National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for atomic bomb survivors

  1. Radiation May Indirectly Impair Growth Resulting in Reduced Standing Height via Subclinical Inflammation in Atomic-Bomb Survivors Exposed at Young Ages

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nakashima, Eiji; Neriishi, Kazuo; Hsu, Wan-Ling

    2015-01-01

    For youngmore » atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, A-bomb radiation’s (total) effect on standing height is thought to comprise the sum of direct effect and indirect effect via inflammation. With the data of five inflammatory markers—white blood cell count, sialic acid, corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), α 1 globulin, and α 2 globulin—obtained in adulthood during the period 1988 to 1992, a summary inflammatory index was constructed as a surrogate for the five subclinical inflammatory markers. For 3,327 A-bomb survivors exposed at ages of less than 25 years, a structural equation model was analyzed to measure direct radiation effects on adult height as well as mediating effect of radiation via inflammation on the height after adjustment for other risk factors, smoking, cancer, inflammatory disease, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. The mediation proportion of the radiation effect on height via inflammation was approximately 5% for both sexes for all ages, and indirect dose effects via inflammation were statistically significant for both sexes combined and for females exposed at ages 0 to 5 years. Indirect dose effects for all ages via sialic acid, corrected ESR, and α 2 globulin were marginally significant for both sexes combined and for females. These proportions are likely underestimated.« less

  2. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb This report is an account of work on the atomic bomb. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb (6.17 MB) More Documents & Publications Gosling, The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb The_Manhattan_Project_2010.pdf The Manhattan Project: Making of the Atomic Bomb

  3. Commemoration of the 60th Annniversary of The Atomic Bomb Casualty

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commission/Radiation Effects Research Foundation | Department of Energy Commemoration of the 60th Annniversary of The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission/Radiation Effects Research Foundation Commemoration of the 60th Annniversary of The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission/Radiation Effects Research Foundation December 2007 During 2007, a number of events marked the 60th anniversary of the beginning of studies on the health of the atomic bomb survivors. A symposium on "Sixty Years of ABCC/RERF:

  4. President Roosevelt Approves Production of Atomic Bomb | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration | (NNSA) Approves Production of Atomic Bomb President Roosevelt Approves Production of Atomic Bomb Washington, DC President Roosevelt approves production of the atomic bomb following receipt of a National Academy of Sciences report determining that a bomb is feasible

  5. Gosling, The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Operational Management History Historical Resources History Publications Gosling, The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb Gosling, The Manhattan Project: Making...

  6. Biomarkers of Radiosensitivity in A-Bomb Survivors Pregnant at the Time of Bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miles, Edward F.; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Kamada, Naoko; Nakashima, Eiji; Kodama, Yoshiaki; Seed, Thomas; Kusonoki, Yoichiro; Nakachi, Kei; Fujiwara, Saeko; et al

    2011-01-01

    Purpose . There is evidence in the literature of increased maternal radiosensitivity during pregnancy. Materials and Methods . We tested this hypothesis using information from the atomic-bomb survivor cohort, that is, the Adult Health Study database at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, which contains data from a cohort of women who were pregnant at the time of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Previous evaluation has demonstrated long-term radiation dose-response effects. Results/Conclusions . Data on approximately 250 women were available to assess dose-response rates for serum cholesterol, white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and serum hemoglobin, and onmore » approximately 85 women for stable chromosome aberrations, glycophorin A locus mutations, and naïve CD4 T-cell counts. Although there is no statistically significant evidence of increased radiosensitivity in pregnant women, the increased slope of the linear trend line in the third trimester with respect to stable chromosome aberrations is suggestive of an increased radiosensitivity.« less

  7. The Manhattan Project: Making the atomic bomb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gosling, F.G.

    1994-09-01

    This article is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of US government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  8. Publication of New Atomic Bomb Radiation Dosimetry System | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Publication of New Atomic Bomb Radiation Dosimetry System Publication of New Atomic Bomb Radiation Dosimetry System February 27, 2006 Due to recent advances in computer technology, DS02 allows more complicated and detailed calculations than DS86 did, as well as detailed simulations of the atomic bomb explosions and of the radiation's release and dispersal. Many improvements have been made, including dose estimates, with consideration paid to the more detailed shielding conditions of

  9. President Roosevelt Approves Production of Atomic Bomb | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Approves Production of Atomic Bomb | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation...

  10. Gosling, The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Gosling, The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb Gosling, The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb F.G. Gosling. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. DOE/MA-0002 Revised. Washington, D.C.: Department of Energy, 2010. 115 pp., with 38 pp. photo gallery). From the Forward to the 2010 Edition: "In a national survey at the turn of the millennium, journalists and historians ranked the dropping of the atomic bomb and the surrender of Japan to end the Second World

  11. The Manhattan Project: Making of the Atomic Bomb | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Manhattan Project: Making of the Atomic Bomb The Manhattan Project: Making of the Atomic Bomb history of the manhattan project The Manhattan Project: Making of the Atomic Bomb (6.17 MB) More Documents & Publications Gosling, The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb The_Manhattan_Project_2010.pdf The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb

  12. DS02: A New Dosimetry System for A-Bomb Survivor Studies | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (34.23 KB) More Documents & Publications Publication of New Atomic Bomb Radiation Dosimetry System Workshop Report: Health Physics Journal Workshop Report : Health Physics Journal

  13. Manhattan Project: The Atomic Bombing of Nagasaki, August 9,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... For those areas of Nagasaki affected by the explosion, the death rate was comparable to ... The Army and the Atomic Bomb, United States Army in World War II (Washington: ...

  14. Commemoration of the 60th Annniversary of The Atomic Bomb Casualty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bomb Casualty CommissionRadiation Effects Research Foundation Commemoration of the 60th Annniversary of The Atomic Bomb Casualty CommissionRadiation Effects Research Foundation ...

  15. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 1999 edition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gosling, F.G.

    1999-01-01

    ``The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb`` is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  16. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-06-06

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  17. Atomic Bombs, Winning the War and Women in Pants: Voices of the Manhattan

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Speak of the Nation's History | Department of Energy Atomic Bombs, Winning the War and Women in Pants: Voices of the Manhattan Project Speak of the Nation's History Atomic Bombs, Winning the War and Women in Pants: Voices of the Manhattan Project Speak of the Nation's History November 28, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Manhattan Project veteran Ralph Gates (far right) celebrates Christmas in 1945. Gates contributed to the Voices of the Manhattan Project, a storytelling project launched by

  18. Manhattan Project: The Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima, August 6...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... of the bombing by the Casualties in a makeshift hospital, Hiroshima United States. ... Soon the death rate actually began to climb again as patients who had appeared to be ...

  19. Manhattan Project: Order to Drop the Atomic Bomb

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In it, the Acting Army Chief of Staff, Thomas Handy, orders Commanding General Carl Spaatz, Army Strategic Air Forces, to "deliver the first special bomb as soon as weather will ...

  20. The development of the atomic bomb, Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seidel, R.W.

    1993-11-01

    The historical presentation begins with details of the selection of Los Alamos as the site of the Army installation. Wartime efforts of the Army Corps of Engineers, and scientists to include the leader of Los Alamos, Robert Oppenheimer are presented. The layout and construction of the facilities are discussed. The monumental design requirements of the bombs are discussed, including but not limited to the utilization of the second choice implosion method of detonation, and the production of bomb-grade nuclear explosives. The paper ends with a philosophical discussion on the use of nuclear weapons.

  1. OSTIblog Articles in the atomic bomb Topic | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Scientific and Technical Information bomb Topic OpenNet spotlights The Manhattan Project by Rita Hohenbrink 29 Jul, 2013 in Products and Content 8035 photo_Manhattan.png OpenNet spotlights The Manhattan Project Read more about 8035 Sixty-eight years ago, an atomic bomb was detonated on an isolated corner of southern New Mexico in a weapon test named Trinity. This month, The Manhattan Project: Resources, a web-based, joint collaboration between the Department's Office of Classification and

  2. OSTIblog Articles in the atom bomb Topic | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Scientific and Technical Information atom bomb Topic DOE Releases Manhattan District History and Oppenheimer Personnel Hearing Transcript via OSTI-Hosted OpenNet by Rita Hohenbrink 09 Oct, 2014 in The Department of Energy (DOE) recently completed two significant declassification efforts and has made the newly released documents publicly available on the OpenNet database, which DOE launched 20 years ago to improve public access to declassified documents. The website is supported by the DOE

  3. Sandia grew out of America's World War II atomic bomb development effort. Toda

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    grew out of America's World War II atomic bomb development effort. Today, keeping the U.S. nuclear stockpile safe, secure, and reliable remains a major part of Sandia's work. But Sandia's role has evolved to address other national security threats facing our country. Sandia carries out research and development in the following areas: Nuclear Weapons - Supporting U.S. deterrence policy by helping sustain, modernize, and protect the nuclear arsenal. Defense Systems & Assessments - Supplying

  4. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic-weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 2. 4. Experimental data obtained in the field. Part 1. Dosimetry using mice. Part 2. Depth dosimetry of unit-density materials. Part 3. Biological dosimetry of atomic bombs, using Tradescantia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, E.C.; Benson; Brennan, J.T.; Chambers, F.W.; Conger

    1985-09-01

    Topics include: The Biological Effectiveness of Neutron Radiation from an Atomic Bomb; Radiation Hazards Associated with Passage Through an Atomic Bomb Cloud.

  5. Plowshare Program - American Atomic Bomb Tests For Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-04-22

    The United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) established the Plowshare Program as a research and development activity to explore the technical and economic feasibility of using nuclear explosives for industrial applications. The reasoning was that the relatively inexpensive energy available from nuclear explosions could prove useful for a wide variety of peaceful purposes. The Plowshare Program began in 1958 and continued through 1975. Between December 1961 and May 1973, the United States conducted 27 Plowshare nuclear explosive tests comprising 35 individual detonations. Conceptually, industrial applications resulting from the use of nuclear explosives could be divided into two broad categories: 1) large-scale excavation and quarrying, where the energy from the explosion was used to break up and/or move rock; and 2) underground engineering, where the energy released from deeply buried nuclear explosives increased the permeability and porosity of the rock by massive breaking and fracturing. Possible excavation applications included: canals, harbors, highway and railroad cuts through mountains, open pit mining, construction of dams, and other quarry and construction-related projects. Underground nuclear explosion applications included: stimulation of natural gas production, preparation of leachable ore bodies for in situ leaching, creation of underground zones of fractured oil shale for in situ retorting, and formation of underground natural gas and petroleum storage reservoirs.

  6. Plowshare Program - American Atomic Bomb Tests For Industrial Applications

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-31

    The United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) established the Plowshare Program as a research and development activity to explore the technical and economic feasibility of using nuclear explosives for industrial applications. The reasoning was that the relatively inexpensive energy available from nuclear explosions could prove useful for a wide variety of peaceful purposes. The Plowshare Program began in 1958 and continued through 1975. Between December 1961 and May 1973, the United States conducted 27 Plowshare nuclear explosive tests comprising 35 individual detonations. Conceptually, industrial applications resulting from the use of nuclear explosives could be divided into two broad categories: 1) large-scale excavation and quarrying, where the energy from the explosion was used to break up and/or move rock; and 2) underground engineering, where the energy released from deeply buried nuclear explosives increased the permeability and porosity of the rock by massive breaking and fracturing. Possible excavation applications included: canals, harbors, highway and railroad cuts through mountains, open pit mining, construction of dams, and other quarry and construction-related projects. Underground nuclear explosion applications included: stimulation of natural gas production, preparation of leachable ore bodies for in situ leaching, creation of underground zones of fractured oil shale for in situ retorting, and formation of underground natural gas and petroleum storage reservoirs.

  7. Truman's decision to drop the bomb to be discussed at 70th anniversary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lecture July 10 70th anniversary lecture July 10 about Truman, bomb Truman's decision to drop the bomb to be discussed at 70th anniversary lecture July 10 Noel Pugach will discuss Truman's decision to drop atomic bombs on Japanese cities and explain how and why he made it July 3, 2013 70th anniversary lecture July 10 about Truman, bomb Noel Pugach will discuss Truman's decision to drop atomic bombs on Japanese cities and explain how and why he made it Contact Nick Njegomir Communications

  8. 14C "Bomb Pulse" Pulse Forensics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14c bomb pulse forensics 14C "Bomb Pulse" Pulse Forensics 14C "Bomb Pulse" dating as a Forensics Tool Traditionally, radiocarbon dating has been considered to be an archeological tool rather than a forensic one. Radiocarbon or carbon-14 (14C) is produced naturally in the atmosphere by cosmic ray interactions with nitrogen. Single carbon atoms in the atmosphere are quickly oxidized to carbon dioxide CO2. The atmospheric concentration of natural 14C with respect to all carbon

  9. BOMB STABILIZING STRUCTURE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelley, J.L.; Runyan, C.E.

    1963-12-10

    A stabilizinig structure capable of minimizing deviations of a falling body such as a bomb from desired trajectory is described. The structure comprises a fin or shroud arrangement of double-wedge configuration, the feeding portion being of narrow wedge shape and the after portion being of a wider wedge shape. The structure provides a force component for keeping the body on essentially desired trajectory throughout its fall. (AEC)

  10. Los Alamos Selected as Atomic Weapons Laboratory | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Los Alamos Selected as Atomic Weapons Laboratory Los Alamos, NM Groves selects Los Alamos, New Mexico, as site for separate scientific laboratory to design an atomic bomb

  11. Manhattan Project: The Uranium Path to the Bomb, 1942-1944

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In the end, it took the combined efforts of all three of these facilities to produce enough enriched uranium for the one and only uranium atomic bomb produced during the war. The ...

  12. First Plutonium Bomb Successfully Tested | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration | (NNSA) Plutonium Bomb Successfully Tested First Plutonium Bomb Successfully Tested Los Alamos, NM Los Alamos scientists successfully test a plutonium implosion bomb in the Trinity shot at Alamogordo, New Mexico

  13. nuclear bombs | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    bombs The man who trains everyone on the bombs Mark Meyer, training coordinator and field engineer at Sandia National Laboratories. Over the past five years, Mark Meyer, training coordinator and field engineer at Sandia National Laboratories, has introduced thousands of people across the Department of Energy and Department of Defense nuclear

  14. Y-12 and the Hydrogen Bomb

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Bomb A major increase in nuclear weapons work came to Y-12 directly after the first Soviet Union nuclear test on August 29, 1949. Y-12 was already the main source of ...

  15. Manhattan Project: Early Bomb Design, Los Alamos: Laboratory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1945 EARLY BOMB DESIGN (Los Alamos: Laboratory, 1943-1944) Events > Bringing it All Together, 1942-1945 Establishing Los Alamos, 1942-1943 Early Bomb Design, 1943-1944 Basic ...

  16. dirty bomb | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    dirty bomb About Counterterrorism NNSA provides expertise, practical tools, and technically informed policy recommendations required to advance U.S. nuclear counterterrorism and counterproliferation objectives. It executes a unique program of work focused solely on these missions and builds partnerships with U.S. government

  17. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 1999 edition....

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (United States) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 45 MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL DEFENSE; NUCLEAR WEAPONS; MANHATTAN PROJECT; ...

  18. Manhattan Project: Exploring the Atom, 1919-1932

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The road to the atomic bomb began in earnest in 1919 with the first artificial transmutation of an element. The New Zealander Ernest Rutherford, working in the Cavendish Laboratory ...

  19. Dismantling the Final B53 Bomb | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dismantling the Final B53 Bomb Dismantling the Final B53 Bomb October 25, 2011 - 5:39pm Addthis Two Pantex Plant employees examine the final B53 bomb prior to its dismantling. | Photo Courtesy of <a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/nnsanews/sets/72157627937731182/">NNSA</a>. Two Pantex Plant employees examine the final B53 bomb prior to its dismantling. | Photo Courtesy of NNSA. Daniel B. Poneman Daniel B. Poneman Former Deputy Secretary of Energy I was honored to have

  20. B53 Nuclear Bomb | National Nuclear Security Administration ...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    B53 Nuclear Bomb October 25, 2011 The elimination of the B53 by Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is consistent with the goal President Obama ...

  1. Bomb squads saddle-up for Robot Rodeo

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bomb squads saddle-up for Robot Rodeo Bomb squads saddle-up for Robot Rodeo Rodeo events include a fun obstacle course and tests of skill, finesse, and endurance for both robot and operator. May 15, 2008 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory

  2. Dairyland_DOE_EPA_RICE_Rulings_11-01-10.pdf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy DS02: A New Dosimetry System for A-Bomb Survivor Studies DS02: A New Dosimetry System for A-Bomb Survivor Studies April 14, 2003 This document summarizes the main features of the new dosimetry system 2002 (DS02). DSo2: A New Dosimetry System for A-Bomb Survivor Studies (34.23 KB) More Documents & Publications Publication of New Atomic Bomb Radiation Dosimetry System Workshop Report: Health Physics Journal Workshop Report : Health Physics Journal

    Featured Training & Events

  3. Albert Einstein Alerts President Roosevelt of German Atomic Energy Program

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Albert Einstein Alerts President Roosevelt of German Atomic Energy Program Albert Einstein Alerts President Roosevelt of German Atomic Energy Program Washington, DC Albert Einstein writes President Franklin D. Roosevelt, alerting the President to the importance of research on nuclear chain reactions and the possibility that research might lead to developing powerful bombs. Einstein notes that Germany has stopped the sale of uranium and

  4. October 25, 2011: Last B53 nuclear bomb dismantled | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5, 2011: Last B53 nuclear bomb dismantled October 25, 2011: Last B53 nuclear bomb dismantled October 25, 2011: Last B53 nuclear bomb dismantled The Department's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), at a ceremony at NNSA's Pantex Plant outside Amarillo, Texas, announces that the last B53 nuclear bomb has been dismantled. Introduced into the stockpile in 1962, the B53 served a key role in the U.S. nuclear deterrent until its retirement in 1997. About the size of a minivan and

  5. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic-weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 8. 3. Special radar, radio, and photographic studies of weapons effects. Part 1, 2, 3, and 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    Contents include: Part 1--radar-scope photography; Part 2--effects of atomic detonation on radio propagation; Part 3; photographic assessment of bomb damage; Part 4--film fogging studies.

  6. WS Fundamentals of Radiation Fact Sheet

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... This exposure is comparable to a chest X-ray or two round trips cross-country on ... Some 77,000 children were born to survivors of the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and ...

  7. Method for cleaning bomb-reduced uranium derbies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Banker, J.G.; Wigginton, H.L.; Beck, D.E.; Holcombe, C.E.

    The concentration of carbon in uranium metal ingots induction cast from derbies prepared by the bomb-reduction of uranium tetrafluoride in the presence of magnesium is effectively reduced to less than 100 ppM by removing residual magnesium fluoride from the surface of the derbies prior to casting. This magnesium fluoride is removed from the derbies by immersing them in an alkali metal salt bath which reacts with and decomposes the magnesium fluoride. A water quenching operation followed by a warm nitric acid bath and a water rinse removes the residual salt and reaction products from the derbies.

  8. Method for cleaning bomb-reduced uranium derbies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Banker, John G.; Wigginton, Hubert L.; Beck, David E.; Holcombe, Cressie E.

    1981-01-01

    The concentration of carbon in uranium metal ingots induction cast from derbies prepared by the bomb-reduction of uranium tetrafluoride in the presence of magnesium is effectively reduced to less than 100 ppm by removing residual magnesium fluoride from the surface of the derbies prior to casting. This magnesium fluoride is removed from the derbies by immersing them in an alkali metal salt bath which reacts with and decomposes the magnesium fluoride. A water quenching operation followed by a warm nitric acid bath and a water rinse removes the residual salt and reaction products from the derbies.

  9. OSTIblog Articles in the atomic bomb Topic | OSTI, US Dept of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This month, The Manhattan Project: Resources, a web-based, joint collaboration between the ... OSTI is hosting this information as part of the OpenNet web site. Manhattan Project ...

  10. OSTIblog Articles in the atom bomb Topic | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The history records the Manhattan Project's activities and achievements in research, design, construction, operation, and administration, assembling a vast amount of information in ...

  11. MEDICAL EFFECTS OF ATOMIC BOMBS THE REPORT OF THE JOINT COMMISSION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE; BLOOD CELLS; BOOKS; ENVIRONMENT; FALLOUT; FISSION PRODUCTS; GEOPHYSICS; HIROSHIMA; LEUCOCYTES; MAN; MEDICINE; NAGASAKI; NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS; ...

  12. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 6. 8. cloud radiation field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, G.E.

    1985-04-01

    The object of this study was to measure the relationship between the spatial distribution of the radioactive fission products and the resultant radioactive field in an atomic-bomb cloud. Data obtained by the high-intensity rate meters and the jet impactors lead to the following conclusions: (1) There is a definite correlation between the particulate fission-particle density and the gamma-radiation intensity measured within the cloud; (2) The effective energy of the gamma radiation within the atomic bomb cloud is quite low, being of the order of 200 keV; (3) The structure of the atomic bomb cloud resembles a chimney with puffs of radioactive matter in the flue of the chimney; (4) The average roentgen dose accumulated by a plane passing through a cloud of the type tested in the Dog and Easy Shots 210 sec after bomb detonation is approximately 125 r. The average contamination on a plane after passing through a cloud is between 10 and 20 r/hr; no contamination could be detected within the plane; (5) The gamma-radiation effects extend beyond the limits of the particulate radioactive fission products; and, (6) The visible cloud adn the fission-product particulate cloud from the bomb do not coincide exactly; the visible cloud extended beyond the fission-product-cloud in those instances where data were obtained.

  13. Fluid-filled bomb-disrupting apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherry, Christopher R.

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus and method for disarming improvised bombs are disclosed. The apparatus comprises a fluid-filled bottle or container made of plastic or another soft material which contains a fixed or adjustable, preferably sheet explosive. The charge is fired centrally at its apex and can be adjusted to propel a fluid projectile that is broad or narrow, depending upon how it is set up. In one embodiment, the sheet explosive is adjustable so as to correlate the performance of the fluid projectile to the disarming needs for the improvised explosive device (IED). Common materials such as plastic water bottles or larger containers can be used, with the sheet explosive or other explosive material configured in a general chevron-shape to target the projectile toward the target. In another embodiment, a thin disk of metal is conformably mounted with the exterior of the container and radially aligned with the direction of fire of the fluid projectile. Depending on the configuration and the amount of explosive and fluid used, a projectile is fired at the target that has sufficient energy to penetrate rigid enclosures from fairly long stand-off and yet is focused enough to be targeted to specific portions of the IED for disablement.

  14. Application of Bomb Radiocarbon Chronologies to Shortfin Mako (Isurus oxyrinchus)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardizzone, D; Cailliet, G M; Natanson, L J; Andrews, A H; Kerr, L A; Brown, T A

    2007-07-16

    and the number of samples for MIA analysis was insufficient for some months. Hence, unequivocal validation of shortfin mako age estimates has yet to be accomplished. Atmospheric testing of thermonuclear devices in the 1950s and 1960s effectively doubled the natural atmospheric radiocarbon ({sup 14}C). The elevated {sup 14}C levels were first recorded in 1957-58, with a peak around 1963. As a consequence, {sup 14}C entered the ocean through gas exchange with the atmosphere at the ocean surface and in terrestrial runoff. Despite variable oceanographic conditions, a worldwide rise of the bomb {sup 14}C signal entered the ocean mixed layer as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in 1957-58. The large amounts of {sup 14}C released from the bomb tests produced a signature that can be followed through time, throughout the marine food web, and into deeper waters. The marked increase of radiocarbon levels was first measured in the DIC of seawater and in biogenic marine carbonates of hermatypic corals in Florida. Subsequently, this record was documented in corals from other regions and in the thallus of rhodoliths. The accumulation of radiocarbon in the hard parts of most marine organisms in the mixed layer (such as fish otoliths and bivalves) was synchronous with the coral time-series. This technique has been used to validate age estimates and longevity of numerous bony fishes to date, as well as to establish bomb radiocarbon chronologies from different oceans. In the first application of this technique to lamnoid sharks, validated annual band-pair deposition in vertebral growth bands for the porbeagle (Lamna nasus) aged up to 26 years. Radiocarbon values from samples obtained from 15 porbeagle caught in the western North Atlantic Ocean (some of which were known-age) produced a chronology similar in magnitude to the reference carbonate chronology for that region. The observed phase shift of about 3 years was attributed to different sources of carbon between vertebrae and those for

  15. Thyroid Malignancies in Survivors of Hodgkin Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michaelson, Evan M.; Chen, Yu-Hui; Silver, Barbara; Tishler, Roy B.; Marcus, Karen J.; Stevenson, Mary Ann; Ng, Andrea K.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To quantify the incidence of thyroid cancer after Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and determine disease characteristics, risk factors, and treatment outcomes. Methods and Materials: Thyroid cancer cases were retrospectively identified from a multi-institutional database of 1981 HL patients treated between 1969 and 2008. Thyroid cancer risk factors were evaluated by a Poisson regression model. Results: With a median follow-up duration of 14.3 years (range, 0-41.2 years), 28 patients (1.4%) developed a thyroid malignancy. The overall incidence rate (expressed as the number of cases per 10,000 person-years) and 10-year cumulative incidence of thyroid cancer were 9.6 and 0.26%, respectively. There were no observed cases of thyroid malignancy in patients who received neck irradiation for HL after age 35 years. Age <20 years at HL diagnosis and female sex were significantly associated with thyroid cancer. The incidence rates of females aged <20 at HL diagnosis in the first 10 years, ≥10 years, ≥15 years, and ≥20 years after treatment were 5, 31, 61, and 75 cases per 10,000 person-years of follow-up, respectively. At a median follow-up of 3.5 years after the thyroid cancer diagnosis, 26 patients (93%) were alive without disease, 1 (4%) was alive with metastatic disease, and 1 (4%) died of metastatic disease, at 6 and 3.6 years after the thyroid cancer diagnosis, respectively. Conclusions: Although HL survivors have an increased risk for thyroid cancer, the overall incidence is low. Routine thyroid cancer screening may benefit females treated at a young age and ≥10 years from HL treatment owing to their higher risk, which increases over time.

  16. ATOM | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NISACATOM content top Network Optimization Models (RNAS and ATOM) Posted by Admin on Mar 1, 2012 in | Comments 0 comments Many critical infrastructures can be represented by a...

  17. INFOGRAPHIC: How Do We Know Iran Isn't Building a Nuclear Bomb? |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Do We Know Iran Isn't Building a Nuclear Bomb? INFOGRAPHIC: How Do We Know Iran Isn't Building a Nuclear Bomb? February 2, 2016 - 12:00pm Addthis Infographic by <a href="/node/1332956">Carly Wilkins</a>, Energy Department. Infographic by Carly Wilkins, Energy Department. Pat Adams Pat Adams Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Carly Wilkins Carly Wilkins Multimedia Designer The Iran Deal puts in place unprecedented monitoring and

  18. Atom Interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Kasevich

    2008-05-07

    Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newton’s constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gryoscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be sued to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?

  19. Atom Interferometry

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Mark Kasevich

    2010-01-08

    Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newton?s constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gryoscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be sued to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?

  20. Case Study: Iran, Islam, the NPT, and the Bomb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saunders, E .

    2011-04-01

    The goals of this case study are: (1) To examine the correlation between Iran's nuclear program and clerical statements; (2) To evaluate the importance of these statements; (3) To understand the relationship between policy and fatwas (Islamic decrees); (4) To address the issue of a 'nuclear fatwa'; and (5) To examine how, if at all, Sharia (Islamic law) has influenced Iran's actions or inactions with respect to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Iran's adherence to its IAEA Safeguards Agreements and the Additional Protocol. The Islamic Republic of Iran (hereinafter Iran) is one of two theocracies in the world, the second being Vatican City. Iran's government derives its constitutional, moral, and political legitimacy from Islam. As a result of this theocratic culture, rules are set and interpreted with a much different calibrator than that of the Western world. Islam affects all aspects of Iranian life. This is further complicated by the fact that Islam is not a nationalistic faith, in that many people all over the world believe in and adhere to Islamic principles. As a result, a political system that derives much of its fervor from being nationalistic is caught between two worlds, one within the land boundaries of Iran and the other within a faith that transcends boundaries. Thus, any understanding of Islamic law must first be understood within this delicate balance of nationalism and transcendence. Iran has found itself on the international stage concerning its nuclear program. Because Iran is a theocratic state, it is imperative to examine its political moves, speeches, rights, and obligations through the lens of Islam. This study will examine how Islam plays a role in Iran's dealing with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), its understanding of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), including parties obligations under Safeguards Agreements and the Additional Protocol, and also provide a

  1. The increase in animal mortality risk following exposure to sparsely ionizing radiation is not linear quadratic with dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haley, Benjamin M.; Paunesku, Tatjana; Grdina, David J.; Woloschak, Gayle E.; Aravindan, Natarajan

    2015-12-09

    The US government regulates allowable radiation exposures relying, in large part, on the seventh report from the committee to estimate the Biological Effect of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR VII), which estimated that most contemporary exposures- protracted or low-dose, carry 1.5 fold less risk of carcinogenesis and mortality per Gy than acute exposures of atomic bomb survivors. This correction is known as the dose and dose rate effectiveness factor for the life span study of atomic bomb survivors (DDREFLSS). As a result, it was calculated by applying a linear-quadratic dose response model to data from Japanese atomic bomb survivors and a limited number of animal studies.

  2. The increase in animal mortality risk following exposure to sparsely ionizing radiation is not linear quadratic with dose

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Haley, Benjamin M.; Paunesku, Tatjana; Grdina, David J.; Woloschak, Gayle E.; Aravindan, Natarajan

    2015-12-09

    The US government regulates allowable radiation exposures relying, in large part, on the seventh report from the committee to estimate the Biological Effect of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR VII), which estimated that most contemporary exposures- protracted or low-dose, carry 1.5 fold less risk of carcinogenesis and mortality per Gy than acute exposures of atomic bomb survivors. This correction is known as the dose and dose rate effectiveness factor for the life span study of atomic bomb survivors (DDREFLSS). As a result, it was calculated by applying a linear-quadratic dose response model to data from Japanese atomic bomb survivors and a limitedmore » number of animal studies.« less

  3. Superradiance and black hole bomb in five-dimensional minimal ungauged supergravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aliev, Alikram N.

    2014-11-01

    We examine the black hole bomb model which consists of a rotating black hole of five-dimenensional minimal ungauged supergravity and a reflecting mirror around it. For low-frequency scalar perturbations, we find solutions to the Klein-Gordon equation in the near-horizon and far regions of the black hole spacetime. To avoid solutions with logarithmic terms, we assume that the orbital quantum number l takes on nearly, but not exactly, integer values and perform the matching of these solutions in an intermediate region. This allows us to calculate analytically the frequency spectrum of quasinormal modes, taking the limits as l approaches even or odd integers separately. We find that all l modes of scalar perturbations undergo negative damping in the regime of superradiance, resulting in exponential growth of their amplitudes. Thus, the model under consideration would exhibit the superradiant instability, eventually behaving as a black hole bomb in five dimensions.

  4. High-speed photography of the first hydrogen-bomb explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brixner, B.

    1992-09-01

    Obtaining detailed photographs of the early stages of the first hydrogen bomb explosion in 1952 posed a number of problems. First, it was necessary to invent a continuous-access camera which could solve the problem that existing million-picture-per-second cameras were blind most of the time. The solution here was to alter an existing camera design so that two modified cameras could be mounted around a single high-speed rotating mirror. A second problem, acquiring the necessary lenses of precisely specified focal lengths, was solved by obtaining a large number of production lenses from war surplus salvage. A third hurdle to be overcome was to test the new camera at an A-bomb explosion. Finally, it was necessary to solve the almost impossible difficulty of building a safe camera shelter close to a megaton explosion. This paper describes the way these problems were solved. Unfortunately the successful pictures that were taken are sill classified.

  5. High-speed photography of the first hydrogen-bomb explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brixner, B.

    1992-01-01

    Obtaining detailed photographs of the early stages of the first hydrogen bomb explosion in 1952 posed a number of problems. First, it was necessary to invent a continuous-access camera which could solve the problem that existing million-picture-per-second cameras were blind most of the time. The solution here was to alter an existing camera design so that two modified cameras could be mounted around a single high-speed rotating mirror. A second problem, acquiring the necessary lenses of precisely specified focal lengths, was solved by obtaining a large number of production lenses from war surplus salvage. A third hurdle to be overcome was to test the new camera at an A-bomb explosion. Finally, it was necessary to solve the almost impossible difficulty of building a safe camera shelter close to a megaton explosion. This paper describes the way these problems were solved. Unfortunately the successful pictures that were taken are sill classified.

  6. The man who trains everyone on the bombs | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration | (NNSA) The man who trains everyone on the bombs Monday, October 19, 2015 - 10:50am Mark Meyer, training coordinator and field engineer at Sandia. Mark Meyer, training coordinator and field engineer at Sandia National Laboratories. Over the past five years, Mark Meyer, training coordinator and field engineer at Sandia National Laboratories, has introduced thousands of people across the Department of Energy and Department of Defense nuclear enterprise to the inner workings of

  7. Risk Factors Associated With Secondary Sarcomas in Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, Tara O.; Rajaraman, Preetha; Stovall, Marilyn; Constine, Louis S.; Olive, Aliza; Smith, Susan A.; Mertens, Ann; Meadows, Anna; Neglia, Joseph P.; Hammond, Sue; Whitton, John; Inskip, Peter D.; Robison, Leslie L.; Diller, Lisa

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Childhood cancer survivors have an increased risk of secondary sarcomas. To better identify those at risk, the relationship between therapeutic dose of chemotherapy and radiation and secondary sarcoma should be quantified. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested case-control study of secondary sarcomas (105 cases, 422 matched controls) in a cohort of 14,372 childhood cancer survivors. Radiation dose at the second malignant neoplasm (SMN) site and use of chemotherapy were estimated from detailed review of medical records. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Excess odds ratio (EOR) was modeled as a function of radiation dose, chemotherapy, and host factors. Results: Sarcomas occurred a median of 11.8 years (range, 5.3-31.3 years) from original diagnosis. Any exposure to radiation was associated with increased risk of secondary sarcoma (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.8-9.5). A dose-response relation was observed, with elevated risks at doses between 10 and 29.9 Gy (OR = 15.6, 95% CI = 4.5-53.9), 30-49.9 Gy (OR = 16.0, 95% CI 3.8-67.8) and >50 Gy (OR = 114.1, 95% CI 13.5-964.8). Anthracycline exposure was associated with sarcoma risk (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.6-7.7) adjusting for radiation dose, other chemotherapy, and primary cancer. Adjusting for treatment, survivors with a first diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 10.7, 95% CI = 3.1-37.4) or primary sarcoma (OR = 8.4, 95% CI = 3.2-22.3) were more likely to develop a sarcoma. Conclusions: Of the risk factors evaluated, radiation exposure was the most important for secondary sarcoma development in childhood cancer survivors; anthracycline chemotherapy exposure was also associated with increased risk.

  8. Impact of Cardiovascular Counseling and Screening in Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniëls, Laurien A.; Krol, Stijn D.G.; Graaf, Michiel A. de; Scholte, Arthur J.H.A.; Veer, Mars B. van 't; Putter, Hein; Roos, Albert de; Schalij, Martin J.; Poll-Franse, Lonneke V. van de; Creutzberg, Carien L.

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common nonmalignant cause of death in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, especially after mediastinal irradiation. The role of screening for CVD in HL survivors is unclear, but confrontation with risks of CVD may have a negative influence on health-related quality of life (HRQL). As part of a phase 2 screening study using computed tomography angiography (CTA) among HL survivors, an HRQL analysis was done to evaluate the emotional and practical burden and perceived benefits of screening and the effect of CVD-specific counseling on patient satisfaction. Methods and Materials: Patients who participated in the screening study also took part in the HRQL study. The impact of undergoing screening was evaluated with a 9-item questionnaire, and impact on HRQL with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Core Questionnaire C30, version 3.0. The effect of counseling of CVD on perceived provision of information was evaluated with EORTC INFO-25. All questionnaires were completed at baseline and after screening. Results: Baseline questionnaires were received from 48 participants, and 43 completed questionnaires after screening. Mean age was 47 years, and mean time since diagnosis was 21 years. Of the total, 93% of subjects were content with participating, and 80% did not find the emphasis placed on late effects burdensome, although screening did have a small impact on social functioning and global quality of life. Perceived information on disease, medical tests, and treatment increased significantly after screening (P<.01). Differences were clinically relevant. There were no differences in perceived information between patients with and without screen-detected CVD. Conclusions: Screening was evaluated favorably, whether CTA showed abnormalities or not. Extensive counseling resulted in substantially increased provision of information and improved information satisfaction. Screening by

  9. Atomic magnetometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwindt, Peter; Johnson, Cort N.

    2012-07-03

    An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which uses a pump light beam at a D1 or D2 transition of an alkali metal vapor to magnetically polarize the vapor in a heated cell, and a probe light beam at a different D2 or D1 transition to sense the magnetic field via a polarization rotation of the probe light beam. The pump and probe light beams are both directed along substantially the same optical path through an optical waveplate and through the heated cell to an optical filter which blocks the pump light beam while transmitting the probe light beam to one or more photodetectors which generate electrical signals to sense the magnetic field. The optical waveplate functions as a quarter waveplate to circularly polarize the pump light beam, and as a half waveplate to maintain the probe light beam linearly polarized.

  10. dirty bomb

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    fallen outside of a foreign state's custody). By leveraging this unique technical knowledge base, the Office of Counterterrorism and Counterproliferation provides the...

  11. Atomic Chemistry in Turbulent Media I: Effect of Atomic Cooling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atomic Chemistry in Turbulent Media I: Effect of Atomic Cooling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atomic Chemistry in Turbulent Media I: Effect of Atomic Cooling Authors: ...

  12. Atom Trajectory Viewer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-12-28

    Atom Trajectory Viewer is a visualization tool developed to enable interactive exploration of atomic trajectories and corresponding statistics in molecular dynamics.

  13. The Road to Hiroshima and Beyond | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Road to Hiroshima and Beyond The Road to Hiroshima and Beyond October 20, 2009 The RERF program is not a typical research program since it aims at fostering the health and welfare of the atomic-bomb survivors. A unique nurse's perspective on the RERF and the health of the A-bomb survivors is presented by Dr. Amy Knowles. The Road to Hiroshima and Beyond (127.75 KB) More Documents & Publications Report of the Senior Review Panel on the Review of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

  14. The Role of GIS in Decision Support Systems

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The Road to Hiroshima and Beyond The Road to Hiroshima and Beyond October 20, 2009 The RERF program is not a typical research program since it aims at fostering the health and welfare of the atomic-bomb survivors. A unique nurse's perspective on the RERF and the health of the A-bomb survivors is presented by Dr. Amy Knowles. The Road to Hiroshima and Beyond (127.75 KB) More Documents & Publications Report of the Senior Review Panel on the Review of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

  15. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic-weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 2. 7. Thermal radiation injury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearse, H.E.; Kingsley, H.D.; Schilling, J.A.; Hogg; Blakney, R.M.

    1985-09-01

    Information concerning the flash burn resulting from an atomic bomb explosion was necessary to understand the lesion, its systematic effects, and prevention and treatment of these effects. In order to reproduce similar sources in the laboratory, it was essential to know the characteristics of the energy producing the biological effect. In order to obtain this information, anesthetized experimental animals were placed in shielded positions at varying distances from bomb zero to cover a wide range of thermal-radiation intensities. Small areas of each animal's skin were exposed through aperture plates which were designed to analyze burn production as a function of time, intensity, and spectrum. Protection of the animal by fabrics covering the skin was also evaluated. Following exposure, animals were retrieved from the exposure stations and transported to a laboratory for analysis of the burn lesions by description, color photography, and microscopic study of biopsy materials.

  16. TIGER -- A technology to improve the delivery capability of nuclear bombs and the survivability of the delivery aircraft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-12-31

    The TIGER (Terminal guided and Extended-Range) Program was initiated in 1972 to study improved delivery capabilities for stockpiled tactical nuclear bombs. The Southeast Asia conflict fostered the development of air-delivered standoff conventional weapons utilizing terminal guidance systems. SNL initiated the TIGER program to determine if current nuclear bombs could be provided with a similarly accurate standoff capabilities. These conventional weapon delivery techniques, while allowing highly accurate attack, generally require entering the target area at high altitude to establish line of sight to the target. In parallel with the TIGER program, system studies analyzed this concept and showed marked improvement in aircraft and weapon survivability with moderate standoff (10--20 km) if low level deliveries (60 m) could be accomplished. As a result of this work, the TIGER program was redirected in early 1974 to demonstrate a standoff bomb with good accuracy (90 m CEP) when delivered from low flying aircraft. This program redirection resulted in the selection of an inertial guidance system to replace the earlier terminal guidance systems. This program was called the Extended-Range Bomb (ERB). In May 1974, a joint Air Force/DOE study identified the desirability of having a single tactical weapon which could be employed against either fixed, preselected targets, or mobile battlefield targets. Studies conducted on the ERB system showed that the inertially guided weapon could fly not only the standoff mission but also a return-to-target mission against the mobile battlefield targets whose locations are not known accurately enough to use a standoff delivery. The ERB program evolved from these initial investigations into an exploratory program to develop the hardware and demonstrate the technology required to fly standoff and return-to-target trajectories. The application of this technology in the form of field retrofit kits to the B61 bomb is called TIGER II.

  17. Atomizing nozzle and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Iver E.; Figliola, Richard S.; Molnar, Holly M.

    1993-07-20

    High pressure atomizing nozzle includes a high pressure gas manifold having a divergent expansion chamber between a gas inlet and arcuate manifold segment to minimize standing shock wave patterns in the manifold and thereby improve filling of the manifold with high pressure gas for improved melt atomization. The atomizing nozzle is especially useful in atomizing rare earth-transition metal alloys to form fine powder particles wherein a majority of the powder particles exhibit particle sizes having near-optimum magnetic properties.

  18. Atomizing nozzle and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Iver E.; Figliola, Richard S.; Molnar, Holly M.

    1992-06-30

    High pressure atomizing nozzle includes a high pressure gas manifold having a divergent expansion chamber between a gas inlet and arcuate manifold segment to minimize standing shock wave patterns in the manifold and thereby improve filling of the manifold with high pressure gas for improved melt atomization. The atomizing nozzle is especially useful in atomizing rare earth-transition metal alloys to form fine powder particles wherein a majority of the powder particles exhibit particle sizes having near-optimum magnetic properties.

  19. Atomic Energy Commission Takes Over Responsibility for all Atomic...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Takes Over Responsibility for all Atomic Energy Programs Atomic Energy Commission Takes Over Responsibility for all Atomic Energy Program Washington, DC In accordance with the ...

  20. Impact of Preoperative Radiotherapy on General and Disease-Specific Health Status of Rectal Cancer Survivors: A Population-Based Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thong, Melissa S.Y.; Mols, Floortje; Lemmens, Valery E.P.P.; Rutten, Harm J.T.; Roukema, Jan A.; Martijn, Hendrik; Poll-Franse, Lonneke V. van de

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To date, few studies have evaluated the impact of preoperative radiotherapy (pRT) on long-term health status of rectal cancer survivors. Using a population-based sample, we assessed the impact of pRT on general and disease-specific health status of rectal cancer survivors up to 10 years postdiagnosis. The health status of older ({>=}75 years old at diagnosis) pRT survivors was also compared with that of younger survivors. Methods and Materials: Survivors identified from the Eindhoven Cancer Registry treated with surgery only (SU) or with pRT between 1998 and 2007 were included. Survivors completed the Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaire and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Colorectal 38 (EORTC QLQ-CR38) questionnaire. The SF-36 and EORTC QLQ-CR38 (sexuality subscale) scores of the survivors were compared to an age- and sex-matched Dutch normal population. Results: A total of 340 survivors (response, 85%; pRT survivors, 71%) were analyzed. Overall, survivors had similar general health status. Both short-term (<5 years) and long-term ({>=}5 years) pRT survivors had significantly poorer body image and more problems with gastrointestinal function, male sexual dysfunction, and defecation than SU survivors. Survivors had comparable general health status but greater sexual dysfunction than the normal population. Older pRT survivors had general and disease-specific health status comparable to that of younger pRT survivors. Conclusions: For better survivorship care, rectal cancer survivors could benefit from increased clinical and psychological focus on the possible long-term morbidity of treatment and its effects on health status.

  1. Atomic Energy Commission : Atomic Power at Shippingport - 1958 Educational Film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-02-02

    The United States Atomic Energy Commission & Westinghouse Electric Company take us on a tour of an atomic power station.

  2. PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; 74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; ATOMS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; ATOMS; ELECTRONS; HELIUM; LIGHT SOURCES; RADIATIONS; STORAGE RINGS; SYNCHROTRONS SYNCHROTRON RADIATION SYNCHROTRONLIGHT SOURCES QUANTUM CHAOS...

  3. Atomic Energy Commission : Atomic Power at Shippingport - 1958 Educational Film

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-31

    The United States Atomic Energy Commission & Westinghouse Electric Company take us on a tour of an atomic power station.

  4. Atomic Energy Commission Takes Over Responsibility for all Atomic Energy

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Programs | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Takes Over Responsibility for all Atomic Energy Programs Atomic Energy Commission Takes Over Responsibility for all Atomic Energy Program Washington, DC In accordance with the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, all atomic energy activities are transferred to the newly created Atomic Energy Commission

  5. With a bloody union jack on top: The first generation British atomic deterrent. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, E.A.

    1995-09-20

    Britain constructed an atomic deterrent to influence both the United States and Soviet Union. The process of research and development was both long and difficult. The atomic bomb, first tested in 1952, was a remarkable success. By comparison, the delivery device, the V-bomber, was a failure. While the aircraft produced were excellent, they were deployed too late in too few numbers to be effective in an independent role. Only as part of a larger offensive with the Strategic Air Command could they make a valuable contribution. However, the program`s military failure was offset by its political success. Reopened atomic relations with the United States strengthened British security by providing London with the most modern nuclear weapons and delivery systems.

  6. Metal atom oxidation laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

    1975-10-28

    A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides. (auth)

  7. Metal atom oxidation laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

    1975-10-28

    A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides.

  8. Improved graphite furnace atomizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siemer, D.D.

    1983-05-18

    A graphite furnace atomizer for use in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy is described wherein the heating elements are affixed near the optical path and away from the point of sample deposition, so that when the sample is volatilized the spectroscopic temperature at the optical path is at least that of the volatilization temperature, whereby analyteconcomitant complex formation is advantageously reduced. The atomizer may be elongated along its axis to increase the distance between the optical path and the sample deposition point. Also, the atomizer may be elongated along the axis of the optical path, whereby its analytical sensitivity is greatly increased.

  9. The Harnessed Atom

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Harnessed Atom is a new middle school science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) curriculum extension that focuses on nuclear science and energy. It offers teachers accurate, unbiased,...

  10. Spectral observations of Ellerman bombs and fitting with a two-cloud model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Jie; Ding, M. D.; Li, Ying; Fang, Cheng; Cao, Wenda

    2014-09-01

    We study the Hα and Ca II 8542 Å line spectra of four typical Ellerman bombs (EBs) in the active region NOAA 11765 on 2013 June 6, observed with the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph installed at the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory. Considering that EBs may occur in a restricted region in the lower atmosphere, and that their spectral lines show particular features, we propose a two-cloud model to fit the observed line profiles. The lower cloud can account for the wing emission, and the upper cloud is mainly responsible for the absorption at line center. After choosing carefully the free parameters, we get satisfactory fitting results. As expected, the lower cloud shows an increase of the source function, corresponding to a temperature increase of 400-1000 K in EBs relative to the quiet Sun. This is consistent with previous results deduced from semi-empirical models and confirms that local heating occurs in the lower atmosphere during the appearance of EBs. We also find that the optical depths can increase to some extent in both the lower and upper clouds, which may result from either direct heating in the lower cloud, or illumination by an enhanced radiation on the upper cloud. The velocities derived from this method, however, are different from those obtained using the traditional bisector method, implying that one should be cautious when interpreting this parameter. The two-cloud model can thus be used as an efficient method to deduce the basic physical parameters of EBs.

  11. SMALL-SCALE STRUCTURING OF ELLERMAN BOMBS AT THE SOLAR LIMB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, C. J.; Doyle, J. G. [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG (United Kingdom); Scullion, E. M. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, NO-0371 Oslo (Norway); Freij, N.; Erdlyi, R. [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Ellerman bombs (EBs) have been widely studied in recent years due to their dynamic, explosive nature and apparent links to the underlying photospheric magnetic field implying that they may be formed by magnetic reconnection in the photosphere. Despite a plethora of researches discussing the morphologies of EBs, there has been a limited investigation of how these events appear at the limb, specifically, whether they manifest as vertical extensions away from the disk. In this article, we make use of high-resolution, high-cadence observations of an Active Region at the solar limb, collected by the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter (CRISP) instrument, to identify EBs and infer their physical properties. The upper atmosphere is also probed using the Solar Dynamic Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA). We analyze 22 EB events evident within these data, finding that 20 appear to follow a parabolic path away from the solar surface at an average speed of 9 km s{sup 1}, extending away from their source by 580 km, before retreating back at a similar speed. These results show strong evidence of vertical motions associated with EBs, possibly explaining the dynamical ''flaring'' (changing in area and intensity) observed in on-disk events. Two in-depth case studies are also presented that highlight the unique dynamical nature of EBs within the lower solar atmosphere. The viewing angle of these observations allows for a direct linkage between these EBs and other small-scale events in the H? line wings, including a potential flux emergence scenario. The findings presented here suggest that EBs could have a wider-reaching influence on the solar atmosphere than previously thought, as we reveal a direct linkage between EBs and an emerging small-scale loop, and other near-by small-scale explosive events. However, as previous research found, these extensions do not appear to impact upon the H? line core, and are not observed by the SDO/AIA EUV filters.

  12. Modified Embedded Atom Method

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-08-01

    Interatomic force and energy calculation subroutine to be used with the molecular dynamics simulation code LAMMPS (Ref a.). The code evaluated the total energy and atomic forces (energy gradient) according to a cubic spline-based variant (Ref b.) of the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) with a additional Stillinger-Weber (SW) contribution.

  13. Titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate (TiH1.65/KClO4) burn rates from hybrid closed bomb-strand burner experiments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Marcia A.; Oliver, Michael S.

    2012-08-01

    A hybrid closed bomb-strand burner is used to measure the burning behavior of the titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate pyrotechnic with an equivalent hydrogen concentration of 1.65. This experimental facility allows for simultaneous measurement of the closed bomb pressure rise and pyrotechnic burn rate as detected by electrical break wires over a range of pressures. Strands were formed by pressing the pyrotechnic powders to bulk densities between 60% and 90% theoretical maximum density. The burn rate dependance on initial density and vessel pressure are measured. At all initial strand densities, the burn is observed to transition from conductive to convective burning within the strand. The measured vessel pressure history is further analyzed following the closed bomb analysis methods developed for solid propellants.

  14. CNEEC - Atomic Layer Deposition Tutorial by Stacey Bent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atomic Layer Deposition

  15. Optical atomic magnetometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Budker, Dmitry; Higbie, James; Corsini, Eric P

    2013-11-19

    An optical atomic magnetometers is provided operating on the principles of nonlinear magneto-optical rotation. An atomic vapor is optically pumped using linearly polarized modulated light. The vapor is then probed using a non-modulated linearly polarized light beam. The resulting modulation in polarization angle of the probe light is detected and used in a feedback loop to induce self-oscillation at the resonant frequency.

  16. Atomizing nozzle and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ting, Jason (Ames, IA); Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert L. (Ames, IA)

    2000-03-16

    A high pressure close-coupled gas atomizing nozzle includes multiple discrete gas jet discharge orifices having aerodynamically designed convergent-divergent geometry with an first converging section communicated to a gas supply manifold and to a diverging section by a constricted throat section to increase atomizing gas velocity. The gas jet orifices are oriented at gas jet apex angle selected relative to the melt supply tip apex angle to establish a melt aspiration condition at the melt supply tip.

  17. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huxford, Theodore J.

    1993-01-01

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal.

  18. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huxford, T.J.

    1993-11-16

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal. 6 figures.

  19. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boukheris, Houda; Stovall, Marilyn; Gilbert, Ethel S.; Stratton, Kayla L.; Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita; Hammond, Sue; Mertens, Ann C.; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Inskip, Peter D.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies.

  20. The Harnessed Atom | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The Harnessed Atom The Harnessed Atom The Harnessed Atom The Harnessed Atom is a new middle school science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) curriculum extension...

  1. General Atomics (GA) | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    General Atomics (GA) Subscribe to RSS - General Atomics (GA) General Atomics Image: General Atomics (GA) The Scorpion's Strategy: "Catch and Subdue" Read more about The Scorpion's...

  2. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1986-08-15

    The atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process for the enrichment of uranium is evaluated. (AIP)

  3. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

  4. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

  5. Atomic Force Microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

  6. Explosion bomb measurements of ethanol-air laminar gaseous flame characteristics at pressures up to 1.4 MPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, D.; Lawes, M.; Mansour, M.S. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    The principal burning characteristics of a laminar flame comprise the fuel vapour pressure, the laminar burning velocity, ignition delay times, Markstein numbers for strain rate and curvature, the stretch rates for the onset of flame instabilities and of flame extinction for different mixtures. With the exception of ignition delay times, measurements of these are reported and discussed for ethanol-air mixtures. The measurements were in a spherical explosion bomb, with central ignition, in the regime of a developed stable, flame between that of an under or over-driven ignition and that of an unstable flame. Pressures ranged from 0.1 to 1.4 MPa, temperatures from 300 to 393 K, and equivalence ratios were between 0.7 and 1.5. It was important to ensure the relatively large volume of ethanol in rich mixtures at high pressures was fully evaporated. The maximum pressure for the measurements was the highest compatible with the maximum safe working pressure of the bomb. Many of the flames soon became unstable, due to Darrieus-Landau and thermo-diffusive instabilities. This effect increased with pressure and the flame wrinkling arising from the instabilities enhanced the flame speed. Both the critical Peclet number and the, more rational, associated critical Karlovitz stretch factor were evaluated at the onset of the instability. With increasing pressure, the onset of flame instability occurred earlier. The measured values of burning velocity are expressed in terms of their variations with temperature and pressure, and these are compared with those obtained by other researchers. Some comparisons are made with the corresponding properties for iso-octane-air mixtures. (author)

  7. INL Laboratory Scale Atomizer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.R. Clark; G.C. Knighton; R.S. Fielding; N.P. Hallinan

    2010-01-01

    A laboratory scale atomizer has been built at the Idaho National Laboratory. This has proven useful for laboratory scale tests and has been used to fabricate fuel used in the RERTR miniplate experiments. This instrument evolved over time with various improvements being made ‘on the fly’ in a trial and error process.

  8. Ultracold Atoms: How Quantum Field Theory Invaded Atomic Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultracold Atoms: How Quantum Field Theory Invaded Atomic Physics Eric Braaten Ohio State University May 6, 2015 4:00 p.m. (coffee @ 3:30) The development of the technology for trapping atoms and cooling them to ultralow temperatures gave birth to a new subfield of atomic physics. It also led to the introduction of new theoretical methods into atomic physics, I n particular quantum field theory (QFT). Methods of QFT developed in high energy physics have proved to be very useful in ultracold atom

  9. Lawrenciums ionization potential, atom by atom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Johanna L.

    2015-06-15

    Researchers in Japan have begun probing the atomic physics of elements that can be produced only in minute quantities.

  10. A microfabricated atomic clock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knappe, Svenja; Shah, Vishal; Schwindt, Peter D.D.; Hollberg, Leo; Kitching, John; Liew, Li-Anne; Moreland, John

    2004-08-30

    Fabrication techniques usually applied to microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are used to reduce the size and operating power of the core physics assembly of an atomic clock. With a volume of 9.5 mm{sup 3}, a fractional frequency instability of 2.5x10{sup -10} at 1 s of integration, and dissipating less than 75 mW of power, the device has the potential to bring atomically precise timing to hand-held, battery-operated devices. In addition, the design and fabrication process allows for wafer-level assembly of the structures, enabling low-cost mass-production of thousands of identical units with the same process sequence, and easy integration with other electronics.

  11. ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ' ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION Frank K. Pittman, Director, bivisioa of Waste &&gement and s- portation, Headquarters j CONTAMItUTED RX-AEC-OWNED OR LEASED FACILITIES' This memorandum responds to your TWX certain information on the above subject. the documentation necessary to answer your available due to the records disposal vailing at the time of release or From records that are available and from disc&ions with most familiar with the transfer operations, &have the current

  12. Dose-Effect Relationships for Adverse Events After Cranial Radiation Therapy in Long-term Childhood Cancer Survivors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dijk, Irma W.E.M. van; Cardous-Ubbink, Mathilde C.; Pal, Helena J.H. van der; Oldenburger, Foppe; Os, Rob M. van; Ronckers, Cécile M.; Schouten–van Meeteren, Antoinette Y.N.; Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital Koning, Caro C.E.; Kremer, Leontien C.M.; Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of clinical adverse events (AEs) and treatment-related risk factors in childhood cancer survivors treated with cranial radiation therapy (CRT), with the aim of assessing dose-effect relationships. Methods and Materials: The retrospective study cohort consisted of 1362 Dutch childhood cancer survivors, of whom 285 were treated with CRT delivered as brain irradiation (BI), as part of craniospinal irradiation (CSI), and as total body irradiation (TBI). Individual CRT doses were converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). Survivors had received their diagnoses between 1966 and 1996 and survived at least 5 years after diagnosis. A complete inventory of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 3.0 AEs was available from our hospital-based late-effect follow-up program. We used multivariable logistic and Cox regression analyses to examine the EQD{sub 2} in relation to the prevalence and severity of AEs, correcting for sex, age at diagnosis, follow-up time, and the treatment-related risk factors surgery and chemotherapy. Results: There was a high prevalence of AEs in the CRT group; over 80% of survivors had more than 1 AE, and almost half had at least 5 AEs, both representing significant increases in number of AEs compared with survivors not treated with CRT. Additionally, the proportion of severe, life-threatening, or disabling AEs was significantly higher in the CRT group. The most frequent AEs were alopecia and cognitive, endocrine, metabolic, and neurologic events. Using the EQD{sub 2}, we found significant dose-effect relationships for these and other AEs. Conclusion: Our results confirm that CRT increases the prevalence and severity of AEs in childhood cancer survivors. Furthermore, analyzing dose-effect relationships with the cumulative EQD{sub 2} instead of total physical dose connects the knowledge from radiation therapy and radiobiology with the clinical experience.

  13. Budget Atomization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Budget Atomization Budget Atomization Howard Dickenson, Deputy Associate Administrator for Acquisition and Project Management presented on Budget Atomization from the NNSA perspective. Howard presented an overview of the NNSA budget structure and an example of LANL controls. Chris Johns, Director of the Budget Office, DOE Office of the CFO presented on Budget Atomization from the DOE perspective. Chris provided an overview of funding, provided examples, and demonstrated the effect on labs/sites.

  14. Atomizer with liquid spray quenching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, I.E.; Osborne, M.G.; Terpstra, R.L.

    1998-04-14

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for making metallic powder particles wherein a metallic melt is atomized by a rotating disk or other atomizer at an atomizing location in a manner to form molten droplets moving in a direction away from said atomizing location. The atomized droplets pass through a series of thin liquid quenching sheets disposed in succession about the atomizing location with each successive quenching sheet being at an increasing distance from the atomizing location. The atomized droplets are incrementally cooled and optionally passivated as they pass through the series of liquid quenching sheets without distorting the atomized droplets from their generally spherical shape. The atomized, cooled droplets can be received in a chamber having a collection wall disposed outwardly of the series of liquid quenching sheets. A liquid quenchant can be flowed proximate the chamber wall to carry the cooled atomized droplets to a collection chamber where atomized powder particles and the liquid quenchant are separated such that the liquid quenchant can be recycled. 6 figs.

  15. Atomizer with liquid spray quenching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Iver E.; Osborne, Matthew G.; Terpstra, Robert L.

    1998-04-14

    Method and apparatus for making metallic powder particles wherein a metallic melt is atomized by a rotating disk or other atomizer at an atomizing location in a manner to form molten droplets moving in a direction away from said atomizing location. The atomized droplets pass through a series of thin liquid quenching sheets disposed in succession about the atomizing location with each successive quenching sheet being at an increasing distance from the atomizing location. The atomized droplets are incrementally cooled and optionally passivated as they pass through the series of liquid quenching sheets without distorting the atomized droplets from their generally spherical shape. The atomized, cooled droplets can be received in a chamber having a collection wall disposed outwardly of the series of liquid quenching sheets. A liquid quenchant can be flowed proximate the chamber wall to carry the cooled atomized droplets to a collection chamber where atomized powder particles and the liquid quenchant are separated such that the liquid quenchant can be recycled.

  16. Russian Health Studies Program - Relationship to Other Radiation Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Programs | Department of Energy Relationship to Other Radiation Research Programs Russian Health Studies Program - Relationship to Other Radiation Research Programs Relationship to Other Radiation Research Programs Russian Health Studies Program What is the relationship of the Russian Health Studies Program to other radiation health effects programs? Current radiation protection standards are derived primarily from studies of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and patients who received

  17. Japan Program: Radiation Effects Research Foundation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Japan Program: Radiation Effects Research Foundation Japan Program: Radiation Effects Research Foundation Background: The Department of Energy, Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety funds studies of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. The RERF program is believed to have the longest history of any ongoing international research program. DOE and its predecessor agencies

  18. When Sukamo sought the bomb: Indonesian nuclear aspirations in the mid-1960s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cornejo, R.M.

    1999-03-01

    Proponents of nuclear nonproliferation, such as the United States, seek to develop policies that address the root causes of nuclear proliferation. The discipline of international relations aids in this effort by providing theories that attempt to explain why states choose to build nuclear weapons. Most theories simplify the process of proliferation by using only one of three generally accepted explanations: security, domestic politics, or norms. The case of Indonesia, however, illustrates that proliferation is best explained by investigating all three dimensions as well as the role of technology. This thesis evaluates competing theories of nuclear proliferation using a historical case study of Indonesia's aspirations to acquire nuclear weapons during 1964--1965, and supports the view that multiple variables are necessary to explain the spread of nuclear weapons. As evidence, this thesis examines Indonesian President Sukamo's little-known nuclear aspirations in the mid-1960s. Although Sukamo was ultimately unsuccessful in his effort to acquire atomic weapons, his decision to seek them was influenced by a variety of factors that included Indonesia's security needs, domestic political considerations, norms, and available nuclear energy technology.

  19. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Atomic Testing Museum

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Atomic Testing Museum NNSANFO Language Options U.S. DOENNSA - Nevada Field Office NATIONAL ATOMIC TESTING MUSEUM Photograph of Atomic Testing Museum The Nevada Test Site ...

  20. Atomic data for fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  1. Manhattan Project: Dawn of the Atomic Era, 1945

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Little Boy, the untested uranium bomb, was dropped first at Hiroshima, Japan, on August 6, 1945, while the plutonium weapon, Fat Man, followed three days later at Nagasaki on ...

  2. Atomically resolved force microscopy at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morita, Seizo

    2014-04-24

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can now not only image individual atoms but also construct atom letters using atom manipulation method even at room temperature (RT). Therefore, the AFM is the second generation atomic tool following the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). However the AFM can image even insulating atoms, and also directly measure/map the atomic force and potential at the atomic scale. Noting these advantages, we have been developing a bottom-up nanostructuring system at RT based on the AFM. It can identify chemical species of individual atoms and then manipulate selected atom species to the predesigned site one-by-one to assemble complex nanostructures consisted of multi atom species at RT. Here we introduce our results toward atom-by-atom assembly of composite nanostructures based on the AFM at RT including the latest result on atom gating of nano-space for atom-by-atom creation of atom clusters at RT for semiconductor surfaces.

  3. Manhattan Project: Science

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Atom and Atomic Structure Nuclear Physics Bomb Design and Components Radioactivity ... Bomb Design and Components Gun-type Design Implosion Design Initiators and Polonium ...

  4. Closing the circle on the splitting of the atom: The environmental legacy of nuclear weapons production in the United States and what the Department of Energy is doing about it

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    In the grand scheme of things we are a little more than halfway through the cycle of splitting the atom for weapons purposes. If we visualize this historic cycle as the full sweep of a clockface, at zero hour we would find the first nuclear chain reaction by Enrico Fermi, followed immediately by the Manhattan Project and the explosion of the first atomic bombs. From two o`clock until five, the United States built and ran a massive industrial complex that produced tens of thousands of nuclear weapons. At half past, the Cold War ended, and the United States shut down most of its nuclear weapons factories. The second half of this cycle involves dealing with the waste and contamination from nuclear weapons production - a task that had, for the most part, been postponed into the indefinite future. That future is now upon us. Dealing with the environmental legacy of the Cold War is in many ways as big a challenge for us today as the building of the atomic bomb was for the Manhattan Project pioneers in the 1940s. Our challenges are political and social as well as technical, and we are meeting those challenges. We are reducing risks, treating wastes, developing new technologies, and building democratic institutions for a constructive debate on our future course.

  5. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 6. 6. Evaluation of filter material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engquist, E,H.

    1985-04-01

    Four types of standard and developmental filter materials used in individual and collective-protective devices and one type of developmental filter material used for sampling of air for particulate matter were evaluated against the contamination produced by the detonation of an atomic bomb and present in the resulting radioactive cloud. These filter materials were evaluated in multilayer pads at the standard flow-rate conditions used by the Chemical Corps in evaluation studies of filter materials. This permitted correlation of results of laboratory data. Analysis of the materials was made by counting the gross beta activity collected on successive layers of the same filter material and the efficiency of the materials was calculated from the data obtained.

  6. The Collective Atomic Recoil Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Courteille, Ph.W.; Cube, C. avon; Deh, B.; Kruse, D.; Ludewig, A.; Slama, S.; Zimmermann, C.

    2005-05-05

    An ensemble of periodically ordered atoms coherently scatters the light of an incident laser beam. The scattered and the incident light may interfere and give rise to a light intensity modulation and thus to optical dipole forces which, in turn, emphasize the atomic ordering. This positive feedback is at the origin of the collective atomic recoil laser (CARL). We demonstrate this dynamics using ultracold atoms confined by dipole forces in a unidirectionally pumped far red-detuned high-finesse optical ring cavity. Under the influence of an additional dissipative force exerted by an optical molasses the atoms, starting from an unordered distribution, spontaneously form a density grating moving at constant velocity. Additionally, steady state lasing is observed in the reverse direction if the pump laser power exceeds a certain threshold. We compare the dynamics of the atomic trajectories to the behavior of globally coupled oscillators, which exhibit phase transitions from incoherent to coherent states if the coupling strength exceeds a critical value.

  7. General Atomics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: General Atomics offers research, development and consulting services to the nuclear industry, including nuclear energy production, manufacturing, defense and related...

  8. Radiation Dose and Subsequent Risk for Stomach Cancer in Long-term Survivors of Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Smith, Susan A.; Holowaty, Eric; Hall, Per; Pukkala, Eero; Vaalavirta, Leila; Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita; Gilbert, Ethel; Aleman, Berthe M.P.; Kaijser, Magnus; Andersson, Michael; Storm, Hans; Joensuu, Heikki; Lynch, Charles F.; and others

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To assess the doseresponse relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested, matched casecontrol study of 201 cases and 378 controls among 53,547 5-year survivors of cervical cancer diagnosed from 1943 to 1995, from 5 international, population-based cancer registries. We estimated individual radiation doses to the site of the stomach cancer for all cases and to corresponding sites for the matched controls (overall mean stomach tumor dose, 2.56 Gy, range 0.03-46.1 and after parallel opposed pelvic fields, 1.63 Gy, range 0.12-6.3). Results: More than 90% of women received radiation therapy, mostly with external beam therapy in combination with brachytherapy. Stomach cancer risk was nonsignificantly increased (odds ratio 1.27-2.28) for women receiving between 0.5 and 4.9 Gy to the stomach cancer site and significantly increased at doses ?5 Gy (odds ratio 4.20, 95% confidence interval 1.41-13.4, P{sub trend}=.047) compared with nonirradiated women. A highly significant radiation doseresponse relationship was evident when analyses were restricted to the 131 cases (251 controls) whose stomach cancer was located in the middle and lower portions of the stomach (P{sub trend}=.003), whereas there was no indication of increasing risk with increasing dose for 30 cases (57 controls) whose cancer was located in the upper stomach (P{sub trend}=.23). Conclusions: Our findings show for the first time a significant linear doseresponse relationship for risk of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer.

  9. Atomic Scale Characterization of Compound Semiconductors Using Atom Probe Tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorman, B. P.; Norman, A. G.; Lawrence, D.; Prosa, T.; Guthrey, H.; Al-Jassim, M.

    2011-01-01

    Internal interfaces are critical in determining the performance of III-V multijunction solar cells. Studying these interfaces with atomic resolution using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atom probe tomography (APT), and density functional calculations enables a more fundamental understanding of carrier dynamics in photovoltaic (PV) device structures. To achieve full atomic scale spatial and chemical resolution, data acquisition parameters in laser pulsed APT must be carefully studied to eliminate surface diffusion. Atom probe data with minimized group V ion clustering and expected stoichiometry can be achieved by adjusting laser pulse power, pulse repetition rate, and specimen preparation parameters such that heat flow away from the evaporating surface is maximized. Applying these improved analysis conditions to III-V based PV gives an atomic scale understanding of compositional and dopant profiles across interfaces and tunnel junctions and the initial stages of alloy clustering and dopant accumulation. Details on APT experimental methods and future in-situ instrumentation developments are illustrated.

  10. The Atomic City / The Magic of the Atom - 1950's Atomic Energy Commission Documentary

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-31

    The story of American cities located near atomic power plants, and steps taken monitoring radiation to ensure the safety of the public who live nearby. .

  11. The Atomic City / The Magic of the Atom - 1950's Atomic Energy Commission Documentary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-06-04

    The story of American cities located near atomic power plants, and steps taken monitoring radiation to ensure the safety of the public who live nearby. .

  12. In-situ control system for atomization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, I.E.; Figliola, R.S.; Terpstra, R.L.

    1995-06-13

    Melt atomizing apparatus comprising a melt supply orifice for supplying the melt for atomization and gas supply orifices proximate the melt supply orifice for supplying atomizing gas to atomize the melt as an atomization spray is disclosed. The apparatus includes a sensor, such as an optical and/or audio sensor, for providing atomization spray data, and a control unit responsive to the sensed atomization spray data for controlling at least one of the atomizing gas pressure and an actuator to adjust the relative position of the gas supply orifice and melt supply in a manner to achieve a desired atomization spray. 3 figs.

  13. In-situ control system for atomization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Iver E.; Figliola, Richard S.; Terpstra, Robert L.

    1995-06-13

    Melt atomizing apparatus comprising a melt supply orifice for supplying the melt for atomization and gas supply orifices proximate the melt supply orifice for supplying atomizing gas to atomize the melt as an atomization spray. The apparatus includes a sensor, such as an optical and/or audio sensor, for providing atomization spray data, and a control unit responsive to the sensed atomization spray data for controlling at least one of the atomizing gas pressure and an actuator to adjust the relative position of the gas supply orifice and melt supply in a manner to achieve a desired atomization spray.

  14. Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E.; Smolensky, Leo A.; Balsavich, John

    1991-01-01

    A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to supersonic velocities.

  15. Los Alamos National Laboratory ATOMIC PHOTOGRAPHY ATOMIC PHOTOGRAPHY

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ATOMIC PHOTOGRAPHY ATOMIC PHOTOGRAPHY BLASTS FROM THE PAST BLASTS FROM THE PAST Twenty-five U.S. atmospheric nuclear weapons operations (each a series of tests) were conducted from 1945 to 1963, primarily at the Pacific Proving Grounds and at the Nevada Test Site, southeastern Nevada. Below, observers witness Operation Greenhouse, Eniwetok Atoll, spring 1951. Greenhouse was a series of four tests. 17 Proof of principle for thermonuclear weapons, the 225-kiloton George test, May 8, 1951, of

  16. UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    I(S.0 -01: SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL LlCEWSE Pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 1, Part 70, "Special Nuclear Material ...

  17. Imaging atoms in 3-D

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ercius, Peter

    2014-06-27

    Berkeley Lab's Peter Ercius discusses "Imaging atoms in 3-D" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas

  18. Efimov physics in cold atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braaten, Eric . E-mail: braaten@mps.ohio-state.edu; Hammer, H.-W. . E-mail: hammer@itkp.uni-bonn.de

    2007-01-15

    Atoms with a large scattering length have universal low-energy properties that do not depend on the details of their structure or their interactions at short distances. In the 2-atom sector, the universal properties are familiar and depend only on the scattering length. In the 3-atom sector for identical bosons, the universal properties include the existence of a sequence of shallow triatomic molecules called Efimov trimers and log-periodic dependence of scattering observables on the energy and the scattering length. In this review, we summarize the universal results that are currently known. We also summarize the experimental information that is currently available with an emphasis on 3-atom loss processes.

  19. ATOMIC ENERGY ACT OF 1946

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    D. Niisc AEC Hcadqoartcrs Library Voliiinc I Principal Docriiiiciits U.S. ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION WASHINGTON, 1965 PUBLIC LAW 5 8 5 - 7 9 CONQRESS CHAPTER 724-2 ...

  20. Theoretical studies of atomic transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, C.F.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses: lifetime of excited states; core-polarization studies; large relativistic calculations; Monte Carlo Hartree-Fock (MCHF) atomic structure package; and MCHF codes for the hypercube. (LSP)

  1. u. S. Atomic Energy Commission

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    S. Atomic Energy Commission R. 0. Box 30, Ansonia Station New York ES, N. Y. MATERIALS 5+k& hJf Reference: SK:BL Attention: Mr. R. J. Smith Jr. Director Special Materials Division ...

  2. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyeth, Richard W.; Paisner, Jeffrey A.; Story, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    A laser spectroscopy system is utilized in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. The system determines spectral components of an atomic vapor utilizing a laser heterodyne technique.

  3. Fundamental Electroweak Studies using Trapped Ions & Atoms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    collaboration performs fundamental electroweak studies on trapped ions & atoms. We use neutral atom and ion trapping techniques at radioactive ion beam facilities here and...

  4. Manhattan Project: Atomic Discoveries, 1890s-1939

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The exact nature of these atoms remained elusive, however, despite centuries of attempts ... Explorations into the nature of the atom from 1919 to 1932 confirmed this new model, ...

  5. Atomic Photography: Blasts from the Past

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atomic Photography National Security Science Latest Issue:July 2015 past issues All Issues submit Atomic Photography: Blasts from the Past A gallery of images reveals the weird...

  6. Dirty Bomb Fallout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates-Anderson, D; Rasmussen, C; Fischer, R; Viani, B; Hu, Q; Sutton, M; McNab, W

    2007-05-02

    At present, there is a significant need to develop decontamination agents that can be used effectively after detonation of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) in an urban environment. There is also a need for the development of reproducible test surfaces to be used to determine the efficacy of the agent being developed. Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), under the auspices of the US Department of Energy (DoE), conducted a field study to evaluate the deposition of an explosively dispersed radionuclide surrogate (CsCl) on grime-bearing and non-grime-bearing urban surfaces. The goal was to investigate the preparation and contamination of urban surfaces that closely mimic what one would expect to encounter following the detonation of an RDD. Migration of Cs into concrete surfaces was investigated in detail. Many non-proliferation, security and response organizations that have modeled RDD scenarios use cesium-137, as well as cobalt-60, strontium-90, americium-241 as the most likely RDD agents. Cesium-137 is an isotope of concern for possible use in an RDD due to its potential availability resulting from its widespread legitimate use in construction, geotechnical and medical industrial devices. In some Cs-containing instruments the Cesium-137 is present as the highly dispersible and water soluble salt, cesium chloride (CsCl). In this form Cs is able to rapidly disperse in the environment, as witnessed in the 1987 Goiania accident in Brazil, when inadvertent dispersal of a radiotherapy source resulted in fatalities and injuries.

  7. Relative Importance of Hip and Sacral Pain Among Long-Term Gynecological Cancer Survivors Treated With Pelvic Radiotherapy and Their Relationships to Mean Absorbed Doses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waldenstroem, Ann-Charlotte; Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg ; Olsson, Caroline; Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg ; Wilderaeng, Ulrica; Dunberger, Gail; Lind, Helena; Alevronta, Eleftheria; Al-Abany, Massoud; Department of Hospital Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm ; Tucker, Susan; Avall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Steineck, Gunnar; Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relative importance of patient-reported hip and sacral pain after pelvic radiotherapy (RT) for gynecological cancer and its relationship to the absorbed doses in these organs. Methods and Materials: We used data from a population-based study that included 650 long-term gynecological cancer survivors treated with pelvic RT in the Gothenburg and Stockholm areas in Sweden with a median follow-up of 6 years (range, 2-15) and 344 population controls. Symptoms were assessed through a study-specific postal questionnaire. We also analyzed the hip and sacral dose-volume histogram data for 358 of the survivors. Results: Of the survivors, one in three reported having or having had hip pain after completing RT. Daily pain when walking was four times as common among the survivors compared to controls. Symptoms increased in frequency with a mean absorbed dose >37.5 Gy. Also, two in five survivors reported pain in the sacrum. Sacral pain also affected their walking ability and tended to increase with a mean absorbed dose >42.5 Gy. Conclusions: Long-term survivors of gynecological cancer treated with pelvic RT experience hip and sacral pain when walking. The mean absorbed dose was significantly related to hip pain and was borderline significantly related to sacral pain. Keeping the total mean absorbed hip dose below 37.5 Gy during treatment might lower the occurrence of long-lasting pain. In relation to the controls, the survivors had a lower occurrence of pain and pain-related symptoms from the hips and sacrum compared with what has previously been reported for the pubic bone.

  8. Atomic memory access hardware implementations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, Jung Ho; Erez, Mattan; Dally, William J

    2015-02-17

    Atomic memory access requests are handled using a variety of systems and methods. According to one example method, a data-processing circuit having an address-request generator that issues requests to a common memory implements a method of processing the requests using a memory-access intervention circuit coupled between the generator and the common memory. The method identifies a current atomic-memory access request from a plurality of memory access requests. A data set is stored that corresponds to the current atomic-memory access request in a data storage circuit within the intervention circuit. It is determined whether the current atomic-memory access request corresponds to at least one previously-stored atomic-memory access request. In response to determining correspondence, the current request is implemented by retrieving data from the common memory. The data is modified in response to the current request and at least one other access request in the memory-access intervention circuit.

  9. Hot atom chemistry and radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krohn, Kenneth A.; Moerlein, Stephen M.; Link, Jeanne M.; Welch, Michael J.

    2012-12-19

    The chemical products made in a cyclotron target are a combined result of the chemical effects of the nuclear transformation that made the radioactive atom and the bulk radiolysis in the target. This review uses some well-known examples to understand how hot atom chemistry explains the primary products from a nuclear reaction and then how radiation chemistry is exploited to set up the optimal product for radiosynthesis. It also addresses the chemical effects of nuclear decay. There are important principles that are common to hot atom chemistry and radiopharmaceutical chemistry. Both emphasize short-lived radionuclides and manipulation of high specific activity nuclides. Furthermore, they both rely on radiochromatographic separation for identification of no-carrieradded products.

  10. Atomizing, continuous, water monitoring module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, C.V.; Wise, M.B.

    1997-07-08

    A system for continuously analyzing volatile constituents of a liquid is described. The system contains a pump for continuously pumping the liquid to be tested at a predetermined flow rate into an extracting container through a liquid directing tube having an orifice at one end and positioned to direct the liquid into the extracting container at a flow rate sufficient to atomize the liquid within the extracting container. A continuous supply of helium carrier gas at a predetermined flow rate is directed through a tube into the extracting container and co-mingled with the atomized liquid to extract the volatile constituents contained within the atomized liquid. The helium containing the extracted volatile constituents flows out of the extracting container into a mass spectrometer for an analysis of the volatile constituents of the liquid. 3 figs.

  11. Atomizing, continuous, water monitoring module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Cyril V.; Wise, Marcus B.

    1997-01-01

    A system for continuously analyzing volatile constituents of a liquid is described. The system contains a pump for continuously pumping the liquid to be tested at a predetermined flow rate into an extracting container through a liquid directing tube having an orifice at one end and positioned to direct the liquid into the extracting container at a flow rate sufficient to atomize the liquid within the extracting container. A continuous supply of helium carrier gas at a predetermined flow rate is directed through a tube into the extracting container and co-mingled with the atomized liquid to extract the volatile constituents contained within the atomized liquid. The helium containing the extracted volatile constituents flows out of the extracting container into a mass spectrometer for an analysis of the volatile constituents of the liquid.

  12. Atomic hydrogen in planetary nebulae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, S.E.; Silverglate, P.R.; Altschuler, D.R.; Giovanardi, C.

    1987-03-01

    The authors searched for neutral atomic hydrogen associated with 22 planetary nebulae and three evolved stars in the 21 cm line at the Arecibo Observatory. Objects whose radial velocities permitted discrimination from Galactic H I were chosen for observation. Hydrogen was detected in absorption from IC 4997. From the measurements new low limits are derived to the mass of atomic hydrogen associated with the undetected nebulae. Radio continuum observations were also made of several of the nebulae at 12.6 cm. The authors reexamine previous measurements of H I in planetary nebulae, and present the data on a consistent footing. The question of planetary nebula distances is considered at length. Finally, implications of the H I measurements for nebular evolution are discussed and it is suggested that atomic hydrogen seen in absorption was expelled from the progenitor star during the final 1000 yr prior to the onset of ionization. 68 references.

  13. Relativistic atomic beam spectroscopy II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1989-12-31

    The negative ion of H is one of the simplest 3-body atomic systems. The techniques we have developed for experimental study of atoms moving near speed of light have been productive. This proposal request continuing support for experimental studies of the H{sup -} system, principally at the 800 MeV linear accelerator (LAMPF) at Los Alamos. Four experiments are currently planned: photodetachment of H{sup -} near threshold in electric field, interaction of relativistic H{sup -} ions with matter, high excitations and double charge escape in H{sup -}, and multiphoton detachment of electrons from H{sup -}.

  14. White Matter Fractional Anisotropy Correlates With Speed of Processing and Motor Speed in Young Childhood Cancer Survivors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aukema, Eline J.; Oudhuis, Nienke; Vos, Frans M.; Reneman, Liesbeth; Last, Bob F.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To determine whether childhood medulloblastoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) survivors have decreased white matter fractional anisotropy (WMFA) and whether WMFA is related to the speed of processing and motor speed. Methods and Materials: For this study, 17 patients (6 medulloblastoma, 5 ALL treated with high-dose methotrexate (MTX) (4 x 5 g/m{sup 2}) and 6 with low-dose MTX (3 x 2 g/m{sup 2})) and 17 age-matched controls participated. On a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed, and WMFA values were calculated, including specific regions of interest (ROIs), and correlated with the speed of processing and motor speed. Results: Mean WMFA in the patient group, mean age 14 years (range 8.9 - 16.9), was decreased compared with the control group (p = 0.01), as well as WMFA in the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciliculus (IFO) (p = 0.03) and in the genu of the corpus callosum (gCC) (p = 0.01). Based on neurocognitive results, significant positive correlations were present between processing speed and WMFA in the splenium (sCC) (r = 0.53, p = 0.03) and the body of the corpus callosum (bCC) (r = 0.52, p = 0.03), whereas the right IFO WMFA was related to motor speed (r = 0.49, p < 0.05). Conclusions: White matter tracts, using a 3.0-T MRI scanner, show impairment in childhood cancer survivors, medulloblastoma survivors, and also those treated with high doses of MTX. In particular, white matter tracts in the sCC, bCC and right IFO are positively correlated with speed of processing and motor speed.

  15. Fertility and Pregnancy Outcome After Abdominal Irradiation That Included or Excluded the Pelvis in Childhood Tumor Survivors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudour, Helene; Chastagner, Pascal; Claude, Line; Desandes, Emmanuel; Klein, Marc; Carrie, Christian; Bernier, Valerie

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate fertility after abdominal and/or pelvic irradiation in long-term female survivors. Methods and Materials: Puberty and pregnancy outcome were analyzed in female survivors of childhood cancer (aged <18 years) treated with abdominal and/or pelvic radiotherapy (RT) at one of two French centers (Nancy and Lyon) between 1975 and 2004. Data were obtained from medical records and questionnaires sent to the women. Results: A total of 84 patients who had received abdominal and/or pelvic RT during childhood and were alive and aged more than 18 years at the time of the study made up the study population. Of the 57 female survivors treated with abdominal RT that excluded the pelvis, 52 (91%) progressed normally through puberty and 23 (40%) had at least one recorded pregnancy. Of the 27 patients treated with pelvic RT, only 10 (37%) progressed normally through puberty and 5 (19%) had at least one recorded pregnancy. Twenty-two women (seventeen of whom were treated with pelvic RT) had certain subfertility. A total of 50 births occurred in 28 women, with one baby dying at birth; one miscarriage also occurred. There was a high prevalence of prematurity and low birth weight but not of congenital malformations. Conclusions: Fertility can be preserved in patients who undergo abdominal RT that excludes the pelvis, taking into account the other treatments (e.g., chemotherapy with alkylating agents) are taken into account. When RT includes the pelvis, fertility is frequently impaired and women can have difficulty conceiving. Nevertheless, pregnancies can occur in some of these women. The most important factor that endangers a successful pregnancy after RT is the total dose received by the ovaries and uterus. This radiation dose has to be systematically recorded to improve our ability to follow up patients.

  16. Low-Dose Chest Computed Tomography for Lung Cancer Screening Among Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wattson, Daniel A.; Hunink, M.G. Myriam; DiPiro, Pamela J.; Das, Prajnan; Hodgson, David C.; Mauch, Peter M.; Ng, Andrea K.

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors face an increased risk of treatment-related lung cancer. Screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) may allow detection of early stage, resectable cancers. We developed a Markov decision-analytic and cost-effectiveness model to estimate the merits of annual LDCT screening among HL survivors. Methods and Materials: Population databases and HL-specific literature informed key model parameters, including lung cancer rates and stage distribution, cause-specific survival estimates, and utilities. Relative risks accounted for radiation therapy (RT) technique, smoking status (>10 pack-years or current smokers vs not), age at HL diagnosis, time from HL treatment, and excess radiation from LDCTs. LDCT assumptions, including expected stage-shift, false-positive rates, and likely additional workup were derived from the National Lung Screening Trial and preliminary results from an internal phase 2 protocol that performed annual LDCTs in 53 HL survivors. We assumed a 3% discount rate and a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $50,000 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Results: Annual LDCT screening was cost effective for all smokers. A male smoker treated with mantle RT at age 25 achieved maximum QALYs by initiating screening 12 years post-HL, with a life expectancy benefit of 2.1 months and an incremental cost of $34,841/QALY. Among nonsmokers, annual screening produced a QALY benefit in some cases, but the incremental cost was not below the WTP threshold for any patient subsets. As age at HL diagnosis increased, earlier initiation of screening improved outcomes. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the model was most sensitive to the lung cancer incidence and mortality rates and expected stage-shift from screening. Conclusions: HL survivors are an important high-risk population that may benefit from screening, especially those treated in the past with large radiation fields including mantle or involved-field RT. Screening

  17. Displacement per Atom, Primary Knocked-on Atoms Produced in an Atomic Solid Target

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-07-01

    Version 00 DART calculates the total number of displacements, primary knocked-on atoms, recoil spectra, displacement cross sections and displacement per atoms rates in a poly atomic solid target, composed of many different isotopes, using ENDF/B-VI derived cross sections. To calculate these values, different incident particles were considered: neutrons, ions and electrons. The user needs only to specify an incident particle energy spectrum and the composition of the target. The number of displaced atoms is calculatedmore » within the Binary Collision Approximation framework. To calculate the number of displacements the DART code does not use the classical NRT dpa analytical formula, which is only appropriate for projectile and target of the same mass. It numerically solves the linearized Boltzmann equation for a polyatomic target. It can be a useful tool to select the nature and energy of ions or electrons in particle accelerators or electron microscopes to mimic the primary damage induced by neutron irradiation in nuclear plants or fission facilities. Nuclear data: • Typically any ENDFB format evaluation may be used. This package includes the ENDFB-VI nuclear data library. Energy ranges: • Neutron or ion : 10E-11 to 20 MeV Data library distributed with DART v1.0: • ENDFB-VI nuclear data library« less

  18. Background report for the formerly utilized Manhattan Engineer District/Atomic Energy Commission sites program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-09-01

    The Department of Energy is conducting a program to determine radiological conditions at sites formerly used by the Army Corps of Engineers' Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission in the early years of nuclear energy development. Also included in the program are sites used in the Los Alamos plutonium development program and the Trinity atomic bomb test site. Materials, equipment, buildings, and land became contaminated, primarily with naturally occurring radioactive nuclides. They were later decontaminated in accordance with the standards and survey methods in use at that time. Since then, however, radiological criteria, and proposed guidelines for release of such sites for unrestricted use have become more stringent as research on the effects of low-level radiation has progressed. In addition, records documenting some of these decontamination efforts cannot be found, and the final radiological conditions of the sites could not be adequately determined from the records. As a result, the Formerly Utilized Sites Program was initiated in 1974 to identify these formerly used sites and to reevaluate their radiological status. This report covers efforts through June 1980 to determine the radiological status of sites for which the existing conditions could not be clearly defined. Principal contractor facilities and associated properties have already been identified and activities are continuing to identify additional sites. Any new sites located will probably be subcontractor facilities and areas used for disposal of contractor waste or equipment; however, only limited information regarding this equipment and material has been collected to date. As additional information becomes available, supplemental reports will be published.

  19. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1985-11-08

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985 the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for the internationally competitive production of uranium separative work. The economic basis for this decision is considered, with an indicated of the constraints placed on the process figures of merit and the process laser system. We then trace an atom through a generic AVLIS separator and give examples of the physical steps encountered, the models used to describe the process physics, the fundamental parameters involved, and the role of diagnostic laser measurements.

  20. The Modified Embedded Atom Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baskes, M.I.

    1994-08-01

    Recent modifications have been made to generalize the Embedded Atom Method (EAM) to describe bonding in diverse materials. By including angular dependence of the electron density in an empirical way, the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) has been able to reproduce the basic energetic and structural properties of 45 elements. This method is ideally suited for examining the interfacial behavior of dissimilar materials. This paper explains in detail the derivation of the method, shows how the parameters of the MEAM are determined directly from experiment or first principles calculations, and examines the quality of the reproduction of the database. Materials with fcc, bcc, hcp, and diamond cubic crystal structure are discussed. A few simple examples of the application of the MEAM to surfaces and interfaces are presented. Calculations of pullout of a SiC fiber in a diamond matrix as a function of applied stress show non-uniform deformation of the fiber.

  1. The Future of Atomic Energy

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Fermi, E.

    1946-05-27

    There is definitely a technical possibility that atomic power may gradually develop into one of the principal sources of useful power. If this expectation will prove correct, great advantages can be expected to come from the fact that the weight of the fuel is almost negligible. This feature may be particularly valuable for making power available to regions of difficult access and far from deposits of coal. It also may prove a great asset in mobile power units for example in a power plant for ship propulsion. On the negative side there are some technical limitations to be applicability of atomic power of which perhaps the most serious is the impossibility of constructing light power units; also there will be some peculiar difficulties in operating atomic plants, as for example the necessity of handling highly radioactive substances which will necessitate, at least for some considerable period, the use of specially skilled personnel for the operation. But the chief obstacle in the way of developing atomic power will be the difficulty of organizing a large scale industrial development in an internationally safe way. This presents actually problems much more difficult to solve than any of the technical developments that are necessary, It will require an unusual amount of statesmanship to balance properly the necessity of allaying the international suspicion that arises from withholding technical secrets against the obvious danger of dumping the details of the procedures for an extremely dangerous new method of warfare on a world that may not yet be prepared to renounce war. Furthermore, the proper balance should be found in the relatively short time that will elapse before the 'secrets' will naturally become open knowledge by rediscovery on part of the scientists and engineers of other countries.

  2. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyeth, R.W.; Paisner, J.A.; Story, T.

    1990-08-21

    A laser spectroscopy system is utilized in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. The system determines spectral components of an atomic vapor utilizing a laser heterodyne technique. 23 figs.

  3. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab - General Atomics (GA)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    general-atomics-ga General Atomics en The Scorpion's Strategy: "Catch and Subdue" http:www.pppl.govnode1132

  4. How Atomic Vibrations Transform Vanadium Dioxide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How Atomic Vibrations Transform Vanadium Dioxide How Atomic Vibrations Transform Vanadium Dioxide Calculations Confirm Material's Potential for Next-Generation Electronics, Energy November 10, 2014 Contact: Dawn Levy, levyd@ornl.gov, 865.576.6448 Budaivibe Vanadium atoms (blue) have unusually large thermal vibrations that stabilize the metallic state of a vanadium dioxide crystal. Red depicts oxygen atoms. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory For more than 50 years, scientists have

  5. The Atomic Energy Commission By Alice Buck

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Atomic Energy Commission By Alice Buck July 1983 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Management Office of the Executive Secretariat Office of History and Heritage Resources 1 Introduction Almost a year after World War II ended, Congress established the United States Atomic Energy Commission to foster and control the peacetime development of atomic science and technology. Reflecting America's postwar optimism, Congress declared that atomic energy should be employed not only in the Nation's

  6. Gauss Sum Factorization with Cold Atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilowski, M.; Wendrich, T.; Mueller, T.; Ertmer, W.; Rasel, E. M. [Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Welfengarten 1, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Jentsch, Ch. [Astrium GmbH-Satellites, 88039 Friedrichshafen (Germany); Schleich, W. P. [Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2008-01-25

    We report the first implementation of a Gauss sum factorization algorithm by an internal state Ramsey interferometer using cold atoms. A sequence of appropriately designed light pulses interacts with an ensemble of cold rubidium atoms. The final population in the involved atomic levels determines a Gauss sum. With this technique we factor the number N=263193.

  7. Atomic Structure Calculations from the Los Alamos Atomic Physics Codes

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cowan, R. D.

    The well known Hartree-Fock method of R.D. Cowan, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, is used for the atomic structure calculations. Electron impact excitation cross sections are calculated using either the distorted wave approximation (DWA) or the first order many body theory (FOMBT). Electron impact ionization cross sections can be calculated using the scaled hydrogenic method developed by Sampson and co-workers, the binary encounter method or the distorted wave method. Photoionization cross sections and, where appropriate, autoionizations are also calculated. Original manuals for the atomic structure code, the collisional excitation code, and the ionization code, are available from this website. Using the specialized interface, you will be able to define the ionization stage of an element and pick the initial and final configurations. You will be led through a series of web pages ending with a display of results in the form of cross sections, collision strengths or rates coefficients. Results are available in tabular and graphic form.

  8. QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of model atoms in fields Milonni, P.W. 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; ATOMS; OPTICAL MODELS; QUANTUM MECHANICS;...

  9. Mexico: swapping crude for atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navarro, B.

    1982-06-24

    Mexico, considered the Saudi Arabia of the Western Hemisphere because of its proven and potential petroleum reserves, has surprised the world: it has embarked on the biggest nuclear-electric program in the Third World, only to postpone it days before scheduled approval of an international bidding (on which the atomic energy industry had pinned its hopes). A graph shows Mexican supplies of electricity by source with official projections to 1990. The point of entrance of the first nuclear reactor, originally scheduled for 1982, won't come onstream until 1983; and how nuclear-generated electricity grows close to 5% of the total in 1990. The big question is, will the future President of Mexico give the green light to the atomic megaproject. And if he does, how will Mexico deal with the serious logistics problems and grave ecological implications confronting the industry worldwide. In this issue, the author and Energy Detente touch on these questions and review the nuclear power status of Mexico, as well as addressing some of its global problems. Also presented in this issue is an update of the fuel price/tax series for the Western Hemisphere countries.

  10. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hough, Paul V. C.; Wang, Chengpu

    2006-08-22

    An atomic force microscope is described having a cantilever comprising a base and a probe tip on an end opposite the base; a cantilever drive device connected to the base; a magnetic material coupled to the probe tip, such that when an incrementally increasing magnetic field is applied to the magnetic material an incrementally increasing force will be applied to the probe tip; a moveable specimen base; and a controller constructed to obtain a profile height of a specimen at a point based upon a contact between the probe tip and a specimen, and measure an adhesion force between the probe tip and the specimen by, under control of a program, incrementally increasing an amount of a magnetic field until a release force, sufficient to break the contact, is applied. An imaging method for atomic force microscopy involving measuring a specimen profile height and adhesion force at multiple points within an area and concurrently displaying the profile and adhesion force for each of the points is also described. A microscope controller is also described and is constructed to, for a group of points, calculate a specimen height at a point based upon a cantilever deflection, a cantilever base position and a specimen piezo position; calculate an adhesion force between a probe tip and a specimen at the point by causing an incrementally increasing force to be applied to the probe tip until the probe tip separates from a specimen; and move the probe tip to a new point in the group.

  11. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hough, Paul V. C.; Wang, Chengpu

    2003-01-01

    An atomic force microscope utilizes a pulse release system and improved method of operation to minimize contact forces between a probe tip affixed to a flexible cantilever and a specimen being measured. The pulse release system includes a magnetic particle affixed proximate the probe tip and an electromagnetic coil. When energized, the electromagnetic coil generates a magnetic field which applies a driving force on the magnetic particle sufficient to overcome adhesive forces exhibited between the probe tip and specimen. The atomic force microscope includes two independently displaceable piezo elements operable along a Z-axis. A controller drives the first Z-axis piezo element to provide a controlled approach between the probe tip and specimen up to a point of contact between the probe tip and specimen. The controller then drives the first Z-axis piezo element to withdraw the cantilever from the specimen. The controller also activates the pulse release system which drives the probe tip away from the specimen during withdrawal. Following withdrawal, the controller adjusts the height of the second Z-axis piezo element to maintain a substantially constant approach distance between successive samples.

  12. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hough, Paul V.; Wang, Chengpu

    2004-11-16

    An atomic force microscope is described having a cantilever comprising a base and a probe tip on an end opposite the base; a cantilever drive device connected to the base; a magnetic material coupled to the probe tip, such that when an incrementally increasing magnetic field is applied to the magnetic material an incrementally increasing force will be applied to the probe tip; a moveable specimen base; and a controller constructed to obtain a profile height of a specimen at a point based upon a contact between the probe tip and a specimen, and measure an adhesion force between the probe tip and the specimen by, under control of a program, incrementally increasing an amount of a magnetic field until a release force, sufficient to break the contact, is applied. An imaging method for atomic force microscopy involving measuring a specimen profile height and adhesion force at multiple points within an area and concurrently displaying the profile and adhesion force for each of the points is also described. A microscope controller is also described and is constructed to, for a group of points, calculate a specimen height at a point based upon a cantilever deflection, a cantilever base position and a specimen piezo position; calculate an adhesion force between a probe tip and a specimen at the point by causing an incrementally increasing force to be applied to the probe tip until the probe tip separates from a specimen; and move the probe tip to a new point in the group.

  13. Truman Signs Atomic Energy Act | National Nuclear Security Administration |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    (NNSA) Truman Signs Atomic Energy Act Truman Signs Atomic Energy Act Washington, DC President Truman signs the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, leading to the creation of the Atomic Energy Commission

  14. Hyperbaric Hydrothermal Atomic Force Microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Boro, Carl O.; Higgins, Steven R.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2003-07-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  15. Hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Boro, Carl O.; Higgins, Steven R.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2002-01-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  16. Atomicity violation detection using access interleaving invariants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Lu, Shan; Tucek, Joseph Andrew

    2013-09-10

    During execution of a program, the situation where the atomicity of a pair of instructions that are to be executed atomically is violated is identified, and a bug is detected as occurring in the program at the pair of instructions. The pairs of instructions that are to be executed atomically can be identified in different manners, such as by executing a program multiple times and using the results of those executions to automatically identify the pairs of instructions.

  17. Method for enhanced atomization of liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Richard E.; White, Jerome R.

    1993-01-01

    In a process for atomizing a slurry or liquid process stream in which a slurry or liquid is passed through a nozzle to provide a primary atomized process stream, an improvement which comprises subjecting the liquid or slurry process stream to microwave energy as the liquid or slurry process stream exits the nozzle, wherein sufficient microwave heating is provided to flash vaporize the primary atomized process stream.

  18. Collisionally induced atomic clock shifts and correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Band, Y. B.; Osherov, I.

    2011-07-15

    We develop a formalism to incorporate exchange symmetry considerations into the calculation of collisional frequency shifts for atomic clocks using a density-matrix formalism. The formalism is developed for both fermionic and bosonic atomic clocks. Numerical results for a finite-temperature {sup 87}Sr {sup 1}S{sub 0} (F=9/2) atomic clock in a magic wavelength optical lattice are presented.

  19. Integrated Nanosystems for Atomically Precise Manufacturing Workshop -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    August 5-6, 2015 | Department of Energy Nanosystems for Atomically Precise Manufacturing Workshop - August 5-6, 2015 Integrated Nanosystems for Atomically Precise Manufacturing Workshop - August 5-6, 2015 The US Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) hosted a Workshop on Integrated Nanosystems for Atomically Precise Manufacturing (INFAPM) in Berkeley, California, August 5-6, 2015. DOE invited representatives from academia, national labs, the Executive Office of the

  20. Optimizing Atomic Neighborhoods for Speedier Chemical Reactions...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    processes involved in energy production and pollution control. Employing in-operation tools to atomic-level interactions in palladium-based catalysts enhances the discovery and...

  1. Atomic Scale Characterization of Compound Semiconductors using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    more fundamental understanding of carrier dynamics in photovoltaic (PV) device structures. ... Applying these improved analysis conditions to III-V based PV gives an atomic scale ...

  2. Calculating Atomic Number Densities for Uranium

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-01-01

    Provides method to calculate atomic number densities of selected uranium compounds and hydrogenous moderators for use in nuclear criticality safety analyses at gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment facilities.

  3. Circuits of Atoms on Wires of Light

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Circuits of Atoms on Wires of Light 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:July 2016 past issues All Issues » submit Circuits of Atoms on Wires of Light A new kind of circuitry-with electrons on conducting wires replaced by atoms on paths of laser light-is ushering in an era of "atomtronic" technology. March 8, 2016 Artist visualization of atomic circuits Los Alamos scientists have developed a reliable new way to create atomtronic circuits with waves of

  4. Atomic Scale Characterization of Compound Semiconductors using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ALLOYS; ATOMS; DATA ACQUISITION; DIFFUSION; FUNCTIONALS; HEAT FLUX; ...

  5. Atom-split it for nuclear energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    adjustments were provided by the 'Calutron Girls' Seaborg-Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission 1961-1971; discovered many elements Buckyball-Buckminsterfullerene; 60...

  6. CERTIFICATION DOCKET WESTINGHOUSE ATOMIC POWER DEVELOPMENT PLANT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... A survey cf the area of the "L' Building was performed and consisted of gamma-ray ... - Statement of Certification Westinghouse Atomic Power Development Plant East Pittsburgh ...

  7. Manhattan Project: Adventures Inside the Atom

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This publication was produced at the request of the the Assistant Manager for Public Education, Oak Ridge Operations Office, Atomic Energy Commission. It is reproduced here via the ...

  8. The study of human mutation rates. Progress report, 1989--1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neel, J.V.

    1992-12-01

    We will describe recent developments regarding the question of induced mutations in the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. As part of that work we, describe some developments with respect to the Amerindian blood samples collected under DoE sponsorship between 1964 and 1982. Then developments regarding the application of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) to the study of genetic variation and mutation affecting protein characteristics. In particular, we will report on the identification and isolation of genes of especial interest as reflected in the behavior of the proteins which they encode.

  9. The study of human mutation rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neel, J.V.

    1992-01-01

    We will describe recent developments regarding the question of induced mutations in the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. As part of that work we, describe some developments with respect to the Amerindian blood samples collected under DoE sponsorship between 1964 and 1982. Then developments regarding the application of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) to the study of genetic variation and mutation affecting protein characteristics. In particular, we will report on the identification and isolation of genes of especial interest as reflected in the behavior of the proteins which they encode.

  10. Conduction of molecular electronic devices: Qualitative insights through atom-atom polarizabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuyver, T.; Fias, S. De Proft, F.; Geerlings, P.; Fowler, P. W.

    2015-03-07

    The atom-atom polarizability and the transmission probability at the Fermi level, as obtained through the source-and-sink-potential method for every possible configuration of contacts simultaneously, are compared for polycyclic aromatic compounds. This comparison leads to the conjecture that a positive atom-atom polarizability is a necessary condition for transmission to take place in alternant hydrocarbons without non-bonding orbitals and that the relative transmission probability for different configurations of the contacts can be predicted by analyzing the corresponding atom-atom polarizability. A theoretical link between the two considered properties is derived, leading to a mathematical explanation for the observed trends for transmission based on the atom-atom polarizability.

  11. Sub-Angstrom Atomic-Resolution Imaging of Heavy Atoms to Light...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Heavy Atoms to Light Atoms Citation Details In-Document Search ... Publication Date: 2003-05-23 OSTI Identifier: 822959 Report Number(s): LBNL--52090 Journal ID: ISSN ...

  12. Atomic magnetometer for human magnetoencephalograpy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwindt, Peter; Johnson, Cort N.

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a high sensitivity (<5 fTesla/{radical}Hz), fiber-optically coupled magnetometer to detect magnetic fields produced by the human brain. This is the first demonstration of a noncryogenic sensor that could replace cryogenic superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers in magnetoencephalography (MEG) and is an important advance in realizing cost-effective MEG. Within the sensor, a rubidium vapor is optically pumped with 795 laser light while field-induced optical rotations are measured with 780 nm laser light. Both beams share a single optical axis to maximize simplicity and compactness. In collaboration with neuroscientists at The Mind Research Network in Albuquerque, NM, the evoked responses resulting from median nerve and auditory stimulation were recorded with the atomic magnetometer and a commercial SQUID-based MEG system with signals comparing favorably. Multi-sensor operation has been demonstrated with two AMs placed on opposite sides of the head. Straightforward miniaturization would enable high-density sensor arrays for whole-head magnetoencephalography.

  13. Atomic Layer Deposition | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atomic Layer Deposition New nanophase thin film materials with properties tailored to specifically meet the needs of industry New software simulates ALD over multiple length scale, saving industry time and money on developing specialized tools PDF icon Atomic_Layer_Deposition

  14. A continuous cold atomic beam interferometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue, Hongbo; Feng, Yanying Yan, Xueshu; Jiang, Zhikun; Chen, Shu; Wang, Xiaojia; Zhou, Zhaoying

    2015-03-07

    We demonstrate an atom interferometer that uses a laser-cooled continuous beam of {sup 87}Rb atoms having velocities of 10–20 m/s. With spatially separated Raman beams to coherently manipulate the atomic wave packets, Mach–Zehnder interference fringes are observed at an interference distance of 2L = 19 mm. The apparatus operates within a small enclosed area of 0.07 mm{sup 2} at a bandwidth of 190 Hz with a deduced sensitivity of 7.8×10{sup −5} rad/s/√(Hz) for rotations. Using a low-velocity continuous atomic source in an atom interferometer enables high sampling rates and bandwidths without sacrificing sensitivity and compactness, which are important for applications in real dynamic environments.

  15. High data rate atom interferometric device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biedermann, Grant; McGuinness, Hayden James Evans; Rakholia, Akash

    2015-07-21

    A light-pulse atomic interferometry (LPAI) apparatus is provided. The LPAI apparatus comprises a vessel, two sets of magnetic coils configured to magnetically confine an atomic vapor in two respective magneto-optical traps (MOTs) within the vessel when activated, and an optical system configured to irradiate the atomic vapor within the vessel with laser radiation that, when suitably tuned, can launch atoms previously confined in each of the MOTs toward the other MOT. In embodiments, the magnetic coils are configured to produce a magnetic field that is non-zero at the midpoint between the traps. In embodiments, the time-of-flight of the launched atoms from one MOT to the other is 12 ms or less. In embodiments, the MOTs are situated approximately 36 mm apart. In embodiments, the apparatus is configured to activate the magnetic coils according to a particular temporal magnetic field gradient profile.

  16. 1982 bibliography of atomic and molecular processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, C.F.; Crandall, D.H.; Gilbody, H.B.; Gregory, D.C.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; McDaniel, E.W.; McKnight, R.H.; Meyer, F.W.; Morgan, T.J.; Phaneuf, R.A.

    1984-05-01

    This annotated bibliography includes papers on atomic and molecular processes published during 1982. Sources include scientific journals, conference proceedings, and books. Each entry is designated by one or more of the 114 categories of atomic and molecular processes used by the Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory to classify data. Also indicated is whether the work was experimental or theoretical, what energy range was covered, what reactants were investigated, and the country of origin of the first author. Following the bibliographical listing, the entries are indexed according to the categories and according to reactants within each subcategory.

  17. SECTION IV: ATOMIC, MOLECULAR AND MATERIALS SCIENCE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ATOMIC, MOLECULAR AND MATERIALS SCIENCE A semiempirical scaling law for target K x-ray production in heavy ion collisions...... IV-1 R. L. Watson, Y. Peng, V. Horvat, and A. ...

  18. SECTION IV: ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR SCIENCE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    IV: ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR SCIENCE A Pyroelectric Crystal Particle Accelerator ....................................................................................................................................................IV-1 J. Kalodimos and R.L. Watson Polarization of Ka Satellite Transitions in Potassium .....................................................................................................................................IV-4 K. S. Fruchey, R.L. Watson, V. Horvat, and Yong

  19. Network Optimization Models (RNAS and ATOM) | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    been used to study policy options concerning the movement of toxic chemicals by rail. Air Transport Optimization Model (ATOM) The TOM is a network-optimization model designed to...

  20. New analogies between extreme QCD and cold atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishida, Yusuke

    2012-08-15

    We discuss two new analogies between extreme QCD and cold atoms. One is the analogue of 'hard probes' in cold atoms. The other is the analogue of 'quark-hadron continuity' in cold atoms.

  1. August 1, 1946: Atomic Energy Act | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    August 1, 1946: Atomic Energy Act August 1, 1946 President Truman signs the Atomic Energy Act of 1946. On January 1, 1947, all atomic energy activities are transferred to the newly ...

  2. Atomic resolution images of graphite in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigg, D.A.; Shedd, G.M.; Griffis, D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    One sample used for proof of operation for atomic resolution in STM is highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). This sample has been imaged with many different STM`s obtaining similar results. Atomic resolution images of HOPG have now been obtained using an STM designed and built at the Precision Engineering Center. This paper discusses the theoretical predictions and experimental results obtained in imaging of HOPG.

  3. CERTIFICATION DOCKET WESTINGHOUSE ATOMIC POWER DEVELOPMENT PLANT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    WESTINGHOUSE ATOMIC POWER DEVELOPMENT PLANT EAST PITTSBURGH PLANT FOREST HILLS PITTSBURGH, PENNSYLVANIA Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Office of Terminal Waste Disposal and Remedial Action Division of Remedial Action Projects ..-.. --__- _".-.-l--_--l -_._ _- --- ~~~. . ..~ CONTENTS Page - - I NTRODUCTI ON 1 Purpose 1 Docket Contents 1 Exhibit I: Summary of Activities at Westinghouse Atomic Power Development Plant, East Pittsburgh Plant, Forest Hills, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

  4. Scanning magnetoresistance microscopy of atom chips

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volk, M.; Whitlock, S.; Wolff, C. H.; Hall, B. V.; Sidorov, A. I.

    2008-02-15

    Surface based geometries of microfabricated wires or patterned magnetic films can be used to magnetically trap and manipulate ultracold neutral atoms or Bose-Einstein condensates. We investigate the magnetic properties of such atom chips using a scanning magnetoresistive (MR) microscope with high spatial resolution and high field sensitivity. By comparing MR scans of a permanent magnetic atom chip to field profiles obtained using ultracold atoms, we show that MR sensors are ideally suited to observe small variations of the magnetic field caused by imperfections in the wires or magnetic materials which ultimately lead to fragmentation of ultracold atom clouds. Measurements are also provided for the magnetic field produced by a thin current-carrying wire with small geometric modulations along the edge. Comparisons of our measurements with a full numeric calculation of the current flow in the wire and the subsequent magnetic field show excellent agreement. Our results highlight the use of scanning MR microscopy as a convenient and powerful technique for precisely characterizing the magnetic fields produced near the surface of atom chips.

  5. Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes (Patent)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes Title: Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes Apparatus for isotopic analysis of hydrogen comprises a low pressure ...

  6. Spatial atomic layer deposition on flexible substrates using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spatial atomic layer deposition on flexible substrates using a modular rotating cylinder reactor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spatial atomic layer deposition on...

  7. Charge flow model for atomic ordering in nonisovalent alloys...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Charge flow model for atomic ordering in nonisovalent alloys Title: Charge flow model for atomic ordering in nonisovalent alloys Authors: Wang, Shuzhi ; Wang, Lin-Wang Publication ...

  8. The Common Elements of Atomic and Hadronic Physics (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Common Elements of Atomic and Hadronic Physics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Common Elements of Atomic and Hadronic Physics Authors: Brodsky, Stanley J. ;...

  9. Order, disorder and mixing: The atomic structure of amorphous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Order, disorder and mixing: The atomic structure of amorphous mixtures of titania and tantala Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Order, disorder and mixing: The atomic ...

  10. The perfect atom sandwich requires an extra layer > Archived...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Titanium atoms (yellow) preferentially bond with oxygen atoms (gray) and sit at the center of a complete octahedron, making it energetically more favorable for titanium to switch ...

  11. Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations - an Energy Frontier Research Center The Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations (IACT) employs a...

  12. Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scientific roadblocks to U.S. energy security. Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations The Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations (IACT)...

  13. Ultra-sensitive Magnetic Microscopy with an Atomic Magnetometer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 74 ATOMIC AND ... PERFORMANCE TESTING; SENSITIVITY; DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS; ALKALI METALS; ATOMS Word ...

  14. Clifford G. Shull, Neutron Diffraction, Hydrogen Atoms, and Neutron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In Professor Shull's opinion the most important problem he worked on at the time dealt with determining the positions of hydrogen atoms in materials. "Hydrogen atoms are ubiquitous ...

  15. The Simplicity of Perfect Atoms: Degeneracies in Supersymmetric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: The Simplicity of Perfect Atoms: Degeneracies in Supersymmetric Hydrogen Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Simplicity of Perfect Atoms: Degeneracies...

  16. The Simplicity of Perfect Atoms: Degeneracies in Supersymmetric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Simplicity of Perfect Atoms: Degeneracies in Supersymmetric Hydrogen Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Simplicity of Perfect Atoms: Degeneracies in Supersymmetric...

  17. Hewlett and Duncan - Atomic Shield | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Duncan - Atomic Shield Hewlett and Duncan - Atomic Shield Hewlett, Richard G. and Francis Duncan. Atomic Shield, 1947-1952. U.S. Atomic Energy Comission, 1972. The second volume of the three volume A History of the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Text in each PDF is fully searchable. "Hewlett and Duncan - Atomic Shield (complete).pdf" contains the complete text and images from Atomic Shield. 12mb "Hewlett and Duncan - Atomic Shield (figures only).pdf" contains hi-res

  18. Signals from dark atom formation in halos (Journal Article) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Signals from dark atom formation in halos Prev Next Title: Signals from dark atom formation in halos Authors: Pearce, Lauren ; Petraki, Kalliopi ; Kusenko, Alexander ...

  19. Atomic Layer Deposition of Metal Sulfide Materials | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atomic Layer Deposition of Metal Sulfide Materials Title Atomic Layer Deposition of Metal Sulfide Materials Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2015 Authors...

  20. Atom probe tomographic mapping directly reveals the atomic distribution of phosphorus in resin embedded ferritin

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Perea, Daniel E.; Liu, Jia; Bartrand, Jonah A. G.; Dicken, Quinten G.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai Theva; Browning, Nigel D.; Evans, James E.

    2016-02-29

    In this study, we report the atomic-scale analysis of biological interfaces using atom probe tomography. Embedding the protein ferritin in an organic polymer resin lacking nitrogen provided chemical contrast to visualize atomic distributions and distinguish organic-organic and organic-inorganic interfaces. The sample preparation method can be directly extended to further enhance the study of biological, organic and inorganic nanomaterials relevant to health, energy or the environment.

  1. Atoms for peace and war, 1953-1961: Eisenhower and the Atomic Energy Commission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewlett, Richard G.; Holl, Jack M.

    1989-12-01

    This third volume in the official history of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission covers the years of the Eisenhower Administration.

  2. Temperature measurement of cold atoms using single-atom transits and Monte Carlo simulation in a strongly coupled atom-cavity system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wenfang; Du, Jinjin; Wen, Ruijuan; Yang, Pengfei; Li, Gang; Zhang, Tiancai; Liang, Junjun

    2014-03-17

    We investigate the transmission of single-atom transits based on a strongly coupled cavity quantum electrodynamics system. By superposing the transit transmissions of a considerable number of atoms, we obtain the absorption spectra of the cavity induced by single atoms and obtain the temperature of the cold atom. The number of atoms passing through the microcavity for each release is also counted, and this number changes exponentially along with the atom temperature. Monte Carlo simulations agree closely with the experimental results, and the initial temperature of the cold atom is determined. Compared with the conventional time-of-flight (TOF) method, this approach avoids some uncertainties in the standard TOF and sheds new light on determining temperature of cold atoms by counting atoms individually in a confined space.

  3. Efimov physics in {sup 6}Li atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braaten, Eric; Hammer, H.-W.; Kang, Daekyoung; Platter, Lucas

    2010-01-15

    A new narrow three-atom loss resonance associated with an Efimov trimer crossing the three-atom threshold has recently been discovered in a many-body system of ultracold {sup 6}Li atoms in the three lowest hyperfine spin states at a magnetic field near 895 G. O'Hara and coworkers have used measurements of the three-body recombination rate in this region to determine the complex three-body parameter associated with Efimov physics. Using this parameter as the input, we calculate the universal predictions for the spectrum of Efimov states and for the three-body recombination rate in the universal region above 600 G where all three scattering lengths are large. We predict an atom-dimer loss resonance at 672+-2 G associated with an Efimov trimer disappearing through an atom-dimer threshold. We also predict an interference minimum in the three-body recombination rate at 759+-1 G where the three-spin mixture may be sufficiently stable to allow experimental study of the many-body system.

  4. Method and apparatus for atomic imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano K.; de Andres Rodriquez, Pedro L.

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for three dimensional imaging of the atomic environment of disordered adsorbate atoms are disclosed. The method includes detecting and measuring the intensity of a diffuse low energy electron diffraction pattern formed by directing a beam of low energy electrons against the surface of a crystal. Data corresponding to reconstructed amplitudes of a wave form is generated by operating on the intensity data. The data corresponding to the reconstructed amplitudes is capable of being displayed as a three dimensional image of an adsorbate atom. The apparatus includes a source of a beam of low energy electrons and a detector for detecting the intensity distribution of a DLEED pattern formed at the detector when the beam of low energy electrons is directed onto the surface of a crystal. A device responsive to the intensity distribution generates a signal corresponding to the distribution which represents a reconstructed amplitude of a wave form and is capable of being converted into a three dimensional image of the atomic environment of an adsorbate atom on the crystal surface.

  5. Layered Atom Arrangements in Complex Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.E. Sikafus; R.W.Grimes; S.M.Corish; A.R. Cleave; M.Tang; C.R.Stanek; B.P. Uberuaga; J.A.Valdez

    2005-04-15

    In this report, we develop an atom layer stacking model to describe systematically the crystal structures of complex materials. To illustrate the concepts, we consider a sequence of oxide compounds in which the metal cations progress in oxidation state from monovalent (M{sup 1+}) to tetravalent (M{sup 4+}). We use concepts relating to geometric subdivisions of a triangular atom net to describe the layered atom patterns in these compounds (concepts originally proposed by Shuichi Iida). We demonstrate that as a function of increasing oxidation state (from M{sup 1+} to M{sup 4+}), the layer stacking motifs used to generate each successive structure (specifically, motifs along a 3 symmetry axis), progress through the following sequence: MMO, MO, M{sub r}O, MO{sub r/s}O{sub u/v}, MOO (where M and O represent fully dense triangular atom nets and r/s and u/v are fractions used to describe partially filled triangular atom nets). We also develop complete crystallographic descriptions for the compounds in our oxidation sequence using trigonal space group R{bar 3}.

  6. Permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferré, Grégoire; Maillet, Jean-Bernard; Stoltz, Gabriel

    2015-09-14

    We present a permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations, defined through a functional representation of atomic positions. This distance enables us to directly compare different atomic environments with an arbitrary number of particles, without going through a space of reduced dimensionality (i.e., fingerprints) as an intermediate step. Moreover, this distance is naturally invariant through permutations of atoms, avoiding the time consuming associated minimization required by other common criteria (like the root mean square distance). Finally, the invariance through global rotations is accounted for by a minimization procedure in the space of rotations solved by Monte Carlo simulated annealing. A formal framework is also introduced, showing that the distance we propose verifies the property of a metric on the space of atomic configurations. Two examples of applications are proposed. The first one consists in evaluating faithfulness of some fingerprints (or descriptors), i.e., their capacity to represent the structural information of a configuration. The second application concerns structural analysis, where our distance proves to be efficient in discriminating different local structures and even classifying their degree of similarity.

  7. Atomic-Level Sculpting of Crystalline Oxides: Toward Bulk Nanofabrication with Single Atomic Plane Precision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jesse, Stephen; He, Qian; Lupini, Andrew R.; Leonard, Donovan N.; Oxley, Mark P.; Ovchinnikov, Oleg; Unocic, Raymond R.; Tselev, Alexander; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Borisevich, Albina Y.

    2015-10-19

    We demonstrate atomic-level sculpting of 3D crystalline oxide nanostructures from metastable amorphous layer in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Strontium titanate nanostructures grow epitaxially from the crystalline substrate following the beam path. This method can be used for fabricating crystalline structures as small as 1-2 nm and the process can be observed in situ with atomic resolution. We further demonstrate fabrication of arbitrary shape structures via control of the position and scan speed of the electron beam. Combined with broad availability of the atomic resolved electron microscopy platforms, these observations suggest the feasibility of large scale implementation of bulk atomic-level fabrication as a new enabling tool of nanoscience and technology, providing a bottom-up, atomic-level complement to 3D printing.

  8. Atomic-Level Sculpting of Crystalline Oxides: Toward Bulk Nanofabrication with Single Atomic Plane Precision

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jesse, Stephen; He, Qian; Lupini, Andrew R.; Leonard, Donovan N.; Oxley, Mark P.; Ovchinnikov, Oleg; Unocic, Raymond R.; Tselev, Alexander; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel; Sumpter, Bobby G.; et al

    2015-10-19

    We demonstrate atomic-level sculpting of 3D crystalline oxide nanostructures from metastable amorphous layer in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Strontium titanate nanostructures grow epitaxially from the crystalline substrate following the beam path. This method can be used for fabricating crystalline structures as small as 1-2 nm and the process can be observed in situ with atomic resolution. We further demonstrate fabrication of arbitrary shape structures via control of the position and scan speed of the electron beam. Combined with broad availability of the atomic resolved electron microscopy platforms, these observations suggest the feasibility of large scale implementation of bulkmore » atomic-level fabrication as a new enabling tool of nanoscience and technology, providing a bottom-up, atomic-level complement to 3D printing.« less

  9. A History of the Atomic Energy Commission | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Atomic Energy Commission A History of the Atomic Energy Commission A History of the Atomic Energy Commission - written by Alice L. Buck Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, July 1983. 41 pp. AEC History.pdf (1.01 MB) More Documents & Publications The History of Nuclear Energy The Manhattan Project Hewlett and Holl - Atoms for Peace and War

  10. The_Manhattan_Project_2010.pdf | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The_Manhattan_Project_2010.pdf The_Manhattan_Project_2010.pdf (8.53 MB) More Documents & Publications Gosling, The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb The Manhattan Project: Making of the Atomic Bomb

  11. Committee on Atomic, Molecular and Optical Sciences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lancaster, James

    2015-06-30

    The Committee on Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Sciences (CAMOS) is a standing activity of the National Research Council (NRC) that operates under the auspices of the Board on Physics and Astronomy. CAMOS is one of five standing committees of the BPA that are charged with assisting it in achieving its goals—monitoring the health of physics and astronomy, identifying important new developments at the scientific forefronts, fostering interactions with other fields, strengthening connections to technology, facilitating effective service to the nation, and enhancing education in physics. CAMOS provides these capabilities for the atomic, molecular and optical (AMO) sciences.

  12. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Atomic Force Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atomic Force Microscopy Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) operates in several modes. In contact mode, a tip that is attached to a cantilever is scanned over the sample surface, while the force between tip and sample is measured. While the tip is scanned laterally, the force is kept constant by moving the cantilever/tip assembly up and down, so that the deflection of the cantilever is kept constant. The vertical movement of the cantilever/tip assembly is recorded and used to generate an image of the

  13. Light-pulse atom interferometric device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biedermann, Grant; McGuinness, Hayden James Evans; Rakholia, Akash; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Schwindt, Peter; Wheeler, David R.

    2016-03-22

    An atomic interferometric device useful, e.g., for measuring acceleration or rotation is provided. The device comprises at least one vapor cell containing a Raman-active chemical species, an optical system, and at least one detector. The optical system is conformed to implement a Raman pulse interferometer in which Raman transitions are stimulated in a warm vapor of the Raman-active chemical species. The detector is conformed to detect changes in the populations of different internal states of atoms that have been irradiated by the optical system.

  14. SECTION IV. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR SCIENCE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    IV. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR SCIENCE Cross Sections for Cu K-Vacancy Production in Fast Heavy Ion Collisions R.L. Watson, J.M. Blackadar and V. Horvat Enhancement of the Cu Kα x-ray Diagram Lines in Fast Heavy Ion Collisions R.L. Watson, V. Horvat and J.M. Blackadar K-shell Ionization by Secondary Electrons V. Horvat, R.L. Watson and J.M. Blackadar Target-atom Inner-shell Vacancy Distributions Created in Collisions with Heavy Ion Projectiles V. Horvat, R.L. Watson and J.M. Blackadar Systematics of

  15. Atom Probe Tomography of Nanoscale Electronic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, David J.; Prosa, Ty J.; Perea, Daniel E.; Inoue, Hidekazu; Mangelinck, D.

    2016-01-01

    Atom probe tomography (APT) is a mass spectrometry based on time-of-flight measurements which also concurrently produces 3D spatial information. The reader is referred to any of the other papers in this volume or to the following references for further information 4–8. The current capabilities of APT, such as detecting a low number of dopant atoms in nanoscale devices or segregation at a nanoparticle interface, make this technique an important component in the nanoscale metrology toolbox. In this manuscript, we review some of the applications of APT to nanoscale electronic materials, including transistors and finFETs, silicide contact microstructures, nanowires, and nanoparticles.

  16. Analysis of a magnetically trapped atom clock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadio, D.; Band, Y. B.

    2006-11-15

    We consider optimization of a rubidium atom clock that uses magnetically trapped Bose condensed atoms in a highly elongated trap, and determine the optimal conditions for minimum Allan variance of the clock using microwave Ramsey fringe spectroscopy. Elimination of magnetic field shifts and collisional shifts are considered. The effects of spin-dipolar relaxation are addressed in the optimization of the clock. We find that for the interstate interaction strength equal to or larger than the intrastate interaction strengths, a modulational instability results in phase separation and symmetry breaking of the two-component condensate composed of the ground and excited hyperfine clock levels, and this mechanism limits the clock accuracy.

  17. Fidelity imaging for atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosal, Sayan Salapaka, Murti

    2015-01-05

    Atomic force microscopy is widely employed for imaging material at the nanoscale. However, real-time measures on image reliability are lacking in contemporary atomic force microscopy literature. In this article, we present a real-time technique that provides an image of fidelity for a high bandwidth dynamic mode imaging scheme. The fidelity images define channels that allow the user to have additional authority over the choice of decision threshold that facilitates where the emphasis is desired, on discovering most true features on the sample with the possible detection of high number of false features, or emphasizing minimizing instances of false detections. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of fidelity imaging.

  18. Isolating and moving single atoms using silicon nanocrystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2010-09-07

    A method is disclosed for isolating single atoms of an atomic species of interest by locating the atoms within silicon nanocrystals. This can be done by implanting, on the average, a single atom of the atomic species of interest into each nanocrystal, and then measuring an electrical charge distribution on the nanocrystals with scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) or electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) to identify and select those nanocrystals having exactly one atom of the atomic species of interest therein. The nanocrystals with the single atom of the atomic species of interest therein can be sorted and moved using an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip. The method is useful for forming nanoscale electronic and optical devices including quantum computers and single-photon light sources.

  19. Atomic-level imaging, processing and characterization of semiconductor surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kazmerski, Lawrence L.

    1995-01-01

    A method for selecting and removing single specific atoms from a solid material surface uses photon biasing to break down bonds that hold the selected atom in the lattice and to reduce barrier effects that hold the atom from transferring to a probe. The photon bias is preferably light or other electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength and frequency that approximately matches the wave function of the target atom species to be removed to induce high energy, selective thermionic-like vibration. An electric field potential is then applied between the probe and the surface of the solid material to pull the atom out of the lattice and to transfer the atom to the probe. Different extrinsic atoms can be installed in the lattice sites that are vacated by the removed atoms by using a photon bias that resonates the extrinsic atom species, reversing polarity of the electric field, and blowing gas comprising the extrinsic atoms through a hollow catheter probe.

  20. Atomic-level imaging, processing and characterization of semiconductor surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kazmerski, L.L.

    1995-08-22

    A method for selecting and removing single specific atoms from a solid material surface uses photon biasing to break down bonds that hold the selected atom in the lattice and to reduce barrier effects that hold the atom from transferring to a probe. The photon bias is preferably light or other electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength and frequency that approximately matches the wave function of the target atom species to be removed to induce high energy, selective thermionic-like vibration. An electric field potential is then applied between the probe and the surface of the solid material to pull the atom out of the lattice and to transfer the atom to the probe. Different extrinsic atoms can be installed in the lattice sites that are vacated by the removed atoms by using a photon bias that resonates the extrinsic atom species, reversing polarity of the electric field, and blowing gas comprising the extrinsic atoms through a hollow catheter probe. 8 figs.

  1. Valvular Abnormalities Detected by Echocardiography in 5-Year Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pal, Helena J. van der; Caron, Huib N.; Kremer, Leontien C.; Dalen, Elvira C. van

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of valvular abnormalities after radiation therapy involving the heart region and/or treatment with anthracyclines and to identify associated risk factors in a large cohort of 5-year childhood cancer survivors (CCS). Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of all 626 eligible 5-year CCS diagnosed with childhood cancer in the Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center between 1966 and 1996 and treated with radiation therapy involving the heart region and/or anthracyclines. We determined the presence of valvular abnormalities according to echocardiograms. Physical radiation dose was converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). Using multivariable logistic regression analyses, we examined the associations between cancer treatment and valvular abnormalities. Results: We identified 225 mainly mild echocardiographic valvular abnormalities in 169 of 545 CCS (31%) with a cardiac assessment (median follow-up time, 14.9 years [range, 5.1-36.8 years]; median attained age 22.0 years [range, 7.0-49.7 years]). Twenty-four CCS (4.4%) had 31 moderate or higher-graded abnormalities. Most common abnormalities were tricuspid valve disorders (n=119; 21.8%) and mitral valve disorders (n=73; 13.4%). The risk of valvular abnormalities was associated with increasing radiation dose (using EQD{sub 2}) involving the heart region (odds ratio 1.33 per 10 Gy) and the presence of congenital heart disease (odds ratio 3.43). We found no statistically significant evidence that anthracyclines increase the risk. Conclusions: Almost one-third of CCS treated with potentially cardiotoxic therapy had 1 or more asymptomatic, mostly mild valvular abnormalities after a median follow-up of nearly 15 years. The most important risk factors are higher EQD{sub 2} to the heart region and congenital heart disease. Studies with longer follow-up are necessary to investigate the clinical course of asymptomatic valvular abnormalities in

  2. Atomic physics with highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard, P.

    1991-08-01

    This report discusses: One electron outer shell processes in fast ion-atom collisions; role of electron-electron interaction in two-electron processes; multi-electron processes at low energy; multi-electron processes at high energy; inner shell processes; molecular fragmentation studies; theory; and, JRM laboratory operations.

  3. Quantum measurements of atoms using cavity QED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dada, Adetunmise C.; Andersson, Erika [SUPA, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Jones, Martin L.; Kendon, Vivien M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Everitt, Mark S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); National Institute of Informatics, 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda ku, Tokyo 101-8430 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Generalized quantum measurements are an important extension of projective or von Neumann measurements in that they can be used to describe any measurement that can be implemented on a quantum system. We describe how to realize two nonstandard quantum measurements using cavity QED. The first measurement optimally and unambiguously distinguishes between two nonorthogonal quantum states. The second example is a measurement that demonstrates superadditive quantum coding gain. The experimental tools used are single-atom unitary operations effected by Ramsey pulses and two-atom Tavis-Cummings interactions. We show how the superadditive quantum coding gain is affected by errors in the field-ionization detection of atoms and that even with rather high levels of experimental imperfections, a reasonable amount of superadditivity can still be seen. To date, these types of measurements have been realized only on photons. It would be of great interest to have realizations using other physical systems. This is for fundamental reasons but also since quantum coding gain in general increases with code word length, and a realization using atoms could be more easily scaled than existing realizations using photons.

  4. Nano-soldering to single atomic layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Girit, Caglar O.; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2011-10-11

    A simple technique to solder submicron sized, ohmic contacts to nanostructures has been disclosed. The technique has several advantages over standard electron beam lithography methods, which are complex, costly, and can contaminate samples. To demonstrate the soldering technique graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon, has been contacted, and low- and high-field electronic transport properties have been measured.

  5. Theory of multiphoton ionization of atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szoeke, A.

    1986-03-01

    A non-perturbative approach to the theory of multiphoton ionization is reviewed. Adiabatic Floquet theory is its first approximation. It explains qualitatively the energy and angular distribution of photoelectrons. In many-electron atoms it predicts collective and inner shell excitation. 14 refs.

  6. Mobility of atoms under ion bombardment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alekseevskii, V.; Gertsriken, D.; Kovtun, V.; Tyshkevich, V.; Fal'chenko, V.

    1981-10-01

    Argon ions bombardment (Eapprox.1KeV) of Armco iron in a cold glow discharge plasma (T< or approx. =150/sup 0/C) has been performed to investigate the mobility and behavior of the atoms in the crystal lattice and the formation of a solid solution of Argon in iron.(AIP)

  7. Atomic power in space: A history

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    ''Atomic Power in Space,'' a history of the Space Isotope Power Program of the United States, covers the period from the program's inception in the mid-1950s through 1982. Written in non-technical language, the history is addressed to both the general public and those more specialized in nuclear and space technologies. 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Molecular Beam Studies of Hot Atom Chemical Reactions: Reactive Scattering of Energetic Deuterium Atoms

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Continetti, R. E.; Balko, B. A.; Lee, Y. T.

    1989-02-01

    A brief review of the application of the crossed molecular beams technique to the study of hot atom chemical reactions in the last twenty years is given. Specific emphasis is placed on recent advances in the use of photolytically produced energetic deuterium atoms in the study of the fundamental elementary reactions D + H{sub 2} -> DH + H and the substitution reaction D + C{sub 2}H{sub 2} -> C{sub 2}HD + H. Recent advances in uv laser and pulsed molecular beam techniques have made the detailed study of hydrogen atom reactions under single collision conditions possible.

  9. The atomization of water-oil emulsions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broniarz-Press, L.; Ochowiak, M.; Rozanski, J.; Woziwodzki, S.

    2009-09-15

    The paper presents the results of experimental studies on atomization of the emulsions flowing through twin-fluid atomizers obtained by the use of the digital microphotography method. The main elements of the test installation were: nozzle, reservoir, pump and measurement units of liquid flow. The photographs were taken by a digital camera with automatic flash at exposure time of 1/8000 s and subsequently analyzed using Image Pro-Plus. The oils used were mineral oils 20-90, 20-70, 20-50 and 20-30. The studies were performed at flow rates of liquid phase changed from 0.0014 to 0.011 (dm{sup 3}/s) and gas phase changed from 0.28 to 1.4 (dm{sup 3}/s), respectively. The analysis of photos shows that the droplets being formed during the liquid atomization have very different sizes. The smallest droplets have diameters of the order of 10 {mu}m. The experimental results showed that the changes in physical properties of a liquid phase lead to the significant changes in the spray characteristics. The analysis of the photos of water and emulsions atomization process showed that the droplet sizes are dependent on gas and liquid flow rates, construction of nozzle and properties of liquid. The differences between characteristics of atomization for water and emulsions have been observed. Analysis of photos on forming the droplets in air-water and air-emulsions systems showed that droplets are bigger in air-emulsion system (at the same value of gas to liquid mass ratio). The values of Sauter mean diameter (SMD) increased with increase of volume fraction of oil in emulsion. The droplet size increased with emulsion viscosity. (author)

  10. High data-rate atom interferometers through high recapture efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biedermann, Grant; Rakholia, Akash Vrijal; McGuinness, Hayden

    2015-01-27

    An inertial sensing system includes a magneto-optical trap (MOT) that traps atoms within a specified trapping region. The system also includes a cooling laser that cools the trapped atoms so that the atoms remain within the specified region for a specified amount of time. The system further includes a light-pulse atom interferometer (LPAI) that performs an interferometric interrogation of the atoms to determine phase changes in the atoms. The system includes a controller that controls the timing of MOT and cooling laser operations, and controls the timing of interferometric operations to substantially recapture the atoms in the specified trapping region. The system includes a processor that determines the amount inertial movement of the inertial sensing system based on the determined phase changes in the atoms. Also, a method of inertial sensing using this inertial sensing system includes recapture of atoms within the MOT following interferometric interrogation by the LPAI.