiency and Conservation Energy and the Environment Greenhouse Gases Effect on the Climate Where

  19. Biofuels: Ethanol and Biodiesel - Energy Explained, Your Guide To

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Understanding Energy - Energy Information Administration Biodiesel Energy Explained - Home What Is Energy? Forms of Energy Sources of Energy Laws of Energy Units and Calculators Energy Conversion Calculators British Thermal Units (Btu) Degree-Days U.S. Energy Facts State and U.S. Territory Data Use of Energy In Industry For Transportation In Homes In Commercial Buildings Efficiency and Conservation Energy and the Environment Greenhouse Gases Effect on the Climate Where Greenhouse Gases Come

  20. Effects of Biodiesel Blends on Vehicle Emissions: Fiscal Year 2006 Annual Operating Plan Milestone 10.4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R. L.; Williams, A.; Ireland, J.; Hayes, R. R.

    2006-10-01

    The objective was to determine if testing entire vehicles, vs. just the engines, on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer provides a better, measurement of the impact of B20 on emissions.

  1. Automated CCTV Tester

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-09-13

    The purpose of an automated CCTV tester is to automatically and continuously monitor multiple perimeter security cameras for changes in a camera's measured resolution and alignment (camera looking at the proper area). It shall track and record the image quality and position of each camera and produce an alarm when a camera is out of specification.

  2. Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility, Commercial, and Industrial Customers Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility, ...

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: Research: High Consequence, Automation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Consequence Automation Robotics Homepage About Robotics Research & Development Advanced Controls Advanced Manipulation Cybernetics High-Consequence Automation Demilitarization...

  4. Automation Status | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automation Status Automation Status Presented at the NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Manufacturing R&D Workshop in Washington, DC, August 11-12, 2011. PDF icon Automation Status More Documents & Publications PEM Stack Manufacturing: Industry Status 2011 NREL/DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Manufacturing R&D Workshop Report Manufacturing Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization

  5. Phase Segregation in Polystyrene?Polylactide Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, Bonnie; Hitchcock, Adam; Brash, John; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew

    2010-06-09

    Spun-cast films of polystyrene (PS) blended with polylactide (PLA) were visualized and characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and synchrotron-based X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (X-PEEM). The composition of the two polymers in these systems was determined by quantitative chemical analysis of near-edge X-ray absorption signals recorded with X-PEEM. The surface morphology depends on the ratio of the two components, the total polymer concentration, and the temperature of vacuum annealing. For most of the blends examined, PS is the continuous phase with PLA existing in discrete domains or segregated to the air?polymer interface. Phase segregation was improved with further annealing. A phase inversion occurred when films of a 40:60 PS:PLA blend (0.7 wt percent loading) were annealed above the glass transition temperature (Tg) of PLA.

  6. Biodiesel Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Chart (Revised) (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Many standards development organizations (SDOs) are working to develop codes and standards needed for the utilization of alternative fuel vehicle technologies. This chart shows the SDOs responsible for leading the support and development of key codes and standards for biodiesel. Biodiesel Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Chart Vehicles Storage Dispensing Infrastructure Engine Testing: Fuel Systems: Fuel Lubricants: Powertrain Systems: Containers: Dispensing Operations: Dispensing

  7. Biodiesel Clears the Air in Underground Mines, Clean Cities, Fact Sheet, June 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-06-01

    Mining companies are using biodiesel in their equipment to help clear the air of diesel particulate matter (DPM). This action improves air quality and protects miners' lungs. Though using biodiesel has some challenges in cold weather, tax incentives, and health benefits make it a viable option.

  8. Biodiesel Supply and Consumption in the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    The historical biodiesel consumption data published in the Energy Information Administration's Monthly Energy Review March 2009 edition were revised to account for imports and exports. Table 10.4 of the Monthly Energy Review was expanded to display biodiesel imports, exports, stocks, stock change, and consumption. Similar revisions were made in the April 2009 edition of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO).

  9. Biodiesel versus diesel exposure: Enhanced pulmonary inflammation, oxidative stress, and differential morphological changes in the mouse lung

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanamala, Naveena; Birch, M. Eileen; Kisin, Elena; Bugarski, Aleksandar D.

    2013-10-15

    The use of biodiesel (BD) or its blends with petroleum diesel (D) is considered to be a viable approach to reduce occupational and environmental exposures to particulate matter (PM). Due to its lower particulate mass emissions compared to D, use of BD is thought to alleviate adverse health effects. Considering BD fuel is mainly composed of unsaturated fatty acids, we hypothesize that BD exhaust particles could induce pronounced adverse outcomes, due to their ability to readily oxidize. The main objective of this study was to compare the effects of particles generated by engine fueled with neat BD and neat petroleum-based D. Biomarkers of tissue damage and inflammation were significantly elevated in lungs of mice exposed to BD particulates. Additionally, BD particulates caused a significant accumulation of oxidatively modified proteins and an increase in 4-hydroxynonenal. The up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines/growth factors was higher in lungs upon BD particulate exposure. Histological evaluation of lung sections indicated presence of lymphocytic infiltrate and impaired clearance with prolonged retention of BD particulate in pigment laden macrophages. Taken together, these results clearly indicate that BD exhaust particles could exert more toxic effects compared to D. - Highlights: Exposure of mice to BDPM caused higher pulmonary toxicity compared to DPM. Oxidative stress and inflammation were higher in BD vs to D exposed mice. Inflammatory lymphocyte infiltrates were seen only in lungs of mice exposed to BD. Ineffective clearance, prolonged PM retention was present only after BD exposure.

  10. Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues The United States has 11 ...

  11. Mid-Level Ethanol Blends | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Mid-Level Ethanol Blends 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ft_05_knoll.pdf More Documents & Publications Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program Biofuels Quality Surveys Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 … Updated Feb 2009

  12. Automated gas chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowry, C.D.; Blair, D.S.; Rodacy, P.J.; Reber, S.D.

    1999-07-13

    An apparatus and process for the continuous, near real-time monitoring of low-level concentrations of organic compounds in a liquid, and, more particularly, a water stream. A small liquid volume of flow from a liquid process stream containing organic compounds is diverted by an automated process to a heated vaporization capillary where the liquid volume is vaporized to a gas that flows to an automated gas chromatograph separation column to chromatographically separate the organic compounds. Organic compounds are detected and the information transmitted to a control system for use in process control. Concentrations of organic compounds less than one part per million are detected in less than one minute. 7 figs.

  13. Automated macromolecular crystallization screening

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Segelke, Brent W.; Rupp, Bernhard; Krupka, Heike I.

    2005-03-01

    An automated macromolecular crystallization screening system wherein a multiplicity of reagent mixes are produced. A multiplicity of analysis plates is produced utilizing the reagent mixes combined with a sample. The analysis plates are incubated to promote growth of crystals. Images of the crystals are made. The images are analyzed with regard to suitability of the crystals for analysis by x-ray crystallography. A design of reagent mixes is produced based upon the expected suitability of the crystals for analysis by x-ray crystallography. A second multiplicity of mixes of the reagent components is produced utilizing the design and a second multiplicity of reagent mixes is used for a second round of automated macromolecular crystallization screening. In one embodiment the multiplicity of reagent mixes are produced by a random selection of reagent components.

  14. Automated Job Hazards Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    AJHA Program - The Automated Job Hazard Analysis (AJHA) computer program is part of an enhanced work planning process employed at the Department of Energy's Hanford worksite. The AJHA system is routinely used to performed evaluations for medium and high risk work, and in the development of corrective maintenance work packages at the site. The tool is designed to ensure that workers are fully involved in identifying the hazards, requirements, and controls associated with tasks.

  15. HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: Metal blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. The nuclear material is converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Blending HEU (highly enriched uranium) with less-enriched uranium to form LEU has been proposed as a disposition option. Five technologies are being assessed for blending HEU. This document provides data to be used in environmental impact analysis for the HEU-LEU disposition option that uses metal blending with an oxide waste product. It is divided into: mission and assumptions, conversion and blending facility descriptions, process descriptions and requirements, resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards discussion, and intersite transportation.

  16. Nitrate Salt Surrogate Blending Scoping Test Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-13

    Test blending equipment identified in the “Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing”. Determine if the equipment will provide adequate mixing of zeolite and surrogate salt/Swheat stream; optimize equipment type and operational sequencing; impact of baffles and inserts on mixing performance; and means of validating mixing performance

  17. Automated Proactive Fault Isolation: A Key to Automated Commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Brambley, Michael R.

    2007-07-31

    In this paper, we present a generic model for automated continuous commissioing and then delve in detail into one of the processes, proactive testing for fault isolation, which is key to automating commissioning. The automated commissioining process uses passive observation-based fault detction and diagnostic techniques, followed by automated proactive testing for fault isolation, automated fault evaluation, and automated reconfiguration of controls together to continuously keep equipment controlled and running as intended. Only when hard failures occur or a physical replacement is required does the process require human intervention, and then sufficient information is provided by the automated commissioning system to target manual maintenance where it is needed. We then focus on fault isolation by presenting detailed logic that can be used to automatically isolate faults in valves, a common component in HVAC systems, as an example of how automated proactive fault isolation can be accomplished. We conclude the paper with a discussion of how this approach to isolating faults can be applied to other common HVAC components and their automated commmissioning and a summary of key conclusions of the paper.

  18. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

    2012-02-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  19. Table 3. U.S. Inputs to biodiesel production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Inputs to biodiesel production" "million pounds" ,"Feedstock inputs" ,"Vegetable oils",,,,,,,,,,,,"Animal fats" "Period","Canola oil",,"Corn oil",,"Cottonseed oil",,"Palm oil",,"Soybean oil",,"Other",,"Poultry",,"Tallow" 2014 "January",35.75,,72.72,,"W",,"W",,273,,"W",,2,,15

  20. Mountain

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel (B100) production by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD)" ... is the industry designation for pure biodiesel; a biodiesel blend contains both pure ...

  1. A comparison of injector flow and spray characteristics of biodiesel with petrodiesel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Som, S.; Longman, D. E; Ramirez, A. I.; Aggarwal, S. K.

    2010-12-01

    Performance and emission characteristics of compression ignition engines depend strongly on inner nozzle flow and spray behavior. These processes control the fuel air mixing, which in turn is critical for the combustion process. The differences in the physical properties of petrodiesel and biodiesel are expected to significantly alter the inner nozzle flow and spray structure and, thus, the performance and emission characteristics of the engine. In this study, the inner nozzle flow dynamics of these fuels are characterized by using the mixture-based cavitation model in FLUENT v6.3. Because of its lower vapor pressure, biodiesel was observed to cavitate less than petrodiesel. Higher viscosity of biodiesel resulted in loss of flow efficiency and reduction in injection velocity. Turbulence levels at the nozzle orifice exit were also lower for biodiesel. Using the recently developed KH-ACT model, which incorporates the effects of cavitation and turbulence in addition to aerodynamic breakup, the inner nozzle flow simulations are coupled with the spray simulations in a 'quasi-dynamic' fashion. Thus, the influence of inner nozzle flow differences on spray development of these fuels could be captured, in addition to the effects of their physical properties. Spray penetration was marginally higher for biodiesel, while cone angle was lower, which was attributed to its poor atomization characteristics. The computed liquid lengths of petrodiesel and biodiesel were compared with data from Sandia National Laboratories. Liquid lengths were higher for biodiesel due to its higher boiling temperature and heat of vaporization. Though the simulations captured this trend well, the liquid lengths were underpredicted, which was attributed to uncertainty about the properties of biodiesel used in the experiments. Parametric studies were performed to determine a single parameter that could be used to account for the observed differences in the fuel injection and spray behavior of petrodiesel and biodiesel; fuel temperature seems to be the best parameter to tune.

  2. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strand, O.T.; Lowry, M.E.

    1999-01-05

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectronic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems. 26 figs.

  3. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strand, Oliver T.; Lowry, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectonic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems.

  4. Automated Hazard Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-06-26

    The Automated Hazard Analysis (AHA) application is a software tool used to conduct job hazard screening and analysis of tasks to be performed in Savannah River Site facilities. The AHA application provides a systematic approach to the assessment of safety and environmental hazards associated with specific tasks, and the identification of controls regulations, and other requirements needed to perform those tasks safely. AHA is to be integrated into existing Savannah River site work control andmore » job hazard analysis processes. Utilization of AHA will improve the consistency and completeness of hazard screening and analysis, and increase the effectiveness of the work planning process.« less

  5. Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Advanced Distillation Curve Method | Department of Energy Supercritical transesterification processing permits efficient fuel system and combustion chamber designs to optimize fuel utilization in diesel engines., PDF icon p-01_anitescu.pdf More Documents & Publications Preparation, Injection and Combustion of Supercritical Fluids Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical Fuel Injection Algae Biofuels Technology

  6. Fact #555: January 26, 2009 Transit Buses are Relying Less on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LNG, propane, biosoy fuel, biodiesel, hydrogen, methanol, ethanol, and various blends. ... includes propane, biosoy fuel, biodiesel, hydrogen, methanol, etanol, and various blends. ...

  7. Differences in the Physical Characteristics of Diesel PM with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    characteristics, carbon state, and surface bound oxygen of soot from biodiesel blends. ... Technologies Trends in Particulate Nanostructure DPF Performance with Biodiesel Blends

  8. Tough Blends of Polylactide and Castor Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, Megan L.; Paxton, Jessica M.; Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2012-10-10

    Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is a renewable resource polymer derived from plant sugars with several commercial applications. Broader implementation of the material is limited due to its inherent brittleness. We show that the addition of 5 wt % castor oil to PLLA significantly enhances the overall tensile toughness with minimal reductions in the modulus and no plasticization of the PLLA matrix. In addition, we used poly(ricinoleic acid)-PLLA diblock copolymers, synthesized entirely from renewable resources, as compatibilizers for the PLLA/castor oil blends. Ricinoleic acid, the majority fatty acid comprising castor oil, was polymerized through a lipase-catalyzed condensation reaction. The resulting polymers contained a hydroxyl end-group that was subsequently used to initiate the ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide. The binary PLLA/castor oil blend exhibited a tensile toughness seven times greater than neat PLLA. The addition of block copolymer allowed for control over the morphology of the blends, and even further improvement in the tensile toughness was realized - an order of magnitude larger than that of neat PLLA.

  9. Solar Automation Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Automation Inc Place: Albuquerque, New Mexico Zip: NM 8110 Product: Produces manufacturing equipment for PV cells. References: Solar Automation Inc1 This article is a...

  10. Brooks Automation Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: Automation equipment supplier, including vacuum pumps for thin film PV manufacturing facilities. References: Brooks Automation Inc1 This article is a stub. You can...

  11. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurement in methane and biodiesel flames using an ungated detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eseller, Kemal E.; Yueh, Fang Y.; Singh, Jagdish P

    2008-11-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to measure the equivalence ratio of CH4/air flames using gated detection. In this work, we have developed an ungated, miniature LIBS-based sensor for studying CH4/air and biodiesel flames. We have used this sensor to characterize the biodiesel flame. LIBS spectra of biodiesel flames were recorded with different ethanol concentrations in the biodiesel and also at different axial locations within the flame. The sensor performance was evaluated with a CH4/air flame. LIBS signals of N, O, and H from a CH4/air flame were used to determine the equivalence ratio. A linear relationship between the intensity ratio of H and O lines and the calculated equivalence ratio were obtained with this sensor.

  12. BioDiesel Content On-board monitoring | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BioDiesel Content On-board monitoring onboard fuel monitoring of fuel and biofuel qualities using an optical sensor for engine PDF icon deer08fournel.pdf More Documents & ...

  13. Automated Defect Classification (ADC)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    The ADC Software System is designed to provide semiconductor defect feature analysis and defect classification capabilities. Defect classification is an important software method used by semiconductor wafer manufacturers to automate the analysis of defect data collected by a wide range of microscopy techniques in semiconductor wafer manufacturing today. These microscopies (e.g., optical bright and dark field, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, etc.) generate images of anomalies that are induced or otherwise appear on wafermore » surfaces as a result of errant manufacturing processes or simple atmospheric contamination (e.g., airborne particles). This software provides methods for analyzing these images, extracting statistical features from the anomalous regions, and applying supervised classifiers to label the anomalies into user-defined categories.« less

  14. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  15. Biodiesel Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations (Brochure), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biodiesel Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations This document lists codes and standards typically used for U.S. biodiesel vehicle and infrastructure projects. To determine which codes and standards apply to a specific project, identify the codes and standards currently in effect within the jurisdiction where the project will be located. Some jurisdictions also have unique ordinances or regulations that could apply. Learn about codes and standards basics at

  16. A numerical study comparing the combustion and emission characteristics of biodiesel with petrodiesel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Som, S.; Longman, D.

    2011-04-01

    Combustion and emission characteristics of compression ignition engines strongly depend upon inner-nozzle flow and spray behavior. These processes control the fuel-air mixing, which in turn is critical for the combustion process. Previous studies by us highlighted the differences in the physical and chemical properties of petrodiesel and biodiesel, which significantly altered the inner-nozzle flow and spray structure. The current study is another step in this direction to gain a fundamental understanding on the influence of fuel properties on the combustion and emission characteristics of the compression ignition engine. n-Heptane and methyl butanoate were selected as surrogates for diesel and biodiesel fuels, respectively, because the chemical kinetic pathways were well-understood. Liquid length and flame lift-off length for diesel and biodiesel fuels were validated against data available in the literature. Liquid lengths were always higher for biodiesel because of its higher heat of vaporization, which resulted in increased interplay between spray and combustion processes under all conditions investigated. Ambient air entrainment was also lower for biodiesel mainly because of slower atomization and breakup. The mechanism for flame stabilization is further analyzed by estimating the turbulent burning velocity for both of the fuels. This analysis revealed that neither flame propagation nor isolated ignition kernels upstream and detached from high-temperature regions can be the mechanism for flame stabilization. Flame propagation speeds were observed to be similar for both fuels. Biodiesel predicted lower soot concentrations, which were also reflected in reduced C{sub 2}H{sub 2} mole fractions. Although prompt NO{sub x} was higher for biodiesel, total NO{sub x} was lower because of reduced thermal NO{sub x}. The ignition delay and NO{sub x} emissions predicted by these simulations do not agree with trends reported in the literature; hence, this study highlights the need for better fuel surrogates for diesel and biodiesel fuels.

  17. Recent Research to Address Technical Barriers to Increased Use of Biodiesel

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    | Department of Energy Recent Research to Address Technical Barriers to Increased Use of Biodiesel Recent Research to Address Technical Barriers to Increased Use of Biodiesel 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_clark.pdf More Documents & Publications The Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES):Phase 3 Diesel Reformers for On-board Hydrogen Applications Minimizing Lubricant-Ash Requirement and Impact on Emission

  18. Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet), Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    is a domestically produced, renewable fuel that can be manufac- tured from new and used vegetable oils, animal fats, and recycled res- taurant grease. Biodiesel's physical properties are similar to those of petroleum diesel, but it is a cleaner- burning renewable alternative. Using biodiesel in place of petroleum diesel significantly reduces lifecycle carbon emissions. Research shows that it also reduces emissions of toxic air pollut- ants in older on-road vehicles and in many off-road

  19. Continuous Production of Biodiesel Via an Intensified Reactive/Extractive Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsouris, Costas; McFarlane, Joanna; Birdwell Jr, Joseph F; Jennings, Hal L

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel is considered as a means to diversify our supply of transportation fuel, addressing the goal of reducing our dependence on oil. For a number of reasons ranging from production issues to end use, biodiesel represents only a small fraction of the transportation fuel used worldwide. This work addresses the aspect of biodiesel production that limits it to a slow batch process. Conventional production methods are batch in nature, based on the assumption that the rates of the key chemical reactions are slow. The hypothesis motivating this work is that the reaction kinetics for the transesterification of the reagent triglyceride is sufficiently fast, particularly in an excess of catalyst, and that interfacial mass transfer and phase separation control the process. If this is the case, an intensified two-phase reactor adapted from solvent extraction equipment may be utilized to greatly increase biodiesel production rates by increasing interphase transport and phase separation. To prove this idea, we are investigating two aspects: (1) determining the rate-limiting step in biodiesel production by evaluating the reaction kinetics, and (2) enhancing biodiesel production rates by using an intensified reactor. A centrifugal contactor combining interphase mass transfer, chemical reaction, and phase separation is employed for process intensification.

  20. A Numerical Investigation into the Anomalous Slight NOx Increase when Burning Biodiesel: A New (Old) Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ban-Weiss, G A; Chen, J Y; Buchholz, B A; Dibble, R W

    2007-01-30

    Biodiesel is a notable alternative to petroleum derived diesel fuel because it comes from natural domestic sources and thus reduces dependence on diminishing petroleum fuel from foreign sources, it likely lowers lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, and it lowers an engine's emission of most pollutants as compared to petroleum derived diesel. However, the use of biodiesel often slightly increases a diesel engine's emission of smog forming nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) relative to petroleum diesel. In this paper, previously proposed theories for this slight NOx increase are reviewed, including theories based on biodiesel's cetane number, which leads to differing amounts of charge preheating, and theories based on the fuel's bulk modulus, which affects injection timing. This paper proposes an additional theory for the slight NO{sub x} increase of biodiesel. Biodiesel typically contains more double bonded molecules than petroleum derived diesel. These double bonded molecules have a slightly higher adiabatic flame temperature, which leads to the increase in NOx production for biodiesel. Our theory was verified using numerical simulations to show a NOx increase, due to the double bonded molecules, that is consistent with observation. Further, the details of these numerical simulations show that NOx is predominantly due to the Zeldovich mechanism.

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Intermediate Ethanol Blends Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends Ethanol can be combined with gasoline in blends ranging from E10 (10% or less ethanol, 90% gasoline) up to E85 (up to 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). The Renewable Fuels Standard (under the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and the Energy Security and Independence Act of 2007) requires the country use as much as 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels annually by 2022, most of which will be ethanol. However,

  2. Conductive Polymer/Fullerene Blend Thin Films with Honeycomb...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Conductive PolymerFullerene Blend Thin Films with Honeycomb Framework Brookhaven National Laboratory...

  3. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    117 Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated February 2009 Prepared by Keith Knoll Brian West Wendy Clark...

  4. Fact Sheet: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    initiated a test program to assess the potential impacts of higher intermediate ethanol blends on conventional vehicles and other engines that rely on gasoline. The test program ...

  5. Process for blending coal with water immiscible liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heavin, Leonard J.; King, Edward E.; Milliron, Dennis L.

    1982-10-26

    A continuous process for blending coal with a water immiscible liquid produces a uniform, pumpable slurry. Pulverized raw feed coal and preferably a coal derived, water immiscible liquid are continuously fed to a blending zone (12 and 18) in which coal particles and liquid are intimately admixed and advanced in substantially plug flow to form a first slurry. The first slurry is withdrawn from the blending zone (12 and 18) and fed to a mixing zone (24) where it is mixed with a hot slurry to form the pumpable slurry. A portion of the pumpable slurry is continuously recycled to the blending zone (12 and 18) for mixing with the feed coal.

  6. Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx Using Cu-zeolite

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses the impact of Na in biodiesel on three emission control devices: the diesel particulate filter, diesel oxidation catalyst, and zeolyte-based SCR catalyst

  7. Recommendation 207: Automate the Stewardship Verification Process

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ORSSAB recommends DOE automate the Stewardship Verification Process for the Remediation Effectiveness Report.

  8. TANK 21 AND TANK 24 BLEND AND FEED STUDY: BLENDING TIMES, SETTLING TIMES, AND TRANSFERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

    2012-05-31

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 {micro}m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion (<1200 mg/l). (4) Experimental tests with sludge batch 6 simulant and field turbidity data from a recent Tank 21 mixing evolution suggest the solid particles have higher density and/or larger size than indicated by previous analysis of SRS sludge and sludge simulants. (5) Tank 21 waste characterization, laboratory settling tests, and additional field turbidity measurements during mixing evolutions are recommended to better understand potential risk for extended (> 60 days) settling times in Tank 21.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and

  10. On droplet combustion of biodiesel fuel mixed with diesel/alkanes in microgravity condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Kuo-Long; Li, Je-Wei; Chen, Chien-Pei; Wang, Ching-Hua

    2009-10-15

    The burning characteristics of a biodiesel droplet mixed with diesel or alkanes such as dodecane and hexadecane were experimentally studied in a reduced-gravity environment so as to create a spherically symmetrical flame without the influence of natural convection due to buoyancy. Small droplets on the order of 500 {mu}m in diameter were initially injected via a piezoelectric technique onto the cross point intersected by two thin carbon fibers; these were prepared inside a combustion chamber that was housed in a drag shield, which was freely dropped onto a foam cushion. It was found that, for single component droplets, the tendency to form a rigid soot shell was relatively small for biodiesel fuel as compared to that exhibited by the other tested fuels. The soot created drifted away readily, showing a puffing phenomenon; this could be related to the distinct molecular structure of biodiesel leading to unique soot layers that were more vulnerable to oxidative reactivity as compared to the soot generated by diesel or alkanes. The addition of biodiesel to these more traditional fuels also presented better performance with respect to annihilating the soot shell, particularly for diesel. The burning rate generally follows that of multi-component fuels, by some means in terms of a lever rule, whereas the mixture of biodiesel and dodecane exhibits a somewhat nonlinear relation with the added fraction of dodecane. This might be related to the formation of a soot shell. (author)

  11. Calcination of calcium carbonate and blend therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallow, William A.; Dziuk, Jr., Jerome J.

    1989-01-01

    A method for calcination of a calcium carbonate material comprising heating the calcium carbonate material to a temperature and for a time sufficient to calcine the material to the degree desired while in the presence of a catalyst; said catalyst comprising at least one fused salt having the formula MCO.sub.3.CaCO.sub.3.CaO.H.sub.2 O.sub.x, wherein M is an alkali metal and x is 0 to 1 and formed by fusing MCO.sub.3 and CaCO.sub.3 in a molar ratio of about 1:2 to 2:1, and a blend adapted to be heated to CaO comprising a calcium carbonate material and at least one such fused salt.

  12. Biodiesel from aquatic species. Project report: FY 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, L.M.; Sprague, S.; Jarvis, E.E.; Dunahay, T.G.; Roessler, P.G.; Zeiler, K.G.

    1994-01-01

    Researchers in the Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project focus on the use of microalgae as a feedstock for producing renewable, high-energy liquid fuels. The program`s basic premise is that microalgae, which have been called the most productive biochemical factories in the world, can produce up to 30 times more oil per unit of growth area than land plants. It is estimated that 150 to 400 barrels of oil per acre per year (0.06 to 0.16 million liters/hectar) could be produced with microalgal oil technology. Initial commercialization of this technology is envisioned for the desert Southwest because this area provides high solar radiation and offers flat land that has few competing uses (hence low land costs). Similarly, there are large saline aquifers with few competing uses in the region. This water source could provide a suitable, low-cost medium for the growth of many microalgae. The primary area of research during FY 1993 was the effort to genetically improve microalgae in order to control the timing and magnitude of lipid accumulation. Increased lipid content will have a direct effect on fuel price, and the control of lipid content is a major project goal. The paper describes progress on the following: culture collection; molecular biology of lipid biosynthesis; microalgal transformation; and environmental, safety, and health and quality assurance.

  13. COOLING COIL EFFECTS ON BLENDING IN A PILOT SCALE TANK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.; Steeper, T.

    2010-08-26

    Blending, or mixing, processes in 1.3 million gallon nuclear waste tanks are complicated by the fact that miles of serpentine, vertical, cooling coils are installed in the tanks. As a step toward investigating blending interference due to coils in this type of tank, a 1/10.85 scale tank and pump model were constructed for pilot scale testing. A series of tests were performed in this scaled tank by adding blue dye to visualize blending, and by adding acid or base tracers to solution to quantify the time required to effectively blend the tank contents. The acid and base tests were monitored with pH probes, which were located in the pilot scale tank to ensure that representative samples were obtained. Using the probes, the hydronium ion concentration [H{sup +}] was measured to ensure that a uniform concentration was obtained throughout the tank. As a result of pilot scale testing, a significantly improved understanding of mixing, or blending, in nuclear waste tanks has been achieved. Evaluation of test data showed that cooling coils in the waste tank model increased pilot scale blending times by 200% in the recommended operating range, compared to previous theoretical estimates of a 10-50% increase. Below the planned operating range, pilot scale blending times were increased by as much as 700% in a tank with coils installed. One pump, rather than two or more, was shown to effectively blend the tank contents, and dual pump nozzles installed parallel to the tank wall were shown to provide optimal blending. In short, experimental results varied significantly from expectations.

  14. Automating Shallow Seismic Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steeples, Don W.

    2004-12-09

    This seven-year, shallow-seismic reflection research project had the aim of improving geophysical imaging of possible contaminant flow paths. Thousands of chemically contaminated sites exist in the United States, including at least 3,700 at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Imaging technologies such as shallow seismic reflection (SSR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) sometimes are capable of identifying geologic conditions that might indicate preferential contaminant-flow paths. Historically, SSR has been used very little at depths shallower than 30 m, and even more rarely at depths of 10 m or less. Conversely, GPR is rarely useful at depths greater than 10 m, especially in areas where clay or other electrically conductive materials are present near the surface. Efforts to image the cone of depression around a pumping well using seismic methods were only partially successful (for complete references of all research results, see the full Final Technical Report, DOE/ER/14826-F), but peripheral results included development of SSR methods for depths shallower than one meter, a depth range that had not been achieved before. Imaging at such shallow depths, however, requires geophone intervals of the order of 10 cm or less, which makes such surveys very expensive in terms of human time and effort. We also showed that SSR and GPR could be used in a complementary fashion to image the same volume of earth at very shallow depths. The primary research focus of the second three-year period of funding was to develop and demonstrate an automated method of conducting two-dimensional (2D) shallow-seismic surveys with the goal of saving time, effort, and money. Tests involving the second generation of the hydraulic geophone-planting device dubbed the ''Autojuggie'' showed that large numbers of geophones can be placed quickly and automatically and can acquire high-quality data, although not under rough topographic conditions. In some easy-access environments, this device could make SSR surveying considerably more efficient and less expensive, particularly when geophone intervals of 25 cm or less are required. The most recent research analyzed the difference in seismic response of the geophones with variable geophone spike length and geophones attached to various steel media. Experiments investigated the azimuthal dependence of the quality of data relative to the orientation of the rigidly attached geophones. Other experiments designed to test the hypothesis that the data are being amplified in much the same way that an organ pipe amplifies sound have so far proved inconclusive. Taken together, the positive results show that SSR imaging within a few meters of the earth's surface is possible if the geology is suitable, that SSR imaging can complement GPR imaging, and that SSR imaging could be made significantly more cost effective, at least in areas where the topography and the geology are favorable. Increased knowledge of the Earth's shallow subsurface through non-intrusive techniques is of potential benefit to management of DOE facilities. Among the most significant problems facing hydrologists today is the delineation of preferential permeability paths in sufficient detail to make a quantitative analysis possible. Aquifer systems dominated by fracture flow have a reputation of being particularly difficult to characterize and model. At chemically contaminated sites, including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and others at Department of Defense (DOD) installations worldwide, establishing the spatial extent of the contamination, along with the fate of the contaminants and their transport-flow directions, is essential to the development of effective cleanup strategies. Detailed characterization of the shallow subsurface is important not only in environmental, groundwater, and geotechnical engineering applications, but also in neotectonics, mining geology, and the analysis of petroleum reservoir analogs. Near-surface seismology is in the vanguard of non-intrusive approaches to increase knowledge of the shallow subsurface; our work is a significant departure from conventional seismic-survey field procedures.

  15. UTILIZING WATER EMULSIFICATION TO REDUCE NOX AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BIODIESEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kass, Michael D; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Lee, Doh-Won; Huff, Shean P; Storey, John Morse; Swartz, Matthew M; Wagner, Robert M

    2009-01-01

    A key barrier limiting extended utilization of biodiesel is higher NOx emissions compared to petrodiesel fuels. The reason for this effect is unclear, but various researchers have attributed this phenomena to the higher liquid bulk modulus associated with biodiesel and the additional heat released during the breaking of C-C double bonds in the methyl ester groups. In this study water was incorporated into neat biodiesel (B100) as an emulsion in an attempt to lower NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. A biodiesel emulsion containing 10wt% water was formulated and evaluated against an ultra-low sulfur petroleum diesel (ULSD) and neat biodiesel (B100) in a light-duty diesel engine operated at 1500RPM and at loads of 68Nm (50ft-lbs) and 102Nm (75ft-lbs). The influence of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was also examined. The incorporation of water was found to significantly lower the NOx emissions of B100, while maintaining fuel efficiency when operating at 0 and 27% EGR. The soot fraction of the particulates (as determined using an opacity meter) was much lower for the B100 and B100-water emulsion compared ULSD. In contrast, total PM mass (for the three fuel types) was unchanged for the 0% EGR condition but was significantly lower for the B100 and B100-emulsion during the 27% EGR condition compared to the ULSD fuel. Analysis of the emissions and heat release data indicate that water enhances air-fuel premixing to maintain fuel economy and lower soot formation. The exhaust chemistry of the biodiesel base fuels (B100 and water-emulsified B100) was found to be unique in that they contained measurable levels of methyl alkenoates, which were not found for the ULSD. These compounds were formed by the partial cracking of the methyl ester groups during combustion.

  16. Phosphor blends for high-CRI fluorescent lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Setlur, Anant Achyut; Srivastava, Alok Mani; Comanzo, Holly Ann; Manivannan, Venkatesan; Beers, William Winder; Toth, Katalin; Balazs, Laszlo D.

    2008-06-24

    A phosphor blend comprises at least two phosphors each selected from one of the groups of phosphors that absorb UV electromagnetic radiation and emit in a region of visible light. The phosphor blend can be applied to a discharge gas radiation source to produce light sources having high color rendering index. A phosphor blend is advantageously includes the phosphor (Tb,Y,LuLa,Gd).sub.x(Al,Ga).sub.yO.sub.12:Ce.sup.3+, wherein x is in the range from about 2.8 to and including 3 and y is in the range from about 4 to and including 5.

  17. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT MISSION ANALYSIS WASTE BLENDING STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SHUFORD DH; STEGEN G

    2010-04-19

    Preliminary evaluation for blending Hanford site waste with the objective of minimizing the amount of high-level waste (HLW) glass volumes without major changes to the overall waste retrieval and processing sequences currently planned. The evaluation utilizes simplified spreadsheet models developed to allow screening type comparisons of blending options without the need to use the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model. The blending scenarios evaluated are expected to increase tank farm operation costs due to increased waste transfers. Benefit would be derived from shorter operating time period for tank waste processing facilities, reduced onsite storage of immobilized HLW, and reduced offsite transportation and disposal costs for the immobilized HLW.

  18. Heavy Alcohols as a Fuel Blending Agent for Compression Ignition Engine Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Blends of Phytol and diesel (by volume) were compared against baseline diesel experiments and simulations

  19. Storage Tanks and Dispensers for E85 and Bio-Diesel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webster, Michael; Frederick, Justin

    2014-02-10

    Project objective is to improve the District's alternative fueling infrastructure by installing storage tanks and dispensers for E-85 and Bio-Diesel at the existing Blackwell Forest Preserve Alternative Fuel Station. The addition of E-85 and Bio-Diesel at this station will continue to reduce our dependency on foreign oil, while promoting the use of clean burning, domestically produced, renewable alternative fuels. In addition, this station will promote strong intergovernmental cooperation as other governmental agencies have expressed interest in utilizing this station.

  20. Time phased alternate blending of feed coals for liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schweigharett, Frank; Hoover, David S.; Garg, Diwaker

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for reducing process performance excursions during feed coal or process solvent changeover in a coal hydroliquefaction process by blending of feedstocks or solvents over time. ,

  1. Photonic polymer-blend structures and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnes, Michael D.

    2004-06-29

    The present invention comprises the formation of photonic polymer-blend structures having tunable optical and mechanical properties. The photonic polymer-blend structures comprise monomer units of spherical microparticles of a polymer-blend material wherein the spherical microparticles have surfaces partially merged with one another in a robust inter-particle bond having a tunable inter-particle separation or bond length sequentially attached in a desired and programmable architecture. The photonic polymer-blend structures of the present invention can be linked by several hundred individual particles sequentially linked to form complex three-dimensional structures or highly ordered two-dimensional arrays of 3D columns with 2D spacing.

  2. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as metal. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-05

    The mission of this Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will be to blend surplus HEU metal and alloy with depleted uranium metal to produce an LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  3. Macrophase Separation of Blends of Diblock Copolymers in Thin Films

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Macrophase Separation of Blends of Diblock Copolymers in Thin Films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Macrophase Separation of Blends of Diblock Copolymers in Thin Films Authors: Williamson, Lance D. ; Nealey, Paul F. [1] + Show Author Affiliations (UC) Publication Date: 2015-08-26 OSTI Identifier: 1203744 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Macromolecules; Journal Volume: 48; Journal Issue: (12) ; 06, 2015 Research

  4. BLENDING ANALYSIS FOR RADIOACTIVE SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.

    2012-05-10

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated methods to mix and blend the contents of the blend tanks to ensure the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 21 and Tank 24 to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The tank contents consist of three forms: dissolved salt solution, other waste salt solutions, and sludge containing settled solids. This paper focuses on developing the computational model and estimating the operation time of submersible slurry pump when the tank contents are adequately blended prior to their transfer to the SWPF facility. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach was taken by using the full scale configuration of SRS Type-IV tank, Tank 21H. Major solid obstructions such as the tank wall boundary, the transfer pump column, and three slurry pump housings including one active and two inactive pumps were included in the mixing performance model. Basic flow pattern results predicted by the computational model were benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data. Tank 21 is a waste tank that is used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work scope described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the steady state flow pattern calculations before the addition of acid solution for tank blending operation and the transient mixing analysis during miscible liquid blending operation. The transient blending calculations were performed by using the 95% homogeneity criterion for the entire liquid domain of the tank. The initial conditions for the entire modeling domain were based on the steady-state flow pattern results with zero second phase concentration. The performance model was also benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data.

  5. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poindl, M., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut fr Kunststofftechnik, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  6. Specimen coordinate automated measuring machine/fiducial automated measuring machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hedglen, Robert E.; Jacket, Howard S.; Schwartz, Allan I.

    1991-01-01

    The Specimen coordinate Automated Measuring Machine (SCAMM) and the Fiducial Automated Measuring Machine (FAMM) is a computer controlled metrology system capable of measuring length, width, and thickness, and of locating fiducial marks. SCAMM and FAMM have many similarities in their designs, and they can be converted from one to the other without taking them out of the hot cell. Both have means for: supporting a plurality of samples and a standard; controlling the movement of the samples in the +/- X and Y directions; determining the coordinates of the sample; compensating for temperature effects; and verifying the accuracy of the measurements and repeating as necessary. SCAMM and FAMM are designed to be used in hot cells.

  7. EECBG Success Story: Atlanta Suburb Greases the Path to Savings with Biodiesel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Downtown Smyrna, Georgia is using $184,000 of the city’s $208,000 in Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant funding to create space for two 55-gallon processors that will turn cooking oil into biodiesel. Learn more.

  8. Production of FAME biodiesel in E. coli by direct methylation with an insect enzyme

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sherkhanov, Saken; Korman, Tyler P.; Clarke, Steven G.; Bowie, James U.

    2016-04-07

    Here, most biodiesel currently in use consists of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) produced by transesterification of plant oils with methanol. To reduce competition with food supplies, it would be desirable to directly produce biodiesel in microorganisms. To date, the most effective pathway for the production of biodiesel in bacteria yields fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) at up to ~1.5 g/L. A much simpler route to biodiesel produces FAMEs by direct S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) dependent methylation of free fatty acids, but FAME production by this route has been limited to only ~16 mg/L. Here we employ an alternative, broad spectrum methyltransferase,more » Drosophila melanogaster Juvenile Hormone Acid O-Methyltransferase (DmJHAMT). By introducing DmJHAMT in E. coli engineered to produce medium chain fatty acids and overproduce SAM, we obtain medium chain FAMEs at titers of 0.56 g/L, a 35-fold increase over titers previously achieved. Although considerable improvements will be needed for viable bacterial production of FAMEs and FAEEs for biofuels, it may be easier to optimize and transport the FAME production pathway to other microorganisms because it involves fewer enzymes.« less

  9. Life Cycle Inventory of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel for Use in an Urban Bus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheehan, John; Camobreco, Vince; Duffield, James; Graboski, Michael; Graboski, Michael; Shapouri, Housein

    1998-05-01

    This report presents the findings from a study of the life cycle inventories (LCIs) for petroleum diesel and biodiesel. An LCI is a comprehensive quantification of all the energy and environmental flows associated with a product from “cradle to grave.” It provides information on raw materials extracted from the environment; energy resources consumed; air, water, and solid waste emissions generated.

  10. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Biodiesel and Other Technologies Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-10-28

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Biodiesel and Other Technologies, held on August 14th and 15th in Golden, Colorado.

  11. Permanent Closure of MFC Biodiesel Underground Storage Tank 99ANL00013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerry L. Nisson

    2012-10-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the Materials and Fuels Complex biodiesel underground storage tank 99ANL00013 in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, “Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.”

  12. Operation of a solid oxide fuel cell on biodiesel with a partial oxidation reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, N, Shekhawat, D.; Gemmen, R.; Berry, D.

    2010-01-01

    The National Energy Technology Laboratorys Office of Research & Development (NETL/ORD) has successfully demonstrated the operation of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using reformed biodiesel. The biodiesel for the project was produced and characterized by West Virginia State University (WVSU). This project had two main aspects: 1) demonstrate a catalyst formulation on monolith for biodiesel fuel reforming; and 2) establish SOFC stack test stand capabilities. Both aspects have been completed successfully. For the first aspect, inhouse patented catalyst specifications were developed, fabricated and tested. Parametric reforming studies of biofuels provided data on fuel composition, catalyst degradation, syngas composition, and operating parameters required for successful reforming and integration with the SOFC test stand. For the second aspect, a stack test fixture (STF) for standardized testing, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for the Solid Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Program, was engineered and constructed at NETL. To facilitate the demonstration of the STF, NETL employed H.C. Starck Ceramics GmbH & Co. (Germany) anode supported solid oxide cells. In addition, anode supported cells, SS441 end plates, and cell frames were transferred from PNNL to NETL. The stack assembly and conditioning procedures, including stack welding and sealing, contact paste application, binder burn-out, seal-setting, hot standby, and other stack assembly and conditioning methods were transferred to NETL. In the future, fuel cell stacks provided by SECA or other developers could be tested at the STF to validate SOFC performance on various fuels. The STF operated on hydrogen for over 1000 hrs before switching over to reformed biodiesel for 100 hrs of operation. Combining these first two aspects led to demonstrating the biodiesel syngas in the STF. A reformer was built and used to convert 0.5 ml/min of biodiesel into mostly hydrogen and carbon monoxide (syngas.) The syngas was fed to the STF and fuel cell stack. The results presented in this experimental report document one of the first times a SOFC has been operated on syngas from reformed biodiesel.

  13. Automated nutrient analyses in seawater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitledge, T.E.; Malloy, S.C.; Patton, C.J.; Wirick, C.D.

    1981-02-01

    This manual was assembled for use as a guide for analyzing the nutrient content of seawater samples collected in the marine coastal zone of the Northeast United States and the Bering Sea. Some modifications (changes in dilution or sample pump tube sizes) may be necessary to achieve optimum measurements in very pronounced oligotrophic, eutrophic or brackish areas. Information is presented under the following section headings: theory and mechanics of automated analysis; continuous flow system description; operation of autoanalyzer system; cookbook of current nutrient methods; automated analyzer and data analysis software; computer interfacing and hardware modifications; and trouble shooting. The three appendixes are entitled: references and additional reading; manifold components and chemicals; and software listings. (JGB)

  14. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the results from the second season of research to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid reliability and manage electricity costs. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. We refer to this as Auto-DR. The evaluation of the control and communications must be properly configured and pass through a set of test stages: Readiness, Approval, Price Client/Price Server Communication, Internet Gateway/Internet Relay Communication, Control of Equipment, and DR Shed Effectiveness. New commissioning tests are needed for such systems to improve connecting demand responsive building systems to the electric grid demand response systems.

  15. Making the transition to automation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christenson, D.J. )

    1992-10-01

    By 1995, the Bureau of Reclamation's hydropower plant near Hungry Horse, Montana, will be remotely operated from Grand Coulee dam (about 300 miles away) in Washington State. Automation at Hungry Horse will eliminate the need for four full-time power plant operators. Between now and then, a transition plan that offers employees choices for retraining, transferring, or taking early retirement will smooth the transition in reducing from five operators to one. The transition plan also includes the use of temporary employees to offset risks of reducing staff too soon. When completed in 1953, the Hungry Horse structure was the world's fourth largest and fourth highest concrete dam. The arch-gravity structure has a crest length of 2,115 feet; it is 3,565 feet above sea level. The four turbine-generator units in the powerhouse total 284 MW, and supply approximately 1 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity annually to the federal power grid managed by the Bonneville Power Administration. In 1988, Reclamation began to automate operations at many of its hydro plants, and to establish centralized control points. The control center concept will increase efficiency. It also will coordinate water movements and power supply throughout the West. In the Pacific Northwest, the Grand Coulee and Black Canyon plants are automated control centers. Several Reclamation-owned facilities in the Columbia River Basin, including Hungry Horse, will be connected to these centers via microwave and telephone lines. When automation is complete, constant monitoring by computer will replace hourly manual readings and equipment checks. Computers also are expected to increase water use efficiency by 1 to 2 percent by ensuring operation for maximum turbine efficiency. Unit efficiency curves for various heads will be programmed into the system.

  16. Blending of Radioactive Salt Solutions in Million Gallon Tanks - 13002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 - 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, 'One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory'. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks. (authors)

  17. Blending Of Radioactive Salt Solutions In Million Gallon Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

    2012-12-10

    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 ? 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, ?One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory?. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

  18. LANL to certify automated influenza surveillance system

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LANL to certify automated influenza surveillance system LANL to certify automated influenza surveillance system A compact automated system for surveillance and screening of potential pandemic strains of influenza and other deadly infectious diseases is a step closer to reality. January 31, 2011 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience,

  19. Automated Transportation Logistics and Analysis System (ATLAS)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Automated Office Systems Support (AOSS) Quality Assurance Model Automated Office Systems Support (AOSS) Quality Assurance Model A quality assurance model, including checklists, for activity relative to network and desktop computer support. PDF icon Automated Office Systems Support (AOSS) Quality Assurance Model More Documents & Publications Audit Report: CR-B-97-04 CITSS Project Plan Quality Assurance Checklist Insulated Cladding Systems | Department of Energy

  20. Final Technical Report on Development of an Economic and Efficient Biodiesel production Process (NC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tirla, Cornelia; Dooling, Thomas A.; Smith, Rachel B.; Shi, Xinyan; Shahbazi, Abolghasem

    2014-03-19

    The Biofuels Team at The University of North Carolina at Pembroke and North Carolina A&T State University carried out a joint research project aimed at developing an efficient process to produce biodiesel. In this project, the team developed and tested various types of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts which could replace the conventionally used soluble potassium hydroxide catalyst which, traditionally, must be separated and disposed of at the end of the process. As a result of this screening, the homogeneous catalyst choline hydroxide was identified as a potential replacement for the traditional catalyst used in this process, potassium hydroxide, due to its decreased corrosiveness and toxicity. A large number of heterogeneous catalysts were produced and tested in order to determine the scaffold, ion type and ion concentration which would produce optimum yield of biodiesel. The catalyst with 12% calcium on Zeolite β was identified as being highly effective and optimal reaction conditions were identified. Furthermore, a packed bed reactor utilizing this type of catalyst was designed, constructed and tested in order to further optimize the process. An economic analysis of the viability of the project showed that the cost of an independent farmer to produce the fuelstock required to produce biodiesel exceeds the cost of petroleum diesel under current conditions and that therefore without incentives, farmers would not be able to benefit economically from producing their own fuel. An educational website on biodiesel production and analysis was produced and a laboratory experiment demonstrating the production of biodiesel was developed and implemented into the Organic Chemistry II laboratory curriculum at UNCP. Five workshops for local farmers and agricultural agents were held in order to inform the broader community about the various fuelstock available, their cultivation and the process and advantages of biodiesel use and production. This project fits both Universities’ goals in the Biofuels Research Initiative, since it uses an alternative fuelstock: namely canola. The outcomes of this project may eventually aid in reducing the state’s consumption of corn and soybean, which are important food crops. The project will also encourage regional farmers to grow alternative crops for biofuel production. The success of this project has contributed towards the development of Robeson County, an economically disadvantaged region. Additionally it should be noted that Robeson County serves a large Native American population. Therefore, training and engaging this minority group in the energy industry was an important accomplishment.

  1. Controlled differential pressure system for an enhanced fluid blending apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis

    2009-02-24

    A system and method for producing a controlled blend of two or more fluids. Thermally-induced permeation through a permeable tube is used to mix a first fluid from outside the tube with a second fluid flowing through the tube. Mixture ratios may be controlled by adjusting the temperature of the first fluid or by adjusting the pressure drop through the permeable tube. The combination of a back pressure control valve and a differential regulator is used to control the output pressure of the blended fluid. The combination of the back pressure control valve and differential regulator provides superior flow control of the second dry gas. A valve manifold system may be used to mix multiple fluids, and to adjust the volume of blended fluid produced, and to further modify the mixture ratio.

  2. Impact of the Fuel Molecular Structure on the Oxidation Process of Real Diesel fuels According to Storage Conditions and Biodiesel Content

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrocarbon profilers can provide a clear understanding of complex interactions between fuel chemistry, storage conditions, and quantity of biodiesel over time.

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: Research: High Consequence, Automation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About Robotics Robotic arm With more than 25 years of experience and hundreds of ... HCAR has been developing high-consequence automation solutions for more than 25 years. ...

  4. Investigating Potential Strategies for Automating Commissioning Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brambley, Michael R.; Briggs, Robert S.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Dasher, Carolyn; Luskay, Larry; Irvine, Linda

    2002-05-31

    This paper provides summary results from a project on automated and continuous commissioning currently underway for the Air-Conditioning & Refrigeration Technology Institute (ARTI). The project focuses on developing methods for automating parts of the commissioning of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in newly-built, as well as existing, commercial buildings. This paper provides a summary of work completed to date, which has focused on selecting building systems; operation problems; and parts of the commissioning process where automation is likely to provide the greatest benefits. It also includes an overview of the approach planned for development and demonstration of methods for automating the selected areas.

  5. Distributed Automated Demand Response - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search Distributed Automated Demand Response Lawrence Livermore ...

  6. Ditec Automation Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Ditec Automation Group Place: Mexico City, Mexico Product: Mexico City-based manufacturing and installation company. Focused on material handling, industrial ovens,...

  7. Automated High Throughput Drug Target Crystallography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rupp, B

    2005-02-18

    The molecular structures of drug target proteins and receptors form the basis for 'rational' or structure guided drug design. The majority of target structures are experimentally determined by protein X-ray crystallography, which as evolved into a highly automated, high throughput drug discovery and screening tool. Process automation has accelerated tasks from parallel protein expression, fully automated crystallization, and rapid data collection to highly efficient structure determination methods. A thoroughly designed automation technology platform supported by a powerful informatics infrastructure forms the basis for optimal workflow implementation and the data mining and analysis tools to generate new leads from experimental protein drug target structures.

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: Research: High Consequence, Automation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    timing studies, observe layouts, and help estimate project costs. In the flexible automation pilot plant, robots are used to open and remove munitions from containers. The...

  9. Automation Alley Technology Center | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alley Technology Center Jump to: navigation, search Name: Automation Alley Technology Center Place: United States Sector: Services Product: General Financial & Legal Services (...

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: Research: High Consequence, Automation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First responder support Contact Us Questions and comments about High Consequence, Automation, & Robotics? Contact us. Videos T An error occurred. Try watching this video on...

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: Research: High Consequence, Automation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    team knew they needed a robot for the job and called Sandia's High Consequence, Automation, & Robotics (HCAR) team. Mighty Mouse Challenge Typically the cylinder moved back...

  12. Certification of alternative aviation fuels and blend components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson III, George R. ); Edwards, Tim; Corporan, Edwin ); Freerks, Robert L. )

    2013-01-15

    Aviation turbine engine fuel specifications are governed by ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International, and the British Ministry of Defence (MOD). ASTM D1655 Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels and MOD Defence Standard 91-91 are the guiding specifications for this fuel throughout most of the world. Both of these documents rely heavily on the vast amount of experience in production and use of turbine engine fuels from conventional sources, such as crude oil, natural gas condensates, heavy oil, shale oil, and oil sands. Turbine engine fuel derived from these resources and meeting the above specifications has properties that are generally considered acceptable for fuels to be used in turbine engines. Alternative and synthetic fuel components are approved for use to blend with conventional turbine engine fuels after considerable testing. ASTM has established a specification for fuels containing synthesized hydrocarbons under D7566, and the MOD has included additional requirements for fuels containing synthetic components under Annex D of DS91-91. New turbine engine fuel additives and blend components need to be evaluated using ASTM D4054, Standard Practice for Qualification and Approval of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives. This paper discusses these specifications and testing requirements in light of recent literature claiming that some biomass-derived blend components, which have been used to blend in conventional aviation fuel, meet the requirements for aviation turbine fuels as specified by ASTM and the MOD. The 'Table 1' requirements listed in both D1655 and DS91-91 are predicated on the assumption that the feedstocks used to make fuels meeting these requirements are from approved sources. Recent papers have implied that commercial jet fuel can be blended with renewable components that are not hydrocarbons (such as fatty acid methyl esters). These are not allowed blend components for turbine engine fuels as discussed in this paper.

  13. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Brown, William F. (West Richland, WA); Steffen, Jim M. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inserted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  14. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.; Steffen, J.M.

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inerted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  15. BETO Seeks Stakeholder Input on the Use of Advanced Biofuel Blends...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Seeks Stakeholder Input on the Use of Advanced Biofuel Blends in Small Engines BETO Seeks Stakeholder Input on the Use of Advanced Biofuel Blends in Small Engines June 22, 2015 - ...

  16. Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion with Alcohol-blended Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Analysis showed that gasoline direct injection engine particulates from alcohol-blended fuels are significantly different in morphology and nanostructures

  17. Methods and catalysts for making biodiesel from the transesterification and esterification of unrefined oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yan, Shuli; Salley, Steven O.; Ng, K. Y. Simon

    2012-04-24

    A method of forming a biodiesel product and a heterogeneous catalyst system used to form said product that has a high tolerance for the presence of water and free fatty acids (FFA) in the oil feedstock is disclosed. This catalyst system may simultaneously catalyze both the esterification of FAA and the transesterification of triglycerides present in the oil feedstock. The catalyst system according to one aspect of the present disclosure represents a class of zinc and lanthanum oxide heterogeneous catalysts that include different ratios of zinc oxide to lanthanum oxides (Zn:La ratio) ranging from about 10:0 to 0:10. The Zn:La ratio in the catalyst is believed to have an effect on the number and reactivity of Lewis acid and base sites, as well as the transesterification of glycerides, the esterification of fatty acids, and the hydrolysis of glycerides and biodiesel.

  18. Impact of Biodiesel Impurities on the Performance and Durability of DOC, DPF and SCR Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R.; Luecke, J.; Brezny, R.; Geisselmann, A.; Voss, K.; Hallstrom, K.; Leustek, M.; Parsons, J.; Abi-Akar, H.

    2011-06-01

    It is estimated that operating continuously on a B20 fuel containing the current allowable ASTM specification limits for metal impurities in biodiesel could result in a doubling of ash exposure relative to lube-oil derived ash. The purpose of this study was to determine if a fuel containing metals at the ASTM limits could cause adverse impacts on the performance and durability of diesel emission control systems. An accelerated durability test method was developed to determine the potential impact of these biodiesel impurities. The test program included engine testing with multiple DPF substrate types as well as DOC and SCR catalysts. The results showed no significant degradation in the thermo-mechanical properties of cordierite, aluminum titanate, or silicon carbide DPFs after exposure to 150,000 mile equivalent biodiesel ash and thermal aging. However, exposure of a cordierite DPF to 435,000 mile equivalent aging resulted in a 69% decrease in the thermal shock resistance parameter. It is estimated that the additional ash from 150,000 miles of biodiesel use would also result in a moderate increases in exhaust backpressure for a DPF. A decrease in DOC activity was seen after exposure to 150,000 mile equivalent aging, resulting in higher HC slip and a reduction in NO{sub 2} formation. The metal-zeolite SCR catalyst experienced a slight loss in activity after exposure to 435,000 mile equivalent aging. This catalyst, placed downstream of the DPF, showed a 5% reduction in overall NOx conversion activity over the HDDT test cycle.

  19. St. Louis Metro Biodiesel (B20) Transit Bus Evaluation: 12-Month Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R.; McCormick, R. L.; Lammert, M.

    2008-07-01

    The St. Louis Metro Bodiesel Transit Bus Evaluation project is being conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between NREL and the National Biodiesel Board to evaluate the extended in-use performance of buses operating on B20 fuel. The objective of this research project is to compare B20 and ultra-low sulfur diesel buses in terms of fuel economy, veicles maintenance, engine performance, component wear, and lube oil performance.

  20. Comprehensive Assessment of the Emissions from the Use of Biodiesel in

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    California | Department of Energy Overview of a comprehensive assessment of emissions from biodiesel use in California PDF icon deer08_durbin.pdf More Documents & Publications Evaluation of the European PMP Methodologies Using Chassis Dynamometer and On-road Testing of Heavy-duty Vehicles Measuring "Real World" Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions with a Mobile Lab Commonalities between Non-road and On-road Diesel Emissions

  1. Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity, Oxidation and

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Corrosion | Department of Energy In-cylinder fuel injection to produce rich exhaust for regeneration of lean NOx trap catalyst and diesel particulate filter results in substantial fuel dilution of lubricating oil cause changes of lubricating oil properties and scuffing of engine components. PDF icon deer08_watson.pdf More Documents & Publications Impact of Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties Affecting Fuel Economy and Engine Wear Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust

  2. Impact of Biodiesel Impurities on the Performance and Durability of DOC, DPF and SCR Technologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R.; Luecke, J.; Brezny, R.; Geisselmann, A.; Voss, K.; Hallstrom, K.; Leustek, M.; Parsons, J.; Abi-Akar, H.

    2011-04-01

    An accelerated durability test method determined the potential impact of biodiesel ash impurities, including engine testing with multiple diesel particulate filter substrate types, as well as diesel oxidation catalyst and selective catalyst reduction catalysts. The results showed no significant degradation in the thermo-mechanical properties of a DPF after exposure to 150,000-mile equivalent biodiesel ash and thermal aging. However, exposure to 435,000-mile equivalent aging resulted in a 69% decrease in thermal shock resistance. A decrease in DOC activity was seen after exposure to 150,000-mile equivalent aging, resulting in higher hydrocarbon slip and a reduction in NO2 formation. The SCR catalyst experienced a slight loss in activity after exposure to 435,000-mile equivalent aging. The SCR catalyst, placed downstream of the DPF and exposed to B20 exhaust suffered a 5% reduction in overall NOx conversion activity over the HDDT test cycle. It is estimated that the additional ash from 150,000 miles of biodiesel use would also result in a moderate increases in exhaust backpressure for a DPF. The results of this study suggest that long-term operation with B20 at the current specification limits for alkali and alkaline earth metal impurities will adversely impact the performance of DOC, DPF and SCR systems.

  3. Quality Parameters and Chemical Analysis for Biodiesel Produced in the United States in 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alleman, T. L.; Fouts, L.; Chupka, G.

    2013-03-01

    Samples of biodiesel (B100) from producers and terminals in 2011were tested for critical properties: free and total glycerin, flash point, cloud point, oxidation stability, cold soak filterability, and metals. Failure rates for cold soak filterability and oxidation stability were below 5%. One sample failed flash point due to excess methanol. One sample failed oxidation stability and metal content. Overall, 95% of the samples from this survey met biodiesel quality specification ASTM D6751. In 2007, a sampling of B100 from production facilities showed that nearly 90% met D6751. In samples meeting D6751, calcium was found above the method detection limit in nearly half the samples. Feedstock analysis revealed half the biodiesel was produced from soy and half was from mixed feedstocks. The saturated fatty acid methyl ester concentration of the B100 was compared to the saturated monoglyceride concentration as a percent of total monoglyceride. The real-world correlation of these properties was very good. The results of liquid chromatograph measurement of monoglycerides were compared to ASTM D6751. Agreement between the two methods was good, particularly for total monoglycerides and unsaturated monoglycerides. Because only very low levels of saturated monoglycerides measured, the two methods had more variability, but the correlation was still acceptable.

  4. Automated Centrifugal Chiller Diagnostician - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Automated Centrifugal Chiller Diagnostician Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Contact PNNL About This Technology Centrifugal chiller display Centrifugal chiller display Typical diagnostic display Typical diagnostic display Technology Marketing Summary Researchers and engineers at PNNL have developed an automated, sophisticated, multi-level, real-time centrifugal chiller diagnostician with diagnostics available under partial

  5. NOx, SOx & CO{sub 2} mitigation using blended coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Labbe, D.

    2009-11-15

    Estimates of potential CO{sub 2} reduction achievable through the use of a mixture of bituminous and subbituminous (PRB) coals, whilst attaining NOx and SOx compliance are presented. The optimization considerations to provide satisfactory furnace, boiler and unit performance with blended coal supplies to make such operation feasible are discussed. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  7. Automation of the longwall mining system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimmerman, W.; Aster, R.; Harris, J.; High, J.

    1982-11-01

    The longwall automation study presented is the first phase of a study to evaluate mining automation opportunities. The objective was to identify cost-effective, safe, and technologically sound applications of automation technology to understand coal mining. The prime automation candidates resulting from the industry experience and survey were: (1) the shearer operation, (2) shield and conveyor pan-line advance, (3) a management information system to allow improved mine logistics support, and (4) component fault isolation and diagnostics to reduce untimely maintenance delays. A system network analysis indicated that a 40% improvement in productivity was feasible if system delays associated with all of the above four areas were removed. A technology assessment and conceptual system design of each of the four automation candidate areas showed that state-of-the-art digital computer, servomechanism, and actuator technologies could be applied to automate the longwall system. The final cost benefit analysis of all of the automation areas indicated a total net national benefit (profit) of roughly $200 million to the longwall mining industry if all automation candidates were installed. This cost benefit represented an approximate order of magnitude payback on the research and development (R and D) investment. In conclusion, it is recommended that the shearer operation be automated first because it provides a large number of other sensor inputs required for face alignment (i.e., shields and conveyor). Automation of the shield and conveyor pan-line advance is suggested as the next step since both the shearer and face alignment operations contributed the greatest time delays to the overall system downtime.

  8. Microsoft Word - Wireless Automation World for OE FINAL.doc

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automation World Features New White Paper on Wireless Security, Interviews Authors April 16, 2009 The April 2009 issue of Automation World magazine features the white paper ...

  9. ISA Approves Standard for Wireless Automation in Process Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wireless Automation in Process Control Applications September 22, 2009 On September 9, the Standards and Practices Board of the International Society for Automation (ISA) approved ...

  10. Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Michael ...

  11. ISA Approves Standard for Wireless Automation in Process Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ISA Approves Standard for Wireless Automation in Process Control Applications On September 9, the Standards and Practices Board of the International Society for Automation (ISA) ...

  12. U-047: Siemens Automation License Manager Bugs Let Remote Users...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7: Siemens Automation License Manager Bugs Let Remote Users Deny Service or Execute Arbitrary Code U-047: Siemens Automation License Manager Bugs Let Remote Users Deny Service or...

  13. Multiplex automated genome engineering Church, George M; Wang...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multiplex automated genome engineering Church, George M; Wang, Harris H; Isaacs, Farren J The present invention relates to automated methods of introducing multiple nucleic acid...

  14. National SCADA Test Bed Substation Automation Evaluation Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: National SCADA Test Bed Substation Automation Evaluation Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: National SCADA Test Bed Substation Automation ...

  15. Hirschmann Automation and Control GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hirschmann Automation and Control GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hirschmann Automation and Control GmbH Place: Neckartenzlingen, Baden-Wrttemberg, Germany Zip: 72654...

  16. DA (Distribution Automation) (Smart Grid Project) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DA (Distribution Automation) (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name DA (Distribution Automation) Country Netherlands Coordinates 52.132633, 5.291266...

  17. Belden Deutschland GmbH Lumberg Automation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Belden Deutschland GmbH Lumberg Automation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Belden Deutschland GmbH - Lumberg Automation Place: Schalksmuhle, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany Zip:...

  18. Global health response more accurate with automated influenza...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global health response more accurate with automated influenza surveillance Global health response more accurate with automated influenza surveillance Public health officials will...

  19. Highly Insulating Residential Windows Using Smart Automated Shading...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Highly Insulating Residential Windows Using Smart Automated Shading Highly Insulating Residential Windows Using Smart Automated Shading Addthis 1 of 3 Residential Smart Window with ...

  20. Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Emerging ...

  1. Reference Model for Control and Automation Systems in Electrical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Model for Control and Automation Systems in Electrical Power (October 2005) Reference Model for Control and Automation Systems in Electrical Power (October 2005) Modern ...

  2. Automated Fresnel lens tester system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phipps, G.S.

    1981-07-01

    An automated data collection system controlled by a desktop computer has been developed for testing Fresnel concentrators (lenses) intended for solar energy applications. The system maps the two-dimensional irradiance pattern (image) formed in a plane parallel to the lens, whereas the lens and detector assembly track the sun. A point detector silicon diode (0.5-mm-dia active area) measures the irradiance at each point of an operator-defined rectilinear grid of data positions. Comparison with a second detector measuring solar insolation levels results in solar concentration ratios over the image plane. Summation of image plane energies allows calculation of lens efficiencies for various solar cell sizes. Various graphical plots of concentration ratio data help to visualize energy distribution patterns.

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biodiesel Tax Deduction Entities and individuals that receive or manufacture and deliver biodiesel within the state for blending or resale are eligible for a tax deduction for the...

  4. World Energy Alternatives LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LLC Place: Chelsea, Massachusetts Zip: 2150 Sector: Biofuels Product: Supplier of biodiesel, biodiesel blends and biofuels. Coordinates: 51.490139, -0.16248 Show Map...

  5. U.S. transparency monitoring of HEU oxide conversion and blending to LEU hexafluoride at three Russian blending plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leich, D., LLNL

    1998-07-27

    The down-blending of Russian highly enriched uranium (HEU) takes place at three Russian gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants. The fluorination of HEU oxide and down-blending of HEU hexafluoride began in 1994, and shipments of low enriched uranium (LEU) hexafluoride product to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) began in 1995 US transparency monitoring under the HEU Purchase Agreement began in 1996 and includes a permanent monitoring presence US transparency monitoring at these facilities is intended to provide confidence that HEU is received and down-blended to LEU for shipment to USEC The monitoring begins with observation of the receipt of HEU oxide shipments, including confirmation of enrichment using US nondestructive assay equipment The feeding of HEU oxide to the fluorination process and the withdrawal of HEU hexafluoride are monitored Monitoring is also conducted where the blending takes place and where shipping cylinders are filled with LEU product. A series of process and material accountancy documents are provided to US monitors.

  6. Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity and methods for manufacturing such blends

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terje

    1984-01-01

    There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

  7. Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity and methods for manufacturing such blends

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.

    A polymer blend is disclosed of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

  8. A COMBINED REACTION/PRODUCT RECOVERY PROCESS FOR THE CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birdwell, J.F., Jr.; McFarlane, J.; Schuh, D.L.; Tsouris, C; Day, J.N.; Hullette, J.N.

    2009-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Nu-Energie, LLC entered into a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) for the purpose of demonstrating and deploying a novel technology for the continuous synthesis and recovery of biodiesel from the transesterification of triglycerides. The focus of the work was the demonstration of a combination Couette reactor and centrifugal separator - an invention of ORNL researchers - that facilitates both product synthesis and recovery from reaction byproducts in the same apparatus. At present, transesterification of triglycerides to produce biodiesel is performed in batch-type reactors with an excess of a chemical catalyst, which is required to achieve high reactant conversions in reasonable reaction times (e.g., 1 hour). The need for long reactor residence times requires use of large reactors and ancillary equipment (e.g., feed and product tankage), and correspondingly large facilities, in order to obtain the economy of scale required to make the process economically viable. Hence, the goal of this CRADA was to demonstrate successful, extended operation of a laboratory-scale reactor/separator prototype to process typical industrial reactant materials, and to design, fabricate, and test a production-scale unit for deployment at the biodiesel production site. Because of its ease of operation, rapid attainment of steady state, high mass transfer and phase separation efficiencies, and compact size, a centrifugal contactor was chosen for intensification of the biodiesel production process. The unit was modified to increase the residence time from a few seconds to minutes*. For this application, liquid phases were introduced into the reactor as separate streams. One was composed of the methanol and base catalyst and the other was the soy oil used in the experiments. Following reaction in the mixing zone, the immiscible glycerine and methyl ester products were separated in the high speed rotor and collected from separate ports. Results from laboratory operations showed that the ASTM specification for bound acylglycerides was achieved only at extended reaction times ({approx}25 min) using a single-stage batch contact at elevated temperature and pressure. In the single-pass configuration, the time required gives no throughput advantage over the current batch reaction process. The limitation seems to be the presence of glycerine, which hinders complete conversion because of reversible reactions. Significant improvement in quality was indicated after a second and third passes, where product from the first stage was collected and separated from the glycerine, and further reacted with a minor addition of methanol. Chemical kinetics calculations suggest that five consecutive stages of 2 min residence time would produce better than ASTM specification fuel with no addition of methanol past the first stage. Additional stages may increase the capital investment, but the increase should be offset by reduced operating costs and a factor of 3 higher throughput. Biodiesel, a mixture of methyl esters, is made commercially from the transesterification of oil, often soy oil (see Reaction 1). The kinetics of the transesterification process is rapid; however, multiphase separations after the synthesis of the fuel can be problematic. Therefore, the process is typically run in batch mode. The biodiesel fuel and the glycerine product take several hours to separate. In addition, to push yields to completion, an excess of methoxide catalyst is typically used, which has to be removed from both the biodiesel and the glycerine phase after reaction. Washing steps are often employed to remove free fatty acids, which can lead to undesirable saponification. Standards for biodiesel purity are based either on the removal of contaminants before the oil feedstock is esterified or on the separation of unwanted by-products. Various methods have been examined to enhance either the pretreatment of biodiesel feedstocks or the posttreatment of reaction products, including the use of a cavitation reactor in the process intensification of the homogeneous acid catalysis of transesterification. Centrifugal mixing has been applied to biodiesel production, using the contactor as a low-throughput homogenizer, employing very low flow rates to increase residence times to tens of minutes. In this study, we have combined the reaction of oil and methoxide with the online separation of biodiesel and glycerine into one processing step, using a modified centrifugal contactor. Two distinct phases enter the reactor (reagents), and two distinct phases leave the reactor/separator (products), thus demonstrating the application of process intensification to high-throughput biofuel production. ORNL has been designing, fabricating, and operating centrifugal contactors for the selective extraction of actinide elements for over 25 years.

  9. Fueling Robot Automates Hydrogen Hose Reliability Testing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, K.

    2014-01-01

    Automated robot mimics fueling action to test hydrogen hoses for durability in real-world conditions.

  10. A computational investigation of diesel and biodiesel combustion and NOx formation in a light-duty compression ignition engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zihan; Srinivasan, Kalyan K.; Krishnan, Sundar R.; Som, Sibendu

    2012-04-24

    Diesel and biodiesel combustion in a multi-cylinder light duty diesel engine were simulated during a closed cycle (from IVC to EVO), using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CONVERGE, coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The computational domain was constructed based on engine geometry and compression ratio measurements. A skeletal n-heptane-based diesel mechanism developed by researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and a reduced biodiesel mechanism derived and validated by Luo and co-workers were applied to model the combustion chemistry. The biodiesel mechanism contains 89 species and 364 reactions and uses methyl decanoate, methyl-9- decenoate, and n-heptane as the surrogate fuel mixture. The Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) spray breakup model for diesel and biodiesel was calibrated to account for the differences in physical properties of the fuels which result in variations in atomization and spray development characteristics. The simulations were able to capture the experimentally observed pressure and apparent heat release rate trends for both the fuels over a range of engine loads (BMEPs from 2.5 to 10 bar) and fuel injection timings (from 0° BTDC to 10° BTDC), thus validating the overall modeling approach as well as the chemical kinetic models of diesel and biodiesel surrogates. Moreover, quantitative NOx predictions for diesel combustion and qualitative NOx predictions for biodiesel combustion were obtained with the CFD simulations and the in-cylinder temperature trends were correlated to the NOx trends."

  11. Improving Ethanol-Gasoline Blends by Addition of Higher Alcohols |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Mixtures of ethanol, gasoline, and higher alcohols were evaluated to determine if they offer superior performance to ethanol/gasoline blends in meeting the Renewal Fuels Standard II. PDF icon deer12_ickes.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency and emissions using steady-state and transient test procedures Drop In Fuels: Where the Road Leads

  12. High-Octane Mid-Level Ethanol Blend Market Assessment

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    High-Octane Mid-Level Ethanol Blend Market Assessment Caley Johnson, Emily Newes, Aaron Brooker, and Robert McCormick National Renewable Energy Laboratory Steve Peterson Lexidyne, LLC Paul Leiby, Rocio Uria Martinez, and Gbadebo Oladosu Oak Ridge National Laboratory Maxwell L. Brown Colorado School of Mines Technical Report NREL/TP-5400-63698 December 2015 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance

  13. MASS: An automated accountability system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erkkila, B.H.; Kelso, F.

    1994-08-01

    All Department of Energy contractors who manage accountable quantities of nuclear materials are required to implement an accountability system that tracks, and records the activities associated with those materials. At Los Alamos, the automated accountability system allows data entry on computer terminals and data base updating as soon as the entry is made. It is also able to generate all required reports in a timely Fashion. Over the last several years, the hardware and software have been upgraded to provide the users with all the capability needed to manage a large variety of operations with a wide variety of nuclear materials. Enhancements to the system are implemented as the needs of the users are identified. The system has grown with the expanded needs of the user; and has survived several years of changing operations and activity. The user community served by this system includes processing, materials control and accountability, and nuclear material management personnel. In addition to serving the local users, the accountability system supports the national data base (NMMSS). This paper contains a discussion of several details of the system design and operation. After several years of successful operation, this system provides an operating example of how computer systems can be used to manage a very dynamic data management problem.

  14. Automated Parallel Capillary Electrophoretic System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Qingbo; Kane, Thomas E.; Liu, Changsheng; Sonnenschein, Bernard; Sharer, Michael V.; Kernan, John R.

    2000-02-22

    An automated electrophoretic system is disclosed. The system employs a capillary cartridge having a plurality of capillary tubes. The cartridge has a first array of capillary ends projecting from one side of a plate. The first array of capillary ends are spaced apart in substantially the same manner as the wells of a microtitre tray of standard size. This allows one to simultaneously perform capillary electrophoresis on samples present in each of the wells of the tray. The system includes a stacked, dual carousel arrangement to eliminate cross-contamination resulting from reuse of the same buffer tray on consecutive executions from electrophoresis. The system also has a gel delivery module containing a gel syringe/a stepper motor or a high pressure chamber with a pump to quickly and uniformly deliver gel through the capillary tubes. The system further includes a multi-wavelength beam generator to generate a laser beam which produces a beam with a wide range of wavelengths. An off-line capillary reconditioner thoroughly cleans a capillary cartridge to enable simultaneous execution of electrophoresis with another capillary cartridge. The streamlined nature of the off-line capillary reconditioner offers the advantage of increased system throughput with a minimal increase in system cost.

  15. Review Of Rheology Models For Hanford Waste Blending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D. C.; Stone, M.

    2013-09-26

    The area of rheological property prediction was identified as a technology need in the Hanford Tank Waste - waste feed acceptance initiative area during a series of technical meetings among the national laboratories, Department of Energy-Office of River Protection, and Hanford site contractors. Meacham et al. delivered a technical report in June 2012, RPP-RPT-51652 ''One System Evaluation of Waste Transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant'' that included estimating of single shell tank waste Bingham plastic rheological model constants along with a discussion of the issues inherent in predicting the rheological properties of blended wastes. This report was selected as the basis for moving forward during the technical meetings. The report does not provide an equation for predicting rheological properties of blended waste slurries. The attached technical report gives an independent review of the provided Hanford rheological data, Hanford rheological models for single tank wastes, and Hanford rheology after blending provided in the Meacham report. The attached report also compares Hanford to SRS waste rheology and discusses some SRS rheological model equations for single tank wastes, as well as discussing SRS experience with the blending of waste sludges with aqueous material, other waste sludges, and frit slurries. Some observations of note: Savannah River Site (SRS) waste samples from slurried tanks typically have yield stress >1 Pa at 10 wt.% undissolved solids (UDS), while core samples largely have little or no yield stress at 10 wt.% UDS. This could be due to how the waste has been processed, stored, retrieved, and sampled or simply in the differences in the speciation of the wastes. The equations described in Meacham's report are not recommended for extrapolation to wt.% UDS beyond the available data for several reasons; weak technical basis, insufficient data, and large data scatter. When limited data are available, for example two to three points, the equations are not necessarily satisfactory (justified) for interpolations, due to the number of unknown variables equal the number of known data points, resulting in a coefficient of determination of one. SRS has had some success predicting the rheology of waste blends for similar waste types using rheological properties of the individual wastes and empirical blending viscosity equations. Both the Kendall-Monroe and Olney-Carlson equations were used. High accuracy was not obtained, but predictions were reasonable compared to measured flow curves. Blending SRS processed waste with frit slurry (much larger particles and the source of SRS glass formers) is a different sort of problem than that of two similar slurries of precipitated waste particles. A different approach to rheology prediction has had some success describing the incorporation of large frit particles into waste than the one used for blending two wastes. In this case, the Guth-Simha equation was used. If Hanford waste is found to have significant particles in the >100 μm diameter range, then it might be necessary to handle those particles differently from broadly distributed waste particles that are primarily <30 μm in diameter. The following are recommendations for the Hanford tank farms: Investigate the impact of large-scale mixing operations on yield stress for one or more Hanford tanks to see if Hanford waste rheological properties change to become more like SRS waste during both tank retrieval and tank qualification operations; Determine rheological properties of mobilized waste slurries by direct measurement rather than by prediction; Collect and characterize samples during the waste feed qualification process for each campaign; o From single source tanks that feed the qualification tanks; o Blends from the qualification tanks; Predictive rheological models must be used with caution, due to the lack of data to support such models and the utilization of the results that come from these models in making process decisions (e.g. the lack of actual operation experience). As experience is gained, the use of blending models that have been validated with real waste may become useful to predict future blends; Obtain more data measurements to check the validity of unknown coefficients for a given blending equation.

  16. Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

    2011-08-01

    This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

  17. Table 4. Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, February 2016

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, February 2016" "State","Number of producers","Annual production capacity (million gallons per year)" "Alabama",1,9 "Alaska",1,0 "Arizona",1,2 "Arkansas",2,63 "California",8,64 "Colorado","-","-" "Connecticut",1,15 "Delaware","-","-" "District of

  18. Investigation of Knock limited Compression Ratio of Ethanol Gasoline Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P; Youngquist, Adam D; Wagner, Robert M; Moore, Wayne; Foster, Matthew; Confer, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol offers significant potential for increasing the compression ratio of SI engines resulting from its high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. A study was conducted to determine the knock limited compression ratio of ethanol gasoline blends to identify the potential for improved operating efficiency. To operate an SI engine in a flex fuel vehicle requires operating strategies that allow operation on a broad range of fuels from gasoline to E85. Since gasoline or low ethanol blend operation is inherently limited by knock at high loads, strategies must be identified which allow operation on these fuels with minimal fuel economy or power density tradeoffs. A single cylinder direct injection spark ignited engine with fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is operated at WOT conditions to determine the knock limited compression ratio (CR) of ethanol fuel blends. The geometric compression ratio is varied by changing pistons, producing CR from 9.2 to 13.66. The effective CR is varied using an electro-hydraulic valvetrain that changed the effective trapped displacement using both Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC) and Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC). The EIVC and LIVC strategies result in effective CR being reduced while maintaining the geometric expansion ratio. It was found that at substantially similar engine conditions, increasing the ethanol content of the fuel results in higher engine efficiency and higher engine power. These can be partially attributed to a charge cooling effect and a higher heating valve of a stoichiometric mixture for ethanol blends (per unit mass of air). Additional thermodynamic effects on and a mole multiplier are also explored. It was also found that high CR can increase the efficiency of ethanol fuel blends, and as a result, the fuel economy penalty associated with the lower energy content of E85 can be reduced by about a third. Such operation necessitates that the engine be operated in a de-rated manner for gasoline, which is knock-prone at these high CR, in order to maintain compatibility. By using EIVC and LIVC strategies, good efficiency is maintained with gasoline, but power is reduced by about 34%.

  19. BETO Seeks Stakeholder Input on the Use of Advanced Biofuel Blends in Small

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engines | Department of Energy Seeks Stakeholder Input on the Use of Advanced Biofuel Blends in Small Engines BETO Seeks Stakeholder Input on the Use of Advanced Biofuel Blends in Small Engines June 22, 2015 - 4:39pm Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office has released a Request for Information (RFI) seeking stakeholder input on the following topics related to the use of advanced biofuel blends in small engines:

  20. Electronic and structural characteristics of zinc-blende wurtzite biphasic homostructure GaN nanowires

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jacobs, Benjamin W.; Ayres, Virginia M.; Petkov, Mihail P.; Halpern, Joshua B.; He, Maoqi; Baczewski, Andrew D.; McElroy, Kaylee; Crimp, Martin A.; Zhang, Jiaming; Shaw, Harry C.

    2016-02-01

    Here, we report a new biphasic crystalline wurtzite/zinc-blende homostructure in gallium nitride nanowires. Cathodoluminescence was used to quantitatively measure the wurtzite and zinc-blende band gaps. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to identify distinct wurtzite and zinc-blende crystalline phases within single nanowires through the use of selected area electron diffraction, electron dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and fast Fourier transform techniques. A mechanism for growth is identified.

  1. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    IMPACT OF LOW OCTANE HYDROCARBON BLENDING STREAMS ON "E85" ENGINE OPTIMIZATION Jim Szybist ... Year ETHANOL IS CURRENTLY THE LARGEST VOLUME BIOFUEL, VERY IMPORTANT FOR EISA COMPLIANCE * ...

  2. Determining the Impact of MSW as a Feedstock Blending Agent Presentati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Oral Presentation for 11th Annual World Congress on Industrial Biotechnology. May 12-15, ... from optimal blends and process on fermentation to determine any negative (or ...

  3. Effects of intermediate ethanol blends on legacy vehicles and small non-road engines, report 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Brian; Knoll, Keith; Clark, Wendy; Graves, Ronald; Orban, John; Przesmitzki, Steve; Theiss, Timothy

    2008-10-01

    Report on the test program to assess the viability of using intermediate ethanol blends as a contributor to meeting national goals in the use of renewable fuels.

  4. Fundamental Study of the Oxidation Characteristics and Pollutant Emissions of Model Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Q.; Wang, Y. L.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Tsotsis, T. T.

    2010-07-18

    In this study, the oxidation characteristics of biodiesel fuels are investigated with the goal of contributing toward the fundamental understanding of their combustion characteristics and evaluating the effect of using these alternative fuels on engine performance as well as on the environment. The focus of the study is on pure fatty acid methyl-esters (FAME,) that can serve as surrogate compounds for real biodiesels. The experiments are conducted in the stagnation-flow configuration, which allows for the systematic evaluation of fundamental combustion and emission characteristics. In this paper, the focus is primarily on the pollutant emission characteristics of two C{sub 4} FAMEs, namely, methyl-butanoate and methyl-crotonate, whose behavior is compared with that of n-butane and n-pentane. To provide insight into the mechanisms of pollutant formation for these fuels, the experimental data are compared with computed results using a model with consistent C1-C4 oxidation and NOx formation kinetics.

  5. Enhancement of CO2 and H2 Uptake for the Production of Biodiesel in Cupriavidus Necator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R. P.; Eckert, C. A.; Balzer, G. J.; Yu, J.; Maness, P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Cupriavidus necator fixes CO{sub 2} through the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle using electrons and energy obtained from the oxidation of H{sub 2}. Producing biodiesel-equivalent electrofuel from renewable CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} has immense potential, especially if the fuel is compatible with the existing fuel infrastructure. This research addressed enhanced substrate utilization by focusing on two strategies: (1) optimizing transcriptional regulations to afford over-expression of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO), the enzyme responsible for assimilation of CO{sub 2} into the CBB cycle; and (2) hydrogenase over-expression by introduction of additional copies of genes encoding a membrane-bound hydrogenase (MBH), a soluble hydrogenase (SH), and their maturation machinery to enhance oxidation of H{sub 2} to generate NAD(P)H and ATP required for CO{sub 2} fixation. Incorporation of these strategies into a single production strain resulted in 6-fold CO{sub 2} and 3-fold H{sub 2} uptake improvement, in vitro, with the overarching goal of providing abundant reducing equivalents towards the economic production of biodiesel in C. necator.

  6. Biodiesel Drives Florida Power & Light's EPAct Alternative Compliance Strategy; EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: Success Story (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-05-01

    This success story highlights how Florida Power & Light Company has successfully complied with the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) through Alternative Compliance using biodiesel technologies and how it has become a biofuel leader, reducing petroleum use and pollutant emissions throughout Florida.

  7. Automated Sorting of Transuranic Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shurtliff, Rodney Marvin

    2001-03-01

    The HANDSS-55 Transuranic Waste Sorting Module is designed to sort out items found in 55-gallon drums of waste as determined by an operator. Innovative imaging techniques coupled with fast linear motor-based motion systems and a flexible end-effector system allow the operator to remove items from the waste stream by a touch of the finger. When all desired items are removed from the waste stream, the remaining objects are automatically moved to a repackaging port for removal from the glovebox/cell. The Transuranic Waste Sorting Module consists of 1) a high accuracy XYZ Stereo Measurement and Imaging system, 2) a vibrating/tilting sorting table, 3) an XY Deployment System, 4) a ZR Deployment System, 5) several user-selectable end-effectors, 6) a waste bag opening system, 7) control and instrumentation, 8) a noncompliant waste load-out area, and 9) a Human/Machine Interface (HMI). The system is modular in design to accommodate database management tools, additional load-out ports, and other enhancements. Manually sorting the contents of a 55-gallon drum takes about one day per drum. The HANDSS-55 Waste Sorting Module is designed to significantly increase the throughput of this sorting process by automating those functions that are strenuous and tiresome for an operator to perform. The Waste Sorting Module uses the inherent ability of an operator to identify the items that need to be segregated from the waste stream and then, under computer control, picks that item out of the waste and deposits it in the appropriate location. The operator identifies the object by locating the visual image on a large color display and touches the image on the display with his finger. The computer then determines the location of the object, and performing a highspeed image analysis determines its size and orientation, so that a robotic gripper can be deployed to pick it up. Following operator verification by voice or function key, the object is deposited into a specified location.

  8. Developing New Alternative Energy in Virginia: Bio-Diesel from Algae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatcher, Patrick

    2012-03-29

    The overall objective of this study was to select chemical processing equipment, install and operate that equipment to directly convert algae to biodiesel via a reaction patented by Old Dominion University (Pat. No. US 8,080,679B2). This reaction is a high temperature (250- 330{degrees}C) methylation reaction utilizing tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to produce biodiesel. As originally envisioned, algal biomass could be treated with TMAH in methanol without the need to separately extract triacylglycerides (TAG). The reactor temperature allows volatilization and condensation of the methyl esters whereas the spent algae solids can be utilized as a high-value fertilizer because they are minimally charred. During the course of this work and immediately prior to commencing, we discovered that glycerol, a major by-product of the conventional transesterification reaction for biofuels, is not formed but rather three methoxylated glycerol derivatives are produced. These derivatives are high-value specialty green chemicals that strongly upgrade the economics of the process, rendering this approach as one that now values the biofuel only as a by-product, the main value products being the methoxylated glycerols. A horizontal agitated thin-film evaporator (one square foot heat transfer area) proved effective as the primary reactor facilitating the reaction and vaporization of the products, and subsequent discharge of the spent algae solids that are suitable for supplementing petrochemicalbased fertilizers for agriculture. Because of the size chosen for the reactor, we encountered problems with delivery of the algal feed to the reaction zone, but envision that this problem could easily disappear upon scale-up or can be replaced economically by incorporating an extraction process. The objective for production of biodiesel from algae in quantities that could be tested could not be met, but we implemented use of soybean oil as a surrogate TAG feed to overcome this limitation. The positive economics of this process are influenced by the following: 1. the weight percent of dry algae in suspension that can be fed into the evaporator, 2. the alga species’ ability to produce a higher yield of biodiesel, 3. the isolation of valuable methoxylated by-products, 4. recycling and regeneration of methanol and TMAH, and 5. the market value of biodiesel, commercial agricultural fertilizer, and the three methoxylated by-products. The negative economics of the process are the following: 1. the cost of producing dried, ground algae, 2. the capital cost of the equipment required for feedstock mixing, reaction, separation and recovery of products, and reactant recycling, and 3. the electrical cost and other utilities. In this report, the economic factors and results are assembled to predict the commercialization cost and its viability. This direct conversion process and equipment discussed herein can be adapted for various feedstocks including: other algal species, vegetable oil, jatropha oil, peanut oil, sunflower oil, and other TAG containing raw materials as a renewable energy resource.

  9. Single Stage Contactor Testing Of The Next Generation Solvent Blend

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman, D. T.; Peters, T. B.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Poirier, M. R.; Brass, E. A.; Garrison, A. G.; Ketusky, E. T.

    2014-01-06

    The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent to increase the cesium decontamination factor. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facility the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing utilized a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the new extractant, MaxCalix, as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 liquid-to-liquid centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. The results indicate that hydraulically, the NGS solvent performed hydraulically similar to the current solvent which was expected. For the organic carryover 93% of the solvent is predicted to be recovered from the stripping operation and 96% from the extraction operation. As for the mass transfer, the NGS solvent significantly improved the cesium DF by at least an order of magnitude when extrapolating the One-stage results to actual Seven-stage extraction operation with a stage efficiency of 95%.

  10. Table A1: Tank Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    A1: Tank Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends E10 E100 E10 E100 Manufacturer ✔ ✔ Continued from below FIBERGLASS a Highland Tank ✔ ✔ Containment Solutions ✔ ✔ J.L. Houston Co. ✔ ✔ Owens Corning (single wall 1965-1994) ✔ ✘ Kennedy Tank and Manufacturing Co., Inc. ✔ ✔ Owens Corning (double wall 1965- July 1, 1990) ✔ ✘ Lancaster Tanks and Steel Products ✔ ✔ Owens Corning (double wall July 2, 1990-December 31, 1994) ✔ ✔ Lannon Tank Corporation ✔ ✔

  11. Table B1. Pipe Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    B1. Pipe Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends Manufacturer Product Model Ethanol Compatibility Piping-All Companies have UL 971 listing for E100 Advantage Earth Products Piping 1.5", 2", 3", 4" E0-E100 Brugg Piping FLEXWELL-HL, SECON-X, NITROFLEX, LPG E0-E100 Franklin Fueling Piping Franklin has third-party certified piping compatible with up to E85. Contact manufacturer for specific part numbers. E0-E85 OPW Piping FlexWorks, KPS, Pisces (discontinued) E0-E100 NOV

  12. Hydrogen effects on materials for CNG/H2 blends.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farese, David; Keller, Jay O.; Somerday, Brian P.

    2010-09-01

    No concerns for Hydrogen-Enriched Compressed Natural gas (HCNG) in steel storage tanks if material strength is < 950 MPa. Recommend evaluating H{sub 2}-assisted fatigue cracking in higher strength steels at H{sub 2} partial pressure in blend. Limited fatigue testing on higher strength steel cylinders in H{sub 2} shows promising results. Impurities in Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) (e.g., CO) may provide extrinsic mechanism for mitigating H{sub 2}-assisted fatigue cracking in steel tanks.

  13. INVESTIGATION ON THE FLAME EXTINCTION LIMIT OF FUEL BLENDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahsan R. Choudhuri

    2005-02-01

    Lean flame extinction limits of binary fuel mixtures of methane (CH{sub 4}), propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}), and ethane (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}) were measured using a twin-flame counter-flow burner. Experiments were conducted to generate an extinction equivalence ratio vs. global stretch rate plot and an extrapolation method was used to calculate the equivalence ratio corresponding to an experimentally unattainable zero-stretch condition. The foregoing gases were selected because they are the primary constitutes of natural gas, which is the primary focus of the present study. To validate the experimental setup and methodology, the flame extinction limit of pure fuels at zero stretch conditions were also estimated and compared with published values. The lean flame extinction limits of methane (f{sub ext} = 4.6%) and propane (f{sub ext} = 2.25%) flames measured in the present study agreed with the values reported in the literature. It was observed that the flame extinction limit of fuel blends have a polynomial relation with the concentration of component fuels in the mixture. This behavior contradicts with the commonly used linear Le Chatelier's approximation. The experimentally determined polynomial relations between the flame extinction limits of fuel blends (i.e. methane-propane and methane-ethane) and methane concentration are as follows: (1) Methane-Propane--%f{sub ext} = (1.05 x 10{sup -9}) f{sup 5}-(1.3644 x 10{sup -7}) f{sup 4}+(6.40299 x 10{sup -6}) f{sup 3}-(1.2108459 x 10{sup -4}) f{sup 2}+(2.87305329 x 10{sup -3}) f+2.2483; (2) Methane-Ethane--%f{sub ext} = (2.1 x 10{sup -9})f{sup 5}-(3.5752 x 10{sup -7}) f{sup 4}+(2.095425 x 10{sup -5}) f{sup 3}-(5.037353 x 10{sup -4}) f{sup 2} + 6.08980409 f + 2.8923. Where f{sub ext} is the extinction limits of methane-propane and methane-ethane fuel blends, and f is the concentration (% volume) of methane in the fuel mixture. The relations were obtained by fitting fifth order curve (polynomial regression) to experimentally measured extinction limits at different mixture conditions. To extend the study to a commercial fuel, the flame extinction limit for Birmingham natural gas (a blend of 95% methane, 5% ethane and 5% nitrogen) was experimentally determined and was found to be 3.62% fuel in the air-fuel mixture.

  14. Automated imaging system for single molecules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwartz, David Charles; Runnheim, Rodney; Forrest, Daniel

    2012-09-18

    There is provided a high throughput automated single molecule image collection and processing system that requires minimal initial user input. The unique features embodied in the present disclosure allow automated collection and initial processing of optical images of single molecules and their assemblies. Correct focus may be automatically maintained while images are collected. Uneven illumination in fluorescence microscopy is accounted for, and an overall robust imaging operation is provided yielding individual images prepared for further processing in external systems. Embodiments described herein are useful in studies of any macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, peptides and proteins. The automated image collection and processing system and method of same may be implemented and deployed over a computer network, and may be ergonomically optimized to facilitate user interaction.

  15. Beyond Commissioning: The Role of Automation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brambley, Michael R.; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2005-02-01

    This article takes a brief look at the benefits of commissioning and describes a vision of the future where most of the objectives of commissioning will be accomplished automatically by capabilities built into the building systems themselves. Commissioning will become an activity that's performed continuously rather than periodically, and only repairs requiring replacement or overhaul of equipment will require manual intervention. The article then identifies some of the technologies that will be needed to realize this vision and ends with a call for all involved in the enterprise of building commissioning and automation to embrace and dedicate themselves to a future of automated commissioning.

  16. Preliminary Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oxstrand, Johanna Helene; Le Blanc, Katya Lee; Spielman, Zachary Alexander

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s Advanced Reactor Technologies Program sponsors research, development and deployment activities through its Next Generation Nuclear Plant, Advanced Reactor Concepts, and Advanced Small Modular Reactor (aSMR) Programs to promote safety, technical, economical, and environmental advancements of innovative Generation IV nuclear energy technologies. The Human Automation Collaboration (HAC) Research Project is located under the aSMR Program, which identifies developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces as one of four key research areas. It is expected that the new nuclear power plant designs will employ technology significantly more advanced than the analog systems in the existing reactor fleet as well as utilizing automation to a greater extent. Moving towards more advanced technology and more automation does not necessary imply more efficient and safer operation of the plant. Instead, a number of concerns about how these technologies will affect human performance and the overall safety of the plant need to be addressed. More specifically, it is important to investigate how the operator and the automation work as a team to ensure effective and safe plant operation, also known as the human-automation collaboration (HAC). The focus of the HAC research is to understand how various characteristics of automation (such as its reliability, processes, and modes) effect an operator’s use and awareness of plant conditions. In other words, the research team investigates how to best design the collaboration between the operators and the automated systems in a manner that has the greatest positive impact on overall plant performance and reliability. This report addresses the Department of Energy milestone M4AT-15IN2302054, Complete Preliminary Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration, by discussing the two phased development of a preliminary HAC framework. The framework developed in the first phase was used as the basis for selecting topics to be investigated in more detail. The results and insights gained from the in-depth studies conducted during the second phase were used to revise the framework. This report describes the basis for the framework developed in phase 1, the changes made to the framework in phase 2, and the basis for the changes. Additional research needs are identified and presented in the last section of the report.

  17. Middleware Automated Deployment Utilities - MRW Suite

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-09-18

    The Middleware Automated Deployment Utilities consists the these three components: MAD: Utility designed to automate the deployment of java applications to multiple java application servers. The product contains a front end web utility and backend deployment scripts. MAR: Web front end to maintain and update the components inside database. MWR-Encrypt: Web utility to convert a text string to an encrypted string that is used by the Oracle Weblogic application server. The encryption is done usingmore » the built in functions if the Oracle Weblogic product and is mainly used to create an encrypted version of a database password.« less

  18. Biodiesel Emissions Testing with a Modern Diesel Engine - Equipment Only: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-399

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the emissions and performance impact of biodiesel in a modern diesel engine equipped with a diesel particulate filter. This testing is in support of the Non-Petroleum Based Fuels (NPBF) 2010 Annual Operating Plan (AOP).

  19. An Experimental Investigation of the Origin of Increased NOx Emissions When Fueling a Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignition Engine with Soy Biodiesel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Optical engine experiments suggest that near stoichiometric charge-gas mixtures in the standing premixed autoignition zone near flame lift-off length explains biodiesel NOx increase under all conditions

  20. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 … Updated Feb 2009

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 … Updated Feb 2009

  1. The Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2008-11-01

    This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the United States today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations (10%, 15% and 20% of the total U.S. gasoline consumption).

  2. Effects of HyperCoal addition on coke strength and thermoplasticity of coal blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito

    2008-05-15

    Ashless coal, also known as HyperCoal (HPC), was produced by thermal extraction of three coals of different ranks (Gregory caking coal, Warkworth steam coal, and Pasir subbituminous coal) with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at 360, 380, and 400{sup o}C. The effects of blending these HPCs into standard coal blends were investigated. Blending HPCs as 5-10% of a standard blend (Kouryusho:Goonyella:K9) enhanced the thermoplasticity over a wide temperature range. For blends made with the Pasir-HPC, produced from a noncaking coal, increasing the extraction temperature from 360 to 400{sup o}C increased the thermoplasticity significantly. Blends containing Warkworth-HPC, produced from a slightly caking coal, had a higher tensile strength than the standard blend in semicoke strength tests. The addition of 10% Pasir-HPC, extracted at 400{sup o}C, increased the tensile strength of the semicokes to the same degree as those made with Gregory-HPC. Furthermore, all HPC blends had a higher tensile strength and smaller weight loss during carbonization. These results suggest that the HPC became integrated into the coke matrix, interacting strongly with the other raw coals. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends (Book)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-09-01

    This document serves as a guide for blenders, distributors, sellers, and users of E85 and other ethanol blends above E10. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of E85 and other ethanol blends and includes supporting technical and policy references.

  4. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-09-17

    This document serves as a guide for blenders, distributors, sellers, and users of E85 and other ethanol blends above E10. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of E85 and other ethanol blends and includes supporting technical and policy references.

  5. Properties and hydration of blended cements with steelmaking slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kourounis, S.; Tsivilis, S. . E-mail: stsiv@central.ntua.gr; Tsakiridis, P.E.; Papadimitriou, G.D.; Tsibouki, Z.

    2007-06-15

    The present research study investigates the properties and hydration of blended cements with steelmaking slag, a by-product of the conversion process of iron to steel. For this purpose, a reference sample and three cements containing up to 45% w/w steel slag were tested. The steel slag fraction used was the '0-5 mm', due to its high content in calcium silicate phases. Initial and final setting time, standard consistency, flow of normal mortar, autoclave expansion and compressive strength at 2, 7, 28 and 90 days were measured. The hydrated products were identified by X-ray diffraction while the non-evaporable water was determined by TGA. The microstructure of the hardened cement pastes and their morphological characteristics were examined by scanning electron microscopy. It is concluded that slag can be used in the production of composite cements of the strength classes 42.5 and 32.5 of EN 197-1. In addition, the slag cements present satisfactory physical properties. The steel slag slows down the hydration of the blended cements, due to the morphology of contained C{sub 2}S and its low content in calcium silicates.

  6. JV Task 112-Optimal Ethanol Blend-Level Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Shockey; Ted Aulich; Bruce Jones; Gary Mead; Paul Steevens

    2008-01-31

    Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET) and Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) tests were conducted on four 2007 model vehicles; a Chevrolet Impala flex-fuel and three non-flex-fuel vehicles: a Ford Fusion, a Toyota Camry, and a Chevrolet Impala. This investigation utilized a range of undenatured ethanol/Tier II gasoline blend levels from 0% to 85%. HWFET testing on ethanol blend levels of E20 in the flex fuel Chevrolet Impala and E30 in the non-flex-fuel Ford Fusion and Toyota Camry resulted in miles-per-gallon (mpg) fuel economy greater than Tier 2 gasoline, while E40 in the non-flex-fuel Chevrolet Impala resulted in an optimum mpg based on per-gallon fuel Btu content. Exhaust emission values for non-methane organic gases (NMOG), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) obtained from both the FTP-75 and the HWFET driving cycles were at or below EPA Tier II, Light-Duty Vehicles, Bin 5 levels for all vehicles tested with one exception. The flex-fuel Chevrolet Impala exceeded the NMOG standard for the FTP-75 on E-20 and Tier II gasoline.

  7. KSL Kuttler Automation Systems GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    KSL Kuttler Automation Systems GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: KSL-Kuttler Automation Systems GmbH Place: Dauchingen, Baden-Wrttemberg, Germany Zip: 78083 Sector: Solar...

  8. U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) Announces Automation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Customs and Border Protection (CBP) Announces Automation of Form I-94 ArrivalDeparture Record U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) will begin automation of the I-94 records on...

  9. Emissions from ethanol-blended fossil fuel flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akcayoglu, Azize

    2011-01-15

    A fundamental study to investigate the emission characteristics of ethanol-blended fossil fuels is presented. Employing a heterogeneous experimental setup, emissions are measured from diffusion flames around spherical porous particles. Using an infusion pump, ethanol-fossil fuel blend is transpired into a porous sphere kept in an upward flowing air stream. A typical probe of portable digital exhaust gas analyzer is placed in and around the flame with the help of a multi-direction traversing mechanism to measure emissions such as un-burnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Since ethanol readily mixes with water, emission characteristics of ethanol-water blends are also studied. For comparison purpose, emissions from pure ethanol diffusion flames are also presented. A simplified theoretical analysis has been carried out to determine equilibrium surface temperature, composition of the fuel components in vapor-phase and heat of reaction of each blend. These theoretical predictions are used in explaining the emission characteristics of flames from ethanol blends. (author) This paper presents the results of an experimental study of flow structure in horizontal equilateral triangular ducts having double rows of half delta-wing type vortex generators mounted on the duct's slant surfaces. The test ducts have the same axial length and hydraulic diameter of 4 m and 58.3 mm, respectively. Each duct consists of double rows of half delta wing pairs arranged either in common flow-up or common flow-down configurations. Flow field measurements were performed using a Particle Image Velocimetry Technique for hydraulic diameter based Reynolds numbers in the range of 1000-8000. The secondary flow field differences generated by two different vortex generator configurations were examined in detail. The secondary flow is found stronger behind the second vortex generator pair than behind the first pair but becomes weaker far from the second pair in the case of Duct1. However, the strength of the secondary flow is found nearly the same behind the first and the second vortex generator pair as well as far from the second vortex generator pair in the case of Duct2. Both ducts are able to create a counter-rotating and a second set of twin foci. Duct2 is able to create the second set of twin foci in an earlier streamwise location than Duct1, as these foci are well-known to their heat transfer augmentation. A larger vortex formation area and a greater induced vorticity field between vortex pairs are observed for Duct2 compared with Duct1. As the induced flow field between the vortex pairs increases the heat transfer, and as the flow field between the vortex cores is found larger in the case of Duct2, therefore, it is expected to obtain better heat transfer characteristics for Duct2 compared with Duct1. (author)

  10. V-132: IBM Tivoli System Automation Application Manager Multiple

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy 2: IBM Tivoli System Automation Application Manager Multiple Vulnerabilities V-132: IBM Tivoli System Automation Application Manager Multiple Vulnerabilities April 12, 2013 - 6:00am Addthis PROBLEM: IBM has acknowledged multiple vulnerabilities in IBM Tivoli System Automation Application Manager PLATFORM: The vulnerabilities are reported in IBM Tivoli System Automation Application Manager versions 3.1, 3.2, 3.2.1, and 3.2.2 ABSTRACT: Multiple security

  11. Automated Transportation Logistics and Analysis System (ATLAS) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Services » Waste Management » Packaging and Transportation » Automated Transportation Logistics and Analysis System (ATLAS) Automated Transportation Logistics and Analysis System (ATLAS) The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Automated Transportation Logistics and Analysis System is an integrated web-based logistics management system allowing users to manage inbound and outbound freight shipments by highway, rail, and air. PDF icon Automated Transportation Logistics and Analysis

  12. Automation World Features New White Paper on Wireless Security | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Automation World Features New White Paper on Wireless Security Automation World Features New White Paper on Wireless Security The April 2009 issue of Automation World magazine features the white paper Wireless Systems Considerations When Implementing NERC Critical Infrastructure Protection Standards. PDF icon Automation World Features New White Paper on Wireless Security More Documents & Publications Wireless System Considerations When Implementing NERC Critical Infrastructure

  13. ISA Approves Standard for Wireless Automation in Process Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications | Department of Energy ISA Approves Standard for Wireless Automation in Process Control Applications ISA Approves Standard for Wireless Automation in Process Control Applications On September 9, the Standards and Practices Board of the International Society for Automation (ISA) approved the ISA-100.11a wireless standard, "Wireless Systems for Industrial Automation: Process Control and Related Applications," making it an official ISA standard. PDF icon ISA Approves

  14. Reference Model for Control and Automation Systems in Electrical Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (October 2005) | Department of Energy Model for Control and Automation Systems in Electrical Power (October 2005) Reference Model for Control and Automation Systems in Electrical Power (October 2005) Modern infrastructure automation systems are threatened by cyber attack. Their higher visibility in recent years and the increasing use of modern information technology (IT) components contribute to increased security risk. A means of analyzing these infrastructure automation systems is needed

  15. Elastomer Compatibility Testing of Renewable Diesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frame, E.; McCormick, R. L.

    2005-11-01

    In this study, the integrity and performance of six elastomers were tested with ethanol-diesel and biodiesel fuel blends.

  16. Classified Automated Information System Security Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1994-07-15

    To establish uniform requirements, policies, responsibilities, and procedures for the development and implementation of a Department of Energy (DOE) Classified Computer Security Program to ensure the security of classified information in automated data processing (ADP) systems. Cancels DOE O 5637.1. Canceled by DOE O 471.2.

  17. Apparatus for automated testing of biological specimens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Layne, Scott P.; Beugelsdijk, Tony J.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for performing automated testing of infections biological specimens is disclosed. The apparatus comprise a process controller for translating user commands into test instrument suite commands, and a test instrument suite comprising a means to treat the specimen to manifest an observable result, and a detector for measuring the observable result to generate specimen test results.

  18. Automated Office Systems Support (AOSS) Quality Assurance Model |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Automated Office Systems Support (AOSS) Quality Assurance Model Automated Office Systems Support (AOSS) Quality Assurance Model A quality assurance model, including checklists, for activity relative to network and desktop computer support. PDF icon Automated Office Systems Support (AOSS) Quality Assurance Model More Documents & Publications Audit Report: CR-B-97-04 CITSS Project Plan Quality Assurance Checklist

  19. Supported catalyst systems and method of making biodiesel products using such catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Manhoe; Yan, Shuli; Salley, Steven O.; Ng, K. Y. Simon

    2015-10-20

    A heterogeneous catalyst system, a method of preparing the catalyst system and a method of forming a biodiesel product via transesterification reactions using the catalyst system is disclosed. The catalyst system according to one aspect of the present disclosure represents a class of supported mixed metal oxides that include at least calcium oxide and another metal oxide deposited on a lanthanum oxide or cerium oxide support. Preferably, the catalysts include CaO--CeO.sub.2ZLa.sub.2O.sub.3 or CaO--La.sub.2O.sub.3/CeO.sub.2. Optionally, the catalyst may further include additional metal oxides, such as CaO--La.sub.2O.sub.3--GdOxZLa.sub.2O.sub.3.

  20. Recent Advances in Detailed Chemical Kinetic Models for Large Hydrocarbon and Biodiesel Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J; Herbinet, O; Mehl, M

    2009-03-30

    n-Hexadecane and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane represent the primary reference fuels for diesel that are used to determine cetane number, a measure of the ignition property of diesel fuel. With the development of chemical kinetics models for these two primary reference fuels for diesel, a new capability is now available to model diesel fuel ignition. Also, we have developed chemical kinetic models for a whole series of large n-alkanes and a large iso-alkane to represent these chemical classes in fuel surrogates for conventional and future fuels. Methyl decanoate and methyl stearate are large methyl esters that are closely related to biodiesel fuels, and kinetic models for these molecules have also been developed. These chemical kinetic models are used to predict the effect of the fuel molecule size and structure on ignition characteristics under conditions found in internal combustion engines.

  1. ZnO nanoparticle catalysts for use in biodiesel production and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yan, Shuli; Salley, Steven O; Ng, K. Y. Simon

    2014-11-25

    A method of forming a biodiesel product and a heterogeneous catalyst system used to form said product that has a high tolerance for the presence of water and free fatty acids (FFA) in the oil feedstock is disclosed. This catalyst system may simultaneously catalyze both the esterification of FAA and the transesterification of triglycerides present in the oil feedstock. The catalyst system is comprised of a mixture of zinc oxide and a second metal oxide. The zinc oxide includes a mixture of amorphous zinc oxide and zinc oxide nanocrystals, the zinc nanocrystals having a mean grain size between about 20 and 80 nanometers with at least one of the nanocrystals including a mesopore having a diameter of about 5 to 15 nanometers. Preferably, the second metal oxide is a lanthanum oxide, the lanthanum oxide being selected as one from the group of La.sub.2CO.sub.5, LaOOH, and combinations or mixtures thereof.

  2. Automation of Capacity Bidding with an Aggregator Using Open Automated Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2008-10-01

    This report summarizes San Diego Gas& Electric Company?s collaboration with the Demand Response Research Center to develop and test automation capability for the Capacity Bidding Program in 2007. The report describes the Open Automated Demand Response architecture, summarizes the history of technology development and pilot studies. It also outlines the Capacity Bidding Program and technology being used by an aggregator that participated in this demand response program. Due to delays, the program was not fully operational for summer 2007. However, a test event on October 3, 2007, showed that the project successfully achieved the objective to develop and demonstrate how an open, Web?based interoperable automated notification system for capacity bidding can be used by aggregators for demand response. The system was effective in initiating a fully automated demand response shed at the aggregated sites. This project also demonstrated how aggregators can integrate their demand response automation systems with San Diego Gas& Electric Company?s Demand Response Automation Server and capacity bidding program.

  3. Identification and quantification of organic chemicals in supplemental fuel blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salter, F.

    1996-12-31

    Continental Cement Company, Inc. (Continental) burns waste fuels to supplement coal in firing the kiln. It is to be expected that federal and state agencies want an accounting of the chemicals burned. As rules and regulations become more plentiful, a company such as Continental must demonstrate that it has made a reasonable attempt to identify and quantify many specific organic compounds. The chemicals on the SARA 313 list can change frequently. Also the number and concentrations of compounds that can disqualify a material from consideration as a supplemental fuel at Continental continues to change. A quick and reliable method of identifying and quantifying organics in waste fuel blends is therefore crucial. Using a Hewlett-Packard 5972 GC/MS system Continental has developed a method of generating values for the total weight of compounds burned. A similar procedure is used to verify that waste streams meet Continental`s acceptance criteria.

  4. Influence of Substrate on Crystallization in Polythiophene/fullerene Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C He; D Germack; J Kline; D Delongchamp; D Fischer; C Snyder; M Toney; J Kushmerick; L Richter

    2011-12-31

    The nanoscale morphology of the active layer in organic, bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is crucial to device performance. Often a combination of casting conditions and post deposition thermal treatment is used to optimize the morphology. In general, the development of microscopic crystals is deleterious, as the exciton diffusion length is {approx}10 nm. We find that the microscopic crystallization behavior in polythiophene/fullerene blends is strongly influenced by the substrate on which the BHJ is cast. With a silicon oxide substrate, the crystal nucleation density is high and significant crystallization occurs at a temperature of 140 C. On more hydrophobic substrates, significantly higher temperatures are required for observable crystallization. This difference is attributed to the interfacial segregation of the PCBM, controlled by the substrate surface energy. The substrate dependence of crystallization has significant implications on the fullerene crystal growth mechanisms and practical implications for device studies.

  5. Biodiesel Effects on the Operation of U.S. Light-Duty Tier 2 Engine and Aftertreatment Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Results of the NOx adsorber system with catalyst aged to useful life conditions (simulated 120k miles), comparing performance betweem B20 fuel blend and base ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel

  6. A charge carrier transport model for donor-acceptor blend layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Janine Widmer, Johannes; Koerner, Christian; Vandewal, Koen; Leo, Karl; Kleemann, Hans; Tress, Wolfgang; Riede, Moritz

    2015-01-28

    Highly efficient organic solar cells typically comprise donor-acceptor blend layers facilitating effective splitting of excitons. However, the charge carrier mobility in the blends can be substantially smaller than in neat materials, hampering the device performance. Currently, available mobility models do not describe the transport in blend layers entirely. Here, we investigate hole transport in a model blend system consisting of the small molecule donor zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and the acceptor fullerene C{sub 60} in different mixing ratios. The blend layer is sandwiched between p-doped organic injection layers, which prevent minority charge carrier injection and enable exploiting diffusion currents for the characterization of exponential tail states from a thickness variation of the blend layer using numerical drift-diffusion simulations. Trap-assisted recombination must be considered to correctly model the conductivity behavior of the devices, which are influenced by local electron currents in the active layer, even though the active layer is sandwiched in between p-doped contacts. We find that the density of deep tail states is largest in the devices with 1:1 mixing ratio (E{sub t}?=?0.14?eV, N{sub t}?=?1.2??10{sup 18?}cm{sup ?3}) directing towards lattice disorder as the transport limiting process. A combined field and charge carrier density dependent mobility model are developed for this blend layer.

  7. Saturn facility oil transfer automation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph, Nathan R.; Thomas, Rayburn Dean; Lewis, Barbara Ann; Malagon, Hector M.

    2014-02-01

    The Saturn accelerator, owned by Sandia National Laboratories, has been in operation since the early 1980s and still has many of the original systems. A critical legacy system is the oil transfer system which transfers 250,000 gallons of transformer oil from outside storage tanks to the Saturn facility. The oil transfer system was iden- ti ed for upgrade to current technology standards. Using the existing valves, pumps, and relay controls, the system was automated using the National Instruments cRIO FGPA platform. Engineered safety practices, including a failure mode e ects analysis, were used to develop error handling requirements. The uniqueness of the Saturn Oil Automated Transfer System (SOATS) is in the graphical user interface. The SOATS uses an HTML interface to communicate to the cRIO, creating a platform independent control system. The SOATS was commissioned in April 2013.

  8. Automated diagnostic kiosk for diagnosing diseases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Regan, John Frederick; Birch, James Michael

    2014-02-11

    An automated and autonomous diagnostic apparatus that is capable of dispensing collection vials and collections kits to users interesting in collecting a biological sample and submitting their collected sample contained within a collection vial into the apparatus for automated diagnostic services. The user communicates with the apparatus through a touch-screen monitor. A user is able to enter personnel information into the apparatus including medical history, insurance information, co-payment, and answer a series of questions regarding their illness, which is used to determine the assay most likely to yield a positive result. Remotely-located physicians can communicate with users of the apparatus using video tele-medicine and request specific assays to be performed. The apparatus archives submitted samples for additional testing. Users may receive their assay results electronically. Users may allow the uploading of their diagnoses into a central databank for disease surveillance purposes.

  9. Automated Auditing Tool for Retrofit Building Projects

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-06-23

    Building energy auditors regularly use notepads, physical forms, or simple spreadsheets to inventory energy consuming devices in buildings and audit overall performance. Mobile computing devices such as smart phones or tablet computers with camera inputs may be used to automatically capture relevant information and format audit input in a way that streamlines work flows and reduces the likelihood of error. As an example. an auditor could walk through a space holding a mobile device, whichmore » automatically identifies and appliances, windows, etc. This information would automatically be added to a mobile database associated with the building for later integration with a larger building audit database. The user experience would require little or no manual input, and could integrate with tools to automate used to automate data collection for building energy modeling.« less

  10. Flow through electrode with automated calibration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szecsody, James E [Richland, WA; Williams, Mark D [Richland, WA; Vermeul, Vince R [Richland, WA

    2002-08-20

    The present invention is an improved automated flow through electrode liquid monitoring system. The automated system has a sample inlet to a sample pump, a sample outlet from the sample pump to at least one flow through electrode with a waste port. At least one computer controls the sample pump and records data from the at least one flow through electrode for a liquid sample. The improvement relies upon (a) at least one source of a calibration sample connected to (b) an injection valve connected to said sample outlet and connected to said source, said injection valve further connected to said at least one flow through electrode, wherein said injection valve is controlled by said computer to select between said liquid sample or said calibration sample. Advantages include improved accuracy because of more frequent calibrations, no additional labor for calibration, no need to remove the flow through electrode(s), and minimal interruption of sampling.

  11. Physical and chemical comparison of soot in hydrocarbon and biodiesel fuel diffusion flames: A study of model and commercial fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matti Maricq, M.

    2011-01-15

    Data are presented to compare soot formation in both surrogate and practical fatty acid methyl ester biodiesel and petroleum fuel diffusion flames. The approach here uses differential mobility analysis to follow the size distributions and electrical charge of soot particles as they evolve in the flame, and laser ablation particle mass spectrometry to elucidate their composition. Qualitatively, these soot properties exhibit a remarkably similar development along the flames. The size distributions begin as a single mode of precursor nanoparticles, evolve through a bimodal phase marking the onset of aggregate formation, and end in a self preserving mode of fractal-like particles. Both biodiesel and hydrocarbon fuels yield a common soot composition dominated by C{sub x}H{sub y}{sup +} ions, stabilomer PAHs, and fullerenes in the positive ion mass spectrum, and C{sub x}{sup -} and C{sub 2x}H{sup -} in the negative ion spectrum. These ion intensities initially grow with height in the diffusion flames, but then decline during later stages, consistent with soot carbonization. There are important quantitative differences between fuels. The surrogate biodiesel fuel methyl butanoate substantially reduces soot levels, but soot formation and evolution in this flame are delayed relative to both soy and petroleum fuels. In contrast, soots from soy and hexadecane flames exhibit nearly quantitative agreement in their size distribution and composition profiles with height, suggesting similar soot precursor chemistry. (author)

  12. Automated Algorithm for MFRSR Data Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Automated Algorithm for MFRSR Data Analysis M. D. Alexandrov and B. Cairns Columbia University and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies New York, New York A. A. Lacis and B. E. Carlson National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies New York, New York A. Marshak National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland We present a substantial upgrade of our previously developed

  13. An advanced power distribution automation model system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niwa, Shigeharu; Kanoi, Minoru; Nishijima, Kazuo; Hayami, Mitsuo

    1995-12-31

    An advanced power distribution automation (APDA) model system has been developed on the present basis of the automated distribution systems in Japan, which have been used for remote switching operations and for urgent supply restorations during faults. The increased use of electronic apparatuses sensitive to supply interruption requires very high supply reliability, and the final developed system is expected to be useful for this purpose. The developed model system adopts pole circuit breakers and remote termination units connected through 64kbps optical fibers to the computer of the automated system in the control center. Immediate switching operations for supply restorations during faults are possible through the restoration procedures, prepared beforehand, by the computer and by fast telecommunications using optical fibers. So, protection by the feeder circuit breaker in the substation can be avoided, which would otherwise cause the blackout of the whole distribution line. The test results show the effectiveness of model the system: successful fault locations and reconfiguration for supply restoration including separation of the fault sections (without blackout for the ground faults and with a short period (within 1 s) of blackout for the short-circuit faults).

  14. Automating Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob L.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-01-22

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  15. Home Network Technologies and Automating Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McParland, Charles

    2009-12-01

    Over the past several years, interest in large-scale control of peak energy demand and total consumption has increased. While motivated by a number of factors, this interest has primarily been spurred on the demand side by the increasing cost of energy and, on the supply side by the limited ability of utilities to build sufficient electricity generation capacity to meet unrestrained future demand. To address peak electricity use Demand Response (DR) systems are being proposed to motivate reductions in electricity use through the use of price incentives. DR systems are also be design to shift or curtail energy demand at critical times when the generation, transmission, and distribution systems (i.e. the 'grid') are threatened with instabilities. To be effectively deployed on a large-scale, these proposed DR systems need to be automated. Automation will require robust and efficient data communications infrastructures across geographically dispersed markets. The present availability of widespread Internet connectivity and inexpensive, reliable computing hardware combined with the growing confidence in the capabilities of distributed, application-level communications protocols suggests that now is the time for designing and deploying practical systems. Centralized computer systems that are capable of providing continuous signals to automate customers reduction of power demand, are known as Demand Response Automation Servers (DRAS). The deployment of prototype DRAS systems has already begun - with most initial deployments targeting large commercial and industrial (C & I) customers. An examination of the current overall energy consumption by economic sector shows that the C & I market is responsible for roughly half of all energy consumption in the US. On a per customer basis, large C & I customers clearly have the most to offer - and to gain - by participating in DR programs to reduce peak demand. And, by concentrating on a small number of relatively sophisticated energy consumers, it has been possible to improve the DR 'state of the art' with a manageable commitment of technical resources on both the utility and consumer side. Although numerous C & I DR applications of a DRAS infrastructure are still in either prototype or early production phases, these early attempts at automating DR have been notably successful for both utilities and C & I customers. Several factors have strongly contributed to this success and will be discussed below. These successes have motivated utilities and regulators to look closely at how DR programs can be expanded to encompass the remaining (roughly) half of the state's energy load - the light commercial and, in numerical terms, the more important residential customer market. This survey examines technical issues facing the implementation of automated DR in the residential environment. In particular, we will look at the potential role of home automation networks in implementing wide-scale DR systems that communicate directly to individual residences.

  16. Polymer blend containing a modified dense star polymer or dendrimer and a matrix polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hedstrand, D.M.; Tomalia, D.A.

    1995-02-28

    Dense star polymers or dendrimers, modified by capping with a hydrophobic group capable of providing a hydrophobic outer shell, act as molecular nucleating agents in forming a polymer blend.

  17. Polymer blend containing a modified dense star polymer or dendrimer and a matrix polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hedstrand, David M.; Tomalia, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    Dense star polymers or dendrimers, modified by capping with a hydrophobic group capable of providing a hydrophobic outer shell, act as molecular nucleating agents in forming a polymer blend.

  18. The effect of block copolymer on the phase behavior of a polymer blend

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sung, L.; Jackson, C.L.; Hess, D.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of an interfacial modifier on the phase behavior of a blend has been investigated using time-resolved fight scattering and small angle neutron scattering techniques. A low molecular weight binary blend of deuterated polystyrene/polybutadiene (PSD/PB) with PSD-PB diblock copolymer as the added interfacial modifier was studied. We observed that the critical temperature of the blend decreases with increasing copolymer content and the kinetics of the phase separation (via spinodal decomposition) slows down in the presence of the copolymer. The transition from early to late stage spinodal decomposition in a near critical mixture of the binary blend was analyzed and compared to available theories. In addition, transmission electron microscopy and optical microscopy studies were used to examine the morphology of the system under various temperature quench conditions.

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Performance of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by NREL at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about performance of biofuels and biofuel blends.

  20. Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation andEngine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation and Engine-in-the-Loop Evaluation of Ethanol ... Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon vss049shidore2011o.pdf More ...