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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic force microscopy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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1

Geochemistry Atomic Force Microscopy | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

imaging modes: contact, intermittent contact, phase imaging, magnetic force microscopy, electric force microscopy, surface potential microscopy, scanning capacitance microscopy,...

2

Spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy of biomass  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Spectroscopy Spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy of biomass L. Tetard a,b , A. Passian a,b,n , R.H. Farahi a , U.C. Kalluri c , B.H. Davison c , T. Thundat a,b a Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA b Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA c Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Atomic force microscopy Spectroscopy Plant cells Biomass Nanomechanics a b s t r a c t Scanning probe microscopy has emerged as a powerful approach to a broader understanding of the molecular architecture of cell walls, which may shed light on the challenge of efficient cellulosic ethanol production. We have obtained preliminary images of both Populus and switchgrass samples using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show distinctive features that are shared by switchgrass

3

Atomic Force and Scanning Electron Microscopy of Atmospheric Particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conducted so as to characterize atmospheric aerosols from anthropogenic (pollution) and natural (sea saltAtomic Force and Scanning Electron Microscopy of Atmospheric Particles ZAHAVA BARKAY,1 * AMIT 69978, Israel KEY WORDS atmospheric aerosols; atomic force microscopy; scanning electron microscopy

Shapira, Yoram

4

Atomic Force Microscopy and Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy Evidence of Local Structural Inhomogeneity and Nonuniform Dopant Distribution in Conducting Polybithiophene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atomic Force Microscopy and Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy Evidence of Local Structural Inhomogeneity and Nonuniform Dopant Distribution in Conducting Polybithiophene ... The fundamental difference between polymer grains and grain peripheral areas demonstrated by KFM was also supported by in situ contact-mode AFM data taken with the as-grown polymer film. ... (1)?Pekker, S.; Janossy, A. In Handbook of Conducting Polymers; Skotheim, T. A., Ed.; Marcel Dekker:? New York, 1986; Vol. ...

Oleg A. Semenikhin; Lei Jiang; Tomokazu Iyoda; Kazuhito Hashimoto; Akira Fujishima

1996-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

5

Thermal calibration of photodiode sensitivity for atomic force microscopy Phil Attarda  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal calibration of photodiode sensitivity for atomic force microscopy Phil Attarda School 21 November 2006 The photodiode sensitivity in the atomic force microscope is calibrated by relating measurement with the atomic force microscope AFM requires the sensitivity of the photodiode, which re- lates

Attard, Phil

6

Real-Space Identification of Intermolecular Bonding with Atomic Force Microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Atomic Force Microscopy 10.1126/science.1242603 Jun Zhang Pengcheng Chen Bingkai Yuan Wei Ji Zhihai Cheng Xiaohui Qiu 1Key Laboratory...Intermolecular Bonding with Atomic Force Microscopy Jun Zhang, Pengcheng Chen, Bingkai Yuan, Wei Ji, Zhihai Cheng, Xiaohui Qiu...

Jun Zhang; Pengcheng Chen; Bingkai Yuan; Wei Ji; Zhihai Cheng; Xiaohui Qiu

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Note: Electrical resolution during conductive atomic force microscopy measurements under different environmental conditions and contact forces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conductive atomic force microscopy experiments on gate dielectrics in air, nitrogen, and UHV have been compared to evaluate the impact of the environment on topography and electrical measurements. In current images, an increase of the lateral resolution and a reduction of the conductivity were observed in N{sub 2} and, especially, in UHV (where current depends also on the contact force). Both effects were related to the reduction/elimination of the water layer between the tip and the sample in N{sub 2}/UHV. Therefore, since current measurements are very sensitive to environmental conditions, these factors must be taken into consideration when comparisons between several experiments are performed.

Lanza, M.; Porti, M.; Nafria, M.; Aymerich, X. [Dept. Enginyeria Electronica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Q, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Whittaker, E.; Hamilton, B. [University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M60 JQD (United Kingdom)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

8

Calibration of lateral force measurements in atomic force microscopy with a piezoresistive force sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present here a method to calibrate the lateral force in the atomic force microscope. This method makes use of an accurately calibrated force sensor composed of a tipless piezoresistive cantilever and corresponding signal amplifying and processing electronics. Two ways of force loading with different loading points were compared by scanning the top and side edges of the piezoresistive cantilever. Conversion factors between the lateral force and photodiode signal using three types of atomic force microscope cantilevers with rectangular geometries (normal spring constants from 0.092 to 1.24 N/m and lateral stiffness from 10.34 to 101.06 N/m) were measured in experiments using the proposed method. When used properly, this method calibrates the conversion factors that are accurate to {+-}12.4% or better. This standard has less error than the commonly used method based on the cantilever's beam mechanics. Methods such of this allow accurate and direct conversion between lateral forces and photodiode signals without any knowledge of the cantilevers and the laser measuring system.

Xie Hui; Vitard, Julien; Haliyo, Sinan; Regnier, Stephane [Institut des Systemes Intelligents et Robotique (ISIR), Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6/CNRS, 18 Route du Panorama-BP 61, 92265 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Boukallel, Mehdi [Laboratoire de Robotique et Mesorobotique (LRM), CEA, 18 Route du Panorama-BP 61, 92265 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France)

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

9

Thermal calibration of photodiode sensitivity for atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The photodiode sensitivity in the atomic force microscope is calibrated by relating the voltage noise to the thermal fluctuations of the cantilever angle. The method accounts for the ratio of the thermal fluctuations measured in the fundamental vibration mode to the total, and also for the tilt and extended tip of the cantilever. The method is noncontact and is suitable for soft or deformable surfaces where the constant compliance method cannot be used. For hard surfaces, the method can also be used to calibrate the cantilever spring constant.

Attard, Phil; Pettersson, Torbjoern; Rutland, Mark W. [School of Chemistry F11, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia (Australia); Department of Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden and Institute for Surface Chemistry, Box 5607, SE-114 86 Stockholm (Sweden)

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

10

Interpretation of frequency modulation atomic force microscopy in terms of fractional calculus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is widely recognized that small amplitude frequency modulation atomic force microscopy probes the derivative of the interaction force between tip and sample. For large amplitudes, however, such a physical connection is currently lacking, although it has been observed that the frequency shift presents a quantity intermediate to the interaction force and energy for certain force laws. Here we prove that these observations are a universal property of large amplitude frequency modulation atomic force microscopy, by establishing that the frequency shift is proportional to the half-fractional integral of the force, regardless of the force law. This finding indicates that frequency modulation atomic force microscopy can be interpreted as a fractional differential operator, where the order of the derivative?integral is dictated by the oscillation amplitude. We also establish that the measured frequency shift varies systematically from a probe of the force gradient for small oscillation amplitudes, through to the measurement of a quantity intermediate to the force and energy (the half-fractional integral of the force) for large oscillation amplitudes. This has significant implications to measurement sensitivity, since integrating the force will smooth its behavior, while differentiating it will enhance variations. This highlights the importance in choice of oscillation amplitude when wishing to optimize the sensitivity of force spectroscopy measurements to short-range interactions and consequently imaging with the highest possible resolution.

John E. Sader and Suzanne P. Jarvis

2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

11

Spatial spectrograms of vibrating atomic force microscopy cantilevers coupled to sample surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many advanced dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) techniques such as contact resonance, force modulation, piezoresponse force microscopy, electrochemical strain microscopy, and AFM infrared spectroscopy exploit the dynamic response of a cantilever in contact with a sample to extract local material properties. Achieving quantitative results in these techniques usually requires the assumption of a certain shape of cantilever vibration. We present a technique that allows in-situ measurements of the vibrational shape of AFM cantilevers coupled to surfaces. This technique opens up unique approaches to nanoscale material property mapping, which are not possible with single point measurements alone.

Wagner, Ryan; Raman, Arvind, E-mail: raman@purdue.edu [Birck Nanotechnology Center, 1205 W. State Street, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)] [Birck Nanotechnology Center, 1205 W. State Street, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Proksch, Roger, E-mail: Roger.Proksch@oxinst.com [Asylum Research, 6310 Hollister Ave., Santa Barbara, California 93117 (United States)] [Asylum Research, 6310 Hollister Ave., Santa Barbara, California 93117 (United States)

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

12

Characterization of gold nanoparticle films: Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy with image analysis, and atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gold nanoparticle films are of interest in several branches of science and technology, and accurate sample characterization is needed but technically demanding. We prepared such films by DC magnetron sputtering and recorded their mass thickness by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. The geometric thickness d{sub g}—from the substrate to the tops of the nanoparticles—was obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with image analysis as well as by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The various techniques yielded an internally consistent characterization of the films. In particular, very similar results for d{sub g} were obtained by SEM with image analysis and by AFM.

Lansåker, Pia C., E-mail: pia.lansaker@angstrom.uu.se; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G. [Department of Engineering Sciences, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P. O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Hallén, Anders [Royal Institute of Technology, KTH-ICT, Elektrum 229, Kista, SE-164 40 Stockholm (Sweden)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

13

Note: Spring constant calibration of nanosurface-engineered atomic force microscopy cantilevers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The determination of the dynamic spring constant (k d ) of atomic force microscopy cantilevers is of crucial importance for converting cantilever deflection to accurate force data. Indeed the non-destructive fast and accurate measurement method of the cantilever dynamic spring constant by Sader et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum.83 103705 (2012)] is confirmed here for plane geometry but surface modified cantilevers. It is found that the measured spring constants (k eff the dynamic one k d ) and the calculated (k d 1) are in good agreement within less than 10% error.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Liquid contact resonance atomic force microscopy via experimental reconstruction of the hydrodynamic function  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a method to correct for surface-coupled inertial and viscous fluid loading forces in contact resonance (CR) atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments performed in liquid. Based on analytical hydrodynamic theory, the method relies on experimental measurements of the AFM cantilever's free resonance peaks near the sample surface. The free resonance frequencies and quality factors in both air and liquid allow reconstruction of a continuous hydrodynamic function that can be used to adjust the CR data in liquid. Validation experiments utilizing thermally excited free and in-contact spectra were performed to assess the accuracy of our approach. Results show that the method recovers the air frequency values within approximately 6%. Knowledge of fluid loading forces allows current CR analysis techniques formulated for use in air and vacuum environments to be applied to liquid environments. Our technique greatly extends the range of measurement environments available to CR-AFM.

Tung, Ryan C., E-mail: ryan.tung@nist.gov; Killgore, Jason P.; Hurley, Donna C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

15

Atomic-force-microscopy observations of tracks induced by swift Kr ions in mica  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For the first time, latent tracks induced by swift Kr ions have been directly observed in mica. These tracks are imaged by atomic-force microscopy as hollows which are associated with softer areas in the mica surface. The track core is formed by disordered mica. The mean diameter of the observed hollows increases with the electronic stopping power of the ions. The track shape along the ion path is deduced from the analysis of both the number of the tracks per unit area and their diameter distribution. These observations are the first images of nanometric changes of elastic properties.

F. Thibaudau; J. Cousty; E. Balanzat; S. Bouffard

1991-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

16

The nanostructure and microstructure of steels: Electrochemical Tafel behaviour and atomic force microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of chemical composition and heat treatment on a low-carbon steel, chromium steel and high speed steel has been examined by polarisation curves and electrochemical parameters deduced from the Tafel plots. The electrochemical corrosion resistance, which is small between the as-received steels become greater after heat treatment, following the order: carbon steel < chromium steel ? high speed steel. To explain these differences, the nano- and microstructure of the steels has been characterized by the ex situ techniques of atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy, before and after surface etching with Nital (a solution of 5% HNO3 in ethanol). This causes preferential attack of the ferrite phases showing the carbide phases more clearly. From these nanostructural studies it was possible to better understand why the passive films formed on chromium steel and high speed steel have superior protective properties to those formed on carbon steel.

Valéria A. Alves; Ana M. Chiorcea Paquim; Albano Cavaleiro; Christopher M.A. Brett

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

On single-molecule DNA sequencing with atomic force microscopy using functionalized carbon nanotube probes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A novel DNA sequencing method is proposed based on the specific binding nature of nucleotides and measured by an atomic force microscope (AFM). A single molecule of DNA is denatured and immobilized on an atomically fiat ...

Burns, Daniel James

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Imaging and quantitative data acquisition of biological cell walls with Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Acoustic Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter demonstrates the feasibility of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and High Frequency Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (HF-SAM) as tools to characterize biological tissues. Both the AFM and the SAM have shown to provide imaging (with different resolution) and quantitative elasticity measuring abilities. Plant cell walls with minimal disturbance and under conditions of their native state have been examined with these two kinds of microscopy. After descriptions of both the SAM and AFM, their special features and the typical sample preparation is discussed. The sample preparation is focused here on epidermal peels of onion scales and celery epidermis cells which were sectioned for the AFM to visualize the inner surface (closest to the plasma membrane) of the outer epidermal wall. The nm-wide cellulose microfibrils orientation and multilayer structure were clearly observed. The microfibril orientation and alignment tend to be more organized in older scales compared with younger scales. The onion epidermis cell wall was also used as a test analog to study cell wall elasticity by the AFM nanoindentation and the SAM V(z) feature. The novelty in this work was to demonstrate the capability of these two techniques to analyze isolated, single layered plant cell walls in their natural state. AFM nanoindentation was also used to probe the effects of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and calcium ion treatment to modify pectin networks in cell walls. The results suggest a significant modulus increase in the calcium ion treatment and a slight decrease in EDTA treatment. To complement the AFM measurements, the HF-SAM was used to obtain the V(z) signatures of the onion epidermis. These measurements were focused on documenting the effect of pectinase enzyme treatment. The results indicate a significant change in the V(z) signature curves with time into the enzyme treatment. Thus AFM and HF-SAM open the door to a systematic nondestructive structure and mechanical property study of complex biological cell walls. A unique feature of this approach is that both microscopes allow the biological samples to be examined in their natural fluid (water) environment.

Tittmann, B. R. [Penn State; Xi, X. [Penn State

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Sorption of cadmium on humic acid: Mechanistic and kinetic studies with atomic force microscopy and X-ray  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sorption of cadmium on humic acid: Mechanistic and kinetic studies with atomic force microscopy, Upton, New York 593-5000 USA. Liu, C., Frenkel, A. I., Vairavamurthy, A. and Huang, P. M. 2001. Sorption of Cd sorption by HAs, especially those pertaining to the surface features and structure of the Cd

Frenkel, Anatoly

20

A system dynamics approach to user independence in high speed atomic force microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As progress in molecular biology and nanotechnology continues, demand for rapid and high quality image acquisition has increased to the point where the limitations of atomic force microscopes (AFM) become impediments to ...

Burns, Daniel James

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic force microscopy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Mapping of Proteomic Composition on the Surfaces of Bacillus spores by Atomic Force Microscopy-based Immunolabeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic force microscopy provides a unique capability to image high-resolution architecture and structural dynamics of pathogens (e.g. viruses, bacteria and bacterial spores) at near molecular resolution in native conditions. Further development of atomic force microscopy in order to enable the correlation of pathogen protein surface structures with specific gene products is essential to understand the mechanisms of the pathogen life cycle. We have applied an AFM-based immunolabeling technique for the proteomic mapping of macromolecular structures through the visualization of the binding of antibodies, conjugated with nanogold particles, to specific epitopes on Bacillus spore surfaces. This information is generated while simultaneously acquiring the surface morphology of the pathogen. The immunospecificity of this labeling method was established through the utilization of specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies that target spore coat and exosporium epitopes of Bacillus atrophaeus and Bacillus anthracis spores.

Plomp, M; Malkin, A J

2008-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

22

Adsorption of Glucose Oxidase onto Plasma-Polymerized Film Characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy, Quartz Crystal Microbalance, and Electrochemical Measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Adsorption of glucose oxidase (GOD) onto plasma-polymerized thin films (PPF) with nanoscale thickness was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and electrochemical measurements. ... The electrophoretic mobility (u) of polystyrene particles at the PPF surfaces was measured, and the mobility obtained was converted into a zeta potential using the Smoluchowski equation, ? = 4??u/?, where ? is the viscosity of the solution and ? is the dielectric constant of the solvent. ...

Hitoshi Muguruma; Yoshihiro Kase; Naoya Murata; Kazunari Matsumura

2006-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

23

Combined short scale roughness and surface dielectric function gradient effects on the determination of tip-sample force in atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The contribution of tip roughness to the van der Waals force between an atomic force microscopy probe tip and the sample is calculated using the multilayer effective medium model, which allows us to consider the relevant case of roughness characterized by correlation length and amplitude in the nanometer scale. The effect of the surface dielectric function gradient is incorporated in the tip-sample force model. It is concluded that for rms roughness in the few nanometers range the effect of short scale tip roughness is quite significant.

Gusso, André, E-mail: gusso@metal.eeimvr.uff.br [Departamento de Ciências Exatas-EEIMVR, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Volta Redonda, RJ 27255-125 (Brazil)] [Departamento de Ciências Exatas-EEIMVR, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Volta Redonda, RJ 27255-125 (Brazil)

2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

24

Note: Design and development of an integrated three-dimensional scanner for atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A compact scanning head for the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) greatly enhances the portability of AFM and facilitates easy integration with other tools. This paper reports the design and development of a three-dimensional (3D) scanner integrated into an AFM micro-probe. The scanner is realized by means of a novel design for the AFM probe along with a magnetic actuation system. The integrated scanner, the actuation system, and their associated mechanical mounts are fabricated and evaluated. The experimentally calibrated actuation ranges are shown to be over 1 ?m along all the three axes.

Rashmi, T.; Dharsana, G.; Sriramshankar, R.; Sri Muthu Mrinalini, R.; Jayanth, G. R. [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)] [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

25

Real-time atomic-resolution imaging of crystal growth process in water by phase modulation atomic force microscopy at one frame per second  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent advancement in dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) has enabled its operation in liquid with atomic-scale resolution. However, its imaging speed has often been too slow to visualize atomic-scale dynamic processes. Here, we propose a method for making a significant improvement in the operation speed of dynamic-mode AFM. In this method, we use a wideband and low-latency phase detector with an improved algorithm for the signal complexification. We demonstrate atomic-scale imaging of a calcite crystal growth process in water at one frame per second. The significant improvement in the imaging speed should enable various studies on unexplored atomic-scale interfacial processes.

Miyata, Kazuki [Division of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)] [Division of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Asakawa, Hitoshi [Bio-AFM Frontier Research Center, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)] [Bio-AFM Frontier Research Center, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Fukuma, Takeshi, E-mail: fukuma@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Division of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan) [Division of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Bio-AFM Frontier Research Center, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); ACT-C, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Honcho 4-1-9, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan)

2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

26

Experimental study of the relationship between temperature and adhesive forces for low-alloyed steel, stainless steel, and titanium using atomic force microscopy in ultrahigh vacuum  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dry sliding contact between metallic surfaces is often associated with high surfacetemperatures due to frictional heating and adhesive wear resulting in high friction and severe surface damage. In the present research the dependence of adhesive forces on temperature for commercial low-alloyed steel stainless steel and pure titanium was investigated in ultrahigh vacuum at elevated temperatures using atomic force microscopy. It was found that adhesive forces increased as the temperature increased. Room-temperature values of adhesive forces decreased in the order Ti stainless steel and low-alloyed steel which agreed with the values of the electron work function measured by a Kelvin probe. The findings correlate well with results observed for the same materials using conventional macroscopic tribotesters.

A. Gåård; P. Krakhmalev; J. Bergström; J. Hirvonen Grytzelius; H. M. Zhang

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Local elastic modulus of RF sputtered HfO{sub 2} thin film by atomic force acoustic microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM) is a useful nondestructive technique for measurement of local elastic modulus of materials at nano-scale spatial resolution by measuring the contact resonance spectra for higher order modes of the AFM cantilever. The elastic modulus of RF sputtered HfO{sub 2} thin film has been measured quantitatively, using reference approach in which measurements are performed on the test and reference samples. Using AFAM, the measured elastic modulus of the HfO{sub 2} thin film is 223±27 GPa, which is in agreement with the literature value of 220±40 GPa for atomic layer deposited HfO{sub 2} thin film using nanoindentation technique.

Jena, S., E-mail: shuvendujena9@gmail.com; Tokas, R. B., E-mail: shuvendujena9@gmail.com; Sarkar, P., E-mail: shuvendujena9@gmail.com; Thakur, S.; Sahoo, N. K. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Misal, J. S.; Rao, K. D. [Optics and Thin Film Laboratory, Autonagar, BARC-Vizag, Visakhapatnam-530 012 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

28

Fabrication of sharp tungsten-coated tip for atomic force microscopy by ion-beam sputter deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tungsten (W) is significantly suitable as a tip material for atomic force microscopy (AFM) because its high mechanical stiffness enables the stable detection of tip-sample interaction forces. We have developed W sputter-coating equipment to compensate the drawbacks of conventional Si cantilever tips used in AFM measurements. By employing an ion gun commonly used for sputter cleaning of a cantilever tip, the equipment is capable of depositing conductive W films in the preparation chamber of a general ultrahigh vacuum (UHV)-AFM system without the need for an additional chamber or transfer system. This enables W coating of a cantilever tip immediately after sputter cleaning of the tip apex and just before the use in AFM observations. The W film consists of grain structures, which prevent tip dulling and provide sharpness (<3 nm in radius of curvature at the apex) comparable to that of the original Si tip apex. We demonstrate that in non-contact (NC)-AFM measurement, a W-coated Si tip can clearly resolve the atomic structures of a Ge(001) surface without any artifacts, indicating that, as a force sensor, the fabricated W-coated Si tip is superior to a bare Si tip.

Kinoshita, Yukinori; Naitoh, Yoshitaka; Li, Yan Jun; Sugawara, Yasuhiro [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

29

SUBMOLECULAR IMAGING OF EPITAXIALLY CRYSTALLIZED HELICAL POLYOLEFINS BY ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Digital Instruments, Inc., Santa Barbara, Cal. USA. Images were taken with an A­type scan head (max. scan microscopy EM and electron diffraction ED. AFM pictures with high resolution could be obtained when using polypropylene has been determined by electron microscopy EM and electron diffraction ED: chain conformation

Peters, Achim

30

Structural Characterization of Micromechanical Properties in Asphalt Using Atomic Force Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1.1 Experimental flowchart?..?????????????????... 6 2.1 Van der Waals forces vs. distance.??????????????... 11 2.2 Beam-detection deflection scheme.??????????????... 11 3.1 (i) AFM controller and (ii... der Waals forces as the tip is moved further away from the sample. mo fro can bea . The AF st common m the back o tilever bend m on the PS Figure (Ad M detects th technique, a f the cantile s, due to int PD shifts. Figure (Ad...

Allen, Robert Grover

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

31

Effect of plasma CVD operating temperature on nanomechanical properties of TiC nanostructured coating investigated by atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? The TiC{sub x} nanostructure coatings have been deposited by PACVD method. ? Dominant mechanism of growth structure at 490 °C is island-layer type. ? TiC{sub x} nanostructure coating applied at 490 °C, exhibits lowest friction coefficient. ? Young's moduli are 289.9, 400 and 187.6 GPa for 470, 490 and 510 °C, respectively. ? This higher elastic modulus and higher hardness of nanocoating obtain at 490 °C. -- Abstract: The structure, composition, and mechanical properties of nanostructured titanium carbide (TiC) coatings deposited on H{sub 11} hot-working tool steel by pulsed-DC plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition at three different temperatures are investigated. Nanoindentation and nanoscratch tests are carried out by atomic force microscopy to determine the mechanical properties such as hardness, elastic modulus, surface roughness, and friction coefficient. The nanostructured TiC coatings prepared at 490 °C exhibit lower friction coefficient (0.23) than the ones deposited at 470 and 510 °C. Increasing the deposition temperature reduces the Young's modulus and hardness. The overall superior mechanical properties such as higher hardness and lower friction coefficient render the coatings deposited at 490 °C suitable for wear resistant applications.

Shanaghi, Ali, E-mail: alishanaghi@gmail.com [Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Malayer University, P.O. Box: 95863-65719, Malayer (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Malayer University, P.O. Box: 95863-65719, Malayer (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rouhaghdam, Ali Reza Sabour, E-mail: sabour01@modares.ac.ir [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahangarani, Shahrokh, E-mail: sh.ahangarani@gmail.com [Advanced Materials and Renewable Energies Department, Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 15815-3538, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Advanced Materials and Renewable Energies Department, Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 15815-3538, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chu, Paul K., E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

32

Topography, complex refractive index, and conductivity of graphene layers measured by correlation of optical interference contrast, atomic force, and back scattered electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The optical phase shift by reflection on graphene is measured by interference contrast microscopy. The height profile across graphene layers on 300?nm thick SiO{sub 2} on silicon is derived from the phase profile. The complex refractive index and conductivity of graphene layers on silicon with 2?nm thin SiO{sub 2} are evaluated from a phase profile, while the height profile of the layers is measured by atomic force microscopy. It is observed that the conductivity measured on thin SiO{sub 2} is significantly greater than on thick SiO{sub 2}. Back scattered electron contrast of graphene layers is correlated to the height of graphene layers.

Vaupel, Matthias, E-mail: Matthias.vaupel@zeiss.com; Dutschke, Anke [Training Application Support Center, Carl Zeiss Microscopy GmbH, Königsallee 9-21, 37081 Göttingen (Germany); Wurstbauer, Ulrich; Pasupathy, Abhay [Department of Physics, Columbia University New York, 538 West 120th Street, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Hitzel, Frank [DME Nanotechnologie GmbH, Geysostr. 13, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

33

True atomic-scale imaging of a spinel Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}(111) surface in aqueous solution by frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spinel-type lithium titanium oxide (LTO; Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}) is a negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries. Revealing the atomic-scale surface structure of LTO in liquid is highly necessary to investigate its surface properties in practical environments. Here, we reveal an atomic-scale image of the LTO(111) surface in LiCl aqueous solution using frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy. Atomically flat terraces and single steps having heights of multiples of 0.5?nm were observed in the aqueous solution. Hexagonal bright spots separated by 0.6?nm were also observed on the flat terrace part, corresponding to the atomistic contrast observed in the ultrahigh vacuum condition, which suggests that the basic atomic structure of the LTO(111) surface is retained without dramatic reconstruction even in the aqueous solution.

Kitta, Mitsunori, E-mail: m-kitta@aist.go.jp; Kohyama, Masanori [Research Institute for Ubiquitous Energy Devices, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Onishi, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

34

Atomic Force Microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

NANOMETER-SCALE INVESTIGATIONS BY ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY INTO THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TREATMENTS ON THE SURFACE STRUCTURE OF HAIR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-section through both images (Fig. 4(d)) reveals the correlation, and that the modulation in surface potential associated with the deposits is of the order 70 mV. To test this further, an area of a freshly cleaned (by soaking in ethanol overnight and by rinsing... to determine the adhesion force (the force necessary to pull the cantilever off the surface) and adhesion energy between the tip and the surface area of interest. Force volume spectroscopy on a the bare hair surface and on a deposit as shown in Fig. 4(g) and (h...

Durkan, C.; Wang, N.

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

36

Directly correlated transmission electron microscopy and atom...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Directly correlated transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography of grain boundary oxidation in a Ni-Al binary Directly correlated transmission electron microscopy...

37

Resolving the internal structure of individual atmospheric aerosol particle by the combination of Atomic Force Microscopy, ESEM–EDX, Raman and ToF–SIMS imaging  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, internal structures of individual aerosol particles were resolved by using micro-analytical techniques in combination. We demonstrated the practical applicability of the combined use of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy-Dispersive X-ray analysis (ESEM–EDX), Raman Microspectrometry (RMS) and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF–SIMS) to provide morphological, elemental, molecular and outer surface imaging of the same individual airborne particles for the first time. The characterization of single particles collected in the industrial atmosphere influenced by marine air masses demonstrated the physicochemical evolution of the particles in a short time period. The marine-derived particles were mainly encountered as genuine sea salts internally mixed with reacted sea salts such as NaNO3 and liquid NO3? which are covered by an organic thin layer. The particles collected downwind the industrial area were solid particles composed of an internal mixture of iron oxides and of marine-derived particles coated with an organic layer. The formation of these particles is a result of coalescence, agglomeration and drying processes occurring in the atmosphere during the transport of particles in a short time period (~ 15 min). It is demonstrated that the combined use of the different types of spectral and imaging data from the same individual particles in atmospheric aerosol sample provides richer information on their physicochemical characteristics than when those techniques were used alone or when two techniques in combination.

S. Sobanska; G. Falgayrac; J. Rimetz-Planchon; E. Perdrix; C. Brémard; J. Barbillat

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Ferrocenylundecanethiol Self-Assembled Monolayer Charging Correlates with Negative Differential Resistance Measured by Conducting Probe Atomic Force Microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Additionally, electric force measurements along with theoretical modeling both in and out of contact with a nonelectroactive 1-octanethiol (C8SH) SAM were also performed. ... Using a simple parallel-plate geometry37 and assuming that stored charge is localized on the ferricenium end groups, we find that the quantity of detected charges is Q = 80 ± 20 positive elementary charges or the same number of oxidized molecules if we assume each molecule can store one charge. ... The measurements showed: (1) the I-V traces were linear over ±0.3 V, (2) the junction resistance increased exponentially with alkyl chain length, (3) the junction resistance decreased with increasing load and showed two distinct power law scaling regimes, (4) resistances were a factor of 10 lower for junctions based on benzyl thiol SAMs compared to hexyl thiol SAMs having the same thickness, and (5) the junctions sustained fields up to 2 × 107 V/cm before breakdown. ...

Alexei V. Tivanski; Gilbert C. Walker

2005-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

39

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and atomic force microscopy of brass electrodes in sulfuric acid solution containing benzotriazole and chloride ion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three different methods were used to roughen brass (Cu/Zn = 67/33) electrodes in 0.5 M H[sub 2]SO[sub 4] containing 1.0 mM benzotriazole (BTAH): (1) polarization at +0.05 V vs. saturated calomel for 5 min; (2) immersion in the above solution for six hours; and (3) oxidation-reduction cycling in the presence of chloride ion. The surfaces prepared by the first two methods exhibited surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of the polymeric complex [Cu(I)BTA][sub s]. The SERS spectrum obtained from electrodes prepared by the third method is very similar to that of [Cu(I)CIBTAH][sub 4]. Examination of the electrodes by atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that a large number of grain boundary sites are formed by the roughening processes. This effect is attributed to the loss of zinc, which occurs during corrosion of the mirror-like, polished brass electrode surface in the sulfuric acid solution. 11 refs., 5 figs.

Rubim, J.C.; Kim, J.; Henderson, E.; Cotton, T.M. (Instituto de Quimica da Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil) Ames Lab., IA (United States) Iowa State Univ., Ames (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Characterization of Cell Surface and EPS Remodeling of Azospirillum brasilense Chemotaxis-like 1 Signal Transduction Pathway mutants by Atomic Force Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To compete in complex microbial communities, bacteria must quickly sense environmental changes and adjust cellular functions for optimal growth. Chemotaxis-like signal transduction pathways are implicated in the modulation of multiple cellular responses, including motility, EPS production, and cell-to-cell interactions. Recently, the Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway from Azospirillum brasilense was shown to modulate flocculation. In A. brasilense, cell surface properties, including EPS production, are thought to play a direct role in promoting flocculation. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we have detected distinct changes in the surface morphology of flocculating A. brasilense Che1 mutant strains that are absent in the wild type strain. Whereas the wild type strain produces a smooth mucosal extracellular matrix, the flocculating Che1 mutant strains produce distinctive extracellular fibril structures. Further analyses using flocculation inhibition and lectin-binding assays suggest that the composition of EPS components in the extracellular matrix differs between the cheA1 and cheY1 mutants, despite an apparent similarity in the macroscopic floc structures. Collectively, these data indicate that mutations in the Che1 pathway that result in increased flocculation are correlated with distinctive changes in the extracellular matrix structure produced by the mutants, including likely changes in the EPS structure and/or composition.

Billings, Amanda N [ORNL; Siuti, Piro [ORNL; Bible, Amber [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Alexandre, Gladys [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic force microscopy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Atomic Force Microscopy in Nanomedicine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combination of AFM with conventional techniques, as well as AFM itself, allows answering biomedical questions of high interest. We could show this clearly for CFTR with single molecule imaging and observat...

Dessy Nikova; Tobias Lange; Hans Oberleithner…

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Spectroscopic ellipsometric modeling of a Bi–Te–Se write layer of an optical data storage device as guided by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Conventional magnetic tape is the most widely used medium for archival data storage. However, data stored on it need to be migrated every ca. 5 years. Recently, optical discs that store information for hundreds, or even more than 1000 years, have been introduced to the market. We recently proposed that technology in these optical discs be used to make an optical tape that would show greater permanence than its magnetic counterpart. Here we provide a detailed optical characterization of a sputtered thin film of bismuth, tellurium, and selenium (BTS) that is a proposed data storage layer for these devices. The methodology described herein should be useful in the future development of related materials. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) data are obtained using interference enhancement, and the modeling of this data is guided by results from atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray reflectivity (XRR). By AFM, ca. 40 nm BTS films show ca. 10 nm roughness. SEM images also suggest considerable roughness in the films and indicate that they are composed of 13.1 ± 5.9 nm grains. XRD confirms that the films are crystalline and predicts a grain size of 17 ± 2 nm. XRD results are consistent with the composition of the films — a mildly oxidized BTS material. Three models of increasing complexity are investigated to explain the SE data. The first model consists of a smooth, homogeneous BTS film. The second model adds a roughness layer to the previous model. The third model also has two layers. The bottom layer is modeled as a mixture of BTS and void using a Bruggeman effective medium approximation. The upper layer is similarly modeled, but with a gradient. The first model was unable to adequately model the SE data. The second model was an improvement — lower MSE (4.4) and good agreement with step height measurements. The third model was even better — very low MSE (2.6) and good agreement with AFM results. The third SE model predicted ca. 90% void at the film surface. XRR modeling of the film agreed well with the predictions from SE. The uniquenesses of the SE models were confirmed.

Hao Wang; Nitesh Madaan; Jacob Bagley; Anubhav Diwan; Yiqun Liu; Robert C. Davis; Barry M. Lunt; Stacey J. Smith; Matthew R. Linford

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Sensing mode atomic force microscope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An atomic force microscope utilizes a pulse release system and improved method of operation to minimize contact forces between a probe tip affixed to a flexible cantilever and a specimen being measured. The pulse release system includes a magnetic particle affixed proximate the probe tip and an electromagnetic coil. When energized, the electromagnetic coil generates a magnetic field which applies a driving force on the magnetic particle sufficient to overcome adhesive forces exhibited between the probe tip and specimen. The atomic force microscope includes two independently displaceable piezo elements operable along a Z-axis. A controller drives the first Z-axis piezo element to provide a controlled approach between the probe tip and specimen up to a point of contact between the probe tip and specimen. The controller then drives the first Z-axis piezo element to withdraw the cantilever from the specimen. The controller also activates the pulse release system which drives the probe tip away from the specimen during withdrawal. Following withdrawal, the controller adjusts the height of the second Z-axis piezo element to maintain a substantially constant approach distance between successive samples.

Hough, Paul V. C. (Port Jefferson, NY); Wang, Chengpu (Upton, NY)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

The use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the surface topography of commercial fluid cracking catalysts (FCCs) and pillared interlayered clay (PILC) catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An atomic force microscope operating in contact or Tapping ModeTM has been used to study the surface morphology, nanostructure, clay plates packing and conformation while providing nanometer-scale features of \\{FCCs\\} surfaces not readily accessible by other microscopic techniques. Contact mode micrometer-scale (15?m x 15?m) AFM images have revealed that the topography and molecular organization of the surface of several commercial \\{FCCs\\} are fairly heterogenous in nature, frequently containing discontinuities represented by deep trenches, valleys and crater-like openings with micrometer dimensions. Surfaces are in general, composed of short stacks of plates with voids or pores between these stacks resulting from materials occlusion between plates, from missing plates, missing stacks of plates and from misaligned stacks of plates. Gross structural differences between fresh and equilibrium FCCs, were not observed. However surfaces of equilibrium \\{FCCs\\} may contain debris possibly representing NiO and V2O5 deposits, in agreement with chemical analysis. Not all equilibrium microspheres contain surface debris. Thus AFM images allow the distinction of old and young FCC fractions in equilibrium FCC samples. Coke deposits during gas oil cracking at MAT conditions, are imaged as raised surface features representing molecules or cluster of molecules. Contact-mode AFM images of pillared interlayered clays (PILCs) cracking catalysts having alumina clusters as the structure supporting pillars, represent the catalyst surface as a collection of white spots in an hexagonal arrangements having nearest neighbor and lateral distances in agreement with the repeat distances of the clay siloxane layer; evidenced of surface alumina debris was not observed an all the extraframework alumina introduced by the pillaring reaction is located in the clay interlamellar space. After exposure for 5h to 100% steam at 760° C and 1 atm, the structural parameters of the surface disappear when the PILC was prepared using montmorillonite and were retained when the PILC was prepared from rectorite. Thus \\{PILCs\\} collapse is the result of the clay (single) silicate layer hydrothermal instability and it occurs irrespective of the hydrothermal stability of the pillars used. In contrast to FCCs, coke deposition from gas oil cracking at MAT conditions, form on the surface of pillared rectorites a layer geometrically similar to graphite that can be easily removed by heating in air at 600°C without affecting the PILC's structure or cracking activity.

Mario L. Occelli; Scot A.C. Gould

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Measuring Shear Stress in Microfluidics using Traction Force Microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Traction force microscopy is a previously-developed method to measure shear forces exerted by biological cells on substrates to which they are adhered (Dembo, 1999). The technique determines the shear stress a...

Bryant Mueller

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Effect of current compliance and voltage sweep rate on the resistive switching of HfO{sub 2}/ITO/Invar structure as measured by conductive atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electrical characterization of HfO{sub 2}/ITO/Invar resistive switching memory structure was studied using conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM) with a semiconductor parameter analyzer, Agilent 4156C. The metal alloy Invar was used as the metal substrate to ensure good ohmic contact with the substrate holder of the AFM. A conductive Pt/Ir AFM tip was placed in direct contact with the HfO{sub 2} surface, such that it acted as the top electrode. Nanoscale current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the HfO{sub 2}/ITO/Invar structure were measured by applying a ramp voltage through the conductive AFM tip at various current compliances and ramp voltage sweep rates. It was found that the resistance of the low resistance state (RLRS) decreased with increasing current compliance value, but resistance of high resistance state (RHRS) barely changed. However, both the RHRS and RLRS decreased as the voltage sweep rate increased. The reasons for this dependency on current compliance and voltage sweep rate are discussed.

Wu, You-Lin, E-mail: ylwu@ncnu.edu.tw; Liao, Chun-Wei [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chi Nan University, Puli, Nantou, Taiwan (China); Ling, Jing-Jenn [Department of Applied Materials and Optoelectronic Engineering, National Chi Nan University, Puli, Nantou, Taiwan (China)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

47

Oscillating String as a Force Sensor in Scanning Force Microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a sensor that uses an oscillating string to detect forces. A cantilever beam serves as a sample stage. The string is attached to the free end of ... the free end of the beam modifies the string tension...

A. Stalder; U. Dürig

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Instrument Series: Microscopy Atom Probe The LEAP  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atom Probe Atom Probe The LEAP ® 4000 XHR local electrode atom probe tomography instrument enabled the first- ever comprehensive and accurate 3-D chemical imaging studies of low electrical conductivity materials, such as ceramics, semiconductors and oxides. The LEAP capability is assisting EMSL's efforts to further scientific advancements in interface analysis and microstructural characterization, providing a new tool for understanding the relationship between the nanoscale structure of materials and their macroscopic properties. Research Applications Geochemistry - Studying chemical processes that compose rocks and soils has long been used to determine matter cycles and transport in the environment, which supports critical EMSL research in areas including bioremediation.

49

The effect of patch potentials in Casimir force measurements determined by heterodyne Kelvin probe force microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurements of the Casimir force require the elimination of electrostatic interactions between the surfaces. However, due to electrostatic patch potentials, the voltage required to minimize the total force may not be sufficient to completely nullify the electrostatic interaction. Thus, these surface potential variations cause an additional force, which can obscure the Casimir force signal. In this paper, we inspect the spatially varying surface potential (SP) of e-beamed, sputtered, sputtered and annealed, and template stripped gold surfaces with Heterodyne Amplitude Modulated Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (HAM-KPFM). It is demonstrated that HAM-KPFM improves the spatial resolution of surface potential measurements compared to Amplitude Modulated Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (AM-KPFM). We find that patch potentials vary depending on sample preparation, and that the calculated pressure can be similar to the pressure difference between Casimir force calculations employing the plasma and Drude models.

Joseph L. Garrett; David Somers; Jeremy N. Munday

2014-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

50

Combined low-temperature scanning tunneling/atomic force microscope for atomic resolution imaging and site-specific force spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors present the design and first results of a low-temperature, ultrahigh vacuum scanning probe microscope enabling atomic resolution imaging in both scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) modes. A tuning-fork-based sensor provides flexibility in selecting probe tip materials, which can be either metallic or nonmetallic. When choosing a conducting tip and sample, simultaneous STM/NC-AFM data acquisition is possible. Noticeable characteristics that distinguish this setup from similar systems providing simultaneous STM/NC-AFM capabilities are its combination of relative compactness (on-top bath cryostat needs no pit), in situ exchange of tip and sample at low temperatures, short turnaround times, modest helium consumption, and unrestricted access from dedicated flanges. The latter permits not only the optical surveillance of the tip during approach but also the direct deposition of molecules or atoms on either tip or sample while they remain cold. Atomic corrugations as low as 1 pm could successfully be resolved. In addition, lateral drifts rates of below 15 pm/h allow long-term data acquisition series and the recording of site-specific spectroscopy maps. Results obtained on Cu(111) and graphite illustrate the microscope's performance.

Schwarz, Udo; Albers, Boris J.; Liebmann, Marcus; Schwendemann, Todd C.; Baykara, Mehmet Z.; Heyde, Markus; Salmeron, Miquel; Altman, Eric I.; Schwarz, Udo D.

2008-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

51

Direct Visualization and Identification of Biofunctionalized Nanoparticles using a Magnetic Atomic Force Microscope  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Because of its outstanding ability to image and manipulate single molecules, atomic force microscopy (AFM) established itself as a fundamental technique in nanobiotechnology. ... force microscope (AFM) has emerged as a powerful tool for exploring the forces and the dynamics of the interaction between individual ligands and receptors, either on isolated mols. ... In CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 90thed.; Lide, D. R., Eds.; CRC Press Inc.: Boca Raton, FL, 2010; pp 4-142– 4-147. ...

Stephan Block; Gunnar Glo?ckl; Werner Weitschies; Christiane A. Helm

2011-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

52

Design and analysis of a monolithic flexure atomic force microscope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis details the design, manufacture, and testing of a sub-nanometer accuracy atomic force microscope. It was made to be integrated into the Sub-Atomic Measuring Machine (SAMM) in collaboration with the University ...

Ljubicic, Dean M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Dual harmonic Kelvin probe force microscopy at the graphene–liquid interface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is a powerful technique for the determination of the contact potential difference (CPD) between an atomic force microscope tip and a sample under ambient and vacuum conditions. However, for many energy storage and conversion systems, including graphene-based electrochemical capacitors, understanding electrochemical phenomena at the solid–liquid interface is paramount. Despite the vast potential to provide fundamental insight for energy storage materials at the nanoscale, KPFM has found limited applicability in liquid environments to date. Here, using dual harmonic (DH)-KPFM, we demonstrate CPD imaging of graphene in liquid. We find good agreement with measurements performed in air, highlighting the potential of DH-KPFM to probe electrochemistry at the graphene–liquid interface.

Collins, Liam; Rodriguez, Brian J., E-mail: brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Kilpatrick, Jason I.; Weber, Stefan A. L. [Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Vlassiouk, Ivan V. [Energy and Transportation Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Tselev, Alexander; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V. [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

54

Atom chip microscopy: A novel probe for strongly correlated materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improved measurements of strongly correlated systems will enable the predicative design of the next generation of supermaterials. In this program, we are harnessing recent advances in the quantum manipulation of ultracold atomic gases to expand our ability to probe these technologically important materials in heretofore unexplored regions of temperature, resolution, and sensitivity parameter space. We are working to demonstrate the use of atom chips to enable single-shot, large area detection of magnetic flux at the 10^-7 flux quantum level and below. By harnessing the extreme sensitivity of atomic clocks and Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) to external perturbations, the cryogenic atom chip technology developed here will provide a magnetic flux detection capability that surpasses other techniques---such as scanning SQUIDs---by a factor of 10--1000. We are testing the utility of this technique by using rubidium BECs to image the magnetic fields emanating from charge transport and magnetic domain percolation in strongly correlated materials as they undergo temperature-tuned metal--to--insulator phase transitions. Cryogenic atom chip microscopy introduces three very important features to the toolbox of high-resolution, strongly correlated material microscopy: simultaneous detection of magnetic and electric fields (down to the sub-single electron charge level); no invasive large magnetic fields or gradients; simultaneous micro- and macroscopic spatial resolution; freedom from 1/f flicker noise at low frequencies; and, perhaps most importantly, the complete decoupling of probe and sample temperatures. The first of these features will play an important role in studying the interplay between magnetic and electric domain structure. The last two are crucial for low frequency magnetic noise detection in, e.g., the cuprate pseudogap region and for precision measurements of transport in the high temperature, technologically relevant regime inaccessible to other techniques based on superconducting scanning probes. In periods 1--3 of this grant, which we now close at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and restart at Stanford University where our new lab is being built, we have demonstrated the ability to rapidly create Rb BECs and trap them within microns of a surface ina cryostat. Period 4 of this grant, to be performed at Stanford, will demonstrate the feasibility of using atom chips with a BEC to image transport features on a cryogenically cooled surface. Successful demonstration, in future funding cycles, will lead directly to the use of system for studies of transport in exotic and technologically relevant materials such as cuprate superconductors and topological insulators.

Lev, Benjamin L

2011-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

55

Optical system for high-speed Atomic Force Microscope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents the design and development of an optical cantilever deflection sensor for a high speed Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). This optical sensing system is able to track a small cantilever while the X-Y scanner ...

Lim, Kwang Yong, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This bibliography contains citations of books, conference proceedings, journals, and patents published in 1992 on the following types of microscopy: atom probe field ion microscopy (108 items); field emission microscopy (101 items); and field ion microscopy (48 items). An addendum of 34 items missed in previous bibliographies is included.

Russell, K.F.; Godfrey, R.D.; Miller, M.K.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Electric force microscopy of semiconductors: Theory of cantilever frequency fluctuations and noncontact friction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An electric force microscope employs a charged atomic force microscope probe in vacuum to measure fluctuating electric forces above the sample surface generated by dynamics of molecules and charge carriers. We present a theoretical description of two observables in electric force microscopy of a semiconductor: the spectral density of cantilever frequency fluctuations (jitter), which are associated with low-frequency dynamics in the sample, and the coefficient of noncontact friction, induced by higher-frequency motions. The treatment is classical-mechanical, based on linear response theory and classical electrodynamics of diffusing charges in a dielectric continuum. Calculations of frequency jitter explain the absence of contributions from carrier dynamics to previous measurements of an organic field effect transistor. Calculations of noncontact friction predict decreasing friction with increasing carrier density through the suppression of carrier density fluctuations by intercarrier Coulomb interactions. The predicted carrier density dependence of the friction coefficient is consistent with measurements of the dopant density dependence of noncontact friction over Si. Our calculations predict that in contrast to the measurement of cantilever frequency jitter, a noncontact friction measurement over an organic semiconductor could show appreciable contributions from charge carriers.

Lekkala, Swapna; Marohn, John A.; Loring, Roger F., E-mail: roger.loring@cornell.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

58

Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains a bibliography for 1991 on the following topics: Atom probe field ion microscopy; field desorption mass spectrometry; field emission; field ion microscopy; and field emission theory.

Russell, K.F.; Miller, M.K.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic force spectroscopy Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Langmuir trough Atomic force microscope Optical microscope... W ultrasonic horn Atomic absorption spectrophotometer UVVIS spectrophotometer Centrifuge p......

60

E-Print Network 3.0 - atom probe characterization Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the sample. Similar to an atomic force microscope (AFM), the contact force... , Brand O, Baltes H, Tonin A and Hidber H R 2000 Integrated atomic force microscopy array...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic force microscopy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Refined tip preparation by electrochemical etching and ultrahigh vacuum treatment to obtain atomically sharp tips for scanning tunneling microscope and atomic force microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A modification of the common electrochemical etching setup is presented. The described method reproducibly yields sharp tungsten tips for usage in the scanning tunneling microscope and tuning fork atomic force microscope. In situ treatment under ultrahigh vacuum (p {<=}10{sup -10} mbar) conditions for cleaning and fine sharpening with minimal blunting is described. The structure of the microscopic apex of these tips is atomically resolved with field ion microscopy and cross checked with field emission.

Hagedorn, Till; Ouali, Mehdi El; Paul, William; Oliver, David; Miyahara, Yoichi; Gruetter, Peter [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, QC H3A2T8 (Canada)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

62

A calibration method for lateral forces for use with colloidal probe force microscopy cantilevers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A calibration method is described for colloidal probe cantilevers that enables friction force measurements obtained using lateral force microscopy (LFM) to be quantified. The method is an adaptation of the lever method of Feiler et al. [A. Feiler, P. Attard, and I. Larson, Rev. Sci. Instum. 71, 2746 (2000)] and uses the advantageous positioning of probe particles that are usually offset from the central axis of the cantilever. The main sources of error in the calibration method are assessed, in particular, the potential misalignment of the long axis of the cantilever that ideally should be perpendicular to the photodiode detector. When this is not taken into account, the misalignment is shown to have a significant effect on the cantilever torsional stiffness but not on the lateral photodiode sensitivity. Also, because the friction signal is affected by the topography of the substrate, the method presented is valid only against flat substrates. Two types of particles, 20 {mu}m glass beads and UO{sub 3} agglomerates attached to silicon tapping mode cantilevers were used to test the method against substrates including glass, cleaved mica, and UO{sub 2} single crystals. Comparisons with the lateral compliance method of Cain et al. [R. G. Cain, S. Biggs, and N. W. Page, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 227, 55 (2000)] are also made.

Quintanilla, M. A. S.; Goddard, D. T. [Nexia Solutions Ltd., Springfields, Salwick, Preston, Lancashire PR4 0XJ (United Kingdom)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

Using Atom Interferometry to Search for New Forces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atom interferometry is a rapidly advancing field and this Letter proposes an experiment based on existing technology that can search for new short distance forces. With current technology it is possible to improve the sensitivity by up to a factor of 10{sup 2} and near-future advances will be able to rewrite the limits for forces with ranges from 100 {micro}m to 1km.

Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

64

Biofilm Cohesiveness Measurement Using a Novel Atomic Force Microscopy Methodology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...functions by characterizing friction and/or wear under repeated scanning with variable loads...our knowledge, concomitant friction and wear processes on biofilms, important for understanding...Bacteriol. 186: 8096-8104. 40 Towler, B. W., C. J. Rupp, A. B. Cunningham...

Francois Ahimou; Michael J. Semmens; Paige J. Novak; Greg Haugstad

2007-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

65

Mode synthesizing atomic force microscopy and mode-synthesizing sensing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of analyzing a sample that includes applying a first set of energies at a first set of frequencies to a sample and applying, simultaneously with the applying the first set of energies, a second set of energies at a second set of frequencies, wherein the first set of energies and the second set of energies form a multi-mode coupling. The method further includes detecting an effect of the multi-mode coupling.

Passian, Ali; Thundat, Thomas George; Tetard, Laurene

2013-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

66

Atomic Force Microscopy Study of Clay Nanoplatelets and Their Impurities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the nanoclays into various polymers has been shown to result in increases in tensile properties (elastic modulus of nanoclay-polymer composites, based on the layer-by-layer assembly of individual clay nanoplatelets

67

The study of organic crystals by atomic force microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2.16 2-D and 3-D height images of a chocolate sample obtained at various storage times. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2.17 AFM images of the {110} face of paracetamol crystals. . . . . . 26 2.18 AFM images of glycine crystals... ]. Among others, such interactions include hydrogen bonding, halogen bonding, as well as pi-pi interactions [4]. By understanding the behaviour of these interactions, crystal engineering was developed not only for the study of crystal structures, but also...

Chow, Ernest Ho Hin

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Ultrasonic-Based Mode-Synthesizing Atomic Force Microscopy -...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

is critical to understanding biological processes that lead to cell signaling, protein folding, and gene expression. Using MSAFM, nanoscale properties such as porosity,...

69

Potential Distribution in Functionalized Graphene Devices Probed by Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

graphene sheet (FGS) [1] can be utilized in sensor technology, batteries and supercapacitors becausePotential Distribution in Functionalized Graphene Devices Probed by Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy Institute of Physics. Related Articles Ferromagnetic fluctuation in doped armchair graphene nanoribbons J

Aksay, Ilhan A.

70

Chemical Force Microscopy Nanoscale Probing of Fundamental Chemical Interactions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Intermolecular forces impact a wide spectrum of problems in condensed phases: from molecular recognition, self-assembly, and protein folding at the molecular and nanometer scale, to interfacial fracture, frict...

Aleksandr Noy; Dmitry V. Vezenov…

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

High-resolution friction force microscopy under electrochemical control Aleksander Labuda,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-resolution friction force microscopy under electrochemical control Aleksander Labuda,1 William and development of a friction force microscope for high-resolution studies in electrochemical environments in liquids. The noise of the system is analyzed based on a methodology for the quantification of all

Grütter, Peter

72

Surface-atom force out of thermal equilibrium and its effect on ultra-cold atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The surface-atom Casimir-Polder-Lifshitz force out of thermal equilibrium is investigated in the framework of macroscopic electrodynamics. Particular attention is devoted to its large distance limit that shows a new, stronger behaviour with respect to the equilibrium case. The frequency shift produced by the surface-atom force on the the center-of-mass oscillations of a harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate and on the Bloch oscillations of an ultra-cold fermionic gas in an optical lattice are discussed for configurations out of thermal equilibrium.

Mauro Antezza

2005-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

73

Integration of an Atomic Force Microscope in a Beamline Sample Environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We developed and optimised an optics-free Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) that can be directly installed on most of the synchrotron radiation end-stations. The combination of Scanning Probe Microscopies with X-ray microbeams adds new possibilities to the variety of synchrotron radiation techniques. The instrument can be used for atomic force imaging of the investigated sample or to locally measure the X-ray absorption or diffraction, or it can also be used to mechanically interact with the sample while simultaneously taking spectroscopy or diffraction measurements. The local character of these measurements is intrinsically linked with the use of the Atomic Force Microscope tip. It is the sharpness of the tip that gives the opportunity to measure the photons flux impinging on it giving beam position monitor features, or allows to locally measure the absorption coefficient or the shape of the diffraction pattern. As an example of the possibilities opened by the instrument we will show diffraction measurements performed on a Ge/Si island while being indented with the AFM tip providing local measure of the Young coefficient. Three ESRF beamlines are going to be equipped with this new instrument.

Rodrigues, M. S.; Hrouzek, M.; Dhez, O.; Comin, F. [ESRF, 6 rue Horowitz 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Chevrier, J. [Institut Neel-CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier, 38042 Grenoble (France)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

74

Predicted scanning tunneling microscopy images of carbon nanotubes with atomic vacancies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Predicted scanning tunneling microscopy images of carbon nanotubes with atomic vacancies Arkady V STM images of both metallic and semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes with atomic vacancies predict that vacancies should result in the formation of hillock-like features in STM images of metallic

Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.

75

Simulations of friction force microscopy on the KBr(001) surface based on ab initio calculated tip-sample forces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on ab initio-based simulations of friction-force microscopy on the KBr(001) surface at zero and nonzero temperature. To simulate sliding friction, we employ an extended three-dimensional (3D) Prandtl-Tomlinson model. The microscopic part of the tip is modeled by K+- or Br--terminated tips. We use a tip-surface interaction potential, which is calculated within local-density approximation of density-functional theory and supplemented by a long-range van der Waals interaction resulting from the macroscopic part of the tip. Thermal fluctuations are included via random white noise. The loading force acting on the tip enters the Langevin equation of motion separately from all other forces so that it can be changed at will. We analyze friction as a function of loading force, temperature, and mass of the tip and identify regions of these parameters where distinct stick-slip behavior or ultra-low friction occurs. A comparison of our 3D ab initioresults with those obtained using sinusoidal tip-surface forces (1D model) is very revealing. By and large, both approaches yield results in good agreement at T = 0 K. At higher temperatures, however, distinct differences occur. For example, at T = 295 K, the 1D model calculations overestimate the friction hysteresis and energy dissipation, and for positive loading forces they even can yield a different periodicity in the friction-force profile.

Christine Wieferink; Peter Krüger; Johannes Pollmann

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

76

Noncovalent Cross-Linking of Casein by Epigallocatechin Gallate Characterized by Single Molecule Force Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

force microscopy; astrin- gency; compaction INTRODUCTION Green tea contains a large amount is produced from green tea by fermentation, which oxidizes many of the tea polyphenols into higher molecular, Sheffield S3 7RH, United Kingdom Interaction of the tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG

Williamson, Mike P.

77

The relationship between local liquid density and force applied on a tip of atomic force microscope: A theoretical analysis for simple liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The density of a liquid is not uniform when placed on a solid. The structured liquid pushes or pulls a probe employed in atomic force microscopy, as demonstrated in a number of experimental studies. In the present study, the relation between the force on a probe and the local density of a liquid is derived based on the statistical mechanics of simple liquids. When the probe is identical to a solvent molecule, the strength of the force is shown to be proportional to the vertical gradient of ln(?{sub DS}) with the local liquid's density on a solid surface being ?{sub DS}. The intrinsic liquid's density on a solid is numerically calculated and compared with the density reconstructed from the force on a probe that is identical or not identical to the solvent molecule.

Amano, Ken-ichi, E-mail: aman@tohoku-pharm.ac.jp; Takahashi, Ohgi [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, 4-4-1 Komatsushima, Aoba-ku, Sendai 981-8558 (Japan)] [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, 4-4-1 Komatsushima, Aoba-ku, Sendai 981-8558 (Japan); Suzuki, Kazuhiro [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)] [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Fukuma, Takeshi [Bio-AFM Frontier Research Center, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)] [Bio-AFM Frontier Research Center, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Onishi, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kobe University, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kobe University, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

78

Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This bibliography includes references related to the following topics: atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM), field ion microscopy (FIM), field emission (FE), ion sources, and field desorption mass microscopy (FDMM). Technique-orientated studies and applications are included. The bibliography covers the period 1990. The references contained in this document were compiled from a variety of sources including computer searches and personal lists of publications. To reduce the length of this document, the references have been reduced to the minimum necessary to locate the articles. The references, listed alphabetically by authors, are subdivided into the categories listed in paragraph one above. An Addendum of references missed in previous bibliographies is included.

Russell, K.F.; Miller, M.K.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Atomic force microscope cantilever spring constant evaluation for higher mode oscillations: A kinetostatic method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our previous study of the particle mass sensor has shown a large ratio (up to thousands) between the spring constants of a rectangular cantilever in higher mode vibration and at the static bending or natural mode vibration. This has been proven by us through the derived nodal point position equation. That solution is good for a cantilever with the free end in noncontact regime and the probe shifted from the end to an effective section and contacting a soft object. Our further research shows that the same nodal position equation with the proper frequency equations may be used for the same spring constant ratio estimation if the vibrating at higher mode cantilever's free end has a significant additional mass clamped to it or that end is in permanent contact with an elastic or hard measurand object (reference cantilever). However, in the latter case, the spring constant ratio is much smaller (in tens) than in other mentioned cases at equal higher (up to fourth) vibration modes. We also present the spring constant ratio for a vibrating at higher eigenmode V-shaped cantilever, which is now in wide use for atomic force microscopy. The received results on the spring constant ratio are in good (within a few percent) agreement with the theoretical and experimental data published by other researchers. The knowledge of a possible spring constant transformation is important for the proper calibration and use of an atomic force microscope with vibrating cantilever in the higher eigenmodes for measurement and imaging with enlarged resolution.

Tseytlin, Yakov M. [Instrument Society of America, 20 Randall Street, Apt. 5G, Providence, Rhode Island 02904 (United States)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

80

Nanoscale Characterization and Determination of Adhesion Forces of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pili by Using Atomic Force Microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...pili are anchored to the plasma membrane, the peptidoglycan...have been reported for a large variety of biopolymers...length of 600 nm. For larger values for L, the curvature...Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University...Article Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't | Bacterial...

Ahmed Touhami; Manfred H. Jericho; Jessica M. Boyd; Terry J. Beveridge

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic force microscopy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

The adhesion force study of dairy thermophile Anoxybacillus flavithermus CM with atomic force microscopy.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Anoxybacillus flavithermus is a common species of thermophilic bacteria discovered in most milk powder manufacturing plants through out New Zealand. The contamination of it’s spores… (more)

Mohd Saidi, Mohd Salihin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Domain-wall structure in thin films with perpendicular anisotropy: Magnetic force microscopy and polarized neutron reflectometry study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ferromagnetic domain patterns and three-dimensional domain-wall configurations in thin CoCrPt films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy were studied in detail by combining magnetic force microscopy and polarized neutron ...

Navas, David

83

Magnetic force microscopy method and apparatus to detect and image currents in integrated circuits  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetic force microscopy method and improved magnetic tip for detecting and quantifying internal magnetic fields resulting from current of integrated circuits. Detection of the current is used for failure analysis, design verification, and model validation. The interaction of the current on the integrated chip with a magnetic field can be detected using a cantilevered magnetic tip. Enhanced sensitivity for both ac and dc current and voltage detection is achieved with voltage by an ac coupling or a heterodyne technique. The techniques can be used to extract information from analog circuits.

Campbell, Ann. N. (13170-B Central SE #188, Albuquerque, NM 87123); Anderson, Richard E. (2800 Tennessee NE, Albuquerque, NM 87110); Cole, Jr., Edward I. (2116 White Cloud NE, Albuquerque, NM 87112)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Magnetic force microscopy method and apparatus to detect and image currents in integrated circuits  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetic force microscopy method and improved magnetic tip for detecting and quantifying internal magnetic fields resulting from current of integrated circuits are disclosed. Detection of the current is used for failure analysis, design verification, and model validation. The interaction of the current on the integrated chip with a magnetic field can be detected using a cantilevered magnetic tip. Enhanced sensitivity for both ac and dc current and voltage detection is achieved with voltage by an ac coupling or a heterodyne technique. The techniques can be used to extract information from analog circuits. 17 figs.

Campbell, A.N.; Anderson, R.E.; Cole, E.I. Jr.

1995-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

85

A metrological large range atomic force microscope with improved performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A metrological large range atomic force microscope (Met. LR-AFM) has been set up and improved over the past years at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Being designed as a scanning sample type instrument the sample is moved in three dimensions by a mechanical ball bearing stage in combination with a compact z -piezostage. Its topography is detected by a position-stationary AFM head. The sample displacement is measured by three embedded miniature homodyneinterferometers in the x y and z directions. The AFM head is aligned in such a way that its cantilever tip is positioned on the sample surface at the intersection point of the three interferometer measurement beams for satisfying the Abbe measurement principle. In this paper further improvements of the Met. LR-AFM are reported. A new AFM head using the beam deflection principle has been developed to reduce the influence of parasitic optical interference phenomena. Furthermore an off-line Heydemann correction method has been applied to reduce the inherent interferometer nonlinearities to less than 0.3 nm ( p - v ) . Versatile scanning functions for example radial scanning or local AFM measurement functions have been implemented to optimize the measurement process. The measurement software is also improved and allows comfortable operations of the instrument via graphical user interface or script-based command sets. The improved Met. LR-AFM is capable of measuring for instance the step height lateral pitch line width nanoroughness and other geometrical parameters of nanostructures.Calibration results of a one-dimensional grating and a set of film thickness standards are demonstrated showing the excellent metrological performance of the instrument.

Gaoliang Dai; Helmut Wolff; Frank Pohlenz; Hans-Ulrich Danzebrink

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 286 (2005) 324328 Light-free magnetic resonance force microscopy for studies of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 286 (2005) 324­328 Light-free magnetic resonance force for Physical Sciences, College Park, MD, USA Available online 4 November 2004 Abstract Magnetic resonance force microscopy is a scanned probe technique capable of three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging. Its

87

E-Print Network 3.0 - all-atom force field Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fields in explicit or implicit... or implicit8,10 solvent. Because all-atom folding simulation of 2BpG with an empirical force field is not yet... with equilibrium and ... Source:...

88

In situ transmission electron microscopy observation of silver oxidation in ionized/atomic gas.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction between silver and ionized and atomic gas was observed directly by in situ transmission electron microscopy with an environmental cell for the first time. The electron beam provides dual functions as the source of both gas ionization and imaging. The concentration of ionized gas was tuned via adjusting the current density of the electron beam. Oxidation of the silver is observed in situ, indicating the presence of ionized and/or atomic oxygen. The evolution of microstructure and phase constituents was characterized. Then the oxidation rate was measured, and the relationships among grain size, mass transport rate, and electron flux were characterized. The role of the electron beam is discussed, and the results are rationalized with respect to ex situ results from the literature.

Sun, L.; Noh, K. W.; Wen, J-G.; Dillon, S. J. (Materials Science Division); (Massachusetts Inst. Tech.); (Univ. Illinois - Urbana)

2011-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

89

Synthetic Lorentz force in classical atomic gases via Doppler effect and radiation pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We theoretically predict a novel type of synthetic Lorentz force for classical (cold) atomic gases, which is based on the Doppler effect and radiation pressure. A fairly uniform and strong force can be constructed for gases in macroscopic volumes of several cubic millimeters and more. This opens the possibility to mimic classical charged gases in magnetic fields, such as those in a tokamak, in cold atom experiments.

Dub?ek, T; Juki?, D; Aumiler, D; Ban, T; Buljan, H

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Friction, Adhesion, and Deformation: Dynamic Measurements with the Atomic Force Phil Attard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Friction, Adhesion, and Deformation: Dynamic Measurements with the Atomic Force Microscope Phil. Adhesion Sci. Technol. 16, 753­791 (2002).) Running title: Friction, Adhesion, and Deformation Abstract for the friction force microscope, quantitative measurements of friction and the ef- fect of adhesion, measurement

Attard, Phil

91

Dipole and quadrupole forces exerted on atoms in laser fields: The nonperturbative approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Manipulation of cold atoms by lasers has so far been studied solely within the framework of the conventional dipole approximation, and the atom-light interaction has been treated using low order perturbation theory. Laser control of atomic motions has been ascribed exclusively to the corresponding light-induced dipole forces. In this work, we present a general theory to derive the potential experienced by an atom in a monochromatic laser field in a context analogous to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation for molecules in the field-free case. The formulation goes beyond the dipole approximation and gives rise to the field-atom coupling potential terms which so far have not been taken into consideration in theoretical or experimental studies. Contrary to conventional approaches, our method is based upon the many electron Floquet theory and remains valid also for high intensity laser fields (i.e., for a strongly nonperturbative atom-light interaction). As an illustration of the developed theory, we investigate the trapping of cold atoms in optical lattices. We find that for some atoms for specific laser parameters, despite the absence of the dipole force, the laser trapping is still possible due to the electric quadrupole forces. Namely, we show that by using realistic laser parameters one can form a quadrupole optical lattice which is sufficiently strong to trap Ca and Na atoms.

Sindelka, Milan; Moiseyev, Nimrod [Department of Chemistry and Minerva Center of Nonlinear Physics in Complex Systems, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Cederbaum, Lorenz S. [Theoretische Chemie, Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

92

Atomic-Scale Imaging and Spectroscopy for In Situ Liquid Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Observation of growth, synthesis, dynamics and electrochemical reactions in the liquid state is an important yet largely unstudied aspect of nanotechnology. The only techniques that can potentially provide the insights necessary to advance our understanding of these mechanisms is simultaneous atomic-scale imaging and quantitative chemical analysis (through spectroscopy) under environmental conditions in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). In this study we describe the experimental and technical conditions necessary to obtain electron energy loss (EEL) spectra from a nanoparticle in colloidal suspension using aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combined with the environmental liquid stage. At a fluid path length below 400 nm, atomic resolution images can be obtained and simultaneous compositional analysis can be achieved. We show that EEL spectroscopy can be used to quantify the total fluid path length around the nanoparticle, and demonstrate characteristic core-loss signals from the suspended nanoparticles can be resolved and analyzed to provide information on the local interfacial chemistry with the surrounding environment. The combined approach using aberration corrected STEM and EEL spectra with the in situ fluid stage demonstrates a plenary platform for detailed investigations of solution based catalysis and biological research.

Jungjohann, K. L.; Evans, James E.; Aguiar, Jeff; Arslan, Ilke; Browning, Nigel D.

2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

93

From Atoms to Animals: The Vital Force in Biology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Perhaps the most significant event in intellectual history has occurred over the past several decades, a convergence of the sciences, a blurring of the distinctions between disciplines, from physics to chemistry to biology. Fundamental questions about human existence have been answered in chemical terms. What brings matter to life? What are our origins? What is the basis of cognitive activity? These and related questions have been a fertile area for philosophy and nonscientific analysis. The long history of such alternative approaches persists to this day. Life chemistry is explained by protein catalysts, in their simplest form known as enzymes, and in their full complexity, referred to as molecular machines. An example of great significance is the so-called transcription machinery, which reads out the genetic code, to direct the formation and function of all living things. The atomic structure of the transcription machinery was determined at Stanford, with the use of intense X-ray beams and facilities at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC. The result is an image of this complex machinery in action, bringing genetic information to life.

Kornberg, Roger (Stanford University) [Stanford University

2008-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

94

Microstructural development in PWA-1480 electron beam welds: An atom probe field ion microscopy study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The microstructure development in PWA-1480 superalloy electron beam weld (Ni-11.0 at. % Al-11.5% Cr-1.9% Ti-5.1% Co-4.0% Ta-1.3% W) was characterized. Optical microscopy revealed a branched dendritic structure in the weld metal. Transmission electron microscopy of these welds, in the as-welded condition, showed fine cuboidal (0.05--0.5 {mu}m) L1{sub 2}-ordered {gamma}{prime} precipitates within the y grains. The average volume percentage of {gamma}{prime} precipitates was found to be {approx}5%. Atom probe analyses revealed that the composition of {gamma} matrix was Ni-4.6 at. % Al-25.5% Cr-0.4% Ti-9.4% Co-0.8% Ta-2.9% W and that of {gamma}{prime} precipitates was Ni-17.3 at. % Al-2.6% Cr-2.4% Ti-3.0% Co-7.4% Ta-1.3% W. These compositions were compared with the previous APFIM analyses of commercial PWA-1480 single crystals that had received conventional heat treatments. Small differences were found in the chromium and aluminum levels and these may be due to the nonequilibrium nature of phase transformations that occur during weld cooling. No solute segregation was detected at the {gamma}-{gamma}{prime}interface. The APFIM results were also compared with the thermodynamic calculations of alloying element partitioning between {gamma} and {gamma}{prime} using the ThermoCalc{trademark} software.

David, S.A.; Miller, M.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Babu, S.S. [The Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

95

Atomic force microscope with combined FTIR-Raman spectroscopy having a micro thermal analyzer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An atomic force microscope is provided that includes a micro thermal analyzer with a tip. The micro thermal analyzer is configured for obtaining topographical data from a sample. A raman spectrometer is included and is configured for use in obtaining chemical data from the sample.

Fink, Samuel D. (Aiken, SC); Fondeur, Fernando F. (North Augusta, SC)

2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

96

Method for imaging liquid and dielectric materials with scanning polarization force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The invention images dielectric polarization forces on surfaces induced by a charged scanning force microscope (SFM) probe tip. On insulators, the major contribution to the surface polarizability at low frequencies is from surface ions. The mobility of these ions depends strongly on the humidity. Using the inventive SFM, liquid films, droplets, and other weakly adsorbed materials have been imaged. 9 figs.

Hu, J.; Ogletree, D.F.; Salmeron, M.; Xiao, X.

1999-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

97

Seminar Announcement Nanoscale High Field Chemistry with the Atomic Force Microscope and Patterning January 15, 2009  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SEMINAR SEMINAR ANNOUNCMENT Thursday, January 15, 2009 11:00am - 12:00 noon EMSL Boardroom Nanoscale High Field Chemistry With the Atomic Force Microscope and Patterning Marco Rolandi Assistant Professor Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 Facile and affordable processes for the fabrication of nanostructures are fundamental to future endeavors in nanoscale science and engineering. The atomic force microscope was designed primarily for imaging, and has evolved into a versatile tool for nanoscale surface modification. We have developed an AFM based scheme capable of direct writing of glassy carbon nanowires as fast as 1 cm/s. In brief, when a bias is applied across the tip-sample gap a molecular precursor undergoes high field reactions that result in the deposition of a cross- linked product on the surface. In order to gain a

98

Deformation induced changes in surface properties of polymers investigated by scanning force microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this study the possibility of combining commercial Scanning Force Microscopes (SFM) with stretching devices for the investigation of microscopic surface changes during stepwise elongation is investigated. Different types of stretching devices have been developed either for Scanning Platform-SFM or for Stand Alone-SFM. Their suitability for the investigation of deformation induced surface changes is demonstrated. A uniaxially oriented polypropylene film is stretched vertically to its extrusion direction. The reorientation of its microfibrillar structure is investigated and correlated to macroscopic structural changes determined by taking a force-elongation curve. Microtome cuts of natural rubber filled with 15 PHR carbon black are stretched. Changes in topography, local stiffness and adhesive force are simultaneously reported by using a new imaging method called Pulsed Force Mode (PFM).

Sabine Hild; Armin Rosa; Othmar Marti

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

99

Surface aggregation of urinary proteins and aspartic acid-rich peptides on the faces of calcium oxalate monohydrate investigated by in situ force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate in the presence of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), osteopontin (OPN), and the 27-residue synthetic peptides (DDDS){sub 6}DDD and (DDDG){sub 6}DDD [where D = aspartic acid and X = S (serine) or G (glycine)] was investigated via in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that these three growth modulators create extensive deposits on the crystal faces. Depending on the modulator and crystal face, these deposits can occur as discrete aggregates, filamentary structures, or uniform coatings. These proteinaceous films can lead to either the inhibition or increase of the step speeds (with respect to the impurity-free system) depending on a range of factors that include peptide or protein concentration, supersaturation and ionic strength. While THP and the linear peptides act, respectively, to exclusively increase and inhibit growth on the (-101) face, both exhibit dual functionality on the (010) face, inhibiting growth at low supersaturation or high modulator concentration and accelerating growth at high supersaturation or low modulator concentration. Based on analyses of growth morphologies and dependencies of step speeds on supersaturation and protein or peptide concentration, we argue for a picture of growth modulation that accounts for the observations in terms of the strength of binding to the surfaces and steps and the interplay of electrostatic and solvent-induced forces at crystal surface.

Weaver, M L; Qiu, S R; Hoyer, J R; Casey, W H; Nancollas, G H; De Yoreo, J J

2008-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

100

Selective nano-patterning of graphene using a heated atomic force microscope tip  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, we introduce a selective thermochemical nano-patterning method of graphene on insulating substrates. A tiny heater formed at the end of an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever is optimized by a finite element method. The cantilever device is fabricated using conventional micromachining processes. After preliminary tests of the cantilever device, nano-patterning experiments are conducted with various conducting and insulating samples. The results indicate that faster scanning speed and higher contact force are desirable to reduce the sizes of nano-patterns. With the experimental condition of 1 ?m/s and 24 mW, the heated AFM tip generates a graphene oxide layer of 3.6 nm height and 363 nm width, on a 300 nm thick SiO{sub 2} layer, with a tip contact force of 100 nN.

Choi, Young-Soo; Wu, Xuan; Lee, Dong-Weon, E-mail: mems@jnu.ac.kr [MEMS and Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)] [MEMS and Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic force microscopy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Atomic-Resolution Image of GaAs(110) Surface with an Ultrahigh-Vacuum Atomic Force Microscope (UHV-AFM)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The first demonstration of atomic-resolution imaging of a GaAs(HO) surface with an ultrahigh vacuum atomic force microscope (UHV-AFM) was performed. We also observed ... GaAs(llO). This result suggests that the UHV

Y. Sugawara; M. Ohta; K. Hontani; S. Morita; F. Osaka…

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Nanotribology and Nanofabrication of MoO3 Structures by Atomic Force Microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...MoS2) surfaces. Highly anisotropic friction was observed whereby...and Ni) typical of black shale environments. One of...MoS2) surfaces. Highly anisotropic friction was observed...measUred friction is extremely anisotropic, with MoO, crystals sliding...

Paul E. Sheehan; Charles M. Lieber

1996-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

103

Mode-synthesizing atomic force microscopy and mode-synthesizing sensing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of analyzing a sample that includes applying a first set of energies at a first set of frequencies to a sample and applying, simultaneously with the applying the first set of energies, a second set of energies at a second set of frequencies, wherein the first set of energies and the second set of energies form a multi-mode coupling. The method further includes detecting an effect of the multi-mode coupling.

Passain, Ali; Thundat, Thomas George; Tetard, Laurene

2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

104

Influence of Elastic Deformation on Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Atomic Force Microscopy Probe Resolution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Resolution Ian R. Shapiro, Santiago D. Solares,,§ Maria J. Esplandiu,, Lawrence A. Wade,| William A. Goddard,*,,§ and C. Patrick Collier*, Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Departments of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

Goddard III, William A.

105

Highly controlled fabrication of carbon nanotube based probes for atomic force microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

phase images taken with the CNC MFM probe. 5.7 References J.silicon substrate using (a) A CNC probe. (b) A commercial Sithe Si MFM probe, and (b) the CNC MFM probe ……..…. ………. …94

Chen, I-Chen

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Atomic force microscopy with carbon nanotube probe resolves the subunit organization of protein complexes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......synthesized by the conventional DC arc discharge method. Synthesized carbon nanotubes...aligned on a glass plate. An ac electric field of 5 MHz and 1.8 kV cm...Hl-induced compaction in aligned in an arc. The largest subunit was always......

Ken I. Hohmura; Yutakatti Itokazu; Shige H. Yoshimura; Gaku Mizuguchi; Yu-suke Masamura; Kunio Takeyasu; Yasushi Shiomi; Toshiki Tsurimoto; Hidehiro Nishijima; Seiji Akita; Yoshikazu Nakayama

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Viscous Nature of the Bond between Adhering Bacteria and Substratum Surfaces Probed by Atomic Force Microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

University of Groningen and University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Biomedical Engineering Antonius Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen, The Netherlands ... *Address: Henny C. van der Mei Department of Biomedical Engineering, FB40 University Medical Center Groningen Antonius Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen, The Netherlands. ... This study was entirely funded by the University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. ...

Yun Chen; Henny C. van der Mei; Henk J. Busscher; Willem Norde

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

108

Mechanical and Electrical Properties of CdTe Tetrapods Studied by Atomic Force Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrical Properties of CdTe Tetrapods Studied by Atomicelectrical properties of CdTe tetrapod-shaped nanocrystalsIntroduction CdSe and CdTe nanocrystals possess interesting

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Induced water condensation and bridge formation by electric fieldsin Atomic Force Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present an analytical model that explains how in humidenvironments the electric field near a sharp tip enhances the formationof water meniscii and bridges between tip and sample. The predictions ofthe model are compared with experimental measurements of the criticaldistance where the field strength causes bridge formation.

Sacha, G.M.; Verdaguer, A.; Salmeron, M.

2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

110

Investigations into Protein-Surface Interactions via Atomic Force Microscopy and Surface Plasmon Resonance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.7.1. Fibrinogen 126 2.7.2. ATPase 127 2.7.2.1. Recombinant ATPase Preparation 127 2.7.2.2. Modifications to F1-ATPase 128 2.7.2.3. Protocol for Buffers and Dilutions 129 2.8. Summary 133 2.9. References 134 CHAPTER THREE: Fibrinogen Adsorption... Adsorption to a) Mica and b) Graphite with 1.0 nm height scale. 164 Figure 3.5: AFM height images (a & c 2.00 ?m x 2.00 ?m or b & d 1.00 ?m x 1.00 ?m) of 0.1 ?g/mL Fibrinogen Adsorption to Graphite with 5.0 nm height scales at pH 7 buffer (a-b) and p...

Settle, Jenifer Kaye

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

111

Study of dynamic effects in microparticle adhesion using Atomic force microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

monitor. The images from this camera have a total maximum magnification of 1000X. This camera is also capable of taking still images. Cantilever Tips: The cantilever tips used in the experiments were obtained from Veeco Systems. These are Silicon... Nitride tips. The cantilevers have gold coating on top for better reflection. These cantilevers come in four sizes, lengths 21 100 and 200 micron, widths 40 micron (wide) and 15 micron (narrow). The spring constants of the cantilevers are specified...

Kaushik, Anshul

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

112

Measuring Localized Redox Enzyme Electron Transfer in a Live Cell with Conducting Atomic Force Microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

§Department of Bioengineering, ?Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, ?Materials Science Program, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gillman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093, United States ... Connelly, L.; Meckes, B.; Larkin, J.; Gillman, A. L.; Wanunu, M.; Lal, R. ACS Appl. ... Connelly, Laura S.; Meckes, Brian; Larkin, Joseph; Gillman, Alan L.; Wanunu, Meni; Lal, Ratnesh ...

Lital Alfonta; Brian Meckes; Liron Amir; Orr Schlesinger; Srinivasan Ramachandran; Ratnesh Lal

2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

113

Direct Visualization of Vesicle-Bilayer Complexes by Atomic Force Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vesicles and bilayers play a central role in cell physiology, enabling secretion, signaling, less is known about the structure and organization of lipids during this process. In addition, the interaction between lipids and proteins is known to be important for fusion. Evidence for this comes from

Kumar, Sanjay

114

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic aluminum contacts Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

. Atomic Force Microscopy Study of an Ideally Hard Contact: The Dia- mond(111)Tungsten Carbide Interface... 85287 Arizona State University ABSTRACT: Adhesion and adhesive...

115

Method and apparatus for differential spectroscopic atomic-imaging using scanning tunneling microscopy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A Method and apparatus for differential spectroscopic atomic-imaging is disclosed for spatial resolution and imaging for display not only individual atoms on a sample surface, but also bonding and the specific atomic species in such bond. The apparatus includes a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) that is modified to include photon biasing, preferably a tuneable laser, modulating electronic surface biasing for the sample, and temperature biasing, preferably a vibration-free refrigerated sample mounting stage. Computer control and data processing and visual display components are also included. The method includes modulating the electronic bias voltage with and without selected photon wavelengths and frequency biasing under a stabilizing (usually cold) bias temperature to detect bonding and specific atomic species in the bonds as the STM rasters the sample. This data is processed along with atomic spatial topography data obtained from the STM raster scan to create a real-time visual image of the atoms on the sample surface.

Kazmerski, Lawrence L. (Lakewood, CO)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

A high-pressure atomic force microscope for imaging in supercritical carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high-pressure atomic force microscope (AFM) that enables in situ, atomic scale measurements of topography of solid surfaces in contact with supercritical CO{sub 2} (scCO{sub 2}) fluids has been developed. This apparatus overcomes the pressure limitations of the hydrothermal AFM and is designed to handle pressures up to 100 atm at temperatures up to ?350 K. A standard optically-based cantilever deflection detection system was chosen. When imaging in compressible supercritical fluids such as scCO{sub 2} , precise control of pressure and temperature in the fluid cell is the primary technical challenge. Noise levels and imaging resolution depend on minimization of fluid density fluctuations that change the fluid refractive index and hence the laser path. We demonstrate with our apparatus in situ atomic scale imaging of a calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) mineral surface in scCO{sub 2}; both single, monatomic steps and dynamic processes occurring on the (10{overbar 1}4) surface are presented. This new AFM provides unprecedented in situ access to interfacial phenomena at solid–fluid interfaces under pressure.

Lea, A.S.; Higgins, S.R.; Knauss, K.G.; Rosso, K.M.

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

117

Measuring Boltzmann’s constant with a low-cost atomic force microscope: An undergraduate experiment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We discuss a low-cost atomic force microscope that we have designed and built for use in an undergraduate teaching laboratory. This microscope gives students hands-on access to nano-Newton force measurements and subangstrom position measurements. The apparatus relies mainly on off-the-shelf components and utilizes an interferometric position sensor known as the interdigitated (ID) cantilever to obtain high resolution. The mechanical properties of the ID readout enable a robust and open design that makes it possible for students to directly control it. Its pedagogical advantage is that students interact with a complete instrument system and learn measurement principles in context. One undergraduate experiment enabled by this apparatus is a measurement of Boltzmann’s constant which is done by recording the thermal noise power spectrum of a microfabricated cantilever beam. In addition to gaining an appreciation of the lower limits of position and force measurements students learn to apply numerous concepts such as digital sampling Fourier-domain analysis noise sources and error propagation.

M. Shusteff; T. P. Burg; S. R. Manalis

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Recent Advances in Atomic-Scale Spin-Polarized Scanning Tunneling Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Faradayweg 4-6 D-14195 Berlin (Dahlem) Germany WALTER R. L. LAMBRECHT Department of Physics, Case Western of atomically clean magnetic surfaces. Several key findings have been obtained. First, both magnetic and non Nanometer scale science and technology has been an area of intense research and development activity within

119

Understanding Atom Probe Tomography of Oxide-Supported Metal Nanoparticles by Correlation with Atomic Resolution Electron Microscopy and Field Evaporation Simulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal-dielectric composite materials, specifically metal nanoparticles supported on or embedded in metal oxides, are widely used in catalysis. The accurate optimization of such nanostructures warrants the need for detailed three-dimensional characterization. Atom probe tomography is uniquely capable of generating sub-nanometer structural and compositional data with part-per-million mass sensitivity, but there are reconstruction artifacts for composites containing materials with strongly differing fields of evaporation, as for oxide-supported metal nanoparticles. By correlating atom probe tomography with scanning transmission electron microscopy for Au nanoparticles embedded in an MgO support, deviations from an ideal topography during evaporation are demonstrated directly, and correlated with compositional errors in the reconstructed data. Finite element simulations of the field evaporation process confirm that protruding Au nanoparticles will evolve on the tip surface, and that evaporation field variations lead to an inaccurate assessment of the local composition, effectively lowering the spatial resolution of the final reconstructed dataset. Cross-correlating the experimental data with simulations results in a more detailed understanding of local evaporation aberrations during APT analysis of metal-oxide composites, paving the way towards a more accurate three-dimensional characterization of this technologically important class of materials.

Devaraj, Arun; Colby, Robert J.; Vurpillot, F.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

2014-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

120

Energy shift and Casimir-Polder force for an atom out of thermal equilibrium near a dielectric substrate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the energy shift and the Casimir-Polder force of an atom out of thermal equilibrium near the surface of a dielectric substrate. We first generalize, adopting the local source hypothesis, the formalism proposed by Dalibard, Dupont-Roc and Cohen-Tannoudji, which separates the contributions of thermal fluctuations and radiation reaction to the energy shift and allows a distinct treatment to atoms in the ground and excited states, to the case out of thermal equilibrium, and then use the generalized formalism to calculate the energy shift and the Casimir-Polder force of an isotropically polarizable neutral atom. We identify the effects of the thermal fluctuations that originate from the substrate and the environment and discuss in detail how the Casimir-Polder force out of thermal equilibrium behaves in three different distance regions in both the low-temperature limit and the high-temperature limit for both the ground-state and excited-state atoms, with special attention devoted to the new features as opposed to thermal equilibrium. In particular, we recover the new behavior of the atom-wall force out of thermal equilibrium at large distances in the low temperature limit recently found in a different theoretical framework and furthermore we give a concrete region where this behavior holds.

Wenting Zhou; Hongwei Yu

2014-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic force microscopy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Investigation of short-range surface forces to develop self-organizing devices by Steven M. Tobias.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Force spectra from atomic force microscopy were used to verify surface energy components of indium tin oxide and mesocarbon microbeads. These materials were selected based on spectroscopic and thermodynamic parameters to ...

Tobias, Steven M., 1980-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Atom probe field-ion microscopy investigation of nickel base superalloy welds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microstructure development and elemental partitioning between {gamma} and {gamma}{prime} were measured in PWA-1480 electron beam welds and CMSX-4 pulsed-laser welds. In PWA-1480 EB welds, eutectic {gamma}{prime} phases were observed along the dendritic boundaries. The elemental partitioning between {gamma} and {gamma}{prime} was found to be similar to that in PWA-1480 base metal. In CMSX-4 pulsed laser welds, negligible eutectic {gamma}{prime} was observed. In addition, fine and irregularly shaped {gamma}{prime} precipitates were observed. The elemental partitioning between {gamma} and {gamma}{prime} was found to be different from that measured in the base metal. Large concentration gradients were observed in the {gamma} phase. The {gamma}{prime} precipitation kinetics in CM247DS alloy was measured using dilatometry and showed differences with different cooling rates. The microstructural investigations showed that at large undercoolings the number density of {gamma}{prime} precipitates increased and led to a finer size. This supports the microstructure development observations in PWA-1480 and CMSX-4 welds. Thermodynamic and kinetic calculations for the Ni-Al-Cr alloy system showed that as the cooling rate increases, the {gamma}{prime} growth leads to large concentration gradients in the {gamma} phase. The calculations agree with the atom probe results from PWA-1480 and CMSX-4 welds.

Babu, S.S.; David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.; Miller, M.K.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Abstract--Automation has long been recognized as an im-portant goal in AFM (Atomic Force Microscope) nanomanipu-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract--Automation has long been recognized as an im- portant goal in AFM (Atomic Force on the order of 10 nm, however, automation has re- mained an elusive goal, primarily because of the spatial multi-tip arrays) or by automating the manipulation process, thus bypassing the time-consuming and labor

Southern California, University of

124

Atomic-resolution study of polarity reversal in GaSb grown on Si by scanning transmission electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The atomic-resolved reversal of the polarity across an antiphase boundary (APB) was observed in GaSb films grown on Si by high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). The investigation of the interface structure at the origin of the APB reveals that coalescence of two domains with Ga-prelayer and Sb-prelayer causes the sublattice reversal. The local strain and lattice rotation distributions of the APB, attributed to the discordant bonding length at the APB with the surrounding GaSb lattice, were further studied using the geometric phase analysis technique. The crystallographic characteristics of the APBs and their interaction with other planar defects were observed with HAADF-STEM. The quantitative agreement between experimental and simulated images confirms the observed polarities in the acquired HAADF-STEM data. The self-annihilation mechanism of the APBs is addressed based on the rotation induced by anti-site bonds and APBs' faceting.

Hosseini Vajargah, S.; Woo, S. Y.; Botton, G. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Brockhouse Institute for Material Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Ghanad-Tavakoli, S. [Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Kleiman, R. N.; Preston, J. S. [Brockhouse Institute for Material Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Fermi-level shifts in graphene transistors with dual-cut channels scraped by atomic force microscope tips  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the electronic properties of p-type graphene transistors on silicon dioxide with dual-cut channels that were scraped using atomic force microscope tips. In these devices, the current is forced to squeeze into the path between the two cuts rather than flow directly through the graphene sheet. We observe that the gate voltages with minimum current shift toward zero bias as the sizes of the dual-cut regions increase. These phenomena suggest that the Fermi levels in the dual-cut regions are shifted toward the Dirac points after the mechanical scraping process.

Lin, Meng-Yu [Institute of Electronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yen-Hao [Department of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Su, Chen-Fung [College of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, Tainan 71150, Taiwan (China); Chang, Shu-Wei [Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Department of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Lee, Si-Chen [Institute of Electronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shih-Yen, E-mail: shihyen@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Electronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Department of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

126

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic force ultrasonic Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

laboratories, you must attend the safety orientation. Summary: W ultrasonic horn Atomic absorption spectrophotometer UVVIS spectrophotometer Centrifuge p... ,...

127

Probing Nanostructures for Photovoltaics: Using atomic force microscopy and other tools to characterize nanoscale materials for harvesting solar energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for harvesting solar energy by Anna Monro Zaniewski Amaterials for harvesting solar energy Copyright 2012 by Annafor harvesting solar energy by Anna Monro Zaniewski Doctor

Zaniewski, Anna Monro

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Mapping of Proteomic Composition on the Surfaces of Bacillus Spores by Atomic Force Microscopy-Based Immunolabeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We acknowledge Terrance Leighton, Katherine Wheeler, and Olivia Mooren for providing us with antibodies and assisting in the development of immunolabeling protocols, and Sue Martin for providing us with B. anthracis spore preparations. ... Plomp, Marco; Leighton, Terrance J.; Wheeler, Katherine E.; Malkin, Alexander J. ... Plomp, Marco; Leighton, Terrance J.; Wheeler, Katherine E.; Malkin, Alexander J. ...

Marco Plomp; Alexander J. Malkin

2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

129

Probing Nanostructures for Photovoltaics: Using atomic force microscopy and other tools to characterize nanoscale materials for harvesting solar energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

4.2.1 Organic solar cellOrganic Solar Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.3.1 Organic solar cell materials . . . . .

Zaniewski, Anna Monro

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Probing Nanostructures for Photovoltaics: Using atomic force microscopy and other tools to characterize nanoscale materials for harvesting solar energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an organic solar cell using a single post-production step.Production-scale deposition techniques which have been successfully used for organic solar cellproduction volumes. These two considerations mean that organic solar cells

Zaniewski, Anna Monro

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Atomic force microscopy-based microrheology reveals significant differences in the viscoelastic response between malign and benign cell lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...distribution of energy well depth...values of G (storage modulus...G-values at all frequencies, followed...the elastic response of normal...the overall response even more...signature and response to mechanical...modulus to storage modulus of...quantifies energy dissipation...different frequencies. We found...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Surface Geometric Structure of Chemically Modified Silica Studied by Direct Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) Imaging and Adsorption Method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The equation to estimate the surface area (m2·g-1) according to the latter method is where NA is Avogadro's constant (mol-1), ? is the adsorbed amount (mL STP·g-1), and P‘ represents the relative pressure at which the monolayer is formed on the unmodified sample. ...

Masayoshi Fuji; Kotoe Machida; Takashi Takei; Tohru Watanabe; Masatoshi Chikazawa

2000-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

133

1996 Oxford University Press 713720Nucleic Acids Research, 1996, Vol. 24, No. 4 Atomic force microscopy of long and short  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of DNA can be reliably imaged and identified and also what substrates and methods of sample preparation technique for observing DNA. The AFM can image conformations of DNA molecules (3­5), nucleosome Corporation; Wood Dale, IL) and cleaved with tape immediately before use. Silicon. Oxidized silicon substrates

Hansma, Helen

134

Are the Soft, Liquid-Like Structures Detected around Bacteria by Ambient Dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy Capsules?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...or HEPES, is proposed as the fundamental mechanism of the formation of these...corresponding to the P2p and K2p electronic orbitals. These were recorded...or HEPES, is proposed as the fundamental mechanism of the formation of these...

A. Méndez-Vilas; L. Labajos-Broncano; J. Perera-Núñez; M. L. González-Martín

2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

135

Probing Nanostructures for Photovoltaics: Using atomic force microscopy and other tools to characterize nanoscale materials for harvesting solar energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

v List of Tables vii 1 Introduction 1.1 Photovoltaicsand J. V. Manca. Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. , 15:713,polymer blends. Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. , 15:727,

Zaniewski, Anna Monro

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Probing Nanostructures for Photovoltaics: Using atomic force microscopy and other tools to characterize nanoscale materials for harvesting solar energy.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The ability to make materials with nanoscale dimensions opens vast opportunities for creating custom materials with unique properties. The properties of materials on the nanoscale… (more)

Zaniewski, Anna Monro

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

In-situ and ex-situ observations of lithium de-intercalation from LiCoO? : atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lithium cobalt dioxide is the most commonly used material for positive electrodes in lithium rechargeable batteries. During lithium de-intercalation from this material, ... undergoes a number of phase transitions, which ...

Clémençon, Anne

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

EMSL: Capabilities: Microscopy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Microscopy Microscopy Additional Information Meet the Microscopy Experts Related EMSL User Projects Microscopy Tools are Applied to all Science Themes Watch the Microscopy capability video on EMSL's YouTube channel and read the transcript. Microscopy brochure Quiet Wing brochure EMSL hosts a variety of sophisticated microscopy instruments, including electron microscopes, optical microscopes, scanning probe microscopes, and computer-controlled microscopes for automated particle analysis. These tools are used to image a range of sample types with nanoscale-and even atomic-resolution with applications to surface, environmental, biogeochemical, atmospheric, and biological science. Each state-of-the-art instrument and customized capability is equipped with features for specific

139

the unfolding of fibrin(ogen) domains has been measured by single-molecule atomic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the unfolding of fibrin(ogen) domains has been measured by single-molecule atomic force microscopy, 13), but simulations on appropriate time scales for this large and complex molecule may require

Connolly Jr, Harold C.

140

Cryogenic scanning force microscopy of quantum Hall samples: Adiabatic transport originating in anisotropic depletion at contact interfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Anisotropic magnetoresistances and intrinsic adiabatic transport features are generated on quantum Hall samples based on an (Al,Ga)As/GaAs heterostructure with alloyed Au/Ge/Ni contacts. We succeed to probe the microscopic origin of these transport features with a cryogenic scanning force microscope by measuring the local potential distribution within the two-dimensional electron system (2DES). These local measurements reveal the presence of an incompressible strip in front of contacts with insulating properties depending on the orientation of the contact/2DES interface line relatively to the crystal axes of the heterostructure. Such an observation gives another microscopic meaning to the term “nonideal contact” used in context with the Landauer-Büttiker formalism applied to the quantum Hall effect.

F. Dahlem; E. Ahlswede; J. Weis; K. v. Klitzing

2010-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic force microscopy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Direct measurement of proton-beam-written polymer optical waveguide sidewall morphorlogy using an atomic force microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proton-beam writing (PBW) is a direct-write micromachining technique capable of fabricating low-loss single-mode polymer waveguides with straight and smooth sidewalls. Recently, the sidewall morphologies of such proton beam written polymer waveguide structures were directly measured using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Statistical information such as the rms roughness and the correlation length of the sidewall profile obtained from the AFM scans allows us to quantify the quality of the sidewalls and optimize the fabrication parameters using PBW. For structures fabricated using a stage scanning speed of {approx}10 {mu}m/s, a rms roughness of 3.8{+-}0.3 nm with a correlation length of 46{+-}6 nm was measured.

Sum, T.C.; Bettiol, A.A.; Seng, H.L.; Kan, J.A. van; Watt, F. [Department of Physics Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

2004-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

142

Correlation between Charge State of Insulating NaCl Surfaces and Ionic Mobility Induced by Water Adsorption: A Combined Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Scanning Force Microscopy Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APPES) and scanning force microscopy were used to characterize the surface discharge induced by water layers grown on (001) surfaces of sodium chloride single crystals. The APPES studies show that both kinetic energy (KE) and full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the Na 2s and Cl 2p core level peaks, monitored as a function of relative humidity (RH), mimic surface conductivity curves measured using scanning force microscopy. The KE position and FWHM of the core level peaks therefore are directly related to the solvation and diffusion of ions at the NaCl(100) surface upon adsorption of water.

Verdaguer, Albert; Jose Segura, Juan; Fraxedas, Jordi; Bluhm, Hendrik; Salmeron, Miquel

2008-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

143

The structures and dynamics of atomic and molecular adsorbates on metal surfaces by scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies of surface structure and dynamics of atoms and molecules on metal surfaces are presented. My research has focused on understanding the nature of adsorbate-adsorbate and adsorbate-substrate interactions through surface studies of coverage dependency and coadsorption using both scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). The effect of adsorbate coverage on the surface structures of sulfur on Pt(111) and Rh(111) was examined. On Pt(111), sulfur forms p(2x2) at 0.25 ML of sulfur, which transforms into a more compressed ({radical}3x{radical}3)R30{degrees} at 0.33 ML. On both structures, it was found that sulfur adsorbs only in fcc sites. When the coverage of sulfur exceeds 0.33 ML, it formed more complex c({radical}3x7)rect structure with 3 sulfur atoms per unit cell. In this structure, two different adsorption sites for sulfur atoms were observed - two on fcc sites and one on hcp site within the unit cell.

Yoon, Hyungsuk Alexander

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Probing graphene defects and estimating graphene quality with optical microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report a simple and accurate method for detecting graphene defects that utilizes the mild, dry annealing of graphene/Cu films in air. In contrast to previously reported techniques, our simple approach with optical microscopy can determine the density and degree of dislocation of defects in a graphene film without inducing water-related damage or functionalization. Scanning electron microscopy, confocal Raman and atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis were performed to demonstrate that our nondestructive approach to characterizing graphene defects with optimized thermal annealing provides rapid and comprehensive determinations of graphene quality.

Lai, Shen [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kyu Jang, Sung [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jae Song, Young, E-mail: yjsong@skku.edu [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sungjoo, E-mail: leesj@skku.edu [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

145

High resolution, high speed ultrahigh vacuum microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The history and future of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is discussed as it refers to the eventual development of instruments and techniques applicable to the real time in situ investigation of surface processes with high resolution. To reach this objective, it was necessary to transform conventional high resolution instruments so that an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment at the sample site was created, that access to the sample by various in situ sample modification procedures was provided, and that in situ sample exchanges with other integrated surface analytical systems became possible. Furthermore, high resolution image acquisition systems had to be developed to take advantage of the high speed imaging capabilities of projection imaging microscopes. These changes to conventional electron microscopy and its uses were slowly realized in a few international laboratories over a period of almost 40 years by a relatively small number of researchers crucially interested in advancing the state of the art of electron microscopy and its applications to diverse areas of interest; often concentrating on the nucleation, growth, and properties of thin films on well defined material surfaces. A part of this review is dedicated to the recognition of the major contributions to surface and thin film science by these pioneers. Finally, some of the important current developments in aberration corrected electron optics and eventual adaptations to in situ UHV microscopy are discussed. As a result of all the path breaking developments that have led to today's highly sophisticated UHV-TEM systems, integrated fundamental studies are now possible that combine many traditional surface science approaches. Combined investigations to date have involved in situ and ex situ surface microscopies such as scanning tunneling microscopy/atomic force microscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, and photoemission electron microscopy, and area-integrating techniques such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, temperature programmed desorption, high-resolution electron energy-loss and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopies, and others. Material systems ranging from atomic layers of metals and semiconductors to biology related depositions are being investigated. In the case of biological materials, however, strict limitations to high-resolution applications are imposed by electron radiation damage considerations.

Poppa, Helmut [National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Microscopy. I: A Review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...indicates the spindle to be an orienting force through which a co-ordinated con tractile...asoT,E. M. and M@&soN,C. W. Handbook of Chemi cal Microscopy. Vol. 1. 1st...498 "586,1950. 164. NAORA, H. Fundamental Studies on the Determination of Desoxypentose-Nucleic...

Robert C. Mellors

1953-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Structural and electrical characterization of organic monolayers by Atomic Force Microscopy and through the nano-fabrication of a coplanar electrode-dielectric platform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

deposition. Finally, electrical measurements are describedunderstanding of the electrical properties of ultra-thinsuch as the mobility of electrical carriers, the resistance

Martin, Florent

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

PAPER www.rsc.org/loc | Lab on a Chip Open micro-fluidic system for atomic force microscopy-guided in situ  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

while performing the measurements, and minimization of electrochemical noise. Thus, we have developed electrochemical noise, which interferes with the measurements. Our laboratory and other researchers have succ-guided in situ electrochemical probing of a single cell WonHyoung Ryu,*a Zubin Huang,a Joong Sun Park,a Jeffrey

149

Dissolution Kinetics, Step and Surface Morphology of Magnesite (104) Surfaces in Acidic Aqueous Solution at 60 °C by Atomic Force Microscopy under Defined Hydrodynamic Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ, United Kingdom, and Geoscience and Environmental Technology Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, L-202, Livermore, California 94550 ... For an environmentally important example, soil specimens in the Vadose Zone at the Hanford, Washington (USA) radioactive waste storage facility have been found to contain calcium carbonate as a ubiquitous mineralogical component. ... 4,5 The strategy involves the dissolution of alkaline earth silicate minerals in aquifers coupled with the precipitation of alkaline earth and other carbonates during and following the injection of CO2 into the subsurface environment. ...

Steven R. Higgins; Lawrence H. Boram; Carrick M. Eggleston; Barry A. Coles; Richard G. Compton; Kevin G. Knauss

2002-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

150

Growth of ?-Amyloid(1?40) Protofibrils by Monomer Elongation and Lateral Association. Characterization of Distinct Products by Light Scattering and Atomic Force Microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Soluble intermediates in A? fibrillogenesis, termed protofibrils, have been identified previously, and here we describe the in vitro formation and isolation of A?(1?40) protofibrils by size exclusion chromatography. ... Hydrodynamic radius (RH) measurements were made at room temperature with a DynaPro MSX instrument (Protein Solutions Inc., Charlottesville, VA) containing a gallium aluminum arsenide laser. ... The solubility of A?(1?43) in water was substantially decreased by addition of buffered NaCl (60). ...

Michael R. Nichols; Melissa A. Moss; Dana Kim Reed; Wen-Lang Lin; Rajendrani Mukhopadhyay; Jan H. Hoh; Terrone L. Rosenberry

2002-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

151

Transmission electron microscopy and atom probe specimen preparation from mechanically alloyed powder using the focused ion-beam lift-out technique  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......prepared by consolidation of amorphous powders in the supercooled liquid region. Intermetallics (2004) 12:1109-1113. 6 Overwijk M H F , Van Den Heuvel F C, Bulle-Lieuwma C W T. Novel scheme for the preparation of transmission electron microscopy specimens......

Pyuck-Pa Choi; Young-Soon Kwon; Ji-Soon Kim; Tala?at Al-Kassab

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Vacancy migration, adatom motion, a.nd atomic bistability on the GaAs(110) surface studied by scanning tunneling microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vacancy migration, adatom motion, a.nd atomic bistability on the GaAs(110) surface studied temperature are reported. The slow dynamic behavior of vacancies and As adatoms can be resolved within a time scale of about one minute, The vacancies and As adatoms are observed to move preferably along the [110

153

Surface species formed by the adsorption and dissociation of water molecules on Ru(0001) surface containing a small coverage of carbon atoms studied by scanning tunneling microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The adsorption and dissociation of water on a Ru(0001) surface containing a small amount ({le} 3 %) of carbon impurities was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Various surface species are formed depending on the temperature. These include molecular H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}O-C complexes, H, O, OH and CH. Clusters of either pure H{sub 2}O or mixed H{sub 2}O-OH species are also formed. Each of these species produces a characteristic contrast in the STM images and can be identified by experiment and by ab initio total energy calculations coupled with STM image simulations. Manipulation of individual species via excitation of vibrational modes with the tunneling electrons has been used as supporting evidence.

Dept of Materials Science and Engineering UCB; Dept of Applied Science and Technology, UCB; Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Madrid, Spain; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yale University; Salmeron, Miquel; Shimizu, Tomoko K.; Mugarza, Aitor; Cerda, Jorge I.; Heyde, Markus; Qi, Yabing; Schwarz, Udo D.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Salmeron, Miquel

2008-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

154

Combined Atomic Force Microscope-Based Topographical Imaging and Nanometer Scale Resolved Proximal Probe Thermal Desorption/Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanometer scale proximal probe thermal desorption/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (TD/ESI-MS) was demonstrated for molecular surface sampling of caffeine from a thin film using a 30 nm diameter nano-thermal analysis (nano-TA) probe tip in an atomic force microscope (AFM) coupled via a vapor transfer line and ESI interface to a MS detection platform. Using a probe temperature of 350 C and a spot sampling time of 30 s, conical desorption craters 250 nm in diameter and 100 nm deep were created as shown through subsequent topographical imaging of the surface within the same system. Automated sampling of a 5 x 2 array of spots, with 2 m spacing between spots, and real time selective detection of the desorbed caffeine using tandem mass spectrometry was also demonstrated. Estimated from the crater volume (~2x106 nm3), only about 10 amol (2 fg) of caffeine was liberated from each thermal desorption crater in the thin film. These results illustrate a relatively simple experimental setup and means to acquire in automated fashion sub-micrometer scale spatial sampling resolution and mass spectral detection of materials amenable to TD. The ability to achieve MS-based chemical imaging with 250 nm scale spatial resolution with this system is anticipated.

Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL; Nikiforov, Maxim [ORNL; Bradshaw, James A [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Bridging the pressure gap: In situ atomic-level investigations of model platinum catalyst surfaces under reaction conditions by scanning tunneling microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of this thesis show that STM measurements can provide information about the surfaces and their adsorbates. Stability of Pt(110) under high pressures of H2, O2, and CO was studied (Chap. 4). In situ UHV and high vacuum experiments were carried out for sulfur on Pt(111) (Chap.5). STM studies of CO/S/Pt(111) in high CO pressures showed that the Pt substrate undergoes a stacking-fault-domain reconstruction involving periodic transitions from fcc to hcp stacking of top-layer atoms (Chap.6). In Chap.7, the stability of propylene on Pt(111) and the decomposition products were studied in situ with the HPSTM. Finally, in Chap.8, results are presented which show how the Pt tip of the HPSTM was used to locally rehydrogenate and oxidize carbonaceous clusters deposited on the Pt(111) surface; the Pt tip acted as a catalyst after activation by short voltage pulses.

McIntyre, B.J.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Atomic Force Compound Microscope | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and spectroscopic characterization simultaneously for imaging biological... Intermittent Single-Molecule Interfacial Electron Transfer Dynamics. We report on single molecule...

157

VOLUME 84, NUMBER 18 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 1 MAY 2000 Observation of Cavity-Mediated Long-Range Light Forces between Strongly Coupled Atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Mediated Long-Range Light Forces between Strongly Coupled Atoms P. Münstermann, T. Fischer, P. Maunz, P. W. H rubidium atoms that are mutually coupled by the field of a driven high-finesse optical cavity. Even distribution of the atoms. This manifests itself as an asymmetric normal-mode spectrum of the strongly coupled

Rempe, Gerhard

158

Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM) combines the benefits of high spatial resolution electron microscopy with the high temporal resolution of ultrafast lasers. The incorporation of these two components into a single instrument provides a perfect platform for in situ observations of material processes. However, previous DTEM applications have focused on observing structural changes occurring in samples exposed to high vacuum. Therefore, in order to expand the pump-probe experimental regime to more natural environmental conditions, in situ gas and liquid chambers must be coupled with Dynamic TEM. This chapter describes the current and future applications of in situ liquid DTEM to permit time-resolved atomic scale observations in an aqueous environment, Although this chapter focuses mostly on in situ liquid imaging, the same research potential exists for in situ gas experiments and the successful integration of these techniques promises new insights for understanding nanoparticle, catalyst and biological protein dynamics with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution.

Evans, James E.; Jungjohann, K. L.; Browning, Nigel D.

2012-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

159

Subwavelength optical microscopy in the far field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a procedure for subwavelength optical microscopy. The identical atoms are distributed on a plane and shined with a standing wave. We rotate the plane to different angles and record the resonant fluorescence spectra in the far field, from...

Sun, Qingqing; Al-Amri, M.; Scully, Marlan O.; Zubairy, M. Suhail.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Optical Microscopy and 4Optical Microscopy and 4 Pi MicroscopyPi Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical Microscopy and 4Optical Microscopy and 4 Pi MicroscopyPi Microscopy Carolyn A. SuttonCarolyn A. Sutton PH 464PH 464 #12;OverviewOverview The OpticalThe Optical MicroscopeMicroscopy 4 Pi Microscopy4 Pi Microscopy Optical Microscope for Metallography #12;Optical Microscope: OriginsOptical

La Rosa, Andres H.

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161

Scanning Probe Microscopy Studies of Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scanning Probe Microscopy Studies of Carbon Nanotubes Teri Wang Odom1 , Jason H. Hafner1 relationship between Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube (SWNT) atomic structure and electronic properties, (2, properties and application of carbon nanotube probe microscopy tips to ultrahigh resolution and chemically

Odom, Teri W.

162

Ionization of Rydberg atoms at metallic surfaces: Influence of stray fields  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ionization of xenon Rydberg atoms at metallic surfaces is examined. The data show that, when the effects of stray electric 'patch' fields present on the surface are taken into account, ionization is well described by a simple over-the-barrier model. The patch fields are determined from direct measurements of the potential variations across the target surfaces using Kelvin probe force microscopy. Monte Carlo techniques are used to model the atom-surface interaction. The results confirm the important role that patch fields can play during Rydberg atom-surface interactions and suggest that such interactions can provide a sensitive probe of stray fields at surfaces.

Pu, Y.; Neufeld, D. D.; Dunning, F. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Rice Quantum Institute, Rice University MS61, Houston, Texas 77005-1892 (United States)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

163

Accelerated guided atomic pulse  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The deleterious effects of dispersion on a propagating coherent atomic pulse, along the axis of a traveling-wave laser beam, can be ameliorated by the nonlinear self-interacting force due to dipole-dipole coupling between atoms. We show that a wide atomic pulse with a particular profile can retain its shape during propagation and, moreover, the momentum of the pulse increases due to photon absorption. For the wide soliton case, we demonstrate analytically that the self-interacting atomic force scales inversely with the third power of the pulse width.

S. Dyrting; Weiping Zhang; B. C. Sanders

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Growth mode evolution of hafnium oxide by atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HfO{sub 2} thin films were deposited using tetrakis-ethylmethylamido hafnium and H{sub 2}O as precursors on silicon by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The morphology and microstructures at different ALD cycles were characterized by atomic force microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Based on the height–height correlation function and power spectral density function, quantitative analysis of surface morphologies was performed. Three characteristic dimensions (?{sub 1}, ?{sub 2}, and ?{sub 3}) corresponding to three surface structures, islands, local and global fluctuations, were identified. The evolution of ALD growth mode at range of the three critical scales was investigated, respectively. It suggests the transformation of growth mode from quasi two-dimensional layer-by-layer to three-dimensional island for global fluctuations.

Nie, Xianglong; Ma, Fei; Ma, Dayan, E-mail: madayan@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Xu, Kewei [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China and Department of Physics and Opt-electronic Engineering, Xi'an University of Arts and Science, Xi'an 710065, Shaanxi (China)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

165

Electron Microscopy | Center for Functional Nanomaterials  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electron Microscopy Facility Electron Microscopy Facility Electron Microscopy This facility consists of four top-of-the line transmission electron microscopes, two of which are highly specialized instruments capable of extreme levels of resolution, achieved through spherical aberration correction. The facility is also equipped with extensive sample-preparation capabilities. The scientific interests of the staff focus on understanding the microscopic origin of the physical and chemical behavior of materials, with specific emphasis on in-situ studies of materials in native, functional environments. Capabilities Atomic-resolution imaging of internal materials structure with scanning transmission and transmission electron microscopy Spectroscopic characterization with energy dispersive x-ray

166

Surface smoothing effect of an amorphous thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition on a surface with nano-sized roughness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Previously, Lau (one of the authors) pointed out that the deposition of an amorphous thin film by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on a substrate with nano-sized roughness probably has a surface smoothing effect. In this letter, polycrystalline zinc oxide deposited by ALD onto a smooth substrate was used as a substrate with nano-sized roughness. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) were used to demonstrate that an amorphous aluminum oxide thin film deposited by ALD can reduce the surface roughness of a polycrystalline zinc oxide coated substrate.

Lau, W. S., E-mail: liuweicheng@zju.edu.cn; Wan, X.; Xu, Y.; Wong, H. [Zhejiang University, Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China)] [Zhejiang University, Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, J. [Zhejiang University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China)] [Zhejiang University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Luo, J. K. [Zhejiang University, Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China) [Zhejiang University, Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Institute of Renewable Energy and Environment Technology, Bolton University, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5 AB (United Kingdom)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

167

Lateral vibration effects in atomic-scale friction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The influence of lateral vibrations on the stick-slip motion of a nanotip elastically pulled on a flat crystal surface is studied by atomic force microscopy measurements on a NaCl(001) surface in ultra-high vacuum. The slippage of the nanotip across the crystal lattice is anticipated at increasing driving amplitude, similarly to what is observed in presence of normal vibrations. This lowers the average friction force, as explained by the Prandtl-Tomlinson model with lateral vibrations superimposed at finite temperature. Nevertheless, the peak values of the lateral force, and the total energy losses, are expected to increase with the excitation amplitude, which may limit the practical relevance of this effect.

Roth, R. [Climate and Environment Physics, Physics Institute, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Fajardo, O. Y.; Mazo, J. J. [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Meyer, E. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Gnecco, E. [Instituto Madrileño de Estudios Avanzados en Nanociencia, IMDEA Nanociencia, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

168

Climate forcing Climate forcing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

parameters (solar distance factors) solar luminosity moon orbit volcanoes and other geothermal sources,000 years (large panels) and since 1750 (inset panels). Measurements are shown from ice cores (symbols forcings are shown on the right hand axes of the large panels. {Figure 6.4} !"#$#%&'(!&#)$&*$+#$,-.$/0

MacKinnon, Jennifer

169

A verification of quantum field theory — measurement of Casimir force  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Here we review our work on measurement of the Casimir force between a large aluminum coated a sphere and flat plate using an atomic force microscope. The average statistical precision is 1% of the force measur...

Anushree Roy; U Mohideen

170

Metal atomization spray nozzle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal. 6 figures.

Huxford, T.J.

1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

171

Nuclear forces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These lectures present an introduction into the theory of nuclear forces. We focus mainly on the modern approach, in which the forces between nucleons emerge from low-energy QCD via chiral effective field theory.

Machleidt, R. [Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 (United States)

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

172

Over the past summer, I participated in three separate research projects related to Nanotribology using atomic force microscopy technique (AFM) in Dr. Carpick's laboratory under the guidance of Dr. Robert  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Over the past summer, I participated in three separate research projects related to Nanotribology. Robert W. Carpick and Dr. Nitya N. Gosvami. The first project was to study how the properties of an AFM data acquisition box controlled using LabView software. Matlab scripts were then written to analyze

Carpick, Robert W.

173

Three-body forces and the trinucleons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three-body forces are discussed in the context of classical, atomic, solid-state and nuclear physics. The basic theoretical ingredients used in the construction of such forces are reviewed. Experimental evidence for three-nucleon forces and an overview of the three-nucleon bound states are presented. 53 refs., 9 figs.

Friar, J.L.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Photothermal imaging scanning microscopy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Photothermal Imaging Scanning Microscopy produces a rapid, thermal-based, non-destructive characterization apparatus. Also, a photothermal characterization method of surface and subsurface features includes micron and nanoscale spatial resolution of meter-sized optical materials.

Chinn, Diane (Pleasanton, CA); Stolz, Christopher J. (Lathrop, CA); Wu, Zhouling (Pleasanton, CA); Huber, Robert (Discovery Bay, CA); Weinzapfel, Carolyn (Tracy, CA)

2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

175

Protective Force  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Establishes requirements for management and operation of the DOE Protective Force (PF), establishes requirements for firearms operations and defines the firearms courses of fire. Cancels: DOE M 473.2-1A DOE M 473.2-2

2005-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

176

Protective Force  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The manual establishes requirements for management and operation of the DOE Protective Force, establishes requirements for firearms operations and defines the firearms courses of fire. Chg 1 dated 3/7/06. DOE M 470.4-3A cancels DOE M 470.4-3, Chg 1, Protective Force, dated 3-7-06, Attachment 2, Contractor Requirement Document (CRD) only (except for Section C). Chg 1, dated 3-7-06, cancels DOE M 470.4-3

2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

177

Interaction forces between oilwater particle interfaces--Non-DLVO forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

silica sphere and a butyl or octyl acetate droplet was measured in an aqueous environment using atomic of the water solubility of the organic liquid, in that the same force­distance characteristics were obtained in industrial applications. They include formulation, stability, and rheological properties of emulsions

Chan, Derek Y C

178

Nonlinear vibrational microscopy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a method and apparatus for microscopic vibrational imaging using coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering or Sum Frequency Generation. Microscopic imaging with a vibrational spectroscopic contrast is achieved by generating signals in a nonlinear optical process and spatially resolved detection of the signals. The spatial resolution is attained by minimizing the spot size of the optical interrogation beams on the sample. Minimizing the spot size relies upon a. directing at least two substantially co-axial laser beams (interrogation beams) through a microscope objective providing a focal spot on the sample; b. collecting a signal beam together with a residual beam from the at least two co-axial laser beams after passing through the sample; c. removing the residual beam; and d. detecting the signal beam thereby creating said pixel. The method has significantly higher spatial resolution then IR microscopy and higher sensitivity than spontaneous Raman microscopy with much lower average excitation powers. CARS and SFG microscopy does not rely on the presence of fluorophores, but retains the resolution and three-dimensional sectioning capability of confocal and two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Complementary to these techniques, CARS and SFG microscopy provides a contrast mechanism based on vibrational spectroscopy. This vibrational contrast mechanism, combined with an unprecedented high sensitivity at a tolerable laser power level, provides a new approach for microscopic investigations of chemical and biological samples.

Holtom, Gary R. (Richland, WA); Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney (Richland, WA); Zumbusch, Andreas (Munchen, DE)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Materials Applications of Photoelectron Emission Microscopy....  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Applications of Photoelectron Emission Microscopy. Materials Applications of Photoelectron Emission Microscopy. Abstract: Photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) is a versatile...

180

Electron Microscopy Center  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Acknowledgment Acknowledgment EMC Home Overview Personnel Resources Highlights Publications Visit EMC Contact Info Information for Users Becoming a User Submit a Proposal End-of-Proposal Report Acknowledgment User Training User Safety User Status Instrument Access User Committee User Meetings Data Storage Policy Visiting the EMC Instrument Calendars Info for EMC Staff SÅMM Facility TEAM Project Microscopy Links Argonne Facilities DOE/BES Facilities DOE/BES BES Electron Beam Microcharacterization Centers Acknowledgment Please acknowledge your use of the EMC in your publications and presentations with the following acknowledgment statement: The electron microscopy was accomplished at the Electron Microscopy Center at Argonne National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science Laboratory operated under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 by UChicago Argonne, LLC.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic force microscopy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Electron Microscopy Center  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SAMM SAMM EMC Home Overview Personnel Resources Highlights Publications Visit EMC Contact Info Information for Users Instrument Calendars Info for EMC Staff SÅMM Facility TEAM Project Microscopy Links Argonne Facilities DOE/BES Facilities DOE/BES BES Electron Beam Microcharacterization Centers Sub-Ångstrom Microscopy and Microanalysis Facility In order to meet the scientific challenges of the future, the EMC has built a new state-of-the-art laboratory space for advanced electron microscopy. The new building has been designed to provide next- generation science with an operating environment that cannot be attained by renovating existing facilities. The EMC staff learned as much as possible from similar efforts around the world, including the SuperSTEM building at Daresbury, the Triebenberg Special Laboratory, the AML at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the new NIST building, and various facilities for nanoscience.

182

Nanofilaments on glioblastoma exosomes revealed by peak force microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...USA 3 Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, , Los Angeles...nanofilaments|intercellular communication|nanotechnology| 1. Introduction The ability of cells to...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Hadronic Atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review the theory of hadronic atoms in QCD+QED. The non-relativistic effective Lagrangian approach, used to describe this type of bound states, is illustrated with the case of pi+pi- atoms. In addition, we discuss the evaluation of isospin-breaking corrections to hadronic atom observables by invoking chiral perturbation theory.

J. Gasser; V. E. Lyubovitskij; A. Rusetsky

2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

184

Microscopy. I: A Review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...originatingby the segmentation of filaments into strings of granules. In the later stages of...preferential asymmetrical alignment of the oscillating atoms and molecules within the object...produce preferential orientation of the oscillating elements. Protein fibers, with one...

Robert C. Mellors

1953-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Electron Microscopy Center  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages

Laboratory Laboratory Electron Microscopy Center Argonne Home > EMC > EMC Home Overview Personnel Resources Highlights Publications Visit EMC Contact Info Information for Users Instrument Calendars Info for EMC Staff SÅMM Facility TEAM Project Microscopy Links Argonne Facilities DOE/BES Facilities DOE/BES BES Electron Beam Microcharacterization Centers An Office of Science User Facility The Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) at Argonne National Laboratory develops and maintains unique capabilities for electron beam characterization and applies those capabilities to solve materials problems. The EMC staff carry out research with collaborators and users from Argonne, universities, and other laboratories. The expertise and facilities of the EMC additionally serve a group of national and international researchers. The EMC emphasizes three major areas: materials research, technique and instrumentation development, and operation as a national research facility. Research by EMC personnel includes microscopy based studies in high Tc superconducting materials, irradiation effects in metals and semiconductors, phase transformations, and processing related structure and chemistry of interfaces in thin films.

186

Electron Microscopy Center  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

An Office of Science User Facility An Office of Science User Facility The Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) at Argonne National Laboratory develops and maintains unique capabilities for electron beam characterization and applies those capabilities to solve materials problems. The EMC staff carry out research with collaborators and users from Argonne, universities, and other laboratories. The expertise and facilities of the EMC additionally serve a group of national and international researchers. The EMC emphasizes three major areas: materials research, technique and instrumentation development, and operation as a national research facility. Research by EMC personnel includes microscopy based studies in high Tc superconducting materials, irradiation effects in metals and semiconductors, phase transformations, and processing related structure and chemistry of interfaces in thin films.

187

Electron Microscopy Lab  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Facilities » Facilities » Electron Microscopy Lab Electron Microscopy Lab Focusing on the study of microstructures with electron and ion beam instruments, including crystallographic and chemical techniques. April 12, 2012 Transmission electron microscope Rob Dickerson examines a multiphase oxide scale using the FEI Titan 80-300 transmission electron microscope. Contact Rob Dickerson (505) 667-6337 Email Rod McCabe (505) 606-1649 Email Pat Dickerson (505) 665-3036 Email Tom Wynn (505) 665-6861 Email Dedicated to the characterization of materials through imaging, chemical, and crystallographic analyses of material microstructures in support of Basic Energy Science, Laboratory Directed Research and Development, DoD, DOE, Work for Others, nuclear energy, and weapons programs. Go to full website »

188

Electron Microscopy Center  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Training Training EMC Home Overview Personnel Resources Highlights Publications Visit EMC Contact Info Information for Users Becoming a User Submit a Proposal End-of-Proposal Report Acknowledgment User Training User Safety User Status Instrument Access User Committee User Meetings Data Storage Policy Visiting the EMC Instrument Calendars Info for EMC Staff SÅMM Facility TEAM Project Microscopy Links Argonne Facilities DOE/BES Facilities DOE/BES BES Electron Beam Microcharacterization Centers User Training Prior Training in Electron Microscopy: People who wish to operate TEMs must have at least one college-level course in TEM with a lab component or previous TEM experience. The college course can't be one in which TEM was just one of many topics. For researchers who lack academic training and/or practical experience in electron microscopy, we suggest the short courses in TEM at the Hooke College of Applied Sciences, and the hands-on TEM courses at Northwestern University or the University of Chicago or Northern Illinois University.

189

Electron Microscopy Center  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Overview Overview The mission of the Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) is to: Conduct materials research using advanced microstructural characterization methods; Maintain unique resources and facilities for scientific research for the both the Argonne National Laboratory and national scientific community. Develop and expand the frontiers of microanalysis by fostering the evolution of synergistic state-of-the-art resources in instrumentation, techniques and scientific expertise; The staff members of the EMC carry out their own research as well as participate in collaborative programs with other scientists at Argonne National Laboratory as well as researchers, educators and students worldwide. The Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) at Argonne National Laboratory develops and maintains unique capabilities for electron beam characterization and applies those capabilities to solve materials problems. The EMC staff perform collaborative research with members of other Divisions at Argonne National Laboratory and with collaborators from universities and other laboratories. The expertise and facilities of the EMC additionally serve a group of national and international researchers. The EMC emphasizes three major areas: materials research, technique and instrumentation development, and operation as a national research facility. Research by EMC personnel includes microscopy based studies in high Tc superconducting materials, irradiation effects in metals and semiconductors, phase transformations, and processing related structure and chemistry of interfaces in thin films.

190

The Particle Adventure | What holds it together? | Residual EM force  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

EM force EM force Residual EM force Atoms usually have the same numbers of protons and electrons. They are electrically neutral, therefore, because the positive protons cancel out the negative electrons. Since they are neutral, what causes them to stick together to form stable molecules? The answer is a bit strange: we've discovered that the charged parts of one atom can interact with the charged parts of another atom. This allows different atoms to bind together, an effect called the residual electromagnetic force. So the electromagnetic force is what allows atoms to bond and form molecules, allowing the world to stay together and create the matter you interact with all of the time. Amazing, isn't it? All the structures of the world exist simply because protons and electrons have opposite charges!

191

Initial growth on microcrystalline silicon on atomically flat hetero-substrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Initial growth of microcrystalline silicon ({micro}c-Si:H) deposited on an atomically flat GaAs (001) wafer using a RF glow-discharge decomposition of hydrogen diluted monosilane gas mixture has been studied by means of atomic force microscope (AFM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). It is shown that the initial growth of {micro}c-Si:H deposited at a substrate temperature of 50--250 C consists of four successive stages, i.e., (1) a layer-by-layer growth of a-Si:H up to d {approximately}5 {angstrom}, (2) island formation of a-Si:H, (3) the coalescence of the islands and the nucleation of microcrystalline at d{approximately}10{approximately}40 {angstrom} depending on the growth temperature, and (4) a rapid roughening with microcrystalline growth.

Saitoh, K.; Kondo, M.; Matsuda, A.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Nuclear Forces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One-meson-exchange Feynman diagrams are nonrelativistically reduced and unitarized via Schrödinger's equation. Properties of nucleon-nucleon scattering are calculated at incident laboratory energies of 25-310 MeV. Bound-state properties of the deuteron and of nuclear matter are also calculated. Mesons included are the ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, and ?. Very good over-all agreement with the experimental data is obtained. Important features of this "potential" include its momentum dependence, properly treated, and the contribution of the ? "meson," which qualitatively changes the central/tensor force ratio from that of previous phenomenological potentials.

Lester Ingber

1968-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

193

Membrane shape as a reporter for applied forces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...reconstruction microscopy . Science 319 : 810 – 813...cell membranes . Science 175 : 720 – 731...applied forces. | Recent advances have enabled...Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and...and vesicles. Advances in Physics...

Heun Jin Lee; Eric L. Peterson; Rob Phillips; William S. Klug; Paul A. Wiggins

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Semiclassical atom  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Semiclassical quantization is incorporated into the average potential approach to atomic physics. The stationary energy functional is shown to be the sum of the Thomas-Fermi functional and a mainly oscillatory part. The latter turns out to be a small correction for sufficiently large atomic numbers, allowing perturbative treatment. Further, a detailed study of semiclassical spectra, with emphasis on energy degeneracy, is performed.

Berthold-Georg Englert and Julian Schwinger

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Field-ion microscopy observation of single-walled carbon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Field-ion microscopy (FIM), a tool for surface analysis with atomic resolution, has been employed to observe the end structure of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). FIM images revealed the existence of open SWCNT ends. Amorphous carbon atoms were also observed to occur around SWCNTs and traditional field evaporation failed to remove them. Heat treatment was found to be efficacious in altering the end structures of SWCNT bundles. Carbon and oxygen atoms released from heated tungsten filament are believed to be responsible for the decoration imposed on the SWCNT ends.

Zhang Zhao-Xiang; Zhang Geng-Min; Du Min; Jin Xin-Xi; Hou Shi-Min; Sun Jian-Ping; Gu Zhen-Nan; Zhao Xing-Yu; Liu Wei-Min; Wu Jin-Lei; Xue Zeng-Quan

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Influence of tip structure on tip-sample interaction forces at the KBr(001) surface: Results from ab initio investigations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present ab initio calculations of the short-range tip-surface interaction between K+- or Br?-terminated tips and a KBr(001) surface. Comparing the results for different tips represented by a small (KBr)2 or two larger (KBr)6 clusters, in most cases we find only relatively small differences in the tip-sample forces in the unrelaxed case. When relaxations of tip and surface are fully taken into account, we find a more pronounced dependence of the calculated forces on the coordination of the tip apex atom. This holds, in particular, for K+-terminated tips. We compare our results with experimental atomic force microscopy data. The latter do not reveal by themselves whether a K+ or a Br? tip has been instrumental in a particular experiment. We find good agreement between our calculated two-dimensional force map for a K+-terminated tip and experiment. This result strongly supports the notion that the respective measurements have actually been carried out with a K+-terminated tip.

Christine Wieferink; Peter Krüger; Johannes Pollmann

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Instrument Series: Microscopy 4000 XHR local electrode atom  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and fatigue resistance, toughness and hardness of metallic materials. Oxides and ceramics ­ A close look at the crystalline structures and heat-resistant capabilities of these inorganic, non-metallic materials opens doors conductivity materials, such as ceramics, semiconductors and oxides. The LEAP capability is assisting EMSL

198

Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigations of Complex Oxides  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigations of Complex Oxides Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigations of Complex Oxides Monday, May 23, 2011 - 3:30pm SSRL Conference room 137-322 Professor Tom Vogt, NanoCenter & Department of Chemistry, University of South Carolina High-Angle-Annular-Dark-Field/Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HAADF/STEM) is a technique uniquely suited for detailed studies of the structure and composition of complex oxides. The HAADF detector collects electrons which have interact inelastically with the potentials of the atoms in the specimen and therefore resembles the better known Z2 (Z is atomic number) Rutherford scattering. One class of important catalysts consists of bronzes based on pentagonal {Mo6O21} building units; these include Mo5O14 and Mo17O47. In the last 20 years, new materials doped with

199

Sample heating in near-field scanning optical microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heating near the aperture of aluminumcoated,fiber opticnear-field scanning optical microscopy probes was studied as a function of input and output powers. Using the shear-force feedback method, near-field probes were positioned nanometers above a...

Erickson, Elizabeth S.; Dunn, Robert C.

2005-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

200

E-Print Network 3.0 - airborne wear particles Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

wear particles using atomic force microscopy L... 2008 Keywords: Wear particles Polyethylene UHMWPE Atomic force microscopy Abundance distributions Knee... for the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic force microscopy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Toward single cell traction microscopy within 3D collagen matrices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mechanical interaction between the cell and its extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cellular behaviors, including proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. Cells require the three-dimensional (3D) architectural support of the ECM to perform physiologically realistic functions. However, current understanding of cell–ECM and cell–cell mechanical interactions is largely derived from 2D cell traction force microscopy, in which cells are cultured on a flat substrate. 3D cell traction microscopy is emerging for mapping traction fields of single animal cells embedded in either synthetic or natively derived fibrous gels. We discuss here the development of 3D cell traction microscopy, its current limitations, and perspectives on the future of this technology. Emphasis is placed on strategies for applying 3D cell traction microscopy to individual tumor cell migration within collagen gels. - Highlights: • Review of the current state of the art in 3D cell traction force microscopy. • Bulk and micro-characterization of remodelable fibrous collagen gels. • Strategies for performing 3D cell traction microscopy within collagen gels.

Hall, Matthew S. [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Long, Rong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2G8 (Canada); Feng, Xinzeng [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Huang, YuLing [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Hui, Chung-Yuen [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Wu, Mingming, E-mail: mw272@cornell.edu [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Effects of a uniform acceleration on atom-field interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review some quantum electrodynamical effects related to the uniform acceleration of atoms in vacuum. After discussing the energy level shifts of a uniformly accelerated atom in vacuum, we investigate the atom-wall Casimir-Polder force for accelerated atoms, and the van der Waals/Casimir-Polder interaction between two accelerated atoms. The possibility of detecting the Unruh effect through these phenomena is also discussed in detail.

Jamir Marino; Antonio Noto; Roberto Passante; Lucia Rizzuto; Salvatore Spagnolo

2014-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

203

Atomic Level Spatial Variations of Energy States along Graphene Edges  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atomic Level Spatial Variations of Energy States along Graphene Edges ... The local atomic bonding of carbon atoms around the edge of graphene is examined by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). ... We show that energy states of graphene edges vary across individual atoms along the edge according to their specific C–C bonding, as well as perpendicular to the edge. ...

Jamie H. Warner; Yung-Chang Lin; Kuang He; Masanori Koshino; Kazu Suenaga

2014-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

204

Electron Microscopy Center  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Submit an EMC Proposal Submit an EMC Proposal EMC Home Overview Personnel Resources Highlights Publications Visit EMC Contact Info Information for Users Becoming a User Submit a Proposal End-of-Proposal Report Acknowledgment User Training User Safety User Status Instrument Access User Committee User Meetings Data Storage Policy Visiting the EMC Instrument Calendars Info for EMC Staff SÅMM Facility TEAM Project Microscopy Links Argonne Facilities DOE/BES Facilities DOE/BES BES Electron Beam Microcharacterization Centers Submit an EMC Proposal EMC Proposal Submission Deadline Dates for FY2014: November 1, 2013 March 7, 2014 July 11, 2014 Is your proposal a multi-facility proposal? In other words, do you intend to submit proposals to EMC and APS or CNM for your research project? If your answer is "yes," go now to the Proposal Gateway.

205

Electron Microscopy Center  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

EMC Users Committee EMC Users Committee EMC Home Overview Personnel Resources Highlights Publications Visit EMC Contact Info Information for Users Becoming a User Submit a Proposal End-of-Proposal Report Acknowledgment User Training User Safety User Status Instrument Access User Committee User Meetings Data Storage Policy Visiting the EMC Instrument Calendars Info for EMC Staff SÅMM Facility TEAM Project Microscopy Links Argonne Facilities DOE/BES Facilities DOE/BES BES Electron Beam Microcharacterization Centers EMC Users Committee An EMC Users Committee has been organized to enhance communication between the user community and the EMC. While the EMC relies on and encourages strong interaction among its users and between its staff and users, the Users Committee provides an additional formal mechanism for user input into EMC planning and operations to ensure that users' needs and concerns are addressed.

206

Electron Microscopy Center  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

End-of-Proposal Report End-of-Proposal Report EMC Home Overview Personnel Resources Highlights Publications Visit EMC Contact Info Information for Users Becoming a User Submit a Proposal End-of-Proposal Report Acknowledgment User Training User Safety User Status Instrument Access User Committee User Meetings Data Storage Policy Visiting the EMC Instrument Calendars Info for EMC Staff SÅMM Facility TEAM Project Microscopy Links Argonne Facilities DOE/BES Facilities DOE/BES BES Electron Beam Microcharacterization Centers End-of-Proposal Report In accordance with the User Agreement, please provide the EMC with the following information when your proposal expires (one year after its acceptance date or when the experiments end, whichever is sooner). A research summary/progress report using these two templates:

207

Electron Microscopy Center  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Becoming a User Becoming a User EMC Home Overview Personnel Resources Highlights Publications Visit EMC Contact Info Information for Users Becoming a User Submit a Proposal End-of-Proposal Report Acknowledgment User Training User Safety User Status Instrument Access User Committee User Meetings Data Storage Policy Visiting the EMC Instrument Calendars Info for EMC Staff SÅMM Facility TEAM Project Microscopy Links Argonne Facilities DOE/BES Facilities DOE/BES BES Electron Beam Microcharacterization Centers Procedure to Become a User at the EMC 1. Summary All users have to fulfill certain requirements before access to the EMC can be granted. The following list provides short descriptions of the requirements. Details can be found on this page and via the relevant links at the left. Register for access to Argonne's scientific user facilities (or update your user registration information).

208

Introduction to Photoelectron Emission Microscopy: Principles...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Introduction to Photoelectron Emission Microscopy: Principles and Applications. Introduction to Photoelectron Emission Microscopy: Principles and Applications. Abstract: In the...

209

Impact of particle size on interaction forces between ettringite and dispersing comb-polymers in various electrolyte solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The inter-particle forces play a fundamental role for the flow properties of a particle suspension in response to shear stresses. In concrete applications, cement admixtures based on comb-polymers like polycarboxylate-ether-based superplasticizer (PCE) are used to control the rheological behavior of the fresh mixtures, as it is negatively impacted by certain early hydration products, like the mineral ettringite. In this work, dispersion forces due to PCE were measured directly at the surface of ettringite crystals in different electrolyte solutions by the means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) applying spherical and sharp silicon dioxide tips. Results show an effective repulsion between ettringite surface and AFM tips for solutions above the IEP of ettringite (pH?12) and significant attraction in solution at lower pH. The addition of polyelectrolytes in solution provides dispersion forces exclusively between the sharp tips (radius ? 10 nm) and the ettringite surface, whereas the polymer layer at the ettringite surface results to be unable to disperse large colloidal probes (radius ? 10 ?m). A simple modeling of the inter-particle forces explains that, for large particles, the steric hindrance of the studied PCE molecules is not high enough to compensate for the Van der Waals and the attractive electrostatic contributions. Therefore, in cement suspensions the impact of ettringite on rheology is probably not only related to the particle charge, but also related to the involved particle sizes.

Lucia Ferrari; Josef Kaufmann; Frank Winnefeld; Johann Plank

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Chapter 11 - Light sheet microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter introduces the concept of light sheet microscopy along with practical advice on how to design and build such an instrument. Selective plane illumination microscopy is presented as an alternative to confocal microscopy due to several superior features such as high-speed full-frame acquisition, minimal phototoxicity, and multiview sample rotation. Based on our experience over the last 10 years, we summarize the key concepts in light sheet microscopy, typical implementations, and successful applications. In particular, sample mounting for long time-lapse imaging and the resulting challenges in data processing are discussed in detail.

Michael Weber; Michaela Mickoleit; Jan Huisken

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Magnetic Force Between Magnetic Nano Probes at Optical Frequency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Magnetic force microscopy based on the interaction of static magnetic materials was demonstrated in the past with resolutions in the order of nanometers. Measurement techniques based on forces between electric dipoles oscillating at optical frequencies have been also demonstrated leading to the standard operation of the scanning force microscope (SFM). However the investigations of a SFM based on the magnetic force generated by magnetic dipole moments oscillating at optical frequencies has not been tackled yet. With this goal in mind we establish a theoretical model towards observable magnetic force interaction between two magnetically polarizable nanoparticles at optical frequency and show such a force to be in the order of piconewtons which could be in principle detected by conventional microscopy techniques. Two possible principles for conceiving magnetically polarizable nano probes able to generate strong magnetic dipoles at optical frequency are investigated based on silicon nanoparticles and on clusters...

Guclu, Caner; Capolino, Filippo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Atom Interferometry  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newton?s constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gryoscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be sued to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?

Mark Kasevich

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

213

Electron Microscopy Center  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

General Information for EMC Users General Information for EMC Users The Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) is an Office of Science User Facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory. It is one of three scientific user facilities for electron beam microcharacterization and one of several National User Facilities located at Argonne National Laboratory. As a scientific user facility, the EMC supports user-accessible instruments (Resources) for high spatial resolution microanalysis, field imaging, nanoscale structural characterization, nanoscale fabrication and manipulation, and unique in situ studies of materials under the influence of ion-beam irradiation. These capabilities are used in a diverse variety of research areas to address grand challenge scientific questions encompassing, for example, energy-related studies, biology, astrophysics, archaeology, superconductivity, nanotechnology, environmental engineering, tribology, and ferroelectricity. The research is performed both by users and by EMC staff. While many users work independently, the most challenging research activities require extensive contributions from EMC staff.

214

Improved Precision Measurement of the Casimir Force Using Gold Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report an improved precision measurement of the Casimir force using metallic gold surfaces. The force is measured between a large gold coated sphere and flat plate using an Atomic Force Microscope. The use of gold surfaces removes some theoretical uncertainties in the interpretation of the measurement. The forces are also measured at smaller surface separations. The complete dielectric spectrum of the metal is used in the comparison of theory to the experiment. The average statistical precision remains at the same 1% of the forces measured at the closest separation. These results should lead to the development of stronger constraints on hypothetical forces.

B. W. Harris; F. Chen; U. Mohideen

2000-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

215

Radiative friction on an excited atom moving in vacuum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is known that, when an excited atom spontaneously emits one photon, two effects are produced. First, the atom's internal and external states are entangled with the states of the emitted photon. Second, the atom receives a momentum transfered from the photon. In this work, the dynamics of such an atom in vacuum is studied. Through a specific calculation, it is demonstrated that these effects cause the atom to experience, on average, a friction force opposite to its initial velocity. Properties of the force are also discussed.

Wei Guo

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

216

Atomic-scale X-ray structural analysis of self-assembled monolayers on Silicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two related self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), 4-bromostyrene (BrSty) and 4-bromophenylacetylene (BPA), are photochemically grown from solution on to the monohydride-terminated Si(111) surface. The atomic-scale structures of the resulting SAMs are examined by X-ray standing waves (XSW), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), X-ray fluorescence, atomic-force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and density functional theory (DFT). The coverage is 0.5 ML. The results show that in each case the molecule covalently bonds to a single Si T{sub 1} site and stands up-right with a slight molecular tilt of 17{sup o} that leaves the Br terminal end over a neighboring T{sub 4} site. The Br height is 8.5 {angstrom} (BrSty) and 8.6 {angstrom} (BPA) above the top surface Si atom. The combined XSW and XRR results rule-out two alternative bonding models predicted by DFT that have the root of the molecule bonded to two neighboring top Si surface atoms. Based on the XSW 111 and 333 coherent fractions, the BPA/Si(111) has a reduced vertical Br distribution width in comparison to BrSty. This greater rigidity in the molecular structure is correlated to a C=C bond at the root.

Lin, J.-C.; Kellar, J.A.; Kim, J.-H.; Yoder, N.L.; Bevan, K.H.; Nguyen, S.T.; Hersam, M.C.; Bedzyk, M.J.; (NWU); (Purdue)

2009-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

217

Electron and Scanning Probe Microscopies | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electron and Scanning Probe Microscopies Electron and Scanning Probe Microscopies Materials Sciences and Engineering (MSE) Division MSE Home About Research Areas Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) DOE Energy Innovation Hubs BES Funding Opportunities The Computational Materials and Chemical Sciences Network (CMCSN) Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics Scientific Highlights Reports and Activities Principal Investigators' Meetings BES Home Research Areas Electron and Scanning Probe Microscopies Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page This research area supports basic research in condensed matter physics and materials physics using electron scattering and microscopy and scanning probe techniques. The research includes experiments and theory to understand the atomic, electronic, and magnetic structures of materials.

218

Vibrational Modes of Adsorbed Atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for AronXe B. Neon Ar The lowest surface m ver g.ur ace mode branc mo d o' td 'th es of the " rin " ce e wit an adsorbate of modes assoc' tia ed with th e; there are for the ads stion, the bra h sorbate atoms I c 1.ons ranch labeled 2H s. n... , are the real ads teristic force con t tons ants for ad is evident that in Fi . 2 t "heavier" than th ig. the adsorbate is n e substrate M & terpretation b M, ) in tkis in- ecause the weaknes th l' ht ofth ds o ke adsorbate atoms (m, &m, IBRATIQNAI...

LAWRENCE, WR; Allen, Roland E.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Atom Probe Tomography | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atom Probe Tomography Atom Probe Tomography The LEAP 4000 XHR local electrode atom probe tomography instrument enabled the first-ever comprehensive and accurate 3-D chemical...

220

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic contacts effect Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

zero net 12;5 effect on the atomic momentum. Thus the force from ab- sorption... Laser cooling and trapping of atoms H.J. Metcalf and P. van der Straten ... Source: van der...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic force microscopy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Kinetics of atoms in a bichromatic field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics of atoms in a bichromatic field is considered. Analytic solutions are obtained for the force, friction coefficient, and diffusion coefficient in the model of a two-level atom without limitations imposed on the intensity of light fields. This effect is observed in the domain of global minima and maxima of the optical potential (i.e., at points where the relative phase of two standing waves is Greek-Phi-Symbol = 0, {pi}/2.

Prudnikov, O. N., E-mail: llf@laser.nsc.ru [Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation); Baklanov, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Taichenachev, A. V. [Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation)] [Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation); Tumaikin, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Yudin, V. I. [Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation)] [Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

222

E-Print Network 3.0 - atom localization lithography Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atomic Force Microscope Kumar et al... Lithography Parameters Using an ... Source: Yang, Eui-Hyeok - Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology...

223

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic scale defect Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

assembled DNA nanostructures. Atomic force microscope (AFM) images are used... of defect identification. 4.1 Defect ... Source: Chakrabarty, Krishnendu - Department of Electrical...

224

An improved proximity force approximation for electrostatics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A quite straightforward approximation for the electrostatic interaction between two perfectly conducting surfaces suggests itself when the distance between them is much smaller than the characteristic lengths associated with their shapes. Indeed, in the so called 'proximity force approximation' the electrostatic force is evaluated by first dividing each surface into a set of small flat patches, and then adding up the forces due two opposite pairs, the contributions of which are approximated as due to pairs of parallel planes. This approximation has been widely and successfully applied in different contexts, ranging from nuclear physics to Casimir effect calculations. We present here an improvement on this approximation, based on a derivative expansion for the electrostatic energy contained between the surfaces. The results obtained could be useful for discussing the geometric dependence of the electrostatic force, and also as a convenient benchmark for numerical analyses of the tip-sample electrostatic interaction in atomic force microscopes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proximity force approximation (PFA) has been widely used in different areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PFA can be improved using a derivative expansion in the shape of the surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use the improved PFA to compute electrostatic forces between conductors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results can be used as an analytic benchmark for numerical calculations in AFM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insight is provided for people who use the PFA to compute nuclear and Casimir forces.

Fosco, Cesar D. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina) [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina); Lombardo, Fernando C. [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina) [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); IFIBA (Argentina)] [Argentina; Mazzitelli, Francisco D., E-mail: fdmazzi@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

225

Atomic magnetometer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which uses a pump light beam at a D1 or D2 transition of an alkali metal vapor to magnetically polarize the vapor in a heated cell, and a probe light beam at a different D2 or D1 transition to sense the magnetic field via a polarization rotation of the probe light beam. The pump and probe light beams are both directed along substantially the same optical path through an optical waveplate and through the heated cell to an optical filter which blocks the pump light beam while transmitting the probe light beam to one or more photodetectors which generate electrical signals to sense the magnetic field. The optical waveplate functions as a quarter waveplate to circularly polarize the pump light beam, and as a half waveplate to maintain the probe light beam linearly polarized.

Schwindt, Peter (Albuquerque, NM); Johnson, Cort N. (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

226

If Only We Could Account For Every Atom (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Christian Kisielowski, an expert in electron microscopy at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, investigates ways to allow studies of single atoms using sophisticated microscopes and imaginative techniques. His goal is to account for every atom in the interior of both simple and complex materials. Find out how he and his colleagues are breaking the barriers to account for every atom.

Kisielowski, Christian

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

227

Hickam Air Force Base  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hickam Air Force Base spans 2,850 acres in Honolulu, Hawaii. The military base is home to the 15th Airlift Wing, the Hawaii Air National Guard, and the Pacific Air Forces headquarters.

228

Protective Force Program Manual  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 473.2, Protective Force Program, which establishes the requirements and responsibilities for management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Does not cancel other directives.

2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

229

Fluid force transducer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrical fluid force transducer for measuring the magnitude and direction of fluid forces caused by lateral fluid flow, includes a movable sleeve which is deflectable in response to the movement of fluid, and a rod fixed to the sleeve to translate forces applied to the sleeve to strain gauges attached to the rod, the strain gauges being connected in a bridge circuit arrangement enabling generation of a signal output indicative of the magnitude and direction of the force applied to the sleeve.

Jendrzejczyk, Joseph A. (Warrenville, IL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

CHARTER, Price-Anderson Act Task Force | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

CHARTER, Price-Anderson Act Task Force CHARTER, Price-Anderson Act Task Force CHARTER, Price-Anderson Act Task Force This charter establishes the responsibilities of the Price-Anderson Act Task Force (Task Force). The Secretary of Energy has approved formation of this Task Force to review the need for the continuation or modification of the Price-Anderson Act, section 170 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (AEA), and to prepare a detailed report for submission to Congress as required by section 170p. of the AEA by August 1, 1998. CHARTER, Price-Anderson Act Task Force More Documents & Publications MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY Report to Congress on the Price-Anderson Act Appendix A. Notice of Inquiry: Preparation of Report to Congress on Price-Anderson Act. 62 Federal Register 68,272 (December 31, 1997)

231

Measuring atomic properties with an atom interferometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two experiments are presented which measure atomic properties using an atom interferometer. The interferometer splits the sodium de Broglie wave into two paths, one of which travels through an interaction region. The paths ...

Roberts, Tony David, 1972-

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Demonstration of Angle Dependent Casimir Force Between Corrugations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The normal Casimir force between a sinusoidally corrugated gold coated plate and a sphere was measured at various angles between the corrugations using an atomic force microscope. A strong dependence on the orientation angle of the corrugation is found. The measured forces were found to deviate from the proximity force approximation and are in agreement with the theory based on the gradient expansion including correlation effects of geometry and material properties. We analyze the role of temperature. The obtained results open new opportunities for control of the Casimir effect in micromechanical systems.

A. A. Banishev; J. Wagner; T. Emig; R. Zandi; U. Mohideen

2012-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

233

The Architecture of the Murein (Peptidoglycan) in Gram-Negative Bacteria: Vertical Scaffold or Horizontal Layer(s)?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...coli: electron microscopy, neutron scattering, and atomic force microscopy...directly measured by small-angle neutron scattering (52). The advantages of...determined by small-angle neutron scattering and atomic force microscopy...

Waldemar Vollmer; Joachim-Volker Höltje

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Pair interaction of metal atoms on a metal surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pair interactions of tungsten and iridium adatoms on the W {110} plane are studied by measuring two-dimensional pair distributions with two adatoms on a plane. Each distribution contains from 600 to 950 field-ion-microscopy observations. Pair energies over a distance range of ?2.5 to ?50 Å are derived by comparing the experimentally measured pair distributions with the calculated pair distributions for two noninteracting atoms. It is found that Ir-Ir pair interaction exhibits an attractive region at ?5 Å and a repulsive region around 8 Å. If an oscillatory structure exists, its amplitudes decay already to less than ?10 meV beyond 10 Å. The plane edge seems to repel Ir adatoms with a weak long-range force. The W-Ir interaction at a short range is weaker than the Ir-Ir interaction. However, the interaction extends to larger distances. From ?950 observations at 330 K with two adatoms, we derive a pair energy which exhibits two attractive and two repulsive regions, thus strongly suggesting an oscillatory structure. The pair energies derived beyond 25 Å are erratic for both Ir-Ir and W-Ir interactions, most probably because of the limited amount of data available. However, this work represents the first time statistically reliable amounts of data have been obtained for two-dimensional pair distributions with only two adatoms on a plane. The nonmonotonic behaviors of adatom-adatom interaction on the smooth W {110} plane are clearly established.

R. Casanova and T. T. Tsong

1980-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the electron density of complicated molecules. The formula used to make these calculations contains terms that relate to the electron spin of magnetic atoms, but these terms are traditionally ignored since coherent x-ray diffraction has not been used to retrieve magnetic information. Using the full formula allows for the determination of not only the electron density, but also the magnetic spin distribution and its orientation.

236

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the electron density of complicated molecules. The formula used to make these calculations contains terms that relate to the electron spin of magnetic atoms, but these terms are traditionally ignored since coherent x-ray diffraction has not been used to retrieve magnetic information. Using the full formula allows for the determination of not only the electron density, but also the magnetic spin distribution and its orientation.

237

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the electron density of complicated molecules. The formula used to make these calculations contains terms that relate to the electron spin of magnetic atoms, but these terms are traditionally ignored since coherent x-ray diffraction has not been used to retrieve magnetic information. Using the full formula allows for the determination of not only the electron density, but also the magnetic spin distribution and its orientation.

238

Simulating realistic imaging conditions for in situ liquid microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In situ transmission electron microscopy enables the imaging of biological cells, macromolecular protein complexes, nanoparticles, and other systems in a near-native environment. In order to improve interpretation of image contrast features and also predict ideal imaging conditions ahead of time, new virtual electron microscopic techniques are needed. A technique for virtual fluid-stage high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy with the multislice method is presented that enables the virtual imaging of model fluid-stage systems composed of millions of atoms. The virtual technique is exemplified by simulating images of PbS nanoparticles under different imaging conditions and the results agree with previous experimental findings. General insight is obtained on the influence of the effects of fluid path length, membrane thickness, nanoparticle position, defocus and other microscope parameters on attainable image quality.

Welch, David A.; Faller, Roland; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Dynamic imaging with electron microscopy  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Livermore researchers have perfected an electron microscope to study fast-evolving material processes and chemical reactions. By applying engineering, microscopy, and laser expertise to the decades-old technology of electron microscopy, the dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) team has developed a technique that can capture images of phenomena that are both very small and very fast. DTEM uses a precisely timed laser pulse to achieve a short but intense electron beam for imaging. When synchronized with a dynamic event in the microscope's field of view, DTEM allows scientists to record and measure material changes in action. A new movie-mode capability, which earned a 2013 R&D 100 Award from R&D Magazine, uses up to nine laser pulses to sequentially capture fast, irreversible, even one-of-a-kind material changes at the nanometer scale. DTEM projects are advancing basic and applied materials research, including such areas as nanostructure growth, phase transformations, and chemical reactions.

Campbell, Geoffrey; McKeown, Joe; Santala, Melissa

2014-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

240

Dynamic imaging with electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Livermore researchers have perfected an electron microscope to study fast-evolving material processes and chemical reactions. By applying engineering, microscopy, and laser expertise to the decades-old technology of electron microscopy, the dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) team has developed a technique that can capture images of phenomena that are both very small and very fast. DTEM uses a precisely timed laser pulse to achieve a short but intense electron beam for imaging. When synchronized with a dynamic event in the microscope's field of view, DTEM allows scientists to record and measure material changes in action. A new movie-mode capability, which earned a 2013 R&D 100 Award from R&D Magazine, uses up to nine laser pulses to sequentially capture fast, irreversible, even one-of-a-kind material changes at the nanometer scale. DTEM projects are advancing basic and applied materials research, including such areas as nanostructure growth, phase transformations, and chemical reactions.

Campbell, Geoffrey; McKeown, Joe; Santala, Melissa

2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic force microscopy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Coulomb force as an entropic force  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Motivated by Verlinde's theory of entropic gravity, we give a tentative explanation to the Coulomb's law with an entropic force. When trying to do this, we find the equipartition rule should be extended to charges and the concept of temperature should be reinterpreted. If one accepts the holographic principle as well as our generalizations and reinterpretations, then Coulomb's law, the Poisson equation, and the Maxwell equations can be derived smoothly. Our attempt can be regarded as a new way to unify the electromagnetic force with gravity, from the entropic origin. Possibly some of our postulates are related to the D-brane picture of black hole thermodynamics.

Wang Tower [Center for High-Energy Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

242

Unbalanced electromagnetic forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) . I :, jazdz g (Member) (Member) August 1974 -" ~ 5:. -. 62 ABSTRACT Unbalanced Electromagnetic Forces (August 1974) Craig Martin Hansen, B. S. , Texas A&M University Directed by: Dr. Attilio J. Giaroia Electromagnetic forces from moving... be deduced from the history of the development of an under- standing of electromagnetic forces. This is a relatively short history (starting in the late 1800's) filled with misunderstandings and pre]udices. This history can be divided into two eras: non...

Hansen, Craig Martin

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

243

A molecular mechanics force field for lignin  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Molecular Molecular Mechanics Force Field for Lignin LOUKAS PETRIDIS, JEREMY C. SMITH Center for Molecular Biophysics, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 Received 14 February 2008; Revised 8 May 2008; Accepted 12 June 2008 DOI 10.1002/jcc.21075 Published online 1 August 2008 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). Abstract: A CHARMM molecular mechanics force field for lignin is derived. Parameterization is based on reproducing quantum mechanical data of model compounds. Partial atomic charges are derived using the RESP electrostatic potential fitting method supplemented by the examination of methoxybenzene:water interactions. Dihedral parameters are optimized by fitting to critical rotational potentials and bonded parameters are obtained by optimizing vibrational frequencies and normal modes. Finally, the force field is validated

244

Electromigration wind force at stepped Al surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When an electrical current flows parallel to a stepped metal surface, each step experiences a force due to momentum transfer from the carriers that are diffusely scattered by the step edge. In this paper, a ballistic model is used to compute the wind force per unit length acting on the steps of vicinal (100) surfaces of Al. The carrier scattering at the surface is described by a potential-barrier model fit to the results of a first-principles calculation of the surface-induced resistivity of the unstepped surface. The magnitude of the wind force is an increasing function of the step terrace width and reaches a constant value as the steps move apart. For an isolated step on a Al(100) surface, the effective wind valence per unit length of the step edge is zw?-15e Å-1. This value is equivalent to a wind valence of zw?-43e per atom at the leading edge of each step.

P. J. Rous

1999-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

245

David J. Gross and the Strong Force  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

David J. Gross and the Strong Force David J. Gross and the Strong Force Resources with Additional Information The 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to David Gross for "the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction". 'Gross, who obtained his PhD in physics in 1966, currently is a professor of physics and director of the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics at UC Santa Barbara. ... David Gross Courtesy of UC Santa Barbara [When on the faculty at Princeton University,] he and then-graduate student Frank Wilczek came up with a way to describe the "strong force" that governs interactions between protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atom. He and Wilczek published their proposal simultaneously with H. David Politzer, a graduate student [at Harvard University] who independently came up with the same idea. ...

246

NUCLEAR PROXIMITY FORCES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One might summarize of nuclear potential energy has beendegree of freedom) for the nuclear interaction between anyUniversity of California. Nuclear Proximity Forces 'I< at

Randrup, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Atomic Structure of the Anatase TiO2(001) Surface. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

deciphering site-specific thermal and photo- reaction mechanisms on anatase TiO2. Using UHV scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we have studied the atomic structure of anatase...

248

Elements & Compounds Atoms (Elements)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Elements & Compounds #12;Atoms (Elements) Molecules (Compounds) Cells Elements & Compounds #12;Nucleus Electrons Cloud of negative charge (2 electrons) Fig. 2.5: Simplified model of a Helium (He) Atom He 4.002602 2 Helium Mass Number (~atomic mass) = number of Neutrons + Protons = 4 for Helium Atomic

Frey, Terry

249

Colloquium: Artificial gauge potentials for neutral atoms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When a neutral atom moves in a properly designed laser field, its center-of-mass motion may mimic the dynamics of a charged particle in a magnetic field, with the emergence of a Lorentz-like force. In this Colloquium the physical principles at the basis of this artificial (synthetic) magnetism are presented. The corresponding Aharonov-Bohm phase is related to the Berry's phase that emerges when the atom adiabatically follows one of the dressed states of the atom-laser interaction. Some manifestations of artificial magnetism for a cold quantum gas, in particular, in terms of vortex nucleation are discussed. The analysis is then generalized to the simulation of non-Abelian gauge potentials and some striking consequences are presented, such as the emergence of an effective spin-orbit coupling. Both the cases of bulk gases and discrete systems, where atoms are trapped in an optical lattice, are addressed.

Dalibard, Jean; Gerbier, Fabrice; Juzeliunas, Gediminas; Oehberg, Patrik [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, CNRS, UPMC, Ecole normale superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005, Paris (France); Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Vilnius University, A. Gostauto 12, Vilnius 01108 (Lithuania); SUPA, Department of Physics, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Neutral atom traps.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes progress in designing a neutral atom trap capable of trapping sub millikelvin atom in a magnetic trap and shuttling the atoms across the atom chip from a collection area to an optical cavity. The numerical simulation and atom chip design are discussed. Also, discussed are preliminary calculations of quantum noise sources in Kerr nonlinear optics measurements based on electromagnetically induced transparency. These types of measurements may be important for quantum nondemolition measurements at the few photon limit.

Pack, Michael Vern

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Protective Force Program Manual  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 473.2, PROTECTIVE FORCE PROGRAM, which establishes the requirements and responsibilities for management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Change 1 revised pages in Chapters IV and VI on 12/20/2001.

2001-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

252

ILC Citizens' Task Force  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the Fermilab ILC Citizens' Task Force June 2008 Report of the Fermilab ILC Citizens' Task Force 3 Contents 1 Executive Summary 3 Chapter 1 Purpose 7 Chapter 2 Origins and Purpose of the Fermilab Citizens' Task Force 15 Chapter 3 Setting the Stage 19 Chapter 4 Current Status of High Energy Physics Research 25 Chapter 5 Bringing the Next-Generation Accelerator to Fermilab 31 Chapter 6 Learning from Past Projects 37 Chapter 7 Location, Construction and Operation of Facilities Beyond Fermilab's Borders 45 Chapter 8 Health and Safety 49 Chapter 9 Environment 53 Chapter 10 Economics 59 Chapter 11 Political Considerations 65 Chapter 12 Community Engagement 77 Chapter 13 Summary 81 Appendices Appendix A. Task Force Members Appendix B. Task Force Meetings and Topics

253

Optica Applicata Vol. XXVIII, No. 3, str. 239, 1998 Magneto-Optical Trap for Rubidium Atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Optica Applicata Vol. XXVIII, No. 3, str. 239, 1998 Magneto-Optical Trap for Rubidium Atoms Jerzy of the lasers used in the set-up. 1. Introduction Atomic physics has noticed recently a rapid development of research on different methods of cooling and trapping of atoms with use of optical forces (light pressure

254

Nano Positioning of Single Atoms in a Micro Cavity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The coupling of individual atoms to a high-finesse optical cavity is precisely controlled and adjusted using a standing-wave dipole-force trap, a challenge for strong atom-cavity coupling. Ultracold Rubidium atoms are first loaded into potential minima of the dipole trap in the center of the cavity. Then we use the trap as a conveyor belt that we set into motion perpendicular to the cavity axis. This allows us to repetitively move atoms out of and back into the cavity mode with a repositioning precision of 135 nm. This makes possible to either selectively address one atom of a string of atoms by the cavity, or to simultaneously couple two precisely separated atoms to a higher mode of the cavity.

Stefan Nussmann; Markus Hijlkema; Bernhard Weber; Felix Rohde; Gerhard Rempe; Axel Kuhn

2005-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

255

7 -ATOMIC PROCESSES Atomic processes can be  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 7 - ATOMIC PROCESSES Atomic processes can be: 1. Scattering 2. Absorption/Thermal Emission scattering, although the results won't change much when this condition is relaxed. Absorption/Thermal Emission Free-free (continuum) ("Bremsstrahlung") Emission/Absorption #12;2 Bound-Bound & Bound

Sitko, Michael L.

256

7 -ATOMIC PROCESSES Atomic processes can be  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 7 - ATOMIC PROCESSES Atomic processes can be: 1. Scattering 2. Absorption/Thermal Emission scattering, although the results won't change much when this condition is relaxed. #12;2 Absorption/Thermal Emission Free-free (continuum) ("Bremsstrahlung") Emission/Absorption Bound-Bound & Bound-Free Processes

Sitko, Michael L.

257

Depolarisation cooling of an atomic cloud  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a cooling scheme based on depolarisation of a polarised cloud of trapped atoms. Similar to adiabatic demagnetisation, we suggest to use the coupling between the internal spin reservoir of the cloud and the external kinetic reservoir via dipolar relaxation to reduce the temperature of the cloud. By optical pumping one can cool the spin reservoir and force the cooling process. In case of a trapped gas of dipolar chromium atoms, we show that this cooling technique can be performed continuously and used to approach the critical phase space density for BEC

S. Hensler; A. Greiner; J. Stuhler; T. Pfau

2005-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

258

Bridge-bonded atomic oxygen on Pt(110)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We use hybrid density-functional theory (DFT) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to study oxygen adsorption on the Pt(110) surface. In the STM images oxygen appear as bright protrusions on the ridges of the “missing row” reconstructed surface. DFT calculations of binding energies for atomic oxygen on a bridge site shows a clear preference over hollow sites.

E. Janin; H. von Schenck; M. Göthelid; U. O. Karlsson; M. Svensson

2000-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

259

Protective Force Program  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

To prescribe Department of Energy policy, responsibilities, and requirements for the management and operation of the Protective Force Program. Chg 1 dated 2-13-95. Cancels DOE O 5632.7 and DOE O 5632.8.

1995-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

260

ATLAS Metadata Task Force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ATLAS Metadata Task Force D. Costanzo, J. Cranshaw, S.provided and approved by the ATLAS TDAQ and DCS Connectinformation, go to http://atlas-connect-forum.web.cern.ch/

Costanzo, D.; ATLAS Collaboration

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic force microscopy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Federal Protective Force  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Manual establishes requirements for the management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Federal protective forces (FPFs). Cancels DOE M 470.4-3, Chg 1. Canceled by DOE O 473.3.

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

262

Constraint and Restoring Force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Long-lived sensor network applications must be able to self-repair and adapt to changing demands. We introduce a new approach for doing so: Constraint and Restoring Force. CRF is a physics-inspired framework for computing ...

Beal, Jacob

2007-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

263

Weak nuclear forces cause the strong nuclear force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We determine the strength of the weak nuclear force which holds the lattices of the elementary particles together. We also determine the strength of the strong nuclear force which emanates from the sides of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is the sum of the unsaturated weak forces at the surface of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is then about ten to the power of 6 times stronger than the weak force between two lattice points.

E. L. Koschmieder

2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

264

Reading Comprehension - Atomic History  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atomic History Atomic History A Greek philosopher named Democritus said that all atoms are small, hard particles. He thought that atoms were made of a single material formed into different shapes and sizes. The word " _________ element compound mixture atom " is derived from the Greek word "atomos" which means "not able to be divided." In 1803, John Dalton, a school teacher, proposed his atomic theory. Dalton's theory states that elements (substances composed of only one type of _________ molecules ions atom ) combine in certain proportions to form _________ compounds atoms mixtures elements . In 1897, a British scientist named J. J. Thomson experimented with a cathode-ray tube which had a positively charged plate. The plate attracted negatively charged particles that we now call _________ protons neutrons

265

The Universe Adventure - Atoms  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Matter and Atoms Matter and Atoms Richard Feynman "If, in some cataclysm, all of scientific knowledge were to be destroyed, and only one sentence passed on to the next generations of creatures, what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that...all things are made of atoms." -Richard P. Feynman, winner of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics All is atoms Matter is made of atoms, and atoms are comprised of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Everything in the Universe is made of matter. Though matter exists in many different forms, each form is made out of the same basic constituents: small particles called atoms. Atoms themselves are made of smaller particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. Protons and neutrons are composed of even smaller particles called quarks.

266

Atomizing nozzle and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High pressure atomizing nozzle includes a high pressure gas manifold having a divergent expansion chamber between a gas inlet and arcuate manifold segment to minimize standing shock wave patterns in the manifold and thereby improve filling of the manifold with high pressure gas for improved melt atomization. The atomizing nozzle is especially useful in atomizing rare earth-transition metal alloys to form fine powder particles wherein a majority of the powder particles exhibit particle sizes having near-optimum magnetic properties.

Anderson, I.E.; Figliola, R.S.; Molnar, H.M.

1993-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

267

A study on the position of boron atoms in (Y0.6Ca0.4)(SrBa)(Cu2.5B0.5)O7-  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The substitution of boron atoms for copper was studied by combining high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) and electron diffraction. The boron atoms were determined to be located at the `chain' Cu sites.

Wang, H.B.

2002-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

268

Microscopy charges ahead | Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Microscopy charges ahead By Jared Sagoff * May 28, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint ARGONNE, Ill. - Ferroelectric materials - substances in which there is a slight and reversible shift of...

269

Atomic Energy Commission : Atomic Power at Shippingport - 1958 Educational Film  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States Atomic Energy Commission & Westinghouse Electric Company take us on a tour of an atomic power station.

None

2013-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

270

Nonlinear Dark-Field Microscopy Hayk Harutyunyan,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/20/2010 Published on Web: 11/16/2010 FIGURE 1. Illustration of the nonlinear dark-field imaging method. Two incidentNonlinear Dark-Field Microscopy Hayk Harutyunyan, Stefano Palomba, Jan Renger, Romain Quidant Dark-field microscopy is a background-free imaging method that provides high sensitivity and a large

Novotny, Lukas

271

Faculty Position in Materials Electron Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Faculty Position in Materials Electron Microscopy at the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in electron microscopy of materials within its Institute of Materials. We seek exceptional individuals who community. Top-level applications are invited from candidates at the cutting edge of electron microscopic

Candea, George

272

Multiphoton microscopy with near infrared contrast  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multiphoton microscopy with near infrared contrast agents Siavash Yazdanfar,a, * Chulmin Joo,a Chun limited to the visible spectrum. We introduce a paradigm for MPM of near-infrared NIR fluorescent Engineers. DOI: 10.1117/1.3420209 Keywords: two-photon microscopy; ultrafast fiber lasers; near-infrared

Larson-Prior, Linda

273

Work Force Restructuring Activities  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Force Restructuring Activities Force Restructuring Activities December 10, 2008 Note: Current updates are in bold # Planned Site/Contractor HQ Approved Separations Status General * LM has finalized the compilation of contractor management team separation data for the end of FY07 actuals and end of FY08 and FY09 projections. LM has submitted to Congress the FY 2007 Annual Report on contractor work force restructuring activities. The report has been posted to the LM website. *LM conducted a DOE complex-wide data call to the Field and Operations offices for DOE Contractor Management teams to provide, by program, actual contractor separation data for the end of FY 2008 and projections for the end of FY 2009 and FY 2010. The data will be used to keep senior management informed of upcoming large WFR actions.

274

Low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and transport measurements on adsorbate-induced two-dimensional electron systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have performed not only magnetotransport measurements on two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) formed at the cleaved surfaces of p-InAs but also observations of the surface morphology of the adsorbate atoms, which induced the 2DES at the surfaces of narrow band-gap semiconductors, with use of a scanning tunneling microscopy. The electron density of the 2DESs is compared to the atomic density of the isolated Ag adatoms on InAs surfaces.

Masutomi, Ryuichi; Triyama, Naotaka; Okamoto, Tohru [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

275

Surface characterization of silica glass substrates treated by atomic hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silica glass substrates with very flat surfaces were exposed to atomic hydrogen at different temperatures and durations. An atomic force microscope was used to measure root-mean-square (RMS) roughness and two-dimensional power spectral density (PSD). In the treatment with atomic hydrogen up to 900 °C, there was no significant change in the surface. By the treatment at 1000 °C, the changes in the RMS roughness and the PSD curves were observed. It was suggested that these changes were caused by etching due to reactions of atomic hydrogen with surface silica. By analysis based on the k-correlation model, it was found that the spatial frequency of the asperities became higher with an increase of the treatment time. Furthermore, the data showed that atomic hydrogen can flatten silica glass surfaces by controlling heat-treatment conditions. - Highlights: • Silica glass surface was treated by atomic hydrogen at various temperatures. • Surface roughness was measured by an atomic force microscope. • Roughness data were analyzed by two-dimensional power spectral density. • Atomic hydrogen can flatten silica glass surfaces.

Inoue, Hiroyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Masuno, Atsunobu, E-mail: masuno@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Ishibashi, Keiji [Canon ANELVA Corporation, Asao-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 215-8550 (Japan); Tawarayama, Hiromasa [Kawazoe Frontier Technologies Corporation, Kuden 931-113, Sakae-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 247-0014 (Japan); Zhang, Yingjiu; Utsuno, Futoshi [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Koya, Kazuo; Fujinoki, Akira [Shin Etsu Quartz Prod. Co., Ltd., Res and Applicat Lab, Fukushima 963-0725 (Japan); Kawazoe, Hiroshi [Kawazoe Frontier Technologies Corporation, Kuden 931-113, Sakae-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 247-0014 (Japan)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

276

Scattering approach to dispersive atom-surface interactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We develop the scattering approach for the dispersive force on a ground state atom on top of a corrugated surface. We present explicit results to first order in the corrugation amplitude. A variety of analytical results are derived in different limiting cases, including the van der Waals and Casimir-Polder regimes. We compute numerically the exact first-order dispersive potential for arbitrary separation distances and corrugation wavelengths, for a Rubidium atom on top of a silicon or gold corrugated surface. We consider in detail the correction to the proximity force approximation, and present a very simple approximation algorithm for computing the potential.

Dalvit, Diego [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Messina, Riccardo [LAB KASTLER BROSSEL; Maia Neto, Paulo [INSTITUTO DE FISICA UFRJ; Lambrecht, Astrid [LAB KASTLER BROSSEL; Reynaud, Serge [LAB KASTLER BROSSEL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Imaging individual dopant atoms on cleavage surfaces of wurtzite-structure compound semiconductors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the identification of bulk-dopant atoms in (112¯0) and (101¯0) cleavage surfaces of wurtzite CdSe in atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy images. The In dopant atoms give rise to elevations (hillocks) of up to 5 nm in diameter in the empty- and occupied-state images. This contrast is simulated and it shows that the dopant atoms are positively charged. Hillocks with different symmetries with respect to the underlying lattice are correlated with different subsurface locations of the In-dopant atoms. Dopant atoms can be observed up to a depth below the surface of 3 to 5 layers. A quantitative analysis of the concentration of dopant atoms in the bulk yield the same values for both surfaces and agrees well with the In content of the crystal. Similar features in CdS(101¯0) surfaces are also attributed to In-dopant atoms.

B. Siemens, C. Domke, M. Heinrich, Ph. Ebert, and K. Urban

1999-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

278

Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

Mccomiskey, Allison

279

Protective Force Program  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Establishes policy, requirements, responsibilities, and authorities, for the management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Extended until 7-7-06 by DOE N 251.64, dated 7-7-05 Cancels: DOE 5632.7A

2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

280

Work Force Discipline  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The order provides guidance and procedures and states responsibilities for maintaining work force discipline in DOE. Chg 1, dated 3-11-85; Chg 2, dated 1-6-86; Chg 3, dated 3-21-89; Chg 4, dated 8-2-90; Chg 5, dated 3-9-92; Chg 6, dated 8-21-92, cancels Chg 5.

1983-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic force microscopy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Contractor Protective Force  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Manual establishes requirements for the management and operation of the U.S. Department of Energy contractor protective forces. Cancels: DOE M 470.4-3 Chg 1, CRD (Attachment 2) only, except for Section C. Canceled by DOE O 473.3.

2008-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

282

ATOMS PEACE WAR Eisenhower  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

ATOMS ATOMS PEACE WAR Eisenhower and the Atomic Energy Commission Richard G. Hewlett and lack M. Roll With a Foreword by Richard S. Kirkendall and an Essay on Sources by Roger M. Anders University of California Press Berkeley Los Angeles London Published 1989 by the University of California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles, California University of California Press, Ltd. London, England Prepared by the Atomic Energy Commission; work made for hire. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Hewlett, Richard G. Atoms for peace and war, 1953-1961. (California studies in the history of science) Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Nuclear energy-United States-History. 2. U.S. Atomic Energy Commission-History. 3. Eisenhower, Dwight D. (Dwight David), 1890-1969.

283

NCEM National Center for Electron Microscopy: Microscopes and Facilities:  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SPLEEM SPLEEM Publications Imaging Spin Reorientation Transitions in Consecutive Atomic Co layers, Farid El Gabaly, Silvia Gallego, M. Carmen Munoz, Laszlo Szunyogh, Peter Weinberger, Kevin F. McCarty, Christof Klein, Andreas K. Schmid, Juan de la Figuera, submitted Direct imaging of spin-reorientation transitions in ultra-thin Ni films by spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy, C. Klein, A. K. Schmid, R. Ramchal, and M. Farle, submitted Controlling the kinetic order of spin-reorientation transitions in Ni/Cu(100) films by tuning the substrate step-structure, C. Klein, R. Ramchal, A.K. Schmid, M. Farle, submitted Self-organization and magnetic domain microstructure of Fe nanowire arrays, N. Rougemaille and A.K. Schmid, submitted Self-Assembled Nanofold Network Formation on Layered Crystal Surfaces

284

Electronic structure of wurtzite II-VI compound semiconductor cleavage surfaces studied by scanning tunneling microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of cleavage surfaces of wurtzite II-VI compound semiconductors. CdSe(112¯0), CdSe(101¯0), and CdS(101¯0) were investigated. The STM images confirm a 1×1 reconstruction for all surfaces. At negative and positive sample voltages the occupied and empty dangling-bond states above anions and cations, respectively, dominate the contrast of the STM images. No states in the band gap were found. The electronic structure of the surface permits the observation of dopant atoms in subsurface layers and thus also cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy studies of point defects and heterostructures.

B. Siemens, C. Domke, Ph. Ebert, and K. Urban

1997-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

Atomic Collapse Observed  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Scientists Observe Atomic Collapse State Quantum Mechanics Prediction Confirmed in Graphene Using NERSC's Hopper April 26, 2013 | Tags: Hopper, Materials Science Contact: Linda...

286

Multiplicative Sets of Atoms.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??It is possible for an element to have both an atom factorization and a factorization that will always contain a reducible element. This leads us… (more)

Rand, Ashley Nicole

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Improved graphite furnace atomizer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A graphite furnace atomizer for use in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy is described wherein the heating elements are affixed near the optical path and away from the point of sample deposition, so that when the sample is volatilized the spectroscopic temperature at the optical path is at least that of the volatilization temperature, whereby analyteconcomitant complex formation is advantageously reduced. The atomizer may be elongated along its axis to increase the distance between the optical path and the sample deposition point. Also, the atomizer may be elongated along the axis of the optical path, whereby its analytical sensitivity is greatly increased.

Siemer, D.D.

1983-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

288

Atom Nano-Optics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nanolocalized light fields composed of photon dots and photon holes are being used to control the motion of atoms on a nanometer spatial scale.

Balykin, Victor; Klimov, Vasilii; Letokhov, Vladilen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Spatially resolved quantitative mapping of thermomechanical properties and phase transition temperatures using scanning probe microscopy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An approach for the thermomechanical characterization of phase transitions in polymeric materials (polyethyleneterephthalate) by band excitation acoustic force microscopy is developed. This methodology allows the independent measurement of resonance frequency, Q factor, and oscillation amplitude of a tip-surface contact area as a function of tip temperature, from which the thermal evolution of tip-surface spring constant and mechanical dissipation can be extracted. A heating protocol maintained a constant tip-surface contact area and constant contact force, thereby allowing for reproducible measurements and quantitative extraction of material properties including temperature dependence of indentation-based elastic and loss moduli.

Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V; Nikiforov, Maxim P

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

290

Structural materials: understanding atomic scale microstructures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the ability to locate and identify atoms in three dimensions, atom-probe tomography (APT) has revolutionized our understanding of structure-property relationships in materials used for structural applications. The atomic-scale details of clusters, second phases, and microstructural defects that control alloy properties have been investigated, providing an unprecedented level of detail on the origins of aging behavior, strength, creep, fracture toughness, corrosion, and irradiation resistance. Moreover, atomic-scale microscopy combined with atomistic simulation and theoretical modeling of material behavior can guide new alloy design. In this article, selected examples highlight how APT has led to a deeper understanding of materials structures and therefore properties, starting with the phase transformations controlling the aging and strengthening behavior of complex Al-, Fe-, and Ni-based alloys systems. The chemistry of interfaces and structural defects that play a crucial role in high-temperature strengthening, fracture, and corrosion resistance are also discussed, with particular reference to Zr- and Al-alloys and FeAl intermetallics.

Marquis, E A [University of Oxford; Miller, Michael K [ORNL; Blavette, D [Universite de Rouen, France; Ringer, S. P. [University of Sydney, Australia; Sudbrack, C [Northwestern University, Evanston; Smith, G.D.W. [University of Oxford

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Impact of titanium addition on film characteristics of HfO{sub 2} gate dielectrics deposited by atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The impact of 8-to 45-at. % Ti on physical and electrical characteristics of atomic-layer-deposited and annealed hafnium dioxide was studied using vacuum-ultraviolet spectroscopic ellipsometry, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray reflectometry. The role of Ti addition on the electrical performance is investigated using molybdenum (Mo)-gated capacitors. The film density decreases with increasing Ti addition. Ti addition stabilizes the amorphous phase of HfO{sub 2}, resulting in amorphous films as deposited. After a high-temperature annealing, the films transition from an amorphous to a polycrystalline phase. Orthorhombic Hf-Ti-O peaks are detected in polycrystalline films containing 33-at. % or higher Ti content. As Ti content is decreased, monoclinic HfO{sub 2} becomes the predominant microstructure. No TiSi is formed at the dielectric/Si interface, indicating films with good thermal stability. The band gap of Hf-Ti-O was found to be lower than that of HfO{sub 2}. Well-behaved capacitance-voltage and leakage current density-voltage characteristics were obtained for Hf-Ti-O. However, an increased leakage current density was observed with Ti addition. The data from capacitance-voltage stressing indicate a smaller flatband voltage (V{sub fb}) shift in the HfO{sub 2} films with low Ti content when compared with the HfO{sub 2} films. This indicates less charge trapping with a small amount of Ti addition.

Triyoso, D.H.; Hegde, R.I.; Zollner, S.; Ramon, M.E.; Kalpat, S.; Gregory, R.; Wang, X.-D.; Jiang, J.; Raymond, M.; Rai, R.; Werho, D.; Roan, D.; White, B.E. Jr.; Tobin, P.J. [Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Advanced Products Research and Development Laboratory, 3501 Ed Bluestein Boulevard, Austin, Texas 78721 (United States)

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Nucleation of solid solutions crystallizing from aqueous solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...001) with atomic force microscopy. Chem...studied with atomic force microscopy. Colloids...Sarig, S. 1993 Fundamentals of crystal growth. In Handbook of crystal growth...planetary science. In Handbook of crystal growth...

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Fast scanning two-photon microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fast scanning two-photon microscopy coupled with the use light activated ion channels provides the basis for fast imaging and stimulation in the characterization of in vivo neural networks. A two-photon microscope capable ...

Chang, Jeremy T

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Dark Field Microscopy for Analytical Laboratory Courses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An innovative and inexpensive optical microscopy experiment for a quantitative analysis or an instrumental analysis chemistry course is described. The students have hands-on experience with a dark field microscope and investigate the wavelength dependence ...

Ashley E. Augspurger; Anthony S. Stender; Kyle Marchuk; Thomas J. Greenbowe; Ning Fang

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Photon tunnelling microscopy of polyethylene single crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photon tunnelling microscopy of polyethylene single crystals Mohan Srinivasarao* and Richard S:photon tunnellingmicroscopy;single crystals; polyethylene) INTRODUCTION The study of morphology of polymers is an area

Srinivasarao, Mohan

296

ARMY SERVICE FORCES  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

ARMY SERVICE FORCES ARMY SERVICE FORCES ' -, 1 MANHATTAN ENGINEER DISTRICT --t 4 IN "LPLI RC,' LR io EIDM CIS INTELLIGENCE AND SECURITY DIVISION CHICAGO BRANCH OFFICE i ., -,* - P. 0. Box 6770-A I ' 1 .' CHICAGO 80. ILLINOIS /lvb 15 February 1945 Subject: shipment Security Survey at &Uinckrodt Chemical Works. MEMORANDUM to the Officer in Charge. 1. The Mallinckrodt Chemical Works, St. Louis, Missouri, was contacted by the undersigned on 16 November 1944, for the purpose of -king an investigation to determine security provided shipments of interest to the Manhattan Engineer District. The investigation in- cluded shipments of vital materials originating with the Mallinckrodt Company and those received by them. Particular attention has been given to the future production and shipment schedules of these materials.

297

Atoms for Peace Awards  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Technology, is to be chairman of the Organization and Planning Committee of Atoms for Peace Awards. In addition to Dr. Killian, the Committee will include Dr. Detlev W. ... and Dr. Alan Waterman, director of the National Science Foundation. The Atoms for Peace Awards, it will be recalled, were established last summer as a memorial to Henry Ford ...

1955-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

298

Hirshfeld atom refinement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The new automated iterative Hirshfeld atom refinement method is explained and validated through comparison of structural models of Gly-L-Ala obtained from synchrotron X-ray and neutron diffraction data at 12, 50, 150 and 295 K. Structural parameters involving hydrogen atoms are determined with comparable precision from both experiments and agree mostly to within two combined standard uncertainties.

Capelli, S.C.

2014-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

299

Modified entropic force  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The theory of statistical thermodynamics tells us the equipartition law of energy does not hold in the limit of very low temperatures. It is found the Debye model is very successful in explaining the experimental results for most of the solid objects. Motivated by this fact, we modify the entropic force formula which is proposed very recently. Since the Unruh temperature is proportional to the strength of the gravitational field, so the modified entropic force formula is an extension of the Newtonian gravity to the weak field. On the contrary, general relativity extends Newtonian gravity to the strong field case. Corresponding to Debye temperature, there exists a Debye acceleration g{sub D}. It is found the Debye acceleration is g{sub D}=10{sup -15} N kg{sup -1}. This acceleration is very much smaller than the gravitational acceleration 10{sup -4} N kg{sup -1} which is felt by Neptune and the gravitational acceleration 10{sup -10} N kg{sup -1} felt by the Sun. Therefore, the modified entropic force can be very well approximated by the Newtonian gravity in the Solar System and in the Galaxy. With this Debye acceleration, we find the current cosmic speeding up can be explained without invoking any kind of dark energy.

Gao Changjun [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, NAOC, CAS, Beijing, 100012 and Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

300

Atomic dark matter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose that dark matter is dominantly comprised of atomic bound states. We build a simple model and map the parameter space that results in the early universe formation of hydrogen-like dark atoms. We find that atomic dark matter has interesting implications for cosmology as well as direct detection: Weak-scale dark atoms can accommodate hyperfine splittings of order 100 keV, consistent with the inelastic dark matter interpretation of the DAMA data while naturally evading direct detection bounds. Moreover, protohalo formation can be suppressed below M{sub proto} ? 10{sup 3}–10{sup 6}M{sub s}un for weak scale dark matter due to Ion-Radiation and Ion-Atom interactions in the dark sector.

Kaplan, David E.; Krnjaic, Gordan Z.; Rehermann, Keith R.; Wells, Christopher M., E-mail: dkaplan@pha.jhu.edu, E-mail: gordan@pha.jhu.edu, E-mail: keith@pha.jhu.edu, E-mail: cwells13@pha.jhu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States)

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic force microscopy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Soft, entirely photoplastic probes for scanning force microscopy G. Genolet,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The stiffness of a cantilever is given by its spring constant k Ewt3 /4l3 where w, t, and l denote the width with integrated tips made with a batch molding technique. II. DESCRIPTION AND FABRICATION OF PHOTOPLASTIC PROBES

Bielefeld, Universität

302

Data Reconstruction from a Hard Disk Drive using Magnetic Force Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

flying over the magnetization pattern written on the disk,disks be free of even microscopic particles, since the flying

Kanekal, Vasu

303

Measuring Forces between Protein Fibers by Microscopy Christopher W. Jones,* J. C. Wang,y  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

b-amyloid, actin, and tubulin. INTRODUCTION Sickle cell anemia is a blood disorder in which a genetic mutation leads to the transcription of sickle hemoglobin (HbS). A good review of sickle cell and the associated pathologies can be found in Eaton and Hofrichter (1990). The main pathology of sickle cell anemia

Turner, Matthew

304

A 4 K cryogenic probe for use in magnetic resonance force microscopy experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The detailed design of a mechanically detected nuclear magnetic resonance probe using the SPAM (Springiness Preservation by Aligning Magnetization) geometry, operating at 4 K, in vacuum, and a several-Tesla magnetic field is described. The probe head is vibration-isolated well enough from the environment by a three-spring suspension system that the cantilever achieves thermal equilibrium with the environment without the aid of eddy current damping. The probe uses an ultra-soft Si cantilever with a Ni sphere attached to its tip, and magnetic resonance is registered as a change in the resonant frequency of the driven cantilever. The RF system uses frequency sweeps for adiabatic rapid passage using a 500 ?m diameter RF coil wound around a sapphire rod. The RF coil and optical fiber of the interferometer used to sense the cantilever's position are both located with respect to the cantilever using a Garbini micropositioner, and the sample stage is mounted on an Attocube nanopositioner.

Smith, Doran D.; Alexson, Dimitri A. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States)] [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States); Garbini, Joseph L. [Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)] [Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

305

Analytical electron microscopy of rapidly solidified metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Examples of the need to characterize rapidly solidified metals on submicron scale are given for centrifugally atomized steel powder and electrohydrodynamically atomized submicron spheres. Materials studied include Fe-40wt% Ni, 304 SS, Fe-20at.%Co, and pure V.

Kelly, T.F.; Holzman, L.M.; Shin, K.; Kim, Y.W.; Bae, J.C.; Flinn, J.E.; Camus, P.P.; Melmed, A.J.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

306

In-situ Transmission Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy Studies...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transmission Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy Studies of Interfaces in Li-ion Batteries: Challenges and In-situ Transmission Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy Studies of...

307

Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

308

Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle...

309

Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen...

310

Norms of Presentational Force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

://www.americanforensics.org/uploaded-files/tc_41_3_w05.pdf. Open Access version: http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/dspace/. 15 hope to illustrate the close connection between emotional appeal and premise adequacy. After arguing that the Declaration of Independence and Constitution secure...Innocenti Manolescu, Beth. "Norms of Presentational Force." Argumentation and Advocacy 41 (2005): 139-51. Official publisher’s version: http://www.americanforensics.org/uploaded-files/tc_41_3_w05.pdf. 1 Citation: Innocenti Manolescu, Beth...

Innocenti, Beth

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Impact of graphene coating on the atom-plate interaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using the recently proposed quantum electrodynamical formalism, we calculate the Casimir-Polder free energies and forces between the ground state atoms of Rb, Na, Cs and He${}^{\\ast}$ and the plates made of Au, Si, sapphire and fused silica coated with a graphene sheet. It is shown that the graphene coating has no effect on the Casimir-Polder interaction for metallic plates, but influences significantly for plates made of dielectric materials. The influence of graphene coating increases with decreasing static dielectric permittivity of the plate material and the characteristic frequency of an atomic dynamic polarizability. Simple analytic expressions for the classical limit of the Casimir-Polder free energy and force between an atom and a graphene-coated plate are obtained. From the comparison with the results of numerical computations, the application region of these expressions is determined.

G. L. Klimchitskaya; V. M. Mostepanenko

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

312

general_atomics.cdr  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

former former General Atomics Hot Cell Facility was constructed in 1959 and operated until 1991. The site encompassed approximately 7,400 square feet of laboratory and remote operations cells. Licensed operations at the facility included receipt, handling, and shipment of radioactive materials; remote handling, examination, and storage of previously irradiated nuclear fuel materials; pilot-scale tritium extraction operations; and development, fabrication, and inspection of uranium oxide-beryllium oxide fuel materials. General Atomics performed most of the work for the federal government. The General Atomics Hot Cell Facility was located in a 60-acre complex 13 miles northwest of downtown San Diego, 1 mile inland from the Pacific Ocean, and approximately 300 feet above sea level. The General Atomics site is in the center of Torrey Mesa Science Center, a 304-acre industrial

313

Uncertainties on Atomic Data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Selected papers from IAEA-NFRI Technical Meeting on Data Evaluation for Atomic, Molecular and Plasma-Material Interaction Processes in Fusion, September 4-7, 2012, Daejeon, Republic of Korea

C. P. Ballance; S. D. Loch; A. R. Foster; R. K. Smith; M. C. Witthoeft; T. R. Kallman

314

Relativistic Atomic Structure Calculations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This review surveys methods for computing the electronic structures of atoms based on the use of relativistic quantum mechanics. The main mathematical formulas are presented with some account of the underlying...

Ian P. Grant

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

general_atomics.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

300 feet above sea level. The General Atomics site is in the center of Torrey Mesa Science Center, a 304-acre industrial park. No ground water wells are at or near the Hot Cell...

316

The Harnessed Atom | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Atom The Harnessed Atom The Harnessed Atom The Harnessed Atom is a new middle school science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) curriculum extension that focuses on...

317

Optical imaging of Rydberg atoms .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??We present an experiment exploring electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in Rydberg atoms in order to observe optical nonlinearities at the single photon level. ??Rb atoms… (more)

Mazurenko, Anton

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Rydberg Atoms for Quantum Information.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??I examine interactions between ensembles of cold Rydberg atoms, and between Rydberg atoms and an intense, optical standing wave. Because of their strong electrostatic interactions,… (more)

Younge, Kelly Cooper

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Optical atomic magnetometer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical atomic magnetometers is provided operating on the principles of nonlinear magneto-optical rotation. An atomic vapor is optically pumped using linearly polarized modulated light. The vapor is then probed using a non-modulated linearly polarized light beam. The resulting modulation in polarization angle of the probe light is detected and used in a feedback loop to induce self-oscillation at the resonant frequency.

Budker, Dmitry; Higbie, James; Corsini, Eric P

2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

320

Infrared Scattering Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy Using An External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser For Nanoscale Chemical Imaging And Spectroscopy of Explosive Residues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Infrared scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) is an apertureless superfocusing technique that uses the antenna properties of a conducting atomic force microscope (AFM) tip to achieve infrared spatial resolution below the diffraction limit. The instrument can be used either in imaging mode, where a fixed wavelength light source is tuned to a molecular resonance and the AFM raster scans an image, or in spectroscopy mode where the AFM is held stationary over a feature of interest and the light frequency is varied to obtain a spectrum. In either case, a strong, stable, coherent infrared source is required. Here we demonstrate the integration of a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) into an s-SNOM and use it to obtain infrared spectra of microcrystals of chemicals adsorbed onto gold substrates. Residues of the explosive compound tetryl was deposited onto gold substrates. s-SNOM experiments were performed in the 1260-1400 cm?1 tuning range of the ECQCL, corresponding to the NO2 symmetric stretch vibrational fingerprint region. Vibrational infrared spectra were collected on individual chemical domains with a collection area of *500nm2 and compared to ensemble averaged far-field reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) results.

Craig, Ian M.; Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Josberger, Erik E.; Raschke, Markus Bernd

2013-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic force microscopy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Atomic mass compilation 2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic mass reflects the total binding energy of all nucleons in an atomic nucleus. Compilations and evaluations of atomic masses and derived quantities, such as neutron or proton separation energies, are indispensable tools for research and applications. In the last decade, the field has evolved rapidly after the advent of new production and measuring techniques for stable and unstable nuclei resulting in substantial ameliorations concerning the body of data and their precision. Here, we present a compilation of atomic masses comprising the data from the evaluation of 2003 as well as the results of new measurements performed. The relevant literature in refereed journals and reports as far as available, was scanned for the period beginning 2003 up to and including April 2012. Overall, 5750 new data points have been collected. Recommended values for the relative atomic masses have been derived and a comparison with the 2003 Atomic Mass Evaluation has been performed. This work has been carried out in collaboration with and as a contribution to the European Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Network of Evaluations.

Pfeiffer, B., E-mail: bpfeiffe@uni-mainz.de [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Gießen (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Venkataramaniah, K. [Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Prasanthinilayam (India)] [Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Prasanthinilayam (India); Czok, U. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Gießen (Germany)] [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Gießen (Germany); Scheidenberger, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany) [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Gießen (Germany)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

322

Instrument Series: Microscopy Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Environmental Transmission Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope EMSL's environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM) provides in situ capabilities that enable atomic-resolution imaging and spectroscopic studies of materials under dynamic operating conditions. In contrast to traditional operation of TEM under high vacuum, EMSL's ETEM uniquely allows imaging within high- temperature and gas environments-with a gas pressure up to 20 Torr. With a spherical aberration corrector for the objective lens, the ETEM captures atomic-level processes as they occur, enabling vital research across a range of scientific fields. Research Applications Chemical science and engineering - providing in situ observation of catalytic processes with atomic-level resolution Materials science and engineering - allowing

323

Casimir-Lifshitz force out of thermal equilibrium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the Casimir-Lifshitz interaction out of thermal equilibrium, when the interacting objects are at different temperatures. The analysis is focused on the surface-surface, surface-rarefied body, and surface-atom configurations. A systematic investigation of the contributions to the force coming from the propagating and evanescent components of the electromagnetic radiation is performed. The large distance behaviors of such interactions is discussed, and both analytical and numerical results are compared with the equilibrium ones. A detailed analysis of the crossing between the surface-surface and the surface-rarefied body, and finally the surface-atom force is shown, and a complete derivation and discussion of the recently predicted nonadditivity effects and asymptotic behaviors is presented.

Antezza, Mauro; Stringari, Sandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM R and D Center on Bose-Einstein Condensation, Via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Pitaevskii, Lev P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM R and D Center on Bose-Einstein Condensation, Via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy)]|[Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems, ul. Kosygina 2, 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Svetovoy, Vitaly B. [MESA Research Institute, University of Twente, PO 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

Van der Waals and Casimir interactions between atoms and carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The van der Waals and Casimir interactions of a hydrogen atom (molecule) with a single-walled and a multiwalled carbon nanotubes are compared. It is shown that the macroscopic concept of graphite dielectric permittivity is already applicable for nanotubes with only two or three walls. The absorption of hydrogen atoms by a nanotube at separations below one nanometer is considered. The lateral force due to exchange repulsion moves the atom to a position above the cell center, where it is absorbed by the nanotube because the repulsive force cannot balance the van der Waals attraction.

G. L. Klimchitskaya; E. V. Blagov; V. M. Mostepanenko

2008-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

325

TEXT Pro Force Training  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Basic Protective Basic Protective Force Training Program DOE/IG-0641 March 2004 * None of the 10 sites included instruction in rappelling even though it was part of the special response team core curriculum and continued to be offered by the Nonprolif- eration and National Security Institute; * Only one site conducted basic training on use of a shotgun, despite the fact that a num- ber of sites used the weapon for breaching exercises and other purposes; and, * Seven of the sites modified prescribed training techniques by reducing the intensity or delivery method for skills that some security experts characterized as critical, such as handcuffing, hand-to- hand combat, and vehicle assaults. We found that the Department's facilities were not required to report departures from the core

326

Peaceful Uses of the Atom and Atoms for Peace  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Peaceful Uses of the Atom Peaceful Uses of the Atom Fermi and Atoms for Peace · Understanding the Atom · Seaborg · Teller Atoms for Peace Atoms for Peace + 50 - Conference, October 22, 2003 Celebrating the 50th anniversary of President Eisenhower's "Atoms for Peace" speech to the UN General Assembly Atoms for Peace (video 12:00 Minutes) Atoms for Peace Address given by Dwight D. Eisenhower before the General Assembly of the United Nations, New York City, December 8, 1953 Documents: Atomic Power in Space: A History A history of the Space Isotope Power Program of the United States from the mid-1950s through 1982; interplanetary space exploration successes and achievements have been made possible by this technology. Establishing Site X: Letter, Arthur H. Compton to Enrico Fermi, September 14, 1942

327

Aberration-Coreected Electron Microscopy at Brookhaven National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The last decade witnessed the rapid development and implementation of aberration correction in electron optics, realizing a more-than-70-year-old dream of aberration-free electron microscopy with a spatial resolution below one angstrom [1-9]. With sophisticated aberration correctors, modern electron microscopes now can reveal local structural information unavailable with neutrons and x-rays, such as the local arrangement of atoms, order/disorder, electronic inhomogeneity, bonding states, spin configuration, quantum confinement, and symmetry breaking [10-17]. Aberration correction through multipole-based correctors, as well as the associated improved stability in accelerating voltage, lens supplies, and goniometers in electron microscopes now enables medium-voltage (200-300kV) microscopes to achieve image resolution at or below 0.1nm. Aberration correction not only improves the instrument's spatial resolution but, equally importantly, allows larger objective lens pole-piece gaps to be employed thus realizing the potential of the instrument as a nanoscale property-measurement tool. That is, while retaining high spatial resolution, we can use various sample stages to observe the materials response under various temperature, electric- and magnetic- fields, and atmospheric environments. Such capabilities afford tremendous opportunities to tackle challenging science and technology issues in physics, chemistry, materials science, and biology. The research goal of the electron microscopy group at the Dept. of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science and the Center for Functional Nanomaterials, as well as the Institute for Advanced Electron Microscopy, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), is to elucidate the microscopic origin of the physical- and chemical-behavior of materials, and the role of individual, or groups of atoms, especially in their native functional environments. We plan to accomplish this by developing and implementing various quantitative electron microscopy techniques in strongly correlated electron systems and nanostructured materials. As a first step, with the support of Materials Science Division, Office of Basic Energy Science, US Department of Energy, and the New York State Office of Science, Technology, and Academic Research, recently we acquired three aberration-corrected electron microscopes from the three major microscope manufacturers, i.e., JEOL, Hitachi, and FEI. The Hitachi HD2700C is equipped with a probe corrector, the FEI Titan 80-300 has an imaging corrector, while the JEOL2200MCO has both. All the correctors are of the dual-hexapole type, designed and manufactured by CEOS GmbH based on the design due to Rose and Haider [3, 18]. All these three are one-of-a-kind in the US, designed for specialized capabilities in characterizing nanoscale structure. In this chapter, we review the performance of these state-of-the art instruments and the new challenges associated with the improved spatial resolution, including the environment requirements of the laboratory that hosts these instruments. Although each instrument we describe here has its own strengths and drawbacks, it is not our intention to rank them in terms of their performance, especially their spatial resolution in imaging.

Zhu,Y.; Wall, J.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

A micropatterning and image processing approach to simplify measurement of cellular traction forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of traction force microscopy on polyacrylamide (PAA) gels that addresses limitations of existing technologies. Through an indirect pat- terning technique, we generated PAA gels with fluorescent 1 lm dot markers (PAA) hydrogels are popular substrates for this purpose, although PAA substrates first have

329

Lesson 3- Atoms and Isotopes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

You’ve probably heard people refer to nuclear energy as “atomic energy.” Why? Nuclear energy is the energy that is stored in the bonds of atoms, inside the nucleus. Nuclear power plants are designed to capture this energy as heat and convert it to electricity. This lesson looks closely at what atoms are and how atoms store energy.

330

Educational Multiwavelength Atomic Emission Spectrometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

atomic absorption is the capability for simultaneous multielement analysis. It can be used colleges had acquired atomic absorption instruments by the year 1990.[2] In contrast, atomic emission with the acetylene-air flame source taken from an existing atomic absorption instrument. Two spectrometer units

Nazarenko, Alexander

331

Spatial resolution in vector potential photoelectron microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The experimental spatial resolution of vector potential photoelectron microscopy is found to be much higher than expected because of the cancellation of one of the expected contributions to the point spread function. We present a new calculation of the spatial resolution with support from finite element ray tracing, and experimental results.

Browning, R. [R. Browning Consultants, 1 Barnhart Place, Shoreham, New York 11786 (United States)] [R. Browning Consultants, 1 Barnhart Place, Shoreham, New York 11786 (United States)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

332

Physical sectioning in 3D biological microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

developed in the Brain Networks Laboratory at Texas A&M University, has been used for the purpose of this study. However, the modes of characterizing chatter and its measurement are equally applicable to all current variants of 3D biological microscopy using...

Guntupalli, Jyothi Swaroop

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

333

Physical sectioning in 3D biological microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

developed in the Brain Networks Laboratory at Texas A&M University, has been used for the purpose of this study. However, the modes of characterizing chatter and its measurement are equally applicable to all current variants of 3D biological microscopy using...

Guntupalli, Jyothi Swaroop

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

Feature Article NEXAFS microscopy and resonant scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and conven- tional electron, X-ray and neutron scattering. We provide an overview of these synchrotron based and derivative struc- tures, ranging from spectroscopy to mechanical analysis and neutron scattering [9,10]. SomeFeature Article NEXAFS microscopy and resonant scattering: Composition and orientation probed

Hitchcock, Adam P.

335

Classical Casimir-Polder force between polarizable microparticles and thin films including graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We derive analytic expressions for the classical Casimir-Polder free energy and force for a polarizable (magnetizable) atom (microparticle) interacting with thin films, made of different materials, or graphene. It is shown that for an isolated dielectric film the free energy and force decrease quicker with separation, as compared to the case of atom interacting with a thick plate (semispace). For metallic films some peculiar features depending on the model of a metal used are analyzed. For an atom interacting with graphene we demonstrate that at room temperature the classical regime is achieved at about $1.5\\,\\mu$m separation. In this regime the contributions to the free energy and force due to atomic magnetic polarizability are suppressed, as compared to main terms caused by the atomic electric polarizability. According to our results, at separations above $5\\,\\mu$m the Casimir-Polder interaction of atoms with graphene is of the same strength as with an ideal-metal plane. The classical interaction of atoms with thin films deposited on substrates is also considered.

G. L. Klimchitskaya; V. M. Mostepanenko

2014-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

336

Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy: from atomic imaging and analysis to solving energy problems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...in solving the pressing energy problems facing us today...Discussion Meeting Issue New possibilities with aberration-corrected...Wang), pp.152-191. New York, NY: Springer. Pennycook...and analysis to solving energy problems. | The new possibilities of aberration-corrected...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy: from atomic imaging and analysis to solving energy problems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...fuels, but the conversion efficiency of...into electrical energy is limited by...functionality in energy conversion devices such as...insights into the carrier dynamics in the...ability to study energy conversion processes in materials...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Steven Chu: Laser Cooling and Trapping of Atoms  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Steven Chu Steven Chu Laser Cooling and Trapping of Atoms Resources with Additional Information · Interviews, Speeches, and Presentations · Patents Steven Chu Photo Credit: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Roy Kaltschmidt, Photographer Steven Chu was appointed by President Barack Obama to be the 12th Secretary of Energy and served in this capacity until April 22, 2013. He was previously Director of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Professor in the Physics Department at the University of California, Berkeley, and 'the Theodore and Frances Geballe Professor of Physics and Applied Physics at Stanford University. Professor Chu's research is in atomic physics, polymer and biophysics. His thesis and postdoctoral work at Berkeley ... was the observation of parity non-conservation in atomic transitions in 1978. This experiment was one of the earliest atomic physics confirmations of the Weinberg-Salam-Glashow theory that unifies the weak and electromagnetic forces.

339

Steven Chu: Laser Cooling and Trapping of Atoms  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Steven Chu Steven Chu Laser Cooling and Trapping of Atoms Resources with Additional Information · Interviews, Speeches, and Presentations · Patents Steven Chu Photo Credit: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Roy Kaltschmidt, Photographer Steven Chu was appointed by President Barack Obama to be the 12th Secretary of Energy and served in this capacity until April 22, 2013. He was previously Director of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Professor in the Physics Department at the University of California, Berkeley, and 'the Theodore and Frances Geballe Professor of Physics and Applied Physics at Stanford University. Professor Chu's research is in atomic physics, polymer and biophysics. His thesis and postdoctoral work at Berkeley ... was the observation of parity non-conservation in atomic transitions in 1978. This experiment was one of the earliest atomic physics confirmations of the Weinberg-Salam-Glashow theory that unifies the weak and electromagnetic forces.

340

Protective Force Firearms Qualification Courses  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

PROTECTIVE FORCE PROTECTIVE FORCE FIREARMS QUALIFICATION COURSES U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Health, Safety and Security AVAILABLE ONLINE AT: INITIATED BY: http://www.hss.energy.gov Office of Health, Safety and Security Protective Force Firearms Qualification Courses July 2011 i TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION A - APPROVED FIREARMS QUALIFICATION COURSES .......................... I-1 CHAPTER I . INTRODUCTION ................................................................................... I-1 1. Scope .................................................................................................................. I-1 2. Content ............................................................................................................... I-1

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic force microscopy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

general_atomics.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

former General former General Atomics Hot Cell Facility was constructed in 1959 and operated until 1991. The site encompassed approximately 7,400 square feet of laboratory and remote operations cells. Licensed operations at the facility included receipt, handling, and shipment of radioactive materials; remote handling, examination, and storage of previously irradiated nuclear fuel materials; pilot-scale tritium extraction operations; and development, fabrication, and inspection of uranium oxide-beryllium oxide fuel materials. General Atomics performed most of the work for the federal government. The General Atomics Hot Cell Facility was located in a 60-acre complex 13 miles northwest of downtown San Diego, 1 mile inland from the Pacific Ocean, and approximately 300 feet above sea level.

342

Air Force Renewable Energy Programs  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation covers Air Force Renewable Energy Programs and is given at the Spring 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting.

343

PHYSICAL REVIEW 8 VOLUME NVMBEH. 4 &5 I.ESHUAHY Nonadditive forces and vacancies in rare-gas crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PHYSICAL REVIEW 8 VOLUME NVMBEH. 4 &5 I.ESHUAHY»» Nonadditive forces and vacancies in rare since overlap between adjacent atoms is small. A molecular model of the vacancy problem is set up. It is then seen that short-range three-body forces contribute a negligible fraction of the vacancy formation

Glyde, Henry R.

344

Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Atomic Josephson vortices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We show that Josephson vortices in a quasi-one-dimensional atomic Bose Josephson junction can be controllably manipulated by imposing a difference of chemical potentials on the atomic Bose-Einstein condensate waveguides forming the junction. This effect, which has its origin in the Berry phase structure of a vortex, turns out to be very robust in the whole range of the parameters where such vortices can exist. We also propose that a Josephson vortex can be created by the phase imprinting technique and can be identified by a specific tangential feature in the interference picture produced by expanding clouds released from the waveguides.

Kaurov, V. M.; Kuklov, A. B. [Department of Engineering Science and Physics, College of Staten Island, CUNY, Staten Island, New York 10314 (United States)

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

346

Ge atom distribution in buried dome islands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser-assisted atom probe tomography microscopy is used to provide direct and quantitative compositional measurements of tri-dimensional Ge distribution in Ge dome islands buried by Si. Sub-nanometer spatial resolution 3D imaging shows that islands keep their facets after deposition of the Si cap, and that the island/substrate/Si cap interfaces are abrupt. The core of the domes contains 55% of Ge, while the island shell exhibits a constant composition of 15% of Ge. The {l_brace}113{r_brace} facets of the islands present a Ge enrichment up to 35%. The wetting layer composition is not homogeneous, varying from 9.5% to 30% of Ge.

Portavoce, A.; Berbezier, I.; Ronda, A.; Mangelinck, D. [CNRS, IM2NP, Case 142, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Hoummada, K. [Aix-Marseille Universite, IM2NP, Case 142, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

347

Atomic Scientists Brief Congress  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Topics covered included underground explosions to produce energy, chemicals, or petroleum; advanced reactors capable of producing chemicals; atomic power for space propulsion; direct conversion of heat energy to electricity; and controlled thermonuclear reactions. ... (For details on controlled fusion research see page 46.) ...

1960-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

348

Atomic Power in Japan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

NUCLEAR ENERGY will provide most of the power requirements in Japan by the end of this century. So predicts Charles H. Weaver, vice president in charge of atomic power activities for Westinghouse Electric.Addressing the Conference on Peaceful Uses of ...

1957-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

349

Bohr's model: Extreme atoms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... by bombarding atoms with accelerated protons, then slow them down by passing them through metallic foil, cool them with cold electrons and trap them with electromagnetic fields. A similar trap ... Curiosity and national pride undoubtedly have a role, with politicians and scientists both looking to stamp their country's name into a new box on the periodic table. But each ...

Richard Van Noorden

2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

350

Magnetism and Atomic Structure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... the information with regard to the atom has been obtained by studying spectra; chemistry, magnetism, X-ray scattering, etc., play only a subsidiary part. We must admit, ... for fresh sources of information. Much may be said in support of the opinion that magnetism will open a new way by which to approach the study of the structure of ...

P. KAPITZA

1927-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

351

The Forces which lift Aeroplanes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... cylinder. To avoid unnecessary complications we use Heaviside's rational electromagnetic units. Then the hydroelectric current i equals the line-integral of the hydro-magnetic force, i.e. of ... actions-at-a-distance. From the propeller blade the way is not far to the turbine blade. The type of driving force will remain the same whether the driving medium ...

V. K. F. BJERKNES

1924-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

352

Ecosystem Task Force Meeting Minutes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in violation of the clean water act 2. Long term tracking can identify problems and remediation techniques. 3. A focus on planning helps ground the Task Force because of the complexity of ecosystems. UNH targets for future reductions? 3.1. No. We could work on those with the Task Force. Water Quality

New Hampshire, University of

353

Air Force Renewable Energy Programs  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

1 1 Ken Gray P.E. HQ AFCESA /CENR Air Force Renewable Energy Programs April, 2011 FUPWG "Make Energy a Consideration in All We Do" I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e THINK GREEN, BUILD GREEN, Topics  Air Force Energy Use  Air Force Facility Energy Center  Current RE Generation  Project Development System  Programmed RE Generation FY11-13  Goal Achievement 2 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e THINK GREEN, BUILD GREEN, Air Force 2010 Energy Use The Air Force spent approximately $8.2 billion for energy in 2010; an increase of 22% from 2009 Energy Cost and Consumption Trends Energy Cost Breakdown Aviation 79% Facilities 17% 3 Aviation 84% Facilities 12% Vehicles & Equipment

354

Variational Scheme to Compute Protein Reaction Pathways using Atomistic Force Fields with Explicit Solvent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce a variational approximation to the microscopic dynamics of rare conformational transitions of macromolecules. Within this framework it is possible to simulate on a small computer cluster reactions as complex as protein folding, using state of the art all-atom force fields in explicit solvent. We test this method against molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the folding of an alpha- and a beta-protein performed with the same all-atom force field on the Anton supercomputer. We find that our approach yields results consistent with those of MD simulations, at a computational cost orders of magnitude smaller.

S. a Beccara; L. Fant; P. Faccioli

2015-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

355

High Rydberg Atoms: Newcomers to the Atomic Physics Scene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...HYDROGEN ATOM, NUCLEAR FUSION 5 : 41 ( 1965 ). BAYFIELD...HIGHLY-EXCITED KR ATOMS BY HF AND HCL MOLECULES, BULLETIN...USING A CW TUNABLE DYE LASER, PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS...such diverse fields as laser development, laser isotopeseparation, energy...

Ronald F. Stebbings

1976-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

356

Long range constant force profiling for measurement of engineering surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new instrument bridging the gap between atomic force microscopes (AFMs) and stylus profiling instruments is described. The constant force profiler is capable of subnanometer resolution over a 15??m vertical range with a horizontal traverse length of 50 mm. This long traverse length coupled with the possibilities of utilizing standard radius diamondmeasurement styli make the force profiler more compatible with existing profiling instrument standards. The forces between the specimen and a diamond stylus tipped cantilever spring are sensed as displacements using a capacitance bridge. This displacement signal is then fed through a proportional plus integral controller to a high stability piezoelectric actuator to maintain a constant tip?to?sample force of approximately 100 nN. Much of the sensor head and traverse mechanism is made of Zerodur glass?ceramic to provide the thermal stability needed for long travel measurements. Profiles of a 30?nm silica step height standard and an 8.5??m step etched on Zerodur are presented.

L. P. Howard; S. T. Smith

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Linker Dependent Bond Rupture Force Measurements in Single-Molecule Junctions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We use a modified conducting atomic force microscope to simultaneously probe the conductance of a single-molecule junction and the force required to rupture the junction formed by alkanes terminated with four different chemical link groups which vary in binding strength and mechanism to the gold electrodes. Molecular junctions with amine, methylsulfide, and diphenylphosphine terminated molecules show clear conductance signatures and rupture at a force that is significantly smaller than the measured 1.4 nN force required to rupture the single-atomic gold contact. In contrast, measurements with a thiol terminated alkane which can bind covalently to the gold electrode show conductance and force features unlike those of the other molecules studied. Specifically, the strong Au-S bond can cause structural rearrangements in the electrodes, which are accompanied by substantial conductance changes. Despite the strong Au-S bond and the evidence for disruption of the Au structure, the experiments show that on average these junctions also rupture at a smaller force than that measured for pristine single-atom gold contacts.

Frei M.; Hybertsen M.; Aradhya S.V.; Venkataraman L.

2012-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

358

Optical imaging of Rydberg atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an experiment exploring electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in Rydberg atoms in order to observe optical nonlinearities at the single photon level. ??Rb atoms are trapped and cooled using a magneto-optical ...

Mazurenko, Anton

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Seaborg Predicts Bright Atomic Future  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Seaborg Predicts Bright Atomic Future ... To explore both the immediate and long-term ramifications of the cutbacks, C&EN talked to the Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg . ...

1964-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

360

New Developments in Transmission Electron Microscopy for Nanotechnology**  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New Developments in Transmission Electron Microscopy for Nanotechnology** By Zhong Lin Wang* 1. Electron Microscopy and Nanotechnology Nanotechnology, as an international initiative for science manufacturing are the foundation of nanotechnology. Tracking the historical background of why nanotechnology

Wang, Zhong L.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic force microscopy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Quantitative imaging of living cells by deep ultraviolet microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Developments in light microscopy over the past three centuries have opened new windows into cell structure and function, yet many questions remain unanswered by current imaging approaches. Deep ultraviolet microscopy ...

Zeskind, Benjamin J

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Wednesday, 30 November 2005 00:00 Electron and x-ray...

363

Tomography and High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Study of Surfaces...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tomography and High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Study of Surfaces and Porosity in a Plate-Like ?-Al2O3. Tomography and High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Study of...

364

Electronic properties of the Ga vacancy in GaP(110) surfaces determined by scanning tunneling microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The electronic properties of uncharged Ga monovacancies in GaP(110) surfaces are determined from voltage-dependent scanning tunneling microscopy images. The signatures of localized defect states in the band gap are analyzed and their spatial location is determined. Empty and occupied defect states exist. Depressed dangling bonds in the occupied-state images indicate an inward relaxation of the neighboring P atoms. The results agree with recent theoretical work.

Ph. Ebert and K. Urban

1998-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

365

Subcellular boron and fluorine distributions with SIMS ion microscopy in BNCT and cancer research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of a secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based technique of Ion Microscopy in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was the main goal of this project, so that one can study the subcellular location of boron-10 atoms and their partitioning between the normal and cancerous tissue. This information is fundamental for the screening of boronated drugs appropriate for neutron capture therapy of cancer. Our studies at Cornell concentrated mainly on studies of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The early years of the grant were dedicated to the development of cryogenic methods and correlative microscopic approaches so that a reliable subcellular analysis of boron-10 atoms can be made with SIMS. In later years SIMS was applied to animal models and human tissues of GBM for studying the efficacy of potential boronated agents in BNCT. Under this grant the SIMS program at Cornell attained a new level of excellence and collaborative SIMS studies were published with leading BNCT researchers in the U.S.

Subhash Chandra

2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

366

Appendix G: Radiation HYDROGEN ATOM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix G: Radiation #12;#12;P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM ATOM TRITIUM ATOM HYDROGEN

Pennycook, Steve

367

Appendix A: Radiation HYDROGEN ATOM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix A: Radiation #12;P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM ATOM TRITIUM ATOM HYDROGEN

Pennycook, Steve

368

Recent Progress in ultracold atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Einstein What is Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC)? #12;300 K to 1 mK 109 atoms 1 mK to 1 mK 108 106 atoms How to make a BEC: Cool atoms at ultra low temperature Laser beams Fluorescence Laser cooling (Doppler

Baltisberger, Jay H.

369

VARIOUS APPLICATIONS OF ZEEMAN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

APPLICATIONS OF ZEEMAN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPYthe Zeeman effect to atomic absorption spectroscopy has beenthe Zeeman effect on atomic absorption spectrometry has been

Koizumi, Hideaki

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF WEAKLY DEFORMED ALKALI HALIDE CRYSTALS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

377 TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF WEAKLY DEFORMED ALKALI HALIDE CRYSTALS H. STRUNK Max'importance croissante du durcissement de la solution solide. Abstract. 2014 Transmission electron microscopy (TEM Abstracts 7j66 - 7 I' 1. Introduction. - It is only some years ago that transmission electron microscopy

Boyer, Edmond

371

Prediction of vehicle impact forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PREDICTION OF VEHICLE IMPACT FORCES A Thesis by DARRELL LAINE KADERKA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject...: Civil Engineering PREDICTION OF VEHICLE IMPACT FORCES A Thesis by DARRELL LAINE KADERKA Approved as to style and content by: C. Eugene Buth (Chair of Committee) W. ynn Beason (Member) I? D n E. B ay (Member) es T. P. Yao (Departmen Head) May...

Kaderka, Darrell Laine

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

372

Fast electron microscopy via compressive sensing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Various technologies described herein pertain to compressive sensing electron microscopy. A compressive sensing electron microscope includes a multi-beam generator and a detector. The multi-beam generator emits a sequence of electron patterns over time. Each of the electron patterns can include a plurality of electron beams, where the plurality of electron beams is configured to impart a spatially varying electron density on a sample. Further, the spatially varying electron density varies between each of the electron patterns in the sequence. Moreover, the detector collects signals respectively corresponding to interactions between the sample and each of the electron patterns in the sequence.

Larson, Kurt W; Anderson, Hyrum S; Wheeler, Jason W

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

373

Dynamic measurement and modeling of the Casimir force at the nanometer scale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a dynamic method for measurement of the Casimir force with an atomic force microscope (AFM) with a conventional AFM tip. With this method, originally based on the phase of vibration of the AFM tip, we are able to verify the Casimir force at distances of nearly 6 nm with an AFM tip that has a radius of curvature of nearly 100 nm. Until now dynamic methods have been done using large metal spheres at greater distances. Also presented is a theoretical model based on the harmonic oscillator, including nonidealities. This model accurately predicts the experimental data.

Kohoutek, John; Wan, Ivy Yoke Leng; Mohseni, Hooman [Bio-Inspired Sensors and Optoelectronics Laboratory (BISOL), EECS, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

2010-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

374

An Atom-Wide Antennae Created from Difference-Making Defects | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

An Atom-Wide Antennae Created from Difference-Making Defects An Atom-Wide Antennae Created from Difference-Making Defects An Atom-Wide Antennae Created from Difference-Making Defects March 7, 2012 - 3:35pm Addthis Take advantage of microwave microscopy, researchers were able to locate graphene islands on graphene. “Point defects” locally enhanced the graphene’s ability to transform waves of light into electronic signals. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Take advantage of microwave microscopy, researchers were able to locate graphene islands on graphene. "Point defects" locally enhanced the graphene's ability to transform waves of light into electronic signals. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science

375

Mitotic force generators and chromosome segregation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

38:1838– Mitotic force generators 79. McDonald HB, StewartREVIEW Mitotic force generators and chromosome segregationbelow) that the force generators (MTs or motors) have only *

Civelekoglu-Scholey, Gul; Scholey, Jonathan M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Argonne CNM: X-Ray Microscopy Capabilities  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

X-Ray Microscopy Facilities X-Ray Microscopy Facilities The Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe (HXN) facility provides scanning fluorescence, scanning diffraction, and full-field transmission and tomographic imaging capabilities with a spatial resolution of 30 nm over a spectral range of 6-12 keV. Modes of Operation Full-Field Transmission Imaging and Nanotomography X-ray transmission imaging uses both the absorption and phase shift of the X-ray beam by the sample as contrast mechanisms. Absorption contrast is used to map the sample density. Elemental constituents can be located by using differential edge contrast in this mode. Phase contrast can be highly sensitive to edges and interfaces even when the X-ray absorption is weak. These contrast mechanisms are exploited to image samples rapidly in full-field transmission mode under various environmental conditions, or combined with nanotomography methods to study the three-dimensional structure of complex and amorphous nanomaterials with the HXN.

377

Simulations of Kinetic Events at the Atomic Scale  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of kinetic events at the atomic scale of kinetic events at the atomic scale Graeme Henkelman UT Austin Al / Al(100) B 3 I / Si Pd / MgO How can we simulate the dynamics of molecular systems over experimental time scales? Objective: To calculate dynamics of a surface over time scales which are much longer than can be calculated with direct classical dynamics. Problem: time scale gap fs ps ns ms ms s mins atomic dynamics thermally activated experimental vibrations simulations reaction dynamics time scales Most interesting transitions are rare 0.5 eV 1000/s events (much slower than vibrations) Simulating a transition for a typical rare event with classical dynamics can require ~10 12 force evaluations Transition state theory A statistical theory for calculating the rate of slow thermal processes

378

Task Force Approach | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Task Force Approach Task Force Approach Task Force Approach Task Force Approach Results of the ARI Task Force: The purpose of the ARI Task Force is to 1) identify, prioritize, and resolve issues to enable sites and programs to implement revitalization efforts more effectively and 2) to facilitate programmatic incorporation of revitalization concepts into DOE's programmatic business environments. The Task Force must do this through coordinating and facilitating communication and connections, sharing lessons learned, broadening the general knowledge base, facilitating, analyzing problems, developing implementable solutions, and considering and incorporating broader perspectives and knowledge. The success of the Task Force can be evaluated by impacts to the Department upon its completion. These impacts

379

Orbital motion of dust particles in an rf magnetron discharge. Ion drag force or neutral atom wind force  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microparticles with sizes up to 130 {mu}m have been confined and the velocity and diameter of particles in a plasma trap of an rf magnetron discharge with an arc magnetic field have been simultaneously measured. The motion of the gas induced by electron and ion cyclotron currents has been numerically simulated using the Navier-Stokes equation. The experimental and numerical results confirm the mechanism of the orbital motion of dust particles in the magnetron discharge plasma that is associated with the orbital motion of the neutral gas accelerated by electron and ion drift flows in crossed electric and magnetic fields.

Pal, A. F.; Ryabinkin, A. N.; Serov, A. O. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Dyatko, N. A.; Starostin, A. N.; Filippov, A. V., E-mail: fav@triniti.ru [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

380

On neutron numbers and atomic masses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

On neutron numbers and atomic masses ... Assigning neutron numbers, correct neutron numbers, and atomic masses and nucleon numbers. ...

R. Heyrovská

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic force microscopy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Three-body radiative heat transfer and Casimir-Lifshitz force out of thermal equilibrium for arbitrary bodies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the Casimir-Lifshitz force and the radiative heat transfer in a system consisting of three bodies held at three independent temperatures and immersed in a thermal environment, the whole system being in a stationary configuration out of thermal equilibrium. The theory we develop is valid for arbitrary bodies, i.e. for any set of temperatures, dielectric and geometrical properties, and describes each body by means of its scattering operators. For the three-body system we provide a closed-form unified expression of the radiative heat transfer and of the Casimir-Lifshitz force (both in and out of thermal equilibrium). This expression is thus first applied to the case of three planar parallel slabs. In this context we discuss the non-additivity of the force at thermal equilibrium, as well as the equilibrium temperature of the intermediate slab as a function of its position between two external slabs having different temperatures. Finally, we consider the force acting on an atom inside a planar cavity. We show that, differently from the equilibrium configuration, the absence of thermal equilibrium admits one or more positions of minima for the atomic potential. While the corresponding atomic potential depths are very small for typical ground state atoms, they may become particularly relevant for Rydberg atoms, becoming a promising tool to produce an atomic trap.

Riccardo Messina; Mauro Antezza

2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

382

Spin-Flavor van der Waals Forces and NN interaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major goal in Nuclear Physics is the derivation of the Nucleon-Nucleon (NN) interaction from Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In QCD the fundamental degrees of freedom are colored quarks and gluons which are confined to form colorless strongly interacting hadrons. Because of this the resulting nuclear forces at sufficiently large distances correspond to spin-flavor excitations, very much like the dipole excitations generating the van der Waals (vdW) forces acting between atoms. We study the Nucleon-Nucleon interaction in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation at second order in perturbation theory including the Delta resonance as an intermediate state. The potential resembles strongly chiral potentials computed either via soliton models or chiral perturbation theory and has a van der Waals like singularity at short distances which is handled by means of renormalization techniques. Results for the deuteron are discussed.

Alvaro Calle Cordon, Enrique Ruiz Arriola

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Anomalous Doppler-Effect and Polariton-Mediated Cooling of Two-Level Atoms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We consider an atom moving in a near resonant laser field with its dipole strongly coupled to a resonator field mode. As compared to the standard Doppler shift, we find a substantially different and counterintuitive linear velocity dependence of the light scattering properties. The mechanical force of the laser field exhibits strong velocity selectivity at a polariton resonance, which gives rise to an enhanced friction force and Doppler cooling even in the directions perpendicular to the resonator axis. This effect allows for sub-Doppler cooling of atoms even with a nondegenerate ground state.

Peter Domokos; András Vukics; Helmut Ritsch

2004-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

384

Exploring a Metal-Insulator Transition with Ultracold Atoms in Standing Light Waves?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We suggest the possibility to realize an optical quasicrystal with ultracold atoms in far-detuned, bichromatic standing light waves. If the optical potentials created by the individual light waves have sufficiently different strength, one obtains an atom-optical realization of Harper's model. This model exhibits a metal-insulator transition at a certain value of the site-to-site hopping integral. Since this hopping integral is effectively renormalized by an additional oscillating force, one can switch from the regime of extended states to the regime of localized states by varying the amplitude of that force.

Klaus Drese and Martin Holthaus

1997-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

385

Atomic Energy Commission Takes Over Responsibility for all Atomic...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Takes Over Responsibility for all Atomic Energy Programs | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile...

386

X-ray optics for scanning fluorescence microscopy and other applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scanning x-ray fluorescence microscopy is analogous to scanning electron microscopy. Maps of chemical element distribution are produced by scanning with a very small x-ray beam. Goal is to perform such scanning microscopy with resolution in the range of <1 to 10 {mu}m, using standard laboratory x-ray tubes. We are investigating mirror optics in the Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) configuration. K-B optics uses two curved mirrors mounted orthogonally along the optical axis. The first mirror provides vertical focus, the second mirror provides horizontal focus. We have used two types of mirrors: synthetic multilayers and crystals. Multilayer mirrors are used with lower energy radiation such as Cu K{alpha}. At higher energies such as Ag K{alpha}, silicon wafers are used in order to increase the incidence angles and thereby the photon collection efficiency. In order to increase the surface area of multilayers which reflects x-rays at the Bragg angle, we have designed mirrors with the spacing between layers graded along the optic axis in order to compensate for the changing angle of incidence. Likewise, to achieve a large reflecting surface with silicon, the wafers are placed on a specially designed lever arm which is bent into a log spiral by applying force at one end. In this way, the same diffracting angle is maintained over the entire surface of the wafer, providing a large solid angle for photon collection.

Ryon, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Warburton, W.K. [X-Ray Instrumentation Associates, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

NCEM National Center for Electron Microscopy: Staff  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Staff Staff Scientific Technical / Admin. Postdoctoral and Visitors Uli Dahmen, Head Jane Cavlina / Administrator Abhay Gautam Christian Kisielowski John Turner Helmut Poppa Andrew Minor ChengYu Song Frances Allen Andreas Schmid Marissa Libbee Tamara Radetic Peter Ercius Karen Bustillo Haimei Zheng Jim Ciston Alpha N'Diaye Colin Ophus Gong Chen Burak Ozdol Velimir Radmilovic Sara Kiani Hua Guo Christian Liebscher Josh Kacher Chris Nelson Xiuguang Jin Qian Yu Mary Scott Search the LBNL directory services page for other LBNL staff. Scientific Staff Uli Dahmen udahmen@lbl.gov (510) 486-4627 Ulrich Dahmen is Director of the National Center for Electron Microscopy. His current research interests include embedded nanostructures and interfaces in materials. Embedded nanostructures. Size- and shape-dependence of structural phase

388

Thermal expansion recovery microscopy: Practical design considerations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed study of relevant parameters for the design and operation of a photothermal microscope technique recently introduced is presented. The technique, named thermal expansion recovery microscopy (ThERM) relies in the measurement of the defocusing introduced by a surface that expands and recovers upon the heating from a modulated source. A new two lens design is presented that can be easily adapted to commercial infinite conjugate microscopes and the sensitivity to misalignment is analyzed. The way to determine the beam size by means of a focus scan and the use of that same scan to verify if a thermoreflectance signal is overlapping with the desired ThERM mechanism are discussed. Finally, a method to cancel the thermoreflectance signal by an adequate choice of a nanometric coating is presented.

Mingolo, N., E-mail: nmingol@fi.uba.ar; Martínez, O. E. [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, 1063 Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, 1063 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Contact angles and surface forces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The modern state of the theory of wetting phenomena is considered with special attention to the approach based on the theory of surface forces. Contribution of the effects of molecular, electrostatic and short-range structural forces to wetting films stability and forming contact angles is discussed. The magnitudes of contact angles may be predicted on the basis of isotherms of disjoining pressure of wetting films that include Hamaker constants, electrical potentials of solid-liquid and liquid-gas interfaces, and experimental constants that characterize the structural forces of hydrophilic repulsion and hydrophobic attraction. The constants seem to be the same as in the case of interaction of colloidal particles. In the framework of the suggested approach, the influence of surfactants on wetting phenomena was considered.

N.V. Churaev

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Nuclear force in Lattice QCD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We perform the quenched lattice QCD analysis on the nuclear force (baryon-baryon interactions). We employ $20^3\\times 24$ lattice at $\\beta=5.7$ ($a\\simeq 0.19$ fm) with the standard gauge action and the Wilson quark action with the hopping parameters $\\kappa=0.1600, 0.1625, 0.1650$, and generate about 200 gauge configurations. We measure the temporal correlators of the two-baryon system which consists of heavy-light-light quarks. We extract the inter-baryon force as a function of the relative distance $r$. We also evaluate the contribution to the nuclear force from each ``Feynman diagram'' such as the quark-exchange diagram individually, and single out the roles of Pauli-blocking effects or quark exchanges in the inter-baryon interactions.

T. T. Takahashi; T. Doi; H. Suganuma

2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

391

Nuclear Forces and Nuclear Systems  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Forces and Nuclear Systems Forces and Nuclear Systems Our goal is to achieve a description of nuclear systems ranging in size from the deuteron to nuclear matter and neutron stars using a single parameterization of the nuclear forces. Our work includes both the construction of two- and three-nucleon potentials and the development of many-body techniques for computing nuclear properties with these interactions. Detailed quantitative, computationally intense studies are essential parts of this work. In the last decade we have constructed several realistic two- and three-nucleon potential models. The NN potential, Argonne v18, has a dominant charge-independent piece plus additional charge-dependent and charge-symmetry-breaking terms, including a complete electromagnetic interaction. It fits 4301 pp and np elastic scattering data with a chi**2

392

Magnetic trap for thulium atoms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the first time ultra-cold thulium atoms were trapped in a magnetic quadrupole trap with a small field gradient (20 Gs cm{sup -1}). The atoms were loaded from a cloud containing 4x10{sup 5} atoms that were preliminarily cooled in a magneto-optical trap to the sub-Doppler temperature of 80 {mu}K. As many as 4x10{sup 4} atoms were trapped in the magnetic trap at the temperature of 40 {mu}K. By the character of trap population decay the lifetime of atoms was determined (0.5 s) and an upper estimate was obtained for the rate constant of inelastic binary collisions for spin-polarised thulium atoms in the ground state (g{sub in} < 10{sup -11}cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}). (magnetic traps)

Sukachev, D D; Sokolov, A V; Chebakov, K A; Akimov, A V; Kolachevskii, N N; Sorokin, Vadim N [P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

393

Automatic HTS force measurement instrument  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device is disclosed for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

Sanders, S.T.; Niemann, R.C.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

394

Automatic HTS force measurement instrument  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed.

Sanders, Scott T. (Valparaiso, IN); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Casimir force on a piston  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider a massless scalar field obeying Dirichlet boundary conditions on the walls of a two-dimensional L x b rectangular box, divided by a movable partition (piston) into two compartments of dimensions a x b and (L-a) x b. We compute the Casimir force on the piston in the limit L -> infinity. Regardless of the value of a/b, the piston is attracted to the nearest end of the box. Asymptotic expressions for the Casimir force on the piston are derived for a > b.

R. M. Cavalcanti

2004-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

396

Electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) assisted wet chemical synthesis of nickel nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? Electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) assisted chemical synthesis of nickel nanoparticles is reported. ? Substituting water with non-aqueous media prevents the formation of nickel hydroxide. ? Size of particles decreased from 10 to 20 nm down to 2–4 nm by using multi-jet mode. ? Synthesized nanoparticles have diffraction patterns similar to amorphous materials. -- Abstract: In this study nickel nanoparticles were prepared via chemical reduction of nickel acetate using sodium borohydride using electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) technique. This technique was used to spray a finely dispersed aerosol of nickel precursor solution into the reductive bath. Obtained particles were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–Visible spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results confirmed the formation of nickel nanoparticles and showed that applying EHDA technique to chemical reduction method results in producing smaller particles with narrower size distribution in comparison with conventional reductive precipitation method.

Barzegar Vishlaghi, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farzalipour Tabriz, M., E-mail: meisam.fa@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammad Moradi, O. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

397

String model of the Hydrogen Atom  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A non-moving electron hydrogen model is proposed, resolving a long standing contradiction (94 years) in the hydrogen atom. This, however, forces to not use the "in an orbit point particle kinetic energy" as the phenomenon responsible for the atom stability. The repulsion between the masses of the electron and proton is what is responsible of such stability. The mass of the electron is a field fully described by the uncertainty principle through the confinement of the particle, which is also consistent with the general theory of relativity that states: "mass-energy tells the space how to bend". Ergo, mass exerts a tension on its surrounding space and the lighter the mass the larger the space it will occupy. Based on this concept it is proposed that the orbital is the electron. The electron's orbitals are just the electron's different ways of intersecting the space; with different magnetic momenta. The coupling of this momenta with the magnetic moment of the proton finally explains the hyperfine structure of the hydrogen spectrum with an overwhelming simplicity

Omar Yepez

2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

398

ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

' ' ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION Frank K. Pittman, Director, bivisioa of Waste &&gement and s- portation, Headquarters j CONTAMItUTED RX-AEC-OWNED OR LEASED FACILITIES' This memorandum responds to your TWX certain information on the above subject. the documentation necessary to answer your available due to the records disposal vailing at the time of release or From records that are available and from disc&ions with most familiar with the transfer operations, &have the current radiological conditibn of transferred property is adequate under present standards. The following tabulations follow the format suggested in your TWX and are grouped to an operations or contract r+ponsibility. A,I Ex-AEC Storage Sites - I r:/ National Stockpile Site '(NSS) and OperatEonal

399

Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (Bettis) is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and has been operated under Government contract by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation since 1949. The Bettis Site in West Mifflin, Pennsylvania conducts research and development work on improved nuclear propulsion plants for US Navy warships and is the headquarters for all of the Laboratory's operations. For many years, environmental monitoring has been performed to demonstrate that the Bettis Site is being operated in accordance with environmental standards. While the annual report describes monitoring practices and results, it does not describe the nature and environmental aspects of work and facilities at the Bettis Site nor give a historical perspective of Bettis' operations. The purpose of this report is to provide this information as well as background information, such as the geologic and hydrologic nature of the Bettis Site, pertinent to understanding the environmental aspects of Bettis operations. Waste management practices are also described.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Rydberg Atoms in Ponderomotive Potentials.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In this thesis, we examine the ponderomotive interaction between an applied optical field and a highly excited Rydberg electron. An atom in a Rydberg state… (more)

Knuffman, Brenton J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic force microscopy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Absorption properties of identical atoms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emission rates and other optical properties of multi-particle systems in collective and entangled states differ from those in product ones. We show the existence of similar effects in the absorption probabilities for (anti)symmetrized states of two identical atoms. The effects strongly depend on the overlapping between the atoms and differ for bosons and fermions. We propose a viable experimental verification of these ideas. -- Highlights: •The absorption rates of a pair of identical atoms in product and (anti)symmetrized states are different. •The modifications of the optical properties are essentially determined by the overlapping between the atoms. •The absorption properties differ, in some cases, for bosons and fermions.

Sancho, Pedro, E-mail: psanchos@aemet.es

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

402

EMSL - atomic-resolution imaging  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

atomic-resolution-imaging en Molecular Hydrogen Formation from Proximal Glycol Pairs on TiO2(110). http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsmolecular-hydrogen-formation-proxima...

403

Magnetism and Atomic Structure. I  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

3 January 1921 research-article Magnetism and Atomic Structure. I A. E. Oxley The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access...

1921-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Atom bouncers have it taped  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... University have repeatedly bounced rubidium atoms from magnetic tape of the kind used to record audio signals1. In later experiments, they obtained better results with floppy disks.

Wayne M. Itano

1995-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

405

Work Force Planning for Public Power Utilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Work Force Planning for Public Power Utilities: Ensuring Resources to Meet Projected Utilities Need to Do More to Prepare for Their Future Work Force Needs.............................................................................20 #12;ii Work Force Planning for Public Power Utilities #12;1 Work Force Planning for Public Power

406

Solvent-induced forces in protein folding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solvent-induced forces between various groups on the protein are examined. It is found that the intramolecular hydrophilic forces are likely to be the strongest forces mediated through the solvent. It is argued that these are probably the most important solvent-induced driving forces in the process of protein folding.

Ben-Naim, A. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel))

1990-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

407

Similarity between positronium-atom and electron-atom scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We employ the impulse approximation for description of positronium-atom scattering. Our analysis and calculations of Ps-Kr and Ps-Ar collisions provide theoretical explanation of the similarity between the cross sections for positronium scattering and electron scattering for a range of atomic and molecular targets observed by S. J. Brawley et al. [Science 330, 789 (2010)].

Fabrikant, I I

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Energy Task Force  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Energy Task Force to Energy Task Force to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Energy Task Force on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Energy Task Force on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Energy Task Force on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Energy Task Force on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Energy Task Force on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Energy Task Force on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Energy Task Force The Governor's Task Force on Energy Policy is developing a state energy plan to facilitate energy efficiency and the use of alternative and renewable fuels in Tennessee. The energy plan will include a summary of

409

Development of a ReaxFF Reactive Force Field for Ettringite and Study of its Mechanical Failure Modes from Reactive Dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Development of a ReaxFF Reactive Force Field for Ettringite and Study of its Mechanical Failure: Ettringite is a hexacalcium aluminate trisulfate hydrate mineral that forms during Portland cement hydration of ettringite at the atomic scale. The ReaxFF force field was validated by comparing the lattice parameters

Goddard III, William A.

410

Light-induced gauge fields for ultracold atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gauge fields are central in our modern understanding of physics at all scales. At the highest energy scales known, the microscopic universe is governed by particles interacting with each other through the exchange of gauge bosons. At the largest length scales, our universe is ruled by gravity, whose gauge structure suggests the existence of a particle - the graviton - that mediates the gravitational force. At the mesoscopic scale, solid-state systems are subjected to gauge fields of different nature: materials can be immersed in external electromagnetic fields, but they can also feature emerging gauge fields in their low-energy description. In this review, we focus on another kind of gauge field: those engineered in systems of ultracold neutral atoms. In these setups, atoms are suitably coupled to laser fields that generate effective gauge potentials in their description. Neutral atoms "feeling" laser-induced gauge potentials can potentially mimic the behavior of an electron gas subjected to a magnetic field, but also, the interaction of elementary particles with non-Abelian gauge fields. Here, we review different realized and proposed techniques for creating gauge potentials - both Abelian and non-Abelian - in atomic systems and discuss their implication in the context of quantum simulation. While most of these setups concern the realization of background and classical gauge potentials, we conclude with more exotic proposals where these synthetic fields might be made dynamical, in view of simulating interacting gauge theories with cold atoms.

N. Goldman; G. Juzeliunas; P. Ohberg; I. B. Spielman

2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

411

Complex Forces Affect China's Biodiversity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

global efforts have been put into biodiversity conservation, but biodiversity loss continues rapidly in biodiversity conservation to the global level and help protect biodiversity in other developing countries Wiley & Sons, Ltd. #12;208 ConservationBiology COMPLEXITY OF INTERACTING FORCES AFFECTING BIODIVERSITY

412

Kollisionsdetektion fr Force-Feedback-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(high impact velocities or large contact areas) 3. Force-feedback requires a constant update rate.e., in case of no overlap - Complicated to compute penetration depth [Mendoza et al, 2006], [Zhang et al, 2007], ... § Voxels & Points (VPS): + Easy to compute approx. penetration depth - Large memory footprint - Aliasing

Zachmann, Gabriel

413

Training program to prepare the U.S. DOE laboratories for the entry into force of the protocol additional to the agreement between the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in the United  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2008, a joint team from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) consisting of specialists in training IAEA inspectors in the use of complementary access activities formulated a training program to prepare the U.S DOE laboratories for the entry into force of the U.S. Additional Protocol. Since the U.S. Additional Protocol would allow for IAEA access to the DOE laboratories under the aegis of complementary access activities, the DOE laboratories would need to prepare for such visits. The goal of the training was to ensure that the DOE laboratories would successfully host an IAEA complementary access. In doing so, the labs must be able to provide the IAEA with the information that the IAEA would need to resolve its questions about the U.S. Declaration and declared activities at the lab, and also protect certain equities, as provided under the U.S. Additional Protocol Article 1.b and c. which set forth a 'National Security Exclusion.' This 'NSE' states that the AP provisions apply within the United States 'excluding only instances where its application would result in access by the Agency to activities with direct national security significance to the United States or to location or information associated with such activities.' These activities are referred to collectively as DNSS-direct national security significance. Furthermore, the U.S. has a specific right to employ managed access, without prejudice to the right under Article 1.b, in connection with activities of DNSS. The provisions in Articles 1.b and 1.c are unique to the U.S. AP, and are additional to the more general right, under Article 7, to use managed access to protect from disclosure proprietary and/or proliferation-sensitive information, and to meet safety and security requirements, that is incorporated directly from the Model Additional Protocol. The BNL-LANL team performed training at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to cover the situations that these labs, which respectively represent nuclear weapons labs, nuclear energy labs, and science labs and environmental management sites, would encounter during a complementary access. Each of the three labs hosted a mock complementary access activity, which included mock inspectors from the BNL-LANL team. In addition to reviewing the draft declarations from each of the host labs, the BNL-LANL team conducted open source research in a manner similar to what IAEA inspectors would do to research the activities at a location and prepare questions for the location to answer and that would be the focus of a complementary access. The host labs and other labs attending the training found the training to be extremely useful and helpful in making sure that each lab's Additional Protocol team had made correct declarations of nuclear activities, had properly trained staff ready to host and answer IAEA inquiries, and would implement managed access during a complementary access that would provide access by the IAEA team to resolve questions or inconsistencies about a particular declaration and still protect the information addressed by Articles 1 and 7 of the U.S. AP.

Boyer, Brian David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stevens, Rebecca C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Uribe, Eva C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, M Analisa [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valente, John N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valente, John U [BNL; Jo, Jae H [BNL; Sellen, Joana [U.S. DOE/NNSA; Wonder, Edward [QINETIQ-NORTH AMERICA

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Surface morphology of atomic nitrogen on Pt(111)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The surface morphology of chemisorbed N on the Pt(111) surface has been studied at the atomic level with low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). When N is coadsorbed with O on the surface, they form a mixed (2 × 2)-N+O structure. When the surface is covered with N atoms only, isolated atoms and incomplete (2 × 2) patches are observed at low coverages. In a dense N layer, two phases, (?3 × ?3)R30°-N and p(2 × 2)-N, are found to coexist at temperatures between 360 and 400 K. The (?3 × ?3)R30° phase converts to the (2 × 2) phase as temperature increases. For both phases, nitrogen occupies fcc-hollow sites. At temperatures above 420 K, nitrogen starts to desorb. The p(2 × 2)-N phase shows a honeycomb structure in STM images with three nitrogen and three platinum atoms forming a six-membered ring, which can be attributed to the strong nitrogen binding to the underlying Pt surface.

Liang, Zhu; Trenary, Michael, E-mail: mtrenary@uic.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 845 West Taylor Street, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 845 West Taylor Street, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Jin Yang, Hyun [Surface and Interface Science Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan) [Surface and Interface Science Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Kim, Yousoo, E-mail: ykim@riken.jp [Surface and Interface Science Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)] [Surface and Interface Science Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

415

In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of Electrical Energy Storage Materials In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies...

416

In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of Electrical Energy Storage Materials In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies...

417

AIR FORCE SPECIAL WEAPONS CENTER  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

HEADQUARTERS aII?y HEADQUARTERS aII?y 9 AIR FORCE SPECIAL WEAPONS CENTER 1 AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND . - KlRTlAND AIR FORCE BASE, NEW MEXICO - k FINAL REPORT O N AIR FORCE PARTICIPATION PROJECT RULISON .1 O c t o b e r 1969 P r e p a r e d by : CONT INENTAL TEST D I V I S ION DIRECTORATE OF NUCLEAR FIELD OPERATIONS This page intentionally left blank INDEX AIR FORCE PARTICIPATION I N PROJECT RULISON FINAL REPORT PARAGRAPH BASIC REPORT SUBJECT R e f e r e n c e s PAGE 2 G e n e r a l 1 3 P l a n n i n g 3 4 Command a n d C o n t r o l 5 O p e r a t i o n s , G r a n d ' J u n c t i o n M u n i c i p a l A i r p o r t . . ' A i r O p e r a t i o n s C e n t e r , He1 i c o p t e r P a d / ' 7.. - . M a t e r i e l : ' 8 M e d i c a l 1 9 R a d - S a f e C r a s h - R e s c u e S e c u r i t y 2 1 C o m m u n i c a t i o n s ~ d m i n i s t r a t ' i o n Summary ATTACHMENTS ATTACHMENT SUBJECI' 1 F r a g O r d e r 69-1 ( ~ r o j ' e c t RULISON) , AFSWC D

418

Nuclear Radius and Nuclear Forces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The difference between the radius of the nuclear matter distribution and the nuclear force radius, RN?1.4A13×10-13 cm, for heavy nuclei (A>100) is interpreted as a consequence of the finite range of nuclear forces. Assuming that the nuclear matter distribution coincides with the charge distribution as determined at Stanford (RC=1.12A13×10-13 cm is the distance at which the charge density falls to one half value) we sum up the nuclear interactions of an incident nucleon for various proposed internucleon potentials, V(r). We also evaluate contributions from the spin, charge, and matter polarizations induced in the nuclear distributions by the incident nucleon as a test of the convergence of these calculations. The aim here is to infer some features of nuclear forces which satisfy saturation requirements and at the same time give rise to an appreciable nuclear attraction for an incident nucleon at RN. Analyses of the scattering of neutrons and protons by heavy nuclei suggest a nuclear attraction ?14 Mev at a distance RN.These considerations are primarily sensitive to the long range behavior of the direct, central part of V(r). The key point which emerges from them is that the nuclear forces must contain long range (~ meson Compton wavelength) direct, central attractions which will be felt by an incident nucleon at RN before the shorter range repulsions (hard cores, many-body forces, or exchange interactions), which are responsible for saturation, become effective. Such interactions can be constructed phenomenologically, but are not found in recent meson-theoretically deduced potentials.

S. D. Drell

1955-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Simulations of Atomic Processes at Semiconductor Surfaces - General-Method and Chemisorption on Gaas(110)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

& F(r)= ?2a ~ V(r) ( +py(r), (2.15) BU,)F"=? (2.22) so the strength of the electronic force is determined by the interatomic matrix element V(r) and its dependence on the separation of the atoms r. The equilibrium separation is given by 2a ~ V..., but Si bonding at the As?As bridge site 2. Notice that the x vibrations of Si have higher fre- quency than those of C, even though Si is a heavier atom. The reason, of course, is that Si sits between two As atoms, above the surface, and experiences...

MENON, M.; Allen, Roland E.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

The Atomic City / The Magic of the Atom - 1950's Atomic Energy Commission Documentary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The story of American cities located near atomic power plants, and steps taken monitoring radiation to ensure the safety of the public who live nearby. .

None

2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic force microscopy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Atomic Layer Deposition Preparation of Pd Nanoparticles on a Porous Carbon Support for Alcohol Oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ALD-prepared catalyst was characterized by atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) (ICP-AES, Varian Liberty series II), X-ray diffraction, (XRD) (PanAnalytical X’Pert Pro), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) (SSX-100), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) (Tecnai 12 Bio Twin with LaB6 gun at 120 kV), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) (JEOL JSM-7500FA). ... CNB-E project through the Multidisciplinary Institute of Digitalization and Energy (MIDE) program and Academy of Finland are acknowledged for financial support. ...

Emma Rikkinen; Annukka Santasalo-Aarnio; Sanna Airaksinen; Maryam Borghei; Ville Viitanen; Jani Sainio; Esko I. Kauppinen; Tanja Kallio; A. Outi I. Krause

2011-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

422

Atomic structure of the high-temperature O/W(001)-(2×1) surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The surface reconstruction of the W(001) surface in the presence of oxygen has been studied by scanning tunneling microscopy. A two-domain (2×1) structure with domain size ?30 Å was observed after the oxygen-covered surface was annealed at >1000 °C for <1 min. Tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy results support the missing-row model for the (2×1) structure; the preferred location for adsorbed oxygen is either the threefold-hollow site or a site on top of a W atom in the second layer.

J. A. Meyer; Y. Kuk; P. J. Estrup; P. J. Silverman

1991-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

423

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomization atomic absorption Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

atomic absorption Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: atomization atomic absorption Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 :coherently trapped in...

424

Ion-induced electron emission microscopy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion beam analysis system that creates multidimensional maps of the effects of high energy ions from an unfocussed source upon a sample by correlating the exact entry point of an ion into a sample by projection imaging of the secondary electrons emitted at that point with a signal from a detector that measures the interaction of that ion within the sample. The emitted secondary electrons are collected in a strong electric field perpendicular to the sample surface and (optionally) projected and refocused by the electron lenses found in a photon emission electron microscope, amplified by microchannel plates and then their exact position is sensed by a very sensitive X Y position detector. Position signals from this secondary electron detector are then correlated in time with nuclear, atomic or electrical effects, including the malfunction of digital circuits, detected within the sample that were caused by the individual ion that created these secondary electrons in the fit place.

Doyle, Barney L. (Albuquerque, NM); Vizkelethy, Gyorgy (Albuquerque, NM); Weller, Robert A. (Brentwood, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Bogoliubov theory and bosonic atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We formulate the Bogoliubov variational principle in a mathematical framework similar to the generalized Hartree-Fock theory. Then we analyze the Bogoliubov theory for bosonic atoms in details. We discuss heuristically why the Bogoliubov energy should give the first correction to the leading energy of large bosonic atoms.

Phan Thanh Nam

2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

426

U.S. Air Force Fact Sheet Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the Air Force. Personnel and Resources Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) includes fourU.S. Air Force Fact Sheet Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps Mission Develop Quality Leaders Reserve Officer Training Corps is the largest and oldest source of commissioned officers for the Air Force

Su, Xiao

427

Atomic, Molecular & Optical Sciences  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atomic, Molecular and Optical Sciences Atomic, Molecular and Optical Sciences The goal of the program is to understand the structure and dynamics of atoms and molecules using photons and ions as probes. The current program is focussed on studying inner-shell photo-ionization and photo-excitation of atoms and molecules, molecular orientation effects in slow collisions, slowing and cooling molecules, and X-ray photo-excitation of laser-dressed atoms. The experimental and theoretical efforts are designed to break new ground and to provide basic knowledge that is central to the programmatic goals of the Department of Energy (DOE). Unique LBNL facilities such as the Advanced Light Source (ALS), the ECR ion sources at the 88-inch cyclotron, and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) are

428

Spectral Emission of Moving Atom  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A renewed analysis of the H.E. Ives and G.R. Stilwell's experiment on moving hydrogen canal rays (J. Opt. Soc. Am., 1938, v.28, 215) concludes that the spectral emission of a moving atom exhibits always a redshift which informs not the direction of the atom's motion. The conclusion is also evident from a simple energy relation: atomic spectral radiation is emitted as an orbiting electron consumes a portion of its internal energy on transiting to a lower-energy state which however has in a moving atom an additional energy gain; this results in a redshift in the emission frequency. Based on auxiliary experimental information and a scheme for de Broglie particle formation, we give a vigorous elucidation of the mechanism for deceleration radiation of atomic electron; the corresponding prediction of the redshift is in complete agreement with the Ives and Stilwell's experimental formula.

J. X. Zheng-Johansson

2008-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

429

Characterisation of ‘Hadley’ grains by confocal microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work forms part of an exploratory study to investigate the use of fluorescent laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) for imaging pores and voids in hardened mortar and concrete. The study has revealed the suitability of the technique for the characterisation of hollow shell (Hadley) hydration grains (these are grains that contain a void within the original boundary of the cement grain). It was found that Hadley grains could be imaged using fluorescent light techniques, subsequent to their impregnation by epoxy resin doped with a fluorescent dye. Prior to this work, it was not clear whether hollow grains were impregnated due to connections with capillary pores, or if they had been impregnated due to connections with damage caused during surface preparation (i.e. micro-cracks or deep surface scratches). However using the 3D LSCM imaging technique it was observed that connections between Hadley grains and hardened cement paste (HCP) capillary pores did exist, in different forms, at depths well below the surface providing ‘conduits’ along which resin was able to flow and impregnate the hollow grains. Other aspects of imaging Hadley grains are also described, such as the sectioning of ‘tips’ of larger grains often taken as separate smaller pores or grains in 2D images.

M.K. Head; H.S. Wong; N.R. Buenfeld

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Manhattan Project: Adventures Inside the Atom  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

ADVENTURES INSIDE THE ATOM ADVENTURES INSIDE THE ATOM General Electric, National Archives (1948) Resources > Library Below is Adventures Inside the Atom, a comic book history of nuclear energy that was produced in 1948 by the General Electric Company. Scroll down to view the full-size images of each page. This publication was produced at the request of the the Assistant Manager for Public Education, Oak Ridge Operations Office, Atomic Energy Commission. It is reproduced here via the National Archives. Adventures Inside the Atom, p. 1 Adventures Inside the Atom, p. 2 Adventures Inside the Atom, p. 3 Adventures Inside the Atom, p. 4 Adventures Inside the Atom, p. 5 Adventures Inside the Atom, p. 6 Adventures Inside the Atom, p. 7 Adventures Inside the Atom, p. 8 Adventures Inside the Atom, p. 9

431

AtomicNuclear Properties  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

HTML_PAGES HTML_PAGES This AtomicNuclearProperties page is under intermittent development. Suggestions and comments are welcome. Please report errors. Chemical elements: For entries in red, a pull-down menu permits selection of the physical state. Cryogenic liquid densties are at the boiling point at 1 atm. 0n 1Ps 1H 2He 3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne 11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar 19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr 37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe 55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn 87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rf 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112 113 114 115 116 mt 118

432

In-situ control system for atomization  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Melt atomizing apparatus comprising a melt supply orifice for supplying the melt for atomization and gas supply orifices proximate the melt supply orifice for supplying atomizing gas to atomize the melt as an atomization spray. The apparatus includes a sensor, such as an optical and/or audio sensor, for providing atomization spray data, and a control unit responsive to the sensed atomization spray data for controlling at least one of the atomizing gas pressure and an actuator to adjust the relative position of the gas supply orifice and melt supply in a manner to achieve a desired atomization spray.

Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Figliola, Richard S. (Central, SC); Terpstra, Robert L. (Ames, IA)

1995-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

433

Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to supersonic velocities.

Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Balsavich, John (Foxborough, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Lorentz Force Electrical Impedance Tomography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This article describes a method called Lorentz Force Electrical Impedance Tomography. The electrical conductivity of biological tissues can be measured through their sonication in a magnetic field: the vibration of the tissues inside the field induces an electrical current by Lorentz force. This current, detected by electrodes placed around the sample, is proportional to the ultrasonic pressure, to the strength of the magnetic field and to the electrical conductivity gradient along the acoustic axis. By focusing at different places inside the sample, a map of the electrical conductivity gradient can be established. In this study experiments were conducted on a gelatin phantom and on a beef sample, successively placed in a 300 mT magnetic field and sonicated with an ultrasonic transducer focused at 21 cm emitting 500 kHz bursts. Although all interfaces are not visible, in this exploratory study a good correlation is observed between the electrical conductivity image and the ultrasonic image. This method offers...

Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lafon, Cyril

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Casimir-Lifshitz force out of thermal equilibrium and heat transfer between arbitrary bodies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the Casimir-Lifshitz force and the radiative heat transfer occurring between two arbitrary bodies, each one held at a given temperature, surrounded by environmental radiation at a third temperature. The system, in stationary configuration out of thermal equilibrium, is characterized by a force and a heat transfer depending on the three temperatures, and explicitly expressed in terms of the scattering operators of each body. We find a closed-form analytic expression valid for bodies of any geometry and dielectric properties. As an example, the force between two parallel slabs of finite thickness is calculated, showing the importance of the environmental temperature as well as the occurrence of a repulsive interaction. An analytic expression is also provided for the force acting on an atom in front of a slab. Our predictions can be relevant for experimental and technological purposes.

Riccardo Messina; Mauro Antezza

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

436

Casimir force for absorbing media in an open quantum system framework: Scalar model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this article we compute the Casimir force between two finite-width mirrors at finite temperature, working in a simplified model in 1+1 dimensions. The mirrors, considered as dissipative media, are modeled by a continuous set of harmonic oscillators which in turn are coupled to an external environment at thermal equilibrium. The calculation of the Casimir force is performed in the framework of the theory of open quantum systems. It is shown that the Casimir interaction has two different contributions: the usual radiation pressure from the vacuum, which is obtained for ideal mirrors without dissipation or losses, and a Langevin force associated with the noise induced by the interaction between dielectric atoms in the slabs and the thermal bath. Both contributions to the Casimir force are needed in order to reproduce the analogous Lifshitz formula in 1+1 dimensions. We also discuss the relationship between the electromagnetic properties of the mirrors and the spectral density of the environment.

Lombardo, Fernando C.; Rubio Lopez, Adrian E. [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA and IFIBA CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mazzitelli, Francisco D. [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA and IFIBA CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Centro Atomico Bariloche Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

437

STUDIES OF DENGUE FEVER VIRUS BY ELECTRON MICROSCOPY  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...MICROSCOPY Reginald L. Reagan A. L. Brueckner Live Stock Sanitary Service Laboratory...MICROSCOPY REGINALD L. REAGAN AND A. L. BRUECKNER Live Stock Sanitary Service Laboratory...material 233 REGINALD L. REAGAN AND A. L. BRUECKNER Figure 1. Dengue fever virus (mouse...

Reginald L. Reagan; A. L. Brueckner

1952-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Dopant atom clustering and charge screening induced roughness of electronic interfaces in GaAs p-n multilayers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The roughness of the electronic interfaces of p-n GaAs multilayers is investigated by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy. Two physically different contributions to the roughness are found, both much larger than the underlying atomically sharp “metallurgical” interface. The roughness arises from the individual electrostatic screening fields around each dopant atom near the interface and from a clustering of dopant atoms. The latter leads to charge-carrier-depleted zones extending locally through the entire nominally homogeneously doped layer for layer thicknesses close to the cluster dimension, hence limiting the precision of the spatial and energetic positioning of the Fermi energy in nanoscale semiconductor structures.

N. D. Jäger, K. Urban, E. R. Weber, and Ph. Ebert

2002-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

439

Friction forces in cosmological models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the dynamics of test particles undergoing friction forces in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) spacetime. The interaction with the background fluid is modeled by introducing a Poynting-Robertson-like friction force in the equations of motion, leading to measurable (at least in principle) deviations of the particle trajectories from geodesic motion. The effect on the peculiar velocities of the particles is investigated for various equations of state of the background fluid and different standard cosmological models. The friction force is found to have major effects on particle motion in closed FRW universes, where it turns the time-asymptotic value (approaching the recollapse) of the peculiar particle velocity from ultra-relativistic (close to light speed) to a co-moving one, i.e., zero peculiar speed. On the other hand, for open or flat universes the effect of the friction is not so significant, because the time-asymptotic peculiar particle speed is largely non-relativistic also in the geodesi...

Bini, Donato; Gregoris, Daniele; Succi, Sauro

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Friction forces in cosmological models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the dynamics of test particles undergoing friction forces in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) spacetime. The interaction with the background fluid is modeled by introducing a Poynting-Robertson-like friction force in the equations of motion, leading to measurable (at least in principle) deviations of the particle trajectories from geodesic motion. The effect on the peculiar velocities of the particles is investigated for various equations of state of the background fluid and different standard cosmological models. The friction force is found to have major effects on particle motion in closed FRW universes, where it turns the time-asymptotic value (approaching the recollapse) of the peculiar particle velocity from ultra-relativistic (close to light speed) to a co-moving one, i.e., zero peculiar speed. On the other hand, for open or flat universes the effect of the friction is not so significant, because the time-asymptotic peculiar particle speed is largely non-relativistic also in the geodesic case.

Donato Bini; Andrea Geralico; Daniele Gregoris; Sauro Succi

2014-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic force microscopy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Questions and Answers - Does an atom smasher really smash atoms?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

is an accelerator? is an accelerator? Previous Question (What is an accelerator?) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (Where and how do you get your electrons for your accelerator?) Where and how do you get yourelectrons for your accelerator? Does an atom smasher really smash atoms? Well, yes, they do, but we now prefer to call them by their less aggression-centered name, "particle harmony disrupters." Of course some atom smashers do much more smashing than others. We use electrons in our accelerator to study the nucleus of an atom. Remember that electrons are negative, as are the electrons surrounding the target. Since like charged particles repel each other, our particles have to have enough energy to blast through that electron cloud to get to the nucleus. The electrons then

442

Atoms 2014, 2, 378-381; doi:10.3390/atoms2030378 OPEN ACCESS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atoms 2014, 2, 378-381; doi:10.3390/atoms2030378 OPEN ACCESS atomsISSN 2218-2004 www.mdpi.com/journal/atoms.calisti@univ-amu.fr 3 International Atomic Energy Agency, Atomic and Molecular Data Unit, Nuclear Data Section, P.O. Box for the first two SLSP workshops are for simple atomic systems: the hydrogen atom or hydrogen-like one

443

Chemical factors influencing selenium atomization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atomization. (August 1980) Mary Sue Buren, B, S. , Angelo State University Chairman of Advisory Comm1ttee: Dr. Thomas M. Vickrey Selenium in an acid1c matrix was analyzed using graphite furnace atom1c absorption with Zeeman-effect background correct1on.... Nickel(II} and lanthanum( III) were introduced as matrix modifiers to determine their effect on interferences 1n selenium atom1zation. In add1tion to matr1x mod1ficat1on, surface coating the graphite furnace with z1rconium and tantalum salts was also...

Buren, Mary Sue

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

444

Atomic-Scale Engineering of the SiC-SiO{sub 2} Interface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report results from three distinct but related thrusts that aim to elucidate the atomic-scale structure and properties of the Sic-SiO{sub 2} interface. (a) First-principles theoretical calculations probe the global bonding arrangements and the local processes during oxidation; (b) Z-contrast atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron-energy-loss spectroscopy provide images and interface spectra, and (c) nuclear techniques and electrical measurements are used to profile N at the interface and determine interface trap densities.

Buczko, R.; Chung, G.; Di Ventra, M.; Duscher, G.; Feldman, L.C.; Huang, M.B.; McDonald, K.; Pantelides, S.T.; Pennycook, S.J.; Radtke, C.; Stedile, F.C.; Tin, C.C.; Weller, R.A. Baumvol, I.; Williams, J.R.; Won, J.

1999-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

445

THE INTERACTION OF RARE GAS METASTABLE ATOMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the study of metastable atom reactions. > 1 it- Fig, laa raetastable rare gas atom, three quantities are necessaryOF iiARE GAS METASTABLF ATOMS Andrew Zun-Foh Wang M a t e r

Wang, A.Z.-F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Transmission electron microscopy and Monte Carlo simulations of ordering in Au-Cu clusters produced in a laser vaporization source  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Au-Cu bimetallic alloy clusters are produced in a laser vaporization source starting from Au-Cu alloy targets with different stoichiometric compositions. The clusters are deposited on two different substrates—amorphous carbon and crystalline MgO—and are characterized by electron diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopy. The experiments show that the overall chemical composition in the clusters is the same as the chemical composition of the target material; but the crystal structure of the Au-Cu alloy clusters differs from their known bulk crystal structure. Electron microscopy experiments provide evidence that no chemical ordering exists between Au and Cu atoms and that the clusters are solid solutions. Monte Carlo simulations using the second moment tight-binding approximation, however, predict Cu3Au clusters ordered in the core but with a disordered mantle. The possible origins of the differences between experiment and Monte Carlo simulations are discussed.

B. Pauwels; G. Van Tendeloo; E. Zhurkin; M. Hou; G. Verschoren; L. Theil Kuhn; W. Bouwen; P. Lievens

2001-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

447

Registration, Force Protection Equipment Demonstration - May 2009 |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Registration, Force Protection Equipment Demonstration - May 2009 Registration, Force Protection Equipment Demonstration - May 2009 Registration, Force Protection Equipment Demonstration - May 2009 May 2009 Demonstrating commercially availale physical security/force protection soultions around the world The bombing of Khobar Towers in Saudi Arabia on 25 June 1996 revealed the need for continal vigilance and protection againist terrorist forces intent on harming US personnel and interests. The Chairman if the Joint Chiefs of Staff directed the Services to investigate COTS equipments solutions for physical security/force protection needs. The Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquistion, Technology, and Logistics (OUSD {at&l}) tasked the Office of the US Army Product Manager, force Protection Systems (PM-FPS), to coordiante and facilitate a Force Protection Equipment

448

Development of a light force accelerometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work, the feasibility of a light force accelerometer was experimentally demonstrated. The light force accelerometer is an optical inertial sensor which uses focused laser light to levitate and trap glass microspheres ...

Butts, David LaGrange

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Reduction-in-Force | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reduction-in-Force Reduction in force (RIF) is a set of regulations and procedures that are used to determine whether an employee keeps his or her present position, or...

450

A Dynamic Defense Force for Japan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Dynamic Defense Force for Japan Sugio TAKAHASHI SUMMARY AGuidelines released by Japan in 2010, the most important isconcept, which will enable the Japan Self-Defense Forces to

TAKAHASHI, Sugio

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Nuclear Radiological Threat Task Force Established | National...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Radiological Threat Task Force Established | National Nuclear Security Administration People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy...

452

Imaging atoms in 3-D  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Berkeley Lab's Peter Ercius discusses "Imaging atoms in 3-D" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas

Ercius, Peter

2014-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

453

ATOMIC ENERGY ACT OF 1946  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ect of the us0 of atomic energy for civilian purposes upon the social, economic, and political structures of today cannot now bo determined. It is a field in which unknown factors...

454

Quantum information with Rydberg atoms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Rydberg atoms with principal quantum number n?1 have exaggerated atomic properties including dipole-dipole interactions that scale as n4 and radiative lifetimes that scale as n3. It was proposed a decade ago to take advantage of these properties to implement quantum gates between neutral atom qubits. The availability of a strong long-range interaction that can be coherently turned on and off is an enabling resource for a wide range of quantum information tasks stretching far beyond the original gate proposal. Rydberg enabled capabilities include long-range two-qubit gates, collective encoding of multiqubit registers, implementation of robust light-atom quantum interfaces, and the potential for simulating quantum many-body physics. The advances of the last decade are reviewed, covering both theoretical and experimental aspects of Rydberg-mediated quantum information processing.

M. Saffman; T. G. Walker; K. Mølmer

2010-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

455

Manhattan Project: Order to Drop the Atomic Bomb  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

ORDER TO DROP THE ATOMIC BOMB Handy to Spaatz, National Archives (July 25, 1945) Resources > Library The document below is the order to attack Japanese cities with atomic bombs. In it, the Acting Army Chief of Staff, Thomas Handy, orders Commanding General Carl Spaatz, Army Strategic Air Forces, to "deliver [the] first special bomb as soon as weather will permit . . . after about 3 August 1945." The target list: "Hiroshima, Kokura, Niigata, and Nagasaki." Further attacks were also authorized: "additional bombs will be delivered on the above targets as soon as made ready." Handy was the acting chief of staff because George Marshall was with President Harry S. Truman at the Potsdam Conference. The letter explicitly notes that this order was approved by Marshall and Secretary of War Henry Stimson. Truman, of course, provided the ultimate authorization for dropping the bomb.

456

Evaporative cooling of a guided rubidium atomic beam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on our recent progress in the manipulation and cooling of a magnetically guided, high-flux beam of Rb87 atoms. Typically, 7×109atomspersecond propagate in a magnetic guide providing a transverse gradient of 800G?cm, with a temperature ?550?K, at an initial velocity of 90cm?s. The atoms are subsequently slowed down to ?60cm?s using an upward slope. The relatively high collision rate (5s?1) allows us to start forced evaporative cooling of the beam, leading to a reduction of the beam temperature by a factor of 4, and a tenfold increase of the on-axis phase-space density.

T. Lahaye, Z. Wang, G. Reinaudi, S. P. Rath, J. Dalibard, and D. Guéry-Odelin

2005-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

457

Hetero-epitaxial EuO interfaces studied by analytic electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With nearly complete spin polarization, the ferromagnetic semiconductor europium monoxide could enable next-generation spintronic devices by providing efficient ohmic spin injection into silicon. Spin injection is greatly affected by the quality of the interface between the injector and silicon. Here, we use atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with electron energy loss spectroscopy to directly image and chemically characterize a series of EuO|Si and EuO|YAlO{sub 3} interfaces fabricated using different growth conditions. We identify the presence of europium silicides and regions of disorder at the EuO|Si interfaces, imperfections that could significantly reduce spin injection efficiencies via spin-flip scattering.

Mundy, Julia A. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Hodash, Daniel; Melville, Alexander; Held, Rainer [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Mairoser, Thomas; Schmehl, Andreas [Zentrum für Elektronische Korrelationen und Magnetismus, Universität Augsburg, Universitätsstraße 1, D-86159 Augsburg (Germany); Muller, David A.; Kourkoutis, Lena F. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Schlom, Darrell G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

458

Near-field microwave microscopy of high-? oxides grown on graphene with an organic seeding layer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Near-field scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) is used for non-destructive nanoscale characterization of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} films grown on epitaxial graphene on SiC by atomic layer deposition using a self-assembled perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride seeding layer. SMM allows imaging of buried inhomogeneities in the dielectric layer with a spatial resolution close to 100?nm. The results indicate that, while topographic features on the substrate surface cannot be eliminated as possible sites of defect nucleation, the use of a vertically heterogeneous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/HfO{sub 2} stack suppresses formation of large outgrowth defects in the oxide film, ultimately improving lateral uniformity of the dielectric film.

Tselev, Alexander, E-mail: tseleva@ornl.gov; Kalinin, Sergei V. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Sangwan, Vinod K.; Jariwala, Deep; Lauhon, Lincoln J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

459

Absorption properties of identical atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emission rates and other optical properties of multiparticle systems in collective and entangled states differ from those in product ones. We show the existence of similar effects in the absorption probabilities for (anti)symmetrized states of two identical atoms. The effects strongly depend on the overlapping between the atoms and differ for bosons and fermions. We propose a viable experimental verification of these ideas.

Pedro Sancho

2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

460

Influence of the Si(111)-7 Multiplication-Sign 7 surface reconstruction on the diffusion of strontium atoms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The diffusion of strontium atoms on the Si(111) surface at room temperature has been investigated using scanning tunnel microscopy and simulation carried out in terms of the density functional theory and the Monte Carlo method. It has been found that the reconstruction of a clean silicon surface with a 7 Multiplication-Sign 7 structure has a profound effect on the diffusion process. The average velocity of motion of a strontium atom in a unit cell of the 7 Multiplication-Sign 7 structure has been calculated. The main diffusion paths of a strontium atom and the corresponding activation energies have been determined. It has been demonstrated that the formation of scanning tunnel microscope images of the Si(111)-7 Multiplication-Sign 7 surface with adsorbed strontium atoms is significantly affected by the shift of the electron density from the strontium atom to the nearest neighbor silicon adatoms in the 7 Multiplication-Sign 7 structure.

Zhachuk, R. A.; Teys, S. A.; Olshanetsky, B. Z., E-mail: olshan@isp.nsc.ru [Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic force microscopy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Theory of trapping forces in optical tweezers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...been used to measure forces in the piconewton range...investigations in some fundamental fields of cell biology...result for the transverse force as given by (3.9...Stegun, I. 1972 Handbook of mathematical functions...Dover. Ashkin, A. 1992 Forces of a single beam gradient...

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Quarkonium Binding and Entropic Force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Q-Qbar bound state represents a balance between repulsive kinetic and attractive potential energy. In a hot quark-gluon plasma, the interaction potential experiences medium effects. Color screening modifies the attractive binding force between the quarks, while the increase of entropy with Q-Qbar separation gives rise to a growing repulsion. We study the role of these phenomena for in-medium Q-Qbar binding and dissociation. It is found that the relevant potential for Q-Qbar binding is the free energy F; with increasing Q-Qbar separation, further binding through the internal energy U is compensated by repulsive entropic effects.

Satz, Helmut

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

A new approach to nuclear microscopy: The ion-electron emission microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new multidimensional high lateral resolution ion beam analysis technique, Ion-Electron Emission Microscopy or IEEM is described. Using MeV energy ions, IEEM is shown to be capable of Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) measurements in semiconductors. IEEM should also be capable of microscopically and multidimensionally mapping the surface and bulk composition of solids. As such, IIEM has nearly identical capabilities as traditional nuclear microprobe analysis, with the advantage that the ion beam does not have to be focused. The technique is based on determining the position where an individual ion enters the surface of the sample by projection secondary electron emission microscopy. The x-y origination point of a secondary electron, and hence the impact coordinates of the corresponding incident ion, is recorded with a position sensitive detector connected to a standard photoemission electron microscope (PEEM). These signals are then used to establish coincidence with IBICC, atomic, or nuclear reaction induced ion beam analysis signals simultaneously caused by the incident ion.

Doyle, B.L.; Vizkelethy, G.; Walsh, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Senftinger, B. [Staib Instrumente GmbH, Langenbach (Germany); Mellon, M. [Quantar Technologies Inc., Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Mapping Ionic Currents and Reactivity on the Nanoscale: Electrochemical Strain Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid-state electrochemical processes in oxides underpin a broad spectrum of energy and information storage devices, ranging from Li-ion and Li-air batteries, to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) to electroresistive and memristive systems. These functionalities are controlled by the bias-driven diffusive and electromigration transport of mobile ionic species, as well as intricate a set of electrochemical and defect-controlled reactions at interfaces and in bulk. Despite the wealth of device-level and atomistic studies, little is known on the mesoscopic mechanisms of ion diffusion and electronic transport on the level of grain clusters, individual grains, and extended defects. The development of the capability for probing ion transport on the nanometer scale is a key to deciphering complex interplay between structure, functionality, and performance in these systems. Here we introduce Electrochemical Strain Microscopy, a scanning probe microscopy technique based on strong strain-bias coupling in the systems in which local ion concentrations are changed by electrical fields. The imaging capability, as well as time- and voltage spectroscopies analogous to traditional current based electrochemical characterization methods are developed. The reversible intercalation of Li and mapping electrochemical activity in LiCoO2 is demonstrated, illustrating higher Li diffusivity at non-basal planes and grain boundaries. In Si-anode device structure, the direct mapping of Li diffusion at extended defects and evolution of Li-activity with charge state is explored. The electrical field-dependence of Li mobility is studied to determine the critical bias required for the onset of electrochemical transformation, allowing reaction and diffusion processes in the battery system to be separated at each location. Finally, the applicability of ESM for probing oxygen vacancy diffusion and oxygen reduction/evolution reactions is illustrated, and the high resolution ESM maps are correlated with aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging. The future potential for deciphering mechanisms of electrochemical transformations on an atomically-defined single-defect level is discussed.

Kalinin, S.V. (Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, ORNL) [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, ORNL

2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

465

Using Synchrotron Radiation and Electron Microscopy to Map the Huge Structural Changes that Occur in Viruses During Their Life Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The crystallographic techniques for structure determination of proteins and neucleic acids at near atomic resolution using synchrotron X-radiation has become almost automatic. However the limits of this procedure are determined by the availability of crystals. As the size and complexity of the molecular assemblies being studied increases, the likelihood of growing useful crystals diminishes. Cryo electron microscopy and tomography have extended the range of biological objects that can be determined at near atomic resolution. Furthermore it is now becoming apparent that the function of the molecular assemblies most often requires very large conformational changes that could never be contained within a crystal, Examples will be presented of the structural changes that occur in viruses as they assembly and prepare to infect new cells.

Rossman, Michael (Purdue University) [Purdue University

2011-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

466

Air Force Enhanced Use Lease  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

1 1 Air Force Enhanced Use Lease Mr. Brian Brown 16 Oct. 12 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 2 Agenda  Brian Brown  Enhanced Use Lease (EUL) Overview  Energy EULs  EUL Goals  David Swanson  Energy EUL Market Drivers  Current EUL Projects  Partnering with the Air Force  Contact Information I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 3 Overview  Authority 10 USC 2667  An EUL is a lease  By the government  Of "non-excess" property  Under the control of the government  To a public or private sector lessee  In exchange for fair market value rental payments in cash and/or in kind consideration I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e

467

Lorentz-Force Hydrophone Characterization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Lorentz-force hydrophone consists of a thin wire placed inside a magnetic field. When under the influence of an ultrasound pulse, the wire vibrates and an electrical signal is induced by the Lorentz force that is proportional to the pulse amplitude. In this study a compact prototype of such a hydrophone is introduced and characterized, and the hydrodynamic model previously developed is refined. It is shown that the wire tension has a negligible effect on the measurement of pressure. The frequency response of the hydrophone reaches 1 MHz for wires with a diameter ranging between 70 and 400 \\micro m. The hydrophone exhibits a directional response such that the signal amplitude differs by less than 3dB as the angle of the incident ultrasound pulse varies from -20$^o$ and +20$^o$. The linearity of the measured signal is confirmed across the 50 kPa to 10 MPa pressure range, and an excellent resistance to cavitation is observed. This hydrophone is of interest for high pressure ultrasound measurements including Hi...

Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Gilles, Bruno; Poizat, Adrien; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lafon, Cyril

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic layer-by-layer force Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

from the 3D hut cluster growth mode to the ... Source: Kim, Sehun - Department of Chemistry, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology Collection: Computer...

469

Atomic Force Microscope Based Near-field Imaging for Probing Cell Surface Interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bovine Serum FDTD Finite Difference Time Domain FEM Finite Element Method FRET F?rster Resonance Energy Transfer FWHM Full Width at Half Maximum L-M Lorenz-Mie MEM Minimum Essential Medium QD Quantum Dot RFP Red Fluorescent Protein TE Transverse... .................... 63 4.4 Modeling of WGMs in microspheres with inhomogeneous surrounding ......... 66 4.4.1 ADDA ................................................................................................... 66 4.4.2 L-M model...

Amini, Sina

2013-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

470

A Tutorial on the Mechanisms, Dynamics, and Control of Atomic Force Microscopes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are described from a controls perspective and recent advances geared at increasing the performance, danny@agilent.com S. B. Andersson is an assistant professor of Aerospace and Me- chanical Engineering Technologies, Inc. and the US National Science Foundation (NSF Grant CMS-0201459). Georg Schitter's work

471

Nanomanipulation of biological samples using a compact atomic force microscope under scanning electron microscope observation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Leakage of the EB current to the micro-electric circuit of the piezo-resistive sensor...Science and Technology, Development of elementary techniques for electron microscope in...Superfine R, Washburn S. In situ resistance measurements of strained carbon nanotubes......

Futoshi Iwata; Yuya Mizuguchi; Hideyuki Ko; Tatsuo Ushiki

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Selfish atom selects quantum resonances at fractional atomic frequencies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that the atom as a "quantum entity", driven by an external field in the form of pulse sequence at repetition rate equal to the internal quantum frequency divided by an integer n, responds resonantly. It seeks and finds its characteristic frequencies in any possible combination of its frequencies. This is an indication of self expression by the atom at many sub-frequencies of its own transition frequencies. It is a non-intuitive phenomenon since the external repetition rate has no quantum character, yet the atom responds to it if the rate is equal to 1/n its eigen-frequency. We believe that our results will have implications in other quantum related processes, such as resonant enhancement of chemical reactions and biological processes.

Gennady A. Koganov; Reuben Shuker

2014-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

473

NCEM National Center for Electron Microscopy: Becoming an NCEM User  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

New Research New Research Gallery Microscopy Links Becoming an NCEM User Step 1: Submit a proposal Step 2: Before you begin your research Step 3: Instrument qualification Step 4: Accessing NCEM facilities and performing research Step 1: Submit a proposal Deadlines for new proposals are March 15, June 15, September 15, December 15. Access to NCEM facilities is granted to researchers whose proposals are accepted by the NCEM proposal review committee. NCEM users are expected to have a strong background in transmission electron microscopy, and submitted proposals should include evidence of prior electron microscopy experience by the intended operator. Researchers who do not have sufficient experience in electron microscopy may be able to use NCEM facilities through a collaborative project.

474

Electron microscopy and microanalysis Two transmission electron microscopes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electron microscopy and microanalysis Two transmission electron microscopes (TEM) and three scanning electron micro- scopes (SEM) are operated by the De- partment. Attachments for TEM include energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), scanning transmission attachment, serial electron energy loss

475

Sub-Kelvin scanning tunneling microscopy on magnetic molecules.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Magnetic molecules have attracted lots interest. In this work, an ultra-stable and low noise scanning tunneling microscopy operating at 400 mK using He-3 (930 mK… (more)

Zhang, Lei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing...

477

Doppler optical coherence microscopy for studies of cochlear mechanics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The possibility of measuring subnanometer motions with micron scale spatial resolution in the intact mammalian cochlea using Doppler optical coherence microscopy (DOCM) is demonstrated. A novel DOCM system is described ...

Hong, Stanley S.

478

Fast live simultaneous multiwavelength four-dimensional optical microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...between excitation power and sensitivity...throughput of both systems. Most modern microscopy systems have excellent...connected to a power source (Bioptechs...Pawley JB ( 2006 ) Handbook of Biological Confocal...image sequence restoration . IEEE T Pattern...

Peter M. Carlton; Jérôme Boulanger; Charles Kervrann; Jean-Baptiste Sibarita; Jean Salamero; Susannah Gordon-Messer; Debra Bressan; James E. Haber; Sebastian Haase; Lin Shao; Lukman Winoto; Atsushi Matsuda; Peter Kner; Satoru Uzawa; Mats Gustafsson; Zvi Kam; David A. Agard; John W. Sedat

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Fluorescence microscopy with diffraction resolution barrier broken by stimulated emission  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...intracavity frequency doubler. This system partly converted the Ti:Sapphire...the focused time-averaged power. The axial...processing. Computational image restoration can in addition improve...light. 1 Pawley J ( 1995 ) Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy...

Thomas A. Klar; Stefan Jakobs; Marcus Dyba; Alexander Egner; Stefan W. Hell

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atomic force microscopy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Carmichael's Concise Review Microscopy is Only Skin Deep  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carmichael's Concise Review Microscopy is Only Skin Deep Stephen W. Carmichael Mayo Clinic. Coming Events 2011 EMAS 2011 May 15­19, 2011 Angers, France www.emas-web.net IUMAS-V May 22­27, 2011

Heller, Eric

482

Collection of atomic mercury by electrostatic precipitators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to measure the difference in the mercury concentration of gas ...

O. M. G. NEWMAN; D. J. PALMER

1978-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

483

RICE UNIVERSITY Ultracold Collisions in Atomic Strontium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RICE UNIVERSITY Ultracold Collisions in Atomic Strontium by Sarah B. Nagel A Thesis Submitted Houston, Texas February, 2008 #12;Abstract Ultracold Collisions in Atomic Strontium by Sarah B. Nagel In this work with atomic Strontium, the atoms are first laser cooled and subse- quently trapped, in a MOT

Killian, Thomas C.

484

Atomic Cascade in Muonic and Hadronic Hydrogen Atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The atomic cascade in $\\mu^- p$ and $\\pi^- p$ atoms has been studied with the improved version of the extended cascade model in which new quantum mechanical calculations of the differential and integral cross sections of the elastic scattering, Stark transitions and Coulomb de-excitation have been included for the principal quantum number values $n\\le 8$ and the relative energies $E \\ge 0.01$ eV. The $X$-ray yields and kinetic energy distributions are compared with the experimental data.

T. S. Jensen; V. P. Popov; V. N. Pomerantsev

2007-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

485

Observation of relativistic antihydrogen atoms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An observation of relativistic antihydrogen atoms is reported in this dissertation. Experiment 862 at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory observed antihydrogen atoms produced by the interaction of a circulating beam of high momentum (3 < p < 9 GeV/c) antiprotons and a jet of molecular hydrogen gas. Since the neutral antihydrogen does not bend in the antiproton source magnets, the detectors could be located far from the interaction point on a beamline tangent to the storage ring. The detection of the antihydrogen is accomplished by ionizing the atoms far from the interaction point. The positron is deflected by a magnetic spectrometer and detected, as are the back to back photons resulting from its annihilation. The antiproton travels a distance long enough for its momentum and time of flight to be measured accurately. A statistically significant sample of 101 antihydrogen atoms has been observed. A measurement of the cross section for {bar H}{sup 0} production is outlined within. The cross section corresponds to the process where a high momentum antiproton causes e{sup +} e{sup -} pair creation near a nucleus with the e{sup +} being captured by the antiproton. Antihydrogen is the first atom made exclusively of antimatter to be detected. The observation experiment's results are the first step towards an antihydrogen spectroscopy experiment which would measure the n = 2 Lamb shift and fine structure.

Blanford, Glenn DelFosse

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Los Alamos: MST-MTM: EML: Electron Microscopy Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electron Microscopy Laboratory, MST-6 Electron Microscopy Laboratory, MST-6 MST-6 Home Home In the MSL FEI Tecnai F30 Analytical TEM/STEM JEOL 6300FXV High Resolution SEM JEOL 3000F High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope Philips XL30 F Scanning Electron Microscope & Orientation Imaging System Phillips CM30 Transmission Electron Microscope In the Sigma Building JEOL 840 EPMA with Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy FEI Strata DB235 FIB/SEM FEI XL30 Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope & Orientation Imaging System CONTACTS Bob Field 665.3938 Pat Dickerson 665.3036 Rob Dickerson 667.6337 Rod McCabe 606.1649 The Electron Microscopy Laboratory's Capabilities The Electron Microscopy Laboratory's Capabilities The Electron Microscopy Laboratory (EML) is part of MST-6, the Materials Technology - Metallurgy Group within the Materials Science and Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It is a facility dedicated to the characterization of materials primarily through imaging, chemical, and crystallographic analyses of material microstructures with several electron and ion beam instruments. Accessory characterization techniques and equipment include energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDS), wavelength dispersive x-ray analysis (WDS), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and orientation imaging microscopy (OIM), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS).

487

Army Energy Initiatives Task Force  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Army Energy Initiatives Task Force Kathy Ahsing Director, Planning and Development UNCLASSIFIED 2 Perfect Storm UNCLASSIFIED 3 U.S. Army Energy Consumption, 2010 23% 77% 42% 58%  Facilities  Vehicles & Equipment (Tactical and Non-tactical) Sources: Energy Information Agency, 2010 Annual Energy Review; Agency Annual Energy Management Data Reports submitted to DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (Preliminary FY 2010) 32% 68% DoD 80% Army 21% Federal Gov 1% Federal Government United States Department of Defense U.S. = 98,079 Trillion Btu DoD = 889 Trillion Btu Fed Gov = 1,108 Trillion Btu U.S. Army = 189 Trillion Btu FY10 Highlights - $2.5+B Operational Energy Costs - $1.2 B Facility Energy Costs

488

Dark Forces At The Tevatron  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

A simple explanation of the W + dijet excess recently reported by the CDF collaboration involves the introduction of a new gauge boson with sizable couplings to quarks, but with no or highly suppressed couplings to leptons. Anomaly-free theories which include such a leptophobic gauge boson must also include additional particle content, which may include a stable and otherwise viable candidate for dark matter. Based on the couplings and mass of the Z` required to generate the CDF excess, we predict such a dark matter candidate to possess an elastic scattering cross section with nucleons on the order of ? ~ 10-40 cm2, providing a natural explanation for the signals reported by the CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA collaborations. In this light, CDF may be observing the gauge boson responsible for the force which mediates the interactions between the dark and visible matter of our universe.

Buckley, Matt [Fermilab; Fileviez Perez, Pavel [Wisconsin U., Madison; Hooper, Dan [Fermilab; Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Neil, Ethan [Fermilab

2011-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

489

Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy: Applications in Atmospheric Aerosol Research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

related to the total atomic absorption cross section, ? A (number. Tabulations of atomic absorption cross sections areC are the mass absorption coefficients and atomic masses for

Moffet, Ryan C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Atomizing, continuous, water monitoring module  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for continuously analyzing volatile constituents of a liquid is described. The system contains a pump for continuously pumping the liquid to be tested at a predetermined flow rate into an extracting container through a liquid directing tube having an orifice at one end and positioned to direct the liquid into the extracting container at a flow rate sufficient to atomize the liquid within the extracting container. A continuous supply of helium carrier gas at a predetermined flow rate is directed through a tube into the extracting container and co-mingled with the atomized liquid to extract the volatile constituents contained within the atomized liquid. The helium containing the extracted volatile constituents flows out of the extracting container into a mass spectrometer for an analysis of the volatile constituents of the liquid. 3 figs.

Thompson, C.V.; Wise, M.B.

1997-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

491

Atomic Resolution Coordination Mapping in Ca2FeCoO5 Brownmillerite by Spatially Resolved Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using a combination of high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy and atomically resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy at high energy resolution in an aberration-corrected electron microscope, we demonstrate the capability of coordination mapping in complex oxides. ... (b) Survey image indicating the area used for octahedral (red) and tetrahedral (blue) data summation (3 pixel width). ... B atoms that have energetic preference for tetrahedral coordination geometry are esp. ...

Stuart Turner; Johan Verbeeck; Farshid Ramezanipour; John E. Greedan; Gustaaf Van Tendeloo; Gianluigi A. Botton

2012-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

492

Ab-initio friction forces on the nanoscale: A DFT study of fcc Cu(111)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

While there are a number of models that tackle the problem of calculating friction forces on the atomic level, providing a completely parameter-free approach remains a challenge. Here we present a quasi-static model to obtain an approximation to the nanofrictional response of dry, wearless systems based on quantum mechanical all-electron calculations. We propose a mechanism to allow dissipative sliding, which relies on atomic relaxations. We define two different ways of calculating the mean nanofriction force, both leading to an exponential friction-versus-load behavior for all sliding directions. Since our approach does not impose any limits on lengths and directions of the sliding paths, we investigate arbitrary sliding directions for an fcc Cu(111) interface and detect two periodic paths which form the upper and lower bound of nanofriction. For long aperiodic paths the friction force convergences to a value in between these limits. For low loads we retrieve the Derjaguin generalization of Amontons-Coulomb kinetic friction law which appears to be valid all the way down to the nanoscale. We observe a non-vanishing Derjaguin-offset even for atomically flat surfaces in dry contact.

Michael Wolloch; Gregor Feldbauer; Peter Mohn; Josef Redinger; András Vernes

2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

493

Local characterization of hindered Brownian motion by using digital video microscopy and 3D particle tracking  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this article we present methods for measuring hindered Brownian motion in the confinement of complex 3D geometries using digital video microscopy. Here we discuss essential features of automated 3D particle tracking as well as diffusion data analysis. By introducing local mean squared displacement-vs-time curves, we are able to simultaneously measure the spatial dependence of diffusion coefficients, tracking accuracies and drift velocities. Such local measurements allow a more detailed and appropriate description of strongly heterogeneous systems as opposed to global measurements. Finite size effects of the tracking region on measuring mean squared displacements are also discussed. The use of these methods was crucial for the measurement of the diffusive behavior of spherical polystyrene particles (505 nm diameter) in a microfluidic chip. The particles explored an array of parallel channels with different cross sections as well as the bulk reservoirs. For this experiment we present the measurement of local tracking accuracies in all three axial directions as well as the diffusivity parallel to the channel axis while we observed no significant flow but purely Brownian motion. Finally, the presented algorithm is suitable also for tracking of fluorescently labeled particles and particles driven by an external force, e.g., electrokinetic or dielectrophoretic forces.

Dettmer, Simon L.; Keyser, Ulrich F.; Pagliara, Stefano [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 19 J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)] [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 19 J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

494

Relativistic atomic beam spectroscopy II  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The negative ion of H is one of the simplest 3-body atomic systems. The techniques we have developed for experimental study of atoms moving near speed of light have been productive. This proposal request continuing support for experimental studies of the H{sup -} system, principally at the 800 MeV linear accelerator (LAMPF) at Los Alamos. Four experiments are currently planned: photodetachment of H{sup -} near threshold in electric field, interaction of relativistic H{sup -} ions with matter, high excitations and double charge escape in H{sup -}, and multiphoton detachment of electrons from H{sup -}.

NONE

1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

495

Atomic-binding-energy oscillations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigate the oscillatory supplement to the statistical nonrelativistic binding-energy formula for neutral atoms. The semiclassical approach proves capable of deriving these oscillations. It turns out that their amplitude is proportional to Z4/3 (Z is the number of electrons), and that their period is determined by the maximum angular momentum available in Thomas-Fermi atoms, i.e., 0.928Z1/3. Our calculation also provides an understanding of the peculiar shape of the oscillations, which show sharp minima and wide, structured maxima.

Berthold-Georg Englert and Julian Schwinger

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Atomic-Resolution Spectroscopic Imaging and In Situ Environmental Study of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atomic-Resolution Spectroscopic Imaging and In Situ Environmental Study of Atomic-Resolution Spectroscopic Imaging and In Situ Environmental Study of Bimetallic Nanocatalysts by Fast Electrons Thursday, October 24, 2013 - 3:30pm SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Huolin Xin Center for Functional Nanomaterials Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in combination with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) has proven to be a powerful technique to study structural, compositional, and electronic information of materials at the atomic scale. With the recent addition of 3rd-order and now 5th-order aberration correction, the numerical aperture can be opened up by a factor of 2-3, allowing sub-Angstrom resolution to be achieved in a STEM. Additionally, the enlarged numerical aperture couple with the use of

497

Frictional forces in helical buckling of tubing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Previous analyses of helical buckling of tubing have not considered frictional forces. This paper describes the modifications to helical buckling theory necessary to include friction. The first need is a relationship between the buckling force and the casing to tubing contact force. This contact force is determined through use of the principle of virtual work. The next need is the relationship between the friction forces, the buckling force, and the geometry of the tubing helix. Differential equations are derived and solved for two cases of interest: buckling during the landing of the tubing and thermal and differential pressure loading subsequent to landing. Several example problems are examined to evaluate the relative importance of friction.

Mitchell, R.F.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Casimir force between integrable and chaotic pistons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have computed numerically the Casimir force between two identical pistons inside a very long cylinder, considering different shapes for the pistons. The pistons can be considered as quantum billiards, whose spectrum determines the vacuum force. The smooth part of the spectrum fixes the force at short distances, and depends only on geometric quantities like the area or perimeter of the piston. However, correcting terms to the force, coming from the oscillating part of the spectrum which is related to the classical dynamics of the billiard, are qualitatively different for classically integrable or chaotic systems. We have performed a detailed numerical analysis of the corresponding Casimir force for pistons with regular and chaotic classical dynamics. For a family of stadium billiards, we have found that the correcting part of the Casimir force presents a sudden change in the transition from regular to chaotic geometries.

Ezequiel Alvarez; Francisco Diego Mazzitelli; Alejandro G. Monastra; Diego A. Wisniacki

2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

499

The force exerted by a fireball  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The force exerted by a fireball was deduced both from the change of the equilibrium position of a pendulum and from the change in the pendulum oscillation period. That measured force was found to be several times larger than the force exerted by the ions accelerated across the double layer that is assumed to surround the fireball. The force enhancement that is expected by ion-neutral collisions in the fireball is evaluated to be too small to explain the measured enhanced force. Gas pressure increase, due to gas heating through electron-neutral collisions, as recently suggested [Stenzel et al., J. Appl. Phys. 109, 113305 (2011)], is examined as the source for the force enhancement.

Makrinich, G.; Fruchtman, A. [H.I.T. - Holon Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb St., Holon 58102 (Israel)] [H.I.T. - Holon Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb St., Holon 58102 (Israel)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

500

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced microscopy techniques Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

microscopy techniques and their practice in relationship to materials structure characterization... of Microscopy", Edited by P.W. Hawkes and J.C.H. Spence, Springer, 2006 (An...