National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for attenuated total reflectance

  1. Frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kallman, Jeffrey S.

    2000-01-01

    A frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor which allows the acquisition of the acoustic field over an entire plane, all at once. The sensor finds use in acoustic holography and acoustic diffraction tomography. For example, the sensor may be produced by a transparent plate with transparent support members tall enough to support one or more flexible membranes at an appropriate height for frustrated total internal reflection to occur. An acoustic wave causes the membrane to deflect away from its quiescent position and thus changes the amount of light that tunnels through the gap formed by the support members and into the membrane, and so changes the amount of light reflected by the membrane. The sensor(s) is illuminated by a uniform tight field, and the reflection from the sensor yields acoustic wave amplitude and phase information which can be picked up electronically or otherwise.

  2. Total internal reflection laser tools and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zediker, Mark S.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Kolachalam, Sharath K.; Grubb, Daryl L.

    2016-02-02

    There is provided high power laser tools and laser heads that utilize total internal reflection ("TIR") structures to direct the laser beam along a laser beam path within the TIR structure. The TIR structures may be a TIR prism having its hypotenuse as a TIR surface.

  3. Prisms with total internal reflection as solar reflectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabl, Arnulf; Rabl, Veronika

    1978-01-01

    An improved reflective wall for radiant energy collection and concentration devices is provided. The wall is comprised of a plurality of prisms whose frontal faces are adjacent and which reflect the desired radiation by total internal reflection.

  4. Broad Band Intra-Cavity Total Reflection Chemical Sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pipino, Andrew C. R.

    1998-11-10

    A broadband, ultrahigh-sensitivity chemical sensor is provided that allows etection through utilization of a small, extremely low-loss, monolithic optical cavity. The cavity is fabricated from highly transparent optical material in the shape of a regular polygon with one or more convex facets to form a stable resonator for ray trajectories sustained by total internal reflection. Optical radiation enters and exits the monolithic cavity by photon tunneling in which two totally reflecting surfaces are brought into close proximity. In the presence of absorbing material, the loss per pass is increased since the evanescent waves that exist exterior to the cavity at points where the circulating pulse is totally reflected, are absorbed. The decay rate of an injected pulse is determined by coupling out an infinitesimal fraction of the pulse to produce an intensity-versus-time decay curve. Since the change in the decay rate resulting from absorption is inversely proportional to the magnitude of absorption, a quantitative sensor of concentration or absorption cross-section with 1 part-per-million/pass or better sensitivity is obtained. The broadband nature of total internal reflection permits a single device to be used over a broad wavelength range. The absorption spectrum of the surrounding medium can thereby be obtained as a measurement of inverse decay time as a function of wavelength.

  5. Multiple-channel, total-reflection optic with controllable divergence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gibson, David M.; Downing, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for providing focused x-ray, gamma-ray, charged particle and neutral particle, including neutron, radiation beams with a controllable amount of divergence are disclosed. The apparatus features a novel use of a radiation blocking structure, which, when combined with multiple-channel total reflection optics, increases the versatility of the optics by providing user-controlled output-beam divergence.

  6. Multiple-channel, total-reflection optic with controllable divergence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gibson, D.M.; Downing, R.G.

    1997-02-18

    An apparatus and method for providing focused x-ray, gamma-ray, charged particle and neutral particle, including neutron, radiation beams with a controllable amount of divergence are disclosed. The apparatus features a novel use of a radiation blocking structure, which, when combined with multiple-channel total reflection optics, increases the versatility of the optics by providing user-controlled output-beam divergence. 11 figs.

  7. Total reflection infrared spectroscopy of water-ice and frozen aqueous NaCl solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Rachel L.; Searles, Keith; Willard, Jesse A.; Michelsen, Rebecca R. H., E-mail: RMichelsen@rmc.edu [Department of Chemistry, Randolph-Macon College, P.O. Box 5005, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Randolph-Macon College, P.O. Box 5005, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    Liquid-like and liquid water at and near the surface of water-ice and frozen aqueous sodium chloride films were observed using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The concentration of NaCl ranged from 0.0001 to 0.01 M and the temperature varied from the melting point of water down to 256 K. The amount of liquid brine at the interface of the frozen films with the germanium ATR crystal increased with salt concentration and temperature. Experimental spectra are compared to reflection spectra calculated for a simplified morphology of a uniform liquid layer between the germanium crystal and the frozen film. This morphology allows for the amount of liquid observed in an experimental spectrum to be converted to the thickness of a homogenous layer with an equivalent amount of liquid. These equivalent thickness ranges from a nanometer for water-ice at 260 K to 170 nm for 0.01 M NaCl close to the melting point. The amounts of brine observed are over an order of magnitude less than the total liquid predicted by equilibrium thermodynamic models, implying that the vast majority of the liquid fraction of frozen solutions may be found in internal inclusions, grain boundaries, and the like. Thus, the amount of liquid and the solutes dissolved in them that are available to react with atmospheric gases on the surfaces of snow and ice are not well described by thermodynamic equilibrium models which assume the liquid phase is located entirely at the surface.

  8. Effective atomic numbers and mass attenuation coefficients of some thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds for total photon interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shivaramu; Amutha, R.; Ramprasath, V.

    1999-05-01

    Effective atomic numbers for total gamma-ray interaction with some selected thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds such as barium acetate, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, calcium sulfate dihydrate, cadmium sulfate (anhydrous), cadmium sulfate, strontium sulfate, and lithium fluoride have been calculated in the 1-keV to 20-MeV energy region. Experimental mass attenuation coefficients and effective atomic numbers for these compounds at selected photon energies of 26.3, 33.2, 59.54, and 661.6 keV have been obtained from good geometry transmission measurements and compared with theoretical values. The effect of absorption edge on effective atomic numbers and its variation with energy, and nonvalidity of the Bragg`s mixture rule at incident photon energies closer to the absorption edges of constituent elements of compounds are discussed.

  9. Intra-Cavity Total Reflection For High Sensitivity Measurement Of Optical Properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pipino, Andrew C. R.; Hudgens, Jeffrey W.

    1999-08-24

    An optical cavity resonator device is provided for conducting sensitive murement of optical absorption by matter in any state with diffraction-limited spatial resolution through utilization of total internal reflection within a high-Q (high quality, low loss) optical cavity. Intracavity total reflection generates an evanescent wave that decays exponentially in space at a point external to the cavity, thereby providing a localized region where absorbing materials can be sensitively probed through alteration of the Q-factor of the otherwise isolated cavity. When a laser pulse is injected into the cavity and passes through the evanescent state, an amplitude loss resulting from absorption is incurred that reduces the lifetime of the pulse in the cavity. By monitoring the decay of the injected pulse, the absorption coefficient of manner within the evanescent wave region is accurately obtained from the decay time measurement.

  10. Intra-Cavity Total Reflection For High Sensitivity Measurement Of Optical Properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pipino, Andrew Charles Rule

    1999-11-16

    An optical cavity resonator device is provided for conducting sensitive murement of optical absorption by matter in any state with diffraction-limited spatial resolution through utilization of total internal reflection within a high-Q (high quality, low loss) optical cavity. Intracavity total reflection generates an evanescent wave that decays exponentially in space at a point external to the cavity, thereby providing a localized region where absorbing materials can be sensitively probed through alteration of the Q-factor of the otherwise isolated cavity. When a laser pulse is injected into the cavity and passes through the evanescent state, an amplitude loss resulting from absorption is incurred that reduces the lifetime of the pulse in the cavity. By monitoring the decay of the injected pulse, the absorption coefficient of manner within the evanescent wave region is accurately obtained from the decay time measurement.

  11. Near IR Scanning Angle Total Internal Reflection Raman Spectroscopy at Smooth Gold Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKee, Kristopher; Meyer, Matthew; Smith, Emily

    2012-04-13

    Total internal reflection (TIR) Raman and reflectivity spectra were collected for nonresonant analytes as a function of incident angle at sapphire or sapphire/smooth 50 nm gold interfaces using 785 nm excitation. For both interfaces, the Raman signal as a function of incident angle is well-modeled by the calculated interfacial mean square electric field (MSEF) relative to the incident field times the thickness of the layer being probed in the Raman measurement (D{sub RS}). The Raman scatter was reproducibly enhanced at the interface containing a gold film relative to the sapphire interface by a factor of 4.3–4.6 for aqueous pyridine or 2.2–3.7 for neat nitrobenzene, depending on the analyzed vibrational mode. The mechanism for the increased Raman signal is the enhanced MSEF at incident angles where propagating surface plasmons are excited in the metal film. The background from the TIR prism was reduced by 89–95% with the addition of the gold film, and the percent relative uncertainty in peak area was reduced from 15 to 1.7% for the 1347 cm–1 mode of nitrobenzene. Single monolayers of benzenethiol (S/N = 6.8) and 4-mercaptopyridine (S/N = 16.5) on gold films were measured by TIR Raman spectroscopy with 785 nm excitation (210 mW) without resonant enhancement in 1 min.

  12. Total internal reflection fluorescence spectrometer to study dynamic adsorption phenomena at liquid/liquid interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tupy, M.J.; Blanch, H.W.; Radke, C.J.

    1998-08-01

    Adsorption at oil/water interfaces affects the performance of many industrial systems including oil recovery, extraction processes, cosmetic products, and food technology. However, no technique currently available can monitor adsorption dynamics using molecularly sensitive methods. The authors have constructed a novel total internal reflection fluorescence spectrometer (TIRFS) to follow dynamic adsorption events at the oil/water interface. The TIRFS monitors changes in fluorescence intensity and fluorescence spectra over time by maintaining an optical focus on the fluid interface during adsorption and desorption processes. Kinetic adsorption phenomena are examined by altering the composition of the aqueous phase and recording surface fluorescence response without mechanically disturbing the fluid/fluid interface. The spectrometer captures changes in the fluorescence intensity over tenths of seconds and maintains optical focus for periods of days. Mass transport of fluorescing surface-active material to and from the oil/water interface is accurately modeled using the simple one-dimensional diffusion equation. The geometry designed for this apparatus can be applied to other light-based techniques studying adsorption at liquid/liquid interfaces. Here, the authors apply the TIRFS apparatus to the study of {beta}-casein adsorption and desorption at an aliphatic oil/water interface. The observed increase in interfacial fluorescence due to {beta}-casein adsorption is slower than the diffusive flux, and desorption is found to be very slow if not irreversible. The TIRF spectrum indicates interaction of sorbed {beta}-casein with the oil phase and subsequent rearrangement of the native structure.

  13. Elucidation of Perovskite Film Micro-Orientations Using Two-Photon Total Internal Reflectance Fluorescence Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, Brianna R; Yang, Bin; Xiao, Kai; Ma, Yingzhong; Doughty, Benjamin L; Calhoun, Tessa R

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of efficient hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite photovoltaic materials has caused the rapid development of a variety of preparation and processing techniques designed to maximize their performance. As processing methods continue to emerge, it is important to understand how the optical properties of these materials are affected on a microscopic scale. Here polarization resolved two-photon total internal reflectance microscopy (TIRFM) was used to probe changes in transition dipole moment orientation as a function of thermal annealing time in hybrid organic-inorganic lead iodide based perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) thin films on glass. These results show that as thermal annealing time is increased the distribution of transition moments pointing out-of-plane decreases in favor of forming areas with increased in-plane orientations. It was also shown through the axial sensitivity of TIRFM that the surface topography is manifested in the signal intensity and can be used to survey aspects of morphology in coincidence with the optical properties of these films.

  14. Elucidation of perovskite film micro-orientations using two-photon total internal reflectance fluorescence microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Watson, Brianna R.; Yang, Bin; Xiao, Kai; Ma, Ying -Zhong; Doughty, Benjamin L.; Calhoun, Tessa R.

    2015-07-29

    The emergence of efficient hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite photovoltaic materials has caused the rapid development of a variety of preparation and processing techniques designed to maximize their performance. As processing methods continue to emerge, it is important to understand how the optical properties of these materials are affected on a microscopic scale. Here polarization resolved two-photon total internal reflectance microscopy (TIRFM) was used to probe changes in transition dipole moment orientation as a function of thermal annealing time in hybrid organic-inorganic lead iodide based perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) thin films on glass. These results show that as thermal annealing time is increased themore » distribution of transition moments pointing out-of-plane decreases in favor of forming areas with increased in-plane orientations. As a result, it was also shown through the axial sensitivity of TIRFM that the surface topography is manifested in the signal intensity and can be used to survey aspects of morphology in coincidence with the optical properties of these films.« less

  15. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cell shipments Total Inventory, start-of-year 328,658 Manufactured during reporting year ... Table 5. Source and disposition of photovoltaic cell shipments, 2013 (peak kilowatts) ...

  16. Total............................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total................................................................... 111.1 2,033 1,618 1,031 791 630 401 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500............................................... 3.2 357 336 113 188 177 59 500 to 999....................................................... 23.8 733 667 308 343 312 144 1,000 to 1,499................................................. 20.8 1,157 1,086 625 435 409 235 1,500 to 1,999................................................. 15.4 1,592

  17. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500...... 3.2 0.7 Q 0.3 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.3 Q 500 to ...

  18. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Gasoline Blending Components Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil, 15 ppm Sulfur and Under Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur

  19. Total Reducing Capacity in Aquifer Minerals and Sediments: Quantifying the Potential to Attenuate Cr(VI) in Groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisman, S. Lara

    2015-07-20

    Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), is present in the environment as a byproduct of industrial processes. Due to its mobility and toxicity, it is crucial to attenuate or remove Cr(VI) from the environment. The objective of this investigation was to quantify potential natural attenuation, or reduction capacity, of reactive minerals and aquifer sediments. Samples of reduced-iron containing minerals such as ilmenite, as well as Puye Formation sediments representing a contaminated aquifer in New Mexico, were reacted with chromate. The change in Cr(VI) during the reaction was used to calculate reduction capacity. This study found that minerals that contain reduced iron, such as ilmenite, have high reducing capacities. The data indicated that sample history may impact reduction capacity tests due to surface passivation. Further, this investigation identified areas for future research including: a) refining the relationships between iron content, magnetic susceptibility and reduction capacity, and b) long term kinetic testing using fresh aquifer sediments.

  20. Total..........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . 111.1 20.6 15.1 5.5 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.5 0.4 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 4.6 3.6 1.1 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 2.8 2.2 0.6 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 1.9 1.4 0.5 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 2.3 1.7 0.5 2,500 to

  1. Total..........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.5 0.3 Q 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 3.9 2.4 1.5 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 4.4 3.2 1.2 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 3.5 2.4 1.1 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 3.2 2.1 1.1 2,500 to

  2. Total..........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.6 Q Q 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 9.0 4.2 1.5 3.2 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 8.6 4.7 1.5 2.5 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 6.0 2.9 1.2 1.9 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 4.1 2.1 0.7

  3. Total..........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 1.0 0.2 0.8 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 6.3 1.4 4.9 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 5.0 1.6 3.4 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 4.0 1.4 2.6 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 2.6 0.9 1.7 2,500 to

  4. Total..........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 2.1 0.6 Q 0.4 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 13.6 3.7 3.2 3.2 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 9.5 3.7 3.4 4.2 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 6.6 2.7 2.5 3.6 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 5.0 2.1

  5. Total................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    .. 111.1 86.6 2,522 1,970 1,310 1,812 1,475 821 1,055 944 554 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500............................. 3.2 0.9 261 336 162 Q Q Q 334 260 Q 500 to 999.................................... 23.8 9.4 670 683 320 705 666 274 811 721 363 1,000 to 1,499.............................. 20.8 15.0 1,121 1,083 622 1,129 1,052 535 1,228 1,090 676 1,500 to 1,999.............................. 15.4 14.4 1,574 1,450 945 1,628 1,327 629 1,712 1,489 808 2,000 to

  6. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    .. 111.1 24.5 1,090 902 341 872 780 441 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500...................................... 3.1 2.3 403 360 165 366 348 93 500 to 999.............................................. 22.2 14.4 763 660 277 730 646 303 1,000 to 1,499........................................ 19.1 5.8 1,223 1,130 496 1,187 1,086 696 1,500 to 1,999........................................ 14.4 1.0 1,700 1,422 412 1,698 1,544 1,348 2,000 to 2,499........................................ 12.7

  7. Total...................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500............................................ 3.2 0.4 Q 0.6 1.7 0.4 500 to 999................................................... 23.8 4.8 1.4 4.2 10.2 3.2 1,000 to 1,499............................................. 20.8 10.6 1.8 1.8 4.0 2.6 1,500 to 1,999............................................. 15.4 12.4 1.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 2,000 to 2,499............................................. 12.2 10.7 1.0 0.2 Q Q 2,500 to

  8. Total.........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 2 Fewer than 500.................................................. 3.2 Q 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.5 500 to 999.......................................................... 23.8 1.5 5.4 5.5 6.1 5.3 1,000 to 1,499.................................................... 20.8 1.4 4.0 5.2 5.0 5.2 1,500 to 1,999.................................................... 15.4 1.4 3.1 3.5 3.6 3.8 2,000 to 2,499.................................................... 12.2 1.4 3.2 3.0 2.3 2.3

  9. Total..........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    25.6 40.7 24.2 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.5 0.9 1.0 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 4.6 3.9 9.0 6.3 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 2.8 4.4 8.6 5.0 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 1.9 3.5 6.0 4.0 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 2.3 3.2 4.1

  10. Total..........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.4 Q Q 0.5 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 2.5 1.5 2.1 3.7 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 1.1 2.0 1.5 2.5 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 0.5 1.2 1.2 1.9 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 0.7 0.5 0.8 1.4

  11. Total...........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................... 3.2 1.9 0.9 Q Q Q 1.3 2.3 500 to 999........................................... 23.8 10.5 7.3 3.3 1.4 1.2 6.6 12.9 1,000 to 1,499..................................... 20.8 5.8 7.0 3.8 2.2 2.0 3.9 8.9 1,500 to 1,999..................................... 15.4 3.1 4.2 3.4 2.0 2.7 1.9 5.0 2,000 to 2,499..................................... 12.2 1.7 2.7 2.9 1.8 3.2 1.1 2.8

  12. Variable laser attenuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foltyn, S.R.

    1987-05-29

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprising one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength. 9 figs.

  13. Variable laser attenuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foltyn, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprng one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength.

  14. Total reflection inelastic x-ray scattering from a 10 nm thick La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.2}CoO{sub 3} thin film.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fister, T. T.; Fong, D. D.; Eastman, J. A.; Iddir, H.; Zapol, P.; Fuoss, P. H.; Balasubramanian, M.; Gordon, R. A.; Balasubramaniam, K. R.; Salvador, P. A.; Simon Fraser Univ.; Carnegie Mellon Univ.

    2011-01-18

    To study equilibrium changes in composition, valence, and electronic structure near the surface and into the bulk, we demonstrate the use of a new approach, total-reflection inelastic x-ray scattering, as a sub-keV spectroscopy capable of depth profiling chemical changes in thin films with nanometer resolution. By comparing data acquired under total x-ray reflection and penetrating conditions, we are able to separate the O K-edge spectra from a 10 nm La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3} thin film from that of the underlying SrTiO{sub 3} substrate. With a smaller wavelength probe than comparable soft x-ray absorption measurements, we also describe the ability to easily access dipole-forbidden final states, using the dramatic evolution of the La N{sub 4,5} edge with momentum transfer as an example.

  15. DC attenuation meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hargrove, Douglas L.

    2004-09-14

    A portable, hand-held meter used to measure direct current (DC) attenuation in low impedance electrical signal cables and signal attenuators. A DC voltage is applied to the signal input of the cable and feedback to the control circuit through the signal cable and attenuators. The control circuit adjusts the applied voltage to the cable until the feedback voltage equals the reference voltage. The "units" of applied voltage required at the cable input is the system attenuation value of the cable and attenuators, which makes this meter unique. The meter may be used to calibrate data signal cables, attenuators, and cable-attenuator assemblies.

  16. Pressure surge attenuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Alan M.; Snyder, Kurt I.

    1985-01-01

    A pressure surge attenuation system for pipes having a fluted region opposite crushable metal foam. As adapted for nuclear reactor vessels and heads, crushable metal foam is disposed to attenuate pressure surges.

  17. Lens testing using total internal reflection holography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hildebrand, Bernard P.

    1976-12-14

    Accurate, rapid and inexpensive testing and inspecting of lens surfaces tugh holographic means requiring no beamsplitters, mirrors or overpower optics, and wherein a hologram formed in accordance with one aspect of the invention contains the entire interferometer and serves as both a master and illuminating source for both concave and convex surfaces to be so tested.

  18. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

    1994-09-06

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

  19. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, Ian J. (Albuquerque, NM); Wendt, Joel R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors.

  20. RADIO FREQUENCY ATTENUATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Giordano, S.

    1963-11-12

    A high peak power level r-f attenuator that is readily and easily insertable along a coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer annular conductor without breaking the ends thereof is presented. Spaced first and second flares in the outer conductor face each other with a slidable cylindrical outer conductor portion therebetween. Dielectric means, such as water, contact the cable between the flares to attenuate the radio-frequency energy received thereby. The cylindrical outer conductor portion is slidable to adjust the voltage standing wave ratio to a low level, and one of the flares is slidable to adjust the attenuation level. An integral dielectric container is also provided. (AFC)

  1. Attenuator And Conditioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Carson, Richard F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; Kemme, Shanalyn Adair; McCormick, Frederick B.; Peterson, David W.

    2006-04-04

    An apparatus and method of attenuating and/or conditioning optical energy for an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module is disclosed. An apparatus for attenuating the optical output of an optoelectronic connector including: a mounting surface; an array of optoelectronic devices having at least a first end; an array of optical elements having at least a first end; the first end of the array of optical elements optically aligned with the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices; an optical path extending from the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices and ending at a second end of the array of optical elements; and an attenuator in the optical path for attenuating the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices. Alternatively, a conditioner may be adapted in the optical path for conditioning the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices.

  2. Bidirectional reflection functions from surface bump maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, B.; Max, N.; Springmeyer, R.

    1987-04-29

    The Torrance-Sparrow model for calculating bidirectional reflection functions contains a geometrical attenuation factor to account for shadowing and occlusions in a hypothetical distribution of grooves on a rough surface. Using an efficient table-based method for determining the shadows and occlusions, we calculate the geometric attenuation factor for surfaces defined by a specific table of bump heights. Diffuse and glossy specular reflection of the environment can be handled in a unified manner by using an integral of the bidirectional reflection function times the environmental illumination, over the hemisphere of solid angle above a surface. We present a method of estimating the integral, by expanding the bidirectional reflection coefficient in spherical harmonics, and show how the coefficients in this expansion can be determined efficiently by reorganizing our geometric attenuation calculation.

  3. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.; Agrawal, Anoop; Hall, Simon B.

    2009-11-10

    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3 C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  4. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.; Agrawal, Anoop; Hall, Simon B.

    2009-01-20

    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  5. Country Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Country Total Percent of U.S. total China 1,461,074 34 Republic of Korea 172,379 4 Taiwan 688,311 16 All others 1,966,263 46 Total 4,288,027 100 Note: All Others includes Canada, Czech Republic, Federal Republic of Germany, Malaysia, Mexico, Philippines and Singapore Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report.' Table 7 . Photovoltaic module import shipments by country, 2013 (peak kilowatts)

  6. REFLECT HOME

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sacramento is nicknamed the City of Trees, so it made sense for the California State University, Sacramento, team to showcase nature in its Solar Decathlon 2015 project. The team’s Reflect Home does just that by embracing the city’s sense of expansive greenery.

  7. State Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State Total Percent of U.S. total Alabama 1,652 0.0 Alaska 152 0.0 Arizona 912,975 19.9 Arkansas 2,724 0.1 California 2,239,983 48.8 Colorado 49,903 1.1 Connecticut 33,627 0.7 Delaware 3,080 0.1 District of Columbia 1,746 0.0 Florida 22,061 0.5 Georgia 99,713 2.2 Guam 39 0.0 Hawaii 126,595 2.8 Idaho 1,423 0.0 Illinois 8,176 0.2 Indiana 12,912 0.3 Iowa 4,480 0.1 Kansas 523 0.0 Kentucky 2,356 0.1 Louisiana 27,704 0.6 Maine 993 0.0 Maryland 30,528 0.7 Massachusetts 143,539 3.1 Michigan 3,416 0.1

  8. Barge Truck Total

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Barge Truck Total delivered cost per short ton Shipments with transportation rates over total shipments Total delivered cost per short ton Shipments with transportation rates over...

  9. Attenuation Based Remedies | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Attenuation Based Remedies Attenuation Based Remedies The mission of the Attenuation Based Remedies in the Subsurface Applied Field Research Initiative is to seek holistic solutions to DOE's groundwater contamination problems that consider not only the technical aspects of a waste site, but regulator, stakeholder, and end-user concerns as well. PDF icon Attenuation Based Remedies More Documents & Publications Chairs Meeting - June 2011 CX-010119: Categorical Exclusion Determination ASCEM

  10. ENHANCEMENTS TO NATURAL ATTENUATION: SELECTED CASE STUDIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vangelas, K; W. H. Albright, W; E. S. Becvar, E; C. H. Benson, C; T. O. Early, T; E. Hood, E; P. M. Jardine, P; M. Lorah, M; E. Majche, E; D. Major, D; W. J. Waugh, W; G. Wein, G; O. R. West, O

    2007-05-15

    In 2003 the US Department of Energy (DOE) embarked on a project to explore an innovative approach to remediation of subsurface contaminant plumes that focused on introducing mechanisms for augmenting natural attenuation to achieve site closure. Termed enhanced attenuation (EA), this approach has drawn its inspiration from the concept of monitored natural attenuation (MNA).

  11. Scintillator reflective layer coextrusion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yun, Jae-Chul; Para, Adam

    2001-01-01

    A polymeric scintillator has a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof. The reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and an adhesive binder. The adhesive binder includes polymeric material from which the scintillator is formed. A method of forming the polymeric scintillator having a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof is also provided. The method includes the steps of (a) extruding an inner core member from a first amount of polymeric scintillator material, and (b) coextruding an outer reflective layer on the exterior surface of the inner core member. The outer reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and a second amount of the polymeric scintillator material.

  12. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources.

  13. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, J.L.

    1992-12-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. 2 figs.

  14. Attenuated Vector Tomography -- An Approach to Image Flow Vector Fields with Doppler Ultrasonic Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Qiu; Peng, Qiyu; Huang, Bin; Cheryauka, Arvi; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2008-05-15

    The measurement of flow obtained using continuous wave Doppler ultrasound is formulated as a directional projection of a flow vector field. When a continuous ultrasound wave bounces against a flowing particle, a signal is backscattered. This signal obtains a Doppler frequency shift proportional to the speed of the particle along the ultrasound beam. This occurs for each particle along the beam, giving rise to a Doppler velocity spectrum. The first moment of the spectrum provides the directional projection of the flow along theultrasound beam. Signals reflected from points further away from the detector will have lower amplitude than signals reflected from points closer to the detector. The effect is very much akin to that modeled by the attenuated Radon transform in emission computed tomography.A least-squares method was adopted to reconstruct a 2D vector field from directional projection measurements. Attenuated projections of only the longitudinal projections of the vector field were simulated. The components of the vector field were reconstructed using the gradient algorithm to minimize a least-squares criterion. This result was compared with the reconstruction of longitudinal projections of the vector field without attenuation. Ifattenuation is known, the algorithm was able to accurately reconstruct both components of the full vector field from only one set of directional projection measurements. A better reconstruction was obtained with attenuation than without attenuation implying that attenuation provides important information for the reconstruction of flow vector fields.This confirms previous work where we showed that knowledge of the attenuation distribution helps in the reconstruction of MRI diffusion tensor fields from fewer than the required measurements. In the application of ultrasound the attenuation distribution is obtained with pulse wave transmission computed tomography and flow information is obtained with continuous wave Doppler.

  15. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  16. Enhancements to Natural Attenuation: Selected Case Studies |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Selected Case Studies More Documents & Publications Building C-400 Thermal Treatment 90% Remedial Design Report and Site Investigation Natural and Enhanced Attenuation of Soil ...

  17. Reflective diffraction grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lamartine, Bruce C.

    2003-06-24

    Reflective diffraction grating. A focused ion beam (FIB) micromilling apparatus is used to store color images in a durable medium by milling away portions of the surface of the medium to produce a reflective diffraction grating with blazed pits. The images are retrieved by exposing the surface of the grating to polychromatic light from a particular incident bearing and observing the light reflected by the surface from specified reception bearing.

  18. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. One layer of each set of bilayers consist of titanium, and the second layer of each set of bilayers consist of an alloy of nickel with carbon interstitially present in the nickel alloy.

  19. Dual energy CT for attenuation correction with PET/CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, Ting; Alessio, Adam M.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The authors evaluate the energy dependent noise and bias properties of monoenergetic images synthesized from dual-energy CT (DECT) acquisitions. These monoenergetic images can be used to estimate attenuation coefficients at energies suitable for positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. This is becoming more relevant with the increased use of quantitative imaging by PET/CT and SPECT/CT scanners. There are, however, potential variations in the noise and bias of synthesized monoenergetic images as a function of energy. Methods: The authors used analytic approximations and simulations to estimate the noise and bias of synthesized monoenergetic images of water-filled cylinders with different shapes and the NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom from 40 to 520 keV, the range of SPECT and PET energies. The dual-kVp spectra were based on the GE Lightspeed VCT scanner at 80 and 140 kVp with added filtration of 0.5 mm Cu. The authors evaluated strategies of noise suppression with sinogram smoothing and dose minimization with reduction of tube currents at the two kVp settings. The authors compared the impact of DECT-based attenuation correction with single-kVp CT-based attenuation correction on PET quantitation for the NCAT phantom for soft tissue and high-Z materials of bone and iodine contrast enhancement. Results: Both analytic calculations and simulations displayed the expected minimum noise value for a synthesized monoenergetic image at an energy between the mean energies of the two spectra. In addition the authors found that the normalized coefficient of variation in the synthesized attenuation map increased with energy but reached a plateau near 160 keV, and then remained constant with increasing energy up to 511 keV and beyond. The bias was minimal, as the linear attenuation coefficients of the synthesized monoenergetic images were within 2.4% of the known true values across the entire energy range. Compared with no sinogram smoothing, sinogram smoothing can dramatically reduce noise in the DECT-derived attenuation map. Through appropriate selection of tube currents for high and low kVp scans, DECT can deliver roughly the same amount of radiation dose as that of a single kVp CT scan, but could be used for PET attenuation correction with reduced bias in contrast agent regions by a factor of ?2.6 and slightly reduced RMSE for the total image. Conclusions: When DECT is used for attenuation correction at higher energies, there is a noise amplification that is dependent on the energy of the synthesized monoenergetic image of linear attenuation coefficients. Sinogram smoothing reduces the noise amplification in DECT-derived attenuation maps without increasing bias. With an appropriate selection of CT techniques, a DECT scan with the same radiation dose as a single CT scan can result in a PET image with improved quantitative accuracy.

  20. Renewable liquid reflection grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryutov, Dmitri D.; Toor, Arthur

    2003-10-07

    A renewable liquid reflection grating. Electrodes are operatively connected to a conducting liquid in an arrangement that produces a reflection grating and driven by a current with a resonance frequency. In another embodiment, the electrodes create the grating by a resonant electrostatic force acting on a dielectric liquid.

  1. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per...

  2. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  3. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region, 1999" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per Square Foot"...

  4. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

  5. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per...

  6. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  7. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

  8. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings*...

  9. Parallel Total Energy

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-10-21

    This is a total energy electronic structure code using Local Density Approximation (LDA) of the density funtional theory. It uses the plane wave as the wave function basis set. It can sue both the norm conserving pseudopotentials and the ultra soft pseudopotentials. It can relax the atomic positions according to the total energy. It is a parallel code using MP1.

  10. Electrically tunable hot-silicon terahertz attenuator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Minjie; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Kono, Junichiro

    2014-10-06

    We have developed a continuously tunable, broadband terahertz attenuator with a transmission tuning range greater than 10{sup 3}. Attenuation tuning is achieved electrically, by simply changing the DC voltage applied to a heating wire attached to a bulk silicon wafer, which controls its temperature between room temperature and ?550?K, with the corresponding free-carrier density adjusted between ?10{sup 11?}cm{sup ?3} and ?10{sup 17?}cm{sup ?3}. This “hot-silicon”-based terahertz attenuator works most effectively at 450–550?K (corresponding to a DC voltage variation of only ?7?V) and completely shields terahertz radiation above 550?K in a frequency range of 0.1–2.5 THz. Both intrinsic and doped silicon wafers were tested and demonstrated to work well as a continuously tunable attenuator. All behaviors can be understood quantitatively via the free-carrier Drude model taking into account thermally activated intrinsic carriers.

  11. Summary Max Total Units

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Summary Max Total Units *If All Splits, No Rack Units **If Only FW, AC Splits 1000 52 28 28 2000 87 59 35 3000 61 33 15 4000 61 33 15 Totals 261 153 93 ***Costs $1,957,500.00 $1,147,500.00 $697,500.00 Notes: added several refrigerants removed bins from analysis removed R-22 from list 1000lb, no Glycol, CO2 or ammonia Seawater R-404A only * includes seawater units ** no seawater units included *** Costs = (total units) X (estimate of $7500 per unit) 1000lb, air cooled split systems, fresh water

  12. Country/Continent Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    peak kilowatts) Country/Continent Total Percent of U.S. total Africa 14,279 3.7 Asia/Australia 330,200 86.2 Europe 19,771 5.1 South/Central America 7,748 2.0 Canada 5,507 1.4 Mexico 5,747 1.5 Total 383,252 100.0 Table 8. Destination of photovoltaic module export shipments, 2013 Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report.'

  13. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other...

  14. ARM - Measurement - Total carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Total carbon The total concentration of carbon in all its organic and non-organic forms. Categories Aerosols, Atmospheric Carbon Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including

  15. Total DOE/NNSA

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    8 Actuals 2009 Actuals 2010 Actuals 2011 Actuals 2012 Actuals 2013 Actuals 2014 Actuals 2015 Actuals Total DOE/NNSA 4,385 4,151 4,240 4,862 5,154 5,476 7,170 7,593 Total non-NNSA 3,925 4,017 4,005 3,821 3,875 3,974 3,826 3765 Total Facility 8,310 8,168 8,245 8,683 9,029 9,450 10,996 11,358 non-NNSA includes DOE offices and Strategic Parternship Projects (SPP) employees NNSA M&O Employee Reporting

  16. Reflective optical imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, David R.

    2000-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

  17. reflecting-behavioral-processes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reflecting Behavioral Processes In Integrated Models Of Activity-Travel Demand And Dynamic Network Supply: A Novel Event-Based Framework Presentation at Argonne TRACC March 16, 2012 10:00 AM(CDT) TRACC Conference Room: Building 222, Room D-233 Dr. Karthik Charan Konduri School of Sustainable Energy and the Built Environment Arizona State University Abstract The developments in the microsimulation modeling of two key components of the transportation system, namely, activity-travel demand and

  18. 21 briefing pages total

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1 briefing pages total p. 1 Reservist Differential Briefing U.S. Office of Personnel Management December 11, 2009 p. 2 Agenda - Introduction of Speakers - Background - References/Tools - Overview of Reservist Differential Authority - Qualifying Active Duty Service and Military Orders - Understanding Military Leave and Earnings Statements p. 3 Background 5 U.S.C. 5538 (Section 751 of the Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009, March 11, 2009) (Public Law 111-8) Law requires OPM to consult with DOD Law

  19. Total Sales of Kerosene

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Farm All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 269,010 305,508 187,656 81,102 79,674 137,928 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 198,762 237,397 142,189 63,075 61,327 106,995 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 56,661 53,363 38,448 15,983 15,991 27,500 1984-2014 Connecticut 8,800 7,437

  20. Attenuation-Based Remedies in the Subsurface Applied Field Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Initiative (ABRS AFRI) | Department of Energy Attenuation-Based Remedies in the Subsurface Applied Field Research Initiative (ABRS AFRI) Attenuation-Based Remedies in the Subsurface Applied Field Research Initiative (ABRS AFRI) Attenuation-Based Remedies in the Subsurface Applied Field Research Initiative (ABRS AFRI) Located at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina, the Attenuation-Based Remedies in the Subsurface Applied Field Research Initiative (ABRS AFRI) was established to

  1. Renewable liquid reflecting zone plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toor, Arthur; Ryutov, Dmitri D.

    2003-12-09

    A renewable liquid reflecting zone plate. Electrodes are operatively connected to a dielectric liquid in a circular or other arrangement to produce a reflecting zone plate. A system for renewing the liquid uses a penetrable substrate.

  2. Seismic Attenuation Inversion with t* Using tstarTomog.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preston, Leiph

    2014-09-01

    Seismic attenuation is defined as the loss of the seismic wave amplitude as the wave propagates excluding losses strictly due to geometric spreading. Information gleaned from seismic waves can be utilized to solve for the attenuation properties of the earth. One method of solving for earth attenuation properties is called t*. This report will start by introducing the basic theory behind t* and delve into inverse theory as it pertains to how the algorithm called tstarTomog inverts for attenuation properties using t* observations. This report also describes how to use the tstarTomog package to go from observed data to a 3-D model of attenuation structure in the earth.

  3. Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Using Total Carbon Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    2002-05-10

    Several methods have been proposed to replace the Freon(TM)-extraction method to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content. For reasons of cost, sensitivity, precision, or simplicity, none of the replacement methods are feasible for analysis of radioactive samples at our facility. We have developed a method to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon content in aqueous sample matrixes using total organic carbon (total carbon) determination. The total carbon content (TC1) of the sample is measured using a total organic carbon analyzer. The sample is then contacted with a small volume of non-pokar solvent to extract the total petroleum hydrocarbons. The total carbon content of the resultant aqueous phase of the extracted sample (TC2) is measured. Total petroleum hydrocarbon content is calculated (TPH = TC1-TC2). The resultant data are consistent with results obtained using Freon(TM) extraction followed by infrared absorbance.

  4. Variable area light reflecting assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, T.C.

    1986-12-23

    Device is described for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles. 9 figs.

  5. Variable area light reflecting assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, Thomas C.

    1986-01-01

    Device for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles.

  6. High power radio frequency attenuation device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kerns, Quentin A.; Miller, Harold W.

    1984-01-01

    A resistor device for attenuating radio frequency power includes a radio frequency conductor connected to a series of fins formed of high relative magnetic permeability material. The fins are dimensional to accommodate the skin depth of the current conduction therethrough, as well as an inner heat conducting portion where current does not travel. Thermal connections for air or water cooling are provided for the inner heat conducting portions of each fin. Also disclosed is a resistor device to selectively alternate unwanted radio frequency energy in a resonant cavity.

  7. Reflection Survey | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Gritto, Et Al.) Rye Patch Area Integrated Seismic Studies At The Rye Patch Geothermal Reservoir, Nevada Reflection Survey At Rye Patch Area (Laney, 2005) Rye Patch Area Federal...

  8. REFLECT HOME | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    so it made sense for the California State University, Sacramento, team to showcase nature in its Solar Decathlon 2015 project. The team's Reflect Home does just that by...

  9. Electron attenuation in free, neutral ethane clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, M.; Harnes, J.; Børve, K. J.; Myrseth, V.

    2014-10-28

    The electron effective attenuation length (EAL) in free, neutral ethane clusters has been determined at 40 eV kinetic energy by combining carbon 1s x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical lineshape modeling. More specifically, theory is employed to form model spectra on a grid in cluster size (N) and EAL (?), allowing N and ? to be determined by optimizing the goodness-of-fit ?{sup 2}(N, ?) between model and observed spectra. Experimentally, the clusters were produced in an adiabatic-expansion setup using helium as the driving gas, spanning a range of 100–600 molecules in mean cluster size. The effective attenuation length was determined to be 8.4?±?1.9 Å, in good agreement with an independent estimate of 10 Å formed on the basis of molecular electron-scattering data and Monte Carlo simulations. The aggregation state of the clusters as well as the cluster temperature and its importance to the derived EAL value are discussed in some depth.

  10. Total Eolica | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Eolica Jump to: navigation, search Name: Total Eolica Place: Spain Product: Project developer References: Total Eolica1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding...

  11. Parametric reflection upon cascade interaction of focused optical beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobanov, V E; Sukhorukov, A P; Sukhorukova, A K

    2008-10-31

    The parametric reflection of a signal beam in the waist of the reference pump beam upon mismatched three-frequency interaction in a quadratically nonlinear medium is discussed. The critical angle of total internal reflection from the induced defocusing channel is found as a function of the beam waist parameters. It is shown that when the reference beam is focused, this angle increases and some distortions are introduced into the reflected wave due to a finite length of the waist. The modification of the cross section of a wave reflected from a convex parametric mirror is analysed. The optimal beam focusing geometry is found at which the distortions of the shape and divergence of the reflected wave are minimal. Under certain conditions, the signal wave also flows around a cylindrical inhomogeneity produced by the axially symmetric pump beam. The results of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are in good agreement. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  12. A Shallow Attenuating Anomaly Inside The Ring Fracture Of The...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Roberts,Keiiti Aki,Michael C. Fehler. 1995. A Shallow Attenuating Anomaly Inside The Ring Fracture Of The Valles Caldera, New Mexico. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal...

  13. Anomalous shear wave attenuation in the shallow crust beneath...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    volcanic region, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Anomalous shear wave attenuation in the shallow crust beneath the...

  14. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil, 15 ppm Sulfur and Under Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 500 ppm ...

  15. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 or More Units Mobile Homes Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Million U.S. Housing Units ...

  16. Total..............................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    111.1 86.6 2,720 1,970 1,310 1,941 1,475 821 1,059 944 554 Census Region and Division Northeast.................................... 20.6 13.9 3,224 2,173 836 2,219 1,619 583 903 830 Q New England.......................... 5.5 3.6 3,365 2,154 313 2,634 1,826 Q 951 940 Q Middle Atlantic........................ 15.1 10.3 3,167 2,181 1,049 2,188 1,603 582 Q Q Q Midwest...................................... 25.6 21.0 2,823 2,239 1,624 2,356 1,669 1,336 1,081 961 778 East North

  17. Total........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    111.1 24.5 1,090 902 341 872 780 441 Census Region and Division Northeast............................................. 20.6 6.7 1,247 1,032 Q 811 788 147 New England.................................... 5.5 1.9 1,365 1,127 Q 814 748 107 Middle Atlantic.................................. 15.1 4.8 1,182 978 Q 810 800 159 Midwest................................................ 25.6 4.6 1,349 1,133 506 895 810 346 East North Central............................ 17.7 3.2 1,483 1,239 560 968 842 351

  18. Total...........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Q Table HC3.2 Living Space Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Units, 2005 2 to 4 Units 5 or More Units Mobile Homes Million U.S. Housing Units Owner- Occupied Housing Units (millions) Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit Housing Units (millions) Single-Family Units Apartments in Buildings With-- Living Space Characteristics Detached Attached Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Table HC3.2 Living Space

  19. Total............................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

  20. Total.............................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer........... 35.5 17.1 10.8 4.2 1.8 1.6 10.3 20.6 Use a Personal Computer....................... 75.6 9.6 18.0 16.4 11.3 20.3 6.4 17.9 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model.................................. 58.6 7.6 14.2 13.1 9.2 14.6 5.0 14.5 Laptop Model...................................... 16.9 2.0 3.8 3.3 2.1 5.7 1.3 3.5 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2 Hours..............................

  1. Total..............................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,171 1,618 1,031 845 630 401 Census Region and Division Northeast................................................... 20.6 2,334 1,664 562 911 649 220 New England.......................................... 5.5 2,472 1,680 265 1,057 719 113 Middle Atlantic........................................ 15.1 2,284 1,658 670 864 627 254 Midwest...................................................... 25.6 2,421 1,927 1,360 981 781 551 East North Central.................................. 17.7 2,483 1,926 1,269

  2. Total..............................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................ 17.8 5.3 4.7 2.8 1.9 3.1 3.6 7.5 Have Cooling Equipment............................. 93.3 21.5 24.1 17.8 11.2 18.8 13.0 31.1 Use Cooling Equipment.............................. 91.4 21.0 23.5 17.4 11.0 18.6 12.6 30.3 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............. 1.9 0.5 0.6 0.4 Q Q 0.5 0.8 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.......................................... 65.9 11.0 16.5 13.5 8.7 16.1 6.4 17.2 Without a Heat

  3. Total...............................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    20.6 25.6 40.7 24.2 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 6.9 8.1 14.2 6.4 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 13.7 17.5 26.6 17.8 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 9.3 11.9 18.2 11.0 2.......................................................... 16.2 2.9 3.5 5.5 4.4 3 or More............................................. 9.0 1.5 2.1 2.9 2.5 Number of Laptop PCs

  4. Total...............................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 14.2 7.2 2.8 4.2 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 26.6 14.5 4.1 7.9 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 18.2 10.0 2.9 5.3 2.......................................................... 16.2 5.5 3.0 0.7 1.8 3 or More............................................. 9.0 2.9 1.5 0.5 0.8 Number of Laptop PCs

  5. Total...............................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 17.1 10.8 4.2 1.8 1.6 10.3 20.6 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 9.6 18.0 16.4 11.3 20.3 6.4 17.9 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 8.3 14.2 11.4 7.2 9.2 5.3 14.2 2.......................................................... 16.2 0.9 2.6 3.7 2.9 6.2 0.8 2.6 3 or More............................................. 9.0 0.4 1.2

  6. Total...............................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................. 17.8 5.3 4.7 2.8 1.9 3.1 3.6 7.5 Have Cooling Equipment.............................. 93.3 21.5 24.1 17.8 11.2 18.8 13.0 31.1 Use Cooling Equipment............................... 91.4 21.0 23.5 17.4 11.0 18.6 12.6 30.3 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............. 1.9 0.5 0.6 0.4 Q Q 0.5 0.8 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System............................................ 65.9 11.0 16.5 13.5 8.7 16.1 6.4 17.2 Without a Heat

  7. Total...............................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    47.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 16.9 6.5 4.6 7.6 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 30.3 12.5 18.1 14.7 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 21.1 8.3 10.7 10.1 2.......................................................... 16.2 6.2 2.8 4.1 3.0 3 or More............................................. 9.0 2.9 1.4 3.2 1.6 Number of Laptop PCs

  8. Total................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    111.1 26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment....... 1.2 0.5 0.3 0.2 Q 0.2 0.3 0.6 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.......... 109.8 26.2 28.5 20.4 13.0 21.8 16.3 37.9 Use Main Space Heating Equipment............ 109.1 25.9 28.1 20.3 12.9 21.8 16.0 37.3 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It.............. 0.8 0.3 0.3 Q Q N 0.4 0.6 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.................................................. 58.2 12.2 14.4 11.3 7.1 13.2 7.6 18.3 Central

  9. Total.................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    49.2 15.1 15.6 11.1 7.0 5.2 8.0 Have Cooling Equipment............................... 93.3 31.3 15.1 15.6 11.1 7.0 5.2 8.0 Use Cooling Equipment................................ 91.4 30.4 14.6 15.4 11.1 6.9 5.2 7.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............... 1.9 1.0 0.5 Q Q Q Q Q Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................... 17.8 17.8 N N N N N N Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System............................................. 65.9 3.9 15.1 15.6 11.1 7.0 5.2 8.0 Without a Heat

  10. Total.................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment........ 1.2 N Q Q 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.2 Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment........... 109.8 14.7 7.4 12.4 12.2 18.5 18.3 17.1 9.2 Use Main Space Heating Equipment............. 109.1 14.6 7.3 12.4 12.2 18.2 18.2 17.1 9.1 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It............... 0.8 Q Q Q Q 0.3 Q N Q Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas................................................... 58.2 9.2 4.9 7.8 7.1 8.8 8.4 7.8 4.2 Central

  11. Total.................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day.............................. 8.2 2.9 2.5 1.3 0.5 1.0 2.4 4.6 2 Times A Day........................................... 24.6 6.5 7.0 4.3 3.2 3.6 4.8 10.3 Once a Day................................................ 42.3 8.8 9.8 8.7 5.1 10.0 5.0 12.9 A Few Times Each Week........................... 27.2 5.6 7.2 4.7 3.3 6.3 3.2 7.5 About Once a Week................................... 3.9 1.1 1.1

  12. Total..................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    78.1 64.1 4.2 1.8 2.3 5.7 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment..................... 17.8 11.3 9.3 0.6 Q 0.4 0.9 Have Cooling Equipment................................. 93.3 66.8 54.7 3.6 1.7 1.9 4.8 Use Cooling Equipment.................................. 91.4 65.8 54.0 3.6 1.7 1.9 4.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it................. 1.9 1.1 0.8 Q N Q Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.............................................. 65.9 51.7 43.9 2.5 0.7 1.6 3.1 Without a Heat

  13. Total..................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . 111.1 14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment..................... 17.8 3.9 1.8 2.2 2.1 3.1 2.6 1.7 0.4 Have Cooling Equipment................................. 93.3 10.8 5.6 10.3 10.4 15.8 16.0 15.6 8.8 Use Cooling Equipment.................................. 91.4 10.6 5.5 10.3 10.3 15.3 15.7 15.3 8.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it................. 1.9 Q Q Q Q 0.6 0.4 0.3 Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central

  14. Total...................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    15.2 7.8 1.0 1.2 3.3 1.9 For Two Housing Units............................. 0.9 Q N Q 0.6 N Heat Pump.................................................. 9.2 7.4 0.3 Q 0.7 0.5 Portable Electric Heater............................... 1.6 0.8 Q Q Q 0.3 Other Equipment......................................... 1.9 0.7 Q Q 0.7 Q Fuel Oil........................................................... 7.7 5.5 0.4 0.8 0.9 0.2 Steam or Hot Water System........................ 4.7 2.9 Q 0.7 0.8 N For One Housing

  15. Total....................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Household Size 1 Person.......................................................... 30.0 4.6 2.5 3.7 3.2 5.4 5.5 3.7 1.6 2 Persons......................................................... 34.8 4.3 1.9 4.4 4.1 5.9 5.3 5.5 3.4 3 Persons......................................................... 18.4 2.5 1.3 1.7 1.9 2.9 3.5 2.8 1.6 4 Persons......................................................... 15.9 1.9 0.8 1.5 1.6 3.0 2.5 3.1 1.4 5

  16. Total.......................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.6 15.1 5.5 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ................... 35.5 6.9 5.3 1.6 Use a Personal Computer................................ 75.6 13.7 9.8 3.9 Number of Desktop PCs 1.................................................................. 50.3 9.3 6.8 2.5 2.................................................................. 16.2 2.9 1.9 1.0 3 or More..................................................... 9.0 1.5 1.1 0.4 Number of Laptop PCs

  17. Total.......................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ................... 35.5 8.1 5.6 2.5 Use a Personal Computer................................ 75.6 17.5 12.1 5.4 Number of Desktop PCs 1.................................................................. 50.3 11.9 8.4 3.4 2.................................................................. 16.2 3.5 2.2 1.3 3 or More..................................................... 9.0 2.1 1.5 0.6 Number of Laptop PCs

  18. Total.......................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ................... 35.5 6.4 2.2 4.2 Use a Personal Computer................................ 75.6 17.8 5.3 12.5 Number of Desktop PCs 1.................................................................. 50.3 11.0 3.4 7.6 2.................................................................. 16.2 4.4 1.3 3.1 3 or More..................................................... 9.0 2.5 0.7 1.8 Number of Laptop PCs

  19. Total........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    25.6 40.7 24.2 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q Q 0.7 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 20.5 25.6 40.3 23.4 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 20.5 25.6 40.1 22.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N N Q 0.6 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 11.4 18.4 13.6 14.7 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 6.1

  20. Total........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    15.1 5.5 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 20.5 15.1 5.4 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 20.5 15.1 5.4 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 11.4 9.1 2.3 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 6.1 5.3 0.8 For One Housing

  1. Total........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q N Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 25.6 17.7 7.9 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 25.6 17.7 7.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 18.4 13.1 5.3 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 16.2 11.6 4.7 For One Housing

  2. Total........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q N Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 40.3 21.4 6.9 12.0 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 40.1 21.2 6.9 12.0 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 Q Q N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 13.6 5.6 2.3 5.7 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 11.0 4.4

  3. Total........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 0.7 Q 0.7 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 23.4 7.5 16.0 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 22.9 7.4 15.4 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 0.6 Q 0.5 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 14.7 4.6 10.1 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 11.4 4.0 7.4 For One

  4. Total........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q Q 0.2 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 7.1 6.8 7.9 11.9 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 7.1 6.6 7.9 11.4 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N Q N 0.5 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 3.8 0.4 3.8 8.4 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 1.8 Q 3.1 6.0

  5. Total........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 0.7 Q 0.2 Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 46.3 18.9 22.5 22.1 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 45.6 18.8 22.5 22.1 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 0.7 Q N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 27.0 11.9 14.9 4.3 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7

  6. Total...........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.6 15.1 5.5 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................. 17.8 4.0 2.4 1.7 Have Cooling Equipment.......................................... 93.3 16.5 12.8 3.8 Use Cooling Equipment........................................... 91.4 16.3 12.6 3.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it.......................... 1.9 0.3 Q Q Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 6.0 5.2 0.8 Without a Heat

  7. Total...........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................. 17.8 10.3 3.1 7.3 Have Cooling Equipment.......................................... 93.3 13.9 4.5 9.4 Use Cooling Equipment........................................... 91.4 12.9 4.3 8.5 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it.......................... 1.9 1.0 Q 0.8 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 10.5 3.9 6.5 Without a Heat

  8. Total.............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 4.0 2.1 1.4 10.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 16.5 23.5 39.3 13.9 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 16.3 23.4 38.9 12.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 0.3 Q 0.5 1.0 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 6.0 17.3 32.1 10.5 Without a Heat

  9. Total.............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day......................................... 8.2 1.2 1.0 0.2 2 Times A Day...................................................... 24.6 4.0 2.7 1.2 Once a Day........................................................... 42.3 7.9 5.4 2.5 A Few Times Each Week...................................... 27.2 6.0 4.8 1.2 About Once a Week.............................................. 3.9 0.6 0.5 Q Less Than Once a

  10. Total.............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day......................................... 8.2 1.4 1.0 0.4 2 Times A Day...................................................... 24.6 5.8 3.5 2.3 Once a Day........................................................... 42.3 10.7 7.8 2.9 A Few Times Each Week...................................... 27.2 5.6 4.0 1.6 About Once a Week.............................................. 3.9 0.9 0.6 0.3 Less Than Once a

  11. Total.............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 1.4 0.8 0.2 0.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 39.3 20.9 6.7 11.8 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 38.9 20.7 6.6 11.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 0.5 Q Q Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 32.1 17.6 5.2 9.3 Without a Heat

  12. Total.............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day......................................... 8.2 2.6 0.7 1.9 2 Times A Day...................................................... 24.6 6.6 2.0 4.6 Once a Day........................................................... 42.3 8.8 2.9 5.8 A Few Times Each Week...................................... 27.2 4.7 1.5 3.1 About Once a Week.............................................. 3.9 0.7 Q 0.6 Less Than Once a

  13. Total.............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 10.3 3.1 7.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 13.9 4.5 9.4 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 12.9 4.3 8.5 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 1.0 Q 0.8 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 10.5 3.9 6.5 Without a Heat

  14. Total.............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 8.5 2.7 2.6 4.0 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 38.6 16.2 20.1 18.4 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 37.8 15.9 19.8 18.0 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 0.9 0.3 0.3 0.4 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 25.8 10.9 16.6 12.5 Without a Heat

  15. Total..............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    111.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer .......................... 35.5 3.0 2.0 2.7 3.1 Use a Personal Computer....................................... 75.6 4.2 5.0 5.3 9.0 Number of Desktop PCs 1......................................................................... 50.3 3.1 3.4 3.4 5.4 2......................................................................... 16.2 0.7 1.1 1.2 2.2 3 or More............................................................ 9.0 0.3

  16. Total.................................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................................... 17.8 1.8 Q Q 4.9 Have Cooling Equipment................................................ 93.3 5.3 7.0 7.8 7.2 Use Cooling Equipment................................................. 91.4 5.3 7.0 7.7 6.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................... 1.9 Q N Q 0.6 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.............................................................. 65.9 1.1 6.4 6.4 5.4 Without a

  17. Total....................................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    25.6 40.7 24.2 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 6.9 8.1 14.2 6.4 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 13.7 17.5 26.6 17.8 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 10.4 14.1 20.5 13.7 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 3.3 3.4 6.1 4.1 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  18. Total....................................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 8.1 5.6 2.5 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 17.5 12.1 5.4 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 14.1 10.0 4.0 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 3.4 2.1 1.3 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  19. Total....................................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day................................................. 8.2 3.0 1.6 0.3 1.1 2 Times A Day.............................................................. 24.6 8.3 4.2 1.3 2.7 Once a Day................................................................... 42.3 15.0 8.1 2.7 4.2 A Few Times Each Week............................................. 27.2 10.9 6.0 1.8 3.1 About Once a Week..................................................... 3.9

  20. Total....................................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 14.2 7.2 2.8 4.2 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 26.6 14.5 4.1 7.9 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 20.5 11.0 3.4 6.1 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 6.1 3.5 0.7 1.9 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  1. Total....................................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 6.4 2.2 4.2 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 17.8 5.3 12.5 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 13.7 4.2 9.5 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 4.1 1.1 3.0 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  2. Total....................................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day................................................. 8.2 3.7 1.6 1.4 1.5 2 Times A Day.............................................................. 24.6 10.8 4.1 4.3 5.5 Once a Day................................................................... 42.3 17.0 7.2 8.7 9.3 A Few Times Each Week............................................. 27.2 11.4 4.7 6.4 4.8 About Once a Week.....................................................

  3. Total....................................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    111.1 47.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 16.9 6.5 4.6 7.6 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 30.3 12.5 18.1 14.7 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 22.9 9.8 14.1 11.9 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 7.4 2.7 4.0 2.9 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  4. Total.........................................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ..... 111.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer...................................... 35.5 3.0 2.0 2.7 3.1 Use a Personal Computer.................................................. 75.6 4.2 5.0 5.3 9.0 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model............................................................. 58.6 3.2 3.9 4.0 6.7 Laptop Model................................................................. 16.9 1.0 1.1 1.3 2.4 Hours Turned on Per Week Less

  5. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic CellModule Shipments Report.'rounding. ... Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic CellModule Shipments Report.' CellModule ...

  6. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 41.8 2,603 2,199 1,654 941 795 598 1-Car Garage...... 9.5 2,064 1,664 1,039 775 624 390 2-Car Garage......

  7. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Type of Glass in Windows Single-pane Glass...... 27.4 ... Q Q N Q N N Proportion of Windows Replaced All......

  8. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Type of Glass in Windows Single-pane Glass......Q Q Q Q Proportion of Windows Replaced All......

  9. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System...... 65.9 25.8 10.9 16.6 12.5 Without a Heat Pump......

  10. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System...... 65.9 6.0 17.3 32.1 10.5 Without a Heat Pump......

  11. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System...... 65.9 47.5 4.0 2.8 7.9 3.7 Without a Heat Pump...... 53.5 ...

  12. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System...... 65.9 32.1 17.6 5.2 9.3 Without a Heat Pump......

  13. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment...... 17.8 2.1 1.8 0.3 Have Cooling Equipment...... 93.3 23.5 16.0 7.5 Use ...

  14. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 111.1 20.6 15.1 5.5 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment...... 17.8 4.0 2.4 1.7 Have Cooling Equipment...... 93.3 ...

  15. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    33.0 8.0 3.4 5.9 14.4 1.2 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment...... 17.8 6.5 1.6 0.9 1.3 2.4 0.2 Have Cooling Equipment...... 93.3 26.5 6.5 2.5 ...

  16. Enhanced Attenuation Technologies: Passive Soil Vapor Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vangelas, K.; Looney, B.; Kamath, R.; Adamson, D.; Newell, C.

    2010-03-15

    Passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) is an enhanced attenuation (EA) approach that removes volatile contaminants from soil. The extraction is driven by natural pressure gradients between the subsurface and atmosphere (Barometric Pumping), or by renewable sources of energy such as wind or solar power (Assisted PSVE). The technology is applicable for remediating sites with low levels of contamination and for transitioning sites from active source technologies such as active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) to natural attenuation. PSVE systems are simple to design and operate and are more cost effective than active systems in many scenarios. Thus, PSVE is often appropriate as an interim-remedial or polishing strategy. Over the past decade, PSVE has been demonstrated in the U.S. and in Europe. These demonstrations provide practical information to assist in selecting, designing and implementing the technology. These demonstrations indicate that the technology can be effective in achieving remedial objectives in a timely fashion. The keys to success include: (1) Application at sites where the residual source quantities, and associated fluxes to groundwater, are relatively low; (2) Selection of the appropriate passive energy source - barometric pumping in cases with a deep vadose zone and barrier (e.g., clay) layers that separate the subsurface from the atmosphere and renewable energy assisted PSVE in other settings and where higher flow rates are required. (3) Provision of sufficient access to the contaminated vadose zones through the spacing and number of extraction wells. This PSVE technology report provides a summary of the relevant technical background, real-world case study performance, key design and cost considerations, and a scenario-based cost evaluation. The key design and cost considerations are organized into a flowchart that dovetails with the Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics Guidance of the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The PSVE flowchart provides a structured process to determine if the technology is, or is not, reasonable and defensible for a particular site. The central basis for that decision is the expected performance of PSVE under the site specific conditions. Will PSVE have sufficient mass removal rates to reduce the release, or flux, of contamination into the underlying groundwater so that the site can meet it overall remedial objectives? The summary technical information, case study experiences, and structured decision process provided in this 'user guide' should assist environmental decision-makers, regulators, and engineers in selecting and successfully implementing PSVE at appropriate sites.

  17. Gas sensor with attenuated drift characteristic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Ing-Shin [Danbury, CT; Chen, Philip S. H. [Bethel, CT; Neuner, Jeffrey W. [Bethel, CT; Welch, James [Fairfield, CT; Hendrix, Bryan [Danbury, CT; Dimeo, Jr., Frank [Danbury, CT

    2008-05-13

    A sensor with an attenuated drift characteristic, including a layer structure in which a sensing layer has a layer of diffusional barrier material on at least one of its faces. The sensor may for example be constituted as a hydrogen gas sensor including a palladium/yttrium layer structure formed on a micro-hotplate base, with a chromium barrier layer between the yttrium layer and the micro-hotplate, and with a tantalum barrier layer between the yttrium layer and an overlying palladium protective layer. The gas sensor is useful for detection of a target gas in environments susceptible to generation or incursion of such gas, and achieves substantial (e.g., >90%) reduction of signal drift from the gas sensor in extended operation, relative to a corresponding gas sensor lacking the diffusional barrier structure of the invention

  18. Determination of Total Solids in Biomass and Total Dissolved...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The published moisture loss on drying for sodium tartrate is 15.62% (84.38% total solids). 14.6 Sample size: Determined by sample matrix. 14.7 Sample storage: Samples should be ...

  19. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  20. TotalView Training 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TotalView Training 2015 TotalView Training 2015 NERSC will host an in-depth training course on TotalView, a graphical parallel debugger developed by Rogue Wave Software, on Thursday, March 26, 2015. This will be provided by Rogue Wave Software staff members. The training will include a lecture and demo sessions in the morning, followed by a hands-on parallel debugging session in the afternoon. Location This event will be presented online using WebEx technology and in person at NERSC Oakland

  1. Reflective coherent spatial light modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, John T.; Richards, Roger K.; Hutchinson, Donald P.; Simpson, Marcus L.

    2003-04-22

    A reflective coherent spatial light modulator (RCSLM) includes a subwavelength resonant grating structure (SWS), the SWS including at least one subwavelength resonant grating layer (SWL) have a plurality of areas defining a plurality of pixels. Each pixel represents an area capable of individual control of its reflective response. A structure for modulating the resonant reflective response of at least one pixel is provided. The structure for modulating can include at least one electro-optic layer in optical contact with the SWS. The RCSLM is scalable in both pixel size and wavelength. A method for forming a RCSLM includes the steps of selecting a waveguide material and forming a SWS in the waveguide material, the SWS formed from at least one SWL, the SWL having a plurality of areas defining a plurality of pixels.

  2. ARM - Measurement - Total cloud water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cloud water ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Total cloud water The...

  3. U.S. Total Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    CA Otay Mesa, CA Alamo, TX Clint, TX Del Rio, TX Eagle Pass, TX El Paso, TX Freeport, TX Hidalgo, TX Laredo, TX McAllen, TX Penitas, TX Rio Bravo, TX Rio Grande, TX Roma, TX Total ...

  4. Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and 1994 Vehicle Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total 1993 Family Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral Assist- ance 1 RSE Row Factor: Less than 5,000 5,000...

  5. 2014 Total Electric Industry- Customers

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Customers (Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A, 4B, 4D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U) State Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total New England 6,243,013 862,269 28,017 8 ...

  6. "2014 Total Electric Industry- Customers"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Customers" "(Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A, 4B, 4D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U)" "State","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation","Total" "New England",6243013,8...

  7. Attenuation compensation in TC-99M SPECT brain imaging: Use of attenuation maps derived from tranmission versus emission data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, T.S.; Licho, R.; Penney, B.C. [Univ. of Massachusetts Mecical Center, Worcester, MA (United States)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    This study compares reconstructions of Tc-99m brain SPECT studies made using two methods of estimating the attenuation map: (1) transmission scanning, and (2) segmenting reconstructions of emission data and assigning attenuation coefficient values. A three-head SPECT system with fan beam collimators was used. Transmission scanning was performed using a line source at the focal line of a fan beam collimator right after the regular emission scan. The higher attenuation of the skull and the lower attenuation in the sinus cavities were identifiable despite the noise in the reconstructed transmission data due to: (1) the contamination of the transmission data by emission photons, (2) the maximum acquisition count rate imposed by the SPECT system, and (3) the clinical scanning time. Emission data were recorded using both photopeak and Compton scatter energy windows. Outlines of the head and the maxillary sinus could be obtained using only the Compton scatter reconstructions, whereas identifying the skull regions and the frontal sinus required the photopeak data as well. We placed appropriate linear attenuation coefficients in the soft tissue, bone, sinus and air regions (0.15,. 0.22, 0, and 0 cm{sup -1}) and blurred this attenuation map with a Gaussian kernel of about 0.2 cm standard deviation to obtain the attenuation map based on the emission data. Reconstructions were computed using the maximum likelihood expectation maximization algorithm with Siddon`s ray-tracing algorithm. Reconstructions based on the two attenuation maps were compared quantitatively on the patient data. The differences noted were quite small. These results imply that attenuation correction based on emission data alone may be adequate for Tc-99m SPECT brain imaging.

  8. Reflected beam illumination microscopy using a microfluidics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reflected beam illumination microscopy using a microfluidics device - progress report 6152014. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reflected beam illumination microscopy ...

  9. Simulation of E-Cloud Driven Instability And Its Attenuation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simulation of E-Cloud Driven Instability And Its Attenuation Using a Feedback System in the CERN SPS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulation of E-Cloud Driven ...

  10. Simulation of E-Cloud Driven Instability And Its Attenuation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of E-Cloud Driven Instability And Its Attenuation Using a Feedback System in the CERN SPS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulation of E-Cloud Driven Instability...

  11. CATEGORY Total Procurement Total Small Business Small Disadvantaged

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    CATEGORY Total Procurement Total Small Business Small Disadvantaged Business Woman Owned Small Business HubZone Small Business Veteran-Owned Small Business Service Disabled Veteran Owned Small Business FY 2013 Dollars Accomplished $1,049,087,940 $562,676,028 $136,485,766 $106,515,229 $12,080,258 $63,473,852 $28,080,960 FY 2013 % Accomplishment 54.40% 13.00% 10.20% 1.20% 6.60% 2.70% FY 2014 Dollars Accomplished $868,961,755 $443,711,175 $92,478,522 $88,633,031 $29,867,820 $43,719,452 $26,826,374

  12. AntiReflection Coating D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AIKEN,DANIEL J.

    1999-09-23

    Analytical expressions used to optimize AR coatings for single junction solar cells are extended for use in monolithic, series interconnected multi-junction solar cell AR coating design. The result is an analytical expression which relates the solar cell performance (through J{sub sc}) directly to the AR coating design through the device reflectance. It is also illustrated how AR coating design be used to provide an additional degree of freedom for current matching multi-junction devices.

  13. THE ATTENUATED RADON TRANSFORM: APPLICATION TO SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE PRESENCE OF A VARIABLE ATTENUATING MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gullberg, Grant T.

    1980-03-01

    The properties of the attenuated Radon transform and its application to single-photon emission computed tomography (ECT) are analyzed in detail. In nuclear medicine and biological research, the objective of ECT is to describe quantitatively the position and strengths of internal sources of injected radiopharmaceuticals and radionuclides where the attenuation between the sources and detector is unknown. The problem is mathematically and practically quite different from well-known methods in transmission computed tomography (TCT) where only the attenuation is unknown. A mathematical structure using function theory and the theory of linear operators on Hilbert spaces is developed to better understand the spectral properties of the attenuated Radon transform. The continuous attenuated Radon transform is reduced to a matrix operator for discrete angular and lateral sampling, and the reconstruction problem reduces to a system of linear equations. For variable attenuation coefficients frequently found in imaging internal organs, the numerical methods developed in this paper involve iterative techniques of performing the generalized inverse. Its application to nuclear medicine is demonstrated by reconstructions of transverse sections of the brain, heart, and liver.

  14. 55-Gallon Drum Attenuation Corrections for Waste Assay Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casella, V.R.

    2002-04-03

    The present study shows how the percent attenuation for low-level waste (LLW), carbon-steel 55-gallon drums (44 and 46 mil) and for transuranic (TRU) DOT Type 7A 55-gallon drums (approximately 61 mil) changes with gamma energy from 60 keV to 1400 keV. Attenuation for these drums is in the range of 5 to 15 percent at energies from 400 to 1400 keV and from 15 to 35 percent at energies from 120 to 400 keV. At 60 keV, these drums attenuate 70-80 percent of the gamma rays. Correction factors were determined in order to correct for gamma attenuation of a TRU drum if a calibration is performed with a LLW drum. These correction factors increase the activities of the TRU drum by from 10 percent to 2 percent in the energy range of 165 to 1400 keV, with an increase of about 50 percent at 60 keV. Correction factors for TRU drums and for analyses without a drum were used to adjust the percent yield for frequently measured gamma rays, so that the assay libraries could be modified to provide the drum attenuation corrections.

  15. Mirror: Visually reflecting C{sup ++}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orosco, R.; Campo, M.; Sole, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Reflection is the ability of a system to inspect and change a model of itself. This ability allows to transparently control and extend the functionality of an existing system without performing any changes to the system itself. In dynamic object-oriented languages like CLOS or Smalltalk. the reflective ability is supported directly by the language. In C++, in contrast, reflection must be provided by some form of code annotation and pre-processing. In most cases, this approach either requires modification of the system code, or just supports the reflection of entire classes but not the reflection of determined objects. This work presents the Mirror environment that supports C++ reflective programming through visual association of meta-classes to classes. It allows full transparent reflection of objects using three-dimensional presentations of the different architecture levels. The environment adds reflective ability to C++ classes without any code modification visible to the user, as well as dynamically selective reflection of objects.

  16. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Kipling, Kent

    2001-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  17. Total Adjusted Sales of Kerosene

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Farm All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 269,010 305,508 187,656 81,102 79,674 137,928 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 198,762 237,397 142,189 63,075 61,327 106,995 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 56,661 53,363 38,448 15,983 15,991 27,500 1984-2014 Connecticut 8,800 7,437

  18. Total Imports of Residual Fuel

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 Jan-16 Feb-16 View History U.S. Total 7,281 4,217 5,941 6,842 9,010 5,030 1936-2016 PAD District 1 4,571 2,206 2,952 3,174 3,127 2,664 1981-2016 Connecticut 1995-2015 Delaware 678 85 1995-2015 Florida 351 299 932 836 858 649 1995-2016 Georgia 120 295 210 262 1995-2016 Maine 1995-2015 Maryland 1995-2015 Massachusetts 1995-2015 New Hampshire 1995-2015 New Jersey 1,575 400 1,131 1,712 1,283 843 1995-2016 New York 1,475 998 350 322 234 824 1995-2016 North Carolina

  19. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has...

  20. Microsoft Word - Rapid Reflective Facet Characterization Using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... VSHOT uses a laser, reflected off the facet, and a target to characterize the location of the reflected vector. From this, the surface slope at each selected location can be ...

  1. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reflectance Spectroscopy In a fraction of a second, the photovoltaic (PV) Reflectometer measures the reflectance spectrum of a wafer or cell that is dimensionally within 6 in. × 6 in. The measured reflectance plots are deconvolved to derive physical parameters including surface roughness and texture, antireflective coating thickness, metallization area and height, and backside metallization properties. Pair of drawings showing how direct normal incident light reflects in a scatter from a rough

  2. Attenuation due to hysteretic damage in the free vibration of a beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendelsohn, Daniel A.; Pecorari, Claudio

    2014-02-18

    We present an asymptotic analysis of nonlinear free vibration of a beam with a damage plane represented by nonlinear hysteretic bending and shear springs. The perturbation parameter is the product of the ratio of the nonlinear to linear parts of the stiffness times the amplitude of the free vibration. The loss of energy and ensuing attenuation due to hysteresis is accounted for by reducing the amplitude of vibration after each cycle by an amount such that the loss in total system energy equals the work done to traverse the hysteresis loop. A new Fourier representation for each cycle of the hysteresis and the deflection solution is used for this purpose and leads to higher harmonics, an evolving complex stiffness and corrected natural frequency that are linked to the attenuation. The frequency increases to its linear value from an initially reduced value. The damage parameter, frequency shift and fundamental amplitudes are presented as functions of the initial damage parameter and time (cycles of vibration). The amplitudes of several of the higher harmonics are also presented as functions of time. Many of the results exhibit sufficient sensitivity with respect to the damage parameter that they should be able to be used to characterize the damage.

  3. Total-derivative supersymmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Uekusa, Nobuhiro

    2010-05-15

    On an interval compactification in supersymmetric theory, boundary conditions for bulk fields must be treated carefully. If they are taken arbitrarily following the requirement that a theory is supersymmetric, the conditions could give redundant constraints on the theory. We construct a supersymmetric action integral on an interval by introducing brane interactions with which total-derivative terms under the supersymmetry transformation become zero due to a cancellation. The variational principle leads equations of motion and also boundary conditions for bulk fields, which determine boundary values of bulk fields. By estimating mass spectrum, spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in this simple setup can be realized in a new framework. This supersymmetry breaking does not induce a massless R axion, which is favorable for phenomenology. It is worth noting that fermions in hyper-multiplet, gauge bosons, and the fifth-dimensional component of gauge bosons can have zero-modes (while the other components are all massive as Kaluza-Klein modes), which fits the gauge-Higgs unification scenarios.

  4. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Lee, Sang Hun

    2006-07-25

    Employing collector optics that have a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics are normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  5. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Lee, Sung Hun

    2007-07-03

    Employing collector optics that has a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics is normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  6. ,"West Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","West Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption ... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: West Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)" ...

  7. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption ... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)" ...

  8. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement : Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance The total diffuse and direct radiant energy that comes from some continuous range of directions, at wavelengths ...

  9. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing...

  10. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  11. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  12. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  13. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  14. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hygrothermal degradation of 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane films studied by neutron and X-ray reflectivity and attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. Tallant, David ...

  15. P- and S-wave seismic attenuation for deep natural gas exploration...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: P- and S-wave seismic attenuation for deep natural gas exploration and development Citation Details In-Document Search Title: P- and S-wave seismic attenuation ...

  16. "Non-Reflective" Boundary Design via Remote Sensing and PID Control Valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Qin Fen; Karney, Professor Byran W.; Pejovic, Dr. Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of a nonreflective (or semireflective) boundary condition using the combination of a remote sensor and a control system to modulate a relief valve. The essential idea is to sense the pressure change at a remote location and then to use the measured data to adjust the opening of an active control valve at the end of the line to eliminate or attenuate the wave reflections at the valve, thus controlling system transient pressures. This novel idea is shown here through numerical simulation to have considerable potential for transient protection. Using this model, wave reflections and resonance can be effectively eliminated for frictionless pipelines or initial no-flow conditions and can be better controlled in more realistic pipelines for a range of transient disturbances. In addition, the features of even-order harmonics and nonreflective boundary conditions during steady oscillation, obtained through time domain transient analysis, are verified by hydraulic impedance analysis in the frequency domain.

  17. Photovoltaic module with light reflecting backskin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonsiorawski, Ronald C.

    2007-07-03

    A photovoltaic module comprises electrically interconnected and mutually spaced photovoltaic cells that are encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant between a light-transparent front cover and a back cover, with the back cover sheet being an ionomer/nylon alloy embossed with V-shaped grooves running in at least two directions and coated with a light reflecting medium so as to provide light-reflecting facets that are aligned with the spaces between adjacent cells and oriented so as to reflect light falling in those spaces back toward said transparent front cover for further internal reflection onto the solar cells, whereby substantially all of the reflected light will be internally reflected from said cover sheet back to the photovoltaic cells, thereby increasing the current output of the module. The internal reflector improves power output by as much as 67%.

  18. Material identification based upon energy-dependent attenuation of neutrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marleau, Peter

    2015-10-06

    Various technologies pertaining to identifying a material in a sample and imaging the sample are described herein. The material is identified by computing energy-dependent attenuation of neutrons that is caused by presence of the sample in travel paths of the neutrons. A mono-energetic neutron generator emits the neutron, which is downscattered in energy by a first detector unit. The neutron exits the first detector unit and is detected by a second detector unit subsequent to passing through the sample. Energy-dependent attenuation of neutrons passing through the sample is computed based upon a computed energy of the neutron, wherein such energy can be computed based upon 1) known positions of the neutron generator, the first detector unit, and the second detector unit; or 2) computed time of flight of neutrons between the first detector unit and the second detector unit.

  19. Solar Reflection Panels - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Solar Reflection Panels Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This ...

  20. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    demonstrate for the first time a lensless x-ray imaging technique involving holographic principles and carried out in reflection (as opposed to transmission) geometry. The...

  1. Identification coding schemes for modulated reflectance systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Don M.; Briles, Scott D.; Neagley, Daniel L.; Platts, David; Clark, David D.

    2006-08-22

    An identifying coding apparatus employing modulated reflectance technology involving a base station emitting a RF signal, with a tag, located remotely from the base station, and containing at least one antenna and predetermined other passive circuit components, receiving the RF signal and reflecting back to the base station a modulated signal indicative of characteristics related to the tag.

  2. Fresnel reflection from a cavity with net roundtrip gain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansuripur, Tobias S.; Mansuripur, Masud

    2014-03-24

    A planewave incident on an active etalon with net roundtrip gain may be expected to diverge in field amplitude, yet applying the Fresnel formalism to Maxwell's equations admits a convergent solution. We describe this solution mathematically and provide additional insight by demonstrating the response of such a cavity to an incident beam of light. Cavities with net roundtrip gain have often been overlooked in the literature, and a clear understanding of their behavior yields insight to negative refraction in nonmagnetic media, a duality between loss and gain, amplified total internal reflection, and the negative-index lens.

  3. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 634 578 46 1 Q 116.4 106.3...

  4. Surface reflectance degradation by microbial communities

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, Meng -Dawn; Allman, Steve L.; Graham, David E.; Cheng, Karen R.; Pfiffner, Susan Marie; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2015-11-05

    Building envelope, such as a roof, is the interface between a building structure and the environment. Understanding of the physics of microbial interactions with the building envelope is limited. In addition to the natural weathering, microorganisms and airborne particulate matter that attach to a cool roof tend to reduce the roof reflectance over time, compromising the energy efficiency advantages of the reflective coating designs. We applied microbial ecology analysis to identify the natural communities present on the exposed coatings and investigated the reduction kinetics of the surface reflectance upon the introduction of a defined mixture of both photoautotrophic and heterotrophicmore » microorganisms representing the natural communities. The result are (1) reflectance degradation by microbial communities follows a first-order kinetic relationship and (2) more than 50% of degradation from the initial reflectance value can be caused by microbial species alone in much less time than 3 years required by the current standard ENERGY STAR® test methods.« less

  5. Surface reflectance degradation by microbial communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Meng -Dawn; Allman, Steve L.; Graham, David E.; Cheng, Karen R.; Pfiffner, Susan Marie; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2015-11-05

    Building envelope, such as a roof, is the interface between a building structure and the environment. Understanding of the physics of microbial interactions with the building envelope is limited. In addition to the natural weathering, microorganisms and airborne particulate matter that attach to a cool roof tend to reduce the roof reflectance over time, compromising the energy efficiency advantages of the reflective coating designs. We applied microbial ecology analysis to identify the natural communities present on the exposed coatings and investigated the reduction kinetics of the surface reflectance upon the introduction of a defined mixture of both photoautotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms representing the natural communities. The result are (1) reflectance degradation by microbial communities follows a first-order kinetic relationship and (2) more than 50% of degradation from the initial reflectance value can be caused by microbial species alone in much less time than 3 years required by the current standard ENERGY STAR® test methods.

  6. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Alaska - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S2. Summary statistics for natural gas - Alaska, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 269 277 185 R 159 170 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 127,417 112,268

  7. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 District of Columbia - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S9. Summary statistics for natural gas - District of Columbia, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  8. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Massachusetts - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S23. Summary statistics for natural gas - Massachusetts, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0

  9. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    50 North Dakota - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S36. Summary statistics for natural gas - North Dakota, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 188 239 211 200 200 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  10. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Washington - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S49. Summary statistics for natural gas - Washington, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil

  11. Total System Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Peer Review Panel for predicting the performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain.

  12. NREL Reports Soft Costs Now Largest Piece of Solar Installation Total Cost

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - News Releases | NREL Reports Soft Costs Now Largest Piece of Solar Installation Total Cost December 2, 2013 Two detailed reports from the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) find that solar financing and other non-hardware costs - often referred to as "soft costs" - now comprise up to 64% of the total price of residential solar energy systems, reflecting how soft costs are becoming an increasingly larger fraction of the cost of installing solar.

  13. Auto-calibrated scanning-angle prism-type total internal reflection microscopy for nanometer-precision axial position determination and optional variable-illumination-depth pseudo total internal reflection microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fang, Ning; Sun, Wei

    2015-04-21

    A method, apparatus, and system for improved VA-TIRFM microscopy. The method comprises automatically controlled calibration of one or more laser sources by precise control of presentation of each laser relative a sample for small incremental changes of incident angle over a range of critical TIR angles. The calibration then allows precise scanning of the sample for any of those calibrated angles for higher and more accurate resolution, and better reconstruction of the scans for super resolution reconstruction of the sample. Optionally the system can be controlled for incident angles of the excitation laser at sub-critical angles for pseudo TIRFM. Optionally both above-critical angle and sub critical angle measurements can be accomplished with the same system.

  14. Glue Film Thickness Measurements by Spectral Reflectance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. R. Marshall

    2010-09-20

    Spectral reflectance was used to determine the thickness of thin glue layers in a study of the effect of the glue on radiance and reflectance measurements of shocked-tin substrates attached to lithium fluoride windows. Measurements based on profilometry of the components were found to be inaccurate due to flatness variations and deformation of the tin substrate under pressure during the gluing process. The accuracy of the spectral reflectance measurements were estimated to be ±0.5 μm, which was sufficient to demonstrate a convincing correlation between glue thickness and shock-generated light.

  15. High-power radio-frequency attenuation device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kerns, Q.A.; Miller, H.W.

    1981-12-30

    A resistor device for attenuating radio frequency power includes a radio frequency conductor connected to a series of fins formed of high relative magnetic permeability material. The fins are dimensional to accommodate the skin depth of the current conduction therethrough, as well as an inner heat conducting portion where current does not travel. Thermal connections for air or water cooling are provided for the inner heat conducting portions of each fin. Also disclosed is a resistor device to selectively alternate unwanted radio frequency energy in a resonant cavity.

  16. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the sample in a manner consistent with either technique has prevented the use of coherent imaging techniques with reflective samples. Researchers working at Beamline 12.0.2 have...

  17. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs...

  18. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless...

  19. Preparing reflective substrate surfaces for laser treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flick, F.F.

    1984-11-21

    A coating of either copper oxide or felt tip pen ink is used on reflective copper or gold substrates to enhance laser beam coupling when the substrates are cut or welded with a laser.

  20. Reflectance thermometry in dynamic compression experiments. (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Reflectance thermometry in dynamic compression experiments. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reflectance thermometry in dynamic compression experiments. Abstract not provided. Authors: Dolan, Daniel H., ; Ao, Tommy ; Seagle, Christopher T Publication Date: 2012-02-01 OSTI Identifier: 1118217 Report Number(s): SAND2012-0864C 481321 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: 9th International Temperature Symposium held

  1. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian; Kipling, Kent

    1999-01-01

    A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture.

  2. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, D.A.; Turner, B.; Kipling, K.

    1999-05-11

    A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible is disclosed. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture. 20 figs.

  3. Cell Total Activity Final Estimate.xls

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    WSSRAP Cell Total Activity Final Estimate (calculated September 2002, Fleming) (Waste streams & occupied cell volumes from spreadsheet titled "cell waste volumes-8.23.02 with ...

  4. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Alabama - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S1. Summary statistics for natural gas - Alabama, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 7,026 7,063 6,327 R 6,165 6,118 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  5. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Colorado - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S6. Summary statistics for natural gas - Colorado, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 28,813 30,101 32,000 R 32,468 38,346 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  6. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Florida - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S10. Summary statistics for natural gas - Florida, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 17,182 16,459 19,742

  7. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Hawaii - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S13. Summary statistics for natural gas - Hawaii, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0

  8. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Idaho - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S14. Summary statistics for natural gas - Idaho, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0

  9. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Kansas - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S18. Summary statistics for natural gas - Kansas, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 22,145 25,758 24,697 R 23,792 24,354 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  10. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Louisiana - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S20. Summary statistics for natural gas - Louisiana, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 19,137 21,235 19,792 R 19,528 19,251 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  11. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 New Mexico - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S33. Summary statistics for natural gas - New Mexico, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 44,748 32,302 28,206 R 27,073 27,957 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From

  12. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Oregon - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S39. Summary statistics for natural gas - Oregon, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 26 24 27 R 26 28 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 1,407 1,344 770 770

  13. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle ... due to independent rounding. Prices are in nominal dollars. ... Annual Consumption per Consumer (thousand cubic feet) ...

  14. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    from Electric Power to Industrial for years 2002 through ... Totals may not add due to independent rounding. Prices are ... Annual Consumption per Consumer (thousand cubic feet) ...

  15. Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Capacity Salt Caverns Storage Capacity Aquifers Storage Capacity Depleted Fields Storage Capacity Total Working Gas Capacity Working Gas Capacity of Salt Caverns Working...

  16. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband total downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband total downwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 mum, passes ...

  17. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband total upwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband total upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 mum, passes ...

  18. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave spectral total downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send Measurement : Shortwave spectral total downwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, at specrally-resolved wavelengths between 0.4 and 4 mum, is being emitted ...

  19. 2014 Total Electric Industry- Sales (Megawatthours

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    EIA-861U)" "State","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation","Total" "New England",47211525,53107038,19107433,557463,119983459 "Connecticut",12777579,12893531,351479...

  20. Total Supplemental Supply of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Product: Total Supplemental Supply Synthetic Propane-Air Refinery Gas Biomass Other Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & ...

  1. Origin of deep crustal reflections: Implications of coincident seismic refraction and reflection data in Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holbrook, W.S. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (USA)); Catchings, R.D. (U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Jarchow, C.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA))

    1991-02-01

    The authors compare seismic refraction and reflection results along the PASSCAL/COCORP 40{degree}N transect in the northern Basin and Range of Nevada in order to determine the origin of the prominent reflections from the deep crystalline crust. Reflection data along the transect show a thick zone of discontinuous, subhorizontal reflections, beginning at 4-6 s two-way traveltime (10-20 km depth) and ending at 9-11 s (27-35 km). Two independently derived velocity models, based on refraction data, are largely similar and agree on many important aspects of the reflectivity-velocity relation. Both models show that the top of the reflective zone lies 3-8 km above a prominent mid-crustal velocity discontinuity, which is interpreted to separate bulk silicic from bulk dioritic-gabbroic crust; in most places, the silicic mid-crust is more strongly reflective than the mafic lower crust. This pattern is expected in areas where ductile shearing is the mechanism responsible for the reflectivity. One of the velocity models, however, suggests that, in places, the strongest reflectivity spans both the middle (6.1-6.3 km/s) and lower (6.6 km/s) crust; this pattern suggests that the combined influence of ductile strain fabrics and mafic intrusions gives rise to crustal reflections. Both models show that the lowermost crust and crust/mantle transition are highly reflective, also suggesting the presence of mafic and/or ultramafic intrusions. Thus the observed reflection patterns suggest that ductile shearing and the intrusion of mantle-derived magma - both of which are likely to have accompanied the extreme Cenozoic extension - are important factors in generating deep crustal reflections.

  2. The Gas Flow from the Gas Attenuator to the Beam Line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryutov, D.D.

    2010-12-03

    The gas leak from the gas attenuator to the main beam line of the Linac Coherent Light Source has been evaluated, with the effect of the Knudsen molecular beam included. It has been found that the gas leak from the gas attenuator of the present design, with nitrogen as a working gas, does not exceed 10{sup -5} torr x l/s even at the highest pressure in the main attenuation cell (20 torr).

  3. REFLECT: A computer program for the x-ray reflectivity of bent perfect crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etelaeniemi, V.; Suortti, P.; Thomlinson, W. . Dept. of Physics; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY )

    1989-09-01

    The design of monochromators for x-ray applications, using either standard laboratory sources on synchrotron radiation sources, requires a knowledge of the reflectivity of the crystals. The reflectivity depends on the crystals used, the geometry of the reflection, the energy range of the radiation, and, in the present case, the cylindrical bending radius of the optical device. This report is intended to allow the reader to become familiar with, and therefore use, a computer program called REFLECT which we have used in the design of a dual beam Laue monochromator for synchrotron angiography. The results of REFLECT have been compared to measured reflectivities for both bent Bragg and Laue geometries. The results are excellent and should give full confidence in the use of the program. 6 refs.

  4. High reflectance-low stress Mo-Si multilayer reflective coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montcalm, Claude; Mirkarimi, Paul B.

    2000-01-01

    A high reflectance-low stress Mo-Si multilayer reflective coating particularly useful for the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength region. While the multilayer reflective coating has particular application for EUV lithography, it has numerous other applications where high reflectance and low stress multilayer coatings are utilized. Multilayer coatings having high near-normal incidence reflectance (R.gtoreq.65%) and low residual stress (.ltoreq.100 MPa) have been produced using thermal and non-thermal approaches. The thermal approach involves heating the multilayer coating to a given temperature for a given time after deposition in order to induce structural changes in the multilayer coating that will have an overall "relaxation" effect without reducing the reflectance significantly.

  5. Process for fabricating high reflectance-low stress Mo--Si multilayer reflective coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montcalm, Claude; Mirkarimi, Paul B.

    2001-01-01

    A high reflectance-low stress Mo--Si multilayer reflective coating particularly useful for the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength region. While the multilayer reflective coating has particular application for EUV lithography, it has numerous other applications where high reflectance and low stress multilayer coatings are utilized. Multilayer coatings having high near-normal incidence reflectance (R.gtoreq.65%) and low residual stress (.ltoreq.100 MPa) have been produced using thermal and non-thermal approaches. The thermal approach involves heating the multilayer coating to a given temperature for a given time after deposition in order to induce structural changes in the multilayer coating that will have an overall "relaxation" effect without reducing the reflectance significantly.

  6. 2009 Total Energy Production by State | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Total Energy Production by State 2009 Total Energy Production by State 2009 Total Energy Production by State...

  7. Low reflectance high power RF load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M.

    2016-02-02

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  8. Method of making reflecting film reflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cottingham, James G.

    1980-01-01

    A reflector of the reflecting film type is disclosed and which may be used in a heliostatic system for concentrating solar energy and comprising a reflecting film bonded to an appropriate rigid substrate in such a way that specularity of a very high order is achieved. A method of bonding the reflecting film to the substrate is also disclosed and comprises the steps of initially adhering the film to a smooth, clean flat rigid surface with a non-bonding liquid between the rigid surface and film, and then bonding the substrate and film. The non-bonding liquid has a molecular adhesion greater than any stresses due to handling or curing of the bonding agent which is applied between the film and the opposing surface of the rigid substrate.

  9. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1998-09-22

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

  10. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1998-01-01

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  11. Reflection technique for thermal mapping of semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Martin J.

    1989-06-20

    Semiconductors may be optically tested for their temperatures by illuminating them with tunable monochromatic electromagnetic radiation and observing the light reflected off of them. A transition point will occur when the wavelength of the light corresponds with the actual band gap energy of the semiconductor. At the transition point, the image of the semiconductor will appreciably darken as the light is transmitted through it, rather than being reflected off of it. The wavelength of the light at the transition point corresponds to the actual band gap energy and the actual temperature of the semiconductor.

  12. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are

  13. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    8 Minnesota - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet ... Summary statistics for natural gas - Minnesota, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 ...

  14. EQUUS Total Return Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: EQUUS Total Return Inc Place: Houston, Texas Product: A business development company and VC investor that trades as a closed-end fund. EQUUS is...

  15. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Totals may not add due to independent rounding. Prices are ... 250,994 253,127 Industrial 9,332 9,088 8,833 8,497 8,156 Average Annual Consumption per Consumer (thousand cubic ...

  16. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Notes: Totals may not add due to independent rounding. Prices ... 34,078 34,283 34,339 Industrial 102 94 97 95 92 Average Annual Consumption per Consumer (thousand cubic feet) ...

  17. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    as known volumes of natural gas that were the result of leaks, damage, accidents, migration, andor blow down. Notes: Totals may not add due to independent rounding. Prices are...

  18. TotalView Parallel Debugger at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The performance of the GUI can be greatly improved if used in conjunction with free NX software. The TotalView documentation web page is a good resource for learning more...

  19. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband total upwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband total upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, at a wavelength between 0.4 and 4 mum, is being emitted upwards into a ...

  20. "2014 Total Electric Industry- Revenue (Thousands Dollars)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    EIA-861U)" "State","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation","Total" "New England",8414175.4,7806276.7,2262752.4,57837.4,18541041.8 "Connecticut",2523348.7,2004629.1...

  1. 2014 Total Electric Industry- Revenue (Thousands Dollars)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Revenue (Thousands Dollars) (Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A-D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U) State Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total New England 8,414,175 ...

  2. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S11. ... 2,314 764 719 180 4,046 Supplemental Gas Supplies 732 701 660 642 635 Balancing Item ...

  3. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S35. ... 3,762 7,315 10,303 Supplemental Gas Supplies 0 0 0 0 0 Balancing Item 65,897 -19,970 ...

  4. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S7. ... 473 526 484 626 1,359 Supplemental Gas Supplies 0 0 0 0 0 Balancing Item -6,645 3,976 ...

  5. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S31. ... 35 108 71 124 185 Supplemental Gas Supplies 0 0 0 0 0 Balancing Item -1,393 -3,726 ...

  6. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S51. ... 92 87 100 89 138 Supplemental Gas Supplies 0 0 0 0 0 Balancing Item -2,885 -12,890 ...

  7. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S8. ... 76 96 66 131 128 Supplemental Gas Supplies 1 0 * * 6 Balancing Item 3,249 7,362 ...

  8. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S17. ... 1,844 980 2,403 2,701 Supplemental Gas Supplies 2 1 0 0 1 Balancing Item -1,989 -7,914 ...

  9. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S32. ... 4,404 3,278 5,208 6,218 Supplemental Gas Supplies 457 392 139 255 530 Balancing Item ...

  10. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S41. ... 698 436 457 645 879 Supplemental Gas Supplies 0 0 0 0 0 Balancing Item -1,269 1,045 ...

  11. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S47. ... 0 LNG Storage 0 0 0 0 0 Supplemental Gas Supplies 1 2 3 3 5 Balancing Item -453 -1,711 ...

  12. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S30. ... 195 154 146 210 211 Supplemental Gas Supplies 0 0 0 0 0 Balancing Item 17,590 4,622 ...

  13. Multi-reflective acoustic wave device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andle, Jeffrey C.

    2006-02-21

    An acoustic wave device, which utilizes multiple localized reflections of acoustic wave for achieving an infinite impulse response while maintaining high tolerance for dampening effects, is disclosed. The device utilized a plurality of electromechanically significant electrodes disposed on most of the active surface. A plurality of sensors utilizing the disclosed acoustic wave mode device are also described.

  14. Electrochromic window with high reflectivity modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Gerouki, Alexandra; Liu, Te-Yang; Goldner, Mark A.; Haas, Terry E.

    2000-01-01

    A multi-layered, active, thin film, solid-state electrochromic device having a high reflectivity in the near infrared in a colored state, a high reflectivity and transmissivity modulation when switching between colored and bleached states, a low absorptivity in the near infrared, and fast switching times, and methods for its manufacture and switching are provided. In one embodiment, a multi-layered device comprising a first indium tin oxide transparent electronic conductor, a transparent ion blocking layer, a tungsten oxide electrochromic anode, a lithium ion conducting-electrically resistive electrolyte, a complimentary lithium mixed metal oxide electrochromic cathode, a transparent ohmic contact layer, a second indium oxide transparent electronic conductor, and a silicon nitride encapsulant is provided. Through elimination of optional intermediate layers, simplified device designs are provided as alternative embodiments. Typical colored-state reflectivity of the multi-layered device is greater than 50% in the near infrared, bleached-state reflectivity is less than 40% in the visible, bleached-state transmissivity is greater than 60% in the near infrared and greater than 40% in the visible, and spectral absorbance is less than 50% in the range from 0.65-2.5 .mu.m.

  15. Sandia Energy - Improved Method to Measure Glare and Reflected...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and more accurate method of measuring the irradiance from solar reflections using a digital camera. Measurements of reflected solar irradiance is of great importance to...

  16. Procedure for measuring the solar reflectance of flat or curved...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Procedure for measuring the solar reflectance of flat or curved roofing assemblies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Procedure for measuring the solar reflectance of flat ...

  17. Measuring solar reflectance Part II: Review of practical methods...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measuring solar reflectance Part II: Review of ... A companion article explored how solar reflectance varies with surface orientation and ...

  18. Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area: Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA)--Programmatic, Technical, and Regulatory Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Martin, Wayne J.

    2001-07-23

    Natural attenuation processes are commonly used for remediation of contaminated sites. A variety of natural processes occur without human intervention at all sites to varying rates and degrees of effectiveness to attenuate (decrease) the mass, toxicity, mobility, volume, or concentration of organic and inorganic contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface water systems. The objective of this review is to identify potential technical investments to be incorporated in the Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area Strategic Plan for monitored natural attenuation. When implemented, the technical investments will help evaluate and implement monitored natural attenuation as a remediation option at DOE sites. The outcome of this review is a set of conclusions and general recommendations regarding research needs, programmatic guidance, and stakeholder issues pertaining to monitored natural attenuation for the DOE complex.

  19. Characterization of background reflectivity for MEDUSA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenborg, R. C.; Tiee, J. J.; Foy, B. R.; Petrin, R. R.; Wilson, C. W.

    2003-01-01

    The DARPA MEDUSA program goal is to detect, locate, and identify electro-optical threats in the vicinity of a moving platform. Laser sensing will be employed to find these threats by looking for anomalous reflections from threat sensors. However, the reflectivity variability (clutter) in both natural and manmade backgrounds will inherently limit target detection levels. In parallel with advanced component development by several aerospace contractors, a study of this clutter limitation was initiated in the long-wave (LW) and midwave (MW) infrared spectral regions to properly drive system design parameters. The analysis of clutter and associated limits on detection has been a major component of LANL efforts in laser remote sensing for non-proliferation. LANL is now analyzing existing data and conducting additional selected measurements in both the LWIR (9 and 10.6 pm) and MWIR (4.6 pm) in support of the DARPA program to increase our understanding of these clutter limitations and, thereby aid in the design and development of the MEDUSA system. The status of the LANL effort will be discussed. A variety of different natural and manmade target types have been investigated. Target scenes range from relatively low clutter sites typical of a southwestern desert to higher clutter downtown urban sites. Images are created by conducting raster scans across a scene interest. These images are then analyzed using data clustering techniques (e g K-means) to identify regions within the scene that contain similar reflectivity profiles. Data will be presented illustrating the reflectivity variability among different samples of the same target type, Le. within the same cluster, and among different data clusters. In general, it is found that the variability of reflectivities among similar targets is well represented by a log-normal distribution. Furthermore, manmade target tend to have higher reflectivities and more variability than natural targets. The implications of this observation for MEDUSA systems designed to locate and identify threat sensors will be discussed. The implications for chemical sensing applications will also be addressed.

  20. Catheter based mid-infrared reflectance and reflectance generated absorption spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N

    2013-10-29

    A method of characterizing conditions in a tissue, by (a) providing a catheter that has a light source that emits light in selected wavenumbers within the range of mid-IR spectrum; (b) directing the light from the catheter to an area of tissue at a location inside a blood vessel of a subject; (c) collecting light reflected from the location and generating a reflectance spectra; and (d) comparing the reflectance spectra to a reference spectra of normal tissue, whereby a location having an increased number of absorbance peaks at said selected wavenumbers indicates a tissue inside the blood vessel containing a physiological marker for atherosclerosis.

  1. Method for producing highly reflective metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, J.B.; Steger, P.J.; Wright, R.R.

    1982-03-04

    The invention is a novel method for producing mirror surfaces which are extremely smooth and which have high optical reflectivity. The method includes depositing, by electrolysis, an amorphous layer of nickel on an article and then diamond-machining the resulting nickel surface to increase its smoothness and reflectivity. The machined nickel surface then is passivated with respect to the formation of bonds with electrodeposited nickel. Nickel then is electrodeposited on the passivated surface to form a layer of electroplated nickel whose inside surface is a replica of the passivated surface. The mandrel then may be-re-passivated and provided with a layer of electrodeposited nickel, which is then recovered from the mandrel providing a second replica. The mandrel can be so re-used to provide many such replicas. As compared with producing each mirror-finished article by plating and diamond-machining, the new method is faster and less expensive.

  2. Total pressing Indonesian gas development, exports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-24

    Total is on track to become Indonesia's leading gas exporter by the turn of the century. Total's aggressive development of its Mahakam Delta acreage in East Kalimantan is intended to keep pace with growing liquefied natural gas demand, mainly from Japan but also increasingly from South Korea and Taiwan. A frantic scramble is under way among natural gas suppliers in the Pacific Rim region, particularly those with current LNG export facilities, to accommodate projections of soaring natural gas demand in the region. Accordingly, Total's Indonesian gas production goal is the centerpiece of a larger strategy to become a major player in the Far East Asia gas scene. Its goals also fall in line with Indonesia's. Facing flat or declining oil production while domestic oil demand continues to soar along with a rapidly growing economy, Indonesia is heeding some studies that project the country could become a net oil importer by the turn of the century. The paper describes Total's Far East strategy, the Mahakam acreage which it operates, the shift to gas development, added discoveries, future development, project spending levels, and LNG export capacity.

  3. Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA)

    2006-05-09

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size and weight are of primary importance.

  4. Reflective optical imaging method and circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, David R.

    2001-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

  5. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  6. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  7. TOTAL MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY IN HOLDUP MEASUREMENTS AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KEELE, B.D.

    2007-07-05

    An approach to determine the total measurement uncertainty (TMU) associated with Generalized Geometry Holdup (GGH) [1,2,3] measurements was developed and implemented in 2004 and 2005 [4]. This paper describes a condensed version of the TMU calculational model, including recent developments. Recent modifications to the TMU calculation model include a change in the attenuation uncertainty, clarifying the definition of the forward background uncertainty, reducing conservatism in the random uncertainty by selecting either a propagation of counting statistics or the standard deviation of the mean, and considering uncertainty in the width and height as a part of the self attenuation uncertainty. In addition, a detection limit is calculated for point sources using equations derived from summary equations contained in Chapter 20 of MARLAP [5]. The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2007-1 to the Secretary of Energy identified a lack of requirements and a lack of standardization for performing measurements across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The DNFSB also recommended that guidance be developed for a consistent application of uncertainty values. As such, the recent modifications to the TMU calculational model described in this paper have not yet been implemented. The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is continuing to perform uncertainty calculations as per Reference 4. Publication at this time is so that these concepts can be considered in developing a consensus methodology across the complex.

  8. Multiple-reflection optical gas cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matthews, Thomas G.

    1983-01-01

    A multiple-reflection optical cell for Raman or fluorescence gas analysis consists of two spherical mirrors positioned transverse to a multiple-pass laser cell in a confronting plane-parallel alignment. The two mirrors are of equal diameter but possess different radii of curvature. The spacing between the mirrors is uniform and less than half of the radius of curvature of either mirror. The mirror of greater curvature possesses a small circular portal in its center which is the effective point source for conventional F1 double lens collection optics of a monochromator-detection system. Gas to be analyzed is flowed into the cell and irradiated by a multiply-reflected composite laser beam centered between the mirrors of the cell. Raman or fluorescence radiation originating from a large volume within the cell is (1) collected via multiple reflections with the cell mirrors, (2) partially collimated and (3) directed through the cell portal in a geometric array compatible with F1 collection optics.

  9. Light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration light reflecting surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawicki, Richard H.; Sweatt, William

    1987-01-01

    A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration bendable light reflecting surface is disclosed herein. This apparatus includes a structural assembly comprised of a rectangular plate which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, and which has a front side defining the multi-aberration light reflecting surface and an opposite back side, and a plurality of straight leg members rigidly connected with the back side of the plate and extending rearwardly therefrom. The apparatus also includes a number of different adjustment mechanisms, each of which is connected with specific ones of the leg members. These mechanisms are adjustably movable in different ways for applying corresponding forces to the leg members in order to bend the rectangular plate and light reflecting surface into different predetermined curvatures and which specifically include quadratic and cubic curvatures corresponding to different optical aberrations.

  10. A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration light reflecting surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawicki, R.H.; Sweatt, W.

    1985-11-21

    A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration bendable light reflecting surface is disclosed herein. This apparatus includes a structural assembly comprised of a rectangular plate which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, and which has a front side defining the multi-aberration light reflecting surface and an opposite back side, and a plurality of straight leg members rigidly connected with the back side of the plate and extending rearwardly therefrom. The apparatus also includes a number of different adjustment mechanisms, each of which is connected with specific ones of the leg members. These mechanisms are adjustably movable in different ways for applying corresponding forces to the leg members in order to bend the rectangular plate and light reflecting surface into different predetermined curvatures and which specifically include quadratic and cubic curvatures corresponding to different optical aberrations.

  11. A total risk assessment methodology for security assessment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguilar, Richard; Pless, Daniel J.; Kaplan, Paul Garry; Silva, Consuelo Juanita; Rhea, Ronald Edward; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Conrad, Stephen Hamilton

    2009-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performed a two-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project to develop a new collaborative risk assessment method to enable decision makers to fully consider the interrelationships between threat, vulnerability, and consequence. A five-step Total Risk Assessment Methodology was developed to enable interdisciplinary collaborative risk assessment by experts from these disciplines. The objective of this process is promote effective risk management by enabling analysts to identify scenarios that are simultaneously achievable by an adversary, desirable to the adversary, and of concern to the system owner or to society. The basic steps are risk identification, collaborative scenario refinement and evaluation, scenario cohort identification and risk ranking, threat chain mitigation analysis, and residual risk assessment. The method is highly iterative, especially with regard to scenario refinement and evaluation. The Total Risk Assessment Methodology includes objective consideration of relative attack likelihood instead of subjective expert judgment. The 'probability of attack' is not computed, but the relative likelihood for each scenario is assessed through identifying and analyzing scenario cohort groups, which are groups of scenarios with comparable qualities to the scenario being analyzed at both this and other targets. Scenarios for the target under consideration and other targets are placed into cohort groups under an established ranking process that reflects the following three factors: known targeting, achievable consequences, and the resources required for an adversary to have a high likelihood of success. The development of these target cohort groups implements, mathematically, the idea that adversaries are actively choosing among possible attack scenarios and avoiding scenarios that would be significantly suboptimal to their objectives. An adversary who can choose among only a few comparable targets and scenarios (a small comparable target cohort group) is more likely to choose to attack the specific target under analysis because he perceives it to be a relatively unique attack opportunity. The opposite is also true. Thus, total risk is related to the number of targets that exist in each scenario cohort group. This paper describes the Total Risk Assessment Methodology and illustrates it through an example.

  12. Fractionated total body irradiation for metastatic neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kun, L.E.; Casper, J.T.; Kline, R.W.; Piaskowski, V.D.

    1981-11-01

    Twelve patients over one year old with neuroblastoma (NBL) metastatic to bone and bone marrow entered a study of adjuvant low-dose, fractionated total body irradiation (TBI). Six children who achieved a ''complete clinical response'' following chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide and adriamycin) and surgical resection of the abdominal primary received TBI (10 rad/fraction to totals of 100-120 rad/10-12 fx/12-25 days). Two children received concurrent local irradiation for residual abdominal tumor. The intervals from cessation of chemotherapy to documented progression ranged from 2-16 months, not substatially different from patients receiving similar chemotherapy and surgery without TBI. Three additional children with progressive NBL received similar TBI (80-120 rad/8-12 fx) without objective response.

  13. Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Exports Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter

  14. What is the temporal analog of reflection and refraction of optical beams?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Plansinis, B. W.; Donaldson, W. R.; Agrawal, G. P.

    2015-10-28

    It is shown numerically and analytically that when an optical pulse approaches a moving temporal boundary across which the refractive index changes, it undergoes a temporal equivalent of reflection and refraction of optical beams at a spatial boundary. The main difference is that the role of angles is played by changes in the frequency. The frequency dependence of the dispersion of the material in which the pulse is propagating plays a fundamental role in determining the frequency shifts experienced by the reflected and refracted pulses. As a result, our analytic expressions for these frequency shifts allow us to find themore » condition under which an analog of total internal reflection may occur at the temporal boundary.« less

  15. What is the temporal analog of reflection and refraction of optical beams?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plansinis, B. W.; Donaldson, W. R.; Agrawal, G. P.

    2015-10-28

    It is shown numerically and analytically that when an optical pulse approaches a moving temporal boundary across which the refractive index changes, it undergoes a temporal equivalent of reflection and refraction of optical beams at a spatial boundary. The main difference is that the role of angles is played by changes in the frequency. The frequency dependence of the dispersion of the material in which the pulse is propagating plays a fundamental role in determining the frequency shifts experienced by the reflected and refracted pulses. As a result, our analytic expressions for these frequency shifts allow us to find the condition under which an analog of total internal reflection may occur at the temporal boundary.

  16. Solar photovoltaic reflective trough collection structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Benjamin J.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-11-19

    A photovoltaic (PV) solar concentration structure having at least two troughs encapsulated in a rectangular parallelepiped optical plastic structure, with the troughs filled with an optical plastic material, the troughs each having a reflective internal surface and approximately parabolic geometry, and the troughs each including photovoltaic cells situated so that light impinging on the optical plastic material will be concentrated onto the photovoltaic cells. Multiple structures can be connected to provide a solar photovoltaic collection system that provides portable, efficient, low-cost electrical power.

  17. Seismic reflection imaging at a Shallow Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, P.; Rector, J.; Bainer, R.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of our studies was to determine the best seismic method to image these sediments, between the water table at 3 m depth to the basement at 35 m depth. Good cross-correlation between well logs and the seismic data was also desirable, and would facilitate the tracking of known lithological units away from the wells. For instance, known aquifer control boundaries may then be mapped out over the boundaries, and may be used in a joint inversion with reflectivity data and other non-seismic geophysical data to produce a 3-D image containing quantitative physical properties of the target area.

  18. Reflective optical imaging systems with balanced distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudyma, Russell M.

    2001-01-01

    Optical systems compatible with extreme ultraviolet radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate are described. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical systems are particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput, and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical systems are characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  19. Reflective optical imaging system with balanced distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Henry N.; Hudyma, Russell M.; Shafer, David R.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    1999-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical system is characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  20. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that

  1. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that

  2. Reflective echo tomographic imaging using acoustic beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kisner, Roger; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J

    2014-11-25

    An inspection system includes a plurality of acoustic beamformers, where each of the plurality of acoustic beamformers including a plurality of acoustic transmitter elements. The system also includes at least one controller configured for causing each of the plurality of acoustic beamformers to generate an acoustic beam directed to a point in a volume of interest during a first time. Based on a reflected wave intensity detected at a plurality of acoustic receiver elements, an image of the volume of interest can be generated.

  3. Novel Use of P- and S-Wave Seismic Attenuation for Deep Natural...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Novel Use of P- and S-Wave Seismic Attenuation for Deep Natural Gas Exploration and Development Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Novel Use of P- and S-Wave Seismic ...

  4. Novel Use of P- and S-Wave Seismic Attenuation for Deep Natural...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Novel Use of P- and S-Wave Seismic Attenuation for Deep Natural Gas Exploration and Development Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Novel Use of P- and ...

  5. "Table A28. Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region" " and Economic ... "," ","Coke"," ","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Total","Electricity...

  6. Table 6a. Total Electricity Consumption per Effective Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Total Electricity Consumption per Effective Occupied Square Foot, 1992 Building Characteristics All Buildings Using Electricity (thousand) Total Electricity Consumption...

  7. Investigation of photon attenuation coefficient of some building materials used in Turkey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dogan, B.; Altinsoy, N.

    2015-03-30

    In this study, some building materials regularly used in Turkey, such as concrete, gas concrete, pumice and brick have been investigated in terms of mass attenuation coefficient at different gamma-ray energies. Measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry containing NaI(Tl) detector. Narrow beam gamma-ray transmission geometry was used for the attenuation measurements. The results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculation of XCOM code.

  8. Novel Use of P- and S-Wave Seismic Attenuation for Deep Natural Gas

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Exploration and Development (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Novel Use of P- and S-Wave Seismic Attenuation for Deep Natural Gas Exploration and Development Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Novel Use of P- and S-Wave Seismic Attenuation for Deep Natural Gas Exploration and Development Authors: Walls, Joel ; Taner, M T ; Uden, Richard ; Singleton, Scott ; Derzhi, Naum ; Mavko, Gary ; Dvorkin, Jack Publication Date: 2007-09-30 OSTI Identifier: 915819 DOE Contract Number:

  9. P- and S-wave seismic attenuation for deep natural gas exploration and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    development (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: P- and S-wave seismic attenuation for deep natural gas exploration and development Citation Details In-Document Search Title: P- and S-wave seismic attenuation for deep natural gas exploration and development Using current methods, oil and gas in the subsurface cannot be reliably predicted from seismic data. This causes domestic oil and gas fields to go undiscovered and unexploited, thereby increasing the need to import

  10. Reflection-Based Python-C++ Bindings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Generowicz, Jacek; Lavrijsen, Wim T.L.P.; Marino, Massimo; Mato, Pere

    2004-10-14

    Python is a flexible, powerful, high-level language with excellent interactive and introspective capabilities and a very clean syntax. As such, it can be a very effective tool for driving physics analysis. Python is designed to be extensible in low-level C-like languages, and its use as a scientific steering language has become quite widespread. To this end, existing and custom-written C or C++ libraries are bound to the Python environment as so-called extension modules. A number of tools for easing the process of creating such bindings exist, such as SWIG and Boost. Python. Yet, the process still requires a considerable amount of effort and expertise. The C++ language has few built-in introspective capabilities, but tools such as LCGDict and CINT add this by providing so-called dictionaries: libraries that contain information about the names, entry points, argument types, etc. of other libraries. The reflection information from these dictionaries can be used for the creation of bindings and so the process can be fully automated, as dictionaries are already provided for many end-user libraries for other purposes, such as object persistency. PyLCGDict is a Python extension module that uses LCG dictionaries, as PyROOT uses CINT reflection information, to allow /cwPython users to access C++ libraries with essentially no preparation on the users' behalf. In addition, and in a similar way, PyROOT gives ROOT users access to Python libraries.

  11. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.

    2001-01-01

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes an envelope with a discharge forming fill disposed therein which emits light, the fill being capable of absorbing light at one wavelength and re-emitting the absorbed light at a different wavelength, the light emitted from the fill having a first spectral power distribution in the absence of reflection of light back into the fill, a source of microwave energy coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity and configured to reflect at least some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit, the exiting light having a second spectral power distribution with proportionately more light in the visible region as compared to the first spectral power distribution, wherein the light re-emitted by the fill is shifted in wavelength with respect to the absorbed light and the magnitude of the shift is in relation to an effective optical path length.

  12. Method for producing highly reflective metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jones B.; Steger, Philip J.; Wright, Ralph R.

    1983-01-01

    The invention is a novel method for producing mirror surfaces which are extremely smooth and which have high optical reflectivity. The method includes electrolessly depositing an amorphous layer of nickel on an article and then diamond-machining the resulting nickel surface to increase its smoothness and reflectivity. The machined nickel surface then is passivated with respect to the formation of bonds with electrodeposited nickel. Nickel then is electrodeposited on the passivated surface to form a layer of electroplated nickel whose inside surface is a replica of the passivated surface. The electroplated nickel layer then is separated from the passivated surface. The mandrel then may be re-passivated and provided with a layer of electrodeposited nickel, which is then recovered from the mandrel providing a second replica. The mandrel can be so re-used to provide many such replicas. As compared with producing each mirror-finished article by plating and diamond-machining, the new method is faster and less expensive.

  13. Total Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Oil Company Farm Electric Power Railroad Vessel Bunkering On-Highway Military Off-Highway All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 55,664,448 58,258,830 59,769,444 57,512,994 58,675,008 61,890,990 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 18,219,180 17,965,794 17,864,868 16,754,388

  14. Total Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Commercial Industrial Oil Company Electric Power Vessel Bunkering Military All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 7,835,436 8,203,062 7,068,306 5,668,530 4,883,466 3,942,750 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 3,339,162 3,359,265 2,667,576 1,906,700 1,699,418 1,393,068 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 318,184

  15. Total Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Oil Company Farm Electric Power Railroad Vessel Bunkering On-Highway Military Off-Highway All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 54,100,092 56,093,645 57,082,558 57,020,840 58,107,155 60,827,930 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 17,821,973 18,136,965 17,757,005 17,382,566

  16. Total Sales of Residual Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Commercial Industrial Oil Company Electric Power Vessel Bunkering Military All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 6,908,028 7,233,765 6,358,120 6,022,115 5,283,350 4,919,255 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 2,972,575 2,994,245 2,397,932 2,019,294 1,839,237 1,724,167 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 281,895

  17. Study of transmission line attenuation in broad band millimeter wave frequency range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandya, Hitesh Kumar B.; Austin, M. E.; Ellis, R. F.

    2013-10-15

    Broad band millimeter wave transmission lines are used in fusion plasma diagnostics such as electron cyclotron emission (ECE), electron cyclotron absorption, reflectometry and interferometry systems. In particular, the ECE diagnostic for ITER will require efficient transmission over an ultra wide band, 100 to 1000 GHz. A circular corrugated waveguide transmission line is a prospective candidate to transmit such wide band with low attenuation. To evaluate this system, experiments of transmission line attenuation were performed and compared with theoretical loss calculations. A millimeter wave Michelson interferometer and a liquid nitrogen black body source are used to perform all the experiments. Atmospheric water vapor lines and continuum absorption within this band are reported. Ohmic attenuation in corrugated waveguide is very low; however, there is Bragg scattering and higher order mode conversion that can cause significant attenuation in this transmission line. The attenuation due to miter bends, gaps, joints, and curvature are estimated. The measured attenuation of 15 m length with seven miter bends and eighteen joints is 1 dB at low frequency (300 GHz) and 10 dB at high frequency (900 GHz), respectively.

  18. Surface roughness effects on the solar reflectance of cool asphalt...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The model is then used to compute the reflectance of shingles with a mixture of different colored granules, when the reflectances of the corresponding mono-color shingles are ...

  19. High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals for x ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals for x ray energies up to 22 keV Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals ...

  20. A protocol for EBT3 radiochromic film dosimetry using reflection scanning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papaconstadopoulos, Pavlos Hegyi, Gyorgy; Seuntjens, Jan; Devic, Slobodan

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the EBT3 radiochromic film dosimetry system using reflection measurements and to suggest a calibration protocol for precise and accurate reflection film dosimetry. Methods: A set of 14 Gafchromic EBT3 film pieces were irradiated to various doses ranging from 0 to 8 Gy and subsequently scanned using both the reflection and transmission mode. Scanning resolution varied from 50 to 508 dpi (0.5–0.05 mm/pixel). Both the red and green color channels of scanned images were used to relate the film response to the dose. A sensitivity, uncertainty, and accuracy analysis was performed for all scanning modes and color channels. The total uncertainty, along with the fitting and experimental uncertainty components, was identified and analyzed. A microscope resolution target was used to evaluate possible resolution losses under reflection scanning. The calibration range was optimized for reflection scanning in the low (<2 Gy) and high (>2 Gy) dose regions based on the reported results. Results: Reflection scanning using the red channel exhibited the highest sensitivity among all modes, being up to 150% higher than transmission mode in the red channel for the lowest dose level. Furthermore, there was no apparent loss in resolution between the two modes. However, higher uncertainties and reduced accuracy were observed for the red channel under reflection mode, especially at dose levels higher than 2 Gy. These uncertainties were mainly attributed to saturation effects which were translated in poor fitting results. By restricting the calibration to the 0–2 Gy dose range, the situation is reversed and the red reflection mode was superior to the transmission mode. For higher doses, the green channel in reflection mode presented comparable results to the red transmission. Conclusions: A two-color reflection scanning protocol can be suggested for EBT3 radiochromic film dosimetry using the red channel for doses less than 2 Gy and the green channel for higher doses. The precision and accuracy are significantly improved in the low dose region following such a protocol.

  1. State Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Megawatthours) (Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A, 4B, 4D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U) State Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total New England 47,211,525 53,107,038 19,107,433 557,463 119,983,459 Connecticut 12,777,579 12,893,531 3,514,798 168,552 29,354,460 Maine 4,660,605 3,984,570 3,357,486 0 12,002,661 Massachusetts 20,071,160 26,076,208 7,960,941 360,983 54,469,292 New Hampshire 4,510,487 4,464,530 1,969,064 0 10,944,081 Rhode Island 3,070,347 3,657,679 887,150 27,928

  2. Total Ore Processing Integration and Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie Gertsch; Richard Gertsch

    2006-01-30

    This report outlines the technical progress achieved for project DE-FC26-03NT41785 (Total Ore Processing Integration and Management) during the period 01 July through 30 September of 2005. This ninth quarterly report discusses the activities of the project team during the period 1 July through 30 September 2005. Richard Gertsch's unexpected death due to natural causes while in Minnesota to work on this project has temporarily slowed progress. Statistical analysis of the Minntac Mine data set for late 2004 is continuing. Preliminary results raised several questions that could be amenable to further study. Detailed geotechnical characterization is being applied to improve the predictability of mill and agglomerator performance at Hibtac Mine.

  3. Performance Period Total Fee Paid FY2001

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    FY2001 $4,547,400 FY2002 $4,871,000 FY2003 $6,177,902 FY2004 $8,743,007 FY2005 $13,134,189 FY2006 $7,489,704 FY2007 $9,090,924 FY2008 $10,045,072 FY2009 $12,504,247 FY2010 $17,590,414 FY2011 $17,558,710 FY2012 $14,528,770 Cumulative Fee Paid $126,281,339 Cost Plus Award Fee DE-AC29-01AL66444 Washington TRU Solutions LLC Contractor: Contract Number: Contract Type: $8,743,007 Contract Period: $1,813,482,000 Fee Information Maximum Fee $131,691,744 Total Estimated Contract Cost: $4,547,400

  4. Performance Period Total Fee Paid FY2008

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    FY2008 $87,580 FY2009 $87,580 FY2010 $171,763 FY2011 $1,339,286 FY 2012 $38,126 FY 2013 $42,265 Cumulative Fee Paid $1,766,600 $42,265 Cost Plus Incentive Fee/Cost Plus Fixed Fee $36,602,425 Contract Period: September 2007 - November 30, 2012 Target Fee $521,595 Total Estimated Contract Cost Contract Type: Maximum Fee $3,129,570 $175,160 $377,516 $1,439,287 Fee Available $175,160 $80,871 Accelerated Remediation Company (aRc) DE-AT30-07CC60013 Contractor: Contract Number: Minimum Fee $2,086,380

  5. Time evolution of the total electric-field strength in multimode lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunner, W.; Fischer, R.; Paul, H.

    1988-05-01

    Our previous numerical studies of the output characteristics of multimode lasers are extended to include the evolution of the total electric-field strength. The regular or irregular behavior of the system, which becomes manifest in the evolution of the amplitudes and the phases in the different modes, is reflected also in the evolution of the total electric-field strength in a stroboscopic view. (The total electric-field strength, with its high-frequency time dependence suppressed, is considered at times t, t+..delta..t, t+2..delta..t,..., where ..delta..t is a multiple of the round-trip time in the resonator.) Moreover, it is demonstrated that the evolution of the system is very sensitive to slight changes in the initial conditions. This finding supports the view that the irregularity falls in the class of the so-called deterministic chaos.

  6. Control of reflected electromagnetic fields at an IFSAR antenna

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Steven E. (Albuquerque, NM); Brock, Billy C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-12-09

    A system for reducing multi-path reflections from adjacent metal objects which cause distortion in an IFSAR includes a reflective cone extending between the top of the IFSAR and the skin of its aircraft, and a reflective shroud surrounding the IFSAR. Each of these components may be coated with radar absorbing material.

  7. Water-Moderated and -Reflected Slabs of Uranium Oxyfluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; Clinton Gross

    2010-09-01

    A series of ten experiments were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiment Facility in December 1955, and January 1956, in an attempt to determine critical conditions for a slab of aqueous uranium oxyfluoride (UO2F2). These experiments were recorded in an Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Logbook and results were published in a journal of the American Nuclear Society, Nuclear Science and Engineering, by J. K. Fox, L. W. Gilley, and J. H. Marable (Reference 1). The purpose of these experiments was to obtain the minimum critical thickness of an effectively infinite slab of UO2F2 solution by extrapolation of experimental data. To do this the slab thickness was varied and critical solution and water-reflector heights were measured using two different fuel solutions. Of the ten conducted experiments eight of the experiments reached critical conditions but the results of only six of the experiments were published in Reference 1. All ten experiments were evaluated from which five critical configurations were judged as acceptable criticality safety benchmarks. The total uncertainty in the acceptable benchmarks is between 0.25 and 0.33 % ?k/keff. UO2F2 fuel is also evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-043, HEU-SOL-THERM-011, and HEU-SOL-THERM-012, but these those evaluation reports are for large reflected and unreflected spheres. Aluminum cylinders of UO2F2 are evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-050.

  8. Monitored Natural Attenuation of ino9rganic Contaminants Treatability Study Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crapse, K

    2004-05-19

    The identification and quantification of key natural attenuation processes for inorganic contaminants at D-Area is detailed herein. Two overarching goals of this evaluation of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a remediation strategy were (1) to better define the availability of inorganic contaminants as potential sources for transport to groundwater and uptake by environmental receptors and (2) to understand the site-specific mechanisms controlling attenuation of these inorganic contaminants through tandem geochemical and biological characterization. Data collected in this study provides input for more appropriate site groundwater transport models. Significant natural attenuation is occurring at D-Area as evidenced by relatively low aqueous concentrations of constituents of concern (COCs) (Be, Ni, U, and As) at all locations characterized and the decrease in groundwater concentrations with increasing distance from the source. The observed magnitude of decrease in groundwater concentrations of COCs with distance from the D-Area Coal Pile Runoff Basin (DCPRB) could not be accounted for by the modeled physical attenuation processes of dilution/dispersion. This additional attenuation, i.e., the observed difference between the groundwater concentrations of COCs and the modeled physical attenuation, is due to biogeochemical processes occurring at the D-Area. In tandem geochemical and microbiological characterization studies designed to evaluate the mechanisms contributing to natural attenuation, pH was the single parameter found to be most predictive of contaminant attenuation. The increasing pH with distance from the source is likely responsible for increased sorption of COCs to soil surfaces within the aquifer at D-Area. Importantly, because the sediments appear to have a high buffering capacity, the acid emanating from the DCPRB has been neutralized by the soil, and these conditions have led to large Kd values at the site. Two major types of soils are present at D-Area and were evaluated in this study: upland subsurface soils associated with a low pH/high sulfate/metals plume down-gradient of the D-Area Coal Pile Runoff Basin (DCPRB) and surface ash material discharged to the wetland from the D-Area Ash Basin (488-D). Sequential extraction studies were carried out to better define the availability of inorganic contaminant sources at D-Area.

  9. Total least squares for anomalous change detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theiler, James P; Matsekh, Anna M

    2010-01-01

    A family of difference-based anomalous change detection algorithms is derived from a total least squares (TLSQ) framework. This provides an alternative to the well-known chronochrome algorithm, which is derived from ordinary least squares. In both cases, the most anomalous changes are identified with the pixels that exhibit the largest residuals with respect to the regression of the two images against each other. The family of TLSQ-based anomalous change detectors is shown to be equivalent to the subspace RX formulation for straight anomaly detection, but applied to the stacked space. However, this family is not invariant to linear coordinate transforms. On the other hand, whitened TLSQ is coordinate invariant, and furthermore it is shown to be equivalent to the optimized covariance equalization algorithm. What whitened TLSQ offers, in addition to connecting with a common language the derivations of two of the most popular anomalous change detection algorithms - chronochrome and covariance equalization - is a generalization of these algorithms with the potential for better performance.

  10. THE SCENARIOS APPROACH TO ATTENUATION-BASED REMEDIES FOR INORGANIC AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vangelas, K.; Rysz, M.; Truex, M.; Brady, P.; Newell, C.; Denham, M.

    2011-08-04

    Guidance materials based on use of conceptual model scenarios were developed to assist evaluation and implementation of attenuation-based remedies for groundwater and vadose zones contaminated with inorganic and radionuclide contaminants. The Scenarios approach is intended to complement the comprehensive information provided in the US EPA's Technical Protocol for Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) of Inorganic Contaminants by providing additional information on site conceptual models and extending the evaluation to consideration of Enhanced Attenuation approaches. The conceptual models incorporate the notion of reactive facies, defined as units with hydrogeochemical properties that are different from surrounding units and that react with contaminants in distinct ways. The conceptual models also incorporate consideration of biogeochemical gradients, defined as boundaries between different geochemical conditions that have been induced by waste disposal or other natural phenomena. Gradients can change over time when geochemical conditions from one area migrate into another, potentially affecting contaminant mobility. A recognition of gradients allows the attenuation-affecting conditions of a site to be projected into the future. The Scenarios approach provides a stepwise process to identify an appropriate category of conceptual model and refine it for a specific site. Scenario materials provide links to pertinent sections in the EPA technical protocol and present information about contaminant mobility and important controlling mechanism for attenuation-based remedies based on the categories of conceptual models.

  11. Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile nuclide content in samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caldwell, John T. (Los Alamos, NM); Kunz, Walter E. (Santa Fe, NM); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Franks, Larry A. (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile nuclide and total fertile nuclide material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fissions are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for .sup.239 Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed neutrons.

  12. Minnesota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Minnesota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 ... Share of Total U.S. Natural Gas Residential Deliveries Minnesota Share of Total U.S. ...

  13. California Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    California Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 ... Share of Total U.S. Natural Gas Residential Deliveries California Share of Total U.S. ...

  14. Merged MMCR-WSR88D Reflectivities at SGP

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dong, Xiquan

    2008-03-05

    There are substantial attenuations of MMCR signals for very large LWP and during precipitation events. We have used the nearest precipitation radar (WSR-88D) to merge two measurements to better represent such selected cases. In the near future, we are going to provide all the cumulus cases from Jan. 1997 to present whenever the two datasets are available. The original 2 data sets:

  15. LED structure with enhanced mirror reflectivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergmann, Michael; Donofrio, Matthew; Heikman, Sten; Schneider, Kevin S; Haberern, Kevin W; Edmond, John A

    2014-04-01

    Embodiments of the present invention are generally related to LED chips having improved overall emission by reducing the light-absorbing effects of barrier layers adjacent mirror contacts. In one embodiment, a LED chip comprises one or more LEDs, with each LED having an active region, a first contact under the active region having a highly reflective mirror, and a barrier layer adjacent the mirror. The barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that it does not extend beyond the periphery of the mirror. In another possible embodiment, an insulator is further provided, with the insulator adjacent the barrier layer and adjacent portions of the mirror not contacted by the active region or by the barrier layer. In yet another embodiment, a second contact is provided on the active region. In a further embodiment, the barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that the periphery of the mirror is at least 40% free of the barrier layer, and the second contact is below the first contact and accessible from the bottom of the chip.

  16. Minnesota Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Minnesota Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Consumption Minnesota Natural Gas Consumption by End Use ...

  17. California Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Consumption California Natural Gas Consumption by End Use ...

  18. Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Imports by Processing...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Total Products Other Liquids Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Heavy Gas Oils Residuum ...

  19. NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Stacey Rothgeb, NREL View the ...

  20. Table 6b. Relative Standard Errors for Total Electricity Consumption...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Relative Standard Errors for Total Electricity Consumption per Effective Occupied Square Foot, 1992 Building Characteristics All Buildings Using Electricity (thousand) Total...

  1. ,"Total District Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District Heat Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  2. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  3. Total Energy Facilities Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Facilities Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Total Energy Facilities Biomass Facility Facility Total Energy Facilities Sector Biomass Facility Type...

  4. Table 5a. Total District Heat Consumption per Effective Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Total District Heat Consumption per Effective Occupied Square Foot, 1992 Building Characteristics All Buildings Using District Heat (thousand) Total District Heat Consumption...

  5. Webtrends Archives by Fiscal Year — EERE Totals

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Historical EERE office total reports include only Webtrends archives by fiscal year. EERE total reports dating after FY11 can be accessed in EERE's Google Analytics account.

  6. Estimation of Anisotoropy from Total Cross Section and Optical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Estimation of Anisotoropy from Total Cross Section and Optical Model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimation of Anisotoropy from Total Cross Section and ...

  7. Total lymphoid irradiation for multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devereux, C.K.; Vidaver, R.; Hafstein, M.P.; Zito, G.; Troiano, R.; Dowling, P.C.; Cook, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Although chemical immunosuppression has been shown to benefit patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), it appears that chemotherapy has an appreciable oncogenic potential in patients with multiple sclerosis. Accordingly, we developed a modified total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) regimen designed to reduce toxicity and applied it to a randomized double blind trial of TLI or sham irradiation in MS. Standard TLI regimens were modified to reduce dose to 1,980 rad, lowering the superior mantle margin to midway between the thyroid cartilage and angle of the mandible (to avert xerostomia) and the lower margin of the mantle field to the inferior margin of L1 (to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity by dividing abdominal radiation between mantle and inverted Y), limiting spinal cord dose to 1,000 rad by custom-made spine blocks in the mantle and upper 2 cm of inverted Y fields, and also protecting the left kidney even if part of the spleen were shielded. Clinical efficacy was documented by the less frequent functional scale deterioration of 20 TLI treated patients with chronic progressive MS compared to to 20 sham-irradiated progressive MS patients after 12 months (16% versus 55%, p less than 0.03), 18 months (28% versus 63%, p less than 0.03), and 24 months (44% versus 74%, N.S.). Therapeutic benefit during 3 years follow-up was related to the reduction in lymphocyte count 3 months post-irradiation (p less than 0.02). Toxicity was generally mild and transient, with no instance of xerostomia, pericarditis, herpes zoster, or need to terminate treatment in TLI patients. However, menopause was induced in 2 patients and staphylococcal pneumonia in one.

  8. 3-D seismic velocity and attenuation structures in the geothermal field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nugraha, Andri Dian [Global Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)] [Global Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Syahputra, Ahmad [Geophyisical Engineering, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)] [Geophyisical Engineering, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Fatkhan,; Sule, Rachmat [Applied Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)] [Applied Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)

    2013-09-09

    We conducted delay time tomography to determine 3-D seismic velocity structures (Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio) using micro-seismic events in the geothermal field. The P-and S-wave arrival times of these micro-seismic events have been used as input for the tomographic inversion. Our preliminary seismic velocity results show that the subsurface condition of geothermal field can be fairly delineated the characteristic of reservoir. We then extended our understanding of the subsurface physical properties through determining of attenuation structures (Qp, Qs, and Qs/Qp ratio) using micro-seismic waveform. We combined seismic velocities and attenuation structures to get much better interpretation of the reservoir characteristic. Our preliminary attanuation structures results show reservoir characterization can be more clearly by using the 3-D attenuation model of Qp, Qs, and Qs/Qp ratio combined with 3-D seismic velocity model of Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio.

  9. Assessment of Hexavalent Chromium Natural Attenuation for the Hanford Site 100 Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Szecsody, James E.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Sahajpal, Rahul; Zhong, Lirong; Lawter, Amanda R.; Lee, Brady D.

    2015-09-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) plumes are present in the 100 Area at the Hanford Site. Remediation efforts are under way with objectives of restoring the groundwater to meet the drinking-water standard (48 µg/L) and protecting the Columbia River by ensuring that discharge of groundwater to the river is below the surface-water quality standard (10 µg/L). Current remedies include application of Pump-and-Treat (P&T) at the 100-D, 100-H, and 100-K Areas and Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) at the 100-F/IU Area. Remedy selection is still under way at the other 100 Areas. Additional information about the natural attenuation processes for Cr(VI) is important in all of these cases. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to demonstrate and quantify natural attenuation mechanisms using 100 Area sediments and groundwater conditions.

  10. Impact of Aerosols on Atmospheric Attenuation Loss in Central Receiver Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, M.; Wagner, M. J.

    2011-08-01

    Atmospheric attenuation loss between the heliostat field and receiver has been recognized as a significant source of loss in Central Receiver Systems. In clear sky situations, extinction of Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) is primarily by aerosols in the atmosphere. When aerosol loading is high close to the surface the attenuation loss between heliostat and receivers is significantly influenced by the amount of aerosols present on a particular day. This study relates measured DNI to aerosol optical depths close to the surface of the earth. The model developed in the paper uses only measured DNI to estimate the attenuation between heliostat and receiver in a central receiver system. The requirement that only a DNI measurement is available potentially makes the model a candidate for widespread use.

  11. Electromagnetic wave attenuation measurements in a ring-shaped inductively coupled air plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaolong, Wei; Haojun, Xu; Min, Lin; Chen, Su; Jianhai, Li

    2015-05-28

    An aerocraft with the surface, inlet and radome covered large-area inductive coupled plasma (ICP) can attenuate its radar echo effectively. The shape, thickness, and electron density (N{sub e}) distribution of ICP are critical to electromagnetic wave attenuation. In the paper, an air all-quartz ICP generator in size of 20 × 20 × 7 cm{sup 3} without magnetic confinement is designed. The discharge results show that the ICP is amorphous in E-mode and ring-shaped in H-mode. The structure of ICP stratifies into core region and edge halo in H-mode, and its width and thickness changes from power and pressure. Such phenomena are explained by the distribution of RF magnetic field, the diffusion of negative ions plasma and the variation of skin depth. In addition, the theoretical analysis shows that the N{sub e} achieves nearly uniform within the electronegative core and sharply steepens in the edge. The N{sub e} of core region is diagnosed by microwave interferometer under varied conditions (pressure in range of 10–50 Pa, power in 300–700 W). Furthermore, the electromagnetic wave attenuation measurements were carried out with the air ICP in the frequencies of 4–5 GHz. The results show that the interspaced ICP is still effective to wave attenuation, and the wave attenuation increases with the power and pressure. The measured attenuation is approximately in accordance with the calculation data of finite-different time-domain simulations.

  12. Uranium Oxide as a Highly Reflective Coating from 100-400 eV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandberg, Richard L.; Allred, David D.; Bissell, Luke J.; Johnson, Jed E.; Turley, R. Steven

    2004-05-12

    We present the measured reflectances (Beamline 6.3.2, ALS at LBNL) of naturally oxidized uranium and naturally oxidized nickel thin films from 100-460 eV (2.7 to 11.6 nm) at 5 and 15 degrees grazing incidence. These show that uranium, as UO2, can fulfill its promise as the highest known single surface reflector for this portion of the soft x-ray region, being nearly twice as reflective as nickel in the 124-250 eV (5-10 nm) region. This is due to its large index of refraction coupled with low absorption. Nickel is commonly used in soft x-ray applications in astronomy and synchrotrons. (Its reflectance at 10 deg. exceeds that of Au and Ir for most of this range.) We prepared uranium and nickel thin films via DC-magnetron sputtering of a depleted U target and resistive heating evaporation respectively. Ambient oxidation quickly brought the U sample to UO2 (total thickness about 30 nm). The nickel sample (50 nm) also acquired a thin native oxide coating (<2nm). Though the density of U in UO2 is only half of the metal, its reflectance is high and it is relatively stable against further changes.

  13. Natural and Enhanced Attenuation of Soil and Groundwater at the Monument

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Valley, Arizona, DOE Legacy Waste Site | Department of Energy Natural and Enhanced Attenuation of Soil and Groundwater at the Monument Valley, Arizona, DOE Legacy Waste Site Natural and Enhanced Attenuation of Soil and Groundwater at the Monument Valley, Arizona, DOE Legacy Waste Site Paper presented at the Waste Management 2010 Conference. March 7 through March 10, 2010, Phoenix, Arizona. W.J.Waugh, D.E. Miller, S.A. Morris, L.R. Sheader, E.P. Glenn, D. Moore, K.C. Carroll, L. Benally, M.

  14. Signal processing Model/Method for Recovering Acoustic Reflectivity of Spot Weld

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-09-08

    Until recently, U.S. auto manufacturers have inspected the veracity of welds in the auto bodies they build by using destructive tear-down, which typically results in more than $1 M of scrappage per plant per year. Much of this expense could possibly be avoided with a nondestructive technique (and 100% instead of 1% inspection could be achieved). Recent advances in ultrasound probes promise to provide a sufficiently accurate non-destructive evaluation technique, but the necessary signal processingmore » has not yet been developed. This disclosure describes a signal processing model and method useful for diagnosing the veracity of spot welds between two sheets of the same thickness from ultrasound signals Standard systems theory describes a signal as a convolution of a transducer function, h(t), and an impulse train (beta(t), tau(t)) [1] (see Eq. (1) attached). With a Gaussian wavelet as a transducer function, this model describes the signal from an ultrasound probe quite well, and the literature provides many methods for "deconvolution," for recovery of the impulse train from the signal [see e.g., 2-3]. What is novel about the technique disclosed is the model that describes the impulse train as a function of reflectivity, the share of energy incident on the interface that is reflected, and that allows the recovery of its estimated value. The reflectivity estimate provides an ideal indicator of weld veracity, compressing each signal into a single value between 0 and 1, which can then be displayed as a 2d greyscale or colormap of the weld. The model describing the system is attached as Eqs. (2). These equations account for the energy in the probe-side and opposite sheets. In each period, this energy is a sum of that reflected from the same sheet plus that transmitted from the opposite (dampened by material attenuation at rate a). This model is consistent with physical first principles (in particular the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics) and has been verified empirically. For fast estimation of R using only observations beta(1, ..., T) a receiver state equation has been derived, and is attached as Eq. (3). This equation has the further advantage that the initial impulse S need not be known, rather it is estimated simultaneously. This is necessary because element failure and coupling can cause large variations in S. Constrained nonlinear least squares techniques can be applied to this equation to recover reflectivity (and initial impulse) [4]. In particular, the Gauss-Newton algorithm on the log of the sum of squared errors based on the receiver state equation is recommended. To summarize, it is the model described in Eqs. (2) and (3) that is novel, and that enables the recovery of acoustic reflectivity from the ultrasound signals. It has been verified that this reflectivity estimate provides a better indicator of weld veracity than other features previously derived from such signals.« less

  15. A reflective optical transport system for ultraviolet Thomson scattering

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from electron plasma waves on OMEGA (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A reflective optical transport system for ultraviolet Thomson scattering from electron plasma waves on OMEGA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A reflective optical transport system for ultraviolet Thomson scattering from electron plasma waves on OMEGA A reflective optical transport system has been designed for the OMEGA Thomson-scattering diagnostic. A Schwarzschild objective that uses two concentric spherical

  16. Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1989) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1989) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1989) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso...

  17. Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately ...

  18. Surface roughness effects on the solar reflectance of cool asphalt...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Surface roughness effects on the solar reflectance of cool asphalt shingles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Surface roughness effects on the solar ...

  19. Measurement of reflectivity of spherically bent crystals using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    electrons produced by laser-matter interaction In an experiment at the laser facility ECLIPSE of the CELIA laboratory, University of Bordeaux, we measure the reflectivity of ...

  20. Clean Energy Transition: Reflections on the Past Decade

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Clean Energy Transition: Reflections on the Past Decade NREL Industry Growth Forum Dr. Dan E. Arvizu Laboratory Director November 2015 2 Energy Market Fundamentals Globally...

  1. Combined Reflectivity/imaging Method for Assessing Diagnostic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with laser treatment to restore the reflectivity of diagnostic mirrors after degradation by plasma deposition. Multiple mirrors, including an aluminum first surface reference ...

  2. Reflection Survey At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Colwell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Colwell, Et Al., 2012) Exploration Activity Details Location Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity...

  3. Reflection Survey At The Needles Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Needles Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At The Needles Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  4. Reflection Survey At Jemez Pueblo Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jemez Pueblo Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Jemez Pueblo Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  5. Reflection Survey At Wister Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wister Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Wister Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  6. Reflection Survey At Hot Sulphur Springs Area (Goranson, 2005...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown References Colin Goranson (2005) Recent Drilling Activities At The Earth Power Resources Tuscarora...

  7. Reflection Survey At Under Steamboat Springs Area (Warpinski...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Update to Warpinski, et al., 2002 References N. R. Warpinski, A. R. Sattler, R. Fortuna, D....

  8. Seismic Reflection Data and Conceptual Models for Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    failure of seismic reflection data to image thesubsurface demonstrates the robust reliability of aconceptual model approach to geothermal exploration thatemphasizes the...

  9. Reflection Survey At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Reflection Survey At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home...

  10. Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (2008) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    field, which lies within an extensional step-over between dextral faults, is a young, actively developing metamorphic core complex. The reflection images were processed...

  11. A reflective optical transport system for ultraviolet Thomson...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    transport system for ultraviolet Thomson scattering from electron plasma waves on OMEGA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A reflective optical transport system for ...

  12. Reflection Survey At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP)...

  13. Synchrotron infrared reflectivity measurements of iron at high pressures

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Synchrotron infrared reflectivity measurements of iron at high pressures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synchrotron infrared reflectivity measurements of iron at high pressures The infrared reflectance of iron was studied using high-pressure synchrotron radiation methods up to 50 GPa at room temperature in a diamond anvil cell of 1000-8000 cm{sup -1} (1.25-10 {mu}m). The magnitude of the reflectivity shows a weak pressure

  14. Reflection Survey At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Melosh, Et...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    model of blue mountain. References Glenn Melosh, William Cumming, John Casteel, Kim Niggemann, Brian Fairbank (2010) Seismic Reflection Data and Conceptual Models for...

  15. Site Screening and Technical Guidance for Monitored Natural Attenuation at DOE Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borns, D.J.; Brady, P.V.; Brady, W.D.; Krupka, K.M.; Spalding, B.P.; Waters, R.D.; Zhang, P.

    1999-03-01

    Site Screening and Technical Guidance for Monitored Natural Attenuation at DOE Sites briefly outlines the biological and geochemical origins of natural attenuation, the tendency for natural processes in soils to mitigate contaminant transport and availability, and the means for relying on monitored natural attenuation (MNA) for remediation of contaminated soils and groundwaters. This report contains a step-by-step guide for (1) screening contaminated soils and groundwaters on the basis of their potential for remediation by natural attenuation and (2) implementing MNA consistent with EPA OSWER Directive 9200.4-17. The screening and implementation procedures are set up as a web-based tool (http://www.sandia.gov/eesector/gs/gc/na/mnahome.html) to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) site environmental managers and their staff and contractors to adhere to EPA guidelines for implementing MNA. This document is intended to support the Decision Maker's Framework Guide and Monitoring Guide both to be issued from DOE EM-40. Further technical advances may cause some of the approach outlined in this document to change over time.

  16. A replication-deficient rabies virus vaccine expressing Ebola virus glycoprotein is highly attenuated for neurovirulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papaneri, Amy B.; Wirblich, Christoph; Cann, Jennifer A.; Cooper, Kurt; Jahrling, Peter B.; Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Fort Detrick MD, 21702 ; Schnell, Matthias J.; Blaney, Joseph E.

    2012-12-05

    We are developing inactivated and live-attenuated rabies virus (RABV) vaccines expressing Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein for use in humans and endangered wildlife, respectively. Here, we further characterize the pathogenesis of the live-attenuated RABV/EBOV vaccine candidates in mice in an effort to define their growth properties and potential for safety. RABV vaccines expressing GP (RV-GP) or a replication-deficient derivative with a deletion of the RABV G gene (RV{Delta}G-GP) are both avirulent after intracerebral inoculation of adult mice. Furthermore, RV{Delta}G-GP is completely avirulent upon intracerebral inoculation of suckling mice unlike parental RABV vaccine or RV-GP. Analysis of RV{Delta}G-GP in the brain by quantitative PCR, determination of virus titer, and immunohistochemistry indicated greatly restricted virus replication. In summary, our findings indicate that RV-GP retains the attenuation phenotype of the live-attenuated RABV vaccine, and RV{Delta}G-GP would appear to be an even safer alternative for use in wildlife or consideration for human use.

  17. Apparatus for and method of correcting for astigmatism in a light beam reflected off of a light reflecting surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawicki, R.H.; Sweatt, W.

    1985-11-21

    A technique for adjustably correcting for astigmatism in a light beam is disclosed herein. This technique defines a flat, rectangular light reflecting surface having opposite reinforced side edges and which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, into different concave and/or convex cylindrical curvatures about a particular axis and provides for adjustably bending the light reflecting surface into one of different curvatures depending upon the astigmatism to be corrected and for fixedly maintaining the curvature selected. In the embodiment disclosed, the light reflecting surface is adjustably bendable into the selected cylindrical curvature by application of a particular bending moment to the reinforced side edges of the light reflecting surface.

  18. Reflection soft X-ray microscope and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, Szymon; Skinner, Charles H.; Rosser, Roy

    1993-01-01

    A reflection soft X-ray microscope is provided by generating soft X-ray beams, condensing the X-ray beams to strike a surface of an object at a predetermined angle, and focusing the X-ray beams reflected from the surface onto a detector, for recording an image of the surface or near surface features of the object under observation.

  19. Reflection soft X-ray microscope and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, S.; Skinner, C.H.; Rosser, R.

    1993-01-05

    A reflection soft X-ray microscope is provided by generating soft X-ray beams, condensing the X-ray beams to strike a surface of an object at a predetermined angle, and focusing the X-ray beams reflected from the surface onto a detector, for recording an image of the surface or near surface features of the object under observation.

  20. New Mexico Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) New Mexico Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  1. Connecticut Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Connecticut Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  2. Connecticut Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Connecticut Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  3. Maine Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Maine Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's...

  4. Maine Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Maine Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  5. Project Functions and Activities Definitions for Total Project Cost

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter provides guidelines developed to define the obvious disparity of opinions and practices with regard to what exactly is included in total estimated cost (TEC) and total project cost (TPC).

  6. Total China Investment Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Investment Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Total (China) Investment Co. Ltd. Place: Beijing, China Zip: 100004 Product: Total has been present in China for about 30...

  7. Virginia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Virginia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  8. Washington Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Washington Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  9. Delaware Total Electric Power Industry Net Generation, by Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...e","-","-","-","-","-" "Other","-","-",11,6,"-" "Total",7182,8534,7524,4842,5628 " " "s Value is less than 0.5 of the table metric, but value is included in any associated total.

  10. Kansas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Kansas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  11. Arizona Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Arizona Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  12. Arizona Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Arizona Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  13. ,"Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Net Receipts by Pipeline...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Net Receipts by ... PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Net Receipts by ...

  14. NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Stacey Rothgeb, NREL View the Presentation PDF icon NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review More Documents & Publications Home Performance with ENERGY STAR - 2014 BTO Peer Review NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review R25 Polyisocyanurate Composite Insulation Material

  15. Scaling properties of proton-nucleus total reaction cross sections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abu-Ibrahim, Badawy; Kohama, Akihisa

    2010-05-15

    We study the scaling properties of proton-nucleus total reaction cross sections for stable nuclei and propose an approximate expression in proportion to Z{sup 2/3}sigma{sub pp}{sup total}+N{sup 2/3}sigma{sub pn}{sup total}. Based on this expression, we can derive a relation that enables us to predict a total reaction cross section for any stable nucleus within 10% uncertainty at most, using the empirical value of the total reaction cross section of a given nucleus.

  16. Reflective optical imaging system for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, Vriddhachalam K.; Newnam, Brian E.

    1993-01-01

    A projection reflection optical system has two mirrors in a coaxial, four reflection configuration to reproduce the image of an object. The mirrors have spherical reflection surfaces to provide a very high resolution of object feature wavelengths less than 200 .mu.m, and preferably less than 100 .mu.m. An image resolution of features less than 0.05-0.1 .mu.m, is obtained over a large area field; i.e., 25.4 mm .times.25.4 mm, with a distortion less than 0.1 of the resolution over the image field.

  17. Reflective optical imaging system for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Newnam, B.E.

    1993-05-18

    A projection reflection optical system has two mirrors in a coaxial, four reflection configuration to reproduce the image of an object. The mirrors have spherical reflection surfaces to provide a very high resolution of object feature wavelengths less than 200 [mu]m, and preferably less than 100 [mu]m. An image resolution of features less than 0.05-0.1 [mu]m, is obtained over a large area field; i.e., 25.4 mm [times] 25.4 mm, with a distortion less than 0.1 of the resolution over the image field.

  18. Apparatus to study crystal channeling and volume reflection phenomena at

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the SPS H8 beamline (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Apparatus to study crystal channeling and volume reflection phenomena at the SPS H8 beamline Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Apparatus to study crystal channeling and volume reflection phenomena at the SPS H8 beamline A high performance apparatus has been designed and built by the H8-RD22 collaboration for the study of channeling and volume reflection phenomena in the interaction of 400 GeV/c protons with bent silicon

  19. Fabrication of optically reflecting ohmic contacts for semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1995-01-01

    A method is provided to produce a low-resistivity ohmic contact having high optical reflectivity on one side of a semiconductor device. The contact is formed by coating the semiconductor substrate with a thin metal film on the back reflecting side and then optically processing the wafer by illuminating it with electromagnetic radiation of a predetermined wavelength and energy level through the front side of the wafer for a predetermined period of time. This method produces a thin epitaxial alloy layer between the semiconductor substrate and the metal layer when a crystalline substrate is used. The alloy layer provides both a low-resistivity ohmic contact and high optical reflectance.

  20. Reduction of Glass Surface Reflectance by Ion Beam Surface Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Spitzer

    2011-03-11

    This is the final report for DOE contract DE-EE0000590. The purpose of this work was to determine the feasibility of the reduction of the reflection from the front of solar photovoltaic modules. Reflection accounts for a power loss of approximately 4%. A solar module having an area of one square meter with an energy conversion efficiency of 18% generates approximately 180 watts. If reflection loss can be eliminated, the power output can be increased to 187 watts. Since conventional thin-film anti-reflection coatings do not have sufficient environmental stability, we investigated the feasibility of ion beam modification of the glass surface to obtain reduction of reflectance. Our findings are generally applicable to all solar modules that use glass encapsulation, as well as commercial float glass used in windows and other applications. Ion implantation of argon, fluorine, and xenon into commercial low-iron soda lime float glass, standard float glass, and borosilicate glass was studied by implantation, annealing, and measurement of reflectance. The three ions all affected reflectance. The most significant change was obtained by argon implantation into both low-iron and standard soda-lime glass. In this way samples were formed with reflectance lower than can be obtained with a single-layer coatings of magnesium fluoride. Integrated reflectance was reduced from 4% to 1% in low-iron soda lime glass typical of the glass used in solar modules. The reduction of reflectance of borosilicate glass was not as large; however borosilicate glass is not typically used in flat plate solar modules. Unlike conventional semiconductor ion implantation doping, glass reflectance reduction was found to be tolerant to large variations in implant dose, meaning that the process does not require high dopant uniformity. Additionally, glass implantation does not require mass analysis. Simple, high current ion implantation equipment can be developed for this process; however, before the process can be employed on full scale solar modules, equipment must be developed for ion implanting large sheets of glass. A cost analysis shows that the process can be economical. Our finding is that the reduction of reflectance by ion beam surface modification is technically and economically feasible. The public will benefit directly from this work by the improvement of photovoltaic module efficiency, and indirectly by the greater understanding of the modification of glass surfaces by ion beams.

  1. Technological cost-reduction pathways for attenuator wave energy converters in the marine hydrokinetic environment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bull, Diana L; Ochs, Margaret Ellen

    2013-09-01

    This report considers and prioritizes the primary potential technical costreduction pathways for offshore wave activated body attenuators designed for ocean resources. This report focuses on technical research and development costreduction pathways related to the device technology rather than environmental monitoring or permitting opportunities. Three sources of information were used to understand current cost drivers and develop a prioritized list of potential costreduction pathways: a literature review of technical work related to attenuators, a reference device compiled from literature sources, and a webinar with each of three industry device developers. Data from these information sources were aggregated and prioritized with respect to the potential impact on the lifetime levelized cost of energy, the potential for progress, the potential for success, and the confidence in success. Results indicate the five most promising costreduction pathways include advanced controls, an optimized structural design, improved power conversion, planned maintenance scheduling, and an optimized device profile.

  2. Polychromatic sparse image reconstruction and mass attenuation spectrum estimation via B-spline basis function expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Renliang E-mail: ald@iastate.edu; Dogandžić, Aleksandar E-mail: ald@iastate.edu

    2015-03-31

    We develop a sparse image reconstruction method for polychromatic computed tomography (CT) measurements under the blind scenario where the material of the inspected object and the incident energy spectrum are unknown. To obtain a parsimonious measurement model parameterization, we first rewrite the measurement equation using our mass-attenuation parameterization, which has the Laplace integral form. The unknown mass-attenuation spectrum is expanded into basis functions using a B-spline basis of order one. We develop a block coordinate-descent algorithm for constrained minimization of a penalized negative log-likelihood function, where constraints and penalty terms ensure nonnegativity of the spline coefficients and sparsity of the density map image in the wavelet domain. This algorithm alternates between a Nesterov’s proximal-gradient step for estimating the density map image and an active-set step for estimating the incident spectrum parameters. Numerical simulations demonstrate the performance of the proposed scheme.

  3. A TRANSMISSION SPECTRUM OF TITAN'S NORTH POLAR ATMOSPHERE FROM A SPECULAR REFLECTION OF THE SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Clark, Roger N.; Sotin, Christophe; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Ádámkovics, Máté; Appéré, Thomas; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Brown, Robert H.; Baines, Kevin H.; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Nicholson, Philip D.

    2013-11-10

    Cassini/VIMS T85 observations of a solar specular reflection off of Kivu Lacus (87.°4N 241.°1E) provide an empirical transmission spectrum of Titan's atmosphere. Because this observation was acquired from short range (33,000 km), its intensity makes it visible within the 2.0, 2.7, and 2.8 ?m atmospheric windows in addition to the 5 ?m window where all previous specular reflections have been seen. The resulting measurement of the total one-way normal atmospheric optical depth (corresponding to haze scattering plus haze and gas absorption) provides strong empirical constraints on radiative transfer models. Using those models, we find that the total haze column abundance in our observation is 20% higher than the Huygens equatorial value. Ours is the first measurement in the 2-5 ?m wavelength range that probes all the way to the surface in Titan's arctic, where the vast majority of surface liquids are located. The specular technique complements other probes of atmospheric properties such as solar occultations and the direct measurements from Huygens. In breaking the degeneracy between surface and atmospheric absorptions, our measured optical depths will help to drive future calculations of deconvolved surface albedo spectra.

  4. Method of fabricating reflection-mode EUV diffraction elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2002-01-01

    Techniques for fabricating a well-controlled, quantized-level, engineered surface that serves as substrates for EUV reflection multilayer overcomes problems associated with the fabrication of reflective EUV diffraction elements. The technique when employed to fabricate an EUV diffraction element that includes the steps of: (a) forming an etch stack comprising alternating layers of first and second materials on a substrate surface where the two material can provide relative etch selectivity; (b) creating a relief profile in the etch stack wherein the relief profile has a defined contour; and (c) depositing a multilayer reflection film over the relief profile wherein the film has an outer contour that substantially matches that of the relief profile. For a typical EUV multilayer, if the features on the substrate are larger than 50 nm, the multilayer will be conformal to the substrate. Thus, the phase imparted to the reflected wavefront will closely match that geometrically set by the surface height profile.

  5. NREL: Technology Transfer - NREL and SkyFuel Partnership Reflects...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL and SkyFuel Partnership Reflects Bright Future for Solar Energy In this video, NREL Principal Scientist Gary Jorgensen and SkyFuel Chief Technology Officer Randy Gee talk...

  6. Anti-reflective nanoporous silicon for efficient hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oh, Jihun; Branz, Howard M

    2014-05-20

    Exemplary embodiments are disclosed of anti-reflective nanoporous silicon for efficient hydrogen production by photoelectrolysis of water. A nanoporous black Si is disclosed as an efficient photocathode for H.sub.2 production from water splitting half-reaction.

  7. Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective 'cool ...

  8. High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals for x ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In second order the integrated reflectivity decreases from 1.3 mrad at 12.6 keV to ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION; ...

  9. Measuring solar reflectance Part II: Review of practical methods...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solar position, and found that clear sky air mass 1 global horizontal (AM1GH) solar ... Rsub g,0more to within 0.006. The air mass 1.5 solar reflectance measured with ...

  10. Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystals (Conference) | SciTech Connect Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals Spectroscopy provides valuable information about the temperature and density of a compressed pellet in a plasma. Elliptically curved pentaerythritol (PET) crystals are used as components for spectrometers. Their elliptical geometry gives several

  11. Integrated X-ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystals (Conference) | SciTech Connect ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Integrated X-ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals The elliptically curved pentaerythritol (PET) crystals used in the Supersnout 2 X-ray spectrometer on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have been calibrated photometrically in the range of 5.5 to 16 keV. The

  12. Measurement of reflectivity of spherically bent crystals using Kα signal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from hot electrons produced by laser-matter interaction (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Measurement of reflectivity of spherically bent crystals using Kα signal from hot electrons produced by laser-matter interaction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measurement of reflectivity of spherically bent crystals using Kα signal from hot electrons produced by laser-matter interaction In an experiment at the laser facility ECLIPSE of the CELIA laboratory, University of Bordeaux, we

  13. Signal Post-processing and Reflectivity Calibration of the Atmospheric

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation Measurement Program 915 MHz Wind Profilers (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Signal Post-processing and Reflectivity Calibration of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program 915 MHz Wind Profilers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Signal Post-processing and Reflectivity Calibration of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program 915 MHz Wind Profilers Authors: Tridon F. ; Luke E. ; Battaglia, A. ; Kollias, P. ; Williams, C. R. Publication Date: 2013-06-01 OSTI

  14. Repetitive output laser system and method using target reflectivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Roy R.

    1978-01-01

    An improved laser system and method for implosion of a thermonuclear fuel pellet in which that portion of a laser pulse reflected by the target pellet is utilized in the laser system to initiate a succeeding target implosion, and in which the energy stored in the laser system to amplify the initial laser pulse, but not completely absorbed thereby, is used to amplify succeeding laser pulses initiated by target reflection.

  15. Reflected beam illumination microscopy using a microfluidics device -

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    progress report 6/15/2014. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Reflected beam illumination microscopy using a microfluidics device - progress report 6/15/2014. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reflected beam illumination microscopy using a microfluidics device - progress report 6/15/2014. Abstract not provided. Authors: James, Conrad D. ; Finnegan, Patrick Sean ; Renzi, Ronald F. Publication Date: 2014-06-01 OSTI Identifier: 1171452 Report Number(s):

  16. Reflectance spectroscopy for high-speed temperature measurements.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Conference: Reflectance spectroscopy for high-speed temperature measurements. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reflectance spectroscopy for high-speed temperature measurements. Abstract not provided. Authors: Dolan, Daniel H., ; Seagle, Christopher T ; Ao, Tommy ; Herrmann, Mark Publication Date: 2013-05-01 OSTI Identifier: 1106087 Report Number(s): SAND2013-3898C 465305 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type:

  17. Rapid Solar Mirror Characterization with Fringe Reflection Techniques -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Thermal Solar Thermal Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Rapid Solar Mirror Characterization with Fringe Reflection Techniques SOFAST: Sandia Optical Fringe Analysis Slope Tool Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (834 KB) SOFAST Imaging SOFAST Imaging Technology Marketing SummaryThis technology is an automated system in which the reflection of a mirror,

  18. X-ray computed tomography of wood-adhesive bondlines: Attenuation and phase-contrast effects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Paris, Jesse L.; Kamke, Frederick A.; Xiao, Xianghui

    2015-07-29

    Microscale X-ray computed tomography (XCT) is discussed as a technique for identifying 3D adhesive distribution in wood-adhesive bondlines. Visualization and material segmentation of the adhesives from the surrounding cellular structures require sufficient gray-scale contrast in the reconstructed XCT data. Commercial wood-adhesive polymers have similar chemical characteristics and density to wood cell wall polymers and therefore do not provide good XCT attenuation contrast in their native form. Here, three different adhesive types, namely phenol formaldehyde, polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate, and a hybrid polyvinyl acetate, are tagged with iodine such that they yield sufficient X-ray attenuation contrast. However, phase-contrast effects at material edgesmore » complicate image quality and segmentation in XCT data reconstructed with conventional filtered backprojection absorption contrast algorithms. A quantitative phase retrieval algorithm, which isolates and removes the phase-contrast effect, was demonstrated. The paper discusses and illustrates the balance between material X-ray attenuation and phase-contrast effects in all quantitative XCT analyses of wood-adhesive bondlines.« less

  19. Validation of attenuation models for ground motion applications in central and eastern North America

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pasyanos, Michael E.

    2015-11-01

    Recently developed attenuation models are incorporated into standard one-dimensional (1-D) ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), effectively making them two-dimensional (2-D) and eliminating the need to create different GMPEs for an increasing number of sub-regions. The model is tested against a data set of over 10,000 recordings from 81 earthquakes in North America. The use of attenuation models in GMPEs improves our ability to fit observed ground motions and should be incorporated into future national hazard maps. The improvement is most significant at higher frequencies and longer distances which have a greater number of wave cycles. This has implications for themore » rare high-magnitude earthquakes, which produce potentially damaging ground motions over wide areas, and drive the seismic hazards. Furthermore, the attenuation models can be created using weak ground motions, they could be developed for regions of low seismicity where empirical recordings of ground motions are uncommon and do not span the full range of magnitudes and distances.« less

  20. Activation of farnesoid X receptor attenuates hepatic injury in a murine model of alcoholic liver disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Weibin; Institutes of Biomedical Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 ; Zhu, Bo; Peng, Xiaomin; Zhou, Meiling; Jia, Dongwei; Gu, Jianxin; Institutes of Biomedical Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •FXR activity was impaired by chronic ethanol ingestion in a murine model of ALD. •Activation of FXR attenuated alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis. •Activation of FXR attenuated cholestasis and oxidative stress in mouse liver. -- Abstract: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a common cause of advanced liver disease, and considered as a major risk factor of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hepatic cholestasis is a pathophysiological feature observed in all stages of ALD. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, and plays an essential role in the regulation of bile acid, lipid and glucose homeostasis. However, the role of FXR in the pathogenesis and progression of ALD remains largely unknown. Mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli ethanol diet or an isocaloric control diet. We used a specific agonist of FXR WAY-362450 to study the effect of pharmacological activation of FXR in alcoholic liver disease. In this study, we demonstrated that FXR activity was impaired by chronic ethanol ingestion in a murine model of ALD. Activation of FXR by specific agonist WAY-362450 protected mice from the development of ALD. We also found that WAY-362450 treatment rescued FXR activity, suppressed ethanol-induced Cyp2e1 up-regulation and attenuated oxidative stress in liver. Our results highlight a key role of FXR in the modulation of ALD development, and propose specific FXR agonists for the treatment of ALD patients.

  1. Evaluation of Natural Attenuation as One Component of Chloroethene-Contaminated Groundwater Remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.S. Sorenson; L.N. Peterson; T.S. Green

    1998-10-01

    Test Area North (TAN) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is the site of a large trichloroethene (TCE) plume resulting from the historical injection of wastewater into the Snake River Plain Aquifer. The TAN Record of Decision (ROD) selected pump and treat as the final remedy and included a contingency for post-ROD treatability studies of alternative technologies. The technologies still under consideration are in-situ bioremediation, in-situ chemical oxidation, and natural attenuation. Both anaerobic and aerobic laboratory microcosm studies indicate the presence of microorganisms capable of chloroethene degradation. Field data indicate that TCE concentrations decrease relative to tritium and tetrachloroethene indicating an as yet unknown process is contributing to natural attenuation of TCE. Several methods for analyzing the field data have been evaluated and important limitations identified. Early results from the continued evaluation of the three alternative technologies suggest the combined approach of active remediation of the source area (in situ bioremediation and/or chemical oxidation replacing or augmenting pump and treat) and natural attenuation within the dissolved phase plume may be more cost and schedule effective than the base case pump and treat.

  2. Evaluation of Natural Attenuation as One Component of Chloroethene-Contaminated Groundwater Remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorenson, K.S.; Peterson, L.N.; Green, T.S.

    1998-10-01

    Test Area North (TAN) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is the site of a large trichloroethene (TCE) plume resulting from the historical injection of wastewater into the Snake River Plain Aquifer. The TAN Record of Decision (ROD) selected pump and treat as the final remedy and included a contingency for post-ROD treatability studies of alternative technologies. The technologies still under consideration are in situ bioremediation, in situ chemical oxidation, and natural attenuation. Both anaerobic and aerobic laboratory microcosm studies indicate the presence of microorganisms capable of chloroethene degradation. Field data indicate that TCE concentrations decrease relative to tritium and tetrachloroethene indicating an as yet unknown process is contributing to natural attenuation of TCE. Several methods for analyzing the field data have been evaluated and important limitations identified. Early results from the continued evaluation of the three alternative technologies suggest the combined approach of active remediation of the source area (in situ bioremediation and/or chemical oxidation replacing or augmenting pump and treat) and natural attenuation within the dissolved phase plume may be more cost and schedule effective than the base case pump and treat.

  3. Bidirectional Reflection Distribution Functions from surface bump maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, B.K.

    1988-06-17

    The interaction of light and matter define what we see. This interaction can be characterized by a function which relates incoming light to the distribution of outgoing or reflected light. The Bidirectional Reflection Distribution Function (BRDF) is just such a function. Computer graphics scientists attempting to model this function have made simplifying assumptions about the reflecting surfaces. These simpler models have produced adequate results but only handle very uniform or isotropic surface characteristics. Reality on the other hand is filled with a variety of surface textures which result in a variety of BRDFs. This thesis broadens the class of BRDFs which can be used in computer graphics to render objects more realistically. It presents two enhancements to previous work done by the author. First, it describes a method for the approximation of surface absorption of light through the use of a computed geometric attentuation factor. This factor is computed by calculating the parts of the surface which are visible in the incident and reflecting directions. Specifically, it describes the algorithms and theory behind the visibility calculations and how it affects the reflection properties of the surface. Second, it describes a method for computing Fresnel's Law for conducting and dielectric surface materials and how Fresnel's Law affects surface reflectivity. This work also presents a method for rendering objects using the computed BRDFs. 38 refs., 29 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Entanglement entropy in quantum spin chains with broken reflection symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadar, Zoltan; Zimboras, Zoltan

    2010-09-15

    We investigate the entanglement entropy of a block of L sites in quasifree translation-invariant spin chains concentrating on the effect of reflection-symmetry breaking. The Majorana two-point functions corresponding to the Jordan-Wigner transformed fermionic modes are determined in the most general case; from these, it follows that reflection symmetry in the ground state can only be broken if the model is quantum critical. The large L asymptotics of the entropy are calculated analytically for general gauge-invariant models, which have, until now, been done only for the reflection-symmetric sector. Analytical results are also derived for certain nongauge-invariant models (e.g., for the Ising model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction). We also study numerically finite chains of length N with a nonreflection-symmetric Hamiltonian and report that the reflection symmetry of the entropy of the first L spins is violated but the reflection-symmetric Calabrese-Cardy formula is recovered asymptotically. Furthermore, for noncritical reflection-symmetry-breaking Hamiltonians, we find an anomaly in the behavior of the saturation entropy as we approach the critical line. The paper also provides a concise but extensive review of the block-entropy asymptotics in translation-invariant quasifree spin chains with an analysis of the nearest-neighbor case and the enumeration of the yet unsolved parts of the quasifree landscape.

  5. Percentage of Total Natural Gas Industrial Deliveries included in Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price City Gate Price Residential Price Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices Commercial Price Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices Industrial Price Percentage of Total Industrial Deliveries included in Prices Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010

  6. Percentage of Total Natural Gas Industrial Deliveries included in Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    City Gate Price Residential Price Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices Commercial Price Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices Industrial Price Percentage of Total Industrial Deliveries included in Prices Electric Power Price Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 Jan-16 Feb-16 View History U.S.

  7. Percentage of Total Natural Gas Residential Deliveries included in Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    City Gate Price Residential Price Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices Commercial Price Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices Industrial Price Percentage of Total Industrial Deliveries included in Prices Electric Power Price Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 Jan-16 Feb-16 View History U.S.

  8. Percentage of Total Natural Gas Commercial Deliveries included in Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    City Gate Price Residential Price Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices Commercial Price Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices Industrial Price Percentage of Total Industrial Deliveries included in Prices Electric Power Price Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 Jan-16 Feb-16 View History U.S.

  9. Apparatus for and method of correcting for astigmatism in a light beam reflected off of a light reflecting surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawicki, Richard H.; Sweatt, William

    1987-01-01

    A technique for adjustably correcting for astigmatism in a light beam is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes first means which defines a flat, rectangular light reflecting surface having opposite reinforced side edges and which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, into different concave and/or convex cylindrical curvatures about a particular axis and second means acting on the first means for adjustably bending the light reflecting surface into a particular selected one of the different curvatures depending upon the astigmatism to be corrected for and for fixedly maintaining the curvature selected. In the embodiment disclosed, the light reflecting surface is adjustably bendable into the selected cylindrical curvature by application of a particular bending moment to the reinforced side edges of the light reflecting surface.

  10. Table 3a. Total Natural Gas Consumption per Effective Occupied...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3a. Natural Gas Consumption per Sq Ft Table 3a. Total Natural Gas Consumption per Effective Occupied Square Foot, 1992 Building Characteristics All Buildings Using Natural Gas...

  11. Real-space formulation of the electrostatic potential and total...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Real-space formulation of the electrostatic potential and total energy of solids Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Real-space formulation of the ...

  12. Table A19. Components of Total Electricity Demand by Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Components of Total Electricity Demand by Census Region and" " Economic Characteristics of ...ansfers","Onsite","Transfers"," ","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Purchases","In(b)",...

  13. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Total Primary Energy Detail

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Consumption and Graph Total Primary Energy Consumption Graph Detail and Data Table 1979 to 1992 primary consumption trend with 95% confidence ranges 1979 to 1992 primary...

  14. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Total Site Energy Detail

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Consumption and Graph Total Site Energy Consumption Graph Detail and Data Table 1979 to 1992 site consumption trend with 95% confidence ranges 1979 to 1992 site...

  15. ,"Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type",6,"Monthly","82015","1151956"...

  16. ,"Other States Total Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ...

  17. TENESOL formerly known as TOTAL ENERGIE | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: TENESOL (formerly known as TOTAL ENERGIE) Place: la Tour de Salvagny, France Zip: 69890 Sector: Solar Product: Makes polycrystalline silicon modules, and PV-based...

  18. Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (Million Cubic...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals ... Offshore Gross Withdrawals of Natural Gas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals Texas Offshore ...

  19. National Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Overview: Total Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presentation by Sunita Satyapal at the Total Energy USA 2012 meeting in Houston, Texas, on November 27, 2012. PDF icon National Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Overview More ...

  20. Montana Total Maximum Daily Load Development Projects Wiki |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wiki Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Total Maximum Daily Load Development Projects Wiki Abstract Provides information on...

  1. ,"Motor Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes",60,"Monthly","22016","1151983" ,"Release Date:","522016" ,"Next Release Date:","612016" ,"Excel File Name:","petconsrefmg...

  2. Total Agroindustria Canavieira S A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agroindustria Canavieira S A Jump to: navigation, search Name: Total Agroindustria Canavieira SA Place: Bambui, Minas Gerais, Brazil Product: Ethanol producer in Minas Gerais,...

  3. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (Btu) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity (thousand Btu...

  4. ,"U.S. Total Refiner Petroleum Product Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NUSDPG","EMAEPPRPTGNUSDPG","EMAEPPRLPTGNUSDPG","EMAEPPRHPTGNUSDPG" "Date","U.S. Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per Gallon)","U.S. Aviation Gasoline...

  5. $787 Million Total in Small Business Contract Funding Awarded...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    787 Million Total in Small Business Contract Funding Awarded in FY2009 by DOE Programs in Oak Ridge | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS...

  6. ,"Conventional Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes",60,"Monthly","22016","1151994" ,"Release Date:","522016" ,"Next Release Date:","612016" ,"Excel File Name:","petconsrefmg...

  7. Natural and Enhanced Attenuation of Soil and Groundwater at the Monument Valley, Arizona, DOE Legacy Waste Site—10281

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waugh, W.J.; Miller, D.E.; Morris, S.A.; Sheader, L.R.; Glenn, E.P.; Moore, D.; Carroll, K.C.; Benally, L.; Roanhorse, M.; Bush, R.P.; none,

    2010-03-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Navajo Nation, and the University of Arizona are exploring natural and enhanced attenuation remedies for groundwater contamination at a former uranium-ore processing site near Monument Valley, Arizona. DOE removed radioactive tailings from the Monument Valley site in 1994. Nitrate and ammonium, waste products of the milling process, remain in an alluvial groundwater plume spreading from the soil source where tailings were removed. Planting and irrigating two native shrubs, fourwing saltbush and black greasewood, markedly reduced both nitrate and ammonium in the source area over an 8-year period. Total nitrogen dropped from 350 mg/kg in 2000 to less than 200 mg/kg in 2008. Most of the reduction is attributable to irrigation-enhanced microbial denitrification rather than plant uptake. However, soil moisture and percolation flux monitoring show that the plantings control the soil water balance in the source area, preventing additional leaching of nitrogen compounds. Enhanced denitrification and phytoremediation also look promising for plume remediation. Microcosm experiments, nitrogen isotopic fractionation analysis, and solute transport modeling results suggest that (1) up to 70 percent of nitrate in the plume has been lost through natural denitrification since the mill was closed in 1968, and (2) injection of ethanol may accelerate microbial denitrification in plume hot spots. A field-scale ethanol injection pilot study is underway. Landscape-scale remote sensing methods developed for the project suggest that transpiration from restored native phreatophyte populations rooted in the aquifer could limit further expansion of the plume. An evaluation of landfarm phytoremediation, the irrigation of native shrub plantings with high nitrate water pumped from the alluvial aquifer, is also underway.

  8. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Derived Data, Global Earth Coverage (GEC) from NASA's Earth Probe Satellite

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    This is data from an external datastream processed through the ARM External Data Center (XDC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The XDC identifies sources and acquires data, called "external data", to augment the data being generated within the ARM program. The external data acquired are usually converted from native format to either netCDF or HDF formats. The GEC collection contains global data derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument on the Earth Probe satellite, consisting of daily values of aerosol index, ozone and reflectivity remapped into a regular 1x1.25 deg grid. Data are available from July 25, 1996 - December 31, 2005, but have been updated or replaced as of September 2007. See the explanation on the ARM web site at http://www.arm.gov/xds/static/toms.stm and the information at the NASA/TOMS web site: http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov/ (Registration required)

  9. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2011-07-07

    The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

  10. DYNA3D Non-reflecting Boundary Conditions - Test Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zywicz, E

    2006-09-28

    Two verification problems were developed to test non-reflecting boundary segments in DYNA3D (Whirley and Engelmann, 1993). The problems simulate 1-D wave propagation in a semi-infinite rod using a finite length rod and non-reflecting boundary conditions. One problem examines pure pressure wave propagation, and the other problem explores pure shear wave propagation. In both problems the non-reflecting boundary segments yield results that differ only slightly (less than 6%) during a short duration from their corresponding theoretical solutions. The errors appear to be due to the inability to generate a true step-function compressive wave in the pressure wave propagation problem and due to segment integration inaccuracies in the shear wave propagation problem. These problems serve as verification problems and as regression test problems for DYNA3D.

  11. Fiber optic moisture sensor with moisture-absorbing reflective target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkham, Randy R.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

  12. Corrosion-resistant multilayer structures with improved reflectivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soufli, Regina; Fernandez-Perea, Monica; Robinson, Jeff C.

    2013-04-09

    In one general embodiment, a thin film structure includes a substrate; a first corrosion barrier layer above the substrate; a reflective layer above the first corrosion barrier layer, wherein the reflective layer comprises at least one repeating set of sub-layers, wherein one of the sub-layers of each set of sub-layers being of a corrodible material; and a second corrosion barrier layer above the reflective layer. In another general embodiment, a system includes an optical element having a thin film structure as recited above; and an image capture or spectrometer device. In a further general embodiment, a laser according to one embodiment includes a light source and the thin film structure as recited above.

  13. Reflective insulating blinds for windows and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnes, P.R.; Shapira, H.B.

    1979-12-07

    Energy-conserving window blinds are provided. The blinds are fabricated from coupled and adjustable slats, each slat having an insulation layer and a reflective surface to face outwardly when the blinds are closed. A range of desired light and air transmission may be selected with the reflective surfaces of the slats adapted to direct sunlight upward toward the ceiling when the blinds are open. When the blinds are closed, the insulation of the slats reduces the heat loss or gain produced by the windows. If desired, the reflective surfaces of the slats may be concave. The edges of the slats are designed to seal against adjacent slats when the blinds are closed to ensure minimum air flow between slats.

  14. Reflective insulating blinds for windows and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnes, Paul R.; Shapira, Hanna B.

    1981-01-01

    Energy-conserving window blinds are provided. The blinds are fabricated from coupled and adjustable slats, each slat having an insulation layer and a reflective surface to face outwardly when the blinds are closed. A range of desired light and air transmission may be selected with the reflective surfaces of the slats adapted to direct sunlight upward toward the ceiling when the blinds are open. When the blinds are closed, the insulation of the slats reduces the heat loss or gain produced by the windows. If desired, the reflective surfaces of the slats may be concave. The edges of the slats are designed to seal against adjacent slats when the blinds are closed to ensure minimum air flow between slats.

  15. Effect of window reflections on photonic Doppler velocimetry measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ao, T.; Dolan, D. H.

    2011-02-15

    Photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) has rapidly become a standard diagnostic for measuring velocities in dynamic compression research. While free surface velocity measurements are fairly straightforward, complications occur when PDV is used to measure a dynamically loaded sample through a window. Fresnel reflections can severely affect the velocity and time resolution of PDV measurements, especially for low-velocity transients. Shock experiments of quartz compressed between two sapphire plates demonstrate how optical window reflections cause ringing in the extracted PDV velocity profile. Velocity ringing is significantly reduced by using either a wedge window or an antireflective coating.

  16. Visible Reflectivity System for High-Pressure Studies. (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Visible Reflectivity System for High-Pressure Studies. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Visible Reflectivity System for High-Pressure Studies. Authors: Seagle, Christopher T ; Dolan, III, Daniel H Publication Date: 2013-04-01 OSTI Identifier: 1073453 Report Number(s): SAND2013-2893J Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Review of

  17. Imaging method based on attenuation, refraction and ultra-small-angle-scattering of x-rays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wernick, Miles N.; Chapman, Leroy Dean; Oltulu, Oral; Zhong, Zhong

    2005-09-20

    A method for detecting an image of an object by measuring the intensity at a plurality of positions of a transmitted beam of x-ray radiation emitted from the object as a function of angle within the transmitted beam. The intensity measurements of the transmitted beam are obtained by a crystal analyzer positioned at a plurality of angular positions. The plurality of intensity measurements are used to determine the angular intensity spectrum of the transmitted beam. One or more parameters, such as an attenuation property, a refraction property and a scatter property, can be obtained from the angular intensity spectrum and used to display an image of the object.

  18. Combustor oscillation attenuation via the control of fuel-supply line dynamics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, G.A.; Gemmen, R.S.

    1998-09-22

    Combustion oscillation control in combustion systems using hydrocarbon fuels is provided by acoustically tuning a fuel-delivery line to a desired phase of the combustion oscillations for providing a pulse of a fuel-rich region at the oscillating flame front at each time when the oscillation produced pressure in the combustion chamber is in a low pressure phase. The additional heat release produced by burning such fuel-rich regions during low combustion chamber pressure effectively attenuates the combustion oscillations to a selected value. 9 figs.

  19. Combustor oscillation attenuation via the control of fuel-supply line dynamics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, George A.; Gemmen, Randall S.

    1998-01-01

    Combustion oscillation control in combustion systems using hydrocarbon fuels is provided by acoustically tuning a fuel-delivery line to a desired phase of the combustion oscillations for providing a pulse of a fuel-rich region at the oscillating flame front at each time when the oscillation produced pressure in the combustion chamber is in a low pressure phase. The additional heat release produced by burning such fuel-rich regions during low combustion chamber pressure effectively attenuates the combustion oscillations to a selected value.

  20. Enhanced Attenuation: A Reference Guide On Approaches To Increase The Natural Treatment Capacity Of A System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vangelas, K

    2006-01-30

    The objective of this document is to explore the realm of enhancements to natural attenuation processes for cVOCs and review examples that have been proposed, modeled, and implemented. We will identify lessons learned from these case studies to confirm that enhancements are technically feasible and have the potential to achieve a favorable, cost-effective contaminant mass balance. Furthermore, we hope to determine if opportunities for further improvement of the enhancements exist and suggest areas where new and innovative types of enhancements might be possible.

  1. ENHANCED ATTENUATION: A REFERENCE GUIDE ON APPROACHES TO INCREASE THE NATURAL TREATMENT CAPACITY OF A SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, B; Michael Heitkamp, M; Gary Wein , G; Karen Vangelas, K; Karen-M Adams, K; Tom Early; Bob Borden; David Major; W. Jody Waugh; Todd Wiedemeier; Claire H. Sink

    2006-08-10

    The objective of this document is to explore the realm of enhancements to natural attenuation processes for cVOCs and review examples that have been proposed, modeled, and implemented. We will identify lessons learned from these case studies to confirm that enhancements are technically feasible and have the potential to achieve a favorable, cost-effective contaminant mass balance. Furthermore, we hope to determine if opportunities for further improvement of the enhancements exist and suggest areas where new and innovative types of enhancements might be possible.

  2. Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectrometer (TAGS) Intensity Distributions from INL's Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Center

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Greenwood, R. E.

    A 252Cf fission-product source and the INL on-line isotope separator were used to supply isotope-separated fission-product nuclides to a total absorption -ray spectrometer. This spectrometer consisted of a large (25.4-cm diameter x 30.5-cm long) NaI(Tl) detector with a 20.3-cm deep axial well in which is placed a 300-mm2 x 1.0-mm Si detector. The spectra from the NaI(Tl) detector are collected both in the singles mode and in coincidence with the B-events detected in the Si detector. Ideally, this detector would sum all the energy of the B- rays in each cascade following the population of daughter level by B- decay, so that the event could be directly associated with a particular daughter level. However, there are losses of energy from attenuation of the rays before they reach the detector, transmission of rays through the detector, escape of secondary photons from Compton scattering, escape of rays through the detector well, internal conversion, etc., and the measured spectra are thus more complicated than the ideal case and the analysis is more complex. Analysis methods have been developed to simulate all of these processes and thus provide a direct measure of the B- intensity distribution as a function of the excitation energy in the daughter nucleus. These data yield more accurate information on the B- distribution than conventional decay-scheme studies for complex decay schemes with large decay energies, because in the latter there are generally many unobserved and observed but unplaced rays. The TAGS data have been analyzed and published [R. E. Greenwood et al., Nucl Instr. and metho. A390(1997)] for 40 fission product-nuclides to determine the B- intensity distributions. [Copied from the TAGS page at http://www.inl.gov/gammaray/spectrometry/tags.shtml]. Those values are listed on this page for quick reference.

  3. Table 16. Total Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6. Total Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected (quadrillion Btu) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 ...

  4. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    in this table do not include enclosed malls and strip malls. In the 1999 CBECS, total fuel oil consumption in malls was not statistically significant. (*)Value rounds to zero...

  5. CIGNA Study Uncovers Relationship of Disabilities to Total Benefits Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The findings of a new study reveal an interesting trend. Integrating disability programs with health care programs can potentially lower employers' total benefits costs and help disabled employees get back to work sooner and stay at work.

  6. ,"U.S. Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...dnavnghistn5290us2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, ... 1: U.S. Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N5290US2" ...

  7. ,"U.S. Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...dnavnghistn5290us2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, ... 1: U.S. Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N5290US2" ...

  8. AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Total Underground Storage Capacity...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Total Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec...

  9. U.S. Total Shell Storage Capacity at Operable Refineries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product Area 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Total 710,413 -- -- -- -- -- 1982-2015 Crude Oil 180,846 -- -- -- -- -- 1985-2015 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 33,842 -- -- -- ...

  10. Summary and recommendations: Total fuel cycle assessment workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Total Fuel Cycle Assessment Workshop held in Austin, Texas, during October 6--7, 1994. It also contains the proceedings from that workshop.

  11. Ultrasound image guided acetabular implant orientation during total hip replacement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, John; Haddad, Waleed; Kluiwstra, Jan-Ulco; Matthews, Dennis; Trauner, Kenneth

    2003-08-19

    A system for assisting in precise location of the acetabular implant during total hip replacement. The system uses ultrasound imaging for guiding the placement and orientation of the implant.

  12. Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercTotal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PElectrtyUsePercTotal" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 100.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 100.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 +...

  13. Property:RenewableFuelStandard/Total | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:RenewableFuelStandardTotal Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Pages using the...

  14. Gathering total items count for pagination | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gathering total items count for pagination Home > Groups > Utility Rate Hi I'm using the following base link plus some restrictions to sector, utility, and locations to poll for...

  15. ,"U.S. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    10:54:24 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports" ...-NVM1","MTTIMUSVQ1","MTTIMUSYE1" "Date","U.S. Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products ...

  16. AEO2011:Total Energy Supply, Disposition, and Price Summary ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    case. The dataset uses quadrillion Btu and the U.S. Dollar. The data is broken down into production, imports, exports, consumption and price. Data and Resources AEO2011:Total...

  17. Estimation of Anisotoropy from Total Cross Section and Optical Model

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Estimation of Anisotoropy from Total Cross Section and Optical Model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimation of Anisotoropy from Total Cross Section and Optical Model Authors: Kawano, Toshihiko [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2013-06-03 OSTI Identifier: 1082234 Report Number(s): LA-UR-13-24025 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Working Party

  18. Determination of ferrous and total iron in refractory spinels (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Determination of ferrous and total iron in refractory spinels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Determination of ferrous and total iron in refractory spinels Accurate and precise determination of the redox state of iron (Fe) in spinels presents a significant challenge due to their refractory nature. The resultant extreme conditions needed to obtain complete dissolution generally oxidize some of the Fe(II) initially present and thus prevent the use of

  19. Ion-acoustic shocks with self-regulated ion reflection and acceleratio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ion-acoustic shocks with self-regulated ion reflection and acceleration Citation Details ... Title: Ion-acoustic shocks with self-regulated ion reflection and acceleration Authors: ...

  20. Validation of FSP Reactor Design with Sensitivity Studies of Beryllium-Reflected Critical Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess; Margaret A. Marshall

    2013-02-01

    The baseline design for space nuclear power is a fission surface power (FSP) system: sodium-potassium (NaK) cooled, fast spectrum reactor with highly-enriched-uranium (HEU)-O2 fuel, stainless steel (SS) cladding, and beryllium reflectors with B4C control drums. Previous studies were performed to evaluate modeling capabilities and quantify uncertainties and biases associated with analysis methods and nuclear data. Comparison of Zero Power Plutonium Reactor (ZPPR)-20 benchmark experiments with the FSP design indicated that further reduction of the total design model uncertainty requires the reduction in uncertainties pertaining to beryllium and uranium cross-section data. Further comparison with three beryllium-reflected HEU-metal benchmark experiments performed at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) concluded the requirement that experimental validation data have similar cross section sensitivities to those found in the FSP design. A series of critical experiments was performed at ORCEF in the 1960s to support the Medium Power Reactor Experiment (MPRE) space reactor design. The small, compact critical assembly (SCCA) experiments were graphite- or beryllium-reflected assemblies of SS-clad, HEU-O2 fuel on a vertical lift machine. All five configurations were evaluated as benchmarks. Two of the five configurations were beryllium reflected, and further evaluated using the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis capabilities of SCALE 6.1. Validation of the example FSP design model was successful in reducing the primary uncertainty constituent, the Be(n,n) reaction, from 0.28 %dk/k to 0.0004 %dk/k. Further assessment of additional reactor physics measurements performed on the SCCA experiments may serve to further validate FSP design and operation.

  1. Implementation of solar-reflective surfaces: Materials and utility programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bretz, S.; Akbari, H.; Rosenfeld, A.; Taha, H.

    1992-06-01

    This report focuses on implementation issues for using solar-reflective surfaces to cool urban heat islands, with specific examples for Sacramento, California. Advantages of solar-reflective surfaces for reducing energy use are: (1) they are cost-effective if albedo is increased during routine maintenance; (2) the energy savings coincide with peak demand for power; (3) there are positive effects on environmental quality; and (4) the white materials have a long service life. Important considerations when choosing materials for mitigating heat islands are identified as albedo, emissivity, durability, cost, pollution and appearance. There is a potential for increasing urban albedo in Sacramento by an additional 18%. Of residential roofs, we estimate that asphalt shingle and modified bitumen cover the largest area, and that built-up roofing and modified bitumen cover the largest area of commercial buildings. For all of these roof types, albedo may be increased at the time of re-roofing without any additional cost. When a roof is repaired, a solar-reflective roof coating may be applied to significantly increase albedo and extend the life of the root Although a coating may be cost-effective if applied to a new roof following installation or to an older roof following repair, it is not cost-effective if the coating is applied only to save energy. Solar-reflective pavement may be cost-effective if the albedo change is included in the routine resurfacing schedule. Cost-effective options for producing light-colored pavement may include: (1) asphalt concrete, if white aggregate is locally available; (2) concrete overlays; and (3) newly developed white binders and aggregate. Another option may be hot-rolled asphalt, with white chippings. Utilities could promote solar-reflective surfaces through advertisement, educational programs and cost-sharing of road resurfacing.

  2. Atractylenolide I-mediated Notch pathway inhibition attenuates gastric cancer stem cell traits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Li; Mao, Rurong; Shen, Ke; Zheng, Yuanhong; Li, Yueqi; Liu, Jianwen; Ni, Lei

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • This paper supports the anti-tumor effects of AT-I on gastric cancer in vitro. • AT-I attenuates gastric cancer stem cell traits. • It is the systematic study regarding AT-I suppression of Notch pathway in GC and GCSLCs. - Abstract: Atractylenolide I (AT-I), one of the main naturally occurring compounds of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, has remarkable anti-cancer effects on various cancers. However, its effects on the treatment of gastric cancer remain unclear. Via multiple cellular and molecular approaches, we demonstrated that AT-I could potently inhibit cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis through inactivating Notch pathway. AT-I treatment led to the reduction of expressions of Notch1, Jagged1, and its downstream Hes1/ Hey1. Our results showed that AT-I inhibited the self-renewal capacity of gastric stem-like cells (GCSLCs) by suppression of their sphere formation capacity and cell viability. AT-I attenuated gastric cancer stem cell (GCSC) traits partly through inactivating Notch1, leading to reducing the expressions of its downstream target Hes1, Hey1 and CD44 in vitro. Collectively, our results suggest that AT-I might develop as a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  3. Analysis of source spectra, attenuation, and site effects from central and eastern United States earthquakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindley, G.

    1998-02-01

    This report describes the results from three studies of source spectra, attenuation, and site effects of central and eastern United States earthquakes. In the first study source parameter estimates taken from 27 previous studies were combined to test the assumption that the earthquake stress drop is roughly a constant, independent of earthquake size. 200 estimates of stress drop and seismic moment from eastern North American earthquakes were combined. It was found that the estimated stress drop from the 27 studies increases approximately as the square-root of the seismic moment, from about 3 bars at 10{sup 20} dyne-cm to 690 bars at 10{sup 25} dyne-cm. These results do not support the assumption of a constant stress drop when estimating ground motion parameters from eastern North American earthquakes. In the second study, broadband seismograms recorded by the United States National Seismograph Network and cooperating stations have been analysed to determine Q{sub Lg} as a function of frequency in five regions: the northeastern US, southeastern US, central US, northern Basin and Range, and California and western Nevada. In the third study, using spectral analysis, estimates have been made for the anelastic attenuation of four regional phases, and estimates have been made for the source parameters of 27 earthquakes, including the M{sub b} 5.6, 14 April, 1995, West Texas earthquake.

  4. Evaluating Transport and Attenuation of Inorganic Contaminants in the Vadose Zone for Aqueous Waste Disposal Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.

    2015-09-01

    An approach was developed for evaluating vadose zone transport and attenuation of aqueous wastes containing inorganic (non-volatile) contaminants that were disposed of at the land surface (i.e., directly to the ground in cribs, trenches, tile fields, etc.) and their effect on the underlying groundwater. The approach provides a structured method for estimating transport of contaminants through the vadose zone and the resulting temporal profile of groundwater contaminant concentrations. The intent of the approach is also to provide a means for presenting and explaining the results of the transport analysis in the context of the site-specific waste disposal conditions and site properties, including heterogeneities and other complexities. The document includes considerations related to identifying appropriate monitoring to verify the estimated contaminant transport and associated predictions of groundwater contaminant concentrations. While primarily intended for evaluating contaminant transport under natural attenuation conditions, the approach can also be applied to identify types of, and targets for, mitigation approaches in the vadose zone that would reduce the temporal profile of contaminant concentrations in groundwater, if needed.

  5. Deployment Plan for Bioremediation and Natural Attenuation for In Situ Restoration of Chloroethene-Contaminated Groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, L.N.; Starr, R.C.; Sorenson, K.S.; Smith, R.W.; Phelps, T.J.

    1999-03-01

    This deployment plan describes a project funded by the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The objective is to facilitate deployment of enhanced in situ bioremediation (ISB) an monitored natural attenuation (MNA) or chloroethene-contaminated groundwater to DOE sites. Enhanced ISB accelerates dechlorination of chloroethenes under anaerobic conditions by providing nutrients to the microbial community. Natural attenuation does not require nutrient addition. Enhanced ISB in the upgradient portion of a contaminant plume couples with MNA in the downgradient portion is being implemented at Test Area North (TAN) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Selected DOE sites will be screened to assess their suitability for enhanced ISB/MNA. Tasks include: (1) characterization of the TAN microbial community and correlation of community characteristics with chloroethene degradation ability, (2) installation of wells to facilitate evaluation of MNA at TAN, (3) monitoring to better delineate MNA at TAN, and (4) screening of selected other DOE sites for suitability of ISB/MNA, and limited supplemental characterization. Data evaluation will provide a sound technical basis for decision makers to consider use of enhanced ISB and MNA, alone or together, as remedial technologies for these sites.

  6. CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING OF NATURAL ATTENUATION OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS IN GROUNDWATER: A SYSTEMS APPROACH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, B; Michael Heitkamp, M; Gary Wein , G; Christopher Bagwell, C; Karen Vangelas, K; Karen-M Adams, K; Tyler Gilmore; Norman Cutshall; David Major; Mike Truex; Todd Wiedemeier; Francis H. Chapelle; Tom Early; Jody Waugh; David Peterson; Mark Ankeny; Claire H. Sink

    2006-08-10

    The objective of this document is to examine the use of a phased approach to characterizing and monitoring (C&M) natural attenuation processes and enhanced attenuation processes and to identify promising tools and techniques by which to accomplish the C&M. We will investigate developing techniques, such as molecular-based assessment tools, and existing tools that traditionally have not been used for monitoring the performance of environmental remediation technologies. Case studies will be used to provide examples of how non-traditional methods are being employed as characterization and monitoring tools to support MNA and EA. The document is not focused on a specific group of readers but rather is broadly directed with the intent that readers may gain information useful to their purposes. Thus, regulators may see some future characterization and monitoring techniques; end users may find novel ways to make MNA or EA more effective or efficient at their site; researchers may identify new areas for development or new and better combinations of existing methods. One consequence of this broad approach is that some readers may find certain sections either too rudimentary or too advanced for their needs. Hopefully, all will be able to use at least some of the document.

  7. The Cordilleran foreland thrust belt in northwestern Montana and northern Idaho from COCORP and industry seismic reflection data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoos, T.R.; Potter, C.J.; Thigpen, J.L.; Brown, L.D. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1991-06-01

    COCORP and petroleum industry seismic reflection profiles in northwestern Montana reveal the structure of the Cordilleran foreland thrust belt. The Front Ranges consist of thick thrust sheets containing Precambrian Belt Supergroup and Paleozoic miogeoclinal shelf rocks above a thin remnant of Paleozoic rocks and gently westward-dipping North American basement. Interpretation of the seismic data and results from a recent petroleum exploration well suggest that 15-22 km of Precambrian Belt Supergroup sedimentary rocks are present in several thrust plates beneath the eastern Purcell anticlinorium. Previous hypotheses of a large mass of Paleozoic miogeoclinal sedimentary rocks or slices of crystalline basement located beneath the eastern Purcell anticlinorium do not appear to be supported by the data. The easternmost occurrence of allochthonous basement is interpreted to be in the western part of the anticlinorium near the Montana-Idaho border. Comparison of the Cordilleran foreland thrust belt in northwestern Montana and southern Canada suggest that a change in the deep structure of the Purcell anticlinorium occurs along strike. The anticlinorium in southern Canada has been interpreted as a hanging-wall anticline that was thrust over the western edge of thick Proterozoic North American basement, whereas in northwestern Montana the anticlinorium appears to consist of a complex series of thrust sheets above highly attenuated North American basement.

  8. Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohmann, Ulrike; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andy; Rotstayn, Leon; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto

    2009-09-25

    Uncertainties in aerosol forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of rain formation. Traditionally these feedbacks were not included in estimates of total aerosol forcing. Here we argue that they should be included because these feedbacks act quickly compared with the time scale of global warming. We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases) the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP), that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. Thus we propose replacing the direct and indirect aerosol forcing in the IPCC forcing chart with RFP estimates. This implies that it is better to evaluate the total anthropogenic aerosol effect as a whole.

  9. Federal Offshore -- Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) -- Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Federal Offshore -- Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0 2000's 0 0 109,277 98,372 90,025 78,139 102,242 115,528 102,389 103,976 2010's 108,490 101,217 93,985 95,207 93,855 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  10. U.S. Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Deliveries (Percent) U.S. Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2000's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2010's 100 100 100 100 100 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Share of Total U.S. Natural Gas

  11. Properties of solar gravity mode signals in total irradiance observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroll, R.J.; Chen, J.; Hill, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    Further evidence has been found that a significant fraction of the gravity mode power density in the total irradiance observations appears in sidebands of classified eigenfrequencies. These sidebands whose amplitudes vary from year to year are interpreted as harmonics of the rotational frequencies of the nonuniform solar surface. These findings are for non axisymmetric modes and corroborate the findings of Kroll, Hill and Chen for axisymmetric modes. It is demonstrated the the generation of the sidebands lifts the usual restriction on the parity of the eigenfunctions for modes detectable in total irradiance observations. 14 refs.

  12. Flow cytometric measurement of total DNA and incorporated halodeoxyuridine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dolbeare, Frank A.; Gray, Joe W.

    1986-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous flow cytometric measurement of the total DNA content and the level of DNA synthesis in normal and malignant cells is disclosed. The sensitivity of the method allows a study of cell cycle traverse rates for large scale cell populations as well as single cell measurements. A DNA stain such as propidium iodide is used as the probe for the measurement of total DNA content and a monoclonal antibody reactive with a DNA precursor such as bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) is used as a probe for the measurement of BrdU uptake by the cells as a measure of DNA synthesis.

  13. Method and apparatus for inspecting reflection masks for defects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bokor, Jeffrey; Lin, Yun

    2003-04-29

    An at-wavelength system for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blank defect detection is provided. When a focused beam of wavelength 13 nm is incident on a defective region of a mask blank, three possible phenomena can occur. The defect will induce an intensity reduction in the specularly reflected beam, scatter incoming photons into an off-specular direction, and change the amplitude and phase of the electric field at the surface which can be monitored through the change in the photoemission current. The magnitude of these changes will depend on the incident beam size, and the nature, extent and size of the defect. Inspection of the mask blank is performed by scanning the mask blank with 13 nm light focused to a spot a few .mu.m in diameter, while measuring the reflected beam intensity (bright field detection), the scattered beam intensity (dark-field detection) and/or the change in the photoemission current.

  14. Improved Method to Measure Glare and Reflected Solar Irradiance - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Early Stage R&D Early Stage R&D Find More Like This Return to Search Improved Method to Measure Glare and Reflected Solar Irradiance Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (767 KB) Solar glare from aerial view Solar glare from aerial view Typical solar glare Typical solar glare

  15. Time Correlations in Backscattering Radar Reflectivity Measurements from Cirrus Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time Correlations in Backscattering Radar Reflectivity Measurements from Cirrus Clouds K. Ivanova, H. N. Shirer, and E. E. Clothiaux Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania T. P. Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction The state variables of the atmosphere exhibit correlations at various spatial and temporal scales. These correlations are crucial for understanding short- and long-term trends in climate. Cirrus clouds are important

  16. Ultrafast transient reflectance of epitaxial semiconducting perovskite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolin, S. Y.; Guglietta, G. W.; Baxter, J. B. E-mail: smay@coe.drexel.edu; Scafetta, M. D.; May, S. J. E-mail: smay@coe.drexel.edu

    2014-07-14

    Ultrafast pump-probe transient reflectance (TR) spectroscopy was used to study carrier dynamics in an epitaxial perovskite oxide thin film of LaFeO{sub 3} (LFO) with a thickness of 40 unit cells (16?nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (LaAlO{sub 3}){sub 0.3}(Sr{sub 2}AlTaO{sub 6}){sub 0.7} (LSAT). TR spectroscopy shows two negative transients in reflectance with local maxima at ?2.5?eV and ?3.5?eV which correspond to two optical transitions in LFO as determined by ellipsometry. The kinetics at these transients were best fit with an exponential decay model with fast (5–40 ps), medium (?200 ps), and slow (??3?ns) components that we attribute mainly to recombination of photoexcited carriers. Moreover, these reflectance transients did not completely decay within the observable time window, indicating that ?10% of photoexcited carriers exist for at least 3?ns. This work illustrates that TR spectroscopy can be performed on thin (<20?nm) epitaxial oxide films to provide a quantitative understanding of recombination lifetimes, which are important parameters for the potential utilization of perovskite films in photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications.

  17. Reflection seismic mapping of an abandoned coal mine, Belleville, Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, N.; Hinds, R.; Roark, M.

    1997-10-01

    Old mine location maps (1958 vintage) indicate that the northwestern part of an undeveloped property near the town of Belleville, St. Clair County, Illinois, is situated above an abandoned and now water-filled, room-and-pillar type coal mine. The central and southeast parts of the Belleville property are shown as overlying intact (non-mined) coal. The coal unit mined at the Belleville site, the Herrin No. 6 is Pennsylvanian in age and about 2.5 m thick at a depth of around 40 m. The current owners of the Belleville property want to construct a large building on the central and southeast parts of the site, but have been concerned about the accuracy of the old mine location maps because of recent mine-related surface subsidence in areas designated on the maps as not mined. To ensure that the proposed new development is located on structurally stable ground, a grid of ten high-resolution reflection seismic lines was acquired on-site. On these reflection seismic data, mined-out areas can be visually identified and differentiated from non-mined areas. The interpretation of the reflection seismic data was constrained and validated by 15 test boreholes. These seismic and borehole data confirm that the central and southeast parts of the property have not been mined extensively. Development of the Belleville site has proceeded with confidence.

  18. Inversion of seismic reflection traveltimes using a nonlinear optimization scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pullammanappallil, S.K.; Louie, J.N. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Mackay School of Mines)

    1993-11-01

    The authors present the use of a nonlinear optimization scheme called generalized simulated annealing to invert seismic reflection times for velocities, reflector depths, and lengths. A finite-difference solution of the eikonal equation computes reflection traveltimes through the velocity model and avoids ray tracing. They test the optimization scheme on synthetic models and compare it with results from a linearized inversion. The synthetic tests illustrate that, unlike linear inversion schemes, the results obtained by the optimization scheme are independent of the initial model. The annealing method has the ability to produce a suite of models that satisfy the data equally well. They make use of this property to determine the uncertainties associated with the model parameters obtained. Synthetic examples demonstrate that allowing the reflector length to vary, along with its position, helps the optimization process obtain a better solution. The authors put this to use in imaging the Garlock fault, whose geometry at depth is poorly known. They use reflection times picked from shot gathers recorded along COCORP Mojave Line 5 to invert for the Garlock fault and velocities within the Cantil Basin below Fremont Valley, California. The velocities within the basin obtained by their optimization scheme are consistent with earlier studies, though their results suggest that the basin might extend 1--2 km further south. The reconstructed reflector seems to suggest shallowing of the dip of the Garlock fault at depth.

  19. "Table A10. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Total",11681,21576,70668,"W",21384,80123,"W",315,0,9.3 "Employment Size" " Under 50",1824,6108,928,"W",5936,928,"Q","Q",0,37.1 " 50-99","W",2450,6052,573,"W",6052,"W","W",0,20.7 ...

  20. Device for measuring the total concentration of oxygen in gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaacs, Hugh S.; Romano, Anthony J.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a CO equilibrium in a device for measuring the total concentration of oxygen impurities in a fluid stream. To this end, the CO equilibrium is produced in an electrochemical measuring cell by the interaction of a carbon element in the cell with the chemically combined and uncombined oxygen in the fluid stream at an elevated temperature.