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1

Texture of atomic layer deposited ruthenium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ruthenium films were grown by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) on Si(100) and ALD TiN. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the as-deposited films on Si(100) were polycrystalline, on TiN they were (002) oriented. After annealing at 800^oC ... Keywords: Ammonia plasma, Atomic layer deposition, Ruthenium, Silicide, Texture

J. Musschoot; Q. Xie; D. Deduytsche; K. De Keyser; D. Longrie; J. Haemers; S. Van den Berghe; R. L. Van Meirhaeghe; J. D'Haen; C. Detavernier

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Atomic Layer Deposition for SRF Cavities  

SciTech Connect

We have begun using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) to synthesize a variety of surface coatings on coupons and cavities as part of an effort to produce rf structures with significantly better performance and yield than those obtained from bulk niobium, The ALD process offers the possibility of conformally coating complex cavity shapes with precise layered structures with tightly constrained morphology and chemical properties. Our program looks both at the metallurgy and superconducting properties of these coatings, and also their performance in working structures. Initial results include: 1) evidence from point contact tunneling showing magnetic oxides can be a significant limitation to high gradient operation, 2) experimental results showing the production sharp niobium/oxide interfaces from a high temperature bake of ALD coated Al2O3 on niobium surfaces, 3) results from ALD coated structures.

Norem, J; Pellin, M J; Antoine, C Z; Ciovati, G; Kneisel, P; Reece, C E; Rimmer, R A; Cooley, L; Gurevich, A V; Ha, Y; Proslier, Th

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

USE OF ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF FUNCTIONALIZATION OF NANOPOROUS BIOMATERIALS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials.

Brigmon, R.; Narayan, R.; Adiga, S.; Pellin, M.; Curtiss, L.; Stafslien, S.; Chisholm, B.; Monteiro-Riviere, N.; Elam, J.

2010-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

4

Atomic layer deposition for the conformal coating of nanoporous materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is ideal for applying precise and conformal coatings over nanoporous materials. We have recently used ALD to coat two nanoporous solids: anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) and silica aerogels. AAO possesses hexagonally ordered ...

Jeffrey W. Elam; Guang Xiong; Catherine Y. Han; H. Hau Wang; James P. Birrell; Ulrich Welp; John N. Hryn; Michael J. Pellin; Theodore F. Baumann; John F. Poco; Joe H. Satcher, Jr.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

ZnO Nanowires Grown on ZnO Thin Film Deposited by Atomic Layer ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique was used to deposit the seeding ... 3D Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) for Li-Ion Battery Anode.

6

Results from Point Contact Tunnelling Spectroscopy and Atomic Layer Deposition  

SciTech Connect

We have shown previously that magnetic niobium oxides can influence the superconducting density of states at the surface of cavity-grade niobium coupons. We will present recent results obtained by Point Contact Tunneling spectroscopy (PCT) on coupons removed from hot and cold spots in a niobium cavity, as well as a comparative study of magnetic oxides on mild baked/unbaked electropolished coupons. We will also describe recent results obtained from coated cavities, ALD films properties and new materials using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD).

Proslier, Th. [Illinois Institute of Technology; Zasadzinski, J. [Illinois Institute of Technology; Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB; Kneisel, Peter K. [JLAB; Elam, J. W. [ANL; Norem, J. [ANL; Pellin, M. J. [ANL

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

U-17: Selective Area Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) with E-Beam ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, U-17: Selective Area Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) with E- Beam ... 3D Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) for Li-Ion Battery Anode.

8

Optical Properties of Zn(O,S) Thin Films Deposited by RF Sputtering, Atomic Layer Deposition, and Chemical Bath Deposition: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Zn(O,S) thin films 27 - 100 nm thick were deposited on glass or Cu(InxGa1-x)Se2/Molybdenum/glass with RF sputtering, atomic layer deposition, and chemical bath deposition.

Li, J.; Glynn, S.; Christensen, S.; Mann, J.; To, B.; Ramanathan, K.; Noufi, R.; Furtak, T. E.; Levi, D.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Integrated Sustainability Analysis of Atomic Layer Deposition for Microelectronics Manufacturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Manufacturing and Sustainability Improvement of Nano-Integrated Sustainability Analysis of Atomic Layergrowth at atomic scale. Sustainability of ALD technology

Yuan, Chris Yingchun; David Dornfeld

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Novel Processing to Produce Polymer/Ceramic Nanocomposites by Atomic Layer Deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of ceramics and certain polymers is the choice for medical devices.1­3 The automobile industry also hasNovel Processing to Produce Polymer/Ceramic Nanocomposites by Atomic Layer Deposition Xinhua Liang- scale ceramic inclusions within a polymer matrix was demon- strated. Micron-sized high density

George, Steven M.

11

Selective atomic layer deposition with electron-beam patterned self-assembled monolayers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors selectively deposited nanolines of titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) through atomic layer deposition (ALD) using an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) as a nucleation inhibition layer. Electron-beam (e-beam) patterning is used to prepare nanoline patterns in the OTS SAM on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates suitable for selective ALD. The authors have investigated the effect of an e-beam dose on the pattern width of the selectively deposited TiO{sub 2} lines. A high dose (e.g., 20 nC/cm) causes broadening of the linewidth possibly due to scattering, while a low dose (e.g., 5 nC/cm) results in a low TiO{sub 2} deposition rate because of incomplete exposure of the OTS SAMs. The authors have confirmed that sub-30 nm isolated TiO{sub 2} lines can be achieved by selective ALD combined with OTS patterned by EBL at an accelerating voltage of 2 kV and line dose of 10 nC/cm. This research offers a new approach for patterned gate dielectric layer fabrication, as well as potential applications for nanosensors and solar cells.

Huang, Jie; Lee, Mingun; Kim, Jiyoung [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 and Dongjin Semichem Co., Ltd, 625-3, Yodang-ri, Yangam-myun, Hwasung-si, Gyeonggi-do, 445-930 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

12

Ultra-low loading Pt nanocatalysts prepared by atomic layer deposition on carbon aerogels  

SciTech Connect

Using atomic layer deposition (ALD), we show that Pt nanoparticles can be deposited on the inner surfaces of carbon aerogels (CA). The resultant Pt-loaded materials exhibit high catalytic activity for the oxidation of CO even at loading levels as low as {approx}0.05 mg Pt/cm{sup 2}. We observe a conversion efficiency of nearly 100% in the temperatures range 150-250 C, and the total conversion rate seems to be only limited by the thermal stability of our CA support in ambient oxygen. Our ALD approach described here is universal in nature, and can be applied to the design of new catalytic materials for a variety of applications, including fuel cells, hydrogen storage, pollution control, green chemistry, and liquid fuel production.

King, J S; Wittstock, A; Biener, J; Kucheyev, S O; Wang, Y M; Baumann, T F; Giri, S; Hamza, A V; Baeumer, M; Bent, S F

2008-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

13

ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF TITANIUM OXIDE THIN FILMS ONNANOPOROUS ALUMINA TEMPLATES FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Nanostructured materials may play a significant role in controlled release of pharmacologic agents for treatment of cancer. Many nanoporous polymer materials are inadequate for use in drug delivery. Nanoporous alumina provides several advantages over other materials for use in controlled drug delivery and other medical applications. Atomic layer deposition was used to coat all the surfaces of the nanoporous alumina membrane in order to reduce the pore size in a controlled manner. Both the 20 nm and 100 nm titanium oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes did not exhibit statistically lower viability compared to the uncoated nanoporous alumina membrane control materials. In addition, 20 nm pore size titanium oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes exposed to ultraviolet light demonstrated activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Nanostructured materials prepared using atomic layer deposition may be useful for delivering a pharmacologic agent at a precise rate to a specific location in the body. These materials may serve as the basis for 'smart' drug delivery devices, orthopedic implants, or self-sterilizing medical devices.

Brigmon, R.

2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

14

Extremely low surface recombination velocities in black silicon passivated by atomic layer deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate the optical and opto-electronic properties of black silicon (b-Si) nanostructures passivated with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The b-Si nanostructures significantly improve the absorption of silicon due to superior anti-reflection and light trapping properties. By coating the b-Si nanostructures with a conformal layer of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} by atomic layer deposition, the surface recombination velocity can be effectively reduced. We show that control of plasma-induced subsurface damage is equally important to achieve low interface recombination. Surface recombination velocities of S{sub eff}<13 cm/s have been measured for an optimized structure which, like the polished reference, exhibits lifetimes in the millisecond range.

Otto, Martin [Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, mu MD Group-Institute of Physics, Heinrich-Damerow-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Kroll, Matthias; Kaesebier, Thomas; Tuennermann, Andreas [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Institute of Applied Physics, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Salzer, Roland [Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials Halle, Walter-Huelse-Str. 1, 06120 Halle (Germany); Wehrspohn, Ralf B. [Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, mu MD Group-Institute of Physics, Heinrich-Damerow-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials Halle, Walter-Huelse-Str. 1, 06120 Halle (Germany)

2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

15

Atomic layer deposition of ZnO on ultralow-density nanoporous silica aerogel monoliths  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on atomic layer deposition of an ? 2 -nm-thick ZnO layer on the inner surface of ultralow-density ( ? 0.5 % of the full density) nanoporoussilica aerogel monoliths with an extremely large effective aspect ratio of ? 10 5 (defined as the ratio of the monolith thickness to the average pore size). The resultant monoliths are formed by amorphous- SiO 2 core/wurtzite-ZnO shell nanoparticles which are randomly oriented and interconnected into an open-cell network with an apparent density of ? 3 % and a surface area of ? 10 0 m 2 g ? 1 . Secondary ion mass spectrometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging reveal excellent uniformity and crystallinity of ZnO coating. Oxygen K -edge and Zn L 3 -edge soft x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy shows broadened O p - as well as Zn s - and d -projected densities of states in the conduction band.

S. O. Kucheyev; J. Biener; Y. M. Wang; T. F. Baumann; K. J. Wu; T. van Buuren; A. V. Hamza; J. H. Satcher Jr.; J. W. Elam; M. J. Pellin

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition and etching of high-k gadolinium oxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of high-quality gadolinium oxide thin films is achieved using Gd(iPrCp){sub 3} and O{sub 2} plasma. Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth is observed from 150 to 350 deg. C, though the optical properties of the film improve at higher temperature. True layer-by-layer ALD growth of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} occurred in a relatively narrow window of temperature and precursor dose. A saturated growth rate of 1.4 A/cycle was observed at 250 deg. C. As the temperature increases, high-quality films are deposited, but the growth mechanism appears to become CVD-like, indicating the onset of precursor decomposition. At 250 deg. C, the refractive index of the film is stable at {approx}1.80 regardless of other deposition conditions, and the measured dispersion characteristics are comparable to those of bulk Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. XPS data show that the O/Gd ratio is oxygen deficient at 1.3, and that it is also very hygroscopic. The plasma etching rate of the ALD Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} film in a high-density helicon reactor is very low. Little difference is observed in etching rate between Cl{sub 2} and pure Ar plasmas, suggesting that physical sputtering dominates the etching. A threshold bias power exists below which etching does not occur; thus it may be possible to etch a metal gate material and stop easily on the Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate dielectric. The Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} film has a dielectric constant of about 16, exhibits low C-V hysteresis, and allows a 50 x reduction in gate leakage compared to SiO{sub 2}. However, the plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) process causes formation of an {approx}1.8 nm SiO{sub 2} interfacial layer, and generates a fixed charge of -1.21 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}, both of which may limit use of PE-ALD Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a gate dielectric.

Vitale, Steven A.; Wyatt, Peter W.; Hodson, Chris J. [MIT Lincoln Laboratory, 244 Wood Street, Lexington, Massachusetts 02420 (United States); Oxford Instruments Plasma Technology, Yatton, Bristol, BS49 4AP (United Kingdom)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

17

Indium oxide atomic layer deposition facilitated by the synergy between oxygen and water.  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) films using cyclopentadienyl indium (InCp) and combinations of both molecular oxygen and water as the co-reactants. When either O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O were used individually as the oxygen source the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth was negligible over the temperature range 100-250 C. However, when oxygen and water were used in combination either as a simultaneous exposure or supplied sequentially, In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were deposited at growth rates of 1.0-1.6 {angstrom}/cycle over the full range of deposition temperatures. In situ quadrupole mass spectrometry and quartz crystal microbalance measurements revealed that water serves the function of releasing ligands from the surface while oxygen performs the role of oxidizing the indium. Since both processes are necessary for sustained growth, both O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O are required for the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD. The electrical resistivity, mobility, and carrier concentration of the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films varied dramatically with both the deposition temperature and co-reactant sequence and correlated to a crystallization occurring at {approx}140 C observed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Using this new process we successfully deposited ALD In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films over large area substrates (12 in. x 18 in.) with very high uniformity in thickness and resistivity.

Libera, J. A.; Hryn, J. N.; Elam, J. W. (Energy Systems)

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

18

Photoelectrochemical investigation of ultrathin film iron oxide solar cells prepared by atomic layer deposition.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atomic layer deposition was used to grow conformal thin films of hematite with controlled thickness on transparent conductive oxide substrates. The hematite films were incorporated as photoelectrodes in regenerative photoelectrochemical cells employing an aqueous [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3-/4-} electrolyte. Steady state current density versus applied potential measurements under monochromatic and simulated solar illumination were used to probe the photoelectrochemical properties of the hematite electrodes as a function of film thickness. Combining the photoelectrochemical results with careful optical measurements allowed us to determine an optimal thickness for a hematite electrode of {approx}20 nm. Mott-Schottky analysis of differential capacitance measurements indicated a depletion region of {approx}17 nm. Thus, only charge carriers generated in the depletion region were found to contribute to the photocurrent.

Klahr, B. M.; Martinson, A. B. F.; Hamann, T. W. (Materials Science Division); (Michigan State Univ.)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Controlling Atomic Layer Deposition of TiO2 in Aerogels through Surface Functionalization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report demonstrates a chemical functionalization method for controlling atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO{sub 2} in low-density nanoporous materials. Functionalization of silica aerogel with trimethylsilane is shown to strongly suppress TiO{sub 2} growth via ALD. Subsequent modification of the functionalization through selective removal of the hydrocarbon groups reactivates the aerogel towards TiO{sub 2} deposition. These results demonstrate the potential use of ALD as a selective tool for creating novel nanoporous materials. Nanoporous materials present significant technological advantage for a wide range of applications, including catalysis, energy storage and conversion, nanoelectronics to name just a few (1-4). Hence, there is considerable interest in developing synthetic pathways for the fabrication of nanoporous materials with tailored properties. Aerogels (AGs) are unique low-density, open-cell porous materials consisting of submicrometer pores and ligaments that can be used as a robust material platform for designing novel nanoporous materials. In recent years, a synthetic approach based on ALD on AG templates has emerged as a promising method for the directed growth of nanoporous materials (5-11, 18). This approach has been used successfully to prepare millimeter-sized high aspect ratio aerogels coated uniformly with zinc oxide (ZnO), tungsten (W) and alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) (10, 11). The ALD process utilizes two sequential, self-limiting surface reactions resulting in a layer-by-layer growth mode. The self limiting nature of the surface reactions makes ALD a particularly suitable technique for uniform deposition onto high aspect ratio porous substrates. Additionally, chemical specificity of the surface reactions in ALD enables one to control the deposition process through selective functionalization of the substrate surface. In fact the functionalization of planar substrates such as silicon wafers with organosilane groups (R{sub n}SiX{sub 4-n} (n = 1-3)) has been shown to deactivate the substrate towards ZrO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2}, ZnO, and TiO{sub 2} ALD processes (12-16). A possible mechanism for the deactivation effect is the blocking of surface functional groups, such as hydroxyl (OH) moieties, which serve as chemisorption sites for the ALD precursors and hence are essential for nucleating the deposition process. Henceforth, we shall refer to these surface functional groups as nucleation sites for the ALD process.

Ghosal, S; Baumann, T F; King, J S; Kucheyev, S; Wang, Y; Worsley, M A; Biener, J; Bent, S F; Hamza, A V

2009-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

20

Electrical properties and interfacial chemical environments of in situ atomic layer deposited Al2O3 on freshly molecular beam epitaxy grown GaAs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Interfacial chemical analyses and electrical characterization of in situ atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al"2O"3 on freshly molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown n- and p- GaAs (001) with a (4x6) surface reconstruction are performed. The capacitance-voltage ... Keywords: Atomic layer deposition, III-V compound semiconductor, Molecular beam epitaxy

Y. H. Chang; M. L. Huang; P. Chang; C. A. Lin; Y. J. Chu; B. R. Chen; C. L. Hsu; J. Kwo; T. W. Pi; M. Hong

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic layer deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Atomic Layer Deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as Characterized Reference Samples for Nanolayer Metrology  

SciTech Connect

Plasma assisted Atomic Layer Deposition Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples were studied using an approach of complementary metrology using Ellipsometry, X-Ray Reflectivity, Atomic Force Microscopy, and Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence. For modeling the samples, an interfacial rough SiO{sub 2} layer has to be assumed. The excellent linearity of the ALD process was used to cross check Ellipsometry and X-Ray Reflectivity. In contrast to Ellipsometry, X-Ray Reflectivity showed a residual surface layer, identified as chlorine contaminated layer by TXRF. The samples are shown to be ideal candidates for calibration of X-ray fluorescence as the Al signal linearly depends on the film thickness or ALD cycles. Furthermore, the impact of self-absorption of thick layers for TXRF was shown by the samples.

Nutsch, A.; Lemberger, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Systems and Device Technology, Schottkystrasse 10, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Petrik, P. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Konkoly Thege u. 29-33, 1121 Budapest (Hungary)

2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

22

New Homogeneous Standards by Atomic Layer Deposition for Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopies.  

SciTech Connect

Quantification of synchrotron XRF analyses is typically done through comparisons with measurements on the NIST SRM 1832/1833 thin film standards. Unfortunately, these standards are inhomogeneous on small scales at the tens of percent level. We are synthesizing new homogeneous multilayer standards using the Atomic Layer Deposition technique and characterizing them using multiple analytical methods, including ellipsometry, Rutherford Back Scattering at Evans Analytical, Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence (SXRF) at Advanced Photon Source (APS) Beamline 13-ID, Synchrotron X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) at Advanced Light Source (ALS) Beamlines 11.0.2 and 5.3.2.1 and by electron microscopy techniques. Our motivation for developing much-needed cross-calibration of synchrotron techniques is borne from coordinated analyses of particles captured in the aerogel of the NASA Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC). The Stardust Interstellar Dust Preliminary Examination (ISPE) team have characterized three sub-nanogram, {approx}1{micro}m-sized fragments considered as candidates to be the first contemporary interstellar dust ever collected, based on their chemistries and trajectories. The candidates were analyzed in small wedges of aerogel in which they were extracted from the larger collector, using high sensitivity, high spatial resolution >3 keV synchrotron x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SXRF) and <2 keV synchrotron x-ray transmission microscopy (STXM) during Stardust ISPE. The ISPE synchrotron techniques have complementary capabilities. Hard X-ray SXRF is sensitive to sub-fg mass of elements Z {ge} 20 (calcium) and has a spatial resolution as low as 90nm. X-ray Diffraction data were collected simultaneously with SXRF data. Soft X-ray STXM at ALS beamline 11.0.2 can detect fg-mass of most elements, including cosmochemically important oxygen, magnesium, aluminum and silicon, which are invisible to SXRF in this application. ALS beamline 11.0.2 has spatial resolution better than 25 nm. Limiting factors for Stardust STXM analyses were self-imposed limits of photon dose due to radiation damage concerns, and significant attenuation of <1500 eV X-rays by {approx}80{micro}m thick, {approx}25 mg/cm{sup 3} density silica aerogel capture medium. In practice, the ISPE team characterized the major, light elements using STXM (O, Mg, Al, Si) and the heavier minor and trace elements using SXRF. The two data sets overlapped only with minor Fe and Ni ({approx}1% mass abundance), providing few quantitative cross-checks. New improved standards for cross calibration are essential for consortium-based analyses of Stardust interstellar and cometary particles, IDPs. Indeed, they have far reaching application across the whole synchrotron-based analytical community. We have synthesized three ALD multilayers simultaneously on silicon nitride membranes and silicon and characterized them using RBS (on Si), XRF (on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) and STXM/XAS (holey Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}). The systems we have started to work with are Al-Zn-Fe and Y-Mg-Er. We have found these ALD multi-layers to be uniform at {micro}m- to nm scales, and have found excellent consistency between four analytical techniques so far. The ALD films can also be used as a standard for e-beam instruments, eg., TEM EELS or EDX. After some early issues with the consistency of coatings to the back-side of the membrane windows, we are confident to be able to show multi-analytical agreement to within 10%. As the precision improves, we can use the new standards to verify or improve the tabulated cross-sections.

Butterworth, A.L.; Becker, N.; Gainsforth, Z.; Lanzirotti, A.; Newville, M.; Proslier, T.; Stodolna, J.; Sutton, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Westphal, A.J.; Zasadzinski, J. (UCB)

2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

23

Atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 and HfO2 on GaN: A comparative study on interfaces and electrical characteristics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Al"2O"3, HfO"2, and composite HfO"2/Al"2O"3 films were deposited on n-type GaN using atomic layer deposition (ALD). The interfacial layer of GaON and HfON was observed between HfO"2 and GaN, whereas the absence of an interfacial layer at Al"2O"3/GaN ... Keywords: Al2O3, Atomic-layer-deposition (ALD), GaN, HfO2, High k dielectric, MOS

Y. C. Chang; M. L. Huang; Y. H. Chang; Y. J. Lee; H. C. Chiu; J. Kwo; M. Hong

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Accelerated Publication: Drain current enhancement and negligible current collapse in GaN MOSFETs with atomic-layer-deposited HfO2 as a gate dielectric  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accumulation-type GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFET's) with atomic-layer-deposited HfO"2 gate dielectrics have been fabricated; a 4@mm gate-length device with a gate dielectric of 14.8nm in thickness (an equivalent SiO"2 ... Keywords: Atomic layer deposition (ALD), Current collapse, GaN, HfO2, Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor (MOSFET)

Y. C. Chang; W. H. Chang; Y. H. Chang; J. Kwo; Y. S. Lin; S. H. Hsu; J. M. Hong; C. C. Tsai; M. Hong

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Epitaxial strontium titanate films grown by atomic layer deposition on SrTiO{sub 3}-buffered Si(001) substrates  

SciTech Connect

Epitaxial strontium titanate (STO) films have been grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on Si(001) substrates with a thin STO buffer layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Four unit cells of STO grown by MBE serve as the surface template for ALD growth. The STO films grown by ALD are crystalline as-deposited with minimal, if any, amorphous SiO{sub x} layer at the STO-Si interface. The growth of STO was achieved using bis(triisopropylcyclopentadienyl)-strontium, titanium tetraisopropoxide, and water as the coreactants at a substrate temperature of 250 Degree-Sign C. In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed that the ALD process did not induce additional Si-O bonding at the STO-Si interface. Postdeposition XPS analysis also revealed sporadic carbon incorporation in the as-deposited films. However, annealing at a temperature of 250 Degree-Sign C for 30 min in moderate to high vacuum (10{sup -6}-10{sup -9} Torr) removed the carbon species. Higher annealing temperatures (>275 Degree-Sign C) gave rise to a small increase in Si-O bonding, as indicated by XPS, but no reduced Ti species were observed. X-ray diffraction revealed that the as-deposited STO films were c-axis oriented and fully crystalline. A rocking curve around the STO(002) reflection gave a full width at half maximum of 0.30 Degree-Sign {+-} 0.06 Degree-Sign for film thicknesses ranging from 5 to 25 nm. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed that the STO films were continuous with conformal growth to the substrate and smooth interfaces between the ALD- and MBE-grown STO. Overall, the results indicate that thick, crystalline STO can be grown on Si(001) substrates by ALD with minimal formation of an amorphous SiO{sub x} layer using a four-unit-cell STO buffer layer grown by MBE to serve as the surface template.

McDaniel, Martin D.; Posadas, Agham; Ngo, Thong Q.; Dhamdhere, Ajit; Smith, David J.; Demkov, Alexander A.; Ekerdt, John G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C0400, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1600, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C0400, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1600, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C0400, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

26

Photoluminescence associated with basal stacking faults in c-plane ZnO epitaxial film grown by atomic layer deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Basal plane stacking faults (BSFs) with density of {approx}1 x 10{sup 6} cm{sup -1} are identified as the dominant defect in the annealed ZnO thin films grown on c-plane sapphire by atomic layer deposition. The dominant peak centered at 3.321 eV in low-temperature photoluminescence measurements is attributed to the emission from the BSFs. The emission mechanism is considered to be the confined indirect excitons in the region of quantum-well-like structure formed by the BSFs. The observed energy shift of 19 meV with respect to the BSF-bounded exciton at low temperature may be caused by the localization effect associated with the coupling between BSF quantum wells.

Yang, S.; Kuo, C. C.; Hsieh, W. F. [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Liu, W.-R. [Scientific Research Division, National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Lin, B. H. [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Scientific Research Division, National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Hsu, H.-C. [Institute of Electro-Optical Science and Engineering and Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Hsu, C.-H. [Scientific Research Division, National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)

2012-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

27

Vapor-Phase Metalation by Atomic Layer Deposition in a Metal-Organic Framework  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

encompass deposition onto micro- and nanopowders14 and coating of nanoparticle films15 as well as aerogel coating of porous materials that exhibit ultrahigh-aspect ratios.12,13 To date, some striking examples

28

Synthesis of Pt?Pd Core?Shell Nanostructures by Atomic Layer Deposition: Application in Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation to Propylene  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was employed to synthesize supported Pt?Pd bimetallic particles in the 1 to 2 nm range. The metal loading and composition of the supported Pt?Pd nanoparticles were controlled by varying the deposition temperature and by applying ALD metal oxide coatings to modify the support surface chemistry. Highresolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images showed monodispersed Pt?Pd nanoparticles on ALD Al2O3 - and TiO2 -modi?ed SiO2 gel. X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the bimetallic nanoparticles have a stable Pt-core, Pd-shell nanostructure. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the most stable surface con?guration for the Pt? Pd alloys in an H2 environment has a Pt-core, Pd-shell nanostructure. In comparison to their monometallic counterparts, the small Pt?Pd bimetallic core?shell nanoparticles exhibited higher activity in propane oxidative dehydrogenation as compared to their physical mixture.

Lei, Y.; Liu, Bin; Lu, Junling; Lobo-Lapidus, Rodrigo J.; Wu, Tianpin; Feng, Hao; Xia, Xiaoxing; Mane, Anil U.; Libera, Joseph A.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Elam, J. W.

2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

29

Comparative band alignment of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited high-k dielectrics on gallium nitride  

SciTech Connect

Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films, HfO{sub 2} films, and HfO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stacked structures were deposited on n-type, Ga-face, GaN wafers using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). The wafers were first treated with a wet-chemical clean to remove organics and an in-situ combined H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} plasma at 650 Degree-Sign C to remove residual carbon contamination, resulting in a clean, oxygen-terminated surface. This cleaning process produced slightly upward band bending of 0.1 eV. Additional 650 Degree-Sign C annealing after plasma cleaning increased the upward band bending by 0.2 eV. After the initial clean, high-k oxide films were deposited using oxygen PEALD at 140 Degree-Sign C. The valence band and conduction band offsets (VBOs and CBOs) of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaN and HfO{sub 2}/GaN structures were deduced from in-situ x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS and UPS). The valence band offsets were determined to be 1.8 and 1.4 eV, while the deduced conduction band offsets were 1.3 and 1.0 eV, respectively. These values are compared with the theoretical calculations based on the electron affinity model and charge neutrality level model. Moreover, subsequent annealing had little effect on these offsets; however, the GaN band bending did change depending on the annealing and processing. An Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer was investigated as an interfacial passivation layer (IPL), which, as results suggest, may lead to improved stability, performance, and reliability of HfO{sub 2}/IPL/GaN structures. The VBOs were {approx}0.1 and 1.3 eV, while the deduced CBOs were 0.6 and 1.1 eV for HfO{sub 2} with respect to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and GaN, respectively.

Yang Jialing; Eller, Brianna S.; Zhu Chiyu; England, Chris; Nemanich, Robert J. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Band offsets of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} oxides deposited by atomic layer deposition technique on hydrogenated diamond  

SciTech Connect

High-k oxide insulators (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2}) have been deposited on a single crystalline hydrogenated diamond (H-diamond) epilayer by an atomic layer deposition technique at temperature as low as 120 Degree-Sign C. Interfacial electronic band structures are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Based on core-level binding energies and valence band maximum values, valence band offsets are found to be 2.9 {+-} 0.2 and 2.6 {+-} 0.2 eV for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/H-diamond and HfO{sub 2}/H-diamond heterojunctions, respectively. Band gaps of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} have been determined to be 7.2 {+-} 0.2 and 5.4 {+-} 0.2 eV by measuring O 1s energy loss spectra, respectively. Both the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/H-diamond and HfO{sub 2}/H-diamond heterojunctions are concluded to be type-II staggered band configurations with conduction band offsets of 1.2 {+-} 0.2 and 2.7 {+-} 0.2 eV, respectively.

Liu, J. W.; Liao, M. Y.; Imura, M. [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Koide, Y. [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Nanofabrication Platform, NIMS, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Center of Materials Research for Low Carbon Emission, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

31

Cl atom recombination on silicon oxy-chloride layers deposited on chamber walls in chlorine-oxygen plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Chlorine atom recombination coefficients were measured on silicon oxy-chloride surfaces deposited in a chlorine inductively coupled plasma (ICP) with varying oxygen concentrations, using the spinning wall technique. A small cylinder embedded in the walls of the plasma reactor chamber was rapidly rotated, repetitively exposing its surface to the plasma chamber and a differentially pumped analysis chamber housing a quadruple mass spectrometer for line-of-sight desorbing species detection, or an Auger electron spectrometer for in situ surface analysis. The spinning wall frequency was varied from 800 to 30 000 rpm resulting in a detection time, t (the time a point on the surface takes to rotate from plasma chamber to the position facing the mass or Auger spectrometer), of {approx}1-40 ms. Desorbing Cl{sub 2}, due to Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) Cl atom recombination on the reactor wall surfaces, was detected by the mass spectrometer and also by a pressure rise in one of the differentially pumped chambers. LH Cl recombination coefficients were calculated by extrapolating time-resolved desorption decay curves to t = 0. A silicon-covered electrode immersed in the plasma was either powered at 13 MHz, creating a dc bias of -119 V, or allowed to electrically float with no bias power. After long exposure to a Cl{sub 2} ICP without substrate bias, slow etching of the Si wafer coats the chamber and spinning wall surfaces with an Si-chloride layer with a relatively small amount of oxygen (due to a slow erosion of the quartz discharge tube) with a stoichiometry of Si:O:Cl = 1:0.38:0.38. On this low-oxygen-coverage surface, any Cl{sub 2} desorption after LH recombination of Cl was below the detection limit. Adding 5% O{sub 2} to the Cl{sub 2} feed gas stopped etching of the Si wafer (with no rf bias) and increased the oxygen content of the wall deposits, while decreasing the Cl content (Si:O:Cl = 1:1.09:0.08). Cl{sub 2} desorption was detectable for Cl recombination on the spinning wall surface coated with this layer, and a recombination probability of {gamma}{sub Cl} = 0.03 was obtained. After this surface was conditioned with a pure oxygen plasma for {approx}60 min, {gamma}{sub Cl} increased to 0.044 and the surface layer was slightly enriched in oxygen fraction (Si:O:Cl = 1:1.09:0.04). This behavior is attributed to a mechanism whereby Cl LH recombination occurs mainly on chlorinated oxygen sites on the silicon oxy-chloride surface, because of the weak Cl-O bond compared to the Cl-Si bond.

Khare, Rohit; Srivastava, Ashutosh; Donnelly, Vincent M. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

32

Atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 on V2O5 xerogel film for enhanced lithium-ion intercalation stability  

SciTech Connect

V2O5 xerogel films were fabricated by casting V2O5 sols onto fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates at room temperature. Five, ten and twenty atomic layers of Al2O3 were grown onto as-fabricated films respectively. The bare film and Al2O3-deposited films all exhibited hydrous V2O5 phase only. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study revealed increased surface charge-transfer resistance of V2O5 films as more Al2O3 atomic layers were deposited. Lithium-ion intercalation tests at 600 mAg_1 showed that bare V2O5 xerogel film possessed high initial discharge capacity of 219 mAhg_1 but suffered from severe capacity degradation, i.e., having only 136 mAhg_1 after 50 cycles. After deposition of ten atomic layers of Al2O3, the initial discharge capacity was 195 mAhg_1 but increased over cycles before stabilizing; after 50 cycles, the discharge capacity was as high as 225 mAhg_1. The noticeably improved cyclic stability of Al2O3-deposited V2O5 xerogel film could be attributed to the improved surface chemistry and enhanced mechanical strength. During repeated lithium-ion intercalation/de-intercalation, atomic layers of Al2O3 which were coated onto V2O5 surface could prevent V2O5 electrode dissolution into electrolyte by reducing direct contact between active electrode and electrolyte while at the same time acting as binder to maintain good mechanical contact between nanoparticles inside the film. VC 2012 American Vacuum Society.

Liu, Dawei; Liu, Yanyi; Candelaria, Stephanie L.; Cao, Guozhong; Liu, Jun; Jeong, Yoon-Ha

2012-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

33

Reduction of native oxides on InAs by atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

Thin high-{kappa} oxide films on InAs, formed by atomic layer deposition, are the key to achieve high-speed metal-oxide-semiconductor devices. We have studied the native oxide and the interface between InAs and 2 nm thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or HfO{sub 2} layers using synchrotron x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Both films lead to a strong oxide reduction, obtaining less than 10% of the native As-oxides and between 10% and 50% of the native In-oxides, depending on the deposition temperature. The ratio of native In- to As-oxides is determined to be 2:1. The exact composition and the influence of different oxidation states and suboxides is discussed in detail.

Timm, R.; Fian, A.; Hjort, M.; Thelander, C.; Lind, E.; Andersen, J. N.; Wernersson, L.-E.; Mikkelsen, A. [Department of Physics, Nanometer Structure Consortium, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, 22 100 Lund (Sweden)

2010-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

34

HfO2 Gate Dielectric on (NH4)2S Passivated (100) GaAs Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interface between hafnium oxide grown by atomic layer deposition and (100) GaAs treated with HCl cleaning and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S passivation has been characterized. Synchrotron radiation photoemission core level spectra indicated successful removal of the native oxides and formation of passivating sulfides on the GaAs surface. Layer-by-layer removal of the hafnia film revealed a small amount of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} formed at the interface during the dielectric deposition. Traces of arsenic and sulfur out-diffusion into the hafnia film were observed after a 450 C post-deposition anneal, and may be the origins for the electrically active defects. Transmission electron microscopy cross section images showed thicker HfO{sub 2} films for a given precursor exposure on S-treated GaAs versus the non-treated sample. In addition, the valence-band and the conduction-band offsets at the HfO{sub 2}/GaAs interface were deduced to be 3.18 eV and a range of 0.87-0.97 eV, respectively. It appears that HCl+(NH{sub 4})2{sub S} treatments provide a superior chemical passivation for GaAs and initial surface for ALD deposition.

Chen, P.T.; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.; Sun, Y.; /SLAC, SSRL; Kim, E.; McIntyre, P.C.; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.; Tsai, W.; Garner, M.; /Intel, Santa Clara; Pianetta, P.; /SLAC, SSRL; Nishi, Y.; /Stanford U., Elect. Eng. Dept.; Chui, C.O.; /UCLA

2007-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

35

In-situ Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Scattering Study On The Initial Structure Of Atomic Layer Deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to the excellent conformality of ALD, it is not only adopted thin film, but also has been adopted for the fabrication of nanostructures. The surface reaction of ALD process is dependent on the substrate condition, thus the study on initial stage of ALD process is crucial to achieve controllable film growth. By the way, because of quite low scattering intensity of initial ultra thin layer, the high flux Synchrotron Radiation is needed. Synchrotron radiation x-ray scattering measurements allow us to investigate the atomic structure evolution of a few nanometer thickness films at the initial growth stage, nondestructively. Ru and TaN ALD films were grown. The thickness, roughness, and electron density were estimated by X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR) analysis. The island structures and its coverage also were estimated.

Park, Y. J. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of); Department of MSE, POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. R. [Department of Physics, Soongsil univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Baik, S. [Department of MSE, POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of)

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

36

In situ atomic layer deposition and synchrotron-radiation photoemission study of Al2O3 on pristine n-GaAs(0 0 1)-4×6 surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work presents the in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and synchrotron-radiation photoemission studies for the morphological and interfacial chemical characterization of in situ atomic ... Keywords: Atomic layer deposition, GaAs, Molecular beam epitaxy, Synchrotron-radiation photoemission

Y. H. Chang; M. L. Huang; P. Chang; J. Y. Shen; B. R. Chen; C. L. Hsu; T. W. Pi; M. Hong; J. Kwo

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on GaSb using in situ hydrogen plasma exposure  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we study the effectiveness of hydrogen plasma surface treatments for improving the electrical properties of GaSb/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interfaces. Prior to atomic layer deposition of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric, p-GaSb surfaces were exposed to hydrogen plasmas in situ, with varying plasma powers, exposure times, and substrate temperatures. Good electrical interfaces, as indicated by capacitance-voltage measurements, were obtained using higher plasma powers, longer exposure times, and increasing substrate temperatures up to 250 Degree-Sign C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the most effective treatments result in decreased SbO{sub x}, decreased Sb, and increased GaO{sub x} content at the interface. This in situ hydrogen plasma surface preparation improves the semiconductor/insulator electrical interface without the use of wet chemical pretreatments and is a promising approach for enhancing the performance of Sb-based devices.

Ruppalt, Laura B.; Cleveland, Erin R.; Champlain, James G.; Prokes, Sharka M.; Brad Boos, J.; Park, Doewon; Bennett, Brian R. [Electronics Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

38

Effects of the oxygen precursor on the electrical and structural properties of HfO{sub 2} films grown by atomic layer deposition on Ge  

SciTech Connect

We report on the growth by atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2} films on HF-last treated Ge(001) substrates using HfCl{sub 4} as a Hf source and either O{sub 3} or H{sub 2}O as oxygen sources. The choice of the oxygen precursor strongly influences the structural, chemical, and electrical properties of the HfO{sub 2} films: Those grown using H{sub 2}O exhibit local epitaxial growth, a large amount of contaminants such as chlorine and carbon, and a large frequency dispersion of the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics. Films grown using O{sub 3} are good insulators and exhibit well-shaped C-V curves with a minimum frequency dispersion of the accumulation capacitance. Moreover, they are smoother, less crystallized, and with a lower contaminant content than those grown using H{sub 2}O. However, the use of O{sub 3} leads to the formation of a 2 nm thick layer, possibly GeO{sub x}, at the HfO{sub 2}/Ge interface.

Spiga, S.; Wiemer, C.; Tallarida, G.; Scarel, G.; Ferrari, S.; Seguini, G.; Fanciulli, M. [Laboratorio Nazionale MDM-INFM, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza, MI (Italy)

2005-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

39

Shape-selective catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch chemistry : atomic layer deposition of active catalytic metals. Activity report : January 1, 2005 - September 30, 2005.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory is carrying out a research program to create, prepare, and evaluate catalysts to promote Fischer-Tropsch (FT) chemistry - specifically, the reaction of hydrogen with carbon monoxide to form long-chain hydrocarbons. In addition to needing high activity, it is desirable that the catalysts have high selectivity and stability with respect to both mechanical strength and aging properties. The broad goal is to produce diesel fraction components and avoiding excess yields of both light hydrocarbons and heavy waxes. Originally the goal was to prepare shape-selective catalysts that would limit the formation of long-chain products and yet retain the active metal sites in a protected 'cage.' Such catalysts were prepared with silica-containing fractal cages. The activity was essentially the same as that of catalysts without the cages. We are currently awaiting follow-up experiments to determine the attrition strength of these catalysts. A second experimental stage was undertaken to prepare and evaluate active FT catalysts formed by atomic-layer deposition [ALD] of active components on supported membranes and particulate supports. The concept was that of depositing active metals (i.e. ruthenium, iron or cobalt) upon membranes with well defined flow channels of small diameter and length such that the catalytic activity and product molecular weight distribution could be controlled. In order to rapidly evaluate the catalytic membranes, the ALD coating processes were performed in an 'exploratory mode' in which ALD procedures from the literature appropriate for coating flat surfaces were applied to the high surface area membranes. Consequently, the Fe and Ru loadings in the membranes were likely to be smaller than those expected for complete monolayer coverage. In addition, there was likely to be significant variation in the Fe and Ru loading among the membranes due to difficulties in nucleating these materials on the aluminum oxide surfaces. The first series of experiments using coated membranes demonstrated that the technology needed further improvement. Specifically, observed catalytic FT activity was low. This low activity appeared to be due to: (1) low available surface area, (2) atomic deposition techniques that needed improvements, and (3) insufficient preconditioning of the catalyst surface prior to FT testing. Therefore, experimentation was expanded to the use of particulate silica supports having defined channels and reasonably high surface area. This later experimentation will be discussed in the next progress report. Subsequently, we plan to evaluate membranes after the ALD techniques are improved with a careful study to control and quantify the Fe and Ru loadings. The preconditioning of these surfaces will also be further developed. (A number of improvements have been made with particulate supports; they will be discussed in the subsequent report.) In support of the above, there was an opportunity to undertake a short study of cobalt/promoter/support interaction using the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne. Five catalysts and a reference cobalt oxide were characterized during a temperature programmed EXAFS/XANES experimental study with the combined effort of Argonne and the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) of the University of Kentucky. This project was completed, and it resulted in an extensive understanding of the preconditioning step of reducing Co-containing FT catalysts. A copy of the resulting manuscript has been submitted and accepted for publication. A similar project was undertaken with iron-containing FT catalysts; the data is currently being studied.

Cronauer, D. C. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

40

Atomic layer deposition of tin oxide with nitric oxide as an oxidant gas Jaeyeong Heo, Sang Bok Kim and Roy G. Gordon*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to applications of SnO2 such as energy- conserving windows for buildings,3 gas sensors,4,5 and transparent efficiency of the cells.6­11 The authors recently reported a successful growth of SnO2 by atomic layer process is expected to be widely useful for coating nanostructures with high surface areas and extremely

Gordon, Roy

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41

Atomic Layer Deposition of ZnO on Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes and Its Use for Synthesis of CNT–ZnO Heterostructures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at the atomic level. It has been applied to deposit a variety of materials including oxides and metals on various nonplanar high-aspect-ratio substrates [8]. ALD on CNTs has been an interesting topic, but there are rela- tively few reports compared to ALD... at *560 and *630 nm, a feature similar to the PL of ZnO nanowire reported by Fan et al. [21]. Emission in the green spectra range is commonly observed in bulk and nanostructure ZnO and the origin is still under debate [22, 23]. The orange–red emission...

2010-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

42

Cathode encapsulation of organic light emitting diodes by atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/a-SiN{sub x}:H stacks  

SciTech Connect

Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films synthesized by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) at room temperature (25 deg. C) have been tested as water vapor permeation barriers for organic light emitting diode devices. Silicon nitride films (a-SiN{sub x}:H) deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition served as reference and were used to develop Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/a-SiN{sub x}:H stacks. On the basis of Ca test measurements, a very low intrinsic water vapor transmission rate of {<=} 2 x 10{sup -6} g m{sup -2} day{sup -1} and 4 x 10{sup -6} g m{sup -2} day{sup -1} (20 deg. C/50% relative humidity) were found for 20-40 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 300 nm a-SiN{sub x}:H films, respectively. The cathode particle coverage was a factor of 4 better for the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films compared to the a-SiN{sub x}:H films and an average of 0.12 defects per cm{sup 2} was obtained for a stack consisting of three barrier layers (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/a-SiN{sub x}:H/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}).

Keuning, W.; Weijer, P. van de; Lifka, H.; Kessels, W. M. M.; Creatore, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Philips Research Laboratories, High Tech Campus 4, P.O. Box WAG12, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

43

Charge trapping characteristics of Au nanocrystals embedded in remote plasma atomic layer-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film as the tunnel and blocking oxides for nonvolatile memory applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Remote plasma atomic layer deposited (RPALD) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were investigated to apply as tunnel and blocking layers in the metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor memory utilizing Au nanocrystals (NCs) for nonvolatile memory applications. The interface stability of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film deposited by RPALD was studied to observe the effects of remote plasma on the interface. The interface formed during RPALD process has high oxidation states such as Si{sup +3} and Si{sup +4}, indicating that RPALD process can grow more stable interface which has a small amount of fixed oxide trap charge. The significant memory characteristics were also observed in this memory device through the electrical measurement. The memory device exhibited a relatively large memory window of 5.6 V under a 10/-10 V program/erase voltage and also showed the relatively fast programming/erasing speed and a competitive retention characteristic after 10{sup 4} s. These results indicate that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited via RPALD can be applied as the tunnel and blocking oxides for next-generation flash memory devices.

Lee, Jaesang; Kim, Hyungchul; Park, Taeyong; Ko, Youngbin; Ryu, Jaehun; Jeon, Heeyoung; Park, Jingyu; Jeon, Hyeongtag [Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791, Korea and R and D Division, Hynix Semiconductor, Inc., Icheon, Gyeonggi-do 467-701 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791, Korea and R and D Division, Hynix Semiconductor, Inc., Icheon, Gyeonggi-do 467-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791, Korea and Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

44

Interfacial study and energy-band alignment of annealed Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films prepared by atomic layer deposition on 4H-SiC  

SciTech Connect

Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were prepared by atomic layer deposition using trimethylaluminum and H{sub 2}O at 250 Degree-Sign C on 4H-SiC substrates and annealed at 1000 Degree-Sign C in N{sub 2}. The as-deposited and annealed Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were measured and analyzed near the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiC interfaces by using an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with etching processing. The XPS results showed that as-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were O-rich and converted to anhydride Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films after annealed at 1000 Degree-Sign C in N{sub 2}. Si suboxides were found both at as-deposited and annealed Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiC interfaces. Energy band shift between Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 4H-SiC was found after annealing. The conduction band offsets of as-grown and annealed Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiC were 1.90 and 1.53 eV, respectively. These results demonstrated that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be a good candidate to be applied in SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor devices.

Zhang Feng; Sun Guosheng; Zeng Yiping [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Material Sciences, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Material Science Center, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zheng Liu; Liu Shengbei; Liu Bin; Dong Lin; Wang Lei; Zhao Wanshun; Liu Xingfang; Yan Guoguo; Tian Lixin [Material Science Center, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

45

Realization of high-quality HfO{sub 2} on In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As by in-situ atomic-layer-deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High {kappa} dielectric of HfAlO/HfO{sub 2} was an in-situ atomic-layer-deposited directly on molecular beam epitaxy grown In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As surface without using pre-treatments or interfacial passivation layers, where HfAlO (HfO{sub 2}:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {approx} 4:1) with high re-crystallization temperature was employed as the top oxide layer. The HfAlO ({approx}4.5 nm)/HfO{sub 2} (0.8 nm)/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As metal oxide semiconductor capacitors have exhibited an oxide/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As interface free of arsenic-related defective bonding, thermodynamic stability at 800 deg. C, and low leakage current densities of oxide thickness of less than 1 nm has been achieved by reducing the HfAlO thickness to {approx}2.7 nm with the same initial HfO{sub 2} thickness of {approx}0.8 nm.

Lin, T. D.; Hong, M. [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chang, Y. H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lin, C. A.; Huang, M. L.; Lee, W. C. [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Kwo, J. [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

2012-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

46

Layered Atom Arrangements in Complex Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this report, we develop an atom layer stacking model to describe systematically the crystal structures of complex materials. To illustrate the concepts, we consider a sequence of oxide compounds in which the metal cations progress in oxidation state from monovalent (M{sup 1+}) to tetravalent (M{sup 4+}). We use concepts relating to geometric subdivisions of a triangular atom net to describe the layered atom patterns in these compounds (concepts originally proposed by Shuichi Iida). We demonstrate that as a function of increasing oxidation state (from M{sup 1+} to M{sup 4+}), the layer stacking motifs used to generate each successive structure (specifically, motifs along a 3 symmetry axis), progress through the following sequence: MMO, MO, M{sub r}O, MO{sub r/s}O{sub u/v}, MOO (where M and O represent fully dense triangular atom nets and r/s and u/v are fractions used to describe partially filled triangular atom nets). We also develop complete crystallographic descriptions for the compounds in our oxidation sequence using trigonal space group R{bar 3}.

K.E. Sikafus; R.W.Grimes; S.M.Corish; A.R. Cleave; M.Tang; C.R.Stanek; B.P. Uberuaga; J.A.Valdez

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

47

Nano-soldering to single atomic layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A simple technique to solder submicron sized, ohmic contacts to nanostructures has been disclosed. The technique has several advantages over standard electron beam lithography methods, which are complex, costly, and can contaminate samples. To demonstrate the soldering technique graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon, has been contacted, and low- and high-field electronic transport properties have been measured.

Girit, Caglar O. (Berkeley, CA); Zettl, Alexander K. (Kensington, CA)

2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

48

Effective passivation of In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As by HfO{sub 2} surpassing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} via in-situ atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect

High {kappa} gate dielectrics of HfO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were deposited on molecular beam epitaxy-grown In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As pristine surface using in-situ atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) without any surface treatment or passivation layer. The ALD-HfO{sub 2}/p-In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As interface showed notable reduction in the interfacial density of states (D{sub it}), deduced from quasi-static capacitance-voltage and conductance-voltage (G-V) at room temperature and 100 Degree-Sign C. More significantly, the midgap peak commonly observed in the D{sub it}(E) of ALD-oxides/In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As is now greatly diminished. The midgap D{sub it} value decreases from {>=}15 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} eV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} for ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to {approx}2-4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} eV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} for ALD-HfO{sub 2}. Further, thermal stability at 850 Degree-Sign C was achieved in the HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As, whereas C-V characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/p-In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As degraded after the high temperature annealing. From in-situ x-ray photoelectron spectra, the AsO{sub x}, which is not the oxidized state from the native oxide, but is an induced state from adsorption of trimethylaluminum and H{sub 2}O, was found at the ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As interface, while that was not detected at the ALD-HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As interface.

Chang, Y. H.; Chiang, T. H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lin, C. A.; Liu, Y. T.; Lin, H. Y.; Huang, M. L.; Kwo, J. [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lin, T. D.; Hong, M. [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Pi, T. W. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

49

Environmental Performance Characterization of Atomic Layer Deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

temperature can only save 3~5% of total energy consumption.KJ per cycle. Although energy consumption of ALD process isfeatured with intensive energy consumption. For the studied

Yuan, Chris; Dornfeld, David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Pulsed atomic layer epitaxy of quaternary AlInGaN layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this letter, we report on a material deposition scheme for quaternary Al{sub x}In{sub y}Ga{sub 1-x--y}N layers using a pulsed atomic layer epitaxy (PALE) technique. The PALE approach allows accurate control of the quaternary layer composition and thickness by simply changing the number of aluminum, indium, and gallium pulses in a unit cell and the number of unit cell repeats. Using PALE, AlInGaN layers with Al mole fractions in excess of 40% and strong room-temperature photoluminescence peaks at 280 nm can easily be grown even at temperatures lower than 800{sup o}C. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Zhang, J.; Kuokstis, E.; Fareed, Q.; Wang, H.; Yang, J.; Simin, G.; Asif Khan, M.; Gaska, R.; Shur, M.

2001-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

51

Atom Nano-lithography with Multi-layer Light Masks: Particle Optics Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the focusing of atoms by multiple layers of standing light waves in the context of atom lithography. In particular, atomic localization by a double-layer light mask is examined using the optimal squeezing approach. Operation of the focusing setup is analyzed both in the paraxial approximation and in the regime of nonlinear spatial squeezing for the thin-thin as well as thin-thick atom lens combinations. It is shown that the optimized double light mask may considerably reduce the imaging problems, improve the quality of focusing and enhance the contrast ratio of the deposited structures.

R. Arun; I. Sh. Averbukh; T. Pfau

2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

52

Passivation of In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As/ZrO{sub 2} interfaces by AlN atomic layer deposition process  

SciTech Connect

Reducing defects at III-V/high-k interfaces is essential for optimizing devices built on these materials. Here, the role of an interfacial AlN process at In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As/ZrO{sub 2} interfaces is investigated by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) and capacitance/voltage (C-V) measurements. C-V measurements show a significant reduction in the density of interface traps with the interfacial AlN process and a capping TiN layer. To elucidate the specific role of the AlN process, blanket films with various deposition processes are compared. The AlN process alone (without subsequent dielectric deposition) reduces InGaAs oxide levels below the HAXPES detection limit, even though the AlN is ultimately found to be oxidized into AlO{sub x} with only trace N incorporation, yet AlN passivation provides a lower D{sub it} (density of interface traps) when compared with an H{sub 2}O-based Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposition. The AlN process does not passivate against re-oxidation of the InGaAs during an O{sub 3} based ZrO{sub 2} deposition process, but it does provide passivation against As-As development during subsequent TiN deposition. The role of chemical defects in the C-V characteristics is also discussed.

Weiland, C.; Woick, J. C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Rumaiz, A. K. [National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Price, J.; Lysaght, P. [SEMATECH, 257 Fuller Road, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

2013-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

53

Soldering to a single atomic layer - Lawrence Berkeley National ...  

Soldering to a single atomic layer Ça?lar Ö. ... age V bg, where the contact resistance R c is extracted from the ?ts Fig. 3 a , dashed black lines .

54

Atomic-Layer Engineering of Oxide Superconductors  

SciTech Connect

Molecular beam epitaxy technique has enabled synthesis of atomically smooth thin films, multilayers, and superlattices of cuprates and other complex oxides. Such heterostructures show high temperature superconductivity and enable novel experiments that probe the basic physics of this phenomenon. For example, it was established that high temperature superconductivity and anti-ferromagnetic phases separate on Angstrom scale, while the pseudo-gap state apparently mixes with high temperature superconductivity over an anomalously large length scale (the 'Giant Proximity Effect'). We review some recent experiments on such films and superlattices, including X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, angle-resolved time of flight ion scattering and recoil spectroscopy, transport measurements, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, resonant X-ray scattering, low-energy muon spin resonance, and ultrafast photo-induced reflection high energy electron diffraction. The results include an unambiguous demonstration of strong coupling of in-plane charge excitations to out-of-plane lattice vibrations, a discovery of interface high temperature superconductivity that occurs in a single CuO{sub 2} plane, evidence for local pairs, and establishing tight limits on the temperature range of superconducting fluctuations.

Bozovic I.; Bollinger, A.T.; Eckstein, J.N.; Dubuis, G.; Pavuna, D.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Synchrotron Radiation Photoemission Spectroscopic Study of Band Offsets and Interface Self-cleaning by Atomic Layer Deposited HfO2 on In0.53Ga0.47As and In0.52Al0.48As  

SciTech Connect

The Synchrotron Radiation Photoemission Spectroscopic (SRPES) study was conducted to (a) investigate the surface chemistry of In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As and In{sub 0.52}Al{sub 0.48}As post chemical and thermal treatments, (b) construct band diagram and (c) investigate the interface property of HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As and HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.52}Al{sub 0.48}As. Dilute HCl and HF etch remove native oxides on In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As and In{sub 0.52}Al{sub 0.47}As, whereas in-situ vacuum annealing removes surface arsenic pile-up. After the atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2}, native oxides were considerably reduced compared to that in as-received epi-layers, strongly suggesting the self-clean mechanism. Valence and conduction band offsets are measured to be 3.37 {+-} 0.1eV, 1.80 {+-} 0.3eV for In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As and 3.00 {+-} 0.1eV, 1.47 {+-} 0.3eV for In{sub 0.52}Al{sub 0.47}As, respectively.

Kobayashi, Masaharu; /SLAC, SSRL; Chen, P.T.; Sun, Y.; Goel, N.; Majhi, P.; Garner, M; Tsai, W.; Pianetta, P.; Nishi, Y.; /SLAC, SSRL

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

56

Chemical nature of the passivation layer depending on the oxidizing agent in Gd2O3/GeO2/Ge stacks grown by molecular beam deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Ge-based metal oxide semiconductor technology, the insertion of a passivation layer seems to be crucial in unpinning the Fermi level at the interface and in reducing the amount of interface defects. GeO"2 was obtained by atomic oxygen (AO), molecular ... Keywords: Gadolinium oxide, Germanium, Molecular beam deposition, Passivation layer, Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry

A. Lamperti; S. Baldovino; A. Molle; M. Fanciulli

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Preparation of Noble Metal ...  

Electricity Transmission; Energy Analysis; Energy Storage; ... as particle distribution within the substrate and on the surface of complex substrates ...

58

Atomic Layer Deposition at the Stanford Nanofabrication Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;Maintenance Schedule · Savannah ­ Reset pressure gauge (2x/yr) ­ Pump rebuild (1/yr); change oil

59

Oxford FlexAL Atomic Layer Deposition Users Manual  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and polymers Passivation of crystal silicon solar cells Highly ... a) Control and status panels for the ... Each Control and status panel has associated ...

2013-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

60

Atomic Layer Deposition of TiO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed on TiO2-coated nanoporous alumina membranes using an S4700 microscope (Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan) with ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic layer deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Preparation of Noble Metal Catalysts  

4740 Walnut Street Suite 100 ... activated by UV light and break bonds in the contaminant to make it non-toxic. TiO 2 provides many benefits in use, ...

62

Surfaces Functionalization by Atomic Layer Deposition: From Supercondu...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a broad variety of subjects: from understanding the surface dissipation of superconductors under strong RF field to explore the synthesis by ALD of superconducting thin...

63

Atomic Layer Deposition of Conformal Thin Films for Medical ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical Synthesis and Structural Analysis of Gd2O3 Nanoparticles for Optical Applications · Complex Crystallization Dynamics in Amorphous Germanium ...

64

Integrated Sustainability Analysis of Atomic Layer Deposition for Microelectronics Manufacturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from the energy production and supply industry. Forand supply industry. In this section, we conduct a detailed energy ?

Yuan, Chris Yingchun; David Dornfeld

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Method of depositing multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications, comprising a multi-layer resistive carbon film. The multi-layered film of the present invention is comprised of at least two layers of a resistive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, such that the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure comprises a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film comprises a plurality of carbon layers, wherein adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced. Field emitters made according the present invention display improved electron emission characteristics in comparison to conventional field emitter materials.

Sullivan, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Friedmann, Thomas A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Properties of ALD HfTaxOy high-k layers deposited on chemical silicon oxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HfTa"xO"y high-k dielectric layers with different compositions were deposited using ALD on 1nm SiO"2 generated by ozone based cleaning of 200mm Si(100) surface. Physical characterization of blanket layers and C-V mapping demonstrates that the ALD layers ...

C. Zhao; T. Witters; P. Breimer; J. Maes; M. Caymax; S. De Gendt

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Interfacial reactions of Gd- and Nb-oxide based high-k layers deposited by aqueous chemical solution deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, ultrathin layers of GdOx, NbOx and GdNbOx, deposited with ACSD have been investigated. Because of the high temperature anneals utilized in the process flow of electronic devices, interactions of the deposited high-k materials and the substrate ... Keywords: ACSD, Ellipsometry, GATR-FTIR, GdNbOx, GdOx, HT-XRD, High temperature anneal, High-k, Interlayer formation, NbOx, Thickness variation

D. Dewulf; N. Peys; S. Van Elshocht; G. Rampelberg; C. Detavernier; S. De Gendt; A. Hardy; M. K. Van Bael

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Single- and few-layer graphene by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition on nickel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) process is used to fabricate graphene based films consisting of one to several graphene layers across their area. Polycrystalline Ni thin films are used and the graphene ...

Reina Ceeco, Alfonso

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Atomic-level investigation of the growth of Si/Ge by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Si and Ge films can be prepared under ultrahigh vacuum conditions by chemical vapor deposition using disilane and digermane as source gases. These gases offer a high sticking probability, and are suitable for atomic layer epitaxy. Using synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy, we have examined the surface processes associated with the heteroepitaxial growth of Ge/Si. The measured surface-induced shifts and chemical shifts of the Si 2p and Ge 3d core levels allow us to identify the surface species and to determine the surface chemical composition, and this information is correlated with the atomic features observed by scanning tunneling microscopy. Issues related to precursor dissociation, attachment to dangling bonds, diffusion, surface segregation, growth morphology, and pyrolytic reaction pathways will be discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Vacuum Society.}

Lin, D. [Institute of Physics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, Republic of (China)] [Institute of Physics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, Republic of (China); Miller, T.; Chiang, T. [Department of Physics and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

In-situ monitoring of electron beam induced deposition by atomic force microscopy in a scanning electron microscope  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new type of atomic force microscope is proposed for atomic force microscopic analysis inside a scanning electron microscope. We attached a piezoresisitive atomic force microscopic cantilever to a micro manipulator to achieve a compact and guidable ... Keywords: atomic force, electron beam induced deposition, in-situ monitoring, local gas injection, micro manipulator, microscope

S. Bauerdick; C. Burkhardt; R. Rudorf; W. Barth; V. Bucher; W. Nisch

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S-based buffer layer deposition for solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides CBD ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S and spray deposited ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S buffer layers prepared from a solution of zinc salt, thiourea and ammonium hydroxide dissolved in a non-aqueous/aqueous solvent mixture or in 100% non-aqueous solvent. Non-aqueous solvents useful in the invention include methanol, isopropanol and triethyl-amine. One-step deposition procedures are described for CIS, CIGS and other solar cell devices.

Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO)

2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

72

CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS QUENCHER AND STEAM ATOMIZED SCRUBBER DEPOSIT SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results from the characterization of deposits from the inlets of the primary off-gas Quencher and Steam Atomized Scrubber (SAS) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), as requested by a technical assistance request. DWPF requested elemental analysis and compound identification to help determine the potential causes for the substance formation. This information will be fed into Savannah River National Laboratory modeling programs to determine if there is a way to decrease the formation of the deposits. The general approach to the characterization of these samples included x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results found in this report: (1) The deposits are not high level waste glass from the DWPF melt pool based on comparison of the compositions of deposits to the composition of a sample of glass taken from the pour stream of the melter during processing of Sludge Batch 3. (2) Chemical composition results suggest that the deposits are probably a combination of sludge and frit particles entrained in the off-gas. (3) Gamma emitters, such as Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-154, Am-241, and Am-243 were detected in both the Quencher and SAS samples with Cs-137 having the highest concentration of the gamma emitters. (4) No evidence existed for accumulation of fissile material (U-233, U-235, and Pu-239) relative to Fe in either deposit. (5) XRD results indicated both samples were primarily amorphorous and contained some crystals of the iron oxides, hematite and magnetite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe(Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4})), along with sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}). The other main crystalline compound in the SAS deposit was mercurous chloride. The main crystalline compound in the Quencher deposit was a uranium oxide compound. These are all sludge components. (6) SEM analysis of the Quencher deposit revealed crystalline uranium compounds within the sample. SEM analysis of the SAS sample could not be performed due to the presence of a significant concentration of Hg in the sample. (7) Essentially all the Na and the S in the off-gas samples were soluble in water. (8) The main soluble anion was NO{sub 3}{sup -} with SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} being second. (9) In contrast to the results for the off-gas deposits analyzed in 2003, soluble compounds of fluoride and chloride were detected; however, their concentrations in the Quencher and SAS deposits were less than one weight percent. (10) The results suggest that the S is primarily in the deposits as the sulfate anion.

Zeigler, K; Ned Bibler, N

2007-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

73

In-situ deposition of high-k dielectrics on III-V compound semiconductor in MOCVD system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In situ deposition of high-k materials to passivate the GaAs in metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system was well demonstrated. Both atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods ...

Cheng, Cheng-Wei, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Fabricating amorphous silicon solar cells by varying the temperature _of the substrate during deposition of the amorphous silicon layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved process for fabricating amorphous silicon solar cells in which the temperature of the substrate is varied during the deposition of the amorphous silicon layer is described. Solar cells manufactured in accordance with this process are shown to have increased efficiencies and fill factors when compared to solar cells manufactured with a constant substrate temperature during deposition of the amorphous silicon layer.

Carlson, David E. (Yardley, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

The Effect of Growth Parameters on the Intrinsic Properties of Large-Area Single Layer Graphene Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition on Cu  

SciTech Connect

We present a comprehensive study of the parameter space for single layer graphene growth by chemical vapor deposition on Cu. The temperature is the most widely recognized parameter in single layer graphene growth. We show that the methane-to-hydrogen ratio and the growth pressure also are critical parameters that affect the structural perfection and the cleanliness of graphene. The optimal conditions for suppressing double and multilayer graphene growth occur near 1000 C, 1:20 methane-to-hydrogen ratio, and a total pressure in the range from 0.5 to 1 Torr. Raman mapping of a 40x30 m2 area shows single layer domains with 5-10 m linear dimensions. Atomic resolution imaging of suspended graphene by aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy shows that the cleanest single layer graphene consists of areas of 10-15 nm linear dimensions and smaller patches of residual contamination that was undetected by other characterization methods.

Regmi, Murari [ORNL; Chisholm, Matthew F [ORNL; Eres, Gyula [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Fe/Si(001) Ferromagnetic Layers: Reactivity, Local Atomic Structure and Magnetism  

SciTech Connect

Ultrathin ferromagnetic Fe layers on Si(001) have recently been synthesized using the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technique, and their structural and magnetic properties, as well as their interface reactivity have been investigated. The study was undertaken as function of the amount of Fe deposited and of substrate temperature. The interface reactivity was characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The surface structure was characterized by low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). The magnetism was investigated by magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE). A higher deposition temperature stabilizes a better surface ordering, but it also enhances Fe and Si interdiffusion and it therefore decreases the magnetism. Despite the rapid disappearance of the long range order with Fe deposition at room temperature, the material exhibits a significant uniaxial in-plane magnetic anisotropy. For the Fe deposition performed at high temperature (500 deg. C), a weak ferromagnetism is still observed, with saturation magnetization of about 10% of the value obtained previously. MOKE studies allowed inferring the main properties of the distinct formed layers.

Lungu, G. A.; Costescu, R. M.; Husanu, M. A.; Gheorghe, N. G. [National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor 105bis, 077125 Magurele-Ilfov (Romania)

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

77

Graphene layer growth on silicon substrates with nickel film by pulse arc plasma deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon layer has been grown on a Ni/SiO{sub 2}/Si(111) substrate under high vacuum pressure by pulse arc plasma deposition. From the results of Raman spectroscopy for the sample, it is found that graphene was formed by ex-situ annealing of sample grown at room temperature. Furthermore, for the sample grown at high temperature, graphene formation was shown and optimum temperature was around 1000 Degree-Sign C. Transmission electron microscopy observation of the sample suggests that the graphene was grown from step site caused by grain of Ni film. The results show that the pulse arc plasma technique has the possibility for acquiring homogenous graphene layer with controlled layer thickness.

Fujita, K.; Banno, K.; Aryal, H. R.; Egawa, T. [Research Center for Nano-Device and System, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-Ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

78

Formation of manganese {delta}-doped atomic layer in wurtzite GaN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe the formation of a {delta}-doped manganese layer embedded within c-plane wurtzite gallium nitride using a special molecular beam epitaxy growth process. Manganese is first deposited on the gallium-poor GaN (0001) surface, forming a {radical}(3) Multiplication-Sign {radical}(3)-R30 Degree-Sign reconstructed phase. This well-defined surface reconstruction is then nitrided using plasma nitridation, and gallium nitride is overgrown. The manganese content of the {radical}(3) Multiplication-Sign {radical}(3)-R30 Degree-Sign phase, namely one Mn per each {radical}(3) Multiplication-Sign {radical}(3)-R30 Degree-Sign unit cell, implies that the MnGaN alloy layer has a Mn concentration of up to 33%. The structure and chemical content of the surface are monitored beginning from the initial growth stage up through the overgrowth of 20 additional monolayers (MLs) of GaN. An exponential-like drop-off of the Mn signal with increasing GaN monolayers, as measured by Auger electron spectroscopy, indicates that the highly concentrated Mn layer remains at the {delta}-doped interface. A model of the resultant {delta}-doped structure is formulated based on the experimental data, and implications for possible spintronic applications are discussed.

Shi Meng; Chinchore, Abhijit; Wang Kangkang; Mandru, Andrada-Oana; Liu Yinghao; Smith, Arthur R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Plasma-enhanced and thermal atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using dimethylaluminum isopropoxide, [Al(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}({mu}-O{sup i}Pr)]{sub 2}, as an alternative aluminum precursor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have been investigating the use of [Al(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}({mu}-O{sup i}Pr)]{sub 2} (DMAI) as an alternative Al precursor to [Al(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}] (TMA) for remote plasma-enhanced and thermal ALD over wide temperature ranges of 25-400 and 100-400 deg. C, respectively. The growth per cycle (GPC) obtained using in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry for plasma-enhanced ALD was 0.7-0.9 A/cycle, generally lower than the >0.9 A/cycle afforded by TMA. In contrast, the thermal process gave a higher GPC than TMA above 250 deg. C, but below this temperature, the GPC decreased rapidly with decreasing temperature. Quadrupole mass spectrometry data confirmed that both CH{sub 4} and HO{sup i}Pr were formed during the DMAI dose for both the plasma-enhanced and thermal processes. CH{sub 4} and HO{sup i}Pr were also formed during the H{sub 2}O dose but combustion-like products (CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O) were observed during the O{sub 2} plasma dose. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry showed that, for temperatures >100 deg. C and >200 deg. C for plasma-enhanced and thermal ALD, respectively, films from DMAI had an O/Al ratio of 1.5-1.6, a H content of {approx}5 at. % and mass densities of 2.7-3.0 g cm{sup -3}. The film compositions afforded from DMAI were comparable to those from TMA at deposition temperatures {>=}150 deg. C At lower temperatures, there were differences in O, H, and C incorporation. 30 nm thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films from the plasma-enhanced ALD of DMAI were found to passivate n- and p-type Si floatzone wafers ({approx}3.5 and {approx}2 {Omega} cm, respectively) with effective carrier lifetimes comparable to those obtained using TMA. Surface recombination velocities of < 3 and < 6 cm s{sup -1} were obtained for the n- and p-type Si, respectively. Using these results, the film properties obtained using DMAI and TMA are compared and the mechanisms for the plasma-enhanced and thermal ALD using DMAI are discussed.

Potts, Stephen E.; Dingemans, Gijs; Lachaud, Christophe; Kessels, W. M. M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P. O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Air Liquide Research and Development, 1 Chemin de la Porte des Loges, BP 126, 78345 Jouy-en-Josas (France); Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P. O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

80

Large-Area Quality Control of Atomically-Thin Layered Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

vapor deposition (LPCVD), on doped Si. We transferred the HOPG pillars by applying a large compression

Nolen, Craig Merten

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic layer deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Atmospheric boundary layer parameters necessary for calculation of gas and particle deposition velocities were directly measured from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Results Atmospheric boundary layer parameters necessary for calculation of gas and particle hourly gas and particle deposition velocities. Acknowledgements · Staffs at the Lost Dutchman State Park, Desert Botanical Garden, and White Tank Mountain Regional Park. · Fred Peña, Department of Chemical

Hall, Sharon J.

82

Biaxially-Textured Photovoltaic Film Crystal Silicon on Ion Beam Assisted Deposition CaF2 Seed Layers on Glass  

SciTech Connect

We grow biaxially textured heteroepitaxial crystal silicon (c-Si) films on display glass as a low-cost photovoltaic material. We first fabricate textured CaF{sub 2} seed layers using ion-beam assisted deposition, then coat the CaF{sub 2} with a thin, evaporated epitaxial Ge buffer and finally deposit heteroepitaxial silicon on the Ge. The silicon is grown by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition, a high-rate, scalable epitaxy technology. Electron and X-ray diffraction confirm the biaxial texture of the CaF{sub 2} and epitaxial growth of the subsequent layers. Transmission electron microscopy reveals columnar silicon grains about 500 nm across. We fabricate a proof-of-concept epitaxial film c-Si solar cell with an open circuit voltage of 375 mV that is limited by minority carrier lifetime.

Groves, J. R.; Li, J. B.; Clemens, B. M.; LaSalvia, V.; Hasoon, F.; Branz, H. M.; Teplin, C. W.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Characterization of atomic layer deposited nanoscale structure on dense dielectric substrates by X-ray reflectivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Interfaces play a crucial role in determining the ultimate properties of nanoscale structures. However, the characterization of such structures is difficult, as the interface can no longer be defined as the separation between two materials. The high ... Keywords: ALD, Density, Dielectrics, XRR

Y. Travaly; J. Schuhmacher; A. Martin Hoyas; T. Abell; V. Sutcliffe; A. M. Jonas; M. Van Hove; K. Maex

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Atomic Layer Deposition of Ultrathin Copper Metal Films from a Liquid Copper(I) Amidinate Precursor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

simulation results for a high temperature pyrolysis environment show that MB radicals are mainly produced molecules in flame simulations2-4 due to its essential chemical structural features, namely, RsC(dO)Os -CH3) Verevkin, S. P.; Beckhaus, H.-D.; Belen'kaja, R. S.; Rakus, K.; Ruchardt, C. Thermochim. Acta 1996, 279, 47

Gordon, Roy

85

Mechanisms of Atomic Layer Deposition on Substrates with Ultrahigh Aspect Ratios  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as a very promising method for controlled coating of the inner surfaces of monolithic nanoporous aerogel (AG suited for coating substrates with ultrahigh aspect ratios (J103), including nanoporous solids. Here, we study the ALD of Cu and Cu3N on the inner surfaces of low-density nanoporous silica aerogel monoliths

Gordon, Roy

86

X-ray mirrors on flexible polymer substrates fabricated by atomic layer deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, WF6, and disilane, Si2H6. Silicon from Si2H6 serves as a sacrificial species on the surface to reduce

George, Steven M.

87

OPTIMIZED SYNTHESIS BY CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF ATOMIC LAYER HEXAGONAL BORON NITRIDE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and optical properties such as high mobility electron transistors and far ultraviolet light emitting diodes

Mellor-Crummey, John

88

Surface Reactivity of Copper Precursors for Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) on Metal Surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

110) surfaces is described; butane and a small amidine were110) surface. No butene is produced at lower butane, 3 L;only some butane is desorption observed (58 amu). However,

MA, QIANG

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 and ZnO at Atmospheric Pressure ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... a unique flow tube ALD reactor that operates at pressures between ~1 and 760 Torr. .... Scaling Theory of Continuum Dislocation Dynamics in Two and Three ...

90

G26 Effect of Atomic Layer Deposited NiThin Films on the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A37 Unconventional Method of Nitriding of 316l Austenitic Steel · A38 Role of ..... I24 The Study of Cotton Finishing by Artemsia Argyi Oil Microcapsules.

91

atomic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

theory and fundamental quantum mechanics In addition to research on hadronic and nuclear physics, we also conduct research in atomic physics, neutron physics, and quantum...

92

Laser-induced fluorescence measurements and kinetic analysis of Si atom formation in a rotating disk chemical vapor deposition reactor  

SciTech Connect

An extensive set of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements of Si atoms during the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of silicon from silane and disilane in a research rotating disk reactor are presented. The experimental results are compared in detail with predictions from a numerical model of CVD from silane and disilane that treats the fluid flow coupled to gas-phase and gas-surface chemistry. The comparisons showed that the unimolecular decomposition of SiH[sub 2] could not account for the observed gas-phase Si atom density profiles. The H[sub 3]SiSiH [leftrightarrow] Si + SiH[sub 4] and H[sub 3]SiSiH + SiH[sub 2] [leftrightarrow] Si + Si[sub 2]H[sub 6] reactions are proposed as the primary Si atom production routes. The model is in good agreement with the measured shapes of the Si atom profiles and the trends in Si atom density with susceptor temperature, pressure, and reactant gas mixture. 33 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

Ho, P.; Coltrin, M.E.; Breiland, W.G. (Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1994-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

93

An ultra-low energy (30-200 eV) ion-atomic beam source for ion-beam-assisted deposition in ultrahigh vacuum  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes the design and construction of an ion-atomic beam source with an optimized generation of ions for ion-beam-assisted deposition under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. The source combines an effusion cell and an electron impact ion source and produces ion beams with ultra-low energies in the range from 30 eV to 200 eV. Decreasing ion beam energy to hyperthermal values ({approx_equal}10{sup 1} eV) without loosing optimum ionization conditions has been mainly achieved by the incorporation of an ionization chamber with a grid transparent enough for electron and ion beams. In this way the energy and current density of nitrogen ion beams in the order of 10{sup 1} eV and 10{sup 1} nA/cm{sup 2}, respectively, have been achieved. The source is capable of growing ultrathin layers or nanostructures at ultra-low energies with a growth rate of several MLs/h. The ion-atomic beam source will be preferentially applied for the synthesis of GaN under UHV conditions.

Mach, Jindrich; Kolibal, Miroslav; Sikola, Tomas [Institute of Physical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC BUT, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 10, 61669 Brno (Czech Republic); Samoril, Tomas; Voborny, Stanislav; Zlamal, Jakub; Spousta, Jiri; Dittrichova, Libuse [Institute of Physical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

94

CdS/CdTe Solar Cells Containing Directly Deposited CdSxTe1-x Alloy Layers: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A CdSxTe1-x layer forms by interdiffusion of CdS and CdTe during the fabrication of thin-film CdTe photovoltaic (PV) devices. The CdSxTe1-x layer is thought to be important because it relieves strain at the CdS/CdTe interface that would otherwise exist due to the 10% lattice mismatch between these two materials. Our previous work [1] has indicated that the electrical junction is located in this interdiffused CdSxTe1-x region. Further understanding, however, is essential to predict the role of this CdSxTe1-x layer in the operation of CdS/CdTe devices. In this study, CdSxTe1-x alloy films were deposited by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and co-evaporation from CdTe and CdS sources. Both RF-magnetron-sputtered and co-evaporated CdSxTe1-x films of lower S content (x<0.3) have a cubic zincblende (ZB) structure akin to CdTe, whereas those of higher S content have a hexagonal wurtzite (WZ) structure like that of CdS. Films become less preferentially oriented as a result of a CdCl2 heat treatment (HT) at ~400 degrees C for 5 min. Films sputtered in a 1% O2/Ar ambient are amorphous as deposited, but show CdTe ZB, CdS WZ, and CdTe oxide phases after a CdCl2 HT. Films sputtered in O2 partial pressure have a much wider bandgap than expected. This may be explained by nanocrystalline size effects seen previously [2] for sputtered oxygenated CdS (CdS:O) films. Initial PV device results show that the introduction of a directly-deposited CdSxTe1-x alloy layer into the device structure produces devices of comparable performance to those without the alloy layer when a CdCl2 HT is performed. Further investigation is required to determine whether the CdCl2 heat treatment step can be altered or eliminated through direct deposition of the alloy layer.

Duenow, J. N.; Dhere, R. G.; Moutinho, H. R.; To, B.; Pankow, J. W.; Kuciauskas, D.; Gessert, T. A.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Fabrication of heterojunction solar cells by improved tin oxide deposition on insulating layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Highly efficient tin oxide-silicon heterojunction solar cells are prepared by heating a silicon substrate, having an insulating layer thereon, to provide a substrate temperature in the range of about 300.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C. and thereafter spraying the so-heated substrate with a solution of tin tetrachloride in a organic ester boiling below about 250.degree. C. Preferably the insulating layer is naturally grown silicon oxide layer.

Feng, Tom (Morris Plains, NJ); Ghosh, Amal K. (New Providence, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

A nitrilo-tri-acetic-acid/acetic acid route for the deposition of epitaxial cerium oxide films as high temperature superconductor buffer layers  

SciTech Connect

A water based cerium oxide precursor solution using nitrilo-tri-acetic-acid (NTA) and acetic acid as complexing agents is described in detail. This precursor solution is used for the deposition of epitaxial CeO{sub 2} layers on Ni-5at%W substrates by dip-coating. The influence of the complexation behavior on the formation of transparent, homogeneous solutions and gels has been studied. It is found that ethylenediamine plays an important role in the gelification. The growth conditions for cerium oxide films were Ar-5% gas processing atmosphere, a solution concentration level of 0.25 M, a dwell time of 60 min at 900 {sup o}C and 5-30 min at 1050 {sup o}C. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), pole figures and spectroscopic ellipsometry were used to characterize the CeO{sub 2} films with different thicknesses. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) was used to determine the carbon residue level in the surface of the cerium oxide film, which was found to be lower than 0.01%. Textured films with a thickness of 50 nm were obtained. - Graphical abstract: Study of the complexation and hydrolysis behavior of Ce{sup 4+} ions in the presence of nitrilo-tri-acetic acid and the subsequent development of an aqueous chemical solution deposition route suited for the processing of textured CeO{sub 2} buffer layers on Ni-W tapes.

Thuy, T.T.; Lommens, P.; Narayanan, V.; Van de Velde, N.; De Buysser, K.; Herman, G.G.; Cloet, V. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 - S3, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Van Driessche, I., E-mail: Isabel.Vandriessche@UGent.b [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 - S3, 9000 Gent (Belgium)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

97

A multiscale study of atomic interactions in the electrochemical double layer applied to electrocatalysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work is an integrated study of chemical and electrostatic interactions in the electrochemical double layer, and their significance for accurate prediction of reaction kinetics in electrocatalysis. First, a kinetic ...

Bonnet, Nicéphore

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Process for depositing thin film layers onto surfaces modified with organic functional groups and products formed thereby  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for producing a thin film product, comprising a first step in which an underlying substrate of a first material is provided. The underlying substrate includes a plurality of unmodified sites. The underlying substrate is then chemically modified wherein a plurality of organic functional groups are attached to a plurality of the unmodified sites. The arrangement and type of the functional group used can be selected for the purpose of controlling particular properties of the second material deposited. A thin film layer of at least one second material is then deposited onto the chemically modified underlying substrate. This can be accomplished by connecting the thin film to the underlying substrate by binding the thin film to the functional groups.

Tarasevich, Barbara J. (Richland, WA); Rieke, Peter C. (Pasco, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Raman scattering of polycrystalline 3C-SiC film deposited on AlN buffer layer by using CVD with HMDS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the Raman scattering characteristics of poly (polycrystalline) 3C-SiC thin films deposited on AlN buffer layer by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) using hexamethyldisilane (MHDS) and carrier gases (Ar+H"2). The ... Keywords: AlN, HMDS, Poly 3C-SiC, Raman scattering

Gwiy-Sang Chung; Kang-San Kim

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Method of deposition of silicon carbide layers on substrates and product  

SciTech Connect

A method for direct chemical vapor deposition of silicon carbide to substrates, especially nuclear waste particles, is provided by the thermal decomposition of methylsilane at about 800.degree. C. to 1050.degree. C. when the substrates have been confined within a suitable coating environment.

Angelini, Peter (Oak Ridge, TN); DeVore, Charles E. (Knoxville, TN); Lackey, Walter J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blanco, Raymond E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Stinton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic layer deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Boundary-layer control for reducing deposition of solids at a geothermal nozzle wall  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Deposition of solids at the wall of a nozzle used to expand geothermal brine may be accounted for by a hydrodynamic model describing eddy formation near the wall. A conceptual design of a nozzle with injection of an annular ring of fluid at the wall is presented.

Homsy, R.V.

1976-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

102

The Effect of High Temperature Annealing on the Grain Characteristics of a Thin Chemical Vapor Deposition Silicon Carbide Layer.  

SciTech Connect

The unique combination of thermo-mechanical and physiochemical properties of silicon carbide (SiC) provides interest and opportunity for its use in nuclear applications. One of the applications of SiC is as a very thin layer in the TRi-ISOtropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles for high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs). This SiC layer, produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), is designed to withstand the pressures of fission and transmutation product gases in a high temperature, radiation environment. Various researchers have demonstrated that macroscopic properties can be affected by changes in the distribution of grain boundary plane orientations and misorientations [1 - 3]. Additionally, various researchers have attributed the release behavior of Ag through the SiC layer as a grain boundary diffusion phenomenon [4 - 6]; further highlighting the importance of understanding the actual grain characteristics of the SiC layer. Both historic HTGR fission product release studies and recent experiments at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) [7] have shown that the release of Ag-110m is strongly temperature dependent. Although the maximum normal operating fuel temperature of a HTGR design is in the range of 1000-1250°C, the temperature may reach 1600°C under postulated accident conditions. The aim of this specific study is therefore to determine the magnitude of temperature dependence on SiC grain characteristics, expanding upon initial studies by Van Rooyen et al, [8; 9].

Isabella J van Rooyen; Philippus M van Rooyen; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Internal structure of the Martian south polar layered deposits Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) is not flat and is well approximated as a parabolic dome near the center of the SPLD. Its curvature indicates. The position of these exposures can be used to modify the modeled parabolic shape at the periphery of the SPLD [Sharp et al., 1972]. Exposures of its layered interior can be seen in the many troughs and scarps which

Byrne, Shane

104

Performance of Anode-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell with Thin Bi-Layer Electrolyte by Pulsed Laser Deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anode-supported yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/samaria doped ceria (SDC) bi-layer electrolytes with uniform thickness and high density were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition at 1000 degrees C. Fuel cells with such bi-layer electrolytes were fabricated and tested, yielding open circuit voltages from 0.94 to 1.0 V at 600-700 degrees C. Power densities from 0.4 to 1.0 W cm{sup -2} at 0.7 V were achieved in air at temperatures of 600-700 degrees C. Cell performance was improved in flowing oxygen, with an estimated peak power density of over 2 W cm{sup -2} at 650 degrees C, assuming the same overall resistance over the entire range of current density. The high cell performance was attributed to the very low ohmic resistance of the fuel cell, owing to the small thickness of the electrolyte. Stable performance was also demonstrated in that the voltage of the fuel cell showed very little change at a constant current density of 1 A cm{sup -2} during more than 400 hours of operation at 650 degrees C in flowing oxygen. SEM analysis of the fuel cell after testing showed that the bi-layer electrolyte had retained its chemical and mechanical integrity.

Lu, Zigui; Hardy, John S.; Templeton, Jared W.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Fisher, Daniel; Wu, Naijuan; Ignatiev, Alex

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

105

Liquid-Phase Deposition of CIS Thin Layers: Final Report, February 2003--July 2005  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this project was to fabricate single-phase CIS (a-Cu-In-Se, stoichiometric composition: CuInSe2) thin films for photovoltaic applications from a liquid phase - a Cu-In-Se melt of appropriate composition. This approach of liquid-phase deposition (LPD) is based on the new phase diagram we have established for Cu-In-Se, the first complete equilibrium phase diagram of this system. The liquidus projection exhibits four composition fields in which the primary solid phase, i.e., the first solid material that forms on cooling down from an entirely liquid state, is a-CuInSe2. Remarkably, none of the four composition fields is anywhere near the stoichiometric composition (CuInSe2) of a-CuInSe2. The results demonstrate that the proposed technique is indeed capable of producing films with a particularly large grain size and a correspondingly low density of grain boundaries. To obtain films sufficiently thin for solar cell applications and with a sufficiently smooth surface, it is advantageous to employ a sliding boat mechanism. Future work on liquid-phase deposition of CIS should focus on the interaction between the melt and the substrate surface, the resulting CIS interfaces, the surface morphology of the LPD-grown films, and, of course, the electronic properties of the material.

Ernst, F.; Pirouz, P.

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Effect of e-beam irradiation on graphene layer grown by chemical vapor deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have grown graphene by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and transferred it onto Si/SiO{sub 2} substrates to make tens of micron scale devices for Raman spectroscopy study. The effect of electron beam (e-beam) irradiation of various doses (600 to 12 000 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}) on CVD grown graphene has been examined by using Raman spectroscopy. It is found that the radiation exposures result in the appearance of the strong disorder D band attributed the damage to the lattice. The evolution of peak frequencies, intensities, and widths of the main Raman bands of CVD graphene is analyzed as a function of defect created by e-beam irradiation. Especially, the D and G peak evolution with increasing radiation dose follows the amorphization trajectory, which suggests transformation of graphene to the nanocrystalline and then to amorphous form. We have also estimated the strain induced by e-beam irradiation in CVD graphene. These results obtained for CVD graphene are in line with previous findings reported for the mechanically exfoliated graphene [D. Teweldebrhan and A. A. Balandin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 013101 (2009)]. The results have important implications for CVD graphene characterization and device fabrication, which rely on the electron microscopy.

Iqbal, M. Z.; Kumar Singh, Arun; Iqbal, M. W.; Seo, Sunae; Eom, Jonghwa [Department of Physics and Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

Fine structure of AlN/AlGaN superlattice grown by pulsed atomic-layer epitaxy for dislocation filtering  

SciTech Connect

We report the detailed structure analysis of our AlN/AlGaN superlattice (SL) grown by pulsed atomic-layer epitaxy (PALE) for dislocation filtering. Due to the nature of PALE, the AlGaN well material itself in the SL was found to be composed actually of an Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/Al{sub y}Ga{sub 1-y}N short-period superlattice (SPSL), with the periodicity of 15.5 A ({approx_equal}6 monolayer), determined consistently from high-resolution x-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements. The SPSL nature of the AlGaN layers is believed to benefit from the AlN/AlGaN SL's coherent growth, which is important in exerting compressive strain for the thick upper n-AlGaN film, which serves to eliminate cracks. Direct evidence is presented which indicates that this SL can dramatically reduce the screw-type threading dislocation density.

Sun, W.H.; Zhang, J.P.; Yang, J.W.; Maruska, H.P.; Khan, M. Asif; Liu, R.; Ponce, F.A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

2005-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

108

Method Of Transferring A Thin Crystalline Semiconductor Layer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Method Of Transferring A Thin Crystalline Semiconductor Layer Method Of Transferring A Thin Crystalline Semiconductor Layer Method Of Transferring A Thin Crystalline Semiconductor Layer A method for transferring a thin semiconductor layer from one substrate to another substrate involves depositing a thin epitaxial monocrystalline semiconductor layer on a substrate having surface contaminants. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Method Of Transferring A Thin Crystalline Semiconductor Layer A method for transferring a thin semiconductor layer from one substrate to another substrate involves depositing a thin epitaxial monocrystalline semiconductor layer on a substrate having surface contaminants. An interface that includes the contaminants is formed in between the deposited layer and the substrate. Hydrogen atoms are introduced into the structure

109

Quartz crystal microbalance study of tungsten atomic layer deposition using WF6 and Si2H6  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(disilane). In this paper, W ALD is explored using in situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements for disilane exposures > 4Ã?104 L. The W ALD growth rate was also weakly temperature

George, Steven M.

110

Nucleation of Ultrathin, Continuous, Conformal Metal Films Using Atomic Layer Deposition and Applications as Fuel Cell Catalysts  

A research team at the University of Colorado at Boulder led by Steven George has developed a method to prepare a conformal thin film of platinum or one of its alloys onto a substrate, and more particularly to reduce the cost associated with ...

111

Effects of the Ti/Al atomic ratio on the properties of gradient (Ti,Al)N films synthesized by ion beam assisted deposition  

SciTech Connect

Gradient (Ti,Al)N films were prepared on high speed steel (HSS) and Si (111) wafers by using two Ar{sup +} beams to sputter a titanium target and an aluminum target separately, and a third N{sup +} beam to simultaneously bombard the growing film to assist deposition. The effects of the Ti/Al atomic ratio in the films on properties such as hardness, stress, and adhesion strength were investigated systematically. The results indicated that both the hardness and the adhesion of gradient (Ti,Al)N films to steel substrates exhibited {open_quotes}peak{close_quotes} type changes with an increase of the Ti/Al atomic ratio, and a maximum hardness of 3780thinspkgfthinspmm{sup {minus}2} was reached at a Ti/Al ratio of 5.35. The compressive stress of gradient (Ti,Al)N films increased with increasing Al content in the films. It was found that extreme hardness, high adhesion strength and low stress gradient (Ti,Al)N films can be synthesized on low temperature HSS steel by using the ion beam assisted deposition process.

He, X.; Shu, L.; Xie, Z.W. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Characterisation of the electroless nickel deposit as a barrier layer/under bump metallurgy on IC metallisation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective electroless nickel-phosphorus deposits on integrated circuit (IC) metallisation such as copper and aluminium were characterised using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy ... Keywords: IC metallisation, barrier, crystallisation, electroless

James F. Rohan; Gerald O'Riordan

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Preparation of single- and few-layer graphene sheets using co deposition on SiC substrate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single- and few-layer graphene sheets were fabricated by selective chemical reactions between Co film and SiC substrate. A rapid cooling process was employed. The number of layers and crystallinity of graphene sheets were controlled by process parameters. ...

Cun Li; Dandan Li; Jingjing Yang; Xiaopeng Zeng; Wenxia Yuan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Thermal Stability and Substitutional Carbon Incorporation far above Solid-Solubility in Si1-xCx and Si1-x-yGexCy Layers Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cx and Si1-x-yGexCy Layers Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition using Disilane M. S. Carroll*, J. C. Sturm on (100) silicon substrates by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) with disilane source gas and disilane is known to produce higher silicon epitaxial growth rates for similar partial

115

Populations of metastable and resonant argon atoms in radio frequency magnetron plasmas used for deposition of indium-zinc-oxide films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work reports optical absorption spectroscopy measurements of the number density of Ar atoms in resonant ({sup 3}P{sub 1}, {sup 1}P{sub 1}) and metastable ({sup 3}P{sub 2}, {sup 3}P{sub 0}) states in rf magnetron sputtering plasmas used for the deposition of ZnO-based thin films. While the density of Ar {sup 3}P{sub 2} and {sup 3}P{sub 0} was fairly independent of pressure in the range of experimental conditions investigated, the density of Ar {sup 3}P{sub 1} and {sup 1}P{sub 1} first sharply increased with pressure and then reached a plateau at values close to those of the {sup 3}P{sub 2} and {sup 3}P{sub 0} levels at pressures above about 50 mTorr. At such pressures, ultraviolet radiation from resonant states becomes trapped such that these levels behave as metastable states. For a self-bias voltage of -115 V and pressures in the 5-100 mTorr range, similar number densities of Ar resonant and metastable atoms were obtained for Zn, ZnO, and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} targets, suggesting that, over the range of experimental conditions investigated, collisions between these excited species and sputtered Zn, In, and O atoms played only a minor role on the discharge kinetics. The metastable-to-ground state number density ratios were also fitted to the predictions of a global model using the average electron temperature, T{sub e}, as the only adjustable parameter. For all targets examined, the values of T{sub e} deduced from this method were in excellent agreement with those obtained from Langmuir probe measurements.

Maaloul, L.; Morel, S.; Stafford, L. [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7 (Canada)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

116

Direct growth of few-layer graphene on 6H-SiC and 3C-SiC/Si via propane chemical vapor deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose to grow graphene on SiC by a direct carbon feeding through propane flow in a chemical vapor deposition reactor. X-ray photoemission and low energy electron diffraction show that propane allows to grow few-layer graphene (FLG) on 6H-SiC(0001). Surprisingly, FLG grown on (0001) face presents a rotational disorder similar to that observed for FLG obtained by annealing on (000-1) face. Thanks to a reduced growth temperature with respect to the classical SiC annealing method, we have also grown FLG/3C-SiC/Si(111) in a single growth sequence. This opens the way for large-scale production of graphene-based devices on silicon substrate.

Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Portail, M. [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Ouerghi, A. [CNRS-LPN, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T. [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)

2010-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

117

Intermixing of InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells and quantum dots using sputter-deposited silicon oxynitride capping layers  

SciTech Connect

Various approaches can be used to selectively control the amount of intermixing in III-V quantum well and quantum dot structures. Impurity-free vacancy disordering is one technique that is favored for its simplicity, however this mechanism is sensitive to many experimental parameters. In this study, a series of silicon oxynitride capping layers have been used in the intermixing of InGaAs/GaAs quantum well and quantum dot structures. These thin films were deposited by sputter deposition in order to minimize the incorporation of hydrogen, which has been reported to influence impurity-free vacancy disordering. The degree of intermixing was probed by photoluminescence spectroscopy and this is discussed with respect to the properties of the SiO{sub x}N{sub y} films. This work was also designed to monitor any additional intermixing that might be attributed to the sputtering process. In addition, the high-temperature stress is known to affect the group-III vacancy concentration, which is central to the intermixing process. This stress was directly measured and the experimental values are compared with an elastic-deformation model.

McKerracher, Ian; Fu Lan; Hoe Tan, Hark; Jagadish, Chennupati [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia)

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Low energy ion beam assisted deposition of a spin valve  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spin dependent electron transport in giant magnetoresistive (GMR) multilayers is significantly affected by the atomic scale structure of their interfaces. Devices with atomically flat and chemically sharp interfaces are preferred for magnetic sensor and memory applications. Recent atomic simulations of the atom-by-atom assembly of these devices indicate that near optimal interfacial structures can be created using low energy, ion assisted vapor deposition techniques with ion energies in the 5-10 eV range. A recently developed biased target ion beam deposition system has been used to experimentally test this hypothesis. Prototypical Ta/NiFe/Co/Cu/Co/FeMn/Cu spin valve structures were first grown using (simultaneous) argon ion assistance during deposition of the Co/Cu/Co trilayer part of the spin valve multilayer. Assisting ion energies of around 10 eV resulted in structures with a 30% higher magnetoresistance ratio and significantly reduced coupling field compared to samples grown with no ion assistance or with ion energies above 15 eV. These results are consistent with the atomistic simulation predictions. Other promising ion assistance schemes identified by the simulations were then used to deposit the Ta, NiFe, FeMn, and the top copper layer. A near optimal strategy was identified that resulted in the further improvement of the GMR ratio.

Quan, J. J.; Wolf, S. A.; Wadley, H. N. G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903 (United States)

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Stratigraphy of the PB-1 well, Nopal I uranium deposit, Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mexico, in Uranium Deposits in Volcanic Rocks, International Atomic EnergyMéxico, in Uranium Deposits in Volcanic Rocks, International Atomic Energy

Dobson, P.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Atomic Layer Deposition of Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films Using Nonhalogenated Jeffrey W. Elam,*, David A. Baker, Alex B. F. Martinson,, Michael J. Pellin, and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

precise coatings to be applied on all exposed surfaces of nanoporous substrates such as aerogels10 using ALD techniques to apply metal oxide coatings onto porous supports such as anodic aluminum oxide

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic layer deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Self-cleaning and surface recovery with arsine pretreatment in ex situ atomic-layer-deposition of Al2O3 on GaAs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. heavily doped GaAs 001 substrates at 650 °C with TMG Ga CH3 3 and arsine AsH3 V/III=23 with disilane Si2H6

122

Method and system using power modulation for maskless vapor deposition of spatially graded thin film and multilayer coatings with atomic-level precision and accuracy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and system for producing a film (preferably a thin film with highly uniform or highly accurate custom graded thickness) on a flat or graded substrate (such as concave or convex optics), by sweeping the substrate across a vapor deposition source operated with time-varying flux distribution. In preferred embodiments, the source is operated with time-varying power applied thereto during each sweep of the substrate to achieve the time-varying flux distribution as a function of time. A user selects a source flux modulation recipe for achieving a predetermined desired thickness profile of the deposited film. The method relies on precise modulation of the deposition flux to which a substrate is exposed to provide a desired coating thickness distribution.

Montcalm, Claude (Livermore, CA); Folta, James Allen (Livermore, CA); Tan, Swie-In (San Jose, CA); Reiss, Ira (New City, NY)

2002-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

123

Gas dynamic aspects of silicon thin layers deposition using excitation of a free jet of the working gas mixture by an electron beam  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A film of microcrystalline silicon ({mu}c-Si:H) deposited at low temperature is a promising material for thin-film silicon solar cells with high efficiency and high stability. To deposit silicon thin films with high deposition rate and high quality, a novel gas-jet deposition method has been developed. The paper is devoted to experimental and numerical study of the method from the gas dynamic point of view. A numerical model of the flow field of the working gas mixture in the device was developed that provides predictions of the film thickness distribution over the substrate surface and was found to describe the measured data satisfactory. The model may be used to optimize the operating parameters of the device.

Skovorodko, P. A.; Sharafutdinov, R. G.; Shchukin, V. G.; Konstantinov, V. O. [CJSC Institute of Plasma Chemical Technologies, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation) and Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

124

Comparative Study of Zn(O,S) Buffer Layers and CIGS Solar Cells Fabricated by CBD, ALD, and Sputtering: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Zn(O,S) thin films were deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD), atomic layer deposition, and sputtering. Composition of the films and band gap were measured and found to follow the trends described in the literature. CBD Zn(O,S) parameters were optimized and resulted in an 18.5% efficiency cell that did not require post annealing, light soaking, or an undoped ZnO layer. Promising results were obtained with sputtering. A 13% efficiency cell was obtained for a Zn(O,S) emitter layer deposited with 0.5%O2. With further optimization of process parameters and an analysis of the loss mechanisms, it should be possible to increase the efficiency.

Ramanathan, K.; Mann, J.; Glynn, S.; Christensen, S.; Pankow, J.; Li, J.; Scharf, J.; Mansfield, L. M.; Contreras, M. A.; Noufi, R.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Materials Synthesis from Atoms to Systems | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to produce unique single crystals and epitaxial structures that are deposited with atomic-level precision is critical for many applications, such as thermoelectrics,...

126

Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

127

BWR Fuel Deposit Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With zinc injection to BWR feedwater for plant radiation dose reduction, fuel deposits often contain significant amounts of zinc and the inner layers of deposits become more adherent to the cladding. Fuel surveillance programs have revealed thick tenacious crud with surface spallation at several plants. This project determined the chemical composition and morphological features of crud flake samples from Duane Arnold Cycle 17 and Browns Ferry 2 Cycle 12 and compared the data with those obtained from othe...

2005-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

128

Atomic History  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... These Data Centers, one on Atomic Energy Levels and one on Atomic Transition ... After a few years Kessler went on to higher management at NIST. ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

129

Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

O' Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O' Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

130

Multi-chamber deposition system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for the simultaneous deposition of different coatings onto a thin web within a large volume vacuum chamber is disclosed which chamber is provided with a plurality of deposition chambers in which the different layers are deposited onto the film as its moves from a supply roll to a finished take-up roll of coated web. The deposition chambers provided within the large vacuum chamber are provided with separate seals which minimize back diffusion of any dopant gas from adjacent deposition chambers.

Jacobson, Richard L. (Roseville, MN); Jeffrey, Frank R. (Shoreview, MN); Westerberg, Roger K. (Cottage Grove, MN)

1989-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

131

Multi-chamber deposition system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for the simultaneous deposition of different coatings onto a thin web within a large volume vacuum chamber is disclosed which chamber is provided with a plurality of deposition chambers in which the different layers are deposited onto the film as its moves from a supply roll to a finished take-up roll of coated web. The deposition chambers provided within the large vacuum chamber are provided with separate seals which minimize back diffusion of any dopant gas from adjacent deposition chambers.

Jacobson, Richard L. (Roseville, MN); Jeffrey, Frank R. (Shoreview, MN); Westerberg, Roger K. (Cottage Grove, MN)

1989-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

132

Structured luminescence conversion layer  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.

Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

133

Nanostructured ZnO arrays with self-ZnO layer created using simple electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Formation of unique ZnO nanoarrays utilizing photodynamic polymer, surface-relief grating structures, and unique electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly as a simple and economical methodology was demonstrated. Atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron ...

PilHo Huh; Seong-Cheol Kim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

Deng, Xunming (Syvania, OH)

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

135

Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

Deng, Xunming (Sylvania, OH); Liao, Xianbo (Toledo, OH); Du, Wenhui (Toledo, OH)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells  

SciTech Connect

A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

Deng, Xunming (Syvania, OH); Liao, Xianbo (Toledo, OH); Du, Wenhui (Toledo, OH)

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

137

Underpotential Deposition-Mediated Layer-by-Layer Growth of ...  

Building Energy Efficiency; Electricity Transmission; Energy Analysis; ... after coating palladium-on-carbon catalysts with four monolayers of ...

138

NIST Atomic Physics Div. - 2005-2007: Strategic Focus 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... in Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables. ... in temperature to deduce the energy deposited—and ... determined by experiment and theory, would have ...

139

Conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth and a thin film semiconductor structure such as, for example, a photodetector, a photovoltaic cell, or a light emitting diode (LED) that includes a crystallographically oriented semiconducting film disposed on the conductive layer. The thin film semiconductor structure includes: a substrate; a first electrode deposited on the substrate; and a semiconducting layer epitaxially deposited on the first electrode. The first electrode includes a template layer deposited on the substrate and a buffer layer epitaxially deposited on the template layer. The template layer includes a first metal nitride that is electrically conductive and has a rock salt crystal structure, and the buffer layer includes a second metal nitride that is electrically conductive. The semiconducting layer is epitaxially deposited on the buffer layer. A method of making such a thin film semiconductor structure is also described.

Findikoglu, Alp T. (Los Alamos, NM); Matias, Vladimir (Santa Fe, NM)

2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

140

Method of deposition by molecular beam epitaxy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for reproducibly controlling layer thickness and varying layer composition in an MBE deposition process. In particular, the present invention includes epitaxially depositing a plurality of layers of material on a substrate with a plurality of growth cycles whereby the average of the instantaneous growth rates for each growth cycle and from one growth cycle to the next remains substantially constant as a function of time.

Chalmers, Scott A. (Albuquerque, NM); Killeen, Kevin P. (Albuquerque, NM); Lear, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic layer deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Photosensitivity of Pulsed Laser Deposited Amorphous (GeSe2)100 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Photosensitivity of deposited layers in as-deposited as well as relaxed state was ... Ion Exchanged Mixed Glass Cullet Proppants for Stimulation of Oil and ...

142

Low Temperature Direct Growth of Graphene Films on Transparent Substrates by Chemical Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Few- Layer Graphene by Chemical Vapor Deposition",Liu, W. , et al. (2010). "Chemical vapor deposition of large5 1.3.3. Chemical Vapor

Antoine, Geoffrey Sandosh Jeffy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Interfacial and structural properties of sputtered HfO{sub 2} layers  

SciTech Connect

Magnetron sputtered HfO{sub 2} layers formed on a heated Si substrate were studied by spectroscopic ellipsometer (SE), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling techniques. The results show that the formation of a SiO{sub x} suboxide layer at the HfO{sub 2}/Si interface is unavoidable. The HfO{sub 2} thickness and suboxide formation are highly affected by the growth parameters such as sputtering power, O{sub 2}/Ar gas ratio during sputtering, sputtering time, and substrate temperature. XRD spectra show that the deposited film has (111) monoclinic phase of HfO{sub 2}, which is also supported by FTIR spectra. The atomic concentration and chemical environment of Si, Hf, and O have been measured as a function of depth starting from the surface of the sample by XPS technique. It shows that HfO{sub 2} layers of a few nanometers are formed at the top surface. Below this thin layer, Si-Si bonds are detected just before the Si suboxide layer, and then the Si substrate is reached during the depth profiling by XPS. It is clearly understood that the highly reactive sputtered Hf atoms consume some of the oxygen atoms from the underlying SiO{sub 2} to form HfO{sub 2}, leaving Si-Si bonds behind.

Aygun, G. [Department of Physics, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla, TR-35430 Izmir (Turkey); Yildiz, I. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, TR-06531 Ankara (Turkey); Central Laboratory, Middle East Technical University, TR-06531 Ankara (Turkey)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Dynamics of nucleation in chemical vapor deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the evolution of layer morphology during the early stages of metal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) onto Si(100) via pyrolysis of Fe(CO){sub 5} below 250{degrees}C. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) shows that nuclei formation is limited by precursor dissociation which occurs on terraces, not at step sites. Also, the average size of clusters formed during CVD is larger than for Fe growth by evaporation (a random deposition process). Based on STM data and Monte Carlo simulations, we conclude that the CVD-growth morphology is affected by preferential dissociation of Fe(CO){sub 5} molecules at existing Fe clusters -- an autocatalytic effect. We demonstrate that nucleation kinetics can be used to control formation of metal nanostructures on chemically tailored surfaces. Reactive sites on Si (001) are first passivated by hydrogen. H atoms are locally removed by electron stimulated desorption using electrons emitted from the STM tip. Subsequent pyrolysis of Fe(CO){sub 5} leads to selective nucleation and growth of Fe films in the areas where H has been removed.

Mayer, T.M.; Adams, D.P.; Swartzentruber, B.S.; Chason, E.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Evaluation of the Accuracy with Which Dry Deposition Can Be Measured with Current Micrometeorological Techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By reviewing the physics of the processes leading to dry deposition in the atmospheric surface layer, a number of corrections and possible errors in the determination of the dry deposition fluxes are identified. The concept of deposition velocity ...

J. A. Businger

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) by Laser Deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Laser metal deposition is a layered manufacturing process which ... using a computer simulated model and relate a few metallurgical systems as ... of Square Plate and Poisson's Ratio Measurement at Cryogenic Temperatures.

147

Focused helium ion beam milling and deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of a helium ion microscope with an integrated gas injection system for nanofabrication is explored by demonstrating the milling of fine features into single layered graphene and the controlled deposition of tungsten and platinum wires from gaseous ... Keywords: Beam-induced deposition, Focused ion beam, Gas injection system, Graphene, Helium ion microscope

S. A. Boden; Z. Moktadir; D. M. Bagnall; H. Mizuta; H. N. Rutt

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Uncooled thin film infrared imaging device with aerogel thermal isolation: Deposition and planarization techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have successfully integrated a thermally insulating silica aerogel thin film into a new uncooled monolithic thin film infrared (IR) imaging device. Compared to other technologies (bulk ceramic and microbridge), use of an aerogel layer provides superior thermal isolation of the pyroelectric imaging element from the relatively massive heat sinking integrated circuit. This results in significantly higher thermal and temporal resolutions. They have calculated noise equivalent temperature differences of 0.04--0.10 C from a variety of Pb{sub x}Zr{sub y}Ti{sub 1{minus}y}O{sub 3} (PZT) and Pb{sub x}La{sub 1{minus}x}Zr{sub y}Ti{sub 1{minus}y}O{sub 3} (PLZT) pyroelectric imaging elements in monolithic structures. In addition, use of aerogels results in an easier, less expensive fabrication process and a more robust device. Fabrication of these monolithic devices entails sol-gel deposition of the aerogel, sputter deposition of the electrodes, and solution chemistry deposition of the pyroelectric imaging elements. Uniform pyroelectric response is achieved across the device by use of appropriate planarization techniques. These deposition and planarization techniques are described. Characterization of the individual layers and monolithic structure using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and Byer-Roundy techniques also is discussed.

Ruffner, J.A.; Clem, P.G.; Tuttle, B.A.; Brinker, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sriram, C.S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Bullington, J.A. [AMMPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Few-Layer Graphene as a Dry Lubricant  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

graphene layer is providing protection from high wear and steel corrosion. Scanning electron microscope image of as deposited graphene flakes (a) and Raman spectrum of one of...

150

ATOMIC PILE  

SciTech Connect

A nuclear battery of very small dimensions is described which consists of a combination of Sr/sup 90/ and a luminescent material, e.g. in the form of a finely powdered mixture or of juxtaposed layers. The lunninous energy is converted int electricity by means of one or more justaposed photoelectric cells. (NPO)

1960-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

151

Deposition Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pulsed Plasma Processing Pulsed Plasma Processing NEW: Downloadable: Invited Talk "Pulsed Metal Plasmas," presented at the 2006 AVS Meeting, San Francisco, California, November 15, 2006. (PDF, file size 8 MB). Plasma Sources for Window Coatings Deposition processes for low-emittance and solar control coatings can be improved through the use of advanced plasma technology developed at LBNL. A new type of constricted glow-discharge plasma source was selected for the 1997 R&D 100 Award. Invented by LBNL researchers Andre Anders, Mike Rubin, and Mike Dickinson, the source was designed to be compatible with industrial vacuum deposition equipment and practice. Construction is simple, rugged and inexpensive. It can operate indefinitely over a wide range of chamber pressure without any consumable parts such as filaments or grids. Several different gases including Argon, Oxygen and Nitrogen have been tested successfully.

152

Glossary Term - Atomic Number  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Particle Previous Term (Alpha Particle) Glossary Main Index Next Term (Avogadro's Number) Avogadro's Number Atomic Number Silver's atomic number is 47 The atomic number is equal to...

153

Deposition and Characterization of Highly Oriented Mg(3)(VO(4))(2) Thin Film Catalyst  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Magnesium vanadates are potentially important catalytic materials for the conversion of alkanes to alkenes via oxidative dehydrogenation. However, little is known about the active sites at which the catalytic reactions take place. It may be possible to obtain a significant increase in the catalytic efficiency if the effects of certain material properties on the surface reactions could be quantified and optimized through the use of appropriate preparation techniques. Given that surface reactivity is often dependent upon surface structure and that the atomic level structure of the active sites in these catalysts is virtually unknown, we desire thin film samples consisting of a single magnesium vanadate phase and a well defined crystallographic orientation in order to reduce complexity and simplify the study of active sites. We report on the use of reactive RF sputter deposition to fabricate very highly oriented, stoichiometric Mg{sub 3}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2} thin films for use in these surface analysis studies. Deposition of samples onto amorphous substrates resulted in very poor crystallinity. However, deposition of Mg{sub 3}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2} onto well-oriented, lattice-matched thin film ''seed'' layers such as Ti(0001), Au(111), or Pt(111) resulted in very strong preferential (042) crystallographic orientation (pseudo-hexagonal oxygen planes parallel to the substrate). This strong preferential growth of the Mg{sub 3}VO{sub 4}{sub 2} suggests epitaxial (single-crystal) growth of this mixed metal oxide on the underlying metal seed layer. The effects of the seed layer material, deposition temperature, and post-deposition reactive treatments on thin film properties such as stoichiometry, crystallographic orientation, and chemical interactions will be discussed.

RODRIGUEZ,MARK A.; RUFFNER,JUDITH A.; SAULT,ALLEN G.; TISSOT JR.,RALPH G.

1999-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

154

Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources. 8 figs.

Murduck, J.M.; Lepetre, Y.J.; Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

1989-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

155

Tuning the properties of Ge-quantum dots superlattices in amorphous silica matrix through deposition conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, we investigate the structural properties of Ge quantum dot lattices in amorphous silica matrix, prepared by low-temperature magnetron sputtering deposition of (Ge+SiO{sub 2})/SiO{sub 2} multilayers. The dependence of quantum dot shape, size, separation, and arrangement type on the Ge-rich (Ge + SiO{sub 2}) layer thickness is studied. We show that the quantum dots are elongated along the growth direction, perpendicular to the multilayer surface. The size of the quantum dots and their separation along the growth direction can be tuned by changing the Ge-rich layer thickness. The average value of the quantum dots size along the lateral (in-plane) direction along with their lateral separation is not affected by the thickness of the Ge-rich layer. However, the thickness of the Ge-rich layer significantly affects the quantum dot ordering. In addition, we investigate the dependence of the multilayer average atomic composition and also the quantum dot crystalline quality on the deposition parameters.

Pinto, S. R. C.; Ramos, M. M. D.; Gomes, M. J. M. [University of Minho, Centre of Physics and Physics Department, Braga 4710-057 (Portugal); Buljan, M. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka cesta 54, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Chahboun, A. [University of Minho, Centre of Physics and Physics Department, Braga 4710-057 (Portugal); Physics Department, FST Tanger, Tanger BP 416 (Morocco); Roldan, M. A.; Molina, S. I. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ing. Metalurgica y Q. I., Universidad de Cadiz, Cadiz (Spain); Bernstorff, S. [Sincrotrone Trieste, SS 14 km163, 5, Basovizza 34012 (Italy); Varela, M.; Pennycook, S. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Barradas, N. P.; Alves, E. [Instituto Superior Tecnico e Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear-, EN10, Sacavem 2686-953 (Portugal)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Tuning the properties of Ge-quantum dots superlattices in amorphous silica matrix through deposition conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, we investigate the structural properties of Ge quantum dot lattices in amorphous silica matrix, prepared by low-temperature magnetron sputtering deposition of (Ge+SiO{sub 2})/SiO{sub 2} multilayers. The dependence of quantum dot shape, size, separation, and arrangement type on the Ge-rich (Ge + SiO{sub 2}) layer thickness is studied. We show that the quantum dots are elongated along the growth direction, perpendicular to the multilayer surface. The size of the quantum dots and their separation along the growth direction can be tuned by changing the Ge-rich layer thickness. The average value of the quantum dots size along the lateral (in-plane) direction along with their lateral separation is not affected by the thickness of the Ge-rich layer. However, the thickness of the Ge-rich layer significantly affects the quantum dot ordering. In addition, we investigate the dependence of the multilayer average atomic composition and also the quantum dot crystalline quality on the deposition parameters.

Pinto, S. [University of Minho, Portugal; Roldan Gutierrez, Manuel A [ORNL; Ramos, M. M.D. [University of Minho, Portugal; Gomes, M.J.M. [University of Minho, Portugal; Molina, S. I. [Universidad de Cadiz, Spain; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL; Buljan, M. [R. Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia; Barradas, N. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), Lisbon, Portugal; Alves, E. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), Lisbon, Portugal; Chahboun, A. [FST Tanger, Morocco; Bernstorff, S. [Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Growth of homo-epitaxial silicon at low temperatures using hot wire chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors report on the first known growth of high-quality epitaxial Si via the hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) method. This method yields device-quality epitaxial Si at the comparatively low temperatures of 195 to 450 C, and relatively high growth rates of 3 to 20 {angstrom}/sec. Layers up to 4,500-{angstrom} thick have been grown. These epitaxial layers have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), indicating large regions of nearly perfect atomic registration. Electron channeling patterns (ECPs) generated on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) have been used to characterize as well as optimize the growth process. Electron beam induced current (EBIC) characterization has also been performed, indicating defect densities as low as 5 x 104/cm{sup 2}. Secondary ion beam mass spectrometry (SIMS) data shows that these layers have reasonable impurity levels within the constraints of the current deposition system. Both n and p-type layers were grown, and p/n diodes have been fabricated.

Thiesen, J.; Jones, K.M.; Matson, R.; Reedy, R.; Crandall, R.; Iwaniczko, E.; Mahan, H.

1999-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

158

Method for deposition of a conductor in integrated circuits  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for fabricating integrated semiconductor circuits and, more particularly, for the selective deposition of a conductor onto a substrate employing a chemical vapor deposition process. By way of example, tungsten can be selectively deposited onto a silicon substrate. At the onset of loss of selectivity of deposition of tungsten onto the silicon substrate, the deposition process is interrupted and unwanted tungsten which has deposited on a mask layer with the silicon substrate can be removed employing a halogen etchant. Thereafter, a plurality of deposition/etch back cycles can be carried out to achieve a predetermined thickness of tungsten.

Creighton, J. Randall (Albuquerque, NM); Dominguez, Frank (Albuquerque, NM); Johnson, A. Wayne (Albuquerque, NM); Omstead, Thomas R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Oxidation Resistance of Reactive Atoms in Graphene  

SciTech Connect

We have found that reactive elements that are normally oxidized at room temperature are present as individual atoms or clusters on and in graphene. Oxygen is present in these samples but it is only detected in the thicker amorphous carbon layers present in the graphene specimens we have examined. However, we have seen no evidence that oxygen reacts with the impurity atoms and small clusters of these normally reactive elements when they are incorporated in the graphene layers. First principles calculations suggest that the oxidation resistance is due to kinetic effects such as preferential bonding of oxygen to nonincorporated atoms and H passivation. The observed oxidation resistance of reactive atoms in graphene may allow the use of these incorporated metals in catalytic applications. It also opens the possibility of designing and producing electronic, opto-electronic, and magnetic devices based on these normally reactive atoms.

Chisholm, Matthew F [ORNL; Duscher, Gerd [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Windl, Wolfgang [Ohio State University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center. Summary: ... Atomic Spectroscopy Data Webpage. End Date: ongoing. Lead Organizational Unit: physlab. Contact. ...

2013-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic layer deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Atomic magnetometer  

SciTech Connect

An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which uses a pump light beam at a D1 or D2 transition of an alkali metal vapor to magnetically polarize the vapor in a heated cell, and a probe light beam at a different D2 or D1 transition to sense the magnetic field via a polarization rotation of the probe light beam. The pump and probe light beams are both directed along substantially the same optical path through an optical waveplate and through the heated cell to an optical filter which blocks the pump light beam while transmitting the probe light beam to one or more photodetectors which generate electrical signals to sense the magnetic field. The optical waveplate functions as a quarter waveplate to circularly polarize the pump light beam, and as a half waveplate to maintain the probe light beam linearly polarized.

Schwindt, Peter (Albuquerque, NM); Johnson, Cort N. (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

162

Process for thin film deposition of cadmium sulfide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention teaches a process for depositing layers of cadmium sulfide. The process includes depositing a layer of cadmium oxide by spray pyrolysis of a cadmium salt in an aqueous or organic solvent. The oxide film is then converted into cadmium sulfide by thermal ion exchange of the O.sup.-2 for S.sup.-2 by annealing the oxide layer in gaseous sulfur at elevated temperatures.

Muruska, H. Paul (East Windsor, NJ); Sansregret, Joseph L. (Scotch Plains, NJ); Young, Archie R. (Montclair, NJ)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Superconductive articles including cerium oxide layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A ceramic superconductor comprising a metal oxide substrate, a ceramic high temperature superconductive material, and a intermediate layer of a material having a cubic crystal structure, said layer situated between the substrate and the superconductive material is provided, and a structure for supporting a ceramic superconducting material is provided, said structure comprising a metal oxide substrate, and a layer situated over the surface of the substrate to substantially inhibit interdiffusion between the substrate and a ceramic superconducting material deposited upon said structure.

Wu, X.D.; Muenchausen, R.E.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

164

Study of dithiol monolayer as the interface for controlled deposition of gold nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Self-assembled monolayer of dithiol molecules, deposited on polycrystalline Au (111), prepared at room atmosphere, was studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Dithiols were used as interface, which chemically bonds to the deposited gold nanoparticles through strong covalent bonds. The size and size distribution of the deposited nanoparticles were measured using dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM results showed that nanoparticles are immobilized and stable during scanning procedure and do not contaminate the AFM tip. The size of monodisperse nanoparticles obtained from the DLS measurements is slightly higher than that obtained from the AFM and SEM measurements. This is due to the fact that the DLS measures the hydrodynamic radius, dependent on the protective chemical layer on nanoparticles. - Research Highlights: {yields} Dithiols molecules create chemically bounded layers on a Au (111) surface. {yields} Gold nanoparticles can be chemically bounded to a self-assembled monolayer. {yields} Nanoparticles are stable during AFM probe interactions.

Cichomski, M., E-mail: mcichom@uni.lodz.pl [Department of Materials Technology and Chemistry, University of Lodz, Pomorska 163, 90-236 Lodz (Poland); Tomaszewska, E.; Kosla, K. [Department of Materials Technology and Chemistry, University of Lodz, Pomorska 163, 90-236 Lodz (Poland); Kozlowski, W. [Department of Solid State Physics, University of Lodz, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Lodz (Poland); Kowalczyk, P.J. [Department of Solid State Physics, University of Lodz, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Lodz (Poland); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Grobelny, J. [Department of Materials Technology and Chemistry, University of Lodz, Pomorska 163, 90-236 Lodz (Poland)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

165

All-Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition a-Si:H Solar Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Efficient hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) nip solar cells have been fabricated with all doped and undoped a-Si:H layers deposited by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD). The total deposition time of all layers, except the top ITO-contact, is less than 4 minutes.

Iwaniczko, E.; Wang, Q.; Xu, Y.; Nelson, B. P.; Mahan, A. H.; Crandall, R. S.; Branz, H. M.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Local layering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a conventional 2d painting or compositing program, graphical objects are stacked in a user-specified global order, as if each were printed on an image-sized sheet of transparent film. In this paper we show how to relax this restriction so that users ... Keywords: animation, compositing, image editing, layers, stacking, visibility

James McCann; Nancy Pollard

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Method for depositing high-quality microcrystalline semiconductor materials  

SciTech Connect

A process for the plasma deposition of a layer of a microcrystalline semiconductor material is carried out by energizing a process gas which includes a precursor of the semiconductor material and a diluent with electromagnetic energy so as to create a plasma therefrom. The plasma deposits a layer of the microcrystalline semiconductor material onto the substrate. The concentration of the diluent in the process gas is varied as a function of the thickness of the layer of microcrystalline semiconductor material which has been deposited. Also disclosed is the use of the process for the preparation of an N-I-P type photovoltaic device.

Guha, Subhendu (Bloomfield Hills, MI); Yang, Chi C. (Troy, MI); Yan, Baojie (Rochester Hills, MI)

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

168

Nitrogen Deposition Data Available  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Deposition Data Available This data set, prepared by Elizabeth Holland and colleagues, contains data for wet and dry nitrogen-species deposition for the United States and...

169

Multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multi-layer resistive carbon film field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications. The multi-layered film of the present invention consists of at least two layers of a conductive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, where the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure can be a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film can be a plurality of carbon layers, where adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced.

Sullivan, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Friedmann, Thomas A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Electrostatic force assisted deposition of graphene  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An embodiment of a method of depositing graphene includes bringing a stamp into contact with a substrate over a contact area. The stamp has at least a few layers of the graphene covering the contact area. An electric field is developed over the contact area. The stamp is removed from the vicinity of the substrate which leaves at least a layer of the graphene substantially covering the contact area.

Liang, Xiaogan (Berkeley, CA)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

171

Atomic Calligraphy: The Direct Writing of Nanoscale Structures using MEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) based method for the resist free patterning of nano-structures. Using a focused ion beam (FIB) to customize larger MEMS machines, we fabricate apertures as small as 50 nm on plates that can be moved with nanometer precision over an area greater than 20x20 {\\mu}m^2. Depositing thermally evaporated gold atoms though the apertures while moving the plate results in the deposition of nanoscale metal patterns. Adding a shutter only microns above the aperture, enables high speed control of not only where but also when atoms are deposited. Using a shutter, different sized apertures can be selectively opened and closed for nano-structure fabrication with features ranging from nano- to micrometers in scale. The ability to evaporate materials with high precision, and thereby fabricate circuits and structures in situ, enables new kinds of experiments based on the interactions of a small number of atoms and eventually even single atoms.

Matthias Imboden; Han Han; Jackson Chang; Flavio Pardo; Cristian A. Bolle; Evan Lowell; David J. Bishop

2013-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

172

Electrodeposited Gd2Zr2O7 and Gd2O3 Buffer Layers for YBa2Cu3O7-..delta.. Superconductors  

SciTech Connect

Non-vacuum electrodeposition (ED) was used to prepare a biaxially textured Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} (GZO) and GZO/Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} (GO) buffer layer on a Ni-W substrate. The YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) superconductor was deposited by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) on a simplified ED-GZO and ED-GZO/ED-GO buffer layer. The buffer layers and YBCO superconductor were characterized by X-ray diffraction (including {theta}/2{theta}, pole figure, omega scans, and phi scans) and atomic force microscopy. Full-width at half maximum values of the omega ({omega}) and phi ({phi}) scans of the electrodeposited GZO and GZO/GO layer were better than those of the Ni-W base substrate. At 77 K and a self-magnetic field, the critical current density of PLD YBCO on the electrodeposited-based buffer layer was 3.3 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2}, using the field criterion of 1 {micro}V/cm.

Bhattacharya, R. N.; Phok, S.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Muon transfer from hot muonic hydrogen atoms to neon  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A negative muon beam has been directed on adjacent solid layers of hydrogen and neon. Three targets differing by their deuterium concentration were investigated. Muonic hydrogen atoms can drift to the neon layer where the muon is immediately transferred. The time structure of the muonic neon X-rays follows the exponential law with a disappearance rate corresponding to the one of [mu][sup [minus]p] atoms in each target. The rates [lambda][sub pp[mu

Jacot-Guillarmod, R. (Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique); Bailey, J.M. (Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom)); Beer, G.A.; Knowles, P.E.; Mason, G.R.; Olin, A. (Victoria Univ., BC (Canada)); Beveridge, J.L.; Marshall, G.M.; Brewer, J.H.; Forster, B.M. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)); Huber, T.M. (Gustavus Adolphus Coll., St. Peter, MN (United States)); Kammel, P.; Zmeskal, J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Optical devices featuring nonpolar textured semiconductor layers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor emitter, or precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate in a nonpolar orientation. The textured layers enhance light extraction, and the use of nonpolar orientation greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency compared to conventional devices. Both the internal and external quantum efficiencies of emitters of the invention can be 70-80% or higher. The invention provides highly efficient light emitting diodes suitable for solid state lighting.

Moustakas, Theodore D; Moldawer, Adam; Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Abell, Joshua

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

175

Optical devices featuring textured semiconductor layers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor sensor, solar cell or emitter, or a precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate. The textured layers enhance light extraction or absorption. Texturing in the region of multiple quantum wells greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency if the semiconductor is polar and the quantum wells are grown along the polar direction. Electroluminescence of LEDs of the invention is dichromatic, and results in variable color LEDs, including white LEDs, without the use of phosphor.

Moustakas, Theodore D. (Dover, MA); Cabalu, Jasper S. (Cary, NC)

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

176

Optical devices featuring textured semiconductor layers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor sensor, solar cell or emitter, or a precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate. The textured layers enhance light extraction or absorption. Texturing in the region of multiple quantum wells greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency if the semiconductor is polar and the quantum wells are grown along the polar direction. Electroluminescence of LEDs of the invention is dichromatic, and results in variable color LEDs, including white LEDs, without the use of phosphor.

Moustakas, Theodore D. (Dover, MA); Cabalu, Jasper S. (Cary, NC)

2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

177

Reading Comprehension - Atomic History  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atomic History Atomic History A Greek philosopher named Democritus said that all atoms are small, hard particles. He thought that atoms were made of a single material formed into different shapes and sizes. The word " _________ element compound mixture atom " is derived from the Greek word "atomos" which means "not able to be divided." In 1803, John Dalton, a school teacher, proposed his atomic theory. Dalton's theory states that elements (substances composed of only one type of _________ molecules ions atom ) combine in certain proportions to form _________ compounds atoms mixtures elements . In 1897, a British scientist named J. J. Thomson experimented with a cathode-ray tube which had a positively charged plate. The plate attracted negatively charged particles that we now call _________ protons neutrons

178

The Universe Adventure - Atoms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Matter and Atoms Matter and Atoms Richard Feynman "If, in some cataclysm, all of scientific knowledge were to be destroyed, and only one sentence passed on to the next generations of creatures, what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that...all things are made of atoms." -Richard P. Feynman, winner of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics All is atoms Matter is made of atoms, and atoms are comprised of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Everything in the Universe is made of matter. Though matter exists in many different forms, each form is made out of the same basic constituents: small particles called atoms. Atoms themselves are made of smaller particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. Protons and neutrons are composed of even smaller particles called quarks.

179

Local Atomic Density of Microporous Carbons  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We investigated the structure of two disordered carbons: activated carbon fibers (ACF) and ultramicroporous carbon (UMC). These carbons have highly porous structure with large surface areas and consequently low macroscopic density that should enhance adsorption of hydrogen. We used the atomic pair distribution function to probe the local atomic arrangements. The results show that the carbons maintain an in-plane local atomic structure similar to regular graphite, but the stacking of graphitic layers is strongly disordered. Although the local atomic density of these carbons is lower than graphite, it is only {approx}20% lower and is much higher than the macroscopic density due to the porosity of the structure. For this reason, the density of graphene sheets that have optimum separation for hydrogen adsorption is lower than anticipated.

Dmowski, Wojtek; Contescu, Cristian I.; Llobet, Anna; Gallego, Nidia C.; Egami, Takeskhi (Tennessee-K); (ORNL); (LANL)

2012-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

180

Atomic and Molecular Physics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... DG, * SRD 105 Physic Laboratory's Elemental ... Nuclear Physics SRD 144 Atomic Weights & ... Physical Constants SRD 121 Fundamental Physical ...

2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic layer deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Atomizing nozzle and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High pressure atomizing nozzle includes a high pressure gas manifold having a divergent expansion chamber between a gas inlet and arcuate manifold segment to minimize standing shock wave patterns in the manifold and thereby improve filling of the manifold with high pressure gas for improved melt atomization. The atomizing nozzle is especially useful in atomizing rare earth-transition metal alloys to form fine powder particles wherein a majority of the powder particles exhibit particle sizes having near-optimum magnetic properties.

Anderson, I.E.; Figliola, R.S.; Molnar, H.M.

1993-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

182

Calibrated Atomic Force Microscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Vorburger, SL Tan, NG Orji, J. Fu, “Interlaboratory Comparison of Traceable Atomic Force Microscope Pitch Measurements,” SPIE Proceedings Vol. ...

2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

183

Influence of the film properties on the plasma etching dynamics of rf-sputtered indium zinc oxide layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The etching characteristics of indium zinc oxide (IZO) films were investigated using a high-density plasma in Ar, Ar/Cl{sub 2}, and Ar/CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} chemistries. The IZO layers were deposited by means of rf magnetron sputtering, in which the target composition and growth temperature were varied to selectively tune the film properties. X-ray diffraction, elastic recoil detection, and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy were used to determine the crystallization quality, atomic density, and composition of the as-deposited IZO films. As the In/(In+Zn) composition ratio in the IZO layer increases, the etch yield in Ar and Ar/Cl{sub 2} plasmas remains fairly constant, indicating that the etching dynamic is essentially independent of the film properties. In sharp contrast, a strong increase of the IZO etch yield with the In/(In+Zn) fraction is observed in Ar/CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} plasma due to the preferential desorption of the group-III etch products. By comparing these experimental data to the predictions of a simple rate model accounting for preferential desorption effects, it is concluded that the balance between etching and polymer deposition in the Ar/CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} plasma plays an important role in the evolution of the IZO etch rate with the In concentration fraction.

Stafford, L.; Lim, W. T.; Pearton, S. J.; Chicoine, M.; Gujrathi, S.; Schiettekatte, F.; Park, Jae-Soung; Song, Ju-Il; Heo, Young-Woo; Lee, Joon-Hyung; Kim, Jeong-Joo; Kravchenko, I. I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Department of Inorganic Materials Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

184

The Future of Atomic Energy  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

There is definitely a technical possibility that atomic power may gradually develop into one of the principal sources of useful power. If this expectation will prove correct, great advantages can be expected to come from the fact that the weight of the fuel is almost negligible. This feature may be particularly valuable for making power available to regions of difficult access and far from deposits of coal. It also may prove a great asset in mobile power units for example in a power plant for ship propulsion. On the negative side there are some technical limitations to be applicability of atomic power of which perhaps the most serious is the impossibility of constructing light power units; also there will be some peculiar difficulties in operating atomic plants, as for example the necessity of handling highly radioactive substances which will necessitate, at least for some considerable period, the use of specially skilled personnel for the operation. But the chief obstacle in the way of developing atomic power will be the difficulty of organizing a large scale industrial development in an internationally safe way. This presents actually problems much more difficult to solve than any of the technical developments that are necessary, It will require an unusual amount of statesmanship to balance properly the necessity of allaying the international suspicion that arises from withholding technical secrets against the obvious danger of dumping the details of the procedures for an extremely dangerous new method of warfare on a world that may not yet be prepared to renounce war. Furthermore, the proper balance should be found in the relatively short time that will elapse before the 'secrets' will naturally become open knowledge by rediscovery on part of the scientists and engineers of other countries.

Fermi, E.

1946-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

185

Glow discharge deposition at high rates using disilane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The research program reported makes use of the fact that amorphous silicon films can be grown faster from disilane in a glow discharge than from the traditional silane. The goal is to find a method to grow films at a high rate and with sufficiently high quality to be used in an efficient solar cell. It must also be demonstrated that the appropriate device structure can be successfully fabricated under conditions which give high deposition rates. High quality intrinsic films have been deposited at 20 A/s. Efficiency of 5.6% on steel substrates and 5.3% on glass substrates were achieved using disilane i-layers deposited at 15 A/s in a basic structure, without wide-gap doped layers or light trapping. Wide gap p-layers were deposited using disilane. Results were compared with those obtained at Vactronic using high power discharges of silane-hydrogen mixtures. (LEW)

Rajeswaran, G.; Corderman, R.R.; Kampas, F.J.; Vanier, P.E.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Thinking in layers: modeling with layered materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This course serves as a guide to the considerable potential of layered surface models that are available in many commercial products. The key advantage of using such layered materials over traditional shading language constructs is that the end result ...

Andrea Weidlich; Alexander Wilkie

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Available Technologies: Nano-soldering to a Single Atomic Layer  

Alex Zettl and Ça?lar Girit of Berkeley Lab have developed a miniaturized soldering technology to solder submicron-sized, ohmic contacts to nanostructures of even ...

188

Strengthening Effect of Single-atomic-layer Graphene in Metal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The two-dimensional geometry, high intrinsic strength and modulus of graphene can effectively constrain dislocation motion, resulting in the significant ...

189

Atomic layer etching of graphene for full graphene device fabrication  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

)/Ti(10 nm) and graphene is as high as 450­800 O lm and this can degrade the character- istics graphene surface, while carbon with sp2 bonding under the C­O bonding remains unetched, due to the high line is the transmittance of the bilayer graphene (before ALET). Other transmittance spectra were

Yeom, Geun Young

190

Sputter deposition for multi-component thin films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ion beam sputter-induced deposition using a single ion beam and a multicomponent target is capable of reproducibly producing thin films of arbitrary composition, including those which are close to stoichiometry. Using a quartz crystal deposition monitor and a computer controlled, well-focused ion beam, this sputter-deposition approach is capable of producing metal oxide superconductors and semiconductors of the superlattice type such as GaAs-AlGaAs as well as layered metal/oxide/semiconductor/superconductor structures. By programming the dwell time for each target according to the known sputtering yield and desired layer thickness for each material, it is possible to deposit composite films from a well-controlled sub-monolayer up to thicknesses determined only by the available deposition time. In one embodiment, an ion beam is sequentially directed via a set of X-Y electrostatic deflection plates onto three or more different element or compound targets which are constituents of the desired film. In another embodiment, the ion beam is directed through an aperture in the deposition plate and is displaced under computer control to provide a high degree of control over the deposited layer. In yet another embodiment, a single fixed ion beam is directed onto a plurality of sputter targets in a sequential manner where the targets are each moved in alignment with the beam under computer control in forming a multilayer thin film. This controlled sputter-deposition approach may also be used with laser and electron beams.

Krauss, Alan R. (Plainfield, IL); Auciello, Orlando (Cary, NC)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Deposition and characterisation of bismuth layer-structured ferroelectric films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

require optimisation. That is, SBT has a low remanent polarisation (2Pr 100 kV/cm). For most memory applications, a larger polarisation density and lower operating voltage is preferable. Therefore... is retained in the memory device even if the power is lost. These memories promise fast read-and-write cycles, low switching voltages (3~5 V and lower) nonvolatility in the unpowered mode, and long endurance (1012 cycles). Several attempts were made...

Hu, Xiaobing

192

Surface Layer Deposition of Nanostructured Materials onto Support ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the main reasons impeding their current uptake into wider usage is their high ... Nanocrystalline Phosphors for Lighting and Detection Applications.

193

Atomic Data for Mercury (Hg)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Mercury (Hg) Homepage - Introduction Finding list Select element by name. Select element by atomic number. ... Atomic Data for Mercury (Hg). ...

194

Atomic Data for Plutonium (Pu)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Plutonium (Pu) Homepage - Introduction Finding list Select element by name. Select element by atomic number. ... Atomic Data for Plutonium (Pu). ...

195

Atomic Data for Tungsten (W )  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Tungsten (W) Homepage - Introduction Finding list Select element by name. Select element by atomic number. ... Atomic Data for Tungsten (W). ...

196

Atomic Data for Uranium (U )  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Uranium (U) Homepage - Introduction Finding list Select element by name. Select element by atomic number. ... Atomic Data for Uranium (U). ...

197

Atomic Data for Hydrogen (H )  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Hydrogen (H) Homepage - Introduction Finding list Select element by name. Select element by atomic number. ... Atomic Data for Hydrogen (H). ...

198

Atomic Data for Thorium (Th)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Thorium (Th) Homepage - Introduction Finding list Select element by name. Select element by atomic number. ... Atomic Data for Thorium (Th). ...

199

ATOMS PEACE WAR Eisenhower  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ATOMS ATOMS PEACE WAR Eisenhower and the Atomic Energy Commission Richard G. Hewlett and lack M. Roll With a Foreword by Richard S. Kirkendall and an Essay on Sources by Roger M. Anders University of California Press Berkeley Los Angeles London Published 1989 by the University of California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles, California University of California Press, Ltd. London, England Prepared by the Atomic Energy Commission; work made for hire. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Hewlett, Richard G. Atoms for peace and war, 1953-1961. (California studies in the history of science) Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Nuclear energy-United States-History. 2. U.S. Atomic Energy Commission-History. 3. Eisenhower, Dwight D. (Dwight David), 1890-1969.

200

Metal atom oxidation laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides. (auth)

Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

1975-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic layer deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Metal atom oxidation laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides.

Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

1975-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

202

Chemical and structural investigations of the incorporation of metal manganese into ruthenium thin films for use as copper diffusion barrier layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The incorporation of manganese into a 3 nm ruthenium thin-film is presented as a potential mechanism to improve its performance as a copper diffusion barrier. Manganese ({approx}1 nm) was deposited on an atomic layer deposited Ru film, and the Mn/Ru/SiO{sub 2} structure was subsequently thermally annealed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies reveal the chemical interaction of Mn with the SiO{sub 2} substrate to form manganese-silicate (MnSiO{sub 3}), implying the migration of the metal through the Ru film. Electron energy loss spectroscopy line profile measurements of the intensity of the Mn signal across the Ru film confirm the presence of Mn at the Ru/SiO{sub 2} interface.

McCoy, A. P.; Casey, P.; Bogan, J.; Hughes, G. [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Lozano, J. G.; Nellist, P. D. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

203

direct_deposit_111609  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PROTECT YOUR BANKING INFORMATION: PROTECT YOUR BANKING INFORMATION: DO NOT complete this form until you are ready to submit it to the Payroll Department. DIRECT DEPOSIT REQUEST Directions: 1. Provide required information neatly, legibly; 2. If Checking Account Direct Deposit, include a voided check. a. DO NOT submit a deposit slip! 3. If Savings Account Direct Deposit, include a copy of savings card. 4. Sign this form; 5. Inter-office mail it to Craft Payroll at "P238." DIRECT DEPOSITION AUTHORIZATION I hereby authorize Los Alamos National Laboratory, hereinafter called The Laboratory, to initiate credit entries and, if necessary, debit entries and adjustments for any credit entries in error to my account listed on this form. If deposit is for:

204

A single layer hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) based lift-off process for germanium and platinum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Primarily used as etch mask, single layer hydrogen silsesquioxane has never been investigated for lift-off technique. In this article, we propose a new technique where a single layer of hydrogen silsesquioxane, a negative tone electron beam resist, is ... Keywords: Electron beam lithography, Germanium deposition, Hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ), Lift-off technique, Platinum deposition, Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH)

Vikram Passi; Aurelie Lecestre; Christophe Krzeminski; Guilhem Larrieu; Emmanuel Dubois; Jean-Pierre Raskin

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Atomic Spectroscopy: An Introduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 60. A. de-Shalit and I. Talmi, Nuclear Shell Theory (Academic, New York, 1963). ... CE Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, Natl. Stand. Ref. ...

206

NIST Atomic Spectra Database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Ground states and ionization energies of atoms ... the US Department of Energy, by the ... SRDP), and by NIST's Systems Integration for Manufacturing ...

2013-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

207

Cold Atoms News  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... the first time caused a gas of atoms ... mysterious data in ultracold gases of rubidium ... Material May Demonstrate Long-Sought 'Liquid' Magnetic State ...

2010-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

208

Atomic Collapse Observed  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Collapse State Observed Aided by Simulations, Scientists Observe Atomic Collapse State Quantum Mechanics Prediction Confirmed in Graphene Using NERSC's Hopper April 26, 2013 |...

209

The Harnessed Atom  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Harnessed Atom is a new middle school science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) curriculum extension that focuses on nuclear science and energy. It offers teachers accurate, unbiased,...

210

Study of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films and the application to p-channel thin film transistor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The material and process characteristics of boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (PECVD) have been studied. The goal is to apply the high quality films deposited at low substrate temperature for devices such as thin film transistors (TFTs). The effect of the deposition parameters such as doping gas concentration, substrate temperature, hydrogen dilution, helium dilution, power density, and pressure at 50 kHz rf frequency on the films' characteristics were analyzed. The films' electrical property was characterized by its dark resistivity. The chemical composition and bonding characteristics were discussed. p-channel TFTs were fabricated with these optimized films. Three different levels of dopant concentrations in the channel were used to detect the dopant effect on the TFT properties. Doping resulted in the increase of film deposition rate. The low film deposition rate at the high temperature deposition corresponds to a dense structured film. The increase of gas phase H? concentration could increase H? etching of the weak bonds in the film, which is consistent with the decrease of the deposition rate. Film's dark conductivity is determined by the atomic B concentration in the film, the substrate temperature, the ion bombardment effect, the surface morphology, and the gas phase and film hydrogen concentration. At high power density and high pressure plasma condition, film with a high deposition rate shows a high conductivity. However, excessive ion bombardment effect, e.g. in powdery plasma region, limits the further increase of the conductivity. Film deposited with He dilution demonstrates a higher conductivity compared to the H? dilution counterpart. This might be attributed to a more effective ion bombardment effect of the former. Powder generation in the plasma significantly affects the conductivity of He diluted film compared to the H? diluted ones, which might be due to the less H? etching effect at the He dilution deposition. The output and transfer characteristics show the normal p-channel TFTs behavior. TFT characteristics, such as mobility, threshold voltage, and on-off current ratio were affected by the doping gas concentration in the channel layer and the deposition process.

Nominanda, Helinda

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

MgO buffer layers on rolled nickel or copper as superconductor substrates  

SciTech Connect

Buffer layer architectures are epitaxially deposited on biaxially-textured rolled-Ni and/or Cu substrates for high current conductors, and more particularly buffer layer architectures such as MgO/Ag/Pt/Ni, MgO/Ag/Pd/Ni, MgO/Ag/Ni, MgO/Ag/Pd/Cu, MgO/Ag/Pt/Cu, and MgO/Ag/Cu. Techniques used to deposit these buffer layers include electron beam evaporation, thermal evaporation, rf magnetron sputtering, pulsed laser deposition, metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), combustion CVD, and spray pyrolysis.

Paranthaman, Mariappan (Knoxville, TN); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN); Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); List, III, Frederic A. (Andersonville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Method for making MgO buffer layers on rolled nickel or copper as superconductor substrates  

SciTech Connect

Buffer layer architectures are epitaxially deposited on biaxially-textured rolled-Ni and/or Cu substrates for high current conductors, and more particularly buffer layer architectures such as MgO/Ag/Pt/Ni, MgO/Ag/Pd/Ni, MgO/Ag/Ni, MgO/Ag/Pd/Cu, MgO/Ag/Pt/Cu, and MgO/Ag/Cu. Techniques used to deposit these buffer layers include electron beam evaporation, thermal evaporation, rf magnetron sputtering, pulsed laser deposition, metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), combustion CVD, and spray pyrolysis.

Paranthaman, Mariappan (Knoxville, TN); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN); Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); List, III, Frederic A. (Andersonville, TN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Method of controllong the deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon and apparatus therefor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method and apparatus for the controlled deposition of a layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon on a substrate. Means is provided for the illumination of the coated surface of the substrate and measurement of the resulting photovoltage at the outermost layer of the coating. Means is further provided for admixing amounts of p type and n type dopants to the reactant gas in response to the measured photovoltage to achieve a desired level and type of doping of the deposited layer.

Hanak, Joseph J. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1985-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

214

Layer-by-Layer Assembled Thin Films for Battery Electrolytes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Layer-by-Layer Assembled Thin Films for Battery Electrolytes ... Abstract Scope, Exponential layer-by-layer (eLBL) assembled battery ...

215

Ion-assisted doping of 2-6 compounds during physical vapor deposition  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes a research program to (1) investigate ion-assisted doping during chemical vapor deposition of CdTe and (2) determine the influence of co-depositing ionized dopant atoms in the growth and structural and photoelectronic properties of the deposited films. In p-CdTe homo-epitaxial films, we controlled doping up to about 6 {times} 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}3} and 2 {times} 10{sup 17} cm{sub {minus}3} or ion-assisted depositions with As and P ions, respectively. At a growth rate of approximately 0.1 {mu}m/min, a substrate temperature of 400{degree}C, and ion energy of 60 eV, a maximum doping density was found near an ion current of 0.6{mu}A/cm{sup 2}. Related studies included elucidating the role of low-energy ion damage in the ion-assisted doping process, and investigating the decrease in carrier density near the surface of p-CdTe upon heating in vacuum, H{sub 2}, or Ar. We demonstrate the ability to make carrier density profiles and to grade junctions, and we present preliminary results from polycrystalline p-CdTe films grown on graphite and alumina substrates. We also present solar cells prepared using the p-CdTe as the collector area and n-CdS as the window layer, and we examine their photovoltaic parameters for different carrier densities and configurations in p-CdTe. 91 refs., 44 figs., 5 tabs.

Bube, R H [Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Radionuclide deposition control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

Brehm, William F. (Richland, WA); McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Atomic scale enhancement of the adhesion of beryllium films to carbon substrates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have used 200 keV carbon ions to enhance the adhesion of 240-nm thick Be films to polished, vitreous carbon substrates. Adhesion of the as-deposited films was below that necessary to pass the scotch-tape test. Carbon ion fluences less than 1.6x10{sup 14} C/cm{sup 2} were sufficient to ensure the passage of the tape test without affecting the optical properties of the films. Adhesion failure of the as-deposited film was attributed to an inner oxide layer between the Be and the carbon. Because this oxide ({approximately}5 nm of BeO) was not measurably changed by the irradiation process, these results are consistent with adhesion enhancement occurring on the atomic scale at the interface between the inner oxide and the carbon substrate. This conclusion was supported by Rutherford backscattering (RBS) data, and potential adhesion mechanisms are discussed with consideration of relative contributions from electronic and nuclear stopping.

Musket, R.G.; Wirtenson, G.R.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

1988-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

220

Earth's Core Hottest Layer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Earth's Core Hottest Layer Earth's Core Hottest Layer Name: Alfred Status: Grade: 6-8 Location: FL Country: USA Date: Spring 2011 Question: Why is the inner core the hottest layer? How is that possible? Replies: There are two factors causing the center of the Earth hotter than various layers of the Earth's. First, the more dense is the layer. The denser layer, the hotter it will be. In addition, the source of the heating is due to heat produced by nuclear decay. These substances tend to be more dense than lower dense substances. So the source of heat (temperature) is higher, the greater will be the temperature. Having said all that, the reasons are rather more complicated in the "real" Earth. If the inner layers were less dense they would rise (bubble) to the "surface" leaving the inner layers more dense and thus hotter layers.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic layer deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Vacuum deposited polymer/silver reflector material  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Weatherable, low cost, front surface, solar reflectors on flexible substrates would be highly desirable for lamination to solar concentrator panels. The method to be described in this paper may permit such reflector material to be fabricated for less than 50 cents per square foot. Vacuum deposited Polymer/Silver/Polymer reflectors and Fabry-Perot interference filters were fabricated in a vacuum web coating operation on polyester substrates. Reflectivities were measured in the wavelength range from .4 {mu}m to .8 {mu}m. It is hoped that a low cost substrate can be used with the substrate laminated to the concentrator and the weatherable acrylic polymer coating facing the sun. This technique should be capable of deposition line speeds approaching 1500 linear feet/minute. Central to this technique is a new vacuum deposition process for the high rate deposition of polymer films. This polymer process involves the flash evaporation of an acrylic monomer onto a moving substrate. The monomer is subsequently cured by an electron beam or ultraviolet light. This high speed polymer film deposition process has been named the PML process - for Polymer Multi-Layer.

Affinito, J.; Martin, P.; Gross, M.; Bennett, W.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Materials' Deformation Dynamics at Atomic Scale In situ Atomic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Materials' Deformation Dynamics at Atomic Scale In situ Atomic .... What Can We Learn from Measurements of Li-ion Battery Single Particles?

223

High temperature step-flow growth of gallium phosphide by molecular beam epitaxy and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Post-growth surface morphologies of high-temperature homoepitaxial GaP films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) have been studied. Smooth, stepped surface morphologies of MBE-grown layers, measured by atomic force microscopy, were found for a wide range of substrate temperatures and P{sub 2}:Ga flux ratios. A MOCVD-based growth study performed under similar conditions to MBE-grown samples shows a nearly identical smooth, step-flow surface morphology, presenting a convergence of growth conditions for the two different methods. The additional understanding of GaP epitaxy gained from this study will impact its use in applications that include GaP-based device technologies, III-V metamorphic buffers, and III-V materials integration with silicon.

Ratcliff, C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Grassman, T. J.; Ringel, S. A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Institute for Materials Research, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Carlin, J. A. [Institute for Materials Research, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

224

Perspectives on Deposition Velocity  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Deposition Deposition Velocity ... Going down the rabbit hole to explain that sinking feeling Brian DiNunno, Ph.D. Project Enhancement Corporation June 6 th , 2012 Discussion Framework ï‚— Development of the HSS Deposition Velocity Safety Bulletin ï‚— Broader discussion of appropriate conservatism within dispersion modeling and DOE-STD-3009 DOE-STD-3009 Dose Comparison "General discussion is provided for source term calculation and dose estimation, as well as prescriptive guidance for the latter. The intent is that calculations be based on reasonably conservative estimates of the various input parameters." - DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A.3 DOE-STD-3009 Dispersion

225

general_atomics.cdr  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

former former General Atomics Hot Cell Facility was constructed in 1959 and operated until 1991. The site encompassed approximately 7,400 square feet of laboratory and remote operations cells. Licensed operations at the facility included receipt, handling, and shipment of radioactive materials; remote handling, examination, and storage of previously irradiated nuclear fuel materials; pilot-scale tritium extraction operations; and development, fabrication, and inspection of uranium oxide-beryllium oxide fuel materials. General Atomics performed most of the work for the federal government. The General Atomics Hot Cell Facility was located in a 60-acre complex 13 miles northwest of downtown San Diego, 1 mile inland from the Pacific Ocean, and approximately 300 feet above sea level. The General Atomics site is in the center of Torrey Mesa Science Center, a 304-acre industrial

226

general_atomics.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Discussions between DOE and General Atomics led to an agreed cost-sharing and no-fee arrangement for the decontamination and site...

227

Deposition of device quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon at high deposition rates with increased stability using the hot wire filament technique  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method or producing hydrogenated amorphous silicon on a substrate, comprising the steps of: positioning the substrate in a deposition chamber at a distance of about 0.5 to 3.0 cm from a heatable filament in the deposition chamber; maintaining a pressure in said deposition chamber in the range of about 10 to 100 millitorr and pressure times substrate-filament spacing in the range of about 10 to 100 millitorr-cm, heating the filament to a temperature in the range of about 1,500 to 2,000.degree. C., and heating the substrate to a surface temperature in the range of about 280 to 475.degree. C.; and flowing silicohydride gas into the deposition chamber with said heated filament, decomposing said silicohydride gas into silicon and hydrogen atomic species and allowing products of gas reactions between said atomic species and the silicohydride gas to migrate to and deposit on said substrate while adjusting and maintaining said pressure times substrate-filament spacing in said deposition chamber at a value in said 10 to 100 millitorr range to produce statistically about 3 to 50 atomic collisions between the silicon and hydrogen atomic species migrating to said substrate and undecomposed molecules of the silane or other silicohydride gas in the deposition chamber.

Molenbroek, Edith C. (Utrecht, NL); Mahan, Archie Harvin (Golden, CO); Gallagher, Alan C. (Louisville, CO)

2000-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

228

Sharing the atom bomb  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Shaken by the devastation of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and fearful that the American atomic monopoly would spark an arms race, Dean Acheson led a push in 1946 to place the bomb-indeed, all atomic energy-under international control. But as the memories of wartime collaboration faded, relations between the superpowers grew increasingly tense, and the confrontational atmosphere undid his proposal. Had Acheson succeeded, the Cold War might not have been. 2 figs.

Chace, J.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Metal atomization spray nozzle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal.

Huxford, Theodore J. (Harriman, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Metal atomization spray nozzle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal. 6 figures.

Huxford, T.J.

1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

231

Effects of atomic radiation  

SciTech Connect

This book focuses on the lifelong effects of atomic radiation exposure in language understandable by the concerned layperson or the specialist in another field. The base of knowledge used is the work of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor since 1975 the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Within the range of Chronic effects on human health the book provides a thorough review, although effects of nonionizing radiation, effects on structures, effects on other living species, and acute effects are not discussed.

Schull, W.J.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

232

Atomizing nozzle and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high pressure close-coupled gas atomizing nozzle includes multiple discrete gas jet discharge orifices having aerodynamically designed convergent-divergent geometry with an first converging section communicated to a gas supply manifold and to a diverging section by a constricted throat section to increase atomizing gas velocity. The gas jet orifices are oriented at gas jet apex angle selected relative to the melt supply tip apex angle to establish a melt aspiration condition at the melt supply tip.

Ting, Jason (Ames, IA); Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert L. (Ames, IA)

2000-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

233

Deposition of device quality low H content, amorphous silicon films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film is deposited by passing a stream of silane gas (SiH{sub 4}) over a high temperature, 2,000 C, tungsten (W) filament in the proximity of a high temperature, 400 C, substrate within a low pressure, 8 mTorr, deposition chamber. The silane gas is decomposed into atomic hydrogen and silicon, which in turn collides preferably not more than 20--30 times before being deposited on the hot substrate. The hydrogenated amorphous silicon films thus produced have only about one atomic percent hydrogen, yet have device quality electrical, chemical, and structural properties, despite this lowered hydrogen content. 7 figs.

Mahan, A.H.; Carapella, J.C.; Gallagher, A.C.

1995-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

234

Atomic Data for Americium (Am)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Atomic Number = 95. Atomic Weight = (243). Reference E95. Isotope, Mass, Abundance, Spin, Mag Moment, 241 Am, 241.056823, 0, 5/2, +1.61. ...

235

Muon transfer from hot muonic hydrogen atoms to neon  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A negative muon beam has been directed on adjacent solid layers of hydrogen and neon. Three targets differing by their deuterium concentration were investigated. Muonic hydrogen atoms can drift to the neon layer where the muon is immediately transferred. The time structure of the muonic neon X-rays follows the exponential law with a disappearance rate corresponding to the one of {mu}{sup {minus}p} atoms in each target. The rates {lambda}{sub pp{mu}} and {lambda}{sub pd} can be extracted.

Jacot-Guillarmod, R. [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique; Bailey, J.M. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom); Beer, G.A.; Knowles, P.E.; Mason, G.R.; Olin, A. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada); Beveridge, J.L.; Marshall, G.M.; Brewer, J.H.; Forster, B.M. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Huber, T.M. [Gustavus Adolphus Coll., St. Peter, MN (United States); Kammel, P.; Zmeskal, J. [Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Mittelenergiephysik; Kunselman, A.R. [Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (United States); Petitjean, C. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

236

Improved field emission characteristic of carbon nanotubes by an Ag micro-particle intermediation layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An efficient way to improve field emission characteristic of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) through an Ag micro-particle intermediation layer is presented. In this way, the intermediation layer is deposited on an indium tin oxide glass substrate by electrochemical ... Keywords: Ag micro-particle intermediation layer, Carbon nanotubes, Field emission

Wenhui Lu; Hang Song; Yixin Jin; Haifeng Zhao; Zhiming Li; Hong Jiang; Guoqing Miao

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

EMSL: Capabilities: Deposition and Microfabrication  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deposition and Microfabrication Deposition and Microfabrication Additional Information Meet the Deposition and Microfabrication Experts Related EMSL User Projects Deposition and Microfabrication Tools are Applied to all Science Themes Deposition and Microfabrication brochure Designed to augment research important to a variety of disciplines, EMSL's Deposition and Microfabrication Capability tackles serious scientific challenges from a microscopic perspective. From deposition instruments that emphasize oxide films and interfaces to a state-of-the-art microfabrication suite, EMSL has equipment to tailor surfaces, as diverse as single-crystal thin films or nanostructures, or create the microenvironments needed for direct experimentation at micron scales. Users benefit from coupling deposition and microfabrication applications

238

Ultrashort pulse laser deposition of thin films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Short pulse PLD is a viable technique of producing high quality films with properties very close to that of crystalline diamond. The plasma generated using femtosecond lasers is composed of single atom ions with no clusters producing films with high Sp.sup.3 /Sp.sup.2 ratios. Using a high average power femtosecond laser system, the present invention dramatically increases deposition rates to up to 25 .mu.m/hr (which exceeds many CVD processes) while growing particulate-free films. In the present invention, deposition rates is a function of laser wavelength, laser fluence, laser spot size, and target/substrate separation. The relevant laser parameters are shown to ensure particulate-free growth, and characterizations of the films grown are made using several diagnostic techniques including electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Raman spectroscopy.

Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Dual-Layer Asymmetric Microporous Silica Membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report a novel sol-gel dip-coating process to form dual-layer microporous silica membranes with improved membrane performance and reproducibility. First, we deposit a surfactant-templated silica (STS) intermediate layer on top of a commercial {gamma}-alumina support both to improve its ''surface finish'' and to prevent a subsequently deposited microporous overlayer from penetrating into the support. Second, membranes are processed under clean room conditions to avoid dust contamination and, third, membranes are vacuum-calcined to promote further pore shrinkage and impart surface hydrophobicity. The resulting asymmetric membrane exhibits a gradual change in pore diameter from 50{angstrom} ({gamma}-alumina support layer) to 10-12{angstrom} (STS intermediate layer), and then to 3-4{angstrom} (30nm thick, ultramicroporous silica top-layer). Compared to a single-layer process using only the microporous overlayer, the dual-layer process improves both flux and selectivity. For the industrially important problem of natural gas purification, the combined CO{sub 2} flux [(3{approx} 0.5) x 10{sup {minus}4} cm{sup 3}(STP)/(s{center_dot}cm{sup 2}{center_dot}cm-Hg)] and CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} separation factors [200{approx}600] are superior to all previously reported values for separation of a 50/50 (v/v) CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} gas mixture. In addition, the membrane selectively separated hydrogen from a simulated reformate from partial oxidation of methanol as evidenced by a high concentration of hydrogen recovery.

TSAI,CHUNG-YI; TAM,SIU-YUE; LU,YUNFENG; BRINKER,C. JEFFREY

1999-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

240

Questions and Answers - How do atoms form?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(Biggest and smallest atom?) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (Does gravity affect atoms?) Does gravity affect atoms? How do atoms form? The current view is that...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic layer deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Questions and Answers - Can you crush atoms?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Does gravity affect atoms? Previous Question (Does gravity affect atoms?) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (Parts and weights of atoms?) Parts and weights of atoms?...

242

Photonic layered media  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new class of structured dielectric media which exhibit significant photonic bandstructure has been invented. The new structures, called photonic layered media, are easy to fabricate using existing layer-by-layer growth techniques, and offer the ability to significantly extend our practical ability to tailor the properties of such optical materials.

Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Peaceful Uses of the Atom and Atoms for Peace  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Peaceful Uses of the Atom Peaceful Uses of the Atom Fermi and Atoms for Peace · Understanding the Atom · Seaborg · Teller Atoms for Peace Atoms for Peace + 50 - Conference, October 22, 2003 Celebrating the 50th anniversary of President Eisenhower's "Atoms for Peace" speech to the UN General Assembly Atoms for Peace (video 12:00 Minutes) Atoms for Peace Address given by Dwight D. Eisenhower before the General Assembly of the United Nations, New York City, December 8, 1953 Documents: Atomic Power in Space: A History A history of the Space Isotope Power Program of the United States from the mid-1950s through 1982; interplanetary space exploration successes and achievements have been made possible by this technology. Establishing Site X: Letter, Arthur H. Compton to Enrico Fermi, September 14, 1942

244

A molecular view of vapor deposited glasses  

SciTech Connect

Recently, novel organic glassy materials that exhibit remarkable stability have been prepared by vapor deposition. The thermophysical properties of these new ''stable'' glasses are equivalent to those that common glasses would exhibit after aging over periods lasting thousands of years. The origin of such enhanced stability has been elusive; in the absence of detailed models, past studies have discussed the formation of new polyamorphs or that of nanocrystals to explain the observed behavior. In this work, an atomistic molecular model of trehalose, a disaccharide of glucose, is used to examine the properties of vapor-deposited stable glasses. Consistent with experiment, the model predicts the formation of stable glasses having a higher density, a lower enthalpy, and higher onset temperatures than those of the corresponding ''ordinary'' glass formed by quenching the bulk liquid. Simulations reveal that newly formed layers of the growing vapor-deposited film exhibit greater mobility than the remainder of the material, thereby enabling a reorganization of the film as it is grown. They also reveal that ''stable'' glasses exhibit a distinct layered structure in the direction normal to the substrate that is responsible for their unusual properties.

Singh, Sadanand; Pablo, Juan J. de [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2011-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

245

Method for large-scale fabrication of atomic-scale structures on material surfaces using surface vacancies  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for forming atomic-scale structures on a surface of a substrate on a large-scale includes creating a predetermined amount of surface vacancies on the surface of the substrate by removing an amount of atoms on the surface of the material corresponding to the predetermined amount of the surface vacancies. Once the surface vacancies have been created, atoms of a desired structure material are deposited on the surface of the substrate to enable the surface vacancies and the atoms of the structure material to interact. The interaction causes the atoms of the structure material to form the atomic-scale structures.

Lim, Chong Wee (Urbana, IL); Ohmori, Kenji (Urbana, IL); Petrov, Ivan Georgiev (Champaign, IL); Greene, Joseph E. (Champaign, IL)

2004-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

246

NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center. ... Responds to user requests for data, literature references, and technical information. ...

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

247

Lesson 3- Atoms and Isotopes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

You’ve probably heard people refer to nuclear energy as “atomic energy.” Why? Nuclear energy is the energy that is stored in the bonds of atoms, inside the nucleus. Nuclear power plants are designed to capture this energy as heat and convert it to electricity. This lesson looks closely at what atoms are and how atoms store energy.

248

general_atomics.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

former General former General Atomics Hot Cell Facility was constructed in 1959 and operated until 1991. The site encompassed approximately 7,400 square feet of laboratory and remote operations cells. Licensed operations at the facility included receipt, handling, and shipment of radioactive materials; remote handling, examination, and storage of previously irradiated nuclear fuel materials; pilot-scale tritium extraction operations; and development, fabrication, and inspection of uranium oxide-beryllium oxide fuel materials. General Atomics performed most of the work for the federal government. The General Atomics Hot Cell Facility was located in a 60-acre complex 13 miles northwest of downtown San Diego, 1 mile inland from the Pacific Ocean, and approximately 300 feet above sea level.

249

Dry deposition of pan to grassland vegetation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Peroxyacetyl nitrate or PAN (CH{sub 3}C(O)OONO{sub 2}) is formed in the lower troposphere via photochemical reactions involving nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). PAN has a lifetime in the free troposphere of about three months and is removed by photolysis or reaction with OH. Dry deposition will decrease its lifetime, although the few measurements that have been made indicate that this process is slow. Measurements of the uptake of PAN by alfalfa in growth chambers indicated that the dry deposition velocity (downward flux divided by concentration at a specified height) was 0.75 cm s{sup {minus}1}. Garland and Penkett measured a dry deposition velocity of 0.25 cm s{sup {minus}1} for PAN to grass and soil in a return-flow wind tunnel. Shepson et al. (1992) analyzed trends of PAN and O{sub 3} concentrations in the stable nocturnal boundary layer over mixed deciduous/coniferous forests at night, when leaf stomata were closed, and concluded that the deposition velocity for PAN was at least 0.5 cm s{sup {minus}1}. We measured the dry deposition velocity of PAN to a grassland site in the midwestern United States with a modified Bowen ratio technique. Experiments were conducted on selected days during September, October, and November of 1990. An energy balance Bowen ratio station was used to observe the differences in air temperature and water vapor content between heights of 3.0 and 0.92 m and to evaluate the surface energy balance. Air samples collected at the same two heights in Teflon {reg_sign} bags were analyzed for PAN by a gas chromatographic technique. We present an example of the variations of PAN concentrations and gradients observed during the day and compare measurements of the dry deposition velocity to expectations based on the physicochemical properties of PAN.

Doskey, P.V.; Wesely, M.L.; Cook, D.R.; Gao, W.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Growth of oxide exchange bias layers  

SciTech Connect

An oxide (NiO, CoO, NiCoO) antiferromagnetic exchange bias layer produced by ion beam sputtering of an oxide target in pure argon (Ar) sputtering gas, with no oxygen gas introduced into the system. Antiferromagnetic oxide layers are used, for example, in magnetoresistive readback heads to shift the hysteresis loops of ferromagnetic films away from the zero field axis. For example, NiO exchange bia layers have been fabricated using ion beam sputtering of an NiO target using Ar ions, with the substrate temperature at 200.degree. C., the ion beam voltage at 1000V and the beam current at 20 mA, with a deposition rate of about 0.2 .ANG./sec. The resulting NiO film was amorphous.

Chaiken, Alison (Fremont, CA); Michel, Richard P. (Bloomington, MN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Instrument Series: Deposition and Microfabrication  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deposition and Microfabrication Deposition and Microfabrication Sputter Deposition System Only available at EMSL, the Discovery ® Deposition System has been customized to be a fully automated multi-functional "hybrid" instrument with several modes for thin film processing, including multi-target sputtering, effusion cell deposition, electron beam deposition, and in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) materials characterization. Unlike most systems, the Discovery ® Deposition System's unique configuration offers operational flexibility, efficiency, and control, allowing a range of applications and materials to be processed simultaneously. Because it is software controlled, users can provide their own "recipes" and have a complete log of what happens throughout the

252

Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposition  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposition Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposition André Anders Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, 1 Cyclotron Road, Mailstop 53, Berkeley, California 94720 aanders@lbl.gov Abstract Cathodic arc plasma deposition is one of oldest coatings technologies. Over the last two decades it has become the technology of choice for hard, wear resistant coatings on cutting and forming tools, corrosion resistant and decorative coatings on door knobs, shower heads, jewelry, and many other substrates. The history, basic physics of cathodic arc operation, the infamous macroparticle problem and common filter solutions are reviewed. Cathodic arc plasmas stand out due to their high degree of ionization, with important consequences for film nucleation, growth, and efficient utilization of substrate bias. The

253

JILA Researchers Discover Atomic Clock Can Simulate ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Artist's conception of interactions among atoms in JILA's strontium atomic clock during a quantum simulation experiment. ...

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

254

Layered plasma polymer composite membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is [>=]2 and is the number of selective layers. 2 figs.

Babcock, W.C.

1994-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

255

Producing thin film photovoltaic modules with high integrity interconnects and dual layer contacts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High performance photovoltaic modules are produced with improved interconnects by a special process. Advantageously, the photovoltaic modules have a dual layer back (rear) contact and a front contact with at least one layer. The front contact and the inner layer of the back contact can comprise a transparent conductive oxide. The outer layer of the back contact can comprise a metal or metal oxide. The front contact can also have a dielectric layer. In one form, the dual layer back contact comprises a zinc oxide inner layer and an aluminum outer layer and the front contact comprises a tin oxide inner layer and a silicon dioxide dielectric outer layer. One or more amorphous silicon-containing thin film semiconductors can be deposited between the front and back contacts. The contacts can be positioned between a substrate and an optional superstrate. During production, the transparent conductive oxide layer of the front contact is scribed by a laser, then the amorphous silicon-containing semiconductors and inner layer of the dual layer back contact are simultaneously scribed and trenched (drilled) by the laser and the trench is subsequently filled with the same metal as the outer layer of the dual layer back contact to provide a superb mechanical and electrical interconnect between the front contact and the outer layer of the dual layer back contact. The outer layer of the dual layer back contact can then be scribed by the laser. For enhanced environmental protection, the photovoltaic modules can be encapsulated.

Jansen, Kai W. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Maley, Nagi (Exton, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Producing thin film photovoltaic modules with high integrity interconnects and dual layer contacts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High performance photovoltaic modules are produced with improved interconnects by a special process. Advantageously, the photovoltaic modules have a dual layer back (rear) contact and a front contact with at least one layer. The front contact and the inner layer of the back contact can comprise a transparent conductive oxide. The outer layer of the back contact can comprise a metal or metal oxide. The front contact can also have a dielectric layer. In one form, the dual layer back contact comprises a zinc oxide inner layer and an aluminum outer layer and the front contact comprises a tin oxide inner layer and a silicon dioxide dielectric outer layer. One or more amorphous silicon-containing thin film semiconductors can be deposited between the front and back contacts. The contacts can be positioned between a substrate and an optional superstrate. During production, the transparent conductive oxide layer of the front contact is scribed by a laser, then the amorphous silicon-containing semiconductors and inner layer of the dual layer back contact are simultaneously scribed and trenched (drilled) by the laser and the trench is subsequently filled with the same metal as the outer layer of the dual layer back contact to provide a superb mechanical and electrical interconnect between the front contact and the outer layer of the dual layer back contact. The outer layer of the dual layer back contact can then be scribed by the laser. For enhanced environmental protection, the photovoltaic modules can be encapsulated.

Jansen, Kai W. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Maley, Nagi (Exton, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Detection of hot muonic hydrogen atoms emitted in vacuum using x-rays  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Negative muons are stopped in solid layers of hydrogen and neon. Muonic hydrogen atoms can drift to the neon layer where the muon is immediately transferred. It was found that the time structure of the muonic neon X-rays follows the exponential law where the rate is the same as the disappearance rate of {mu}{sup -}p atoms. The pp{mu}-formation rate and the muon transfer rate to deuterium are deduced.

Jacot-Guillarmod, R. [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland); Bailey, J.M. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom); Beer, G.A.; Knowles, P.E.; Mason, G.R.; Olin, A. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada); Beveridge, J.L.; Marshall, G.M. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Brewer, J.H.; Forster, B.M. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Huber, T.M. [Gustavus Adolphus Coll., St. Peter, MN (United States); Kammel, P.; Zmeskal, J. [Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Mittelenergiephysik; Kunselman, A.R. [Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (United States); Petitjean, C. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

258

Detection of hot muonic hydrogen atoms emitted in vacuum using x-rays  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Negative muons are stopped in solid layers of hydrogen and neon. Muonic hydrogen atoms can drift to the neon layer where the muon is immediately transferred. It was found that the time structure of the muonic neon X-rays follows the exponential law where the rate is the same as the disappearance rate of [mu][sup -]p atoms. The pp[mu]-formation rate and the muon transfer rate to deuterium are deduced.

Jacot-Guillarmod, R. (Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland)); Bailey, J.M. (Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom)); Beer, G.A.; Knowles, P.E.; Mason, G.R.; Olin, A. (Victoria Univ., BC (Canada)); Beveridge, J.L.; Marshall, G.M. (TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada)); Brewer, J.H.; Forster, B.M. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)); Huber, T.M. (Gustavus Adolphus Coll., St. Peter, MN (United States)); Kammel, P

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Method of making a layered composite electrode/electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrode/electrolyte structure is prepared by a plurality of methods. An unsintered (possibly bisque fired) moderately catalytic electronically-conductive or homogeneous mixed ionic electronic conductive electrode material is deposited on a layer composed of a sintered or unsintered ionically-conductive electrolyte material prior to being sintered. A layer of particulate electrode material is deposited on an unsintered ("green") layer of electrolyte material and the electrode and electrolyte layers are sintered simultaneously, sometimes referred to as "co-firing," under conditions suitable to fully densify the electrolyte while the electrode retains porosity. Or, the layer of particulate electrode material is deposited on a previously sintered layer of electrolyte, and then sintered. Subsequently, a catalytic material is added to the electrode structure by infiltration of an electrolcatalyst precursor (e.g., a metal salt such as a transition metal nitrate). This may be followed by low temperature firing to convert the precursor to catalyst. The invention allows for an electrode with high electronic conductivity and sufficient catalytic activity to achieve high power density in an ionic (electrochemical) device such as fuel cells and electrolytic gas separation systems.

Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobson, Craig P. (El Cerrito, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

2005-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

260

Sensor for measuring the atomic fraction in highly dissociated hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Atomic hydrogen is a very important constituent for processes ranging from cleaning oxide from GaAs and annealing amorphous silicon to the deposition of diamond. Because the usual techniques for measuring atomic fraction are either expensive and cumbersome to use, or unsuitable for application to highly dissociated hydrogen, a specially designed sensor was developed. Sensor design is based on a diffusion tube with noncatalytic walls, having one end open to the atom source and a catalytic closure at the other end. The sensor is simple and inexpensive to fabricate, and determining atom density is straightforward. Sensor design also inhibits thermal runaway, which occurs when atom density is high enough to impart enough recombination energy to the non-catalytic surface to substantially raise its temperature. While recombination coefficients for such surfaces are very low near room temperature, they increase nearly exponentially with temperature unless actively cooled. With the use of a straightforward calibration scheme to determine the variation in species fraction along the diffusion tube, the atomic fraction at the tube opening is determined. Design strategy, implementation considerations, and calibration method are presented. In addition, data obtained from an atomic hydrogen source are compared to relevant published data.

Gardner, W.L.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic layer deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Photovoltaic device comprising compositionally graded intrinsic photoactive layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Photovoltaic devices and methods of making photovoltaic devices comprising at least one compositionally graded photoactive layer, said method comprising providing a substrate; growing onto the substrate a uniform intrinsic photoactive layer having one surface disposed upon the substrate and an opposing second surface, said intrinsic photoactive layer consisting essentially of In.sub.1-xA.sub.xN,; wherein: i. 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1; ii. A is gallium, aluminum, or combinations thereof; and iii. x is at least 0 on one surface of the intrinsic photoactive layer and is compositionally graded throughout the layer to reach a value of 1 or less on the opposing second surface of the layer; wherein said intrinsic photoactive layer is isothermally grown by means of energetic neutral atom beam lithography and epitaxy at a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less using neutral nitrogen atoms having a kinetic energy of from about 1.0 eV to about 5.0 eV, and wherein the intrinsic photoactive layer is grown at a rate of from about 5 nm/min to about 100 nm/min.

Hoffbauer, Mark A; Williamson, Todd L

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

262

Multiple density layered insulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed which provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation. 4 figs.

Alger, T.W.

1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

263

Multiple density layered insulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed wh provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation.

Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Crystallographic Etching of Few-Layer Graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate a method by which few-layer graphene samples can be etched along crystallographic axes by thermally activated metallic nanoparticles. The technique results in long (>1 µm) crystallographic edges etched through to the insulating substrate, making the process potentially useful for atomically precise graphene device fabrication. This advance could enable atomically precise construction of integrated circuits from single graphene sheets with a wide range of technological applications. Due to its remarkable electronic properties, few layer graphene is emerging as a promising new material for use in a vast array of postsilicon nanoelectronic devices incorporating quantum size effects. 1,2 Of particular interest would be the construction of atomically precise graphene nanoribbons, in which charge carriers are confined in the lateral dimension whereby the electronic properties are controlled by the width and specific crystallographic orientation of the ribbon. 3?14 Such structures hold enormous promise as nanoscale devices similar to those recently developed using carbon nanotubes 2,11,15 with the added advantage that graphenes two-dimensionality lends itself to existing device architectures based on planar geometries. However, these structures have so far been impossible to achieve because of the rough noncrystalline edges of the graphene that result from current state-of-the-art nanolithography techniques. 2,16,17 These rough edges

Sujit S. Datta; Douglas R. Strachan; Samuel M. Khamis; A. T. Charlie Johnson

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

High rate chemical vapor deposition of carbon films using fluorinated gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high rate, low-temperature deposition of amorphous carbon films is produced by PE-CVD in the presence of a fluorinated or other halide gas. The deposition can be performed at less than 100.degree. C., including ambient room temperature, with a radio frequency plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition process. With less than 6.5 atomic percent fluorine incorporated into the amorphous carbon film, the characteristics of the carbon film, including index of refraction, mass density, optical clarity, and chemical resistance are within fifteen percent (15%) of those characteristics for pure amorphous carbon films, but the deposition rates are high.

Stafford, Byron L. (Arvada, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Nelson, Arthur J. (Longmont, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Multiple layer insulation cover  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multiple layer insulation cover for preventing heat loss in, for example, a greenhouse, is disclosed. The cover is comprised of spaced layers of thin foil covered fabric separated from each other by air spaces. The spacing is accomplished by the inflation of spaced air bladders which are integrally formed in the cover and to which the layers of the cover are secured. The bladders are inflated after the cover has been deployed in its intended use to separate the layers of the foil material. The sizes of the material layers are selected to compensate for sagging across the width of the cover so that the desired spacing is uniformly maintained when the cover has been deployed. The bladders are deflated as the cover is stored thereby expediting the storage process and reducing the amount of storage space required.

Farrell, James J. (Livingston Manor, NY); Donohoe, Anthony J. (Ovid, NY)

1981-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

267

Tenth Atomic Physics Program workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains short papers and abstracts on the following main topics: Ion-atom collision theory; laser physics; spectroscopy of atoms; spectroscopy of ions; and high velocity collisions.

Not Available

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Nuclear effects in atomic transitions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atomic electrons are sensitive to the properties of the nucleus they are bound to, such as nuclear mass, charge distribution, spin, magnetization distribution, or even excited level scheme. These nuclear parameters are reflected in the atomic transition energies. A very precise determination of atomic spectra may thus reveal information about the nucleus, otherwise hardly accessible via nuclear physics experiments. This work reviews theoretical and experimental aspects of the nuclear effects that can be identified in atomic structure data. An introduction to the theory of isotope shifts and hyperfine splitting of atomic spectra is given, together with an overview of the typical experimental techniques used in high-precision atomic spectroscopy. More exotic effects at the borderline between atomic and nuclear physics, such as parity violation in atomic transitions due to the weak interaction, or nuclear polarization and nuclear excitation by electron capture, are also addressed.

Pálffy, Adriana

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Energy Deposition Using EGS4  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

are used to model the energy deposition in 0.4 r.l. Ti due to photons produced by the Tesla TRD undulator driven by the 250 GeV Tesla primary electron beam. 1 Energy Deposition...

270

Fabrication and Characterization of Networked Graphene Devices Based on Ultralarge Single-Layer Graphene Sheets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ultralarge-scale single-layer graphene (SLG) sheets are obtained by chemically reduction process in aqueous media. The resulting SLG sheets are investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic. Based ...

Xiaochen Dong; Wei Huang; Peng Chen

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Atomic Devices and Instrumentation Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 2001 and 2005, demonstrated an atomic clock physics package with ... magnetometers for magnetic anomaly detection, nuclear magnetic resonance ...

2013-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

272

Atom-Based Dimensional Metrology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Awarded a five year, three phase DARPA contract to conduct collaborative research in atomically precise positioning, patterning and metrology ...

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

273

Oil shale deposits of Thailand  

SciTech Connect

Oil-shale deposits occur in several areas of Thailand. Perhaps the most important deposit occurs at Mae Sod in Tak Province, West Thailand. Other well-known deposits are Li in Lamphum Province, Ko Kha District, Lampang Province, and Krabi in the southern peninsular region. The geological age of all these deposits is late Tertiary, as demonstrated by the presence of the fossils from the oil shale of the Mae Sod series, e.g., fish of the Ostariophysian family Cyprinidae.

Chakrabarti, A.K.

1976-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Thin Film Deposition and Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Applications: Tube 1 (T1), open for future upgrade. Silicon Nitride Deposition (Tube 2): Low Stress recipe. Stoichiometric recipe. ...

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

275

Ni-Pt silicide formation through Ti mediating layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With Ni"1"-"xPt"xSi, the variation in queue time between the final surface cleaning and Ni-Pt deposition represents a significant manufacturability issue. A short queue time is often difficult to maintain, leading to the formation of an oxide layer on ... Keywords: Mediated reaction, Nickel silicide, Oxidation, Titanium

Paul Besser; Christian Lavoie; Ahmet Ozcan; Conal Murray; Jay Strane; Keith Wong; Michael Gribelyuk; Yun-Yu Wang; Christopher Parks; Jean Jordan-Sweet

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Effects of deposition conditions on the properties of pyrolytic carbon deposited in a fluidized bed  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The high-density, isotropic pyrolytic carbon layer beneath the silicon carbide (IPyC) plays a key role in the irradiation performance of coated particle fuel. The IPyC layer protects the kernel from reactions with chlorine during deposition of the SiC layer, provides structural support for the SiC layer, and protects the SiC from fission products and carbon monoxide. The process conditions used by the Germans to deposit the IPyC coating produced a highly isotropic, but somewhat permeable IPyC coating. The permeability of the IPyC coating was acceptable for use with the dense German UO{sub 2} kernels, but may not be suitable when coating UCO kernels. The UCO kernels are typically more porous and thus have a larger surface area than UO{sub 2} kernels. The lower density and the higher surface area of UCO kernels could make them more susceptible to attack by HCl gas during the silicon carbide (SiC) coating process, which could result in heavy metal dispersion into the buffer and IPyC coatings and a higher level of as-manufactured SiC defects. The relationship between IPyC deposition conditions, permeability, and anisotropy must be understood and the appropriate combination of anisotropy and permeability for particle fuel containing UCO kernels selected. A reference set of processing conditions have been determined from review of historical information and results of earlier coating experiments employing 350 and 500 {micro}m UO{sub 2} kernels. It was decided that a limited study would be conducted, in which only coating gas fraction (CGF) and temperature would be varied. Coatings would be deposited at different rates and with a range of microstructures. Thickness, density, porosity and anisotropy would be measured and permeability evaluated using a chlorine leach test. The results would be used to select the best IPyC coating conditions for use with the available natural enrichment uranium carbide/uranium oxide (NUCO) kernels. The response plots from the investigation of the deposition of pyrolytic carbon in a fluidized bed graphically depict the relationships between processing parameters and coating properties. The additional figures present optical, scanning electron microscopy, and other images to highlight microstructural details. For the study, only two parameters (factors), coating gas fraction and deposition temperature, were varied. The plots reveal obvious trends and links between factors and responses. The dominant relationships determined by this study for this range of coating conditions are: (1) rate is dependent upon coating gas fraction or in other terms, reactant concentration; (2) density is controlled by deposition temperature; (3) efficiency is influenced by both CGF and temperature; (4) anisotropy is affect by CGF and temperature, however, the relationship is more complex than for other properties; (5) permeability is dependent upon deposition temperature (thus density); and (6) open porosity is affect by CGF thus is influenced by coating rate. The response plots can be used as 'maps' for the deposition process and are thus valuable for selecting coating conditions necessary to produce desired combinations of properties. The information is useful in predicting the effects of changes to processing on properties and is beneficial in optimizing the process and product properties. Although the study was limited to only two parameters, the information provides a foundation from which other aspects of the coating process can be more easily investigated.

Lowden, Richard Andrew [ORNL; Hunn, John D [ORNL; Nunn, Stephen D [ORNL; Kercher, Andrew K [ORNL; Price, Jeffery R [ORNL; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle [ORNL

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Enhanced adhesion for LIGA microfabrication by using a buffer layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an improvement on the LIGA microfabrication process wherein a buffer layer is applied to the upper or working surface of a substrate prior to the placement of a resist onto the surface of the substrate. The buffer layer is made from an inert low-Z material (low atomic weight), a material that absorbs secondary X-rays emissions from the substrate that are generated from the substrate upon exposure to a primary X-rays source. Suitable materials for the buffer layer include polyamides and polyimide. The preferred polyimide is synthesized from pyromellitic anhydride and oxydianiline (PMDA-ODA).

Bajikar, Sateesh S.; DeCarlo, Francesco; Song, Joshua J.

1998-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

278

Investigation of multi-layer thin films for energy storage.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We investigate here the feasibility of increasing the energy density of thin-film capacitors by construction of a multi-layer capacitor device through ablation and redeposition of the capacitor materials using a high-power pulsed ion beam. The deposition experiments were conducted on the RHEPP-1 facility at Sandia National Laboratories. The dielectric capacitor filler material was a composition of Lead-Lanthanum-Zirconium-Titanium oxide (PLZT). The energy storage can be increased by using material of intrinsically high dielectric constant, and constructing many thin layers of this material. For successful device construction, there are a number of challenging requirements including correct stoichiometric and crystallographic composition of the deposited PLZT. This report details some success in satisfying these requirements, even though the attempt at device manufacture was unsuccessful. The conclusion that 900 C temperatures are necessary to reconstitute the deposited PLZT has implications for future manufacturing capability.

Renk, Timothy Jerome; Monson, Todd

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Why is hydrogen's atomic number 1?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the number of protons in an atom's nucleus. Hydrogen's atomic number is 1 because all hydrogen atoms contain exactly one proton. Author: Steve Gagnon, Science Education Specialist...

280

NIST: Phys. Lab. Brochure; Atomic Physics Div.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... ultra-cold atoms and investigate atom optics for innovative instrumentation. Measure and analyze spectra of highly ionized atoms for fusion energy ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic layer deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Published in J. Mat. Sci. Lettr. 18 (1999) 427-430 Selective Patterned Deposition of Diamond using a New Technique  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of centrifugation on diamond deposition. It is generally believed that atomic hydrogen at the growth surface deposition were unsuitable for experiments on a centrifuge. Thus, a new closed chemical vapor transport and removal of gas [4]. Graphite was used as a carbon source in the presence of hydrogen at low pressure

Regel, Liya L.

282

Atomic data for fusion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A. (eds.) [eds.; Barnett, C.F.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Cancer in atomic bomb survivors  

SciTech Connect

This book presents information on the following topics: sampling of atomic bomb survivors and method of cancer detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; atomic bomb dosimetry for epidemiological studies of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; tumor and tissue registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; the cancer registry in Nagasaki, with atomic bomb survivor data, 1973-1977; cancer mortality; methods for study of delayed health effects of a-bomb radiation; experimental radiation carcinogenesis in rodents; leukemia, multiple myeloma, and malignant lymphoma; cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands; malignant tumors in atomic bomb survivors with special reference to the pathology of stomach and lung cancer; colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors; breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors; and ovarian neoplasms in atomic bomb survirors.

Shigematsu, I.; Kagan, A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Chemical vapor deposition sciences  

SciTech Connect

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a widely used method for depositing thin films of a variety of materials. Applications of CVD range from the fabrication of microelectronic devices to the deposition of protective coatings. New CVD processes are increasingly complex, with stringent requirements that make it more difficult to commercialize them in a timely fashion. However, a clear understanding of the fundamental science underlying a CVD process, as expressed through computer models, can substantially shorten the time required for reactor and process development. Research scientists at Sandia use a wide range of experimental and theoretical techniques for investigating the science of CVD. Experimental tools include optical probes for gas-phase and surface processes, a range of surface analytic techniques, molecular beam methods for gas/surface kinetics, flow visualization techniques and state-of-the-art crystal growth reactors. The theoretical strategy uses a structured approach to describe the coupled gas-phase and gas-surface chemistry, fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer of a CVD process. The software used to describe chemical reaction mechanisms is easily adapted to codes that model a variety of reactor geometries. Carefully chosen experiments provide critical information on the chemical species, gas temperatures and flows that are necessary for model development and validation. This brochure provides basic information on Sandia`s capabilities in the physical and chemical sciences of CVD and related materials processing technologies. It contains a brief description of the major scientific and technical capabilities of the CVD staff and facilities, and a brief discussion of the approach that the staff uses to advance the scientific understanding of CVD processes.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

285

Questions and Answers - Does gravity affect atoms?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Answers Main Index Next Question (Can you crush atoms?) Can you crush atoms? Does gravity affect atoms? Gravity affects atoms the same way it affects all other matter. Every...

286

Optics and interferometry with atoms and molecules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interference with atomic and molecular matter waves is a rich branch of atomic physics and quantum optics. It started with atom diffraction from crystal surfaces and the separated oscillatory fields technique used in atomic ...

Cronin, Alexander D.

287

High-rate deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films and devices  

SciTech Connect

In high-rate deposition of a-Si:H films, the effect of deposition parameters on material properties are examined when silane and disilane are the feed gases. The emphasis is on RF glow discharge, but other deposition methods are also covered. The problems of gas-phase polymerization and power formation at high rates have been overcome by modified reactor designs. Deposition rates of 1-3 nm/s are adequate for economically fabricating the intrinsic layer. Laboratory-size a-Si:H cells with greater than 10% efficiency have been achieved with both silane and disilane at rates in the 1- to 2-nm/s range.

Luft, W.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Magnetometry with entangled atomic samples  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a theory for the estimation of a scalar or a vector magnetic field by its influence on an ensemble of trapped spin polarized atoms. The atoms interact off-resonantly with a continuous laser field, and the measurement of the polarization rotation of the probe light, induced by the dispersive atom-light coupling, leads to spin-squeezing of the atomic sample which enables an estimate of the magnetic field which is more precise than that expected from standard counting statistics. For polarized light and polarized atoms, a description of the non-classical components of the collective spin angular momentum for the atoms and the collective Stokes vectors of the light-field in terms of effective gaussian position and momentum variables is practically exact. The gaussian formalism describes the dynamics of the system very effectively and accounts explicitly for the back-action on the atoms due to measurement and for the estimate of the magnetic field. Multi-component magnetic fields are estimated by the measurement of suitably chosen atomic observables and precision and efficiency is gained by dividing the atomic gas in two or more samples which are entangled by the dispersive atom-light interaction.

Vivi Petersen; Lars Bojer Madsen; Klaus Molmer

2004-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

289

The Effect Of Low Earth Orbit Atomic Oxygen Exposure On Phenylphosphine Oxide-Containing Polymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thin films of phenylphosphine oxide-containing polymers were exposed to low Earth orbit aboard a space shuttle flight (STS-85) as part of flight experiment designated Evaluation of Space Environment and Effects on Materials (ESEM). This flight experiment was a cooperative effort between the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). The thin film samples described herein were part of an atomic oxygen exposure experiment (AOE) and were exposed to primarily atomic oxygen (~1 X 10 19 atoms/cm 2 ). The thin film samples consisted of three phosphine oxide containing polymers (arylene ether, benzimidazole and imide). Based on post-flight analyses using atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and weight loss data, it was found that atomic oxygen exposure of these materials efficiently produces a phosphate layer at the surface of the samples. This layer provides a barrier towards further attack by AO. Consequently, th...

John Connell National; John W. Connell

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Electroless deposition process for zirconium and zirconium alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for preventing stress corrosion cracking or metal embrittlement of a zirconium or zirconium alloy container that is to be coated on the inside surface with a layer of a metal such as copper, a copper alloy, nickel, or iron and used for holding nuclear fuel material as a nuclear fuel element. The zirconium material is etched in an etchant solution, desmutted mechanically or ultrasonically, oxidized to form an oxide coating on the zirconium, cleaned in an aqueous alkaline cleaning solution, activated for electroless deposition of a metal layer and contacted with an electroless metal plating solution. This method provides a boundary layer of zirconium oxide between the zirconium container and the metal layer. 1 fig.

Donaghy, R.E.; Sherman, A.H.

1981-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

291

Electroless deposition process for zirconium and zirconium alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for preventing stress corrosion cracking or metal embrittlement of a zirconium or zirconium alloy container that is to be coated on the inside surface with a layer of a metal such as copper, a copper alloy, nickel, or iron and used for holding nuclear fuel material as a nuclear fuel element. The zirconium material is etched in an etchant solution, desmutted mechanically or ultrasonically, oxidized to form an oxide coating on the zirconium, cleaned in an aqueous alkaline cleaning solution, activated for electroless deposition of a metal layer and contacted with an electroless metal plating solution. This method provides a boundary layer of zirconium oxide between the zirconium container and the metal layer.

Donaghy, Robert E. (Wilmington, NC); Sherman, Anna H. (Wilmington, NC)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Atomic Energy Commission Takes Over Responsibility for all Atomic...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Takes Over Responsibility for all Atomic Energy Programs | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear...

293

Atomic total energies: Atomic Ref.Data Elec Struc Cal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... These tables contain the atomic total energies and orbital eigenvalues, for the ground electronic configuration of the elements H ... Definition of format ...

294

Atomic total energies: Atomic Ref. Data Elec. Struc. Cal.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... These tables contain the atomic total energies and orbital eigenvalues, for the ground electronic configuration of the elements H ... Definition of format ...

295

Laser Cooling and Cold Atomic Matter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser Cooling and Cold Atomic Matter: to advance the understanding and applications of cold atomic matter, including ...

2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

296

NIST - Atomic Energy Levels and Spectra Bibliographic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... in this database are from Bibliography on Atomic Energy Levels and ... references to atomic transition probabilities, line intensities, or broadening. ...

297

Low temperature metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth processes for high-efficiency solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a program to develop a more complete understanding of the physical and chemical processes involved in low-temperature growth of III-V compounds by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and to develop a low-temperature process that is suitable for the growth of high-efficiency solar cells. The program was structured to develop a better understanding of the chemical reactions involved in MOCVD growth, to develop a model of the processes occurring in the gas phase, to understand the physical kinetics and reactions operative on the surface of the growing crystal, and to develop an understanding of the means by which these processes may be altered to reduce the temperature of growth and the utilization of toxic hydrides. The basic approach was to develop the required information about the chemical and physical kinetics operative in the gas phase and on the surface by the direct physical measurement of the processes whenever possible. The program included five tasks: (1) MOCVD growth process characterization, (2) photoenhanced MOCVD studies, (3) materials characterization, (4) device fabrication and characterization, and (5) photovoltaic training. Most of the goals of the program were met and significant progress was made in defining an approach that would allow both high throughput and high uniformity growth of compound semiconductors at low temperatures. The technical activity was focused on determining the rates of thermal decomposition of trimethyl gallium, exploring alternate arsenic sources for use MOCVD, and empirical studies of atomic layer epitaxy as an approach.

Dapkus, P.D. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Layered electrode for electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is provided an electrode structure comprising a current collector sheet and first and second layers of electrode material. Together, the layers improve catalyst utilization and water management.

Swathirajan, Swathy (West Bloomfield, MI); Mikhail, Youssef M. (Sterling Heights, MI)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

' ' ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION Frank K. Pittman, Director, bivisioa of Waste &&gement and s- portation, Headquarters j CONTAMItUTED RX-AEC-OWNED OR LEASED FACILITIES' This memorandum responds to your TWX certain information on the above subject. the documentation necessary to answer your available due to the records disposal vailing at the time of release or From records that are available and from disc&ions with most familiar with the transfer operations, &have the current radiological conditibn of transferred property is adequate under present standards. The following tabulations follow the format suggested in your TWX and are grouped to an operations or contract r+ponsibility. A,I Ex-AEC Storage Sites - I r:/ National Stockpile Site '(NSS) and OperatEonal

300

Layered semiconductor neutron detectors  

SciTech Connect

Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic layer deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

NIST Atomic Spectra Bibliographic Databases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The Atomic Energy Levels Data Center and Data Center on ... Reference Data Program (SRDP) and by NIST's Systems Integration for Manufacturing ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

302

Technical Highlights Atomic Physics Division  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Physics Division is to develop and apply atomic physics research methods ... community, and to produce and critically compile physical reference data ...

2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

303

Atomic Devices and Instrumentation Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... ten millionths of a second over the course of one day, and are paving the way for atomic-level timekeeping in portable, battery-operated systems ...

304

NIST: Atomic Spectroscopy Group - Homepage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The program in atomic spectroscopy at NIST provides accurate reference data on spectral lines and energy levels for a wide variety of important ...

2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

305

Structural tuning of residual conductivity in highly mismatched III-V layers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new process to control the electrical conductivity of gallium nitride layers grown on a sapphire substrate has been developed. This process is based on initially coating the sapphire substrate with a thin layer of aluminum nitride, then depositing the gallium nitride thereon. This process allows one to controllably produce gallium nitride layers with resistivity varying over as much as 10 orders of magnitude, without requiring the introduction and activation of suitable dopants.

Han, Jung (Albuquerque, NM); Figiel, Jeffrey J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

(Acidic deposition and the environment)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The travelers presented several papers at the Fourth International Conference on Acidic Deposition. These covered the following topics: atmospheric chemistry and deposition of airborne nitrogen compounds, soil solution chemistry in high-elevation spruce forests, and forest throughfall measurements for estimating total sulfur deposition to ecosystems. In addition, S. E. Lindberg was invited to organize and chair a conference session on Throughfall and Stemflow Experiments, and to present an invited lecture on Atmospheric Deposition and Canopy Interactions of Metals and Nitrogen in Forest Ecosystems: The Influence of Global Change'' at the 110th Anniversary Celebration of the Free University of Amsterdam.

Garten, C.T.; Lindberg, S.E.; Van Miegroet, H.

1990-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

307

Buffer layers on rolled nickel or copper as superconductor substrates  

SciTech Connect

Buffer layer architectures are epitaxially deposited on biaxially-textured rolled substrates of nickel and/or copper and their alloys for high current conductors, and more particularly buffer layer architectures such as Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, YSZ/Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /CeO.sub.2 /Ni, RE.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni (RE=Rare Earth), and Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /YSZ/CeO.sub.2 /Ni, Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, YSZ/Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /CeO.sub.2 /Cu, RE.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, and Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /YSZ/CeO.sub.2 /Cu. Deposition methods include physical vapor deposition techniques which include electron-beam evaporation, rf magnetron sputtering, pulsed laser deposition, thermal evaporation, and solution precursor approach, which includes chemical vapor deposition, combustion CVD, metal-organic decomposition, sol-gel processing, and plasma spray.

Paranthaman, Mariappan (Knoxville, TN); Lee, Dominic F. (Knoxville, TN); Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Chemical vapor deposition of amorphous semiconductor films. Semiannual report, 1 May 1984-31 October 1984  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the results of research done by the Institute of Energy Conversion for the Solar Energy Research Institute in 1984 on high-efficiency, stable, amorphous silicon solar cells, fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from disilane at high growth rates. The kinetics of CVD with higher order silanes were modelled for a tubular reactor with static substrates. A gas-phase reaction network was adopted, based on published silylene insertion and decomposition pathways. Mass balances for hydrogen and all saturated silanes through octasilane were derived. Boron-doped a-Si:H p-layers were deposited by CVD at 200/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/C. Band gap and conductivity depended strongly on the diborane fraction in the feed gas, independent of substrate temperature. The effects of intrinsic layer deposition temperature and growth rate on material properties and device performance were studied. Cell parameters of p-i-n cells were correlated with i-layer deposition temperature and growth rate. Fill factor and short-circuit current depended on deposition conditions, while open-circuit voltage did not. Effects of diborane additions to the feed gas during i-layer deposition were studied. Experimental evidence and calculations indicate high resistance at the back contact.

Baron, B.N.; Rocheleau, R.E.; Hegedus, S.S.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

LaAlO{sub 3}/Si capacitors: Comparison of different molecular beam deposition conditions and their impact on electrical properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study of the structural and electrical properties of amorphous LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO)/Si thin films fabricated by molecular beam deposition (MBD) is presented. Two substrate preparation procedures have been explored namely a high temperature substrate preparation technique-leading to a step and terraces surface morphology-and a chemical HF-based surface cleaning. The LAO deposition conditions were improved by introducing atomic plasma-prepared oxygen instead of classical molecular O{sub 2} in the chamber. An Au/Ni stack was used as the top electrode for its electrical characteristics. The physico-chemical properties (surface topography, thickness homogeneity, LAO/Si interface quality) and electrical performance (capacitance and current versus voltage and TunA current topography) of the samples were systematically evaluated. Deposition conditions (substrate temperature of 550 Degree-Sign C, oxygen partial pressure settled at 10{sup -6} Torr, and 550 W of power applied to the O{sub 2} plasma) and post-depositions treatments were investigated to optimize the dielectric constant ({kappa}) and leakage currents density (J{sub Gate} at Double-Vertical-Line V{sub Gate} Double-Vertical-Line = Double-Vertical-Line V{sub FB}- 1 Double-Vertical-Line ). In the best reproducible conditions, we obtained a LAO/Si layer with a dielectric constant of 16, an equivalent oxide thickness of 8.7 A, and J{sub Gate} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -2}A/cm{sup 2}. This confirms the importance of LaAlO{sub 3} as an alternative high-{kappa} for ITRS sub-22 nm technology node.

Pelloquin, Sylvain; Baboux, Nicolas; Albertini, David; Hourani, Waeel; Plossu, Carole [Lyon Institute of Nanotechnologies (INL), INSA de Lyon, UMR CNRS 5270, 7 avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne F-69621 (France); Saint-Girons, Guillaume; Penuelas, Jose; Grenet, Genevieve; Hollinger, Guy [Lyon Institute of Nanotechnologies (INL), Ecole Centrale de Lyon, UMR CNRS 5270, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, Ecully F-69134 (France)

2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

310

Atomic Energy for Military Purposes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atomic Energy for Military Purposes: The Official Report on the Development of the Atomic Bomb member of the project, to draft a report about its activities. Smyth completed the report in the summer, in a censored version. On August 11, 1945, five days after the Allies dropped the first nuclear bomb on Japan

Landweber, Laura

311

THE DEVELOPMENT OF ATOMIC LAW  

SciTech Connect

Since a uniform federal statute hss not been passed in the German Federal Republic, the development of atomic law has centered around the formation of the Federal Ministry for Atomic Affairs, appeal to the German Commission, and the enactment of temporary laws in several of the states. (J.S.R.)

Fischerhof, H.

1958-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

AtomicNuclear Properties  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HTML_PAGES HTML_PAGES This AtomicNuclearProperties page is under intermittent development. Suggestions and comments are welcome. Please report errors. Chemical elements: For entries in red, a pull-down menu permits selection of the physical state. Cryogenic liquid densties are at the boiling point at 1 atm. 0n 1Ps 1H 2He 3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne 11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar 19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr 37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe 55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn 87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rf 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112 113 114 115 116 mt 118

313

Effects of atomic hydrogen and deuterium exposure on high polarization GaAs photocathodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Strained-layer GaAs and strained-superlattice GaAs photocathodes are used at Jefferson Laboratory to create high average current beams of highly spin-polarized electrons. High electron yield, or quantum efficiency (QE), is obtained only when the photocathode surface is atomically clean. For years, exposure to atomic hydrogen or deuterium has been the photocathode cleaning technique employed at Jefferson Laboratory. This work demonstrates that atomic hydrogen cleaning is not necessary when precautions are taken to ensure that clean photocathode material from the vendor is not inadvertently dirtied while samples are prepared for installation inside photoemission guns. Moreover, this work demonstrates that QE and beam polarization can be significantly reduced when clean high-polarization photocathode material is exposed to atomic hydrogen from an rf dissociator-style atomic hydrogen source. Surface analysis provides some insight into the mechanisms that degrade QE and polarization due to atomic hydrogen cleaning.

M. Baylac; P. Adderley; J. Brittian; J. Clark; T. Day; J. Grames; J. Hansknecht; M. Poelker; M. Stutzman; A. T. Wu; A. S. Terekhov

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Particle Deposition in Granular Media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Objective is to understand aerosol deposition from gas streams flowing through granular media; this is important to the design of granular filtration systems. The following investigations were carried out: transient behavior of granular filtration of aerosols, and stochastic simulation of aerosol deposition in granular media.

Tien, C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Atomic, Molecular & Optical Sciences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atomic, Molecular and Optical Sciences Atomic, Molecular and Optical Sciences The goal of the program is to understand the structure and dynamics of atoms and molecules using photons and ions as probes. The current program is focussed on studying inner-shell photo-ionization and photo-excitation of atoms and molecules, molecular orientation effects in slow collisions, slowing and cooling molecules, and X-ray photo-excitation of laser-dressed atoms. The experimental and theoretical efforts are designed to break new ground and to provide basic knowledge that is central to the programmatic goals of the Department of Energy (DOE). Unique LBNL facilities such as the Advanced Light Source (ALS), the ECR ion sources at the 88-inch cyclotron, and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) are

316

Spectral Emission of Moving Atom  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A renewed analysis of the H.E. Ives and G.R. Stilwell's experiment on moving hydrogen canal rays (J. Opt. Soc. Am., 1938, v.28, 215) concludes that the spectral emission of a moving atom exhibits always a redshift which informs not the direction of the atom's motion. The conclusion is also evident from a simple energy relation: atomic spectral radiation is emitted as an orbiting electron consumes a portion of its internal energy on transiting to a lower-energy state which however has in a moving atom an additional energy gain; this results in a redshift in the emission frequency. Based on auxiliary experimental information and a scheme for de Broglie particle formation, we give a vigorous elucidation of the mechanism for deceleration radiation of atomic electron; the corresponding prediction of the redshift is in complete agreement with the Ives and Stilwell's experimental formula.

J. X. Zheng-Johansson

2006-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

317

Hydrothermal Deposition | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrothermal Deposition Hydrothermal Deposition Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Hydrothermal Deposition Dictionary.png Hydrothermal Deposition: No definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition Quartz veins indicate ancient fluid flow, possibly the result of a hydrothermal system (reference: http://www.nvcc.edu/home/cbentley/dc_rocks/) Tufa mounds indicate the location of extinct hot springs. In this photo they show the ancient extent of the surface manifestations at Mono Lake, CA (reference: http://news.medill.northwestern.edu/climatechange/page.aspx?id=170704)(photo by Scott Stine) Hydrothermal water carries minerals as it travels through the crust. These minerals are often deposited as pressure decreases as the fluid approaches

318

Anticipating the atom: popular perceptions of atomic power before Hiroshima  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Before Hiroshima made the Bomb an object of popular concern, possible implications and applications of atomic physics had been discussed in the public forum. The new science of X-rays and radium promised the possibilities of unlimited energy and the transmutation of elements in the two decades leading up to World War 1. During the twenties, as scientific method struggled to keep pace with atomic theory, discussion centered on the feasibility of atomic disintegration as an energy source and the many uses of radium. The 1927 case of the New Jersey Radium Dial Painters, who sued their employers for compensation after contracting radium poisoning, revealed a dark side to the new science, that, along with the development of artificial radioactive isotopes by the Jollot-Curies in Paris, and, in Italy, Enrico Fenni's neutron bombardment experiments, sobered attitudes toward the ever-increasing probability of atomic power. When Otto Hahn finally split the atom in 1938, it opened the way to the practical industrial use of atomic fission, and stimulated a flurry of newspaper and magazine articles before World War 11 brought about censorship. Popular entertainment through 1945 reflects the extent to which atomic power had entered the public awareness. Atomic themes and motifs appeared in English language fiction as early as 1895, as did discussions of the social implications of the new science. Such popular culture imagery, including motion pictures and comic book superheroes, that presented the atom to mass audiences provide insight into the popular perceptions at the time, and to the shaping of attitudes toward the Bomb after Hiroshima.

d'Emal, Jacques-Andre Christian

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Manhattan Project: Adventures Inside the Atom  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

ADVENTURES INSIDE THE ATOM ADVENTURES INSIDE THE ATOM General Electric, National Archives (1948) Resources > Library Below is Adventures Inside the Atom, a comic book history of nuclear energy that was produced in 1948 by the General Electric Company. Scroll down to view the full-size images of each page. This publication was produced at the request of the the Assistant Manager for Public Education, Oak Ridge Operations Office, Atomic Energy Commission. It is reproduced here via the National Archives. Adventures Inside the Atom, p. 1 Adventures Inside the Atom, p. 2 Adventures Inside the Atom, p. 3 Adventures Inside the Atom, p. 4 Adventures Inside the Atom, p. 5 Adventures Inside the Atom, p. 6 Adventures Inside the Atom, p. 7 Adventures Inside the Atom, p. 8 Adventures Inside the Atom, p. 9

320

In-situ control system for atomization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Melt atomizing apparatus comprising a melt supply orifice for supplying the melt for atomization and gas supply orifices proximate the melt supply orifice for supplying atomizing gas to atomize the melt as an atomization spray is disclosed. The apparatus includes a sensor, such as an optical and/or audio sensor, for providing atomization spray data, and a control unit responsive to the sensed atomization spray data for controlling at least one of the atomizing gas pressure and an actuator to adjust the relative position of the gas supply orifice and melt supply in a manner to achieve a desired atomization spray. 3 figs.

Anderson, I.E.; Figliola, R.S.; Terpstra, R.L.

1995-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic layer deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

In-situ control system for atomization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Melt atomizing apparatus comprising a melt supply orifice for supplying the melt for atomization and gas supply orifices proximate the melt supply orifice for supplying atomizing gas to atomize the melt as an atomization spray. The apparatus includes a sensor, such as an optical and/or audio sensor, for providing atomization spray data, and a control unit responsive to the sensed atomization spray data for controlling at least one of the atomizing gas pressure and an actuator to adjust the relative position of the gas supply orifice and melt supply in a manner to achieve a desired atomization spray.

Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Figliola, Richard S. (Central, SC); Terpstra, Robert L. (Ames, IA)

1995-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

322

TULSA UNIVERSITY PARAFFIN DEPOSITION PROJECTS  

SciTech Connect

As oil and gas production moves to deeper and colder water, subsea multiphase production systems become critical for economic feasibility. It will also become increasingly imperative to adequately identify the conditions for paraffin precipitation and predict paraffin deposition rates to optimize the design and operation of these multiphase production systems. Although several oil companies have paraffin deposition predictive capabilities for single-phase oil flow, these predictive capabilities are not suitable for the multiphase flow conditions encountered in most flowlines and wellbores. For deepwater applications in the Gulf of Mexico, it is likely that multiphase production streams consisting of crude oil, produced water and gas will be transported in a single multiphase pipeline to minimize capital cost and complexity at the mudline. Existing single-phase (crude oil) paraffin deposition predictive tools are clearly inadequate to accurately design these pipelines because they do not account for the second and third phases, namely, produced water and gas. The objective of this program is to utilize the current test facilities at The University of Tulsa, as well as member company expertise, to accomplish the following: enhance our understanding of paraffin deposition in single and two-phase (gas-oil) flows; conduct focused experiments to better understand various aspects of deposition physics; and, utilize knowledge gained from experimental modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for predicting paraffin deposition in single and two-phase flow environments. These refined computer models will then be tested against field data from member company pipelines. The following deliverables are scheduled during the first three projects of the program: (1) Single-Phase Studies, with three different black oils, which will yield an enhanced computer code for predicting paraffin deposition in deepwater and surface pipelines. (2) Two-Phase Studies, with a focus on heat transfer and paraffin deposition at various pipe inclinations, which will be used to enhance the paraffin deposition code for gas-liquid flow in pipes. (3) Deposition Physics and Water Impact Studies, which will address the aging process, improve our ability to characterize paraffin deposits and enhance our understanding of the role water plays in paraffin deposition in deepwater pipelines. As in the previous two studies, knowledge gained in this suite of studies will be integrated into a state-of-the-art three-phase paraffin deposition computer program.

Michael Volk; Cem Sarica

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Method for removing semiconductor layers from salt substrates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for removing a CVD semiconductor layer from an alkali halide salt substrate following the deposition of the semiconductor layer. The semiconductor-substrate combination is supported on a material such as tungsten which is readily wet by the molten alkali halide. The temperature of the semiconductor-substrate combination is raised to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the substrate but less than the temperature of the semiconductor and the substrate is melted and removed from the semiconductor by capillary action of the wettable support.

Shuskus, Alexander J. (West Hartford, CT); Cowher, Melvyn E. (East Brookfield, MA)

1985-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

324

Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

Norton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to supersonic velocities.

Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Balsavich, John (Foxborough, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Questions and Answers - Does an atom smasher really smash atoms?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is an accelerator? is an accelerator? Previous Question (What is an accelerator?) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (Where and how do you get your electrons for your accelerator?) Where and how do you get yourelectrons for your accelerator? Does an atom smasher really smash atoms? Well, yes, they do, but we now prefer to call them by their less aggression-centered name, "particle harmony disrupters." Of course some atom smashers do much more smashing than others. We use electrons in our accelerator to study the nucleus of an atom. Remember that electrons are negative, as are the electrons surrounding the target. Since like charged particles repel each other, our particles have to have enough energy to blast through that electron cloud to get to the nucleus. The electrons then

327

Method of deforming a biaxially textured buffer layer on a textured metallic substrate and articles therefrom  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides methods and biaxially textured articles having a deformed epitaxial layer formed therefrom for use with high temperature superconductors, photovoltaic, ferroelectric, or optical devices. A buffer layer is epitaxially deposited onto biaxially-textured substrates and then mechanically deformed. The deformation process minimizes or eliminates grooves, or other irregularities, formed on the buffer layer while maintaining the biaxial texture of the buffer layer. Advantageously, the biaxial texture of the buffer layer is not altered during subsequent heat treatments of the deformed buffer. The present invention provides mechanical densification procedures which can be incorporated into the processing of superconducting films through the powder deposit or precursor approaches without incurring unfavorable high-angle grain boundaries.

Lee, Dominic F. (Knoxville, TN); Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Ion transport and structure of layer-by-layer assemblies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Layer-by-layer (LbL) films of various architectures were examined as potential solid state electrolytes for electrochemical systems (e.g. batteries and fuel cells). The relationship between materials properties and ion ...

Lutkenhaus, Jodie Lee

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Layer-by-layer assembly in confined geometries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fundamental nature of layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly in confined geometries was investigated for a number of different chemical systems. The first part of this thesis concerns the modification of microfluidic and ...

DeRocher, Jonathan P

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Engineering electroresponsive layer-by-layer thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electroresponsive layer-by-layer (LbL) polymer films and polymer nanocomposite films were investigated as model systems for electrically triggered drug delivery applications and "mechanomutable" surface coating applications. ...

Schmidt, Daniel J., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Adhesion layer for etching of tracks in nuclear trackable materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for forming nuclear tracks having a width on the order of 100-200 nm in nuclear trackable materials, such as polycarbonate (LEXAN) without causing delamination of the LEXAN. The method utilizes an adhesion film having a inert oxide which allows the track to be sufficiently widened to >200 nm without delamination of the nuclear trackable materials. The adhesion film may be composed of a metal such as Cr, Ni, Au, Pt, or Ti, or composed of a dielectric having a stable surface, such as silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2), silicon nitride (SiN.sub.x), and aluminum oxide (AlO). The adhesion film can either be deposited on top of the gate metal layer, or if the properties of the adhesion film are adequate, it can be used as the gate layer. Deposition of the adhesion film is achieved by standard techniques, such as sputtering or evaporation.

Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Atomic scale control of catalytic process in oxidation of Pb thin films  

SciTech Connect

Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we demonstrate that oxidation on Pb films is greatly enhanced by atomic Cs catalysts. With only a minute concentration of isolated Cs substitutional atoms in the surface layer (0.004 ML coverage), surface oxidation rates are greatly enhanced. First-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that a substitutional Cs atom strongly increases O2 binding on the surface. Then, with additional oxygen exposure this substitutional Cs-initiated oxidation process results in growth of PbO layers in an auto-catalytic manner. Furthermore, we investigate the role of temperature in the oxidation of the Pb films with and without Cs, and we explore the overall morphology of the resultant oxide layers.

Kim, Jisun [University of Texas, Austin; Khajetoorians, Alexander Ako [University of Texas, Austin; Zhu, Wenguang [ORNL; Zhang, Zhenyu [ICQD, University of S& T, Hefei, China; Shih, Chih-Kang [University of Texas, Austin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Redox Active Layer-by-Layer Structures containing MnO2 Nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanoscale materials provide unique properties that will enable new technologies and enhance older ones. One area of intense activity in which nanoscale materials are being used is in the development of new functional materials for battery applications. This effort promises superior materials with properties that circumvent many of the problems associated with traditional battery materials. Previously we have worked on several approaches for using nanoscale materials for application as cathode materials in rechargeable Li batteries. Our recent work has focused on synthesizing MnO2 nanoparticles and using these in layer-by-layer (LbL) structures to probe the redox properties of the nanoparticles. We show that the aqueous colloidal nanoparticles produced by butanol reduction of tetramethylammonium permanganate can be trapped in thin films using a layer-by-layer deposition approach, and that these films are both redox active and exhibit kinetically facile electrochemical responses. We show cyclic voltammetry of MnO2 colloidal nanoparticles entrapped in a LbL thin film at an ITO electrode surface using poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA). CV experiments demonstrate that Li+ insertion accompanies Mn(IV) reduction in LiClO4 supporting electrolytes, and that reduction is hindered in supporting electrolytes containing only tetrabutylammonium cations. We also show that electron propagation through multilayer films is facile, suggesting that electrons percolate through the films via electron exchange between nanoparticles.

Bazito, Fernanda; O'Brien, Robert; Buttry, Daniel A.

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Particle deposition in ventilation ducts  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the experimental measurements was applied to evaluate particle losses in supply and return duct runs. Model results suggest that duct losses are negligible for particle sizes less than 1 {micro}m and complete for particle sizes greater than 50 {micro}m. Deposition to insulated ducts, horizontal duct floors and bends are predicted to control losses in duct systems. When combined with models for HVAC filtration and deposition to indoor surfaces to predict the ultimate fates of particles within buildings, these results suggest that ventilation ducts play only a small role in determining indoor particle concentrations, especially when HVAC filtration is present. However, the measured and modeled particle deposition rates are expected to be important for ventilation system contamination.

Sippola, Mark R.

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Use of separate ZnTe interface layers to form OHMIC contacts to p-CdTe films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of improving electrical contact to a thin film of a p-type tellurium-containing II-VI semiconductor comprising: depositing a first undoped layer of ZnTe on a thin film of p-type tellurium containing II-VI semiconductor with material properties selected to limit the formation of potential barriers at the interface between the p-CdTe and the undoped layer, to a thickness sufficient to control diffusion of the metallic-doped ZnTe into the p-type tellurim-containing II-VI semiconductor, but thin enough to minimize affects of series resistance; depositing a second heavy doped p-type ZnTe layer to the first layer using an appropriate dopant; and depositing an appropriate metal onto the outer-most surface of the doped ZnTe layer for connecting an external electrical conductor to an ohmic contact.

Gessert, Timothy A. (Conifer, CO)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (Redirected from International Atomic Energy Agency) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: International Atomic Energy Agency Name International Atomic Energy Agency Address PO Box 100, 1400 Place Vienna, Austria Number of employees 1001-5000 Year founded 1957 Phone number (+431) 2600-0 Coordinates 48.2°, 16.35° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":48.2,"lon":16.35,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

337

Modeling particle deposition on HVAC heat exchangers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DEPOSITION ON HVAC HEAT EXCHANGERS JA Siegel 1,3 * and WWof fin-and-tube heat exchangers by particle deposition leadsparticle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces. We present a

Siegel, J.A.; Nazaroff, W.W.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

producing uranium for the Mo"hz,t,a, Projec, can best be qwtcd Irom the Smyth official report - Atomic Energy - . ' .: CCL, + NaCl - ."-l Figure 6. apparatus used in electrcdytic...

339

Single artificial-atom lasing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solid-state superconducting circuits are versatile systems in which quantum states can be engineered and controlled. Recent progress in this area has opened up exciting possibilities for exploring fundamental physics as well as applications in quantum information technology; in a series of experiments it was shown that such circuits can be exploited to generate quantum optical phenomena, by designing superconducting elements as artificial atoms that are coupled coherently to the photon field of a resonator. Here we demonstrate a lasing effect with a single artificial atom - a Josephson-junction charge qubit - embedded in a superconducting resonator. We make use of one of the properties of solid-state artificial atoms, namely that they are strongly and controllably coupled to the resonator modes. The device is essentially different from existing lasers and masers; one and the same artificial atom excited by current injection produces many photons.

O. Astafiev; K. Inomata; A. O. Niskanen; T. Yamamoto; Yu. A. Pashkin; Y. Nakamura; J. S. Tsai

2007-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

340

u. S. Atomic Energy Commission  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

October 31, 1949 Manager of Operations u. S. Atomic Energy Commission R. 0. Box 30, Ansonia Station New York ES, N. Y. MATERIALS 5+k& hJf Reference: SK:BL Attention: Mr. R. J....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic layer deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Exotic atoms and leptonic conservations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The major 1989 efforts have been on two aspects of experiments at TRIUMF. One effort was production of muonic hydrogen and muonic deuterium into a vacuum. We study rates relevant to muonic catalyzed fusion, and if there are found an adequate number of muons in the 2s state then we plan to measure precision energies. The second effort was to develop plans for kaonic atoms at the kaon factory. We also completed analyses from the experiments with pionic atoms at LAMPF.

Kunselman, R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Seasonalepisodic control of acid deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report contains the climatological, technical and economic factors for episodic and seasonal control of emissions in existing power plants. Analyzing a large data set of acid deposition for the years 1982-85, we find ...

Fay, James A.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Linked Deposit Loan Program (Kentucky)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Linked Deposit Program provides loan financing for small businesses of up to $100,000 for up to 7 years. The State Investment Commission invests funds from the state's Abandoned Property Cash...

344

Codeposition on hot CVD surfaces: Particle dynamics and deposit roughness interactions  

SciTech Connect

To capture in a tractable manner essential coupling effects in CVD systems when particles generated in thermal boundary layers also deposit, a film theory was developed that predicts simultaneous vapor and particle deposition rates at a hot deposition surface. The codeposition rate prediction method also calculates for the first time the corresponding solid deposit roughness using recently published results of particle-level simulations. For the numerical illustrations, the growth of TiO{sub 2}(s) films by the codeposition of titanium tetra-isopropoxide vapor and film-nucleated/grown TiO{sub 2} particles (generated in the thermal boundary layer) was considered. Experimental rate data for this system are available. The continuum and particle-level simulation methods provide: the interplay of vapor precursor kinetics, particle nucleation, growth, coagulation and diffusion in determining the complex ``structure`` of such multiphase chemically reacting boundary layers; wall deposition rates of both surviving vapors and film-nucleated particles; and the ``self-consistent`` microstructure (surface roughness) of the resulting solid deposit. Timely and tractable generalizations are discussed in the light of recent results for the transport properties and stability of ``fractal-like`` aggregated particles.

Tandon, P.; Rosner, D.E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Transition from LEDCOP to ATOMIC  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the development of the ATOMIC code, a new low to mid Z opacity code, which will replace the current Los Alamos low Z opacity code LEDCOP. The ATOMIC code is based on the FINE code, long used by the Los Alamos group for spectral comparisons in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and for non-LTE calculations, both utilizing the extensive databases from the atomic physics suite of codes based on the work of R.D. Cowan. Many of the plasma physics packages in LEDCOP, such as line broadening and free-free absorption, are being transferred to the new ATOMIC code. A new equation of state (EOS) model is being developed to allow higher density calculations than were possible with either the FINE or LEDCOP codes. Extensive modernization for both ATOMIC and the atomic physics code suites, including conversion to Fortran 90 and parallelization, are underway to speed up the calculations and to allow the use of expanded databases for both the LTE opacity tables and the non-LTE calculations. Future plans for the code will be outlined, including considerations for new generation opacity tables.

Magee, N. H. (Norman H.); Abdallah, J. (Joseph); Colgan, J. (James); Hakel, P. (Peter); Kilcrease, D. P. (David P.); Mazevet, S. (Stephane); Sherrill, M. E. (Manolo E.); Fontes, C. J. (Christopher J.); Zhang, H. (Honglin)

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Chemical enhancement of surface deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are disclosed for increasing the deposition of ions onto a surface, such as the adsorption of uranium ions on the detecting surface of a radionuclide detector. The method includes the step of exposing the surface to a complexing agent, such as a phosphate ion solution, which has an affinity for the dissolved species to be deposited on the surface. This provides, for example, enhanced sensitivity of the radionuclide detector. 16 figs.

Patch, K.D.; Morgan, D.T.

1997-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

347

Chemical enhancement of surface deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for increasing the deposition of ions onto a surface, such as the adsorption of uranium ions on the detecting surface of a radionuclide detector. The method includes the step of exposing the surface to a complexing agent, such as a phosphate ion solution, which has an affinity for the dissolved species to be deposited on the surface. This provides, for example, enhanced sensitivity of the radionuclide detector.

Patch, Keith D. (Lexington, MA); Morgan, Dean T. (Sudbury, MA)

1997-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

348

Vapor deposition of hardened niobium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

Blocher, Jr., John M. (Columbus, OH); Veigel, Neil D. (Columbus, OH); Landrigan, Richard B. (Columbus, OH)

1983-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

349

BWR Fuel Deposit Sample Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

River Bend Nuclear Power Station, a boiling water reactor (BWR) plant, experienced fuel defects during Cycle 11. The failed fuel pins were identified during the subsequent refueling outage. To assist analysis of the fuel failure root cause, crud flake deposit samples were collected for analyses. Results on the morphology and distribution of chemical elements in four tenacious crud flakes that are associated with the fuel failures are reported in EPRI report 1009733, BWR Fuel Deposit Sample Evaluation–Riv...

2005-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

350

Quick, Efficient Film Deposition for Nanomaterials - Energy ...  

Electricity Transmission; Energy Analysis; ... • Films can be deposited uniformly in a one-step deposition of nanoparticles with optimized drop distri ...

351

Rocky Mountain carbonate spring deposit development.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Relict Holocene carbonate spring deposits containing diverse biotic and abiotic depositional textures are present at Fall Creek cold sulphur springs, Alberta, Fairmont Hot Springs, British… (more)

Rainey, Dustin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Aging of reflective roofs: soot deposition  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aging of reflective roofs: soot deposition Title Aging of reflective roofs: soot deposition Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2002 Authors Berdahl, Paul, Hashem...

353

Atomic Physics Division 1999 - Future Directions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... lying Rydberg states constitute a "frozen" Rydberg gas. ... of atom interactions in cold atomic gases and Bose ... or optical fields and tight confinement of ...

354

Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics with Ultracold Atoms.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit der Wechselwirkung ultrakalter Atome mit der Mode eines optischen Resonators hoher Gu?te. Die Atome sind dabei in einem periodischen… (more)

Habibian, Hessam

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

A Radon Progeny Deposition Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly {sup 222}Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of {sup 210}Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

Guiseppe, V. E. [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 (United States); Elliott, S. R.; Hime, A.; Rielage, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Westerdale, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

356

A radon progeny deposition model  

SciTech Connect

The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly {sup 222}Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of {sup 210}Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

Rielage, Keith [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elliott, Steven R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hime, Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Guiseppe, Vincent E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Westerdale, S. [MIT

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Fouling in Diesel Applications: Fundamental Studies Deposit Properties and Microstructure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports on the results of experimental efforts aimed at improving the understanding of the mechanisms and conditions at play in the fouling of EGR coolers. An experimental apparatus was constructed to utilize simplified surrogate heat exchanger tubes in lieu of full-size heat exchangers. The use of these surrogate tubes allowed removal of the tubes after exposure to engine exhaust for study of the deposit layer and its properties. The exhaust used for fouling the surrogate tubes was produced using a modern medium-duty diesel engine fueled with both ultra-low sulfur diesel and biodiesel blends. At long exposure times, no significant difference in the fouling rate was observed between fuel types and HC levels. Surface coatings for the tubes were also evaluated to determine their impact on deposit growth. No surface treatment or coating produced a reduction in the fouling rate or any evidence of deposit removal. In addition, microstructural analysis of the fouling layers was performed using optical and electron microscopy in order to better understand the deposition mechanism. The experimental results are consistent with thermophoretic deposition for deposit formation, and van der Waals attraction between the deposit surface and exhaust-borne particulate.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Styles, Dan [Ford Motor Company; Simko, Steve [Ford Motor Company

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

The multi layered approach for AGM separators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present absorbent glass mat separate is an offspring of the filtration medium and special paper industries. In these industries, the traditional method of manufacturing micro-glass mats, was to blend two or more types of fibers together in an aqueous acidic solution and deposit this blend onto a moving endless wire or onto a roto-former, another version of an endless wire. The sheet acquires consistency as the water is withdrawn, it is then pressed and dried against heated drums. The methods of fiber dispersion and deposition can be changed so that the different constituent fiber types of an AGM separator are processed separately in distinct and separate layers. This fiber segregation results in changes to some key characteristics of the separator and brings some very definite advantages to the VRLA battery performance. Various key characteristics of the battery are enhanced, such as its ability to deliver higher currents at the higher discharge rates. This paper sets out some basic principles for the manufacturer of wet laid microglass fiber mats. Also important AGM characteristics, such as wicking, porosity/pore size and stratification are analyzed in light of the multilayered AGM design. These characteristics are radically modified and as a consequence the VRLA battery high rate and cycling performances are equally affected.

Ferreira, A.L. [AMER-SIL S.A., Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Fabrication of nano-hole array patterns on transparent conducting oxide layer using thermally curable nanoimprint lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional, periodic array of nano-sized holes was fabricated in an indium tin oxide (ITO) layer, deposited onto a glass substrate with nanoimprint lithography. As a result of a thermally curing imprint process, hole array patterns with a diameter ... Keywords: Indium tin oxide (ITO), Nanoimprint lithography (NIL), Patterned transparent electrode, Photonic crystals, Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer

Kyeong-Jae Byeon; Seon-Yong Hwang; Heon Lee

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Transparent Conductors and Barrier Layers for Thin Film Solar Cells:  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the research undertaken to increase the efficiency of thin-film solar cells based on amorphous silicon in the so-called''superstrate structure'' (glass front surface/transparent electrically conductive oxide (TCO)/pin amorphous silicon/metal back electrode). The TCO layer must meet many requirements: high optical transparency in the wavelength region from about 350 to 900 nm, low electrical sheet resistance, stability during handling and deposition of the subsequent layers and during use, a textured (rough) surface to enhance optical absorption of red and near-infrared light, and low-resistance electrical contact to the amorphous silicon p-layer. Fluorine-doped tin oxide has been the TCO used in most commercial superstrate amorphous silicon cells. Fluorine-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:F) was later shown to be even more transparent than fluorine-doped tin oxide, as well as being more resistant to the strongly reducing conditions encountered during the deposition of amorphous silicon. Solar cells based on ZnO:F showed the expected higher currents, but the fill factors were lower than standard cells grown on tin oxide, resulting in no consistent improvement in efficiency. This problem was recently mitigated by using a new proprietary p/buffer layer combination developed at BP Solar.

Gordon, R. G.; Broomhall-Dillard, R.; Liu, X.; Pang, D.; Barton, J.

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic layer deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

COBRA: Determining Atomic Positions in Thin-Film Structures and Interfaces  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

COBRA: Determining Atomic Positions in Thin-Film Structures and Interfaces COBRA: Determining Atomic Positions in Thin-Film Structures and Interfaces Coherent Bragg rod analyses (COBRA) experiments using synchrotron x-rays at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source (MHATT-CAT and PNC-CAT beamlines) directly revealed the sub-angstrom atomic interaction of epitaxial films with substrates. Information on how atoms in the adjoining layers of the film and substrate rearrange to mimic each other may lead to improvements in semiconductor manufacturing and the development of novel heterostructure materials, such as multilayer ferroelectrics, magnetic nanostructures and thin film superconductors. COBRA electron density map of a Gd2O3 film on a gallium arsenide substrate. The peaks correspond to folded Gd atomic positions parallel to the plane of the substrate.

362

Preparation and properties of high-deposition-rate a-Si:H films and solar cells using disilane: Annual subcontract report, 1 May 1987--30 April 1988  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report contains results of the first year of research on producing p-i-n amorphous silicon solar cells with the intrinsic layer deposited from higher order silanes at deposition rates of 1 nm/s or more. The research was divided into three major areas: diagnostic studies of monosilane and disilane RF discharges using optical emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry to assist in optimizing discharge conditions and gas-phase processes; parametric studies of material properties of 1-layers prepared form disilane as a function of deposition rate and other process parameters; and parametric studies of p-i-n devices with the i-layer prepared from disilane at various deposition rates. The focus during the first year was to fabricate a p-i-n solar cell with 9/percent/ AM1.5 efficiency over an area greater than 0.08 cm/sup 2/ with the i-layer deposited at 1 nm/s or more. Material properties such as the dark and AM1.5 light conductivities, optical band gap, and conductivity activation energy showed a weak dependence on deposition rate. The performance characteristics of unoptimized p-i-n solar cells with i-layers prepared from disilane were independent of the deposition rate of the i-layer. A p-i-n device was prepared at a rate close to 1 nm/s with an AM1.5 efficiency of 9/percent/. 20 refs, 26 figs, 2 tabs.

Bhat, P.K.; Chatham, H.; Madan, A.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Method for materials deposition by ablation transfer processing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method in which a thin layer of semiconducting, insulating, or metallic material is transferred by ablation from a source substrate, coated uniformly with a thin layer of said material, to a target substrate, where said material is desired, with a pulsed, high intensity, patternable beam of energy. The use of a patternable beam allows area-selective ablation from the source substrate resulting in additive deposition of the material onto the target substrate which may require a very low percentage of the area to be covered. Since material is placed only where it is required, material waste can be minimized by reusing the source substrate for depositions on multiple target substrates. Due to the use of a pulsed, high intensity energy source the target substrate remains at low temperature during the process, and thus low-temperature, low cost transparent glass or plastic can be used as the target substrate. The method can be carried out atmospheric pressures and at room temperatures, thus eliminating vacuum systems normally required in materials deposition processes. This invention has particular application in the flat panel display industry, as well as minimizing materials waste and associated costs. 1 fig.

Weiner, K.H.

1996-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

364

Method for materials deposition by ablation transfer processing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method in which a thin layer of semiconducting, insulating, or metallic material is transferred by ablation from a source substrate, coated uniformly with a thin layer of said material, to a target substrate, where said material is desired, with a pulsed, high intensity, patternable beam of energy. The use of a patternable beam allows area-selective ablation from the source substrate resulting in additive deposition of the material onto the target substrate which may require a very low percentage of the area to be covered. Since material is placed only where it is required, material waste can be minimized by reusing the source substrate for depositions on multiple target substrates. Due to the use of a pulsed, high intensity energy source the target substrate remains at low temperature during the process, and thus low-temperature, low cost transparent glass or plastic can be used as the target substrate. The method can be carried out atmospheric pressures and at room temperatures, thus eliminating vacuum systems normally required in materials deposition processes. This invention has particular application in the flat panel display industry, as well as minimizing materials waste and associated costs.

Weiner, Kurt H. (San Jose, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Observation of relativistic antihydrogen atoms  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An observation of relativistic antihydrogen atoms is reported in this dissertation. Experiment 862 at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory observed antihydrogen atoms produced by the interaction of a circulating beam of high momentum (3 < p < 9 GeV/c) antiprotons and a jet of molecular hydrogen gas. Since the neutral antihydrogen does not bend in the antiproton source magnets, the detectors could be located far from the interaction point on a beamline tangent to the storage ring. The detection of the antihydrogen is accomplished by ionizing the atoms far from the interaction point. The positron is deflected by a magnetic spectrometer and detected, as are the back to back photons resulting from its annihilation. The antiproton travels a distance long enough for its momentum and time of flight to be measured accurately. A statistically significant sample of 101 antihydrogen atoms has been observed. A measurement of the cross section for {bar H}{sup 0} production is outlined within. The cross section corresponds to the process where a high momentum antiproton causes e{sup +} e{sup -} pair creation near a nucleus with the e{sup +} being captured by the antiproton. Antihydrogen is the first atom made exclusively of antimatter to be detected. The observation experiment's results are the first step towards an antihydrogen spectroscopy experiment which would measure the n = 2 Lamb shift and fine structure.

Blanford, Glenn DelFosse

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Growth rate exponents of Richtmyer-Meshkov mixing layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Richtmyer-Meshkov mixing layer is initiated by the passing of a shock over an interface between fluid of differing densities. The energy deposited during the shock passage undergoes a relaxation process during which the fluctuational energy in the flow field decays and the spatial gradients of the flow field decrease in time. This late stage of Richtmyer-Meshkov mixing layers is studied from the viewpoint of self-similarity. Analogies with weakly anisotropic turbulence suggest that both the bubble-side and spike-side widths of the mixing layer should evolve as power-laws in time, with the same power-law exponents and virtual time origin for both sides. The analogy also bounds the power-law exponent between 2/7 and 2/5. It is then shown that the assumption of identical power-law exponents for bubbles and spikes yields that are in good agreement with experiment at modest density ratios.

Zhou, Y; Clark, T

2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

367

Metal film deposition by laser breakdown chemical vapor deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dielectric breakdown of gas mixtures can be used to deposit homogeneous thin films by chemical vapor deposition with appropriate control of flow and pressure conditions to suppress gas phase nucleation and particle formation. Using a pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser operating at 10.6 microns where there is no significant resonant absorption in any of the source gases, we have succeeded in depositing homogeneous films from several gas phase precursors by gas phase laser pyrolysis. Nickel and molybdenum from the respective carbonyls and tungsten from the hexafluoride have been examined to date. In each case the gas precursor is buffered to reduce the partial pressure of the reactants and to induce breakdown. The films are spectrally reflective and uniform over a large area. Films have been characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, pull tests, and resistivity measurements. The highest quality films have resulted from the nickel depositions. Detailed x-ray diffraction analysis of these films yields a very small domain size (approx. 50 A) consistent with rapid quenching from the gas phase reaction zone. This analysis also shows nickel carbide formation consistent with the temperature of the reaction zone and the Auger electron spectroscopy results which show some carbon and oxygen incorporation (8% and 1% respectively). Gas phase transport and condensation of the molybdenum carbonyl results in substantial carbon and oxygen contamination of the molybdenum films requiring heated substrates, a requirement not consistent with the goals of the program to maximize the quench rate of the deposition. Results from tungsten deposition experiments representing a reduction chemistry instead of the decomposition chemistry involved in the carbonyl experiments are also reported.

Jervis, T.R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Fabrication of Emissible Metallic Layer-by-Layer Photonic Crystals Using Microtransfer Molding with Electro-Deposition  

Photonic crystals are optical materials that can be used to control and manipulate the flow of light. Ames Laboratory researchers have developed a ...

369

Photocurrent Generation in Layer-By-Layer Assembled Dendrimers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photocurrent Generation in Layer-By-Layer Assembled Dendrimers with Photocurrent Generation in Layer-By-Layer Assembled Dendrimers with Ruthenium Tris-bipyridine Peripheral Groups and a Viologen-like Core Manal Abi Saab, Rouba Abdel-Malak, James F. Wishart, and Tarek H. Ghaddar Langmuir 23, 10807-10815 (2007). [Find paper at ACS Publications] Abstract: The photophysical and photoelectrochemical properties of first- and second-generation dendrimers with ruthenium tris-bipyridine peripheral groups and a tri-viologen like core (Ru3V3 and Ru6V3) were investigated in solution and when embedded within assembled films. The stepwise assembly of these dendrimers on quartz and ITO surfaces utilizing the layer-by-layer approach was investigated. The amount of the assembled dendrimers was found to increase on going to the higher generation dendrimer. This dendrimer

370

Ternary metal-rich sulfide with a layered structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A ternary Nb-Ta-S compound is provided having the atomic formula, Nb.sub.1.72 Ta.sub.3.28 S.sub.2, and exhibiting a layered structure in the sequence S-M3-M2-M1-M2-M3-S wherein S represents sulfur layers and M1, M2, and M3 represent Nb/Ta mixed metal layers. This sequence generates seven sheets stacked along the [001] direction of an approximate body centered cubic crystal structure with relatively weak sulfur-to-sulfur van der Waals type interactions between adjacent sulfur sheets and metal-to-metal bonding within and between adjacent mixed metal sheets.

Franzen, Hugo F. (Ames, IA); Yao, Xiaoqiang (Ames, IA)

1993-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

371

SCHROEDINGER'S CAT IN AN ATOMIC CAGE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... gov SCHROEDINGER'S CAT IN AN ATOMIC CAGE. They ... conditions. Schroedinger cat states are extremely fragile. Any ...

372

NIST: Atomic Spectros. - Spectral Continuum Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atomic Spectroscopy: home page. 21. Spectral Continuum Radiation. Hydrogenic Species. Precise quantum-mechanical ...

373

Cancer in atomic bomb survivors  

SciTech Connect

Radiation carcinogenesis was first noted in studies of individuals with occupational or therapeutic exposure to radiation. Data from long-term follow-up studies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have greatly enhanced our knowledge of radiation carcinogenesis. This book presents current results obtained from epidemiological studies and pathological studies on cancer among atomic bomb survivors. It includes a description of the dosimetry system which is currently being revised. Although many of the details about radiation carcinogenesis remain unknown or uncertain, it is clear that the incidence of radiation-induced cancer among atomic bomb survivors continues unabated 40 years after exposure. Recent increases in occupational and environmental exposure to radiation together with the need for a thorough review of radiation protection standards have led to increased recognition of the importance of research on radiation carcinogenesis and risk assessment.

Shigematsu, I.; Kagan, A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Hot atom chemistry and radiopharmaceuticals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The chemical products made in a cyclotron target are a combined result of the chemical effects of the nuclear transformation that made the radioactive atom and the bulk radiolysis in the target. This review uses some well-known examples to understand how hot atom chemistry explains the primary products from a nuclear reaction and then how radiation chemistry is exploited to set up the optimal product for radiosynthesis. It also addresses the chemical effects of nuclear decay. There are important principles that are common to hot atom chemistry and radiopharmaceutical chemistry. Both emphasize short-lived radionuclides and manipulation of high specific activity nuclides. Furthermore, they both rely on radiochromatographic separation for identification of no-carrieradded products.

Krohn, Kenneth A.; Moerlein, Stephen M.; Link, Jeanne M.; Welch, Michael J. [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Center, 1959 NE Pacific St., Box 356004, Seattle, WA 98195-6004 (United States); Washington University, Department of Radiology, Division of Radiological Sciences, 510 South Kingshighway, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Center, 1959 NE Pacific St., Box 356004, Seattle, WA 98195-6004 (United States); Washington University, Department of Radiology, Division of Radiological Sciences, 510 South Kingshighway, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States)

2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

375

Degeneracy Breaking of Hydrogen Atom  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The three dimensional rotation group, SO(3), is a symmetry group of the normal hydrogen atom. Each reducible representation of this group can be associated with a degenerate energy level. If this atom is placed in an external magnetic field, the interaction between the orbital magnetic moment with this field will lead to a symmetry breaking where the symmetry group of the atom is a new group distinct from the SO(3) group. This phenomenon describes the normal Zeeman effect, where a degenerate energy level splits into several new energy levels. It is explicitly shown that each of the new energy levels can be associated with an irreducible representation of the new symmetry group.

Agung Trisetyarso; Pantur Silaban

2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

376

Formation of metal oxides by cathodic arc deposition  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Metal oxide thin films are of interest for a number of applications. Cathodic arc deposition, an established, industrially applied technique for formation of nitrides (e.g. TiN), can also be used for metal oxide thin film formation. A cathodic arc plasma source with desired cathode material is operated in an oxygen atmosphere, and metal oxides of various stoichiometric composition can be formed on different substrates. We report here on a series of experiments on metal oxide formation by cathodic arc deposition for different applications. Black copper oxide has been deposited on ALS components to increase the radiative heat transfer between the parts. Various metal oxides such as tungsten oxide, niobium oxide, nickel oxide and vanadium oxide have been deposited on ITO glass to form electrochromic films for window applications. Tantalum oxide films are of interest for replacing polymer electrolytes. Optical waveguide structures can be formed by refractive index variation using oxide multilayers. We have synthesized multilayers of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/AI{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si as possible basic structures for passive optoelectronic integrated circuits, and Al{sub 2-x}Er{sub x}O{sub 3} thin films with a variable Er concentration which is a potential component layer for the production of active optoelectronic integrated devices such as amplifiers or lasers at a wavelength of 1.53 {mu}m. Aluminum and chromium oxide films have been deposited on a number of substrates to impart improved corrosion resistance at high temperature. Titanium sub-oxides which are electrically conductive and corrosion resistant and stable in a number of aggressive environments have been deposited on various substrates. These sub-oxides are of great interest for use in electrochemical cells.

Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Rubin, M.; Wang, Z.; Raoux, S.; Kong, F.; Brown, I.G.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Supercomputers and atomic physics data  

SciTech Connect

The advent of the supercomputer has dramatically increased the possibilities for generating and using massive amounts of detailed fine structure atomic physics data. Size, speed, and software have made calculations which were impossible just a few years ago into a reality. Further technological advances make future possibilities seem endless. The cornerstone atomic structure codes of R.D. Cowan have been adapted into a single code CATS for use on Los Alamos supercomputers. We provide a brief overview of the problem; and report a sample CATS calculation using configuration interaction to calculate collision and oscillator strengths for over 300,000 transitions in neutral nitrogen. We also discuss future supercomputer needs. 2 refs.

Abdallah, J. Jr.; Clark, R.E.H.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Analysis of the Younger Dryas Impact Layer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have uncovered a thin layer of magnetic grains and microspherules, carbon spherules, and glass-like carbon at nine sites across North America, a site in Belgium, and throughout the rims of 16 Carolina Bays. It is consistent with the ejecta layer from an impact event and has been dated to 12.9 ka BP coinciding with the onset of Younger Dryas (YD) cooling and widespread megafaunal extinctions in North America. At many locations the impact layer is directly below a black mat marking the sudden disappearance of the megafauna and Clovis people. The distribution pattern of the Younger Dryas boundary (YDB) ejecta layer is consistent with an impact near the Great Lakes that deposited terrestrial-like ejecta near the impact site and unusual, titanium-rich projectile-like ejecta further away. High water content associated with the ejecta, up to 28 at. percent hydrogen (H), suggests the impact occurred over the Laurentide Ice Sheet. YDB microspherules and magnetic grains are highly enriched in TiO{sub 2}. Magnetic grains from several sites are enriched in iridium (Ir), up to 117 ppb. The TiO{sub 2}/FeO, K/Th, TiO{sub 2}/Zr, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/FeO+MgO, CaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, REE/ chondrite, FeO/MnO ratios and SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}O, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ni, Co, U, Th and other trace element abundances are inconsistent with all terrestrial and extraterrestrial (ET) sources except for KREEP, a lunar igneous rock rich in potassium (K), rare-earth elements (REE), phosphorus (P), and other incompatible elements including U and Th. Normal Fe, Ti, and {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U isotopic abundances were found in the magnetic grains, but {sup 234}U was enriched over equilibrium values by 50 percent in Murray Springs and by 130 percent in Belgium. 40K abundance is enriched by up to 100 percent in YDB sediments and Clovis chert artifacts. Highly vesicular carbon spherules containing nanodiamonds, glass-like carbon, charcoal and soot found in large quantities in the YDB layer are consistent with an impact followed by intense burning. Four holes in the Great Lakes, some deeper than Death Valley, are proposed as possible craters produced by the airburst breakup of a loosely aggregated projectile.

Firestone, Richard B.; West, Allen; Revay, Zsolt; Hagstrum, Jonathon T,; Belgya, Thomas; Hee, Shane S. Que; Smith, Alan R.

2010-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

379

TULSA UNIVERSITY PARAFFIN DEPOSITION PROJECTS  

SciTech Connect

As oil and gas production moves to deeper and colder water, subsea multiphase production systems become critical for economic feasibility. It will also become increasingly imperative to adequately identify the conditions for paraffin precipitation and predict paraffin deposition rates to optimize the design and operation of these multi-phase production systems. Although several oil companies have paraffin deposition predictive capabilities for single-phase oil flow, these predictive capabilities are not suitable for the multiphase flow conditions encountered in most flowlines and wellbores. For deepwater applications in the Gulf of Mexico, it is likely that multiphase production streams consisting of crude oil, produced water and gas will be transported in a single multiphase pipeline to minimize capital cost and complexity at the mudline. Existing single-phase (crude oil) paraffin deposition predictive tools are clearly inadequate to accurately design these pipelines, because they do not account for the second and third phases, namely, produced water and gas. The objective of this program is to utilize the current test facilities at The University of Tulsa, as well as member company expertise, to accomplish the following: enhance our understanding of paraffin deposition in single and two-phase (gas-oil) flows; conduct focused experiments to better understand various aspects of deposition physics; and, utilize knowledge gained from experimental modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for predicting paraffin deposition in single and two-phase flow environments. These refined computer models will then be tested against field data from member company pipelines.

Cem Sarica; Michael Volk

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to supersonic velocities. 3 figs.

Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.S.; Balsavich, J.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic layer deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

The effect of hydrogen-plasma and PECVD-nitride deposition on bulk and surface passivation in string-ribbon silicon solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have investigated whether an in-situ hydrogen or ammonia rf-plasma treatment prior to a PECVD-nitride deposition would promote bulk defect passivation independently of surface effects. We also studied whether the predeposition of a thin silicon-nitride protective layer vbefore performing the plasma treatment would serve to minimize surface damage. We found that for the limited set of deposition conditions in of cells processed using the used five different deposition strategies and compared the resulting cell performance with that investigated so far, the direct deposition of PECVD-nitride produces the best cells on String Ribbon silicon wafers to date, with efficiencies up to 14.5%. Hydrogen and ammonia plasma pretreatments without a protective nitride layer resulted in better bulk passivation, but damaged surfaces. Pretreatments after deposition of the protective layer produced the best surface passivation, but were not effective in passivating the bulk.

Ruby, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilbanks, W.L.; Fleddermann, C.B. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hanoka, J.I. [Evergreen Solar Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Materials characterization of WNxCy, WNx and WCx films for advanced barriers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A ternary WN"xC"y system was deposited in a thermal ALD (atomic layer deposition) reactor from ASM at 300^oC in a process sequence using tungsten hexafluoride (WF"6), triethyl borane (TEB) and ammonia (NH"3) as precursors. The WC"x layers were deposited ... Keywords: ALD, Atomic layer deposition, Barrier, WCx, WNx, WNxCy

H. Volders; Z. Tökei; H. Bender; B. Brijs; R. Caluwaerts; L. Carbonell; T. Conard; C. Drijbooms; A. Franquet; S. Garaud; I. Hoflijk; A. Moussa; F. Sinapi; Y. Travaly; D. Vanhaeren; G. Vereecke; C. Zhao; W. -M. Li; H. Sprey; A. M. Jonas

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Properties of In-Doped ZnO Films Grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition on GaN(0001) Templates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TCO is amor- phous indium tin oxide (ITO), most commonlythe properties of indium-doped zinc oxide layers grown byoxide, doping, n-type, MOCVD, metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, ZnO: In, indium

Ben-Yaacov, Tammy; Ive, Tommy; Walle, Chris G.; Mishra, Umesh K.; Speck, James S.; Denbaars, Steven P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Effect of fuel type and deposition surface temperature on the growth and structure of an ash deposit collected during co-firing of coal with sewage sludge and sawdust  

SciTech Connect

Blends of a South African bituminous 'Middleburg' coal, a municipal sewage sludge, and a sawdust have been fired in the slagging reactor to examine the effect of the added fuel on the slagging propensity of the mixtures. Uncooled ceramic probes and air-cooled metal probes were used to examine the influence of the deposition surface temperature on the growth and structureof the deposits. The initial stages of slagging were in a high-temperature range of 1100-1300{sup o}C and a low-temperature range of 550-700{sup o}C. Laboratory ash, ash sampled on the deposition probes, and ash collected in the cyclone have been analyzed using the X-ray fluorescence technique. The electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of the embedded resin deposit probes have been performed to determine the thickness, structure, porosity, and chemical composition in different layers of the deposit. Distinct differences in structures of the deposits collected using the uncooled ceramic probes and air-cooled steal probes were observed. Glassy, easily molten deposits collected on uncooled ceramic deposition probes are characteristic for co-firing of municipal sewage sludge with coal. Porous, sintered, but easily removable deposits of the same fuel blend have been collected on the air-cooled metal deposition probes. The addition of sawdust does not negatively influence the deposition behavior. Loose, easy removable deposits have been sampled on air-cooled metal deposition probes during co-firing of coal-sawdust blends. The mass of the deposit sampled at lower deposition surface temperatures (550-700{sup o}C) was always larger than the mass sampled at higher surface temperatures (1100-1300{sup o}C). 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Tomasz Kupka; Krzysztof Zajac; Roman Weber [Clausthal University of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Institute of Energy Process Engineering and Fuel Technology

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

385

Thin Film Solar Cells with Light Trapping Transparent Conducting Oxide Layer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thin film solar cells, if film thickness is thinner than the optical absorption length, typically give lower cell performance. For the thinner structure, electric current loss due to light penetration can offset the electric current gain obtained from higher built-in electric field. Light trapping schemes can increase the effective optical absorption length and thus enhance the electric current for thinner solar cells. Here a new light trapping scheme based on light trapping transparent conducting oxide layer (LT-TCO) is proposed to enhance the performance of thin film solar cells. Three different configurations of integrating the LT-TCO layer in solar cells are proposed and evaluated. This research aims to develop the LT-TCO layer with surface texture and good conductivity by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique at low temperature. The LT-TCO layer is fabricated by PLD deposition of Al-doped ZnO to achieve multilayer films by tuning of oxygen pressure. The light trapping effect is examined by optical transmittance measurement and the surface texture is characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique. The conductivity of LT-TCO layer is measured by resistivity measurement. Thin film CdTe/CdS solar cells are fabricated by PLD technique to develop baseline solar cells for integration of LT-TCO layer. The as-deposited thin film solar cells show relatively low performance and are further processed with various post-deposition treatments to seek efficiency enhancement. The effects of different processes on cell performance are examined by electrical, optical, and microstructure studies. Air annealing of CdS layer and CdCl2 treatment of CdTe layer combined are found to yield the best cell performance. The fabrication issues that limit the cell performance are discussed and future optimizations in fabrication processes are suggested.

Lu, Tianlin

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

A Model for Phosphosilicate Glass Deposition via POCl3 for Control of Phosphorus Dose in Si  

SciTech Connect

Effective control of diffused phosphorus profiles in crystalline silicon requires detailed understanding of the doping process. We develop a model and analyze concentration profiles within the deposited phosphosilicate glass (PSG) for a range of POCl3 conditions. During predeposition, a PSG layer with composition nearly independent of process conditions forms. This layer is separated from Si by a thin SiO2 layer. There is also strong accumulation of P at the SiO2-Si interface. A simple linear-parabolic model cannot fully explain the kinetics of thickness and dose; while an improved model including oxygen dependence and dose saturation gives better fits to the experiments.

Chen, Renyu; Wagner, Hannes; Dastgheib-Shirazi, Amir; Kessler, Michael; Zhu, Zihua; Shutthanandan, V.; Altermatt, Pietro P.; Dunham, Scott T.

2012-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

387

Lesson 6- Atoms to Electricity  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Most power plants make electricity by boiling water to make steam that turns a turbine. A nuclear power plant works this way, too. At a nuclear power plant, splitting atoms produce the heat to boil the water. This lesson covers inside the reactor, fission control and electricity generation.

388

Dynamical polarization in pionic atoms  

SciTech Connect

Dynamical nuclear polarization occurs in pionic atoms when a nuclear excitation of appropriate multipolarity is nearly degenerate with de-excitation of a pion atomic level. This phenomenon has been studied in several nuclei, one goal being to test the pion optical potential for pion atomic states normally ''hidden'' because of pion absorption. We find that, in addition to Coulomb mixing of the atomic and nuclear levels, strong interaction mixing and nuclear excitations above the lowest collective quadrupole mode are important for understanding the experimental results. All cases except /sup 110/Pd can then be understood. For /sup 110/Pd, additional nuclear structure information is needed to determine whether or not the conventional pion optical potential will suffice again. We discuss the sensitivity of dynamical polarization measurements to the parameters of the optical potential and to various aspects of nuclear structure. In particular, we find that pionic /sup 150/Sm provides a test of the interacting boson model and that the difference in neutron and proton radii predicted by Hartree-Fock calculations affects the mixing appreciably.

Dubach, J.F.; Moniz, E.J.; Nixon, G.D.

1979-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Mathematical formulation and numerical modeling of wax deposition in pipelines from enthalpyporosity approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to approximate the convection flow in the gel layer. We do not use the chain rule to relate composition gradient hardening and aging 1. Introduction Solid deposition from liquids in both natural and indus- trial processes in petroleum production. As the search for oil and gas moves towards deeper waters such as the Gulf of Mexico

Firoozabadi, Abbas

390

Evaluation of Long-Range Transport Models for Acidic Deposition in East Asia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comparison between transport models is done to study the sulfur deposition in East Asia. A single-layer Lagrangian model with simple chemistry is compared to a multilayered 3D Eulerian model. The comparison is done for two-month-long episodes ...

Mahesh J. Phadnis; Gregory R. Carmichael; Yoichi Ichikawa; Hiroshi Hayami

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Deposition and FIB direct patterning of nanowires and nanorings into suspended sheets of graphene  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Graphene, a one-atom-thick layer of carbon represents a new class of materials which offers new inroads into low-dimensional physics. Nowadays a crucial problem is related to the patterning of graphene structures while keeping intact the unusual physical ... Keywords: FIB Patterning, Quantum nanostructures, Suspended graphene

D. Lucot; J. Gierak; A. Ouerghi; E. Bourhis; G. Faini; D. Mailly

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Verification of the O-Si-N complex in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition silicon oxynitride films  

SciTech Connect

Silicon oxynitride films were deposited using a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process. The bond configurations of the constituent atoms in the deposited film were analyzed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Analysis of the Si 2p spectra showed the presence of nonstoichiometric silicon oxide and silicon oxynitride. Analysis of the binding energy shifts induced by Si-O and Si-N bond formation indicated an O-Si-N complex was present in the film matrix. Component balance analysis indicated that second-nearest-neighbor bond interactions were not the cause of these energy shifts and supported the presence of an O-Si-N complex.

Naskar, Sudipto; Wolter, Scott D.; Bower, Christopher A.; Stoner, Brian R.; Glass, Jeffrey T. [Center for Materials and Electronics Technologies, RTI-International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Center for Materials and Electronics Technologies, RTI-International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 (United States); Center for Materials and Electronics Technologies, RTI-International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

2005-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

393

Enhanced molecular dynamics for simulating porous interphase layers in batteries.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Understanding charge transport processes at a molecular level using computational techniques is currently hindered by a lack of appropriate models for incorporating anistropic electric fields in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. An important technological example is ion transport through solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layers that form in many common types of batteries. These layers regulate the rate at which electro-chemical reactions occur, affecting power, safety, and reliability. In this work, we develop a model for incorporating electric fields in MD using an atomistic-to-continuum framework. This framework provides the mathematical and algorithmic infrastructure to couple finite element (FE) representations of continuous data with atomic data. In this application, the electric potential is represented on a FE mesh and is calculated from a Poisson equation with source terms determined by the distribution of the atomic charges. Boundary conditions can be imposed naturally using the FE description of the potential, which then propagates to each atom through modified forces. The method is verified using simulations where analytical or theoretical solutions are known. Calculations of salt water solutions in complex domains are performed to understand how ions are attracted to charged surfaces in the presence of electric fields and interfering media.

Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Wong, Bryan Matthew; Jones, Reese E.; Templeton, Jeremy Alan; Lee, Jonathan (Rice University, Houston, TX)

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Method for rubblizing an oil shale deposit for in situ retorting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for rubblizing an oil shale deposit that has been formed in alternate horizontal layers of rich and lean shale, including the steps of driving a horizontal tunnel along the lower edge of a rich shale layer of the deposit, sublevel caving by fan drilling and blasting of both rich and lean overlying shale layers at the distal end of the tunnel to rubblize the layers, removing a substantial amount of the accessible rubblized rich shale to permit the overlying rubblized lean shale to drop to tunnel floor level to form a column of lean shale, performing additional sublevel caving of rich and lean shale towards the proximate end of the tunnel, removal of a substantial amount of the additionally rubblized rich shale to allow the overlying rubblized lean shale to drop to tunnel floor level to form another column of rubblized lean shale, similarly performing additional steps of sublevel caving and removal of rich rubble to form additional columns of lean shale rubble in the rich shale rubble in the tunnel, and driving additional horizontal tunnels in the deposit and similarly rubblizing the overlying layers of rich and lean shale and forming columns of rubblized lean shale in the rich, thereby forming an in situ oil shale retort having zones of lean shale that remain permeable to hot retorting fluids in the presence of high rubble pile pressures and high retorting temperatures.

Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Magneto-Optical Cooling of Atoms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose an alternative method to laser cooling. Our approach utilizes the extreme brightness of a supersonic atomic beam, and the adiabatic atomic coilgun to slow atoms in the beam or to bring them to rest. We show how internal-state optical pumping and stimulated optical transitions, combined with magnetic forces can be used to cool the translational motion of atoms. This approach does not rely on momentum transfer from photons to atoms, as in laser cooling. We predict that our method can surpass laser cooling in terms of flux of ultra-cold atoms and phase-space density, with lower required laser power and reduced complexity.

Raizen, Mark G; Rochester, Simon; Narevicius, Julia; Narevicius, Edvardas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Atomic physics and non-equilibrium plasmas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Three lectures comprise the report. The lecture, Atomic Structure, is primarily theoretical and covers four topics: (1) Non-relativistic one-electron atom, (2) Relativistic one-electron atom, (3) Non-relativistic many-electron atom, and (4) Relativistic many-electron atom. The lecture, Radiative and Collisional Transitions, considers the problem of transitions between atomic states caused by interactions with radiation or other particles. The lecture, Ionization Balance: Spectral Line Shapes, discusses collisional and radiative transitions when ionization and recombination processes are included. 24 figs., 11 tabs.

Weisheit, J.C.

1986-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

397

Evolution of Turbine Blade Deposits in an Accelerated Deposition Facility: Roughness and Thermal Analysis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??During the operation of a gas turbine, ingested contaminants present in the air form deposits on the surfaces of the turbine blades. These deposits grow… (more)

Wammack, James Edward 1979-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Effects of Process Parameters of ALD on High-k Dielectric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to realize high performance nanoelectronic devices, it is required to build localized gate structures on a graphene layer. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is ...

399

Evolution of AlN buffer layers on Silicon and the effect on the property of the expitaxial GaN film  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The morphology evolution of high-temperature grown AlN nucleation layers on (111) silicon has been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The structure and morphology of subsequently grown GaN film were characterized ...

Zang, Keyan

400

UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

I(S.0 -01: I(S.0 -01: SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL LlCEWSE Pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 1, Part 70, "Special Nuclear Material Regulations," o. license is hereby issued authorizing the licensee to receive and possess the special nuclear material designated below; to use such special nuclear material for the purpose(s) and at the place(s) designated below; and to transfer such material to persons' authorized to receive it in accordance with the regulations in said Port. This license shall be deemed to contain the conditions specified in Section 70.32(a) of said regulations, and is subject to all applicable rules, regtdations, and orders of the Atomic Energy Commission now or hereafter in

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic layer deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Atomic vapor laser isotope separation  

SciTech Connect

Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985 the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for the internationally competitive production of uranium separative work. The economic basis for this decision is considered, with an indicated of the constraints placed on the process figures of merit and the process laser system. We then trace an atom through a generic AVLIS separator and give examples of the physical steps encountered, the models used to describe the process physics, the fundamental parameters involved, and the role of diagnostic laser measurements.

Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

1985-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

402

Process for forming epitaxial perovskite thin film layers using halide precursors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for forming an epitaxial perovskite-phase thin film on a substrate. This thin film can act as a buffer layer between a Ni substrate and a YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x superconductor layer. The process utilizes alkali or alkaline metal acetates dissolved in halogenated organic acid along with titanium isopropoxide to dip or spin-coat the substrate which is then heated to about 700.degree. C. in an inert gas atmosphere to form the epitaxial film on the substrate. The YBCO superconductor can then be deposited on the layer formed by this invention.

Clem, Paul G. (Albuquerque, NM); Rodriguez, Mark A. (Albuquerque, NM); Voigt, James A. (Corrales, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

STAR FORMATION IN ATOMIC GAS  

SciTech Connect

Observations of nearby galaxies have firmly established, over a broad range of galactic environments and metallicities, that star formation occurs exclusively in the molecular phase of the interstellar medium (ISM). Theoretical models show that this association results from the correlation between chemical phase, shielding, and temperature. Interstellar gas converts from atomic to molecular only in regions that are well shielded from interstellar ultraviolet (UV) photons, and since UV photons are also the dominant source of interstellar heating, only in these shielded regions does the gas become cold enough to be subject to Jeans instability. However, while the equilibrium temperature and chemical state of interstellar gas are well correlated, the timescale required to reach chemical equilibrium is much longer than that required to reach thermal equilibrium, and both timescales are metallicity-dependent. Here I show that the difference in timescales implies that, at metallicities below a few percent of the solar value, well shielded gas will reach low temperatures and proceed to star formation before the bulk of it is able to convert from atomic to molecular. As a result, at extremely low metallicities, star formation will occur in a cold atomic phase of the ISM rather than a molecular phase. I calculate the observable consequences of this result for star formation in low-metallicity galaxies, and I discuss how some current numerical models for H{sub 2}-regulated star formation may need to be modified.

Krumholz, Mark R., E-mail: krumholz@ucolick.org [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated. 8 figs.

Jankowski, A.F.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Rambach, G.D.; Randich, E.

1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

405

Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Rambach, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Randich, Erik (Endinboro, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Rambach, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Randich, Erik (Endinboro, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Deposition  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

as far 4 as nuclear power, the vast majority of those items that 5 are in a nuclear power plant that Commerce controls 6 have very limited licensing requirements. 7 Commerce also...

408

Role of atomic collisions in fusion  

SciTech Connect

Atomic physics issues have played a large role in controlled fusion research. A general discussion of the present role of atomic processes in both magnetic and inertial controlled fusion work is presented.

Post, D.E.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Laser cooling and trapping of neutral atoms*  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 1 m/s, any gas in equilibrium (other than spin-polarized atomic hydro- ... lattice-trapped atoms, a physical picture with the simplicity and power of the ...

2010-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

410

Atomic vapor laser isotope separation process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser spectroscopy system is utilized in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. The system determines spectral components of an atomic vapor utilizing a laser heterodyne technique. 23 figs.

Wyeth, R.W.; Paisner, J.A.; Story, T.

1990-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

411

NIST Atomic Form Factors: Summary of uncertainties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... element. This "H92 - 3/5CL" value is 1.09 e/atom for uranium or 0.002 e/atom for Z = 6 (ie, 40 % of the dipole correction). ...

412

Chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran polymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis develops a platform for deposition of polymer thin films that can be further tailored by chemical surface modification. First, we explore chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran films using ...

Olsson, Ylva Kristina

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Chemical vapor depositing of metal fluorides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Purity BeF2 and BeF2–AlF3glasses have been deposited by the chemical vapor deposition technique using beryllium and aluminum 1

A. Sarhangi; J. M. Power

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Modeling deposit formation in diesel injector nozzle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Formation of deposit in the diesel injector nozzle affects the injection behavior and hinders performance. Under running condition, deposit precursors are washed away by the ensuing injection. However, during the cool down ...

Sudhiesh Kumar, Chintoo

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Direct patterning of surface quantum wells with an atomic force J. Cortes Rosa, M. Wendel, H. Lorenz,a)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct patterning of surface quantum wells with an atomic force microscope J. Cortes Rosa, MAs­AlSb surface quantum wells. Sharp and sturdy electron beam deposited tips are developed to withstand the comparatively high N forces in the direct patterning process. By direct patterning the InAs surface quantum well

Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München

416

Towards a high-precision atomic gyroscope  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, I report on the design and construction of the Rubidium Atomic Gyroscope Experiment (RAGE) at Draper Lab.

Van Camp, Mackenzie A. (Mackenzie Anne)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - Institute for Atom...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalysis & Energy Conversion Electrochemical Energy Storage Nuclear & Environmental Processes National Security Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations Center for...

418

NIST: Atomic Spectroscopy Group - Past News  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics of the American Physical Society (DAMOP) in ... and Determination of Relative Nuclear Charge Radius.". ...

2013-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

419

Atomic Scale Deformation Mechanisms of Amorphous Polyethylene ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atomic Scale Deformation Mechanisms of Amorphous Polyethylene under Tensile Loading · Atomistic Predictions of Age Hardening in Al-Cu Alloys.

420

NIST: Atomic Spectroscopy Group - John Curry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... chemical equilibrium and deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium. I am also interested in the acquisition and compilation of basic atomic data. ...

2011-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic layer deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

NIST Atomic Physics Division 2000 - Technical Highlights  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Astrophysical Quantities," a handbook widely used ... and single-atom chemistry, where controlled ... understanding of fundamental processes occurring ...

422

Guidelines for Turbine Deposit Collection and Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Steam impurities can deposit throughout the steam path, causing a variety of performance issues. Deposits can result in efficiency losses and component failures through stress corrosion cracking (SCC) or corrosion fatigue (CF) initiated by corrosive deposits. The potential for each of these mechanisms can be exacerbated by the reduced frequency of turbine overhauls or opportunities to conduct an inspection. Sampling and deposit analysis is an integral part of a steam path audit, as well as a reflection o...

2011-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

423

LOW PRESSURE CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF POLYSILICON  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THEORY The mass transport processes in low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) are similar to those occuring in catalytic reactors

Gieske, R.J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Study of a liquid-gas mixing layer: Shear instability and size of produced drops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Study of a liquid-gas mixing layer: Shear instability and size of produced drops Sylvain Marty +++++ Presented by £££££ Abstract We study experimentally the atomization of a liquid sheet by a parallel gas flow creation. We study in particular the regimes at low M (ratio of gas/liquid dynamic pressures), to test

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

425

Collisionally Induced Atomic Clock Shifts and Correlations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop a formalism to incorporate exchange symmetry considerations into the calculation of collisional frequency shifts and blackbody radiation effects for atomic clock transitions using a density matrix formalism. The formalism is developed for both fermionic and bosonic atomic clocks. Results for a finite temperature ${}^{87}$Sr ${}^1S_0$ ($F = 9/2$) atomic clock in a magic wavelength optical lattice are presented.

Y. B. Band; I. Osherov

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

426

Transpiring wall supercritical water oxidation reactor salt deposition studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories has teamed with Foster Wheeler Development Corp. and GenCorp, Aerojet to develop and evaluate a new supercritical water oxidation reactor design using a transpiring wall liner. In the design, pure water is injected through small pores in the liner wall to form a protective boundary layer that inhibits salt deposition and corrosion, effects that interfere with system performance. The concept was tested at Sandia on a laboratory-scale transpiring wall reactor that is a 1/4 scale model of a prototype plant being designed for the Army to destroy colored smoke and dye at Pine Bluff Arsenal in Arkansas. During the tests, a single-phase pressurized solution of sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) was heated to supercritical conditions, causing the salt to precipitate out as a fine solid. On-line diagnostics and post-test observation allowed us to characterize reactor performance at different flow and temperature conditions. Tests with and without the protective boundary layer demonstrated that wall transpiration provides significant protection against salt deposition. Confirmation tests were run with one of the dyes that will be processed in the Pine Bluff facility. The experimental techniques, results, and conclusions are discussed.

Haroldsen, B.L.; Mills, B.E.; Ariizumi, D.Y.; Brown, B.G. [and others

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

The Subinertial Mixed Layer Approximation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The density of the mixed layer is approximately uniform in the vertical but has dynamically important horizontal gradients. These nonuniformities in density result in a vertically sheared horizontal pressure gradient. Subinertial motions balance ...

W. R. Young

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Density Coordinate Mixed Layer Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of mixed layer models in so-called density coordinates is discussed. Density coordinates, or isopycnal coordinates as they are sometimes called, are becoming increasingly popular for use in ocean models due to their highly ...

William K. Dewar

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Modeling the Benthic Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A second-order turbulence closure model is used to study the development of the benthic boundary layer. Results are presented on the effects of a time-dependent oscillatory forcing flow and an initially stably stratified density gradient. Using ...

K. J. Richards

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Mixed Layer Instabilities and Restratification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The restratification of the oceanic surface mixed layer that results from lateral gradients in the surface density field is studied. The lateral gradients are shown to be unstable to ageostrophic baroclinic instabilities and slump from the ...

Giulio Boccaletti; Raffaele Ferrari; Baylor Fox-Kemper

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Direct Measurement of EGR Cooler Deposit Thermal Properties for Improved Understanding of Cooler Fouling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler fouling has become a significant issue for compliance with NOX emissions standards. This paper reports results of a study of fundamental aspects of EGR cooler fouling. An apparatus and procedure were developed to allow surrogate EGR cooler tubes to be exposed to diesel engine exhaust under controlled conditions. The resulting fouled tubes were removed and analyzed. Volatile and non-volatile deposit mass was measured for each tube. Thermal diffusivity of the deposited soot cake was measured by milling a window into the tube and using the Xenon flash lamp method. The heat capacity of the deposit was measured at temperatures up to 430 C and was slightly higher than graphite, presumably due to the presence of hydrocarbons. These measurements were combined to allow calculation of the deposit thermal conductivity, which was determined to be 0.041 W/mK, only ~1.5 times that of air and much lower than the 304 stainless steel tube (14.7 W/mK). The main determinant of the deposit thermal conductivity is density, which was measured to be just 2% that of the density of the primary soot particles (or 98% porous). The deposit layer thermal resistance was calculated and compared with estimates of the thermal resistance calculated from gas temperature data during the experiment. The deposit properties were also used to further analyze the temperature data collected during the experiment.

Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Thermal Response of Tritiated Co-deposits from JET and TFTR to Transient Heat Pulses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High heat flux interactions with plasma-facing components have been studied at microscopic scales. The beam from a continuous wave neodymium laser was scanned at high speed over the surface of graphite and carbon fiber composite tiles that had been retrieved from TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) and JET (Joint European Torus) after D-T plasma operations. The tiles have a surface layer of amorphous hydrogenated carbon that was co-deposited during plasma operations, and laser scanning has released more than 80% of the co-deposited tritium. The temperature rise of the co-deposit was much higher than that of the manufactured material and showed an extended time history. The peak temperature varied dramatically (e.g., 1,436 C compared to >2,300 C), indicating strong variations in the thermal conductivity to the substrate. A digital microscope imaged the co-deposit before, during, and after the interaction with the laser and revealed 100-micron scale hot spots during the interaction. Heat pulse durations of order 100 ms resulted in brittle destruction and material loss from the surface, whilst a duration of =10 ms showed minimal changes to the co-deposit. These results show that reliable predictions for the response of deposition areas to off-normal events such as ELMs (edge-localized modes) and disruptions in next-step devices need to be based on experiments with tokamak generated co-deposits.

C.H. Skinner; N. Bekrisl; J.P. Coad; C.A. Gentile; A. Hassanein; R. Reiswig; S. Willms

2002-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

433

Correlation efficiency as a tool to establish depositional subenvironments in submarine fans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Depositional units in submarine fan systems commonly are too large to be entirely or sufficiently exposed in an outcrop to properly identify. Channel fills can be massive, bedded, or any combination thereof. The layering can be horizontal or inclined. Typical bedded series can be thick or thin bedded, or a combination with or without a certain cyclicity. Occurrence of sedimentary structures is not yet a decisive interpretation characteristic. At the present, the Lower Permian Skoorsteenberg Formation of the Southwest Karoo in South Africa may be the best example of long, nontilted, outcrops where entire subenvironments can be observed. Using that knowledge, outcrop information from several areas, and ideas from the literature, we attempted correlations in two spillways in the Jackfork Group in Arkansas. A layer-by-layer correlation failed, even after small layer package could be established using an occasional thick shale break, a major slump, or a very thick massive sandstone layer for dividing both sides of the spillway. A [open quotes]semi-logarithmic[close quotes] display of measured thickness provides patterns of variations in layer thickness that normally are sufficiently typical to use as a correlation tool between both sides. This is not a foolproof system and one should consider additional parameters, such as location within the entire fan system. However, the degree of correlatibility helps identify or suggest depositional environments.

Bouma, A.H.; Cook, T.W. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)); Devries, M.B. (Exxon Exploration Company, Houston, TX (United States))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

General Atomics (GA) Fusion News: A New Spin on Understanding...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

General Atomics (GA) Fusion News: A New Spin on Understanding Plasma Confinement American Fusion News Category: General Atomics (GA) Link: General Atomics (GA) Fusion News: A New...

435

Pages that link to "Atomic City, Idaho" | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Pages that link to "Atomic City, Idaho" Atomic City, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search What links here Page: Atomic City,...

436

Chapter 2 Suggested Problems: Final Answer Key Atomic mass: mass of an individual atom  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 2 Suggested Problems: Final Answer Key 2.1 Atomic mass: mass of an individual atom Atomic;Chapter 3 Suggested Problems: Final Answer Key 3.1 Atomic Structure: relates the # of protons and neutrons of intercepts 2 2 1 Reduction not necessary Enclosure (221) #12;Chapter 12 Suggested Problems: Final Answer Key

Grunlan, Melissa A.

437

Hole in the ozone layer?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hole in the ozone layer? Hole in the ozone layer? Name: Kelley Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Is there really a hole in the ozone layer? Replies: That depends on what one means by a "hole". There is a thinning of the layer that is particularly severe during certain seasons at the poles. But the ozone layer is thinning most everywhere. The thinning around the south pole of earth is particularly stunning, and has been referred to as a hole even though some ozone still exists there, it is much less concentrated. As you may know, this ozone destruction is probably due to human release of pollutants such as clorofluorocarbons (CFCs) an due to natural sources such as chemicals from volcanic eruptions. CFCs are used is cooling systems such as refrigerators and air conditioning. There is an international agreement to phase out the use of these destructive chemicals but they won't be banned entirely for years for fears of losing money. Meanwhile the ozone layer thins and we are exposed to increasingly higher doses of cancer causing radiation

438

Multi-Layer Inkjet Printed Contacts to Si  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ag, Cu, and Ni metallizations were inkjet printed with near vacuum deposition quality. The approach developed can be easily extended to other conductors such as Pt, Pd, Au, etc. Thick highly conducting lines of Ag and Cu demonstrating good adhesion to glass, Si, and printed circuit board (PCB) have been printed at 100-200 deg C in air and N2 respectively. Ag grids were inkjet-printed on Si solar cells and fired through the silicon nitride AR layer at 850 deg C, resulting in 8% cells. Next generation inks, including an ink that etches silicon nitride, have now been developed. Multi-layer inkjet printing of the etching ink followed by Ag ink produced contacts under milder conditions and gave solar cells with efficiencies as high as 12%.

Curtis, C. J.; van Hest, M.; Miedaner, A.; Kaydanova, T.; Smith, L.; Ginley, D. S.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Colloidal spray method for low cost thin coating deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dense or porous coating of material is deposited onto a substrate by forcing a colloidal suspension through an ultrasonic nebulizer and spraying a fine mist of particles in a carrier medium onto a sufficiently heated substrate. The spraying rate is essentially matched to the evaporation rate of the carrier liquid from the substrate to produce a coating that is uniformly distributed over the surface of the substrate. Following deposition to a sufficient coating thickness, a single sintering step may be used to produce a dense ceramic coating. Using this method, coatings ranging in thickness from about one to several hundred microns can be obtained. By using a plurality of compounds in the colloidal suspension, coatings of mixed composition can be obtained. By using a plurality of solutions and separate pumps and a single or multiple ultrasonic nebulizer(s), and varying the individual pumping rates and/or the concentrations of the solutions, a coating of mixed and discontinuously graded (e.g., stepped) or continuously graded layers may be obtained. This method is particularly useful for depositing ceramic coatings. Dense ceramic coating materials on porous substrates are useful in providing improved electrode performance in devices such as high power density solid oxide fuel cells. Dense ceramic coatings obtained by the invention are also useful for gas turbine blade coatings, sensors, steam electrolyzers, etc. The invention has general use in preparation of systems requiring durable and chemically resistant coatings, or coatings having other specific chemical or physical properties.

Pham, Ai-Quoc (San Jose, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Tae H. (Naperville, IL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

form form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: International Atomic Energy Agency Name International Atomic Energy Agency Address PO Box 100, 1400 Place Vienna, Austria Number of employees 1001-5000 Year founded 1957 Phone number (+431) 2600-0 Coordinates 48.2°, 16.35° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":48.2,"lon":16.35,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic layer deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Atomic resolution of Lithium Ions in LiCoO  

SciTech Connect

LiCoO2 is the most common lithium storage material for lithium rechargeable batteries, used widely to power portable electronic devices such as laptop computers. Lithium arrangements in the CoO2 framework have a profound effect on the structural stability and electrochemical properties of LixCoO2 (0 < x < 1), however, probing lithium ions has been difficult using traditional X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques. Here we have succeeded in simultaneously resolving columns of cobalt, oxygen, and lithium atoms in layered LiCoO2 battery material using experimental focal series of LiCoO2 images obtained at sub-Angstrom resolution in a mid-voltage transmission electron microscope. Lithium atoms are the smallest and lightest metal atoms, and scatter electrons only very weakly. We believe our observations of lithium to be the first by electron microscopy, and that they show promise to direct visualization of the ordering of lithium and vacancy in LixCoO2.

Shao-Horn, Yang; Croguennec, Laurence; Delmas, Claude; Nelson, Chris; O' Keefe, Michael A.

2003-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

442

CERTIFICATION DOCKET WESTINGHOUSE ATOMIC POWER DEVELOPMENT PLANT  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

WESTINGHOUSE ATOMIC POWER DEVELOPMENT PLANT WESTINGHOUSE ATOMIC POWER DEVELOPMENT PLANT EAST PITTSBURGH PLANT FOREST HILLS PITTSBURGH, PENNSYLVANIA Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Office of Terminal Waste Disposal and Remedial Action Division of Remedial Action Projects ..-.. --__- _".-.-l--_--l -_._ _- --- ~~~. . ..~ CONTENTS Page - - I NTRODUCTI ON 1 Purpose 1 Docket Contents 1 Exhibit I: Summary of Activities at Westinghouse Atomic Power Development Plant, East Pittsburgh Plant, Forest Hills, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania I-l Exhibit II: Documents Supporting the Certification of Westinghouse Atomic Power Development Plant, East Pittsburgh Plant, Forest Hills, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania iii II-1 . . .- .__.^ I ^_... _.-__^-____-. - CERTIFICATION DOCKET WESTINGHOUSE ATOMIC POWER DEVELOPMENT PLANT

443

Princeton Plasma Physics Lab - General Atomics (GA)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

general-atomics-ga General general-atomics-ga General Atomics en The Scorpion's Strategy: "Catch and Subdue" http://www.pppl.gov/node/1132

American Fusion News Category: 
atomics-ga">General Atomics (GA)
444

The Atomic Energy Commission By Alice Buck  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Atomic Energy Atomic Energy Commission By Alice Buck July 1983 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Management Office of the Executive Secretariat Office of History and Heritage Resources 1 Introduction Almost a year after World War II ended, Congress established the United States Atomic Energy Commission to foster and control the peacetime development of atomic science and technology. Reflecting America's postwar optimism, Congress declared that atomic energy should be employed not only in the Nation's defense, but also to promote world peace, improve the public welfare, and strengthen free competition in private

445

Precision spectroscopy of the helium atom.  

SciTech Connect

Persistent efforts in both theory and experiment have yielded increasingly precise understanding of the helium atom. Because of its simplicity, the helium atom has long been a testing ground for relativistic and quantum electrodynamic effects in few-body atomic systems theoretically and experimentally. Comparison between theory and experiment of the helium spectroscopy in 1s2p{sup 3}P{sub J} can potentially extract a very precise value of the fine structure constant a. The helium atom can also be used to explore exotic nuclear structures. In this paper, we provide a brief review of the recent advances in precision calculations and measurements of the helium atom.

Hu, S.-M.; Lu, Z.-T.; Yan, Z.-C.; Physics; Univ. of Science and Technology of China; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of New Brunswick

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Test of the quantumness of atom-atom correlations in a bosonic gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is shown how the quantumness of atom-atom correlations in a trapped bosonic gas can be made observable. Application of continuous feedback control of the center of mass of the atomic cloud is shown to generate oscillations of the spatial extension of the cloud, whose amplitude can be directly used as a characterization of atom-atom correlations. Feedback parameters can be chosen such that the violation of a Schwarz inequality for atom-atom correlations can be tested at noise levels much higher than the standard quantum limit.

D. Ivanov; S. Wallentowitz

2006-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

447

Holocene deposition in Northwest Providence Channel, Bahamas: a geochemical approach  

SciTech Connect

The origins and depositional history of Holocene sediment in Northwest Providence Channel, Bahamas (NWPC) have been determined using geochemical measurements coupled with textural data, petrographic examination, and scanning electron microscopy. Most of the channel is 200 to 2000 m deep, and nearly 100% of the sediment is calcium carbonate. Shallow water platform sources contribute 75-90% of the Holocene sediment in NWPC. Bank derived sand is most abundant near the platforms (nearly 100%) and is concentrically distributed around a central area of abundant non-platform sand. Bank-derived mud (<62 ..mu..m) accounts for more than 80% of the mud fraction in NWPC. The coarse silt (62-16 ..mu..m), fine silt (16-4 ..mu..m) and clay (< 4 ..mu..m) fractions from LLB (Bight of Abaco) are geochemically distinct from the mud fractions of Great Bahama Bank (GBB). Their distributions in NWPC demonstrate that both platforms are significant sediment contributors to NWPC. The observed sediment distribution clearly indicates that significant off bank transport occurs. With regard to sediment transport, no windward or leeward effects are observed in Holocene sediment deposition. Gravity flow processes are not significant to Holocene deposition. 80% of the present sedimentation rate results from the banktop flooding and confirms that 75%-90% of the Holocene sediment is derived from platform sources. The C-14 dated Holocene sediment layer is approximately 50 cm thick, and its transition with the Pleistocene occurs over a vertical interval of less than 20 cm as a result of mixing by benthonic organisms. This Holocene sediment layer should remain intact to permanently record this banktop episode, and should have a different diagenetic future from the underlying stable (calcite-rich) sediment.

Boardman, M.R.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Monitoring atom-atom entanglement and decoherence in a solvable tripartite open system in cavity QED  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We solve exactly the dynamics of two strongly-driven two-level atoms resonantly coupled to a dissipative cavity field mode. Starting with the cavity field vacuum state, we show that the entanglement of the atom-atom subsystem cannot be created or increased. On the other hand, when the atoms are initially entangled the atomic Hilbert space divides into two subspaces. One of them is decoherence free so that the initial atomic entanglement remains available for applications, even in presence of a low enough atomic decay rate. In the other subspace a measure of entanglement, decoherence, and also purity, are described by a similar functional behavior that can be monitored by joint atomic measurements. Furthermore, we show the possible generation of Schr\\"odinger-cat-like states for the whole system in the transient regime, as well as of entanglement for the cavity field and the atom-atom subsystems conditioned by measurements on the complementary subsystem.

Bina, Matteo; Lulli, Alfredo; Solano, Enrique

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Atomic-Layer Engineering of Cuprate Superconductors (415th Brookhaven Lecture)  

SciTech Connect

Copper-oxide compounds, called cuprates, show superconducting properties at 163 degrees Kelvin, the highest temperature of any known superconducting material. Cuprates are therefore among the 'high-temperature superconductors' of extreme interest both to scientists and to industry. Research to learn their secrets is one of the hottest topics in the field of materials science.

Bozovic, Ivan (Materials Science Dept)

2006-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

450

Large-Area Quality Control of Atomically-Thin Layered Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Technical Device Seminar 2011, Sandia National Laboratories,3.5. Much appreciation to Sandia National Labs for allowingas requested by Sandia National Laboratories for chapter 4.

Nolen, Craig Merten

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the University of Washington has demonstrated a new way of creating one-dimensional nanoscale structures (nanowires) in the compound gallium selenide. In short, ordered lines of structural vacancies in the material stimulate the growth of "one-dimensional" structures less than 1 nanometer in width.

452

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the University of Washington has demonstrated a new way of creating one-dimensional nanoscale structures (nanowires) in the compound gallium selenide. In short, ordered lines of structural vacancies in the material stimulate the growth of "one-dimensional" structures less than 1 nanometer in width.

453

Plasmons in Waveguide Structures Formed by Two Graphene Layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Plasmon modes in a waveguide formed by two parallel graphene layers with an insulator spacer layer are considered. The existence of TM and TE guided modes is predicted and their properties are compared with those of plasmons in metal/insulator waveguides. DOI: 10.1134/S0021364013090063 Much attention has been attracted in recent years to graphene, a material made up of a two-dimensional lattice of carbon atoms [1–4]. From the fundamental point of view, graphene is interesting because charge carriers in this material are characterized by a linear dispersion relation, which leads to such phenomena as the room-temperature quantum Hall effect [5] and the existence of a nonzero Berry phase for charge carriers [2]. Graphene is also promising for applications owing to the high charge-carrier mobility, which is required for the new generation of electronic integrated circuits [6].

unknown authors

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Wednesday, 21 December 2005 00:00 Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the University of Washington has demonstrated a new way of creating one-dimensional nanoscale structures (nanowires) in the compound gallium selenide. In short, ordered lines of structural vacancies in the material stimulate the growth of "one-dimensional" structures less than 1 nanometer in width.

455

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the University of Washington has demonstrated a new way of creating one-dimensional nanoscale structures (nanowires) in the compound gallium selenide. In short, ordered lines of structural vacancies in the material stimulate the growth of "one-dimensional" structures less than 1 nanometer in width.

456

Antimicrobial Activity of Cationic Antiseptics in Layer-by-Layer Thin Film Assemblies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly has proven to be a powerful technique for assembling thin films with a variety of properties including electrochromic, molecular sensing, oxygen barrier, and antimicrobial. LbL involves the deposition of alternating cationic and anionic ingredients from solution, utilizing the electrostatic charges to develop multilayer films. The present work incorporates cationic antimicrobial agents into the positively-charged layers of LbL assemblies. When these thin films are exposed to a humid environment, the antimicrobial molecules readily diffuse out and prevent bacterial growth. The influence of exposure time, testing temperature, secondary ingredients and number of bilayers on antimicrobial efficacy is evaluated here. Additionally, film growth and microstructure are analyzed to better understand the behavior of these films. The antimicrobial used here is a positively-charged quaternary ammonium molecule (e.g. cetyltrimethylammonium bromide [CTAB]) that allow assemblies to be made with or without an additional polycation like polydiallyldimethylamine. While films without this additional polymer are effective, they do not have the longevity or uniformity of films prepared with its addition. All of the recipes studied show linear growth as a function of the number of bilayers deposited and this growth is relatively thick (i.e. > 100 nm per bilayer). In general, 10-bilayer films prepared with CTAB and poly(acrylic acid) are able to achieve a 2.3 mm zone of inhibition against S. aureus bacteria and 1.3 mm against E. coli when test are conducted at body temperature (i.e. 37oC). Fewer bilayers reduces efficacy, but lower test temperatures improve zones of inhibition. As long as they are stored in a dry atmosphere, antimicrobial efficacy was found to persist even when films were used four weeks after being prepared. The best films remain effective (i.e. antimicrobially active) for 4-6 days of constant exposure to bacteria-swabbed plates. This technology holds promise for use in transparent wound bandages and temporary surface sterilization.

Dvoracek, Charlene M.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Systematic studies of the nucleation and growth of ultrananocrystalline diamond films on silicon substrates coated with a tungsten layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on effects of a tungsten layer deposited on silicon surface on the effectiveness for diamond nanoparticles to be seeded for the deposition of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD). Rough tungsten surface and electrostatic forces between nanodiamond seeds and the tungsten surface layer help to improve the adhesion of nanodiamond seeds on the tungsten surface. The seeding density on tungsten coated silicon thus increases. Tungsten carbide is formed by reactions of the tungsten layer with carbon containing plasma species. It provides favorable (001) crystal planes for the nucleation of (111) crystal planes by Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPECVD) in argon diluted methane plasma and further improves the density of diamond seeds/nuclei. UNCD films grown at different gas pressures on tungsten coated silicon which is pre-seeded by nanodiamond along with heteroepitaxially nucleated diamond nuclei were characterized by Raman scattering, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy.

Chu, Yueh-Chieh; Jiang, Gerald [Institute of Microelectronics, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Tu, Chia-Hao [Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chang Chi [Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chuan-pu; Ting, Jyh-Ming [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Lee, Hsin-Li [Industrial Technology Research Institute - South, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Tzeng, Yonhua [Institute of Microelectronics, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Auciello, Orlando [Argonne National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

458

Electro-deposition of Bi-axial Textured Layers on a Substrate ...  

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed ... Solar Photovoltaic ... uniformly in one of the three axial directions in three-dimensional space, ...

459

Carbon Sources, Scrape-Off layer Transport and Deposition in DIII-D  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 51, 177 (2006)48th American Physical Society Annual Meeting of Division of Plasma Physics Philadelphia Pennsylvania, US, 2006999613260

Groth, M.

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Manhattan Project: Atomic Discoveries, 1890s-1939  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Excerpt from the comic book "Adventures Inside the Atom." Click on this image or visit the "Library" to view the whole comic book. ATOMIC DISCOVERIES Excerpt from the comic book "Adventures Inside the Atom." Click on this image or visit the "Library" to view the whole comic book. ATOMIC DISCOVERIES (1890s-1939) Events A Miniature Solar System, 1890s-1919 Exploring the Atom, 1919-1932 Atomic Bombardment, 1932-1938 The Discovery of Fission, 1938-1939 Fission Comes to America, 1939 Philosophers of Ancient Greece reasoned that all matter in the universe must be composed of fundamental, unchangeable, and indivisible objects, which they called "atoma" ("ατoµα"). The exact nature of these atoms remained elusive, however, despite centuries of attempts by alchemists to create a "philosopher's stone" that could transmute atoms of lead to gold, prove the Greeks wrong, and make its inventors Modern model of an atom very rich. It was only in the late 1890s and the early twentieth-century that this view of a solid atom, bouncing around the universe like a billiard ball, was replaced by an atom that resembled more a miniature solar system, its electrons orbiting around a small nucleus. Explorations into the nature of the atom from 1919 to 1932 confirmed this new model, especially with Ernest Rutherford's 1919 success in finally transmuting an atom of one substance into another and with James Chadwick's 1932 discovery of the elusive final basic particle of the atom, the neutron. From 1932 to 1938, scientists around the world learned a great deal more about atoms, primarily by bombarding the nuclei of atoms and using a variety of particle accelerators. In 1938, word came from Berlin of the most startling result of them all: the nucleus of an atom could actually be split in two, or "fissioned." This breakthrough was quickly confirmed in the United States and elsewhere. According to the theories of Albert Einstein, the fission of an atom should result in a release of energy. An "atomic bomb" was now no longer just science fiction -- it was a distinct possibility.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic layer deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

DOE Workshop - Deposition Velocity Status  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Delivering DOE's Vision for the Delivering DOE's Vision for the East Tennessee Technology Park Mission Safely Delivering the Department of Energy's Vision for the East Tennessee Technology Park Mission DOE Workshop Deposition Velocity Status Mike Hitchler, Manager Nuclear Facility Safety June 5, 2012 Safely Delivering DOE's Vision for the East Tennessee Technology Park Mission Existing UCOR Analyses * UCOR facilities at East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) use various plume models depending on when they were developed and by whom. - Some use MACCS or MACCS2 for dispersion evaluation. (~5 locations) - LLLW uses ingestion modeling (multiple locations)

462

Water Uptake in PEMFC Catalyst Layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Uptake in PEMFC Catalyst Layers H. P. Gunterman, a A.membrane fuel-cell catalyst layers are characterized in thecurves indicate that the catalyst layers tested are highly

Gunterman, Haluna P.