National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for atom trap trace

  1. Isotopic abundance in atom trap trace analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Zheng-Tian; Hu, Shiu-Ming; Jiang, Wei; Mueller, Peter

    2014-03-18

    A method and system for detecting ratios and amounts of isotopes of noble gases. The method and system is constructed to be able to measure noble gas isotopes in water and ice, which helps reveal the geological age of the samples and understand their movements. The method and system uses a combination of a cooled discharge source, a beam collimator, a beam slower and magneto-optic trap with a laser to apply resonance frequency energy to the noble gas to be quenched and detected.

  2. An atom trap trace analysis system for measuring krypton contamination in xenon dark matter detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zelevinsky, Tanya

    An atom trap trace analysis system for measuring krypton contamination in xenon dark matter contamination in xenon dark matter detectors E. Aprile, T. Yoon,a) A. Loose, L. W. Goetzke, and T. Zelevinsky have similar laser cooling wavelengths, the apparatus has been tested with Ar to avoid contamination

  3. An atom trap trace analysis (ATTA) system for measuring ultra-low contamination by krypton in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zelevinsky, Tanya

    An atom trap trace analysis (ATTA) system for measuring ultra-low contamination by krypton in xenon ultra-low contamination by krypton in xenon dark matter detectors Tae Hyun Yoon The XENON dark matter of the experiment. In order to achieve the desired sensitivity, the contamination by krypton is reduced to the part

  4. Atom Trap Trace Analysis at ANL | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLosThe 26thIWalter H.4OfficeArizona Regions NationalAtom Trap Trace

  5. {sup 39}Ar Detection at the 10{sup -16} Isotopic Abundance Level with Atom Trap Trace Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, W.; Williams, W.; Bailey, K.; O'Connor, T. P.; Mueller, P.; Davis, A. M.; Hu, S.-M.; Sun, Y. R.; Lu, Z.-T.; Purtschert, R.; Sturchio, N. C.

    2011-03-11

    Atom trap trace analysis, a laser-based atom counting method, has been applied to analyze atmospheric {sup 39}Ar (half-life=269 yr), a cosmogenic isotope with an isotopic abundance of 8x10{sup -16}. In addition to the superior selectivity demonstrated in this work, the counting rate and efficiency of atom trap trace analysis have been improved by 2 orders of magnitude over prior results. The significant applications of this new analytical capability lie in radioisotope dating of ice and water samples and in the development of dark matter detectors.

  6. Interaction of trapped ions with trapped atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, Andrew T. (Andrew Todd)

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, I present results from two Paul-trap based ion traps carried out in the Vuleti? laboratory: the Atom-Ion trap for collision studies between cold atoms and cold ions, and the Cavity-Array trap for studying ...

  7. LASER COOLING AND TRAPPING OF NEUTRAL ATOMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orozco, Luis A.

    LASER COOLING AND TRAPPING OF NEUTRAL ATOMS Luis A. Orozco Department of Physics and Astronomy. Laser cooling and trapping is now an important tool for many spectroscopic studies. It enhances, 4]. In these notes I treat only very general aspects of laser cooling and trapping without

  8. Atom-Probe Tomographic Measurement of Trapped Hydrogen Isotopes...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Atom-Probe Tomographic Measurement of Trapped Hydrogen Isotopes Atom-Probe Tomographic Measurement of Trapped Hydrogen Isotopes Presentation from the 34th Tritium Focus Group...

  9. Enhanced Magnetic Trap Loading for Atomic Strontium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barker, D S; Pisenti, N C; Campbell, G K

    2015-01-01

    We report on a technique to improve the continuous loading of atomic strontium into a magnetic trap from a Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT). This is achieved by adding a depumping laser tuned to the 3P1 to 3S1 (688-nm) transition. The depumping laser increases atom number in the magnetic trap and subsequent cooling stages by up to 65 % for the bosonic isotopes and up to 30 % for the fermionic isotope of strontium. We optimize this trap loading strategy with respect to the 688-nm laser detuning, intensity, and beam size. To understand the results, we develop a one-dimensional rate equation model of the system, which is in good agreement with the data. We discuss the use of other transitions in strontium for accelerated trap loading and the application of the technique to other alkaline-earth-like atoms.

  10. Two dipolar atoms in a harmonic trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O?dziejewski, Rafa?; Rz??ewski, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Two identical dipolar atoms moving in a harmonic trap without an external magnetic field are investigated. Using the algebra of angular momentum a semi - analytical solutions are found. We show that the internal spin - spin interactions between the atoms couple to the orbital angular momentum causing an analogue of Einstein - de Haas effect. We show a possibility of adiabatically pumping our system from the s-wave to the d-wave relative motion. The effective spin-orbit coupling occurs at anti-crossings of the energy levels.

  11. Cooling trapped atoms in optical resonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefano Zippilli; Giovanna Morigi

    2007-03-20

    We derive an equation for the cooling dynamics of the quantum motion of an atom trapped by an external potential inside an optical resonator. This equation has broad validity and allows us to identify novel regimes where the motion can be efficiently cooled to the potential ground state. Our result shows that the motion is critically affected by quantum correlations induced by the mechanical coupling with the resonator, which may lead to selective suppression of certain transitions for the appropriate parameters regimes, thereby increasing the cooling efficiency.

  12. Cooling and Trapping Atoms Atoms are slowed and cooled by radiation pressure from laser light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johannesson, Henrik

    Cooling and Trapping Atoms Atoms are slowed and cooled by radiation pressure from laser light and then trapped in a bottle whose "walls" are magnetic fields. Cooled atoms are ideal for exploring basic. Atoms can now be cooled by shining laser light directly on them. The radiation pres sure exerted

  13. Radiation trapping in a cold atomic gas Guillaume Labeyrie,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    field of study deals with the transport of near resonant light in such media. Using cold atoms, one can at the end of the 20th century that studies of light transport in optically thick clouds of cold atomsRadiation trapping in a cold atomic gas Guillaume Labeyrie,1 Robin Kaiser,1, and Dominique Delande

  14. Superradiance for atoms trapped along a photonic crystal waveguide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goban, A; Hood, J D; Yu, S -P; Muniz, J A; Painter, O; Kimble, H J

    2015-01-01

    We report observations of superradiance for atoms trapped in the near field of a photonic crystal waveguide (PCW). By fabricating the PCW with a band edge near the D$_1$ transition of atomic cesium, strong interaction is achieved between trapped atoms and guided-mode photons. Following short-pulse excitation, we record the decay of guided-mode emission and find a superradiant emission rate scaling as $\\bar{\\Gamma}_{\\rm SR}\\propto\\bar{N}\\cdot\\Gamma_{\\rm 1D}$ for average atom number $0.19 \\lesssim \\bar{N} \\lesssim 2.6$ atoms, where $\\Gamma_{\\rm 1D}/\\Gamma_0 =1.1\\pm0.1$ is the peak single-atom radiative decay rate into the PCW guided mode and $\\Gamma_{0}$ is the Einstein-$A$ coefficient for free space. These advances provide new tools for investigations of photon-mediated atom-atom interactions in the many-body regime.

  15. Carrier-free Raman manipulation of trapped neutral atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    René Reimann; Wolfgang Alt; Tobias Macha; Dieter Meschede; Natalie Thau; Seokchan Yoon; Lothar Ratschbacher

    2014-12-02

    We experimentally realize an enhanced Raman control scheme for neutral atoms that features an intrinsic suppression of the two-photon carrier transition, but retains the sidebands which couple to the external degrees of freedom of the trapped atoms. This is achieved by trapping the atom at the node of a blue detuned standing wave dipole trap, that acts as one field for the two-photon Raman coupling. The improved ratio between cooling and heating processes in this configuration enables a five times lower fundamental temperature limit for resolved sideband cooling. We apply this method to perform Raman cooling to the two-dimensional vibrational ground state and to coherently manipulate the atomic motion. The presented scheme requires minimal additional resources and can be applied to experiments with challenging optical access, as we demonstrate by our implementation for atoms strongly coupled to an optical cavity.

  16. Energy Efficient Steam Trapping of Trace Heating Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krueger, R. G.; Wilt, G. W.

    1981-01-01

    required to achieve economic tracer lengths; 3. Maximum allowable trapping distance for specific applications 4.Data important to determine condensate loads; 5. Trap selection, sizing, good installation practices, and proper maintenance. Using...

  17. Bichromatic State-insensitive Trapping of Caesium Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metbulut, M M

    2015-01-01

    State-insensitive dipole trapping of multilevel atoms can be achieved by an appropriate choice of the wavelength of the trapping laser, so that the interaction with the different transitions results in equal AC Stark shifts for the ground and excited states of interest. However this approach is severely limited by the availability of coherent sources at the required wavelength and of appropriate power. This work investigates state-insensitive trapping of caesium atoms for which the required wavelength of 935.6 nm is inconvenient in terms of experimental realization. Bichromatic state-insensitive trapping is proposed to overcome the lack of suitable laser sources. We first consider pairs of laser wavelengths in the ratio 1:2 and 1:3, as obtained via second- and third- harmonic generation. We found that the wavelength combinations 931.8-1863.6 nm and 927.5-2782.5 nm are suitable for state-insensitive trapping of caesium atoms. In addition, we examine bichromatic state-insensitive trapping produced by pairs of l...

  18. Coherence properties of nanofiber-trapped cesium atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reitz, D; Mitsch, R; Schneeweiss, P; Rauschenbeutel, A

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally study the ground state coherence properties of cesium atoms in a nanofiber-based two-color dipole trap, localized 200 nm away from the fiber surface. Using microwave radiation to coherently drive the clock transition, we record Ramsey fringes as well as spin echo signals and infer a reversible dephasing time $T_2^\\ast=0.6$ ms and an irreversible dephasing time $T_2^\\prime=3.7$ ms. By theoretically modelling the signals, we find that, for our experimental parameters, $T_2^\\ast$ and $T_2^\\prime$ are limited by the finite initial temperature of the atomic ensemble and the heating rate, respectively. Our results represent a fundamental step towards establishing nanofiber-based traps for cold atoms as a building block in an optical fiber quantum network.

  19. Coherence properties of nanofiber-trapped cesium atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Reitz; C. Sayrin; R. Mitsch; P. Schneeweiss; A. Rauschenbeutel

    2013-03-28

    We experimentally study the ground state coherence properties of cesium atoms in a nanofiber-based two-color dipole trap, localized 200 nm away from the fiber surface. Using microwave radiation to coherently drive the clock transition, we record Ramsey fringes as well as spin echo signals and infer a reversible dephasing time $T_2^\\ast=0.6$ ms and an irreversible dephasing time $T_2^\\prime=3.7$ ms. By theoretically modelling the signals, we find that, for our experimental parameters, $T_2^\\ast$ and $T_2^\\prime$ are limited by the finite initial temperature of the atomic ensemble and the heating rate, respectively. Our results represent a fundamental step towards establishing nanofiber-based traps for cold atoms as a building block in an optical fiber quantum network.

  20. Motion of guiding center drift atoms in the electric and magnetic field of a Penning trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Motion of guiding center drift atoms in the electric and magnetic field of a Penning trap S. G discusses the motion of the weakly bound atoms in the electric and magnetic field of the plasma and trap in the magnetic and electric field of the trap. Because the binding is so weak, even a modest electric field

  1. Cold and dense clouds of atoms in a Holographic Atom Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Thad G.

    for the encouragement and support he has provided throughout my graduate career. Since my arrival in Madison I have all invested their time in teaching me the nuts and bolts of atom trapping. Ian Nelson and Bien Chann members of the group, Earl Babcock, Erich Urban, and Jason Day have all provided support and companionship

  2. Simultaneous magneto-optical trapping of bosonic and fermionic chromium atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chicireanu, R.; Pouderous, A.; Barbe, R.; Laburthe-Tolra, B.; Marechal, E.; Vernac, L.; Keller, J.-C.; Gorceix, O.

    2006-05-15

    We report on magneto-optical trapping of fermionic {sup 53}Cr atoms. A Zeeman-slowed atomic beam provides loading rates up to 3x10{sup 6} s{sup -1}. We present systematic characterization of the magneto-optical trap (MOT). We obtain up to 5x10{sup 5} atoms in the steady-state MOT. The atoms radiatively decay from the excited P state into metastable D states, and, due to the large dipolar magnetic moment of chromium atoms in these states, they can remain magnetically trapped in the quadrupole field gradient of the MOT. We study the accumulation of metastable {sup 53}Cr atoms in this magnetic trap. We also report on the simultaneous magneto-optical trapping of bosonic {sup 52}Cr and fermionic {sup 53}Cr atoms. Finally, we characterize the light-assisted collision losses in this Bose-Fermi cold mixture.

  3. Observation of cooperatively enhanced atomic dipole forces from NV centers in optically trapped nanodiamonds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juan, M L; Besga, B; Brennen, G; Molina-Terriza, G; Volz, T

    2015-01-01

    Since the early work by Ashkin in 1970, optical trapping has become one of the most powerful tools for manipulating small particles, such as micron sized beads or single atoms. The optical trapping mechanism is based on the interaction energy of a dipole and the electric field of the laser light. In atom trapping, the dominant contribution typically comes from the allowed optical transition closest to the laser wavelength, whereas for mesoscopic particles it is given by the bulk polarizability of the material. These two different regimes of optical trapping have coexisted for decades without any direct link, resulting in two very different contexts of applications: one being the trapping of small objects mainly in biological settings, the other one being dipole traps for individual neutral atoms in the field of quantum optics. Here we show that for nanoscale diamond crystals containing artificial atoms, so-called nitrogen vacancy (NV) color centers, both regimes of optical trapping can be observed at the same...

  4. ADVANCED GASIFICATION MERCURY/TRACE METAL CONTROL WITH MONOLITH TRAPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark A. Musich; Michael L. Swanson; Grant E. Dunham; Joshua J. Stanislowski

    2010-07-31

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-?g/m3 (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-?g/m3 (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most effective arsine and hydrogen selenide sorbents. The noncarbon sorbent was able to reduce the concentration to 0 ppb from a starting concentration of 120 ppb. This compares to the target value of 5 ppb (~17?g/m3). The EERC-prepared metal-based pellet and coprecipitate sorbents exhibited arsine reductions of 90% or greater, being below 10 ppb. Corning SR Liquid monoliths exhibited brief periods (<1 hour) of attaining 90% arsine reduction but were able to achieve greater than 80% reduction for several hours. With respect to hydrogen selenide, all Group IB and IIB metal-based sorbents tested exhibited 100% reduction from an inlet concentration of approximately 400 ppb. Corning SR Liquid monoliths exhibited an 82% reduction when two monoliths were tested simultaneously in series.

  5. Heating of trapped ultracold atoms by collapse dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franck Laloë; William J. Mullin; Philip Pearle

    2014-11-12

    {The Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) theory alters the Schr\\"odinger equation. It describes wave function collapse as a dynamical process instead of an ill-defined postulate, thereby providing macroscopic uniqueness and solving the so-called measurement problem of standard quantum theory. CSL contains a parameter $\\lambda$ giving the collapse rate of an isolated nucleon in a superposition of two spatially separated states and, more generally, characterizing the collapse time for any physical situation. CSL is experimentally testable, since it predicts some behavior different from that predicted by standard quantum theory. One example is the narrowing of wave functions, which results in energy imparted to particles. Here we consider energy given to trapped ultra-cold atoms. Since these are the coldest samples under experimental investigation, it is worth inquiring how they are affected by the CSL heating mechanism. We examine the CSL heating of a BEC in contact with its thermal cloud. Of course, other mechanisms also provide heat and also particle loss. From varied data on optically trapped cesium BEC's, we present an energy audit for known heating and loss mechanisms. The result provides an upper limit on CSL heating and thereby an upper limit on the parameter $\\lambda$. We obtain $\\lambda\\lesssim 1(\\pm1)\\times 10^{-7}$sec$^{-1}$.}

  6. Observation of cooperatively enhanced atomic dipole forces from NV centers in optically trapped nanodiamonds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. L. Juan; C. Bradac; B. Besga; G. Brennen; G. Molina-Terriza; T. Volz

    2015-11-15

    Since the early work by Ashkin in 1970, optical trapping has become one of the most powerful tools for manipulating small particles, such as micron sized beads or single atoms. The optical trapping mechanism is based on the interaction energy of a dipole and the electric field of the laser light. In atom trapping, the dominant contribution typically comes from the allowed optical transition closest to the laser wavelength, whereas for mesoscopic particles it is given by the bulk polarizability of the material. These two different regimes of optical trapping have coexisted for decades without any direct link, resulting in two very different contexts of applications: one being the trapping of small objects mainly in biological settings, the other one being dipole traps for individual neutral atoms in the field of quantum optics. Here we show that for nanoscale diamond crystals containing artificial atoms, so-called nitrogen vacancy (NV) color centers, both regimes of optical trapping can be observed at the same time even in a noisy liquid environment. For wavelengths in the vicinity of the zero-phonon line transition of the color centers, we observe a significant modification ($10\\%$) of the overall trapping strength. Most remarkably, our experimental findings suggest that owing to the large number of artificial atoms, collective effects greatly contribute to the observed trapping strength modification. Our approach adds the powerful atomic-physics toolbox to the field of nano-manipulation.

  7. Photo-detection using Bose-condensed atoms in a micro trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Wallentowitz; A. B. Klimov

    2008-07-05

    A model of photo-detection using a Bose--Einstein condensate in an atom-chip based micro trap is analyzed. Atoms absorb photons from the incident light field, receive part of the photon momentum and leave the trap potential. Upon counting of escaped atoms within predetermined time intervals, the photon statistics of the incident light is mapped onto the atom-count statistics. Whereas traditional photo-detection theory treats the emission centers of photo electrons as distinguishable, here the centers of escaping atoms are condensed and thus indistinguishable atoms. From this an enhancement of the photon-number resolution as compared to the commonly known counting formula is derived.

  8. Resonant interaction of trapped cold atoms with a magnetic cantilever tip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montoya, Cris; Geraci, Andrew A; Eardley, Matthew; Moreland, John; Hollberg, Leo; Kitching, John

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance in an ensemble of laser-cooled trapped Rb atoms is excited using a micro- cantilever with a magnetic tip. The cantilever is mounted on a multi-layer chip designed to capture, cool, and magnetically transport cold atoms. The coupling is observed by measuring the loss from a magnetic trap as the oscillating cantilever induces Zeeman state transitions in the atoms. Interfacing cold atoms with mechanical devices could enable probing and manipulating atomic spins with nanometer spatial resolution and single-spin sensitivity, leading to new capabilities in quantum computation, quantum simulation, or precision sensing.

  9. Resonant interaction of trapped cold atoms with a magnetic cantilever tip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cris Montoya; Jose Valencia; Andrew A. Geraci; Matthew Eardley; John Moreland; Leo Hollberg; John Kitching

    2015-03-26

    Magnetic resonance in an ensemble of laser-cooled trapped Rb atoms is excited using a micro- cantilever with a magnetic tip. The cantilever is mounted on a multi-layer chip designed to capture, cool, and magnetically transport cold atoms. The coupling is observed by measuring the loss from a magnetic trap as the oscillating cantilever induces Zeeman state transitions in the atoms. Interfacing cold atoms with mechanical devices could enable probing and manipulating atomic spins with nanometer spatial resolution and single-spin sensitivity, leading to new capabilities in quantum computation, quantum simulation, or precision sensing.

  10. Cooling the motion of a trapped atom with a cavity field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc Bienert; Giovanna Morigi

    2012-11-07

    We theoretically analyze the cooling dynamics of an atom which is tightly trapped inside a high-finesse optical resonator. Cooling is achieved by suitably tailored scattering processes, in which the atomic dipole transition either scatters a cavity photon into the electromagnetic field external to the resonator, or performs a stimulated emission into the cavity mode, which then dissipates via the cavity mirrors. We identify the parameter regimes in which the atom center-of-mass motion can be cooled into the ground state of the external trap. We predict, in particular, that for high cooperativities interference effects mediated by the atomic transition may lead to higher efficiencies. The dynamics is compared with the cooling dynamics of a trapped atom inside a resonator studied in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 143001, (2005)] where the atom, instead of the cavity, is driven by a laser field.

  11. Luther-Emery Phase and Atomic-Density Waves in a Trapped Fermion Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao Xianlong; Rizzi, M.; Polini, Marco; Tosi, M. P.; Fazio, Rosario; Campo, V. L. Jr.; Capelle, K.

    2007-01-19

    The Luther-Emery liquid is a state of matter that is predicted to occur in one-dimensional systems of interacting fermions and is characterized by a gapless charge spectrum and a gapped spin spectrum. In this Letter we discuss a realization of the Luther-Emery phase in a trapped cold-atom gas. We study by means of the density-matrix renormalization-group technique a two-component atomic Fermi gas with attractive interactions subject to parabolic trapping inside an optical lattice. We demonstrate how this system exhibits compound phases characterized by the coexistence of spin pairing and atomic-density waves. A smooth crossover occurs with increasing magnitude of the atom-atom attraction to a state in which tightly bound spin-singlet dimers occupy the center of the trap. The existence of atomic-density waves could be detected in the elastic contribution to the light-scattering diffraction pattern.

  12. 3D modeling of magnetic atom traps on type-II superconductor chips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prigozhin, Leonid

    of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK E-mail: sokolovv@bgu.ac.il, leonid September 2014 Published 12 November 2014 Abstract Magnetic traps for cold atoms have become a powerful tool depth, shape, distance from the chip surface, etc) that are necessary when designing magnetic traps

  13. Cavity-mediated collective laser-cooling of an atomic gas inside an asymmetric trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg Kim; Almut Beige

    2015-06-09

    This paper proposes a two-stage process for the collective cooling of a non-interacting atomic gas in a slightly anharmonic, asymmetric trap inside a relatively leaky optical cavity. During the first stage, the displacement stage, the atoms accumulate a small distance away from the trap centre. During the second stage, the cooling stage, a short laser pulse is applied which translates the initial displacement of the particles into a reduction of their vibrational energy with a collectively enhanced cooling rate. If this is followed by another displacement stage and both stages of the proposed cooling process are continuously repeated, the atomic gas is expected to reach a very low temperature.

  14. High Contrast Ramsey Fringes with Coherent-Population-Trapping Pulses in a Double Lambda Atomic System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zanon, T.; Guerandel, S.; Clercq, E. de; Holleville, D.; Dimarcq, N.; Clairon, A. [SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)

    2005-05-20

    We report the observation of Raman-Ramsey fringes using a double lambda scheme creating coherent population trapping in an atomic ensemble combined with pulsed optical radiations. The observation was made in a Cs vapor mixed with N{sub 2} buffer gas in a closed cell. The double lambda scheme is created with lin perpendicular lin polarized laser beams leading to higher contrast than the usual simple lambda scheme. The pulsed trapping technique leads to narrow fringe widths scaling as 1/(2T) with high contrasts which are no longer limited by the saturation effect. This technique operates in a different way from the classical Ramsey sequence: the signal is done by applying a long trapping pulse to prepare the atomic state superposition, and fringe detection is accomplished by optical transmission during a short second trapping pulse without any perturbation of the dark state.

  15. Theoretical investigation of energy-trapping mechanism by atomic systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Rajendra P.

    1978-06-01

    The theoretical results are presented here in detail for the atomic device proposed earlier by the author. This device absorbs energy from a continuous radiation source and stores some of it with atoms in metastable states for a long time without...

  16. Fast transitionless expansions of Gaussian anharmonic traps for cold atoms: bang-singular-bang control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao-Jing Lu; Xi Chen; J. Alonso; J. G. Muga

    2014-01-07

    Combining invariant-based inverse engineering, perturbation theory, and Optimal Control Theory, we design fast, transitionless expansions of cold neutral atoms or ions in Gaussian anharmonic traps. Bounding the possible trap frequencies and using a "bang-singular-bang" control we find fast processes for a continuum of durations up to a minimum time that corresponds to a purely bang-bang (stepwise frequency constant) control.

  17. Velocity tuning of friction with two trapped atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gangloff, Dorian; Counts, Ian; Jhe, Wonho; Vuleti?, Vladan

    2015-01-01

    Friction is the basic, ubiquitous mechanical interaction between two surfaces that results in resistance to motion and energy dissipation. In spite of its technological and economic significance, our ability to control friction remains modest, and our understanding of the microscopic processes incomplete. At the atomic scale, mismatch between the two contacting crystal lattices can lead to a reduction of stick-slip friction (structural lubricity), while thermally activated atomic motion can give rise to a complex velocity dependence, and nearly vanishing friction at sufficiently low velocities (thermal lubricity). Atomic force microscopy has provided a wealth of experimental results, but limitations in the dynamic range, time resolution, and control at the single-atom level have hampered a full quantitative description from first principles. Here, using an ion-crystal friction emulator with single-atom, single substrate-site spatial resolution and single-slip temporal resolution, we measure the friction force...

  18. Nanowire atomchip traps for sub-micron atom-surface distances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salem, R; Chabé, J; Hadad, B; Keil, M; Milton, K A; Folman, R

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of magnetic traps for ultracold atoms based on current-carrying wires with sub-micron dimensions. We analyze the physical limitations of these conducting wires, as well as how such miniaturized magnetic traps are affected by the nearby surface due to tunneling to the surface, surface thermal noise, electron scattering within the wire, and the Casimir-Polder force. We show that wires with cross sections as small as a few tens of nanometers should enable robust operating conditions for coherent atom optics (e.g. tunneling barriers for interferometry). In particular, trap sizes on the order of the deBroglie wavelength become accessible, based solely on static magnetic fields, thereby bringing the atomchip a step closer to fulfilling its promise of a compact device for complex and accurate quantum optics with ultracold atoms.

  19. Nanowire atomchip traps for sub-micron atom-surface distances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Salem; Y. Japha; J. Chabé; B. Hadad; M. Keil; K. A. Milton; R. Folman

    2009-10-14

    We present an analysis of magnetic traps for ultracold atoms based on current-carrying wires with sub-micron dimensions. We analyze the physical limitations of these conducting wires, as well as how such miniaturized magnetic traps are affected by the nearby surface due to tunneling to the surface, surface thermal noise, electron scattering within the wire, and the Casimir-Polder force. We show that wires with cross sections as small as a few tens of nanometers should enable robust operating conditions for coherent atom optics (e.g. tunneling barriers for interferometry). In particular, trap sizes on the order of the deBroglie wavelength become accessible, based solely on static magnetic fields, thereby bringing the atomchip a step closer to fulfilling its promise of a compact device for complex and accurate quantum optics with ultracold atoms.

  20. Nanowire photonic crystal waveguides for single-atom trapping and strong light-matter interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, S.-P.; Hood, J. D.; Muniz, J. A.; Martin, M. J.; Hung, C.-L.; Kimble, H. J.; Norte, Richard; Meenehan, Seán M.; Cohen, Justin D.; Painter, Oskar

    2014-03-17

    We present a comprehensive study of dispersion-engineered nanowire photonic crystal waveguides suitable for experiments in quantum optics and atomic physics with optically trapped atoms. Detailed design methodology and specifications are provided, as are the processing steps used to create silicon nitride waveguides of low optical loss in the near-IR. Measurements of the waveguide optical properties and power-handling capability are also presented.

  1. Trapping and Manipulation of Isolated Atoms Using Nanoscale Plasmonic Structures D. E. Chang,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Eric

    - and nanopho- tonic structures [8­10] [see Fig. 1(a)]. Alternatively, hybrid quantum systems consisting, heating and decoherence rates acting on the trapped atom. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.123004 PACS numbers: 37.10.Gh, 42.50.Àp, 73.20.Mf, 78.67.Bf Much interest has recently been directed towards hybrid

  2. Two Cold Atoms in a Time-Dependent Harmonic Trap in One Dimension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ebert, M; Hammer, H -W

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of two atoms with a short-ranged pair interaction in a one-dimensional harmonic trap with time-dependent frequency. Our analysis is focused on two representative cases: (i) a sudden change of the trapping frequency from one value to another, and (ii) a periodic trapping frequency. In case (i), the dynamics of the interacting and the corresponding non-interacting systems turn out to be similar. In the second case, however, the interacting system can behave quite differently, especially close to parametric resonance. For instance, in the regions where such resonance occurs we find that the interaction can significantly reduce the rate of energy increase. The implications for applications of our findings to cool or heat the system are also dicussed.

  3. Preparation of a high concentration of lithium-7 atoms in a magneto-optical trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelener, B. B., E-mail: bobozel@mail.ru; Saakyan, S. A.; Sautenkov, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Manykin, E. A. [National Research Nuclear University “Moscow Engineering Physics Institute,” (Russian Federation); Zelener, B. V.; Fortov, V. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    This study is aimed at obtaining high concentration of optically cooled lithium-7 atoms for preparing strongly interacting ultracold plasma and Rydberg matter. A special setup has been constructed, in which two high-power semiconductor lasers are used to cool lithium-7 atoms in a magneto-optical trap. At an optimum detuning of the cooling laser frequency and a magnetic field gradient of 35 G/cm, the concentration of ultracold lithium-7 atoms reaches about 10{sup 11} cm{sup ?3}. Additional independent information about the concentration and number of ultracold lithium-7 atoms on different sublevels of the ground state was obtained by using of an additional probing laser.

  4. Cavity cooling of a trapped atom using Electromagnetically-Induced Transparency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc Bienert; Giovanna Morigi

    2011-12-01

    A cooling scheme for trapped atoms is proposed, which combines cavity-enhanced scattering and electromagnetically induced transparency. The cooling dynamics exploits a three-photon resonance, which combines laser and cavity excitations. It is shown that relatively fast ground-state cooling can be achieved in the Lamb-Dicke regime and for large cooperativity. Efficient ground-state cooling is found for parameters of ongoing experiments.

  5. Determination of trace impurities in uranium hexafluoride using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Floyd, M.A.; Morrow, R.W.; Lazader, W.B.; Farrar, R.B.; Halouma, A.A.

    1982-06-01

    A procedure has been developed to determine 30 trace elements in high-purity uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. The analytical method consists of a liquid-liquid extraction of the uranium from the trace impurities with a tri-(2-ethyl-hexyl)-phosphate (TEHP)-hexane mixture. A computer-controlled scanning monochromator system interfaced to an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) is then used to determine the levels of 30 trace elements present in the UF/sub 6/. A single sample dissolution procedure is used for all elements investigated. This preliminary report details experimental work done to date as part of a countinuing program to determine metallic impurities in uranium by ICP.

  6. Born-Oppenheimer description of two atoms in a combined oscillator and lattice trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ole Søe Sørensen; Klaus Mølmer

    2012-06-26

    We analyze the quantum states of two atoms in a combined harmonic oscillator and periodic lattice trap in one spatial dimension. In the case of tight-binding and only nearest neighbor tunneling, the equations of motion are conveniently represented in the momentum representation. We show that in the case of strong attraction between the particles, the di?erent time scales of relative and center-of-mass motion validate a separation of the problem similar to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation applied in the description of electronic and nuclear motion in molecules.

  7. Born-Oppenheimer description of two atoms in a combined oscillator and lattice trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sørensen, Ole Søe

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the quantum states of two atoms in a combined harmonic oscillator and periodic lattice trap in one spatial dimension. In the case of tight-binding and only nearest neighbor tunneling, the equations of motion are conveniently represented in the momentum representation. We show that in the case of strong attraction between the particles, the di?erent time scales of relative and center-of-mass motion validate a separation of the problem similar to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation applied in the description of electronic and nuclear motion in molecules.

  8. Spin Self-Rephasing and Very Long Coherence Times in a Trapped Atomic Ensemble

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deutsch, C.; Reinhard, F.; Schneider, T.; Laloee, F.; Reichel, J. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, ENS, UPMC, CNRS, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Ramirez-Martinez, F.; Lacroute, C.; Rosenbusch, P. [LNE-SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, UPMC, CNRS, 61 av de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France); Fuchs, J. N.; Piechon, F. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, CNRS UMR 8502, Univ. Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2010-07-09

    We perform Ramsey spectroscopy on the ground state of ultracold {sup 87}Rb atoms magnetically trapped on a chip in the Knudsen regime. Field inhomogeneities over the sample should limit the 1/e contrast decay time to about 3 s, while decay times of 58{+-}12 s are actually observed. We explain this surprising result by a spin self-rephasing mechanism induced by the identical spin rotation effect originating from particle indistinguishability. We propose a theory of this synchronization mechanism and obtain good agreement with the experimental observations. The effect is general and may appear in other physical systems.

  9. Fast transitionless expansions of cold atoms in optical Gaussian beam traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Torrontegui; Xi Chen; M. Modugno; A. Ruschhaupt; D. Guéry-Odelin; J. G. Muga

    2011-10-31

    We study fast expansions of cold atoms in a three-dimensional Gaussian-beam optical trap. Three different methods to avoid final motional excitation are compared: inverse engineering using Lewis-Riesenfeld invariants, which provides the best overall performance, a bang-bang approach, and a fast adiabatic approach. We analyze the excitation effect of anharmonic terms, radial-longitudinal coupling, and radial-frequency mismatch. In the inverse engineering approach these perturbations can be suppressed or mitigated by increasing the laser beam waist.

  10. Semilinear response for the heating rate of cold atoms in vibrating traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Stotland; Doron Cohen; Nir Davidson

    2009-03-11

    The calculation of the heating rate of cold atoms in vibrating traps requires a theory that goes beyond the Kubo linear response formulation. If a strong "quantum chaos" assumption does not hold, the analysis of transitions shows similarities with a percolation problem in energy space. We show how the texture and the sparsity of the perturbation matrix, as determined by the geometry of the system, dictate the result. An improved sparse random matrix model is introduced: it captures the essential ingredients of the problem, and leads to a generalized variable range hopping picture.

  11. Alfvén ion-cyclotron instability in an axisymmetric trap with oblique injection of fast atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsidulko, Yu. A.; Chernoshtanov, I. S., E-mail: cherivn@ngs.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    Conditions for the onset of Alfvén ion-cyclotron instability and the spatial structure of unstable modes in an axisymmetric mirror trap with oblique injection of fast atoms are studied. It is shown that the main contribution to instability comes from the inverse population of ions in the velocity space domain into which atoms are injected. Using the distribution function of fast ions obtained by approximately solving the Fokker-Planck equation, the instability threshold in terms of ?{sub ?} is determined in the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation as a function of the geometric parameters and the parameters of injection and target plasma. It is demonstrated that the stability threshold increases substantially when the radius of the hot plasma decreases to a size comparable with the Larmor radius of fast ions. It is shown that the perturbed fields near the axis and at the plasma periphery can rotate in opposite directions, which is important for the interpretation of experimental data.

  12. Combining red- and blue-detuned optical potentials to form a Lamb-Dicke trap for a single neutral atom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiaodong He; Peng Xu; Jin Wang; Mingsheng Zhan

    2012-02-03

    We propose and demonstrate a scheme for strongly radially confining a single neutral atom in a bichromatic far-off resonance optical dipole trap(BFORT) . BFORT is composed of a blue-detuned Laguerre-Gaussian $LG^1_ 0$ beam and a red-detuned Gaussian beam. The trapping radial dimension of a single atom trapped in the Gaussian FORT can be greatly compressed by imposing a blue-detuned Laguerre-Gaussian $LG^1_ 0$ beam with moderate potential depth. By modulating the potential depth of the Gaussian FORT we observed that the resonant and parametric excitation of the oscillatory motion of a single atom in this BFORT and obtained the oscillation frequency that well fits prediction from the theoretical model. The frequency measurement shows that effective trapping dimension can be greatly sharper than that diffraction limited of microscopic objective we used. Then we show that the excess scattering rate due to imposing blue detuned light can be eliminated when single atoms is close to ground-state theoretically. So BFORT suits the purpose of acting as a Lamb-Dicke trap for further cooling a single neutral atom to motion ground-state and finding application in quantum information progressing.

  13. Asymmetric Two-dimensional Magnetic Lattices for Ultracold Atoms Trapping and Confinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Abdelrahman; P. Hannaford M. Vasiliev; K. Alameh

    2009-10-27

    A new method to implement an asymmetrical two-dimensional magnetic lattice is proposed. The asymmetrical two-dimensional magnetic lattice can be created by periodically distributing magnetic minima across the surface of magnetic thin film where the periodicity can be achieved by milling $n\\times n$ square holes on the surface of the film. The quantum device is proposed for trapping and confining ultracold atoms and quantum degenerate gases prepared in the low magnetic field seeking-state at low temperature, such as the Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) and ultracold fermions. We present detailed analysis of the analytical expressions and the numerical simulation procedure used to calculate the external magnetic field. We also, describe the magnetic band gap structure exhibited by the asymmetric effect of the magnetic minima and show some of the possible application. We analyze the effect of changing the characteristic parameters of the magnetic lattice, such as the separating periodicity length and the hole size along with the applications of the external magnetic bias fields to maintain and allocate a suitable non-zero magnetic local minima at effective $z$-distance above the thin film surface. Suitable values are shown which keep the trapped ultracold atoms away from the thermal Majorana spin-flip and the surface Casimir-Polder effect.

  14. Production and trapping of radioactive atoms at the TRI\\muP facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Traykov; U. Dammalapati; S. De; O. C. Dermois; L. Huisman; K. Jungmann; W. Kruithof; A. J. Mol; C. J. G. Onderwater; A. Rogachevskiy; M. da Silva e Silva; M. Sohani; O. Versolato; L. Willmann; H. W. Wilschut

    2008-03-28

    The structures for the TRI$\\mu$P facility have been completed and commissioned. At the facility radioactive nuclides are produced to study fundamental interactions and symmetries. An important feature is the possibility to trap radioactive atoms in order to obtain and hold a pure substrate-free sample for precision measurements. In the TRI$\\mu$P facility a production target is followed by a magnetic separator, where radioactive isotopes are produced in inverse reaction kinematics. Separation up to 99.95% could be achieved for $^{21}$Na. A novel transmitting thermal ionizing device was developed to stop the energetic isotopes. Some 50% of stopped $^{21}$Na could be extracted and transported as low energy singly charged ions into a radio frequency quadrupole cooler and buncher with 35% transmission efficiency. The ions are transported lossless via a drift tube and a low energy electrostatic beam line into the experimental setup. Such ions can be neutralized on hot metal foils and the resulting atoms can be stored in a magneto-optical trap. The functioning of that principle was demonstrated with stable Na extracted from the thermal ionizer, radioactive beams will follow next.

  15. The use of solvent extraction in trace metal analysis by atomic absorption spectroscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eddy, Raymond Douglas

    1968-01-01

    of the mcouir'amer. ts cr the ceSr ee o J "" . uar'&I Major S&uh&oct: Chemis'. ":y THE USE OF SOLVENT EXTRACTION IN TRACE METAL ANALYSIS BY ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY A Thesis By Raymond Douglas Eddy Approved as to style and content by (Chai n of Co... the lower limit o! detection of most metais is in tne range of 0. 0q to 1. . 0 ppm (1). T. ie lower limit of detectio. for iron sr d nickel iwas re" artsd by Bar: as (;2) as 0. 05 porn. Ar is ofi, en i, h case the ans. - lyi icai chemi s; is see...

  16. Exploring Ramsey-coherent population trapping atomic clock realized with pulsed microwave modulated laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Jing; Yun, Peter [Key Laboratory of Atomic Frequency Standards, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tian, Yuan; Tan, Bozhong [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Gu, Sihong, E-mail: shgu@wipm.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Atomic Frequency Standards, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-03-07

    A scheme for a Ramsey-coherent population trapping (CPT) atomic clock that eliminates the acousto-optic modulator (AOM) is proposed and experimentally studied. Driven by a periodically microwave modulated current, the vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser emits a continuous beam that switches between monochromatic and multichromatic modes. Ramsey-CPT interference has been studied with this mode-switching beam. In eliminating the AOM, which is used to generate pulsed laser in conventional Ramsey-CPT atomic clock, the physics package of the proposed scheme is virtually the same as that of a conventional compact CPT atomic clock, although the resource budget for the electronics will slightly increase as a microwave switch should be added. By evaluating and comparing experimentally recorded signals from the two Ramsey-CPT schemes, the short-term frequency stability of the proposed scheme was found to be 46% better than the scheme with AOM. The experimental results suggest that the implementation of a compact Ramsey-CPT atomic clock promises better frequency stability.

  17. Dispersive response of atoms trapped near the surface of an optical nanofiber with applications to QND measurement and spin squeezing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiaodong Qi; Ben Q. Baragiola; Poul S. Jessen; Ivan H. Deutsch

    2015-09-18

    We study the strong coupling between photons and atoms that can be achieved in an optical nanofiber geometry when the interaction is dispersive. While the Purcell enhancement factor for spontaneous emission into the guided mode does not reach the strong-coupling regime for individual atoms, one can obtain high cooperativity for ensembles of a few thousand atoms due to the tight confinement of the guided modes and constructive interference over the entire chain of trapped atoms. We calculate the dyadic Green's function, which determines the scattering of light by atoms in the presence of the fiber, and thus the phase shift and polarization rotation induced on the guided light by the trapped atoms. The Green's function is related to a full Heisenberg-Langevin treatment of the dispersive response of the quantized field to tensor polarizable atoms. We apply our formalism to quantum nondemolition (QND) measurement of the atoms via polarimetry. We study shot-noise-limited detection of atom number for atoms in a completely mixed spin state and the squeezing of projection noise for atoms in clock states. Compared with squeezing of atomic ensembles in free space, we capitalize on unique features that arise in the nanofiber geometry including anisotropy of both the intensity and polarization of the guided modes. We use a first principles stochastic master equation to model the squeezing as function of time in the presence of decoherence due to optical pumping. We find a peak metrological squeezing of ~5 dB is achievable with current technology for ~2500 atoms trapped 180 nm from the surface of a nanofiber with radius a=225 nm.

  18. Blue-detuned evanescent field surface traps for neutral atoms based on mode interference in ultra-thin optical fibres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Sague; A. Baade; A. Rauschenbeutel

    2008-06-24

    We present and analyze a novel concept for blue-detuned evanescent field surface traps for cold neutral atoms based on two-mode interference in ultra-thin optical fibres. When two or more transverse modes with the same frequency co-propagate in the fibre, their different phase velocities cause a stationary interference pattern to establish. Intensity minima of the evanescent field at any distance from the fibre surface can be created and an array of optical microtraps can thus be obtained in the evanescent field. We discuss three possible combinations of the lowest order modes, yielding traps at one to two hundred nanometres from the fibre surface which, using a few ten milliwatts of trapping laser power, have a depth on the order of 1 mK for caesium atoms and a trapping lifetime exceeding 100 seconds. The resulting trapping geometry is of particular interest because atoms in such microtrap arrays will be coupled to any additional field propagating in the fibre via the evanescent field, thereby realising ensembles of fibre-coupled atoms.

  19. Coherent population trapping resonances at lower atomic levels of Doppler broadened optical lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ?ahin, E; Hamid, R; Çelik, M; Özen, G; Izmailov, A Ch

    2014-11-30

    We have detected and analysed narrow high-contrast coherent population trapping (CPT) resonances, which are induced in absorption of a weak monochromatic probe light beam by counterpropagating two-frequency pump radiation in a cell with rarefied caesium vapour. The experimental investigations have been performed by the example of nonclosed three level ?-systems formed by spectral components of the D{sub 2} line of caesium atoms. The applied method allows one to analyse features of the CPT phenomenon directly at a given low long-lived level of the selected ?-system even in sufficiently complicated spectra of atomic gases with large Doppler broadening. We have established that CPT resonances in transmission of the probe beam exhibit not only a higher contrast but also a much lesser width in comparison with well- known CPT resonances in transmission of the corresponding two-frequency pump radiation. The results obtained can be used in selective photophysics, photochemistry and ultra-high resolution atomic (molecular) spectroscopy. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  20. Cavity-mediated collective laser-cooling of an atomic gas inside an asymmetric trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg Kim; Prasenjit Deb; Almut Beige

    2015-10-27

    Suppose a physical process reduces the entropy of a closed system by moving it away from its equilibrium position, where its entropy is at its maximum. Then thermodynamics tells us that this reduction of entropy always comes with a reduction of the inner energy of the system. In this paper, we propose to use this effect to cool a non-interacting atomic gas inside an asymmetric trap with the help of a series of short laser pulses until the gas reaches a very low temperature. It is shown that this temperature vanishes in the infinitely-many particle limit. In summary, we construct and analyse an ultra-cold quantum refrigerator (an inverse heat engine) to provide an essential tool for quantum technological applications.

  1. ccsd-00005837,version2-10Jul2005 Partially ferromagnetic electromagnet for trapping and cooling neutral atoms to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    magnetic confinement with low power con- sumption. Compared to the previous iron-core electromagnet [1 realized on a half-minute cycle. In addition we test the stability of the magnetic trap by producing atom nanokelvins. To reach these ultra low temperatures and enter the quantum degeneracy regime, evaporative cool

  2. Atom Trap Trace Analysis at ANL | U.S. DOE Office of Science...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    incident, such instruments can be used to measure the level of environmental contamination and biological absorption of radioactive isotopes. analyst at work Researchers at...

  3. Unfaulting mechanism of trapped self-interstitial atom clusters in bcc Fe: A kinetic study based on the potential energy landscape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yildiz, Bilge

    We report on the complete unfaulting mechanism of a trapped self-interstitial atom cluster in the form of a nonparallel configuration (NPC), investigated using the autonomous basin climbing (ABC) method. A detailed set of ...

  4. Collective mode evidence of high-spin bosonization in a trapped one-dimensional atomic Fermi gas with tunable spin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xia-Ji Hu, Hui

    2014-11-15

    We calculate the frequency of collective modes of a one-dimensional repulsively interacting Fermi gas with high-spin symmetry confined in harmonic traps at zero temperature. This is a system realizable with fermionic alkaline-earth-metal atoms such as {sup 173}Yb, which displays an exact SU(?) spin symmetry with ??2 and behaves like a spinless interacting Bose gas in the limit of infinite spin components ???, namely high-spin bosonization. We solve the homogeneous equation of state of the high-spin Fermi system by using Bethe ansatz technique and obtain the density distribution in harmonic traps based on local density approximation. The frequency of collective modes is calculated by exactly solving the zero-temperature hydrodynamic equation. In the limit of large number of spin-components, we show that the mode frequency of the system approaches that of a one-dimensional spinless interacting Bose gas, as a result of high-spin bosonization. Our prediction of collective modes is in excellent agreement with a very recent measurement for a Fermi gas of {sup 173}Yb atoms with tunable spin confined in a two-dimensional tight optical lattice.

  5. Photoionization of optically trapped ultracold atoms with a high-power light-emitting diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goetz, Simone; Hoeltkemeier, Bastian; Amthor, Thomas; Weidemueller, Matthias [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 226, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Photoionization of laser-cooled atoms using short pulses of a high-power light-emitting diode (LED) is demonstrated. Light pulses as short as 30 ns have been realized with the simple LED driver circuit. We measure the ionization cross section of {sup 85}Rb atoms in the first excited state, and show how this technique can be used for calibrating efficiencies of ion detector assemblies.

  6. Surface trap for ytterbium ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, Jonathan A. (Jonathan Alan)

    2006-01-01

    We conducted an experiment to load a shallow planar ion trap from a cold atom source of Ytterbium using photoionization. The surface trap consisted of a three-rod radio frequency Paul trap fabricated using standard printed ...

  7. Method for quantitative determination and separation of trace amounts of chemical elements in the presence of large quantities of other elements having the same atomic mass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, C.M.; Nogar, N.S.

    1982-09-02

    Photoionization via autoionizing atomic levels combined with conventional mass spectroscopy provides a technique for quantitative analysis of trace quantities of chemical elements in the presence of much larger amounts of other elements with substantially the same atomic mass. Ytterbium samples smaller than 10 ng have been detected using an ArF* excimer laser which provides the atomic ions for a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Elemental selectivity of greater than 5:1 with respect to lutetium impurity has been obtained. Autoionization via a single photon process permits greater photon utilization efficiency because of its greater absorption cross section than bound-free transitions, while maintaining sufficient spectroscopic structure to allow significant photoionization selectivity between different atomic species. Separation of atomic species from others of substantially the same atomic mass is also described.

  8. Determination of trace amounts of cerium in paint by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, K.L.

    1981-11-01

    The determination of Ce in paint by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) is described, and the detection limit of ICP-OES of 0.0004 ppM is compared with that of other methods. The effects of the major elemental components of paint, Si, Pb, Cr, and Na on the ICP-OES determination of Ce were studied. The interference of 400 ppM of the other ions on the determination of 10 ppM Ce was small (0 to 3% error). The method is applicable to the range of 0.2 to 700 ppM Ce. (BLM)

  9. Quantum and Classical Description of H Atom Under Magnetic Field and Quadrupole Trap Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahecha, J. [Institute of Physics, University of Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellin (Colombia); LPMC, Institute of Physics, University Paul Verlaine, 1 Bv Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France); Salas, J. P. [Area of Applied Physics, University of La Rioja, C/Madre de Dios 51, 26006, Logrono (Spain)

    2006-12-01

    A discussion regarding the energy levels spectrum of quantum systems whose classical analogous has states of chaotic motion is presented. The chaotic dynamics of the classical underlying system has its manifestation in the wave functions (in the form of 'scars') and in the energy levels (in the form of 'statistical repulsion' of the energy levels). The above mentioned signatures are named 'quantum chaos'. A typical study of quantum chaos requires finding accurate energy eigenvalues of highly excited states, to calculate the nearest neighbors spacing between levels, to perform the 'unfolding' of the spectrum in order to separate the fluctuations, and finally to find the probability distribution of the unfolded spectrum. This is exemplified by the hydrogen atom under uniform magnetic field and a quadrupole electric field.

  10. Intense source of cold cesium atoms based on a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap with independent axial cooling and pushing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, J Q; Wu, C F; Zhang, J W; Feng, Y Y; Wang, L J

    2015-01-01

    We report our studies on an intense source of cold cesium atoms based on a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap with independent axial cooling and pushing. The new-designed source, proposed as 2D-HP MOT, uses hollow laser beams for axial cooling and a thin pushing laser beam for cold atomic beam extraction. Regulated independently by the pushing beam, the atomic flux can be substantially optimized. The atomic flux maximum obtained in the 2D-HP MOT is $4.02\\times 10^{10}$ atoms/s, increased by 60 percent compared to the traditional 2D$^+$ MOT in our experiment. Moreover, with the pushing power 10 $\\mu$W and detuning $0\\Gamma$, the 2D-HP MOT can generate a rather intense cold cesium atomic beam with the concomitant light shift suppressed by 20 times in magnitude. The axial velocity distribution of the cold cesium beams centers at 6.8 m/s with a FMHW of about 2.8 m/s. The dependences of the atomic flux on the pushing power and detuning are studied. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoreti...

  11. Microfabricated Ion Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcus D. Hughes; Bjoern Lekitsch; Jiddu A. Broersma; Winfried K. Hensinger

    2011-06-28

    Ion traps offer the opportunity to study fundamental quantum systems with high level of accuracy highly decoupled from the environment. Individual atomic ions can be controlled and manipulated with electric fields, cooled to the ground state of motion with laser cooling and coherently manipulated using optical and microwave radiation. Microfabricated ion traps hold the advantage of allowing for smaller trap dimensions and better scalability towards large ion trap arrays also making them a vital ingredient for next generation quantum technologies. Here we provide an introduction into the principles and operation of microfabricated ion traps. We show an overview of material and electrical considerations which are vital for the design of such trap structures. We provide guidance in how to choose the appropriate fabrication design, consider different methods for the fabrication of microfabricated ion traps and discuss previously realized structures. We also discuss the phenomenon of anomalous heating of ions within ion traps, which becomes an important factor in the miniaturization of ion traps.

  12. Microfabricated Ion Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Marcus D; Broersma, Jiddu A; Hensinger, Winfried K

    2011-01-01

    Ion traps offer the opportunity to study fundamental quantum systems with high level of accuracy highly decoupled from the environment. Individual atomic ions can be controlled and manipulated with electric fields, cooled to the ground state of motion with laser cooling and coherently manipulated using optical and microwave radiation. Microfabricated ion traps hold the advantage of allowing for smaller trap dimensions and better scalability towards large ion trap arrays also making them a vital ingredient for next generation quantum technologies. Here we provide an introduction into the principles and operation of microfabricated ion traps. We show an overview of material and electrical considerations which are vital for the design of such trap structures. We provide guidance in how to choose the appropriate fabrication design, consider different methods for the fabrication of microfabricated ion traps and discuss previously realized structures. We also discuss the phenomenon of anomalous heating of ions with...

  13. A HBAR-oscillator-based 4.596~GHz frequency source: Application to a coherent population trapping Cs vapor cell atomic clock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daugey, Thomas; Martin, Gilles; Boudot, Rodolphe

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the design and characterization of a high-overtone bulk acoustic wave resonator (HBAR)-oscillator-based 4.596~GHz frequency source. A 2.298~GHz signal, generated by an oscillator constructed around a thermally-controlled two-port AlN-sapphire HBAR resonator with a Q-factor of 24000 at 68$^{\\circ}$C, is frequency multiplied by 2 to 4.596~GHz, half of the Cs atom clock frequency. The temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) of the HBAR is measured to be $-23$~ppm/$^{\\circ}$C at 2.298~GHz. The measured phase noise of the 4.596~GHz source is $-105$~dBrad$^2$/Hz at 1~kHz offset and $-150$~dBrad$^2$/Hz at 100~kHz offset. The 4.596~GHz output signal is used as a local oscillator (LO) in a laboratory-prototype Cs microcell-based coherent population trapping (CPT) atomic clock. The signal is stabilized onto the atomic transition frequency by tuning finely a voltage-controlled phase shifter (VCPS) implemented in the 2.298~GHz HBAR-oscillator loop, preventing the need for a high-power-consuming...

  14. Atom-light interactions in ultracold anisotropic media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vengalattore, Mukund T., 1977-

    2005-01-01

    A series of studies on atom-light interactions in ultracold anisotropic media were conducted. Methods to trap ultracold neutral atoms in novel traps with widely tunable trap frequencies and anisotropies were investigated. ...

  15. Thermoelectrically cooled water trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheels, Ronald H. (Concord, MA)

    2006-02-21

    A water trap system based on a thermoelectric cooling device is employed to remove a major fraction of the water from air samples, prior to analysis of these samples for chemical composition, by a variety of analytical techniques where water vapor interferes with the measurement process. These analytical techniques include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography. The thermoelectric system for trapping water present in air samples can substantially improve detection sensitivity in these analytical techniques when it is necessary to measure trace analytes with concentrations in the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) partial pressure range. The thermoelectric trap design is compact and amenable to use in a portable gas monitoring instrumentation.

  16. Microfabrication of surface electrode ion traps for quantum manipulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ge, Yufei, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2015-01-01

    Trapped ions are a promising approach to quantum computation. This approach uses a qubit state which is the atomic state and quantum motional state of a trapped ion to encode information, and uses laser-ion interactions ...

  17. Chemical reactions between cold trapped Ba+ ions and neutral molecules in the gas phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiller, Stephan

    Chemical reactions between cold trapped Ba+ ions and neutral molecules in the gas phase B. Roth, D-cooled ion trapping apparatus, we have investigated laser-induced chemical reactions between cold trapped Ba is to investigate chemical reactions between cold atomic and molecular ions trapped in radio-frequency traps

  18. Loading rubidium atoms into a hollow core fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Yiwen

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate a procedure for cooling, trapping, and transferring rubidium atoms into a hollow core photonic band gap fiber. The atoms are first collected in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) and then cooled using polarization ...

  19. Trapping cold rubidium in a fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, David Ross, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, we demonstrate the novel technique of loading cold ??Rb into a red-detuned optical dipole trap within a hollow core photonic fiber. This confines the atoms to 6 microns in two dimensions. We initially cooled ...

  20. A quantum information processor with trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schindler, Philipp

    Quantum computers hold the promise to solve certain problems exponentially faster than their classical counterparts. Trapped atomic ions are among the physical systems in which building such a computing device seems viable. ...

  1. Steam Trap Application 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The effective application of steam traps encompasses three primary areas which are the selection and sizing, the installation, and the monitoring of the steam trapping system. Proper application of steam traps will improve production rates, product...

  2. High data-rate atom interferometers through high recapture efficiency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biedermann, Grant; Rakholia, Akash Vrijal; McGuinness, Hayden

    2015-01-27

    An inertial sensing system includes a magneto-optical trap (MOT) that traps atoms within a specified trapping region. The system also includes a cooling laser that cools the trapped atoms so that the atoms remain within the specified region for a specified amount of time. The system further includes a light-pulse atom interferometer (LPAI) that performs an interferometric interrogation of the atoms to determine phase changes in the atoms. The system includes a controller that controls the timing of MOT and cooling laser operations, and controls the timing of interferometric operations to substantially recapture the atoms in the specified trapping region. The system includes a processor that determines the amount inertial movement of the inertial sensing system based on the determined phase changes in the atoms. Also, a method of inertial sensing using this inertial sensing system includes recapture of atoms within the MOT following interferometric interrogation by the LPAI.

  3. Fast atomic transport without vibrational heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Torrontegui; S. Ibáñez; Xi Chen; A. Ruschhaupt; D. Guéry-Odelin; J. G. Muga

    2010-10-15

    We use the dynamical invariants associated with the Hamiltonian of an atom in a one dimensional moving trap to inverse engineer the trap motion and perform fast atomic transport without final vibrational heating. The atom is driven non-adiabatically through a shortcut to the result of adiabatic, slow trap motion. For harmonic potentials this only requires designing appropriate trap trajectories, whereas perfect transport in anharmonic traps may be achieved by applying an extra field to compensate the forces in the rest frame of the trap. The results can be extended to atom stopping or launching. The limitations due to geometrical constraints, energies and accelerations involved are analyzed, as well as the relation to previous approaches (based on classical trajectories or "fast-forward" and "bang-bang" methods) which can be integrated in the invariant-based framework.

  4. Dynamically adjustable annular laser trapping based on axicons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Bing; Esener, Sadik C.; Nascimento, Jaclyn M.; Botvinick, Elliot L.; Berns, Michael W

    2006-09-01

    To study the chemotactic response of sperm to an egg and to characterize sperm motility, an annular laser trap based on axicons is designed, simulated with the ray-tracing tool, and implemented. The diameter of the trapping ring can be adjusted dynamically for a range of over 400 {mu}m by simply translating one axicon along the optical axis. Trapping experiments with microspheres and dog sperm demonstrate the feasibility of the system,and the power requirement agrees with theoretical expectation. This new type of laser trapping could provide a prototype of a parallel, objective, and quantitative tool for animal fertility and biotropism study.

  5. Antihydrogen Trapped in the ALPHA Experiment

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    In 2010 the ALPHA collaboration succeeded in trapping antihydrogen atoms for the first time.[i]  Stored antihydrogen promises to be a unique tool for making high precision measurements of the structure of this first anti-atom. Achieving this milestone presented several substantial experimental challenges and this talk will describe how they were overcome.   The unique design features of the ALPHA apparatus will be explained.[ii]  These allow a high intensity positron source and an antiproton imaging detector similar to the one used in the ATHENA[iii] experiment to be combined with an innovative magnet design of the anti-atom trap. This seeks to minimise the perturbations to trapped charged particles which may cause particle loss and heating[iv].   The diagnostic techniques used to measure the diameter, number, density, and temperatures of both plasmas will be presented as will the methods developed to actively compress and cool of both plasma species to sizes and temperatures [v],[vi], [vii] where trapping attempts with a reasonable chance of success can be tried.   The results of the successful trapping experiments will be outlined as well as some subsequent experiments to improve the trapping rate and storage time. [i] 'Trapped antihydrogen' G.B. Andresen et al., Nature 468, 673 (2010) [ii]'A Magnetic Trap for Antihydrogen Confinement' W. Bertsche et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A566, 746 (2006) [iii] Production and detection of cold antihydrogen atoms M.Amoretti et al., Nature 419, 456 (2002). [iv]' Antihydrogen formation dynamics in a multipolar neutral anti-atom trap' G.B. Andresen et al., Phys. Lett. B 685, 141 (2010) [v]' Evaporative Cooling of Antiprotons to Cryogenic Temperatures',                                   G.B. Andresen et al. Phys. Rev. Lett 105, 013003 (2010) [vi]'Compression of Antiproton Clouds for Antihydrogen Trapping' G. B. Andresen et al. Phys. Rev. Lett 100, 203401 (2008) [vii]  'Autoresonant Excitation of Antiproton Plasmas' G.B. Andresen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 025002 (2011) Organizer: Ferdinand Hahn PH/DT Detector Seminar webpage  

  6. Corrections to our results for optical nanofiber traps in Cesium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Ding; A. Goban; K. S. Choi; H. J. Kimble

    2012-12-20

    Several errors in Refs. [1, 2] are corrected related to the optical trapping potentials for a state-insensitive, compensated nanofiber trap for the D2 transition of atomic Cesium. Section I corrects our basic formalism in Ref. [1] for calculating dipole-force potentials. Section II corrects erroneous values for a partial lifetime and a transition wavelength in Ref. [1]. Sections III and IV present corrected figures for various trapping configurations considered in Refs. [1] and [2], respectively.

  7. Novel trapping techniques for shaping Bose-Einstein condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, Micah (Micah Scott)

    2007-01-01

    A combination of radio frequency radiation and magnetic field gradients was used to trap atoms in dressed states. In a magnetic field with a quadrupole minimum. RF fields resonant with the (I F. m)) 11. -1) -- 1, 0) ...

  8. Quantum gates, sensors, and systems with trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Shannon Xuanyue

    2012-01-01

    Quantum information science promises a host of new and useful applications in communication, simulation, and computational algorithms. Trapped atomic ions are one of the leading physical systems with potential to implement ...

  9. Surface-electrode ion trap with integrated light source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Tony Hyun

    An atomic ion is trapped at the tip of a single-mode optical fiber in a cryogenic (8 K) surface-electrode ion trap. The fiber serves as an integrated source of laser light, which drives the quadrupolequbit transition of ...

  10. Superconducting microfabricated ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Shannon Xuanyue

    We fabricate superconducting ion traps with niobium and niobium nitride and trap single [superscript 88]Sr ions at cryogenic temperatures. The superconducting transition is verified and characterized by measuring the ...

  11. Atomic and nuclear interference phenomena and their applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuznetsova, Yelena Anatolyevna

    2005-08-29

    In this work, interference and coherence phenomena, appearing in atomic and molecular ensembles interacting with coherent light sources, as electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), coherent population trapping (CPT), ...

  12. Antiproton Confinement in a Penning-Ioffe Trap for Antihydrogen G. Gabrielse,1,* P. Larochelle,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabrielse, Gerald

    here the stable confinement of p in a Penning trap, when the radial magnetic field of a quadru- pole A long-term goal for H experiments is confining H in a magnetic trap for precise laser spectroscopy [1 gradient needed to trap H atoms upon the uniform magnetic field used to store the p and e from which H

  13. Investigation of plasma hydrogenation and trapping mechanism for layer transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Peng; Chu, Paul K.; Hoechbauer, T.; Lee, J.-K.; Nastasi, M.; Buca, D.; Mantl, S.; Loo, R.; Caymax, M.; Alford, T.; Mayer, J.W.; Theodore, N. David; Cai, M.; Schmidt, B.; Lau, S.S. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 87545 (United States); Institut fuer Schicht- und Ionentechnik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B - 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Advanced Products R and D Lab., Motorola Inc., 2100 East Elliot Road, Tempe, Arizona 85284 (United States); University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California, 92093 (United States)

    2005-01-17

    Hydrogen ion implantation is conventionally used to initiate the transfer of Si thin layers onto Si wafers coated with thermal oxide. In this work, we studied the feasibility of using plasma hydrogenation to replace high dose H implantation for layer transfer. Boron ion implantation was used to introduce H-trapping centers into Si wafers to illustrate the idea. Instead of the widely recognized interactions between boron and hydrogen atoms, this study showed that lattice damage, i.e., dangling bonds, traps H atoms and can lead to surface blistering during hydrogenation or upon postannealing at higher temperature. The B implantation and subsequent processes control the uniformity of H trapping and the trap depths. While the trap centers were introduced by B implantation in this study, there are many other means to do the same without implantation. Our results suggest an innovative way to achieve high quality transfer of Si layers without H implantation at high energies and high doses.

  14. Superconducting microfabricated ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shannon X. Wang; Yufei Ge; Jaroslaw Labaziewicz; Eric Dauler; Karl Berggren; Isaac L. Chuang

    2010-12-14

    We fabricate superconducting ion traps with niobium and niobium nitride and trap single 88Sr ions at cryogenic temperatures. The superconducting transition is verified and characterized by measuring the resistance and critical current using a 4-wire measurement on the trap structure, and observing change in the rf reflection. The lowest observed heating rate is 2.1(3) quanta/sec at 800 kHz at 6 K and shows no significant change across the superconducting transition, suggesting that anomalous heating is primarily caused by noise sources on the surface. This demonstration of superconducting ion traps opens up possibilities for integrating trapped ions and molecular ions with superconducting devices.

  15. Atom chip apparatus for experiments with ultracold rubidium and potassium gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivory, M. K.; Ziltz, A. R.; Fancher, C. T.; Pyle, A. J.; Sensharma, A.; Chase, B.; Field, J. P.; Garcia, A.; Aubin, S.; Jervis, D.

    2014-04-15

    We present a dual chamber atom chip apparatus for generating ultracold {sup 87}Rb and {sup 39}K atomic gases. The apparatus produces quasi-pure Bose-Einstein condensates of 10{sup 4} {sup 87}Rb atoms in an atom chip trap that features a dimple and good optical access. We have also demonstrated production of ultracold {sup 39}K and subsequent loading into the chip trap. We describe the details of the dual chamber vacuum system, the cooling lasers, the magnetic trap, the multicoil magnetic transport system, the atom chip, and two optical dipole traps. Due in part to the use of light-induced atom desorption, the laser cooling chamber features a sufficiently good vacuum to also support optical dipole trap-based experiments. The apparatus is well suited for studies of atom-surface forces, quantum pumping and transport experiments, atom interferometry, novel chip-based traps, and studies of one-dimensional many-body systems.

  16. Photon Maps Photon Tracing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lischinski, Dani

    Photon Maps Photon Tracing Simulating light propagation by shooting photons from the light sources. Photon Tracing Storing the incidences of photon's path. Implementing surface properties statistically. Russian Roulette. Photon Tracing Photon maps keep: Incidence point (in 3D). The normal at that point

  17. EIT and TRACE responses to flare plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Tripathi; G. Del Zanna; H. E. Mason; C. Chifor

    2008-02-26

    Aims: To understand the contribution of active region and flare plasmas to the $\\lambda$195 channels of SOHO/EIT (Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope) and TRACE (Transition Region and Coronal Explorer). Methods: We have analysed an M8 flare simultaneously observed by the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS), EIT, TRACE and RHESSI. We obtained synthetic spectra for the flaring region and an outer region using the differential emission measures (DEM) of emitting plasma based on CDS and RHESSI observations and the CHIANTI atomic database. We then predicted the EIT and TRACE count rates. Results: For the flaring region, both EIT and TRACE images taken through the $\\lambda$195 filter are dominated by Fe ${\\rm XXIV}$ (formed at about 20 MK). However, in the outer region, the emission was primarily due to the Fe${\\rm XII}$, with substantial contributions from other lines. The average count rate for the outer region was within 25% the observed value for EIT, while for TRACE it was a factor of two higher. For the flare region, the predicted count rate was a factor of two (in case of EIT) and a factor of three (in case of TRACE) higher than the actual count rate. Conclusions: During a solar flare, both TRACE and EIT $\\lambda$195 channels are found to be dominated by Fe ${\\rm XXIV}$ emission. Reasonable agreement between predictions and observations is found, however some discrepancies need to be further investigated.

  18. Microfabricated ion trap array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blain, Matthew G. (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-12-26

    A microfabricated ion trap array, comprising a plurality of ion traps having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale ion traps to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microfabricated ion trap array with on-chip circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of the microfabricated ion trap array can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  19. Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation4563Abuse Tolerance(Conference) |stabilized by an(Technical(Technical

  20. Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation4563Abuse Tolerance(Conference) |stabilized by

  1. Experimental nonlinear dynamical studies in cesium magneto-optical trap using time-series analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anwar, M. Islam, R.; Faisal, M.; Sikandar, M.; Ahmed, M.

    2015-03-30

    A magneto-optical trap of neutral atoms is essentially a dissipative quantum system. The fast thermal atoms continuously dissipate their energy to the environment via spontaneous emissions during the cooling. The atoms are, therefore, strongly coupled with the vacuum reservoir and the laser field. The vacuum fluctuations as well as the field fluctuations are imparted to the atoms as random photon recoils. Consequently, the external and internal dynamics of atoms becomes stochastic. In this paper, we have investigated the stochastic dynamics of the atoms in a magneto-optical trap during the loading process. The time series analysis of the fluorescence signal shows that the dynamics of the atoms evolves, like all dissipative systems, from deterministic to the chaotic regime. The subsequent disappearance and revival of chaos was attributed to chaos synchronization between spatially different atoms in the magneto-optical trap.

  2. Steam Trap Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, J. J.; Hirtner, H. H.

    1985-01-01

    A medium-sized plant of a high technology company is reaping the benefits of a Pro-active Steam Trap Program provided by Yarway's TECH/SERV Division. Initial work began March '84 and the most recent steam trap feasibility study conducted in March...

  3. Production and characterization of a dual species magneto-optical trap of cesium and ytterbium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemp, S L; Freytag, R; Hopkins, S A; Hinds, E A; Tarbutt, M R; Cornish, S L

    2015-01-01

    We describe an apparatus designed to trap and cool a Yb and Cs mixture. The apparatus consists of a dual species effusive oven source, dual species Zeeman slower, magneto-optical traps in a single ultra-high vacuum science chamber, and the associated laser systems. The dual species Zeeman slower is used to load sequentially the two species into their respective traps. Its design is flexible and may be adapted for other experiments with different mixtures of atomic species. The apparatus provides excellent optical access and can apply large magnetic bias fields to the trapped atoms. The apparatus regularly produces 10${}^{8}$ Cs atoms at 13.3 $\\mu$K in an optical molasses, and 10${}^{9}$ Yb atoms cooled to 22 $\\mu$K in a narrowband magneto-optical trap.

  4. Scalable Communication Trace Compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Agarwal, Khushbu

    2010-05-17

    Characterizing the communication behavior of parallel programs through tracing can help understand an application’s characteristics, model its performance, and predict behavior on future systems. However, lossless communication traces can get prohibitively large, causing programmers to resort to variety of other techniques. In this paper, we present a novel approach to lossless communication trace compression. We augment the sequitur compression algorithm to employ it in communication trace compression of parallel programs. We present optimizations to reduce the memory overhead, reduce size of the trace files generated, and enable compression across multiple processes in a parallel program. The evaluation shows improved compression and reduced overhead over other approaches, with up to 3 orders of magnitude improvement for the NAS MG benchmark. We also observe that, unlike existing schemes, the trace files sizes and the memory overhead incurred are less sensitive to, if not independent of, the problem size for the NAS benchmarks.

  5. Simple method for producing Bose-Einstein condensates of metastable helium using a single beam optical dipole trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores, Adonis Silva; Vassen, Wim; Knoop, Steven

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple scheme to reach Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of metastable triplet helium atoms using a single beam optical dipole trap with moderate power of less than 3 W. Our scheme is based on RF-induced evaporative cooling in a quadrupole magnetic trap and transfer to a single beam optical dipole trap that is located below the magnetic trap center. We transfer 1x10^6 atoms into the optical dipole trap, with an initial temperature of 14 \\mu K, and observe efficient forced evaporative cooling both in a hybrid trap, in which the quadrupole magnetic trap operates just below the levitation gradient, and in the pure optical dipole trap, reaching the onset of BEC with 2x10^5 atoms and a pure BEC of 5x10^4 atoms. Our work shows that a single beam hybrid trap can be applied for a light atom, for which evaporative cooling in the quadrupole magnetic trap is strongly limited by Majorana spin-flips, and the very small levitation gradient limits the axial confinement in the hybrid trap.

  6. Simple method for producing Bose-Einstein condensates of metastable helium using a single beam optical dipole trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adonis Silva Flores; Hari Prasad Mishra; Wim Vassen; Steven Knoop

    2015-10-06

    We demonstrate a simple scheme to reach Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of metastable triplet helium atoms using a single beam optical dipole trap with moderate power of less than 3 W. Our scheme is based on RF-induced evaporative cooling in a quadrupole magnetic trap and transfer to a single beam optical dipole trap that is located below the magnetic trap center. We transfer 1x10^6 atoms into the optical dipole trap, with an initial temperature of 14 \\mu K, and observe efficient forced evaporative cooling both in a hybrid trap, in which the quadrupole magnetic trap operates just below the levitation gradient, and in the pure optical dipole trap, reaching the onset of BEC with 2x10^5 atoms and a pure BEC of 5x10^4 atoms. Our work shows that a single beam hybrid trap can be applied for a light atom, for which evaporative cooling in the quadrupole magnetic trap is strongly limited by Majorana spin-flips, and the very small levitation gradient limits the axial confinement in the hybrid trap.

  7. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Print Wednesday, 27 April 2005 00:00 In photoelectron spectroscopy experiments performed at the...

  8. Ionization-Induced Electron Trapping inUltrarelativistic Plasma Wakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oz, E.; Deng, S.; Katsouleas, T.; Muggli, P.; Barnes, C.D.; Blumenfeld, I.; Decker, F.J.; Emma, P.; Hogan, M.J.; Ischebeck, R.; Iverson, R.H.; Kirby, N.; Krejcik, P.; O'Connell, C.; Siemann, R.H.; Walz, D.; Auerbach, D.; Clayton, C.E.; Huang, C.; Johnson, D.K.; Joshi, C.; /UCLA

    2007-04-06

    The onset of trapping of electrons born inside a highly relativistic, 3D beam-driven plasma wake is investigated. Trapping occurs in the transition regions of a Li plasma confined by He gas. Li plasma electrons support the wake, and higher ionization potential He atoms are ionized as the beam is focused by Li ions and can be trapped. As the wake amplitude is increased, the onset of trapping is observed. Some electrons gain up to 7.6 GeV in a 30.5 cm plasma. The experimentally inferred trapping threshold is at a wake amplitude of 36 GV/m, in good agreement with an analytical model and PIC simulations.

  9. Simplified motional heating rate measurements of trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. J. Epstein; S. Seidelin; D. Leibfried; J. H. Wesenberg; J. J. Bollinger; J. M. Amini; R. B. Blakestad; J. Britton; J. P. Home; W. M. Itano; J. D. Jost; E. Knill; C. Langer; R. Ozeri; N. Shiga; D. J. Wineland

    2007-07-10

    We have measured motional heating rates of trapped atomic ions, a factor that can influence multi-ion quantum logic gate fidelities. Two simplified techniques were developed for this purpose: one relies on Raman sideband detection implemented with a single laser source, while the second is even simpler and is based on time-resolved fluorescence detection during Doppler recooling. We applied these methods to determine heating rates in a microfrabricated surface-electrode trap made of gold on fused quartz, which traps ions 40 microns above its surface. Heating rates obtained from the two techniques were found to be in reasonable agreement. In addition, the trap gives rise to a heating rate of 300 plus or minus 30 per second for a motional frequency of 5.25 MHz, substantially below the trend observed in other traps.

  10. Simplified motional heating rate measurements of trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epstein, R J; Leibfried, D; Wesenberg, J H; Bollinger, J J; Amini, J M; Blakestad, R B; Britton, J; Home, J P; Itano, W M; Jost, J D; Knill, E; Langer, C; Ozeri, R; Shiga, N; Wineland, D J

    2007-01-01

    We have measured motional heating rates of trapped atomic ions, a factor that can influence multi-ion quantum logic gate fidelities. Two simplified techniques were developed for this purpose: one relies on Raman sideband detection implemented with a single laser source, while the second is even simpler and is based on time-resolved fluorescence detection during Doppler recooling. We applied these methods to determine heating rates in a microfrabricated surface-electrode trap made of gold on fused quartz, which traps ions 40 microns above its surface. Heating rates obtained from the two techniques were found to be in reasonable agreement. In addition, the trap gives rise to a heating rate of 300 plus or minus 30 per second for a motional frequency of 5.25 MHz, substantially below the trend observed in other traps.

  11. Quantum information processing with trapped electrons and superconducting electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikos Daniilidis; Dylan J Gorman; Lin Tian; Hartmut Häffner

    2013-04-17

    We describe a parametric frequency conversion scheme for trapped charged particles which enables a coherent interface between atomic and solid-state quantum systems. The scheme uses geometric non-linearities of the potential of a coupling electrode near a trapped particle. Our scheme does not rely on actively driven solid-state devices, and is hence largely immune to noise in such devices. We present a toolbox which can be used to build electron-based quantum information processing platforms, as well as quantum interfaces between trapped electrons and superconducting electronics.

  12. HP Steam Trap Monitoring 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascone, S.

    2011-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IC-11-10-61.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2024 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IC-11-10-61.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 STEAM MONITORING HP... Steam Trap Monitoring HP Steam Trap Monitoring ? 12-18 months payback! ? 3-5% permanent reduction in consumption ? LEED Pt.? Innovation in Operations EB O&M ? Saved clients over $1,000,000 Annual consumption Steam Trap Monitoring ? Real...

  13. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, M.J.

    1987-05-04

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (a hot finger) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellow in providing an indication of total energy (steam + condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the hot and cold fingers subtracts the former from the latter to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning. 2 figs.

  14. Energy distribution and cooling of a single atom in an optical tweezer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Tuchendler; A. M. Lance; A. Browaeys; Y. R. P. Sortais; P. Grangier

    2008-09-24

    We investigate experimentally the energy distribution of a single rubidium atom trapped in a strongly focused dipole trap under various cooling regimes. Using two different methods to measure the mean energy of the atom, we show that the energy distribution of the radiatively cooled atom is close to thermal. We then demonstrate how to reduce the energy of the single atom, first by adiabatic cooling, and then by truncating the Boltzmann distribution of the single atom. This provides a non-deterministic way to prepare atoms at low microKelvin temperatures, close to the ground state of the trapping potential.

  15. Microfabricated cylindrical ion trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blain, Matthew G.

    2005-03-22

    A microscale cylindrical ion trap, having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale cylindrical ion trap to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The microscale CIT has a reduced ion mean free path, allowing operation at higher pressures with less expensive and less bulky vacuum pumping system, and with lower battery power than conventional- and miniature-sized ion traps. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microscale cylindrical ion trap with on-chip integrated circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of microscale cylindrical ion traps can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  16. Zinc-oxide charge trapping memory cell with ultra-thin chromium-oxide trapping layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Atab, Nazek; Rizk, Ayman; Nayfeh, Ammar; Okyay, Ali K.; UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center and Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara

    2013-11-15

    A functional zinc-oxide based SONOS memory cell with ultra-thin chromium oxide trapping layer was fabricated. A 5 nm CrO{sub 2} layer is deposited between Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) steps. A threshold voltage (V{sub t}) shift of 2.6V was achieved with a 10V programming voltage. Also for a 2V V{sub t} shift, the memory with CrO{sub 2} layer has a low programming voltage of 7.2V. Moreover, the deep trapping levels in CrO{sub 2} layer allows for additional scaling of the tunnel oxide due to an increase in the retention time. In addition, the structure was simulated using Physics Based TCAD. The results of the simulation fit very well with the experimental results providing an understanding of the charge trapping and tunneling physics.

  17. Simulations of plasma confinement in an antihydrogen trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomberoff, K.; Fajans, J.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Vay, J.-L.; Wurtele, J.S.

    2007-10-15

    The three-dimensional particle-in-cell (3-D PIC) simulation code WARP is used to study positron confinement in antihydrogen traps. The magnetic geometry is close to that of a UC Berkeley experiment conducted, with electrons, as part of the ALPHA collaboration (W. Bertsche et al., AIP Conf. Proc. 796, 301 (2005)). In order to trap antihydrogen atoms, multipole magnetic fields are added to a conventional Malmberg-Penning trap. These multipole fields must be strong enough to confine the antihydrogen, leading to multipole field strengths at the trap wall comparable to those of the axial magnetic field. Numerical simulations reported here confirm recent experimental measurements of reduced particle confinement when a quadrupole field is added to a Malmberg-Penning trap. It is shown that, for parameters relevant to various antihydrogen experiments, the use of an octupole field significantly reducesthe positron losses seen with a quadrupole field. A unique method for obtaining a 3-D equilibrium of the positrons in the trap with a collisionless PIC code was developed especially for the study of the antihydrogen trap; however, it is of practical use for other traps as well.

  18. Observation of elastic collisions between lithium atoms and calcium ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haze, Shinsuke; Fujinaga, Munekazu; Mukaiyama, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    We observed elastic collisions between laser-cooled fermionic lithium atoms and calcium ions at the energy range from 100 mK to 3 K. Lithium atoms in an optical-dipole trap were transported to the center of the ion trap using an optical tweezer technique, and a spatial overlap of the atoms and ions was realized in order to observe the atom-ion interactions. The elastic scattering rate was determined from the decay of atoms due to elastic collisions with ions. The collision-energy dependence of the elastic scattering cross-section was consistent with semi-classical collision theory.

  19. A 674 nm external cavity diode laser for a ??Sr? ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thon, Susanna M. (Susanna Mitrani)

    2005-01-01

    Atomic ion traps are a promising candidate for scalable quantum information processing. In this thesis, a 674 nm extended cavity diode laser is built to address an optical quantum bit in ??Sr? with the goal of testing such ...

  20. An optical-fiber interface to a trapped-ion quantum computer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Tony Hyun

    2011-01-01

    The trapped-ion quantum computer is an atom-based implementation of a quantum computer that has successfully demonstrated numerous quantum algorithms and the potential for scalability. Fundamental to its operation is the ...

  1. Two-color magneto-optical trap with small magnetic field for ytterbium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawasaki, Akio

    We report a two-color magneto-optical trap (MOT) for ytterbium atoms where the slowing and trapping functions are separately performed by the singlet transition light (6s[superscript 2] [superscript 1]S[subscript 0] ? 6s6p ...

  2. Accuracy of an Atomic Microwave Power Standard (Conference digest)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulusse, D C; Michaud, A; Paulusse, David C.; Rowell, Nelson L.; Michaud, Alain

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the accuracy of the atomic microwave power standard. The atoms are cooled and kept in a Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT), then dropped through a terminated transmission line (a rectangular, R-70 type, waveguide). The measurement of the internal atomic state allows an accurate determination of the transmitted microwave power.

  3. Component-Level Demonstration of a Microfabricated Atomic Frequency Reference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popovic, Zoya

    size and lower power dissipation. In particular, atomic clocks based on coherent population trappingComponent-Level Demonstration of a Microfabricated Atomic Frequency Reference V. Gerginov, S component-level functionality of the three critical subsystems for a miniature atomic clock based

  4. Fabrication and heating rate study of microscopic surface electrode ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Daniilidis; S. Narayanan; S. A. Möller; R. Clark; T. E. Lee; P. J. Leek; A. Wallraff; St. Schulz; F. Schmidt-Kaler; H. Häffner

    2010-09-15

    We report heating rate measurements in a microfabricated gold-on-sapphire surface electrode ion trap with trapping height of approximately 240 micron. Using the Doppler recooling method, we characterize the trap heating rates over an extended region of the trap. The noise spectral density of the trap falls in the range of noise spectra reported in ion traps at room temperature. We find that during the first months of operation the heating rates increase by approximately one order of magnitude. The increase in heating rates is largest in the ion loading region of the trap, providing a strong hint that surface contamination plays a major role for excessive heating rates. We discuss data found in the literature and possible relation of anomalous heating to sources of noise and dissipation in other systems, namely impurity atoms adsorbed on metal surfaces and amorphous dielectrics.

  5. Asymmetric ion trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barlow, S.E.; Alexander, M.L.; Follansbee, J.C.

    1997-12-02

    An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode is disclosed. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity. 4 figs.

  6. Asymmetric ion trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barlow, Stephan E. (Richland, WA); Alexander, Michael L. (Richland, WA); Follansbee, James C. (Pasco, WA)

    1997-01-01

    An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity.

  7. Evaluating Steam Trap Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, N. Y.

    1986-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-86-06-126.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 11555 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-86-06-126.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 EVALUATING STEAM... TRAP PERFORMANCE Noel Y Fuller, P.E. Holston Defense Corporation Kingsport, Tennessee ABSTRACT Laboratory tests were conducted on several types of steam traps at Holston Defense Corporation in Kingsport, Tennessee. Data from these tests...

  8. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

  9. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, Michael J. (Plainfield, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (the combination of a hot finger and thermocouple well) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellows in providing an indication of total energy (steam+condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the thermocouple well hot and cold fingers subtracts the condensate energy as measured by the hot finger and thermocouple well from the total energy as measured by the cold finger to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning.

  10. Vibrational mode multiplexing of ultracold atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Martínez-Garaot; E. Torrontegui; Xi Chen; M. Modugno; D. Guéry-Odelin; Shuo-Yen Tseng; J. G. Muga

    2015-09-08

    Sending multiple messages on qubits encoded in different vibrational modes of cold atoms or ions along a transmission waveguide requires to merge first and then separate the modes at input and output ends. Similarly, different qubits can be stored in the modes of a trap and be separated later. We design the fast splitting of a harmonic trap into an asymmetric double well so that the initial ground vibrational state becomes the ground state of one of two final wells, and the initial first excited state becomes the ground state of the other well. This might be done adiabatically by slowly deforming the trap. We speed up the process by inverse engineering a double-function trap using dynamical invariants. The separation (demultiplexing) followed by an inversion of the asymmetric bias and then by the reverse process (multiplexing) provides a population inversion protocol based solely on trap reshaping.

  11. Realization of Bose-Einstein condensation with Lithium-7 atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Yichao

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents our work on developing and improving the techniques of trapping and cooling an ultra-cold cloud of Lithium-7 atoms and the realization of the Bose- Einstein condensate as a first step to study quantum ...

  12. Towards a quantum gas microscope for fermionic atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramasesh, Vinay (Vinay V.)

    2012-01-01

    This thesis reports the achievement of a two-species apparatus for use in an upcoming experiment with fermionic ultracold atomic gases. First, we describe the construction of a laser system capable of cooling and trapping ...

  13. Ion-neutral sympathetic cooling in a hybrid linear rf Paul and magneto-optical trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, D S; Wells, J E; Narducci, F A; Smith, W W

    2012-01-01

    Long range polarization forces between ions and neutral atoms result in large elastic scattering cross sections, e.g., 10^6 a.u. for Na+ on Na or Ca+ on Na at cold and ultracold temperatures. This suggests that a hybrid ion-neutral trap should offer a general means for significant sympathetic cooling of atomic or molecular ions. We present SIMION 7.0 simulation results concerning the advantages and limitations of sympathetic cooling within a hybrid trap apparatus, consisting of a linear rf Paul trap concentric with a Na magneto-optical trap (MOT). This paper explores the impact of various heating mechanisms on the hybrid system and how parameters related to the MOT, Paul trap, number of ions, and ion species affect the efficiency of the sympathetic cooling.

  14. Ion-neutral sympathetic cooling in a hybrid linear rf Paul and magneto-optical trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. S. Goodman; I. Sivarajah; J. E. Wells; F. A. Narducci; W. W. Smith

    2012-08-31

    Long range polarization forces between ions and neutral atoms result in large elastic scattering cross sections, e.g., 10^6 a.u. for Na+ on Na or Ca+ on Na at cold and ultracold temperatures. This suggests that a hybrid ion-neutral trap should offer a general means for significant sympathetic cooling of atomic or molecular ions. We present SIMION 7.0 simulation results concerning the advantages and limitations of sympathetic cooling within a hybrid trap apparatus, consisting of a linear rf Paul trap concentric with a Na magneto-optical trap (MOT). This paper explores the impact of various heating mechanisms on the hybrid system and how parameters related to the MOT, Paul trap, number of ions, and ion species affect the efficiency of the sympathetic cooling.

  15. Nonlinear Spectroscopy of Trapped Ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank Schlawin; Manuel Gessner; Shaul Mukamel; Andreas Buchleitner

    2014-10-07

    Nonlinear spectroscopy employs a series of laser pulses to interrogate dynamics in large interacting many-body systems, and has become a highly successful method for experiments in chemical physics. Current quantum optical experiments approach system sizes and levels of complexity which require the development of efficient techniques to assess spectral and dynamical features with scalable experimental overhead. However, established methods from optical spectroscopy of macroscopic ensembles cannot be applied straightforwardly to few-atom systems. Based on the ideas proposed in [M. Gessner et al. New J. Phys. 16 092001 (2014)], we develop a diagrammatic approach to construct nonlinear measurement protocols for controlled quantum systems and discuss experimental implementations with trapped ion technology in detail. These methods in combination with distinct features of ultra-cold matter systems allow us to monitor and analyze excitation dynamics in both the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom. They are independent of system size, and can therefore reliably probe systems where, e.g., quantum state tomography becomes prohibitively expensive. We propose signals that can probe steady state currents, detect the influence of anharmonicities on phonon transport, and identify signatures of chaotic dynamics near a quantum phase transition in an Ising-type spin chain.

  16. Tracing Geothermal Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael C. Adams Greg Nash

    2004-03-31

    Chemical compounds have been designed under this contract that can be used to trace water that has been injected into vapor-dominated and two-phase geothermal fields. Increased knowledge of the injection flow is provided by the tracers, and this augments the power that can be produced. Details on the stability and use of these tracers are included in this report.

  17. Long storage time of collective coherence in an optically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate Yutaka Yoshikawa,1,2,* Kazuyuki Nakayama,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torii, Yoshio

    Long storage time of collective coherence in an optically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate Yutaka of the storage time realized by loading the atoms into an optical dipole trap, wherein an unfavorable spin-dependent phase shift and spatial diffusion of atoms can be suppressed. The measured storage time was 0.57 2 ms

  18. Mesoscopic supersolid of dipoles in a trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golomedov, A. E.; Astrakharchik, G. E.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2011-09-15

    A mesoscopic system of dipolar bosons trapped by a harmonic potential is considered. The system has a number of physical realizations including dipole excitons, atoms with large dipolar moment, polar molecules, and Rydberg atoms in inhomogeneous electric field. We carry out a diffusion Monte Carlo simulation to define the quantum properties of a two-dimensional system of trapped dipoles at zero temperature. In dimensionless units the system is described by two control parameters, namely, the number of particles and the strength of the interparticle interaction. We have shown that when the interparticle interaction is strong enough a mesoscopic crystal is formed. As the strength of interactions is decreased a multistage melting takes place. Off-diagonal order in the system is tested using natural-orbitals analysis. We have found that the system might be Bose condensed even in the case of strong interparticle interactions. There is a set of parameters for which a spatially ordered structure is formed while simultaneously the fraction of Bose-condensed particles is nonzero. This might be considered as a realization of a mesoscopic supersolid.

  19. Quantum control of electromagnetically induced transparency dispersion via atomic tunneling in a double-well Bose-Einstein condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weatherall, James; Search, Christopher; Jääskeläinen, Markku

    2008-01-01

    double-well Bose-Einstein condensate James Owen Weatherall,atomic Bose-Einstein condensate ?BEC? trapped in a double-and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates ?BEC’s? ?7?, and is now

  20. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Print In photoelectron spectroscopy experiments performed at the ALS, a group of researchers has found that electronic transitions normally...

  1. Gated charged-particle trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W. Henry (Danville, CA)

    1999-01-01

    The design and operation of a new type of charged-particle trap provides simultaneous measurements of mass, charge, and velocity of large electrospray ions. The trap consists of a detector tube mounted between two sets of center-bored trapping plates. Voltages applied to the trapping plates define symmetrically-opposing potential valleys which guide axially-injected ions to cycle back and forth through the charge-detection tube. A low noise charge-sensitive amplifier, connected to the tube, reproduces the image charge of individual ions as they pass through the detector tube. Ion mass is calculated from measurement of ion charge and velocity following each passage through the detector.

  2. Enhanced trapping of colding lithium by using the multiple-sideband cooling in a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Kai; Gao, Tianyou; Peng, Shi-Guo; Jiang, Kaijun

    2015-01-01

    Trapping lithium with a big number in a simplified experimental setup has difficulties and challenges today. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate the enhancement of \\textsuperscript{6}Li trapping efficiency in a three-dimensional magneto-optical trap (3D MOT) by using the multiple-sideband cooling in a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap (2D MOT). To improve the number of trapped atoms, we broaden the cooling light spectrum to 102 MHz composed of seven frequency components and then trap atoms with a number of $6.0\\times10^8$ which is about 4 times compared to that in the single-frequency cooling. The capture velocity and dependence of atomic number on the laser detuning have been analyzed, where the experimental result has a good agreement with the theoretical prediction based on a simple two-level model. We also analyze the loss rate of alkali metals due to fine-structure exchanging collisions and find that the multiple-sideband cooling is special valid for lithium.

  3. Study Traps Avoid to Succeed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkle, Tom

    Study Traps Avoid to Succeed Study traps are all around you! If you have found yourself saying any. Interrupt study time with planned breaks. Begin studying early, but increase study time as exams approach. "I've got so much to study... and so little time." Preview and skim your reading! Read chapter

  4. Trace metal mapping by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaiser, Jozef [ORNL; Novotny, Dr. Karel [Masaryk University; Hrdlicka, A [Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic; Malina, R [Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic; Hartl, M [Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic; Kizek, R [Mendel University of Brno; Adam, V [Mendel University of Brno

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a sensitive optical technique capable of fast multi-elemental analysis of solid, gaseous and liquid samples. The potential applications of lasers for spectrochemical analysis were developed shortly after its invention; however the massive development of LIBS is connected with the availability of powerful pulsed laser sources. Since the late 80s of 20th century LIBS dominated the analytical atomic spectroscopy scene and its application are developed continuously. Here we review the utilization of LIBS for trace elements mapping in different matrices. The main emphasis is on trace metal mapping in biological samples.

  5. Optimal traps in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. A. Downing; A. R. Pearce; R. J. Churchill; M. E. Portnoi

    2015-03-27

    We transform the two-dimensional Dirac-Weyl equation, which governs the charge carriers in graphene, into a non-linear first-order differential equation for scattering phase shift, using the so-called variable phase method. This allows us to utilize the Levinson Theorem to find zero-energy bound states created electrostatically in realistic structures. These confined states are formed at critical potential strengths, which leads to us posit the use of `optimal traps' to combat the chiral tunneling found in graphene, which could be explored experimentally with an artificial network of point charges held above the graphene layer. We also discuss scattering on these states and find the zero angular momentum states create a dominant peak in scattering cross-section as energy tends towards the Dirac point energy, suggesting a dominant contribution to resistivity.

  6. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, Karan Kartik

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process ...

  7. Steven Chu: Laser Cooling and Trapping of Atoms

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministrationTechnicalTechnical InformationFrequentlyEnergy,| OSTI,SolarUSSteven

  8. Fundamental Electroweak Studies using Trapped Ions & Atoms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journal Article)Forthcoming UpgradesArea: PADD 1Assessment of

  9. Protection #2: Trap and Remove Sediment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trap and Remove Sediment Protection 2: Trap and Remove Sediment The 3 Protections Defense in Depth August 1, 2013 Sediment behind LA Canyon weir is sampled and excavated...

  10. COLLOQUIUM: Atomic Tracings: The History of Radioisotopes in Science and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits &Bradbury ScienceComplex

  11. Thirteenth International Conference on Atomic Physics(IGAP-13)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walther, H.; Haensch, T.W.; Neizert, B. (eds.) (Max PlanckInstitute for Quantum Optics, Garching (Germany) Ludwig MaximilianUniversity, Munich (Germany))

    1993-01-01

    This conference proceeding contains invited papers on recentprogress in many subfields of atomic physics. Major advances inspectroscopy, laser cooling and trapping, atom interferometry,cavity quantum electrodynamics are discussed in many of thepresented papers. Quantum chaos is explored as well as novelexperiments with atoms in intense laser fields are discussed. Atotal of forty two papers are given in this proceedings, out ofthese, eleven have been abstracted for database. (AIP)

  12. Biexciton emission from single isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen pairs in GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takamiya, Kengo; Fukushima, Toshiyuki; Yagi, Shuhei; Hijikata, Yasuto; Yaguchi, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku , Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Yoshita, Masahiro; Akiyama, Hidefumi [Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Kuboya, Shigeyuki; Onabe, Kentaro [Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Katayama, Ryuji [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2013-12-04

    We have studied photoluminescence (PL) from individual isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen (NN) pairs in GaAs. Sharp emission lines due to exciton and biexciton were observed from individual isoelectronic traps in nitrogen atomic-layer doped (ALD) GaAs. The binding energy of biexciton bound to individual isoelectronic traps was approximately 8 meV. Both the exciton and biexciton luminescence lines show completely random polarization and no fine-structure splitting. These results are desirable to the application to the quantum cryptography used in the field of quantum information technology.

  13. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, Daniel D. (Livermore, CA); Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA)

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  14. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  15. Hydrodynamic enhanced dielectrophoretic particle trapping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miles, Robin R.

    2003-12-09

    Hydrodynamic enhanced dielectrophoretic particle trapping carried out by introducing a side stream into the main stream to squeeze the fluid containing particles close to the electrodes producing the dielelectrophoretic forces. The region of most effective or the strongest forces in the manipulating fields of the electrodes producing the dielectrophoretic forces is close to the electrodes, within 100 .mu.m from the electrodes. The particle trapping arrangement uses a series of electrodes with an AC field placed between pairs of electrodes, which causes trapping of particles along the edges of the electrodes. By forcing an incoming flow stream containing cells and DNA, for example, close to the electrodes using another flow stream improves the efficiency of the DNA trapping.

  16. Electronic Trap States in Methanofullerenes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julia Schafferhans; Carsten Deibel; Vladimir Dyakonov

    2011-07-18

    The trap states in three fullerene derivatives, namely PC61BM ([6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester), bisPC61BM (bis[6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester) and PC71BM ([6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester), are investigated by thermally stimulated current measurements (TSC). Thereby, the lower limit of the trap densities for all studied methanofullerenes exhibits values in the order of 10^22 m^-3 with the highest trap density in bisPC61BM and the lowest in PC61BM. Fractional TSC measurements on PC61BM reveal a broad trap distribution instead of discrete trap levels with activation energies ranging from 15 meV to 270 meV and the maximum at about 75 meV. The activation energies of the most prominent traps in the other two fullerene derivatives are significantly higher, being at 96 meV and 223 meV for PC71BM and 184 meV for bisPC61BM, respectively. The influence of these findings on the performance of organic solar cells is discussed.

  17. Universal collisional activation ion trap mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, Scott A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Goeringer, Douglas E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Glish, Gary L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A universal collisional activation ion trap comprises an ion trapping means containing a bath gas and having connected thereto a noise signal generator. A method of operating a universal collisional activation ion trap comprises the steps of: providing an ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a bath gas; and, generating a noise signal within the ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a substance that, when acted upon by the noise signal, undergoes collisional activation to form product ions.

  18. Universal collisional activation ion trap mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Glish, G.L.

    1993-04-27

    A universal collisional activation ion trap comprises an ion trapping means containing a bath gas and having connected thereto a noise signal generator. A method of operating a universal collisional activation ion trap comprises the steps of: providing an ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a bath gas; and, generating a noise signal within the ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a substance that, when acted upon by the noise signal, undergoes collisional activation to form product ions.

  19. Epidemic Contact Tracing via Communication Traces Katayoun Farrahi1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    interactions, where contagious outbreaks propagate. However, due to privacy constraints and noisy data traces may be a viable option to arrest contagious outbreaks. Citation: Farrahi K, Emonet R, Cebrian M

  20. Atom Interferometry

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Mark Kasevich

    2010-01-08

    Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newton?s constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gryoscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be sued to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?

  1. The TITAN in-trap decay spectroscopy facility at TRIUMF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. G. Leach; A. Grossheim; A. Lennarz; T. Brunner; J. R. Crespo López-Urrutia; A. T. Gallant; M. Good; R. Klawitter; A. A. Kwiatkowski; T. Ma; T. D. Macdonald; S. Seeraji; M. C. Simon; C. Andreoiu; J. Dilling; D. Frekers

    2014-11-22

    This article presents an upgraded in-trap decay spectroscopy apparatus which has been developed and constructed for use with TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN). This device consists of an open-access electron-beam ion-trap (EBIT), which is surrounded radially by seven low-energy planar Si(Li) detectors. The environment of the EBIT allows for the detection of low-energy photons by providing backing-free storage of the radioactive ions, while guiding charged decay particles away from the trap centre via the strong (up to 6 T) magnetic field. In addition to excellent ion confinement and storage, the EBIT also provides a venue for performing decay spectroscopy on highly-charged radioactive ions. Recent technical advancements have been able to provide a significant increase in sensitivity for low-energy photon detection, towards the goal of measuring weak electron-capture branching ratios of the intermediate nuclei in the two-neutrino double beta ($2\

  2. Sinking fluxes of minor and trace elements in the North Pacific Ocean measured during the VERTIGO program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinking fluxes of minor and trace elements in the North Pacific Ocean measured during the VERTIGO depths in the oceanic mesopelagic zone and at two biogeochemically contrasting sites (N. Central Pacific in the Global Ocean (VERTIGO) program, we collected and analyzed sinking particles using sediment traps at three

  3. Coherence and Raman Sideband Cooling of a Single Atom in an Optical Tweezer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, J. D.

    We investigate quantum control of a single atom in a tightly focused optical tweezer trap. We show that inevitable spatially varying polarization gives rise to significant internal-state decoherence but that this effect ...

  4. Non-destructive imaging of a Bose condensate The first BEC experiments were done by switching off the trap and imaging an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Non-destructive imaging of a Bose condensate The first BEC experiments were done by switching off the trap and imaging an expanding condensate. This technique is necessarily destructive and probes the condensation phenomenon only in momentum space. However, in an inhomogeneous potential, e.g. in atom traps

  5. Trapped-ion Lissajous trajectories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. F. Rossetti; G. D. de Moraes Neto; J. Carlos Egues; M. H. Y. Moussa

    2015-02-25

    Here we present a protocol for generating Lissajous curves with a trapped ion by engineering Rashba- and the Dresselhaus-type spin-orbit interactions in a Paul trap. The unique anisotropic Rashba $\\alpha_{x}$, $\\alpha_{y}$ and Dresselhaus $\\beta_{x}$, $\\beta_{y}$ couplings afforded by our setup also enables us to obtain an "unusual" Zitterbewegung, i.e., the semiconductor analog of the relativistic trembling motion of electrons, with cycloidal trajectories in the absence of magnetic fields. We have also introduced bounded SO interactions, confined to an upper-bound vibrational subspace of the Fock states, as an additional mechanism to manipulate the Lissajous motion of the trapped ion. Finally, we accounted for dissipative effects on the vibrational degrees of freedom of the ion and find that the Lissajous trajectories are still robust and well defined for realistic parameters.

  6. Dual-species quantum degeneracy of 40 Rb on an atom chip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thywissen, Joseph

    -hundred-fold increase in atom number (greyed area), which is lost after the LEDs are switched off. (b) The MOT loading decay to the LED-off value of 106 s-1 in approximately 300 s. LOADING AND TRAPPING We begin by trapping of the technical improvements being made to our atom chip. #12;FIGURE 1. MOT loading via LIAD We load the MOT from

  7. Surface-electrode point Paul trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Tony Hyun; Herskind, Peter F.; Chuang, Isaac L. [Center for Ultracold Atoms, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Kim, Taehyun; Kim, Jungsang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    We present a model as well as experimental results for a surface electrode radiofrequency Paul trap that has a circular electrode geometry well suited for trapping single ions and two-dimensional planar ion crystals. The trap design is compatible with microfabrication and offers a simple method by which the height of the trapped ions above the surface may be changed in situ. We demonstrate trapping of single {sup 88}Sr{sup +} ions over an ion height range of 200-1000 {mu}m for several hours under Doppler laser cooling and use these to characterize the trap, finding good agreement with our model.

  8. Ion transport in macroscopic RF linear traps Jofre Pedregosa-Gutierrez,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ´er^ome, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20, France (Dated: July 18, 2014) Abstract Efficient transport of cold atomsIon transport in macroscopic RF linear traps Jofre Pedregosa-Gutierrez, Caroline Champenois, Marius information processing to frequency metrology. Different transport schemes have been developed, which allow

  9. All-Optical BEC in a 1.06 micron dipole trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. J. Arnold; M. D. Barrett

    2011-05-10

    We report the all-optical production of a Rb87 Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a simple 1.06 micron dipole trap experiment. We load a single beam dipole trap directly from a magneto-optic trap (MOT) using an optimized loading sequence. After evaporation in the single beam, a second crossed beam is used for compression. The intensity in both beams is then reduced for evaporation to BEC. We obtain a BEC with 3.5E4 atoms after 3 seconds of total evaporation time. We also give a detailed account of the thermal distribution in cross beam traps. This account highlights the possible difficulties in using shorter wavelength lasers to condense all optically.

  10. Bose-Einstein condensation in dark power-law laser traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amine Jaouadi; Naceur Gaaloul; Bruno Viaris De Lesegno; Mourad Telmini; Laurence Pruvost; Eric Charron

    2010-09-10

    We investigate theoretically an original route to achieve Bose-Einstein condensation using dark power-law laser traps. We propose to create such traps with two crossing blue-detuned Laguerre-Gaussian optical beams. Controlling their azimuthal order $\\ell$ allows for the exploration of a multitude of power-law trapping situations in one, two and three dimensions, ranging from the usual harmonic trap to an almost square-well potential, in which a quasi-homogeneous Bose gas can be formed. The usual cigar-shaped and disk-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates obtained in a 1D or 2D harmonic trap take the generic form of a "finger" or of a "hockey puck" in such Laguerre-Gaussian traps. In addition, for a fixed atom number, higher transition temperatures are obtained in such configurations when compared with a harmonic trap of same volume. This effect, which results in a substantial acceleration of the condensation dynamics, requires a better but still reasonable focusing of the Laguerre-Gaussian beams.

  11. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1985-11-08

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985 the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for the internationally competitive production of uranium separative work. The economic basis for this decision is considered, with an indicated of the constraints placed on the process figures of merit and the process laser system. We then trace an atom through a generic AVLIS separator and give examples of the physical steps encountered, the models used to describe the process physics, the fundamental parameters involved, and the role of diagnostic laser measurements.

  12. Atomic rivals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1990-01-01

    This book is a memoir of rivalries among the Allies over the bomb, by a participant and observer. Nuclear proliferation began in the uneasy wartime collaboration of the United States, England, Canada, and Free France to produce the atom bomb. Through the changes of history, a young French chemist had a role in almost every act of this international drama. This memoir is based on Goldschmidt's own recollections, interviews with other leading figures, and 3,000 pages of newly declassified documents in Allied archives. From his own start as Marie Curie's lab assistant, Goldschmidt's career was closely intertwined with Frances complicated rise to membership in the nuclear club. As a refugee from the Nazis, he became part of the wartime nuclear energy project in Canada and found himself the only French scientist to work (although briefly) on the American atom bomb project.

  13. Holographic microscopy of holographically trapped

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weeks, Eric R.

    . Padgett, "Permanent 3D microstructures in a polymeric host created using holographic optical tweezers," J to organize microscopic materials into three-dimensional structures. In a complementary manner, holographicHolographic microscopy of holographically trapped three-dimensional structures Sang-Hyuk Lee

  14. Measuring Atomic Properties with an Atom Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, Tony David

    2006-06-28

    Two experiments are presented which measure atomic properties using an atom interferometer. The interferometer splits the sodium de Broglie wave into two paths,

  15. A History of the Atomic Energy Commission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buck, A.L.

    1983-07-01

    This pamphlet traces the history of the US Atomic Energy Commission's twenty-eight year stewardship of the Nation's nuclear energy program, from the signing of the Atomic Energy Act on August 1, 1946 to the signing of the Energy Reorganization Act on October 11, 1974. The Commission's early concentration on the military atom produced sophisticated nuclear weapons for the Nation's defense and made possible the creation of a fleet of nuclear submarines and surface ships. Extensive research in the nuclear sciences resulted in the widespread application of nuclear technology for scientific, medical and industrial purposes, while the passage of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 made possible the development of a nuclear industry, and enabled the United States to share the new technology with other nations.

  16. Atomic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O DBiomass and BiofuelsPhysicist47JulyInnovationAtomic Layer

  17. Trace Estimates for Stable Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-05-01

    May 1, 2007 ... In this paper we study the behaviour in time of the trace (the partition function) ... cess with independent and stationary increments and characteristic function. E0ei?Xt = e?t|?|? ... theory of heat semigroups as described in [14]. In fact, it follows ..... For bounded. C1,1 domains it is known that Ex(?D) ? c(D, ?)?.

  18. Microscale ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Witten, William B. (Lancing, TN); Kornienko, Oleg (Lansdale, PA)

    2002-01-01

    An ion trap for mass spectrometric chemical analysis of ions is delineated. The ion trap includes a central electrode having an aperture; a pair of insulators, each having an aperture; a pair of end cap electrodes, each having an aperture; a first electronic signal source coupled to the central electrode; a second electronic signal source coupled to the end cap electrodes. The central electrode, insulators, and end cap electrodes are united in a sandwich construction where their respective apertures are coaxially aligned and symmetric about an axis to form a partially enclosed cavity having an effective radius r.sub.0 and an effective length 2z.sub.0, wherein r.sub.0 and/or z.sub.0 are less than 1.0 mm, and a ratio z.sub.0 /r.sub.0 is greater than 0.83.

  19. Phenomena of spin rotation and oscillation of particles (atoms, molecules) containing in a trap blowing on by wind of high energy particles in storage ring - new method of measuring of spin-dependent part of zero-angle coherent scattering amplitude

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimir Baryshevsky

    2002-12-09

    New experiment arrangement to study spin rotation and oscillation of particles of gas target through which beam of high energy particles passes is discussed. Such experiment arrangement make it realizable for storage ring and allows to study zero-angle scattering amplitude at highest possible energies. Life-time of particle beam in storage ring can reach several hours and even days. Life-time of particle in gas target (gas trap) is long too. Particles circulate in storage ring with frequency $\

  20. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, K K; Bruzewicz, C D; Chuang, I L; Ram, R J; Sage, J M; Chiaverini, J

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This is the first demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware, in any modality, utilizing a commercial CMOS process, and it opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  1. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. K. Mehta; A. M. Eltony; C. D. Bruzewicz; I. L. Chuang; R. J. Ram; J. M. Sage; J. Chiaverini

    2014-06-13

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This is the first demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware, in any modality, utilizing a commercial CMOS process, and it opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  2. The Elimination of Steam Traps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickman, F.

    1985-01-01

    compile published data by three leading steam trap facturers. ANNUAL COST OF STEAM LOSS FOR 100 PSIG STEAM AT $5/1000 LBS. TgpOrlflce l18nul8ctuNf M.,utectu,., DI.mNr A' 84 1/." . $ 3,150 $ 2,313 e to from nu ufKluNf co 3,1711 1/4" $12,eoo $ 9...

  3. Sensitivity test of a blue-detuned dipole trap designed for parity non-conservation measurements in Fr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong Sheng; Jiehang Zhang; Luis A. Orozco

    2012-04-23

    A dynamic blue-detuned optical dipole trap with stable $^{87}Rb$ atoms produces a differential ac Stark shift of 18 Hz in the ground state hyperfine transition, and it preserves the ground state hyperfine superpositions for a long coherence time of 180 ms. The trapped atoms undergoing microwave Rabi oscillations are sensitive to a small signal, artificially generated with a second microwave source, phase locked to the first allow- ing a simple and effective method for determining signal-to-noise ratio limits through interference techniques. This provides an excellent means of calibrating sensitivity in experiments such as our ongoing Fr parity non-conservation measurement.

  4. Vortex reconnections in atomic condensates at finite temperature A. J. Allen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuccher, Simone

    superfluid turbu- lence, a phenomenon recently also reported in trapped atomic Bose­Einstein condensates, vortex dynamics, quantum turbulence, Bose-Einstein condensates, Superfluid He In classical hydrodynamics 3 He and atomic Bose­Einstein condensates (BECs) is currently debated. For example, one would like

  5. Giant Helium Dimers Produced by Photoassociation of Ultracold Metastable Atoms J. Leonard,* M. Walhout,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen-Tannoudj, Claude

    Giant Helium Dimers Produced by Photoassociation of Ultracold Metastable Atoms J. Le´onard,* M long-range helium dimers by photoassociation of metastable helium atoms in a magnetically trapped ion production rates, which are usually high for He , we measure the tempera- ture increase

  6. Status and Outlook of CHIP-TRAP: the Central Michigan University High Precision Penning Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew Redshaw; Richard A. Bryce; Paul Hawks; Nadeesha D. Gamage; Curtis Hunt; Rathnayake M. E. B. Kandegedara; Ishara S. Ratnayake; Lance Sharp

    2015-10-25

    At Central Michigan University we are developing a high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometer (CHIP-TRAP)that will focus on measurements with long-lived radioactive isotopes. CHIP-TRAP will consist of a pair of hyperbolic precision-measurement Penning traps, and a cylindrical capture/?filter trap in a 12 T magnetic field. Ions will be produced by external ion sources, including a laser ablation source, and transported to the capture trap at low energies enabling ions of a given m=q ratio to be selected via their time-of-flight. In the capture trap, contaminant ions will be removed with a mass-selective rf dipole excitation and the ion of interest will be transported to the measurement traps. A phase-sensitive image charge detection technique will be used for simultaneous cyclotron frequency measurements on single ions in the two precision traps, resulting in a reduction in statistical uncertainty due to magnetic field fluctuations.

  7. Status and Outlook of CHIP-TRAP: the Central Michigan University High Precision Penning Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Redshaw, Matthew; Hawks, Paul; Gamage, Nadeesha D; Hunt, Curtis; Kandegedara, Rathnayake M E B; Ratnayake, Ishara S; Sharp, Lance

    2015-01-01

    At Central Michigan University we are developing a high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometer (CHIP-TRAP)that will focus on measurements with long-lived radioactive isotopes. CHIP-TRAP will consist of a pair of hyperbolic precision-measurement Penning traps, and a cylindrical capture/?filter trap in a 12 T magnetic field. Ions will be produced by external ion sources, including a laser ablation source, and transported to the capture trap at low energies enabling ions of a given m=q ratio to be selected via their time-of-flight. In the capture trap, contaminant ions will be removed with a mass-selective rf dipole excitation and the ion of interest will be transported to the measurement traps. A phase-sensitive image charge detection technique will be used for simultaneous cyclotron frequency measurements on single ions in the two precision traps, resulting in a reduction in statistical uncertainty due to magnetic field fluctuations.

  8. Atomic magnetometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwindt, Peter (Albuquerque, NM); Johnson, Cort N. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-07-03

    An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which uses a pump light beam at a D1 or D2 transition of an alkali metal vapor to magnetically polarize the vapor in a heated cell, and a probe light beam at a different D2 or D1 transition to sense the magnetic field via a polarization rotation of the probe light beam. The pump and probe light beams are both directed along substantially the same optical path through an optical waveplate and through the heated cell to an optical filter which blocks the pump light beam while transmitting the probe light beam to one or more photodetectors which generate electrical signals to sense the magnetic field. The optical waveplate functions as a quarter waveplate to circularly polarize the pump light beam, and as a half waveplate to maintain the probe light beam linearly polarized.

  9. Minnesota's Computer Industry: History, Legacies, Traces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sobelman, Gerald E.

    : payroll, taxes, suburban development History | Legacies | Traces #12;Control Data at Minnesota state fair | Legacies | Traces A. Univac West 7th (1956) 2750 Shepard Road, Saint Paul B. ERA plant #1 (1946) Midway

  10. High-precision Penning trap mass measurements for tests of the Standard Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaum, Klaus; Eliseev, Sergey; Nagy, Szilard

    2010-08-04

    With the nowadays achievable accuracy in Penning trap mass spectrometry on short-lived exotic nuclides as well as stable atoms, precision fundamental tests can be performed, among them a test of the Standard Model, in particular with regard to the weak interaction, the CPT symmetry conservation, and the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix. In addition, accurate mass values of specific nuclides are important for neutrino physics. The presently best tests of the Standard Model with high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometry will be reviewed.

  11. Carbon atoms in ethanol do not contribute equally to formation of single-walled carbon nanotubes during CVD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Carbon atoms in ethanol do not contribute equally to formation of single-walled carbon nanotubes in which isotopically labeled ethanol, e.g., 12CH3-13CH2-OH, is used to trace the carbon atoms during of ethanol's two different carbon atoms to SWNT formation. Surprisingly, the carbon away from the hydroxyl

  12. Distributed trace using central performance counter memory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Satterfield, David L; Sexton, James C

    2013-10-22

    A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

  13. Distributed trace using central performance counter memory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Satterfield, David L.; Sexton, James C.

    2013-01-22

    A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

  14. Location Of Hole And Electron Traps On Nanocrystalline Anatase TiO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mercado, Candy C.; Knorr, Fritz J.; McHale, Jeanne L.; Usmani, Shirin M.; Ichimura, Andrew S.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.

    2012-05-17

    The defect photoluminescence from TiO2 nanoparticles in the anatase phase is reported for nanosheets which expose predominantly (001) surfaces, and compared to that from conventional anatase nanoparticles which expose mostly (101) surfaces. Also reported is the weak defect photoluminescence of TiO2 nanotubes, which we find using electron back-scattered diffraction to consist of walls which expose (110) and (100) facets. The nanotubes exhibit photoluminescence that is blue-shifted and much weaker than that from conventional TiO2 nanoparticles. Despite the preponderance of (001) surfaces in the nanosheet samples, they exhibit photoluminescence similar to that of conventional nanoparticles. We assign the broad visible photoluminescence of anatase nanoparticles to two overlapping distributions: hole trap emission associated with oxygen vacancies on (101) exposed surfaces, which peaks in the green, and a broader emission extending into the red which results from electron traps on under-coordinated titanium atoms, which are prevalent on (001) facets. The results of this study suggest how morphology of TiO2 nanoparticles could be optimized to control the distribution and activity of surface traps. Our results also shed light on the mechanism by which the TiCl4 surface treatment heals traps on anatase and mixed-phase TiO2 films, and reveals distinct differences in the trap-state distributions of TiO2 nanoparticles and nanotubes. The molecular basis for electron and hole traps and their spatial separation on different facets is discussed.

  15. Texas A&M Penning Trap Facility - Design of the Measurement Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Mehlman; D. Melconian; P. D. Shidling

    2012-08-20

    A tandem Penning trap facility has been designed and is under construction at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Institute (TAMU-TRAP). The initial experimental program will be the study of correlation parameters for T=2 superallowed beta-delayed proton emitters. The measurement trap is a unique large-bore optimized 5-electrode cylindrical Penning trap, which features a 90 mm free radius, larger than in any existing Penning trap. This novel geometry allows for full radial containment of decay products of interest. The trap has also been designed to exhibit a "tunable" and "orthogonalized" geometry, which is useful for alternate experiments.

  16. Scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy study of atomic and electronic structures of In2O on InAs and In0.53Ga0.47As,,001...-,,42... surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    Scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy study of atomic and electronic structures of In2O on In trap density.4 On an atomic level, electronic defects result from strong perturbations to the electronic structure of the oxide/ semiconductor interface forming interface trap states. These perturbations

  17. Casimir Effect and Trace formula Andreas Wirzba

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirzba, Andreas - Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik (HISKP)

    1 Casimir Effect and Trace formula Andreas Wirzba Institut f¨ur Kernphysik Forschungszentrum J¨ulich · · Andreas Wirzba Casimir effect and trace formula Copenhagen, 17 May 2006 #12;1 Casimir Effect and Trace formula Andreas Wirzba Institut f¨ur Kernphysik Forschungszentrum J¨ulich 1. Introduction to the Casimir

  18. Trace Explosive Detection Using Nanosensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senesac, Larry R [ORNL; Thundat, Thomas George [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Selective and sensitive detection of explosives is very important in countering terrorist threats. Detecting trace explosives has become a very complex and expensive endeavor because of a number of factors, such as the wide variety of materials that can be used as explosives, the lack of easily detectable signatures, the vast number of avenues by which these weapons can be deployed, and the lack of inexpensive sensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. High sensitivity and selectivity, combined with the ability to lower the deployment cost of sensors using mass production, is essential in winning the war on explosives-based terrorism. Nanosensors have the potential to satisfy all the requirements for an effective platform for the trace detection of explosives.

  19. A technique to study the lattice location of hydrogen atoms in silicon by channeling elastic recoil detection analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao Lin; Wang Yongqiang; Lee, J.K.; Nastasi, M.; Thompson, Phillip E.; Theodore, N. David; Mayer, J.W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Code 6812, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5347 (United States); Advanced Products Research and Development Laboratory, Freescale Semiconductor Incorporated, 2100 East Elliot Road, Tempe, Arizona 85284 (United States); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2005-09-26

    By combining elastic recoil detection analysis with the channeling technique, energy analysis of forward-scattered {sup 1}H permits determination of the {sup 1}H lattice location. We have used this technique to study the lattice location of hydrogen in a crystalline Si containing a buried boron-doped layer. We showed that hydrogen atoms are trapped at the boron-doped Si layer after hydrogenation and that the majority of the trapped hydrogen atoms are located near bond-center sites.

  20. Experimental observation of magic-wavelength behavior of {sup 87}Rb atoms in an optical lattice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundblad, N.; Schlosser, M.; Porto, J. V.

    2010-03-15

    We demonstrate the cancellation of the differential ac Stark shift of the microwave hyperfine clock transition in trapped {sup 87}Rb atoms. Recent progress in metrology exploits so-called magic wavelengths, whereby an atomic ensemble can be trapped with laser light whose wavelength is chosen so that both levels of an optical atomic transition experience identical ac Stark shifts. Similar magic-wavelength techniques are not possible for the microwave hyperfine transitions in the alkali metals due to their simple electronic structure. We show, however, that ac Stark shift cancellation is indeed achievable for certain values of wavelength, polarization, and magnetic field. The cancellation comes at the expense of a small magnetic-field sensitivity. The technique demonstrated here has implications for experiments involving the precise control of optically trapped neutral atoms.

  1. A ray tracing investigation of light trapping due to grooves in solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruggiero, Christopher W

    2007-01-01

    The biggest problem the world faces today is finding a renewable energy source as fossil fuel reserves being depleted, and the ongoing burning of fossil fuels is destroying environments all over the world. Solar energy is ...

  2. Modeling sympathetic cooling of molecules by ultracold atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Jongseok; Hutson, Jeremy M; Tarbutt, M R

    2015-01-01

    We model sympathetic cooling of ground-state CaF molecules by ultracold Li and Rb atoms. The molecules are moving in a microwave trap, while the atoms are trapped magnetically. We calculate the differential elastic cross sections for CaF-Li and CaF-Rb collisions, using model Lennard-Jones potentials adjusted to give typical values for the s-wave scattering length. Together with trajectory calculations, these differential cross sections are used to simulate the cooling of the molecules, the heating of the atoms, and the loss of atoms from the trap. We show that a hard-sphere collision model based on an energy-dependent momentum transport cross section accurately predicts the molecule cooling rate but underestimates the rates of atom heating and loss. Our simulations suggest that Rb is a more effective coolant than Li for ground-state molecules, and that the cooling dynamics are less sensitive to the exact value of the s-wave scattering length when Rb is used. Using realistic experimental parameters, we find th...

  3. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansas Nuclear ProfileMultiferroicAwardElectron Trapping by Molecular

  4. Cavity sideband cooling of trapped molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalewski, Markus; Vivie-Riedle, Regina de [Department of Chemistry, Ludwig-Maximilian-Universitaet, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Morigi, Giovanna [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Theoretische Physik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Pinkse, Pepijn W. H. [MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    The efficiency of cavity sideband cooling of trapped molecules is theoretically investigated for the case in which the infrared transition between two rovibrational states is used as a cycling transition. The molecules are assumed to be trapped either by a radiofrequency or optical trapping potential, depending on whether they are charged or neutral, and confined inside a high-finesse optical resonator that enhances radiative emission into the cavity mode. Using realistic experimental parameters and COS as a representative molecular example, we show that in this setup, cooling to the trap ground state is feasible.

  5. Narrowing of the coherent population trapping resonance under zone pumping in cells with different characteristics of the wall coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazakov, G A; Litvinov, A N; Matisov, B G [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2012-02-28

    It is shown that when coherent population trapping (CPT) resonance is excited by a narrow laser beam, the presence of elastic collisions with the cell wall significantly affects the line shape of the CPT-resonance. We have constructed a theoretical model, which is based on averaging over the random Ramsey sequences of the atom dwell time in the beam and dark zones and takes into account the probability of elastic bounce of an atom from the wall.

  6. Laser Probing of Neutron-Rich Nuclei in Light Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. -T. Lu; P. Mueller; G. W. F. Drake; W. Noertershaeuser; Steven C. Pieper; Z. -C. Yan

    2013-07-10

    The neutron-rich 6He and 8He isotopes exhibit an exotic nuclear structure that consists of a tightly bound 4He-like core with additional neutrons orbiting at a relatively large distance, forming a halo. Recent experimental efforts have succeeded in laser trapping and cooling these short-lived, rare helium atoms, and have measured the atomic isotope shifts along the 4He-6He-8He chain by performing laser spectroscopy on individual trapped atoms. Meanwhile, the few-electron atomic structure theory, including relativistic and QED corrections, has reached a comparable degree of accuracy in the calculation of the isotope shifts. In parallel efforts, also by measuring atomic isotope shifts, the nuclear charge radii of lithium and beryllium isotopes have been studied. The techniques employed were resonance ionization spectroscopy on neutral, thermal lithium atoms and collinear laser spectroscopy on beryllium ions. Combining advances in both atomic theory and laser spectroscopy, the charge radii of these light halo nuclei have now been determined for the first time independent of nuclear structure models. The results are compared with the values predicted by a number of nuclear structure calculations, and are used to guide our understanding of the nuclear forces in the extremely neutron-rich environment.

  7. Off-resonance energy absorption in a linear Paul trap due to mass selective resonant quenching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivarajah, I.; Goodman, D. S.; Wells, J. E.; Smith, W. W.; Narducci, F. A.

    2013-11-15

    Linear Paul traps (LPT) are used in many experimental studies such as mass spectrometry, atom-ion collisions, and ion-molecule reactions. Mass selective resonant quenching (MSRQ) is implemented in LPT either to identify a charged particle's mass or to remove unwanted ions from a controlled experimental environment. In the latter case, MSRQ can introduce undesired heating to co-trapped ions of different mass, whose secular motion is off resonance with the quenching ac field, which we call off-resonance energy absorption (OREA). We present simulations and experimental evidence that show that the OREA increases exponentially with the number of ions loaded into the trap and with the amplitude of the off-resonance external ac field.

  8. Arsenic decapping and pre-atomic layer deposition trimethylaluminum passivation of Al2O3/InGaAs(100) interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    Arsenic decapping and pre-atomic layer deposition trimethylaluminum passivation of Al2O3/InGaAs(100 traps in atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3/GaAs (001) metal-oxide- semiconductor capacitors using atmospheric of atomic layer deposition temperature on HfO2/InGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor interface properties J. Appl

  9. arXiv:0708.4197v1[cond-mat.other]30Aug2007 Optimal transport of ultracold atoms in the non-adiabatic regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guéry-Odelin, David

    with ultracold atoms by moving slowly optical tweezers [3]. Transport of cold packets of atoms is also addressed numer- ically for ions in Paul traps [14]. In this article, we re- port on the transport of a coldarXiv:0708.4197v1[cond-mat.other]30Aug2007 Optimal transport of ultracold atoms in the non

  10. Influence of monolayer contamination on electric-field-noise heating in ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Safavi-Naini; E. Kim; P. F. Weck; P. Rabl; H. R. Sadeghpour

    2012-09-28

    Electric field noise is a hinderance to the assembly of large scale quantum computers based on entangled trapped ions. Apart from ubiquitous technical noise sources, experimental studies of trapped ion heating have revealed additional limiting contributions to this noise, originating from atomic processes on the electrode surfaces. In a recent work [A. Safavi-Naini et al., Phys. Rev. A 84, 023412 (2011)] we described a microscopic model for this excess electric field noise, which points a way towards a more systematic understanding of surface adsorbates as progenitors of electric field jitter noise. Here, we address the impact of surface monolayer contamination on adsorbate induced noise processes. By using exact numerical calculations for H and N atomic monolayers on an Au(111) surface representing opposite extremes of physisorption and chemisorption, we show that an additional monolayer can significantly affect the noise power spectrum and either enhance or suppress the resulting heating rates.

  11. A Nanofiber-Based Optical Conveyor Belt for Cold Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philipp Schneeweiss; Samuel T. Dawkins; Rudolf Mitsch; Daniel Reitz; Eugen Vetsch; Arno Rauschenbeutel

    2012-12-17

    We demonstrate optical transport of cold cesium atoms over millimeter-scale distances along an optical nanofiber. The atoms are trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice formed by a two-color evanescent field surrounding the nanofiber, far red- and blue-detuned with respect to the atomic transition. The blue-detuned field is a propagating nanofiber-guided mode while the red-detuned field is a standing-wave mode which leads to the periodic axial confinement of the atoms. Here, this standing wave is used for transporting the atoms along the nanofiber by mutually detuning the two counter-propagating fields which form the standing wave. The performance and limitations of the nanofiber-based transport are evaluated and possible applications are discussed.

  12. Compression of Antiproton Clouds for Antihydrogen Trapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. B. Andresen; W. Bertsche; P. D. Bowe; C. C. Bray; E. Butler; C. L. Cesar; S. Chapman; M. Charlton; J. Fajans; M. C. Fujiwara; R. Funakoshi; D. R. Gill; J. S. Hangst; W. N. Hardy; R. S. Hayano; M. E. Hayden; R. Hydomako; M. J. Jenkins; L. V. Jorgensen; L. Kurchaninov; R. Lambo; N. Madsen; P. Nolan; K. Olchanski; A. Olin; A. Povilus; P. Pusa; F. Robicheaux; E. Sarid; S. Seif El Nasr; D. M. Silveira; J. W. Storey; R. I. Thompson; D. P. van der Werf; J. S. Wurtele; Y. Yamazaki

    2008-06-30

    Control of the radial profile of trapped antiproton clouds is critical to trapping antihydrogen. We report the first detailed measurements of the radial manipulation of antiproton clouds, including areal density compressions by factors as large as ten, by manipulating spatially overlapped electron plasmas. We show detailed measurements of the near-axis antiproton radial profile and its relation to that of the electron plasma.

  13. Holographic optical trapping David G. Grier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Holographic optical trapping David G. Grier Yael Roichman Department of Physics and Center for Soft Matter Research, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 Holographic optical tweezers­beam optical traps use­ ful for capturing, moving and transforming mesoscopic objects. Through a combination

  14. Holographic optical trapping David G. Grier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Holographic optical trapping David G. Grier Yael Roichman Department of Physics and Center for Soft Matter Research, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 Holographic optical tweezers-beam optical traps use- ful for capturing, moving and transforming mesoscopic objects. Through a combination

  15. Coherent cooling of atoms in a frequency-modulated standing laser wave: Wave function and stochastic trajectory approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argonov, V. Yu.

    2014-11-15

    The wave function of a moderately cold atom in a stationary near-resonant standing light wave delocalizes very fast due to wave packet splitting. However, we show that frequency modulation of the field can suppress packet splitting for some atoms whose specific velocities are in a narrow range. These atoms remain localized in a small space for a long time. We demonstrate and explain this effect numerically and analytically. We also demonstrate that the modulated field can not only trap but also cool the atoms. We perform a numerical experiment with a large atomic ensemble having wide initial velocity and energy distributions. During the experiment, most of atoms leave the wave while the trapped atoms have a narrow energy distribution.

  16. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency from a Single Atom in Free Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Slodicka; G. Hetet; S. Gerber; M. Hennrich; R. Blatt

    2010-05-18

    We report an absorption spectroscopy experiment and the observation of electromagnetically induced transparency from a single trapped atom. We focus a weak and narrowband Gaussian light beam onto an optically cooled Barium ion using a high numerical aperture lens. Extinction of this beam is observed with measured values of up to 1.3 %. We demonstrate electromagnetically induced transparency of the ion by tuning a strong control beam over a two-photon resonance in a three-level lambda-type system. The probe beam extinction is inhibited by more than 75 % due to population trapping.

  17. Light-trapping concentrator cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keavney, C.J.; Geoffroy, L.M.; Sanfacon, M.M.; Tobin, S.P. (Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (USA))

    1989-11-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a thin, light-trapping silicon concentrator solar cell using a new structure, the cross-grooved cell. A process was developed for fabricating V-grooves on both sides of thin silicon wafers, the grooves on one side being perpendicular to those on the other side. A novel way of minimizing flat spots at the tops of the V-grooves was discovered. We experimentally verified the theoretical light-trapping superiority of the cross-grooved structure. We also demonstrated a reduction in grid line obscuration for grid lines running parallel to the V-grooves due to light reflection into the cell. high short-circuit current densities were achieved for p-i-n concentrator cells with the cross-grooved structure, proving the concept. The best efficiencies achieved were 18% at concentration, compared to 20% for a conventional planar low-resistivity cell. Recombination in the full-area emitter was identified as the major intrinsic loss mechanism in these thin, high-resistivity bifacial cells. Recombination on the emitter limits Voc and fill factor, and also leads to a large sublinearity of short-circuit current with light intensity. Reduction of the junction area is a major recommendation for future work. In addition, there were persistent problems with ohmic contacts and maintaining high minority-carrier lifetime during processing. We believe that these problems can be solved, and that the cross-grooved cell is a viable approach to the limit-efficiency silicon solar cell. This report covers research conducted between March 1987 and July 1989. 22 refs., 40 figs., 24 tabs.

  18. When a trap is not a trap: converging entry and exit rates and their effect on trap saturation of black sea bass (Centropristis striata)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at50 min, when the entry ratedeclined and the exit rate increased to a point where their confidenceWhen a trap is not a trap: converging entry and exit rates and their effect on trap saturation entries and exits of black sea bass (Centropristis striata) from chevron traps (n ¼ 26) to quantify catch

  19. Capture and isolation of highly-charged ions in a unitary Penning trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, Samuel M; Tan, Joseph N

    2013-01-01

    We recently used a compact Penning trap to capture and isolate highly-charged ions extracted from an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Isolated charge states of highly-stripped argon and neon ions with total charge $Q \\geq 10$, extracted at energies of up to $4\\times 10^3\\,Q$ eV, are captured in a trap with well depths of $\\,\\approx (4\\, {\\rm to}\\, 12)\\,Q$ eV. Here we discuss in detail the process to optimize velocity-tuning, capture, and storage of highly-charged ions in a unitary Penning trap designed to provide easy radial access for atomic or laser beams in charge exchange or spectroscopic experiments, such as those of interest for proposed studies of one-electron ions in Rydberg states or optical transitions of metastable states in multiply-charged ions. Under near-optimal conditions, ions captured and isolated in such rare-earth Penning traps can be characterized by an initial energy distribution that is $\\approx$ 60 times narrower than typically...

  20. Traces on Module Categories over Fusion Categories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregor Schaumann

    2015-01-27

    We consider traces on module categories over pivotal fusion categories which are compatible with the module structure. It is shown that such module traces characterise the Morita classes of special haploid symmetric Frobenius algebras. Moreover, they are unique up to a scale factor and they equip the dual category with a pivotal structure. This implies that for each pivotal structure on a fusion category over the complex numbers there exists a conjugate pivotal structure defined by the canonical module trace.

  1. Hidden in the Light: Magnetically Induced Afterglow from Trapped Chameleon Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holger Gies; David F. Mota; Douglas J. Shaw

    2008-01-07

    We propose an afterglow phenomenon as a unique trace of chameleon fields in optical experiments. The vacuum interaction of a laser pulse with a magnetic field can lead to a production and subsequent trapping of chameleons in the vacuum chamber, owing to their mass dependence on the ambient matter density. Magnetically induced re-conversion of the trapped chameleons into photons creates an afterglow over macroscopic timescales that can conveniently be searched for by current optical experiments. We show that the chameleon parameter range accessible to available laboratory technology is comparable to scales familiar from astrophysical stellar energy loss arguments. We analyze quantitatively the afterglow properties for various experimental scenarios and discuss the role of potential background and systematic effects. We conclude that afterglow searches represent an ideal tool to aim at the production and detection of cosmologically relevant scalar fields in the laboratory.

  2. Moøller polarimetry with polarized atomic hydrogen at MESA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartolomé, P. Aguar; Aulenbacher, K.; Tyukin, V. [Institut für Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-University, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2013-11-07

    A new generation of parity violation (PV) electron scattering experiments are planned to be carried out at the Institut für Kernphysik in Mainz. These experiments will be performed at low energies of 100-200 MeV using the new accelerator MESA (Mainz Energy recovering Superconducting Accelerator). One of the main challenges of such experiments is to achieve an accuracy in beam polarization measurements that must be below 0.5%. This very high accuracy can be reached using polarized atomic hydrogen gas, stored in an ultra-cold magnetic trap, as the target for electron beam polarimetry based on Mo/ller scattering. Electron spin-polarized atomic hydrogen can be stored at high densities of 10{sup 16} cm{sup ?2}, over relatively long time periods, in a high magnetic field (8T) and at low temperatures (0.3K). The gradient force splits the ground state of the hydrogen into four states with different energies. Atoms in the low energy states are trapped in the strong magnetic field region whereas the high energy states are repelled and pumped away. The physics of ultra-cold atomic hydrogen in magnetic traps and the status of the Mainz Hydro-Mo/ller project will be presented.

  3. Emittance and Current of Electrons Trapped in a Plasma Wakefield...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Emittance and Current of Electrons Trapped in a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Emittance and Current of Electrons Trapped in a Plasma...

  4. Real-Time Measurement of Diesel Trap Efficiency | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Measurement of Diesel Trap Efficiency Real-Time Measurement of Diesel Trap Efficiency 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters...

  5. Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implication...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implications in Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Charge Trapping in...

  6. Lean NOx Traps - Microstructural Studies of Real World and Model...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Emission Control Pre-Competitive Catalysis Research: Fundamental SulfationDesulfation Studies of Lean NOx Traps Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps...

  7. Radio-frequency dressed state potentials for neutral atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Hofferberth; I. Lesanovsky; B. Fischer; J. Verdu; J. Schmiedmayer

    2006-08-29

    Potentials for atoms can be created by external fields acting on properties like magnetic moment, charge, polarizability, or by oscillating fields which couple internal states. The most prominent realization of the latter is the optical dipole potential formed by coupling ground and electronically excited states of an atom with light. Here we present an experimental investigation of the remarkable properties of potentials derived from radio-frequency (RF) coupling between electronic ground states. The coupling is magnetic and the vector character allows to design state dependent potential landscapes. On atom chips this enables robust coherent atom manipulation on much smaller spatial scales than possible with static fields alone. We find no additional heating or collisional loss up to densities approaching $10^{15}$ atoms / cm$^3$ compared to static magnetic traps. We demonstrate the creation of Bose-Einstein condensates in RF potentials and investigate the difference in the interference between two independently created and two coherently split condensates in identical traps. All together this makes RF dressing a powerful new tool for micro manipulation of atomic and molecular systems.

  8. Optical transport and manipulation of an ultracold atomic cloud using focus-tunable lenses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julian Léonard; Moonjoo Lee; Andrea Morales; Thomas M. Karg; Tilman Esslinger; Tobias Donner

    2014-09-25

    We present an optical setup with focus-tunable lenses to dynamically control the waist and focus position of a laser beam, in which we transport a trapped ultracold cloud of 87-Rb over a distance of 28 cm. The scheme allows us to shift the focus position at constant waist, providing uniform trapping conditions over the full transport length. The fraction of atoms that are transported over the entire distance comes near to unity, while the heating of the cloud is in the range of a few microkelvin. We characterize the position stability of the focus and show that residual drift rates in focus position can be compensated for by counteracting with the tunable lenses. Beyond being a compact and robust scheme to transport ultracold atoms, the reported control of laser beams makes dynamic tailoring of trapping potentials possible. As an example, we steer the size of the atomic cloud by changing the waist size of the dipole beam.

  9. Laser cooling of a trapped particle with increased Rabi frequencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tony Blake; Andreas Kurcz; Norah S. Saleem; Almut Beige

    2011-10-14

    This paper analyses the cooling of a single particle in a harmonic trap with red-detuned laser light with fewer approximations than previously done in the literature. We avoid the adiabatic elimination of the excited atomic state but are still interested in Lamb-Dicke parameters $\\eta \\ll 1$. Our results show that the Rabi frequency of the cooling laser can be chosen higher than previously assumed, thereby increasing the effective cooling rate but {\\em not} affecting the final outcome of the cooling process. Since laser cooling is already a well established experimental technique, the main aim of this paper is to present a model which can be extended to more complex scenarios, like cavity-mediated laser cooling.

  10. 232 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 29, No. 3 / February 1, 2004 Off-resonant defocus-contrast imaging of cold atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scholten, Robert

    of column-density images of cold atoms, using a noninterferometric phase- recovery technique based prospects for simple, nondestructive imaging of atoms in magnetic and optical traps and condensates. © 2004 is predominant, despite its limited dynamic range and recoil heating. Off-resonant phase-imaging tech- niques

  11. Optimized Bose-Einstein-condensate production in a dipole trap based on a 1070-nm multifrequency laser: Influence of enhanced two-body loss on the evaporation process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Lauber; Johannes Kueber; Oliver Wille; Gerhard Birkl

    2011-10-24

    We present an optimized strategy for the production of tightly confined Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) of 87Rb in a crossed dipole trap with direct loading from a magneto-optical trap. The dipole trap is created with light of a multifrequency fiber laser with a center wavelength of 1070nm. Evaporative cooling is performed by ramping down the laser power only. A comparison of the resulting atom number in an almost pure BEC to the initial atom number and the value for the gain in phase space density per atom lost confirm that this straightforward strategy is very efficient. We observe that the temporal characteristics of evaporation sequence are strongly influenced by power-dependent two-body losses resulting from enhanced optical pumping to the higher-energy hyperfine state. We characterize these losses and compare them to results obtained with a single-frequency laser at 1030nm.

  12. Optimized Bose-Einstein-condensate production in a dipole trap based on a 1070-nm multifrequency laser: Influence of enhanced two-body loss on the evaporation process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lauber, Thomas; Wille, Oliver; Birkl, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    We present an optimized strategy for the production of tightly confined Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) of 87Rb in a crossed dipole trap with direct loading from a magneto-optical trap. The dipole trap is created with light of a multifrequency fiber laser with a center wavelength of 1070nm. Evaporative cooling is performed by ramping down the laser power only. A comparison of the resulting atom number in an almost pure BEC to the initial atom number and the value for the gain in phase space density per atom lost confirm that this straightforward strategy is very efficient. We observe that the temporal characteristics of evaporation sequence are strongly influenced by power-dependent two-body losses resulting from enhanced optical pumping to the higher-energy hyperfine state. We characterize these losses and compare them to results obtained with a single-frequency laser at 1030nm.

  13. A single-atom heat engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roßnagel, Johannes; Tolazzi, Karl Nicolas; Abah, Obinna; Lutz, Eric; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand; Singer, Kilian

    2015-01-01

    We report the experimental realization of a single-atom heat engine. An ion is confined in a linear Paul trap with tapered geometry and driven thermally by coupling it alternately to hot and cold reservoirs. The output power of the engine is used to drive a harmonic oscillation. From direct measurements of the ion dynamics, we determine the thermodynamic cycles for various temperature differences of the reservoirs. We use these cycles to evaluate power $P$ and efficiency $\\eta$ of the engine, obtaining up to $P=342\\,$yJ and $\\eta=0.28 \\,\\%$, consistent with analytical estimations. Our results demonstrate that thermal machines can be reduced to the ultimate limit of single atoms.

  14. A single-atom heat engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johannes Roßnagel; Samuel Thomas Dawkins; Karl Nicolas Tolazzi; Obinna Abah; Eric Lutz; Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler; Kilian Singer

    2015-10-13

    We report the experimental realization of a single-atom heat engine. An ion is confined in a linear Paul trap with tapered geometry and driven thermally by coupling it alternately to hot and cold reservoirs. The output power of the engine is used to drive a harmonic oscillation. From direct measurements of the ion dynamics, we determine the thermodynamic cycles for various temperature differences of the reservoirs. We use these cycles to evaluate power $P$ and efficiency $\\eta$ of the engine, obtaining up to $P=342\\,$yJ and $\\eta=0.28 \\,\\%$, consistent with analytical estimations. Our results demonstrate that thermal machines can be reduced to the ultimate limit of single atoms.

  15. Trapping efficiency depending on particulate size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayer, A.; Czerwinski, J.; Scheidegger, P.

    1996-09-01

    There is growing concern about the risk potential of Diesel particulates. This prompted two Swiss R and D projects focused on the capabilities of different soot trap concepts for filtering finest particulates. Eight different filter media, some in numerous variants, were tested on four different Diesel engines. All traps attained their gravimetric target. However, there are noticeable performance differences for finest particulates at or smaller than 50 nm. Fiber deep filters seem to be noticeably better than other filter types. If the carcinogens are mainly the finest particulates, then this criterion may become important in future trap evaluation.

  16. Acceleration of the Retinal Vascular Tracing Algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kepner, Jeremy

    Acceleration of the Retinal Vascular Tracing Algorithm using FPGAs Direction Filter Design FPGA along with image processing results at frame rate with low latency Results MEMORY 2 Results MEMORY 3 Memory Switching Design #12;Retinal Vascular Tracing Application Goal: Detection and enhancement

  17. Using a scalar parameter to trace dislocation evolution in atomistic modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Jinbo [ORNL; Zhang, Z F [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science; Osetskiy, Yury N [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    A scalar gamma-parameter is proposed from the Nye tensor. Its maximum value occurs along a dislocation line, either straight or curved, when the coordinate system is purposely chosen. This parameter can be easily obtained from the Nye tensor calculated at each atom in atomistic modeling. Using the gamma-parameter, a fully automated approach is developed to determine core atoms and the Burgers vectors of dislocations simultaneously. The approach is validated by revealing the smallest dislocation loop and by tracing the whole formation process of complicated dislocation networks on the fly.

  18. Ultracold atoms in radio-frequency-dressed potentials beyond the rotating wave approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Hofferberth; B. Fischer; T. Schumm; J. Schmiedmayer; I. Lesanovsky

    2007-08-01

    We study dressed Bose-Einstein condensates in an atom chip radio-frequency trap. We show that in this system sufficiently strong dressing can be achieved to cause the widely used rotating wave approximation (RWA) to break down. We present a full calculation of the atom - field coupling which shows that the non-RWA contributions quantitatively alter the shape of the emerging dressed adiabatic potentials. The non-RWA contributions furthermore lead to additional allowed transitions between dressed levels. We use RF spectroscopy of Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in the dressed state potentials to directly observe the transition from the RWA to the beyond-RWA regime.

  19. Energy Savings Through Steam Trap Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibbs, C.

    2008-01-01

    of continuous monitoring. In addition to energy loss failed open steam traps that go undetected can cause steam system issues. Over pressure on deairator tanks and return lines, electric condensate pump cavitation, and back pressure from undersized vent...

  20. Stable heteronuclear few-atom bound states in mixed dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin Tao; Zhang Peng; Zhang Wei [Department of Physics, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872 (China)

    2011-11-15

    We study few-body problems in mixed dimensions where two or three heavy atoms are trapped individually in parallel one-dimensional tubes or two-dimensional disks and a single light atom travels freely in three dimensions. Using the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, we find three- and four-body bound states for a broad parameter region. Specifically, the existence of trimer and tetramer states persists to the negative scattering length regime, where no two-body bound state is present. As pointed out by Y. Nishida in an earlier work [Phys. Rev. A 82, 011605(R) (2010)], these few-body bound states are stable against three-body recombination due to geometric separation. In addition, we find that the binding energy of the ground trimer and tetramer state reaches its maximum value when the scattering lengths are comparable to the separation between the low-dimensional traps.

  1. High-speed quantum memory with thermal motion of atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Tikhonov; T. Golubeva; Yu. Golubev

    2015-02-26

    We discuss the influence of atomic thermal motion on the efficiency of multimode quantum memory in two configurations: over the free expand of atoms cooled beforehand in a magneto-optical trap, and over complete mixing of atoms in a closed cell at room temperature. We consider the high-speed quantum memory, and assume that writing and retrieval are short enough, and the displacements of atoms during these stages are negligibly small. At the same time we take in account thermal motion during the storage time, which, as well known, must be much longer than durations of all the other memory processes for successful application of memory cell in communication and computation. We will analyze this influence in terms of eigenmodes of the full memory cycle and show that distortion of the eigenmodes, caused by thermal motion, leads to the efficiency reduction. We will demonstrate, that in the multimode memory this interconnection has complicated character.

  2. Entangling Atomic Spins with a Strong Rydberg-Dressed Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jau, Y -Y; Keating, Tyler; Deutsch, I H; Biedermann, G W

    2015-01-01

    Controlling quantum entanglement between parts of a many-body system is the key to unlocking the power of quantum information processing for applications such as quantum computation, highprecision sensing, and simulation of many-body physics. Spin degrees of freedom of ultracold neutral atoms in their ground electronic state provide a natural platform given their long coherence times and our ability to control them with magneto-optical fields, but creating strong coherent coupling between spins has been challenging. We demonstrate a Rydberg-dressed ground-state blockade that provides a strong tunable interaction energy (~1 MHz in units of Planck's constant) between spins of individually trapped cesium atoms. With this interaction we directly produce Bell-state entanglement between two atoms with a fidelity >= 81(2)%, excluding atom loss events, and >= 60(3)% when loss is included.

  3. Entangling Atomic Spins with a Strong Rydberg-Dressed Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. -Y. Jau; A. M. Hankin; Tyler Keating; I. H. Deutsch; G. W. Biedermann

    2015-01-16

    Controlling quantum entanglement between parts of a many-body system is the key to unlocking the power of quantum information processing for applications such as quantum computation, highprecision sensing, and simulation of many-body physics. Spin degrees of freedom of ultracold neutral atoms in their ground electronic state provide a natural platform given their long coherence times and our ability to control them with magneto-optical fields, but creating strong coherent coupling between spins has been challenging. We demonstrate a Rydberg-dressed ground-state blockade that provides a strong tunable interaction energy (~1 MHz in units of Planck's constant) between spins of individually trapped cesium atoms. With this interaction we directly produce Bell-state entanglement between two atoms with a fidelity >= 81(2)%, excluding atom loss events, and >= 60(3)% when loss is included.

  4. Reduction of Magnetic Noise in Atom Chips by Material Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Dikovsky; Y. Japha; C. Henkel; R. Folman

    2005-06-05

    We discuss the contribution of the material type in metal wires to the electromagnetic fluctuations in magnetic microtraps close to the surface of an atom chip. We show that significant reduction of the magnetic noise can be achieved by replacing the pure noble metal wires with their dilute alloys. The alloy composition provides an additional degree of freedom which enables a controlled reduction of both magnetic noise and resistivity if the atom chip is cooled. In addition, we provide a careful re-analysis of the magnetically induced trap loss observed by Yu-Ju Lin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 050404 (2004)] and find good agreement with an improved theory.

  5. Edge Transport in 2D Cold Atom Optical Lattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. W. Scarola; S. Das Sarma

    2007-05-24

    We theoretically study the observable response of edge currents in two dimensional cold atom optical lattices. As an example we use Gutzwiller mean-field theory to relate persistent edge currents surrounding a Mott insulator in a slowly rotating trapped Bose-Hubbard system to time of flight measurements. We briefly discuss an application, the detection of Chern number using edge currents of a topologically ordered optical lattice insulator.

  6. Atomizing nozzle and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Figliola, Richard S. (Central, SC); Molnar, Holly M. (Palm Bay, FL)

    1992-06-30

    High pressure atomizing nozzle includes a high pressure gas manifold having a divergent expansion chamber between a gas inlet and arcuate manifold segment to minimize standing shock wave patterns in the manifold and thereby improve filling of the manifold with high pressure gas for improved melt atomization. The atomizing nozzle is especially useful in atomizing rare earth-transition metal alloys to form fine powder particles wherein a majority of the powder particles exhibit particle sizes having near-optimum magnetic properties.

  7. Atomizing nozzle and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, I.E.; Figliola, R.S.; Molnar, H.M.

    1993-07-20

    High pressure atomizing nozzle includes a high pressure gas manifold having a divergent expansion chamber between a gas inlet and arcuate manifold segment to minimize standing shock wave patterns in the manifold and thereby improve filling of the manifold with high pressure gas for improved melt atomization. The atomizing nozzle is especially useful in atomizing rare earth-transition metal alloys to form fine powder particles wherein a majority of the powder particles exhibit particle sizes having near-optimum magnetic properties.

  8. Easy system call tracing for Plan 9.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minnich, Ronald G.

    2010-09-01

    Tracing system calls makes debugging easy and fast. On Plan 9, traditionally, system call tracing has been implemented with acid. New systems do not always implement all the capabilities needed for Acid, particularly the ability to rewrite the process code space to insert breakpoints. Architecture support libraries are not always available for Acid, or may not work even on a supported architecture. The requirement that Acid's libraries be available can be a problem on systems with a very small memory footprint, such as High Performance Computing systems where every Kbyte counts. Finally, Acid tracing is inconvenient in the presence of forks, which means tracing shell pipelines is particularly troublesome. The strace program available on most Unix systems is far more convenient to use and more capable than Acid for system call tracing. A similar system on Plan 9 can simplify troubleshooting. We have built a system calling tracing capability into the Plan 9 kernel. It has proven to be more convenient than strace in programming effort. One can write a shell script to implement tracing, and the C code to implement an strace equivalent is several orders of magnitude smaller.

  9. Ultracold-atom collisions in atomic waveguides : A two-channel analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Kristensen; Ludovic Pricoupenko

    2015-04-16

    Low dimensional behavior of two ultra-cold atoms trapped in two-and one-dimensional waveguides is investigated in the vicinity of a magnetic Feshbach resonance. A quantitative two-channel model for the Feshbach mechanism is used allowing an exhaustive analysis of low-dimensional resonant scattering behavior and of the confinement induced bound states. The role of the different parameters of the resonance is depicted in this context. Results are compared with the ones of the zero-range approach. The relevance of the effective range approximation in low dimensions is studied. Examples of known resonances are used to illustrate the bound state properties.

  10. Dual-axis high-data-rate atom interferometer via cold ensemble exchange

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rakholia, Akash V.; McGuinness, Hayden J.; Biedermann, Grant W.

    2014-11-24

    We demonstrate a dual-axis accelerometer and gyroscope atom interferometer, which can form the building blocks of a six-axis inertial measurement unit. By recapturing the atoms after the interferometer sequence, we maintain a large atom number at high data rates of 50 to 100 measurements per second. Two cold ensembles are formed in trap zones located a few centimeters apart and are launched toward one another. During their ballistic trajectory, they are interrogated with a stimulated Raman sequence, detected, and recaptured in the opposing trap zone. As a result, we achieve sensitivities at ?g/ ?Hz and ?rad/s/ ?Hz levels, making thismore »a compelling prospect for expanding the use of atom interferometer inertial sensors beyond benign laboratory environments.« less

  11. Trace Element Analysis At Nw Basin & Range Region (Coolbaugh...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trace Element Analysis At Nw Basin & Range Region (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Trace Element...

  12. Trace Element Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trace Element Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Trace...

  13. PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; 74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; ATOMS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; ATOMS; ELECTRONS; HELIUM; LIGHT SOURCES; RADIATIONS; STORAGE RINGS; SYNCHROTRONS SYNCHROTRON RADIATION SYNCHROTRONLIGHT SOURCES QUANTUM CHAOS...

  14. Atomic Energy Commission : Atomic Power at Shippingport - 1958 Educational Film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-02-02

    The United States Atomic Energy Commission & Westinghouse Electric Company take us on a tour of an atomic power station.

  15. Many interacting fermions in a one-dimensional harmonic trap: a quantum-chemical treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomasz Grining; Micha? Tomza; Micha? Lesiuk; Micha? Przybytek; Monika Musia?; Pietro Massignan; Maciej Lewenstein; Robert Moszynski

    2015-08-16

    We employ ab initio methods of quantum chemistry to investigate spin-1/2 fermions interacting via a two-body contact potential in a one-dimensional harmonic trap. The convergence of the total energy with the size of the one-particle basis set is analytically investigated for the two-body problem and the same form of the convergence formula is numerically confirmed to be valid for the many-body case. Benchmark calculations for two to six fermions with the full configuration interaction method, equivalent to the exact diagonalization approach, and the coupled cluster method including single, double, triple, and quadruple excitations are presented. The convergence of the correlation energy with the level of excitations included in the coupled cluster model is analyzed. The range of the interaction strength for which single-reference coupled cluster methods work is examined. Next, the coupled cluster method restricted to single, double, and noniterative triple excitations, CCSD(T), is employed to study a two-component Fermi gas composed of 6 to 80 atoms in a one-dimensional harmonic trap. The density profiles of trapped atomic clouds are also reported. Finally, a comparison with experimental results for few-fermion systems is presented. Upcoming possible applications and extensions of the presented approach are discussed.

  16. Single Atom Plasmonic Switch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emboras, Alexandros; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg

    2015-01-01

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moores law in the electronics industry. And while electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling-similar to electronics-is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled single atom plasmonic switch. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individual or at most - a few atoms in a plasmonic cavity. Depending on the location of the atom either of two distinct plasmonic cavity resonance states are supported. Experimental results show reversible digital optical switching with an extinction ration of 10 dB and operation at room temperature with femtojoule (fJ) power consumption for a single switch operation. This demonstration of a CMOS compatible, integrated quantum device allowing to control photons at the single-atom level opens intriguing perspectives for a fully i...

  17. Phonons and defects in semiconductors and nanostructures: Phonon trapping, phonon scattering, and heat flow at heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Estreicher, S. K., E-mail: Stefan.Estreicher@ttu.edu; Gibbons, T. M.; Kang, By.; Bebek, M. B. [Physics Department, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1051 (United States)

    2014-01-07

    Defects in semiconductors introduce vibrational modes that are distinct from bulk modes because they are spatially localized in the vicinity of the defect. Light impurities produce high-frequency modes often visible by Fourier-transform infrared absorption or Raman spectroscopy. Their vibrational lifetimes vary by orders of magnitude and sometimes exhibit unexpectedly large isotope effects. Heavy impurities introduce low-frequency modes sometimes visible as phonon replicas in photoluminescence bands. But other defects such as surfaces or interfaces exhibit spatially localized modes (SLMs) as well. All of them can trap phonons, which ultimately decay into lower-frequency bulk phonons. When heat flows through a material containing defects, phonon trapping at localized modes followed by their decay into bulk phonons is usually described in terms of phonon scattering: defects are assumed to be static scattering centers and the properties of the defect-related SLMs modes are ignored. These dynamic properties of defects are important. In this paper, we quantify the concepts of vibrational localization and phonon trapping, distinguish between normal and anomalous decay of localized excitations, discuss the meaning of phonon scattering in real space at the atomic level, and illustrate the importance of phonon trapping in the case of heat flow at Si/Ge and Si/C interfaces.

  18. Quantum control of the motional states of trapped ions through fast switching of trapping potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Alonso; F. M. Leupold; B. C. Keitch; J. P. Home

    2012-12-21

    We propose a new scheme for supplying voltages to the electrodes of microfabricated ion traps, enabling access to a regime in which changes to the trapping potential are made on timescales much shorter than the period of the secular oscillation frequencies of the trapped ions. This opens up possibilities for speeding up the transport of ions in segmented ion traps and also provides access to control of multiple ions in a string faster than the Coulomb interaction between them. We perform a theoretical study of ion transport using these methods in a surface-electrode trap, characterizing the precision required for a number of important control parameters. We also consider the possibilities and limitations for generating motional state squeezing using these techniques, which could be used as a basis for investigations of Gaussian-state entanglement.

  19. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, Milton (Palos Park, IL); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Nagy, Zoltan (Woodridge, IL)

    1984-01-01

    A process for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous, the fly ash having a silicate base and containing surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like, with the process being carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl.sub.3 in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl.sub.3 to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  20. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Wai, C.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1983-08-15

    A process is described for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous. The fly ash has a silicate base and contains surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like. The process is carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl/sub 3/ in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl/sub 3/ to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  1. Traces on finite W-algebras

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Etingof, Pavel I.

    We compute the space of Poisson traces on a classical W-algebra, i.e., linear functionals invariant under Hamiltonian derivations. Modulo any central character, this space identifies with the top cohomology of the corresponding ...

  2. Design of a dual species atom interferometer for space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thilo Schuldt; Christian Schubert; Markus Krutzik; Lluis Gesa Bote; Naceur Gaaloul; Jonas Hartwig; Holger Ahlers; Waldemar Herr; Katerine Posso-Trujillo; Jan Rudolph; Stephan Seidel; Thijs Wendrich; Wolfgang Ertmer; Sven Herrmann; André Kubelka-Lange; Alexander Milke; Benny Rievers; Emanuele Rocco; Andrew Hinton; Kai Bongs; Markus Oswald; Matthias Franz; Matthias Hauth; Achim Peters; Ahmad Bawamia; Andreas Wicht; Baptiste Battelier; Andrea Bertoldi; Philippe Bouyer; Arnaud Landragin; Didier Massonnet; Thomas Lévèque; Andre Wenzlawski; Ortwin Hellmig; Patrick Windpassinger; Klaus Sengstock; Wolf von Klitzing; Chris Chaloner; David Summers; Philip Ireland; Ignacio Mateos; Carlos F. Sopuerta; Fiodor Sorrentino; Guglielmo M. Tino; Michael Williams; Christian Trenkel; Domenico Gerardi; Michael Chwalla; Johannes Burkhardt; Ulrich Johann; Astrid Heske; Eric Wille; Martin Gehler; Luigi Cacciapuoti; Norman Gürlebeck; Claus Braxmaier; Ernst Rasel

    2014-12-08

    Atom interferometers have a multitude of proposed applications in space including precise measurements of the Earth's gravitational field, in navigation & ranging, and in fundamental physics such as tests of the weak equivalence principle (WEP) and gravitational wave detection. While atom interferometers are realized routinely in ground-based laboratories, current efforts aim at the development of a space compatible design optimized with respect to dimensions, weight, power consumption, mechanical robustness and radiation hardness. In this paper, we present a design of a high-sensitivity differential dual species $^{85}$Rb/$^{87}$Rb atom interferometer for space, including physics package, laser system, electronics and software. The physics package comprises the atom source consisting of dispensers and a 2D magneto-optical trap (MOT), the science chamber with a 3D-MOT, a magnetic trap based on an atom chip and an optical dipole trap (ODT) used for Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) creation and interferometry, the detection unit, the vacuum system for $10^{-11}$ mbar ultra-high vacuum generation, and the high-suppression factor magnetic shielding as well as the thermal control system. The laser system is based on a hybrid approach using fiber-based telecom components and high-power laser diode technology and includes all laser sources for 2D-MOT, 3D-MOT, ODT, interferometry and detection. Manipulation and switching of the laser beams is carried out on an optical bench using Zerodur bonding technology. The instrument consists of 9 units with an overall mass of 221 kg, an average power consumption of 608 W (819 W peak), and a volume of 470 liters which would well fit on a satellite to be launched with a Soyuz rocket, as system studies have shown.

  3. CP-violating CFT and trace anomaly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu Nakayama

    2012-01-26

    It is logically possible that the trace anomaly in four dimension includes the Hirzebruch-Pontryagin density in CP violating theories. Although the term vanishes at free conformal fixed points, we realize such a possibility in the holographic renormalization group and show that it is indeed possible. The Hirzebruch-Pontryagin term in the trace anomaly may serve as a barometer to understand how much CP is violated in conformal field theories.

  4. Ball-grid array architecture for microfabricated ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas D. Guise; Spencer D. Fallek; Kelly E. Stevens; K. R. Brown; Curtis Volin; Alexa W. Harter; Jason M. Amini; Robert E. Higashi; Son Thai Lu; Helen M. Chanhvongsak; Thi A. Nguyen; Matthew S. Marcus; Thomas R. Ohnstein; Daniel W. Youngner

    2015-05-05

    State-of-the-art microfabricated ion traps for quantum information research are approaching nearly one hundred control electrodes. We report here on the development and testing of a new architecture for microfabricated ion traps, built around ball-grid array (BGA) connections, that is suitable for increasingly complex trap designs. In the BGA trap, through-substrate vias bring electrical signals from the back side of the trap die to the surface trap structure on the top side. Gold-ball bump bonds connect the back side of the trap die to an interposer for signal routing from the carrier. Trench capacitors fabricated into the trap die replace area-intensive surface or edge capacitors. Wirebonds in the BGA architecture are moved to the interposer. These last two features allow the trap die to be reduced to only the area required to produce trapping fields. The smaller trap dimensions allow tight focusing of an addressing laser beam for fast single-qubit rotations. Performance of the BGA trap as characterized with $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions is comparable to previous surface-electrode traps in terms of ion heating rate, mode frequency stability, and storage lifetime. We demonstrate two-qubit entanglement operations with $^{171}$Yb$^+$ ions in a second BGA trap.

  5. First Use of High Charge States for Mass Measurements of Short-Lived Nuclides in a Penning Trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ettenauer, S.; Gallant, A. T.; Dilling, J.; Simon, M. C.; Chaudhuri, A.; Mane, E.; Delheij, P.; Pearson, M. R.; Brunner, T.; Chowdhury, U.; Simon, V. V.; Brodeur, M.; Andreoiu, C.; Audi, G.; Lopez-Urrutia, J. R. Crespo; Ullrich, J.; Gwinner, G.; Lapierre, A.; Lunney, D.; Ringle, R.

    2011-12-30

    Penning trap mass measurements of short-lived nuclides have been performed for the first time with highly charged ions, using the TITAN facility at TRIUMF. Compared to singly charged ions, this provides an improvement in experimental precision that scales with the charge state q. Neutron-deficient Rb isotopes have been charge bred in an electron beam ion trap to q=8-12+ prior to injection into the Penning trap. In combination with the Ramsey excitation scheme, this unique setup creating low energy, highly charged ions at a radioactive beam facility opens the door to unrivaled precision with gains of 1-2 orders of magnitude. The method is particularly suited for short-lived nuclides such as the superallowed {beta} emitter {sup 74}Rb (T{sub 1/2}=65 ms). The determination of its atomic mass and an improved Q{sub EC} value are presented.

  6. First Use of High Charge States for Mass Measurements of Short-lived Nuclides in a Penning Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Ettenauer; M. C. Simon; A. T. Gallant; T. Brunner; U. Chowdhury; V. V. Simon; M. Brodeur; A. Chaudhuri; E. Mané; C. Andreoiu; G. Audi; J. R. Crespo López-Urrutia; P. Delheij; G. Gwinner; A. Lapierre; D. Lunney; M. R. Pearson; R. Ringle; J. Ullrich; J. Dilling

    2011-09-15

    Penning trap mass measurements of short-lived nuclides have been performed for the first time with highly-charged ions (HCI), using the TITAN facility at TRIUMF. Compared to singly-charged ions, this provides an improvement in experimental precision that scales with the charge state q. Neutron-deficient Rb-isotopes have been charge bred in an electron beam ion trap to q = 8 - 12+ prior to injection into the Penning trap. In combination with the Ramsey excitation scheme, this unique setup creating low energy, highly-charged ions at a radioactive beam facility opens the door to unrivalled precision with gains of 1-2 orders of magnitude. The method is particularly suited for short-lived nuclides such as the superallowed {\\beta} emitter 74Rb (T1/2 = 65 ms). The determination of its atomic mass and an improved QEC-value are presented.

  7. Ion funnel ion trap and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belov, Mikhail E [Richland, WA; Ibrahim, Yehia M [Richland, WA; Clowers, Biran H [West Richland, WA; Prior, David C [Hermiston, OR; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2011-02-15

    An ion funnel trap is described that includes a inlet portion, a trapping portion, and a outlet portion that couples, in normal operation, with an ion funnel. The ion trap operates efficiently at a pressure of .about.1 Torr and provides for: 1) removal of low mass-to-charge (m/z) ion species, 2) ion accumulation efficiency of up to 80%, 3) charge capacity of .about.10,000,000 elementary charges, 4) ion ejection time of 40 to 200 .mu.s, and 5) optimized variable ion accumulation times. Ion accumulation with low concentration peptide mixtures has shown an increase in analyte signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of a factor of 30, and a greater than 10-fold improvement in SNR for multiply charged analytes.

  8. Signal enhancement using a switchable magnetic trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald (Pleasanton, CA)

    2012-05-29

    A system for analyzing a sample including providing a microchannel flow channel; associating the sample with magnetic nanoparticles or magnetic polystyrene-coated beads; moving the sample with said magnetic nanoparticles or magnetic polystyrene-coated beads in the microchannel flow channel; holding the sample with the magnetic nanoparticles or magnetic polystyrene-coated beads in a magnetic trap in the microchannel flow channel; and analyzing the sample obtaining an enhanced analysis signal. An apparatus for analysis of a sample includes magnetic particles connected to the sample, a microchip, a flow channel in the microchip, a source of carrier fluid connected to the flow channel for moving the sample in the flow channel, an electromagnet trap connected to the flow line for selectively magnetically trapping the sample and the magnetic particles, and an analyzer for analyzing the sample.

  9. Controlling fast transport of cold trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas Walther; Frank Ziesel; Thomas Ruster; Sam T. Dawkins; Konstantin Ott; Max Hettrich; Kilian Singer; Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler; Ulrich Poschinger

    2012-06-02

    We realize fast transport of ions in a segmented micro-structured Paul trap. The ion is shuttled over a distance of more than 10^4 times its groundstate wavefunction size during only 5 motional cycles of the trap (280 micro meter in 3.6 micro seconds). Starting from a ground-state-cooled ion, we find an optimized transport such that the energy increase is as low as 0.10 $\\pm$ 0.01 motional quanta. In addition, we demonstrate that quantum information stored in a spin-motion entangled state is preserved throughout the transport. Shuttling operations are concatenated, as a proof-of-principle for the shuttling-based architecture to scalable ion trap quantum computing.

  10. Thick-film technology for ultra high vacuum interfaces of micro-structured traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delia Kaufmann; Thomas Collath; M. Tanveer Baig; Peter Kaufmann; Eman Asenwar; Michael Johanning; Christof Wunderlich

    2012-01-26

    We adopt thick-film technology to produce ultra high vacuum compatible interfaces for electrical signals. These interfaces permit voltages of hundreds of Volts and currents of several Amperes and allow for very compact vacuum setups, useful in quantum optics in general, and especially for quantum information and quantum simulations using miniaturized traps for ions or neutral atoms. Such printed circuits can also be useful as pure in-vacuum devices. We demonstrate a specific interface, which provides eleven current feedthroughs, more than 70 dc feedthroughs and a feedthrough for radio frequencies. We achieve a pressure in the low 1e-11mbar range and demonstrate the full functionality of the interface by trapping chains of cold ytterbium ions, which requires all of the signals mentioned above being present. In addition, a versatile multi-channel device for supplying precise time-dependent voltages has been developed.

  11. Screening the Hanford tanks for trapped gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, P.

    1995-10-01

    The Hanford Site is home to 177 large, underground nuclear waste storage tanks. Hydrogen gas is generated within the waste in these tanks. This document presents the results of a screening of Hanford`s nuclear waste storage tanks for the presence of gas trapped in the waste. The method used for the screening is to look for an inverse correlation between waste level measurements and ambient atmospheric pressure. If the waste level in a tank decreases with an increase in ambient atmospheric pressure, then the compressibility may be attributed to gas trapped within the waste. In this report, this methodology is not used to estimate the volume of gas trapped in the waste. The waste level measurements used in this study were made primarily to monitor the tanks for leaks and intrusions. Four measurement devices are widely used in these tanks. Three of these measure the level of the waste surface. The remaining device measures from within a well embedded in the waste, thereby monitoring the liquid level even if the liquid level is below a dry waste crust. In the past, a steady rise in waste level has been taken as an indicator of trapped gas. This indicator is not part of the screening calculation described in this report; however, a possible explanation for the rise is given by the mathematical relation between atmospheric pressure and waste level used to support the screening calculation. The screening was applied to data from each measurement device in each tank. If any of these data for a single tank indicated trapped gas, that tank was flagged by this screening process. A total of 58 of the 177 Hanford tanks were flagged as containing trapped gas, including 21 of the 25 tanks currently on the flammable gas watch list.

  12. Capturing Energy Savings with Steam Traps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bockwinkel, R. G.; French, S. A.

    1997-01-01

    , flanges and other connections. The economic loss can be significant. To appre ciate the massive economic impact of wasting steam, let's again look at the very small trap leak on 30 pound pressure typical for many process applications. Chart 1 shows... how much steam will be lost each hour from various size orifices and pressure ranges and the example calcula tions show how much steam is lost per year. Chart 1. Steam Loss Comparison For Various Pressures and Orifice Sizes Drip &Tracer Traps "1...

  13. Fast separation of two trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Palmero; S. Martínez-Garaot; U. G. Poschinger; A. Ruschhaupt; J. G. Muga

    2015-05-19

    We design fast protocols to separate or recombine two ions in a segmented Paul trap. By inverse engineering the time evolution of the trapping potential composed of a harmonic and a quartic term, it is possible to perform these processes in a few microseconds without final excitation. These times are much shorter than the ones reported so far experimentally. The design is based on dynamical invariants and dynamical normal modes. Anharmonicities beyond the harmonic approximation at potential minima are taken into account perturbatively. The stability versus an unknown potential bias is also studied.

  14. Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.

    1988-03-15

    A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself. 4 figs.

  15. Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeAngelis, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soilof Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Journals Tropicalof Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil

  16. Quantum And Classical Dynamics Of Atoms In A Magneto-optical Lattice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deutsch, Ivan H.

    motion. Experiments, performed deep in the quantum regime, correspond to dynamic quantum tunneling in the experiment, but undergoing classical Hamiltonian flow. We study conditions under which the trapped atoms can with applications ranging from engineered chemical reactions [1] to electron transport in semiconductors [2

  17. Control of atomic currents using a quantum stirring device Moritz Hiller,1,2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Doron

    to a cyclic adiabatic change of two control parameters of an optical trap. We demonstrate the feasibility (AC) modulation of the potential is familiar from the context of electronic devices. If an open-cold atoms [15, 16] due to the periodic variation of the on-site potentials and of the tunneling rates

  18. Atomic oxygen in crystalline Kr and Xe. II. Adiabatic potential energy surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apkarian, V. Ara

    Atomic oxygen in crystalline Kr and Xe. II. Adiabatic potential energy surfaces A. V. Danilychev, `S), trapped in crystalline Kr and Xe are developed based on known angularly anisotropic pair to reproduce the experimental O(`S+`D) emissions in substitutional and interstitial sites of crystalline Kr

  19. Laser-Cooled Lithium Atoms: A New Source for Focused Ion Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laser-Cooled Lithium Atoms: A New Source for Focused Ion Beams P R O J E C T L E A D E R : Jabez Mc E N T S Designed and constructed a laser-cooled, magneto-optical trap-based lithium ion source mounted on a commercial focused ion beam system, creating the world's first lithium ion microscope

  20. EBIT (Electron Beam Ion Trap), N-Division Experimental Physics. Annual report, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, D. [ed.

    1995-10-01

    The experimental groups in the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) program continue to perform front-line research with trapped and extracted highly charged ions (HCI) in the areas of ion/surface interactions, atomic spectroscopy, electron-ion interaction and structure measurements, highly charged ion confinement, and EBIT development studies. The ion surface/interaction studies which were initiated five years ago have reached a stage where they an carry out routine investigations, as well as produce breakthrough results towards the development of novel nanotechnology. At EBIT and SuperEBIT studies of the x-ray emission from trapped ions continue to produce significant atomic structure data with high precision for few electron systems of high-Z ions. Furthermore, diagnostics development for magnetic and laser fusion, supporting research for the x-ray laser and weapons programs, and laboratory astrophysics experiments in support of NASA`s astrophysics program are a continuing effort. The two-electron contributions to the binding energy of helium like ions were measured for the first time. The results are significant because their precision is an order of magnitude better than those of competing measurements at accelerators, and the novel technique isolates the energy corrections that are the most interesting. The RETRAP project which was initiated three years ago has reached a stage where trapping, confining and electronic cooling of HCI ions up to Th{sup 80+} can be performed routinely. Measurements of the rates and cross sections for electron transfer from H{sub 2} performed to determine the lifetime of HCI up to Xe{sup q+} and Th{sup q+} (35 {le} q {le} 80) have been studied at mean energies estimated to be {approximately} 5 q eV. This combination of heavy ions with very high charges and very low energies is rare in nature, but may be encountered in planned fusion energy demonstration devices, in highly charged ion sources, or in certain astrophysical events.

  1. Sympathetic cooling and detection of a hot trapped ion by a cold one

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guggemos, M; Herrera-Sancho, O A; Blatt, R; Roos, C F

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of an ion sympathetically cooled by another laser-cooled ion or small ion crystal. To this end, we develop simple models of the cooling dynamics in the limit of weak Coulomb interactions. Experimentally, we create a two-ion crystal of Ca$^+$ and Al$^+$ by photo-ionization of neutral atoms produced by laser ablation. We characterize the velocity distribution of the laser-ablated atoms crossing the trap by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. We observe neutral atom velocities much higher than the ones of thermally heated samples and find as a consequence long sympathethic cooling times before crystallization occurs. Our key result is a new technique for detecting the loading of an initially hot ion with energy in the eV range by monitoring the motional state of a Doppler-cooled ion already present in the trap. This technique not only detects the ion but also provides information about dynamics of the sympathetic cooling process.

  2. Sympathetic cooling and detection of a hot trapped ion by a cold one

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Guggemos; D. Heinrich; O. A. Herrera-Sancho; R. Blatt; C. F. Roos

    2015-08-11

    We investigate the dynamics of an ion sympathetically cooled by another laser-cooled ion or small ion crystal. To this end, we develop simple models of the cooling dynamics in the limit of weak Coulomb interactions. Experimentally, we create a two-ion crystal of Ca$^+$ and Al$^+$ by photo-ionization of neutral atoms produced by laser ablation. We characterize the velocity distribution of the laser-ablated atoms crossing the trap by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. We observe neutral atom velocities much higher than the ones of thermally heated samples and find as a consequence long sympathethic cooling times before crystallization occurs. Our key result is a new technique for detecting the loading of an initially hot ion with energy in the eV range by monitoring the motional state of a Doppler-cooled ion already present in the trap. This technique not only detects the ion but also provides information about dynamics of the sympathetic cooling process.

  3. The trace formula The Langevin process in R

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrmann, Samuel

    The trace formula The Langevin process in R Symmetric spaces and the Malliavin calculus and the trace formula Jean-Michel Bismut Universit´e Paris-Sud, Orsay `A la m´emoire de Paul Malliavin Jean-Michel Bismut The Malliavin calculus and the trace formula #12;The trace formula The Langevin process in R

  4. Foundations of the Trace Assertion Method of Module Interface Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sekerinski, Emil

    states and the behaviors observed are fully described by traces built from access program invocations

  5. Our newly founded research group (starting April 2013) has openings for PhD/Master students Trapped ions in high-finesse optical cavities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutz, Hartmut

    cutting edge technology (quantum optics, fiber optics, photonics) and fundamental concepts of modern quantum computers, trapped atomic ions (see Physics Nobel prize 2012), were precluded from efficient correlated photons in arrays of optical cavities, which is intimately linked to the physics of the Bose

  6. Improved graphite furnace atomizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siemer, D.D.

    1983-05-18

    A graphite furnace atomizer for use in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy is described wherein the heating elements are affixed near the optical path and away from the point of sample deposition, so that when the sample is volatilized the spectroscopic temperature at the optical path is at least that of the volatilization temperature, whereby analyteconcomitant complex formation is advantageously reduced. The atomizer may be elongated along its axis to increase the distance between the optical path and the sample deposition point. Also, the atomizer may be elongated along the axis of the optical path, whereby its analytical sensitivity is greatly increased.

  7. The Harnessed Atom

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Harnessed Atom is a new middle school science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) curriculum extension that focuses on nuclear science and energy. It offers teachers accurate, unbiased,...

  8. Atomic Collapse Observed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientists Observe Atomic Collapse State Quantum Mechanics Prediction Confirmed in Graphene Using NERSC's Hopper April 26, 2013 | Tags: Hopper, Materials Science Contact: Linda...

  9. Surface Passivation of Nanoporous TiO2 via Atomic Layer Deposition of ZrO2 for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surface Passivation of Nanoporous TiO2 via Atomic Layer Deposition of ZrO2 for Solid-State Dye; ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed: August 22, 2009 We report here the utilization of atomic layer deposition to passivate surface trap states in mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles for solid-state dye

  10. Exciton self-trapping in bulk polyethylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Ceresoli; M. C. Righi; E. Tosatti; S. Scandolo; G. Santoro; S. Serra

    2005-07-13

    We studied theoretically the behavior of an injected electron-hole pair in crystalline polyethylene. Time-dependent adiabatic evolution by ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations show that the pair will become self-trapped in the perfect crystal, with a trapping energy of about 0.38 eV, with formation of a pair of trans-gauche conformational defects, three C$_2$H$_4$ units apart on the same chain. The electron is confined in the inter-chain pocket created by a local, 120$^\\circ$ rotation of the chain between the two defects, while the hole resides on the chain and is much less bound. Despite the large energy stored in the trapped excitation, there does not appear to be a direct non-radiative channel for electron-hole recombination. This suggests that intrinsic self-trapping of electron-hole pairs inside the ideal quasi-crystalline fraction of PE might not be directly relevant for electrical damage in high-voltage cables.

  11. Steam Trap Maintenance as a Profit Center 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouchillon, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    program at a large, 4000 trap chemical plant. The previously "good" maintenance program which was losing $565,000 per year in steam was turned into a $485,000 per year cost savings. This paper will also give the steps that can in as few as 3 months...

  12. Dynamical Localization in the Paul Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. El Ghafar; P. Torma; V. Savichev; E. Mayr; A. Zeiler; W. P. Schleich

    1996-12-18

    We show that quantum localization occurs in the center-of-mass motion of an ion stored in a Paul trap and interacting with a standing laser field. The present experimental state of the art makes the observation of this phenomenon feasible.

  13. Dynamical Localization in the Paul Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghafar, M E; Savichev, V; Mayr, E; Zeiler, A; Schleich, W P

    1997-01-01

    We show that quantum localization occurs in the center-of-mass motion of an ion stored in a Paul trap and interacting with a standing laser field. The present experimental state of the art makes the observation of this phenomenon feasible.

  14. Emerald Ash Borer TEXAS TRAPPING PROJECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emerald Ash Borer TEXAS TRAPPING PROJECT East Texas 2012 H. A. (Joe) Pase III Texas Forest Service Forest Health #12;#12;How To Identify Ash Trees Consider these quick points when identifying ash trees the EAB survey, ash trees do not need to be identified to species) Texas is home to at least six (6

  15. Selection, Sizing, and Testing of Stream Traps in Commercial Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armer, A.; Risko, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    For maximum effectiveness in steam systems, steam traps should have operating characteristics which closely match the requirements of the applications for which they are used. A trap which holds back condensate until it is subcooled and some...

  16. Efficient light-trapping nanostructures in thin silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Sang Eon

    We examine light-trapping in thin crystalline silicon periodic nanostructures for solar cell applications. Using group theory, we show that light-trapping can be improved over a broad band when structural mirror symmetry ...

  17. European Conference on Trapped Ions 1924 September 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hensinger, Winfried

    European Conference on Trapped Ions 1924 September 2010 Redworth Hall Conference Handbook Sponsored by: #12;ECTI 2010 Committees and Invited Wunderlich (Universität Siegen) ECTI 2010 1 #12;Scope of the Conference Ion traps are used as a basic tool

  18. Shuttling of ions for characterization of a microfabricated ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Zachary (Zachary Kenneth)

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, I present experimental results demonstrating the characterization of a planar Paul trap. I discuss the theory of ion trapping and analyze the voltages required for shuttling. Next, the characteristics of a ...

  19. Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps This guide was prepared to serve as a foundation for making informed decisions about when orifice plate...

  20. Thermal Deactivation Mechanisms of Fully-Formed Lean NOx Trap...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Duty Linehaul Platform Project Update Effect of Thermal Aging on NO oxidation and NOx storage in a Fully-Formulated Lean NOx Trap Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts...

  1. Energy Savings with Computerized Steam Trap Maintenance Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klidzejs, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the efforts made at 3M Company plants to save energy in the steam distribution system by improving the maintenance of steam traps. The results from steam trap surveys for 17 facilities with over 6,400 ...

  2. Towards a cryogenic planar ion trap for Sr-88

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakr, Waseem (Waseem S.)

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes experiments with ion traps constructed with electrodes in a single two-dimensional plane, and ion traps operated in a cryogenic environment at 77K and 4K temperatures. These two technologies address ...

  3. Carbon dioxide dissolution in structural and stratigraphic traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hesse, M. A.

    The geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) in structural and stratigraphic traps is a viable option to reduce anthropogenic emissions. While dissolution of the CO[subscript 2] stored in these traps ...

  4. Effective Steam Trap Selection/Maintenance - Its Payback 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia, E.

    1984-01-01

    In oil refineries and petrochemical plants large number of steam traps are used to discharge condensate from steam mains, tracers and process equipment. Early efforts on steam traps focused almost exclusively on their selection and sizing...

  5. Organic magnetoresistance from deep traps N. J. Harmon1,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flatte, Michael E.

    ,16 Traps that exhibit strong spin-orbit effects can enhance organic light-emitting diode (OLED) emission

  6. Trace anomaly on a quantum spacetime manifold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spallucci, Euro; Smailagic, Anais; Nicolini, Piero

    2006-04-15

    In this paper we investigate the trace anomaly in a space-time where single events are delocalized as a consequence of short distance quantum coordinate fluctuations. We obtain a modified form of heat kernel asymptotic expansion which does not suffer from short distance divergences. Calculation of the trace anomaly is performed using an IR regulator in order to circumvent the absence of UV infinities. The explicit form of the trace anomaly is presented and the corresponding 2D Polyakov effective action and energy-momentum tensor are obtained. The vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor in the Boulware, Hartle-Hawking and Unruh vacua is explicitly calculated in a rt section of a recently found, noncommutative inspired, Schwarzschild-like solution of the Einstein equations. The standard short distance divergences in the vacuum expectation values are regularized in agreement with the absence of UV infinities removed by quantum coordinate fluctuations.

  7. Alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100ms scale in a single-cell vacuum system for cold atom experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dugrain, Vincent; Reichel, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    We describe and characterize a device for alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100ms timescale in a single-cell cold atom experiment. Its mechanism is based on optimized heat conduction between a current-modulated alkali dispenser and a heat sink at room temperature. We have studied both the short-term behavior during individual pulses and the long-term pressure evolution in the cell. The device combines fast trap loading and relatively long trap lifetime, enabling high repetition rates in a very simple setup. These features make it particularly suitable for portable atomic sensors.

  8. Alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100ms scale in a single-cell vacuum system for cold atom experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent Dugrain; Peter Rosenbusch; Jakob Reichel

    2014-07-31

    We describe and characterize a device for alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100ms timescale in a single-cell cold atom experiment. Its mechanism is based on optimized heat conduction between a current-modulated alkali dispenser and a heat sink at room temperature. We have studied both the short-term behavior during individual pulses and the long-term pressure evolution in the cell. The device combines fast trap loading and relatively long trap lifetime, enabling high repetition rates in a very simple setup. These features make it particularly suitable for portable atomic sensors.

  9. Producing and Detecting Correlated atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christoph I. Westbrook; Martijn Schellekens; Aurélien Perrin; Valentina Krachmalnicoff; Jose Carlos Viana Gomes; Jean-Baptiste Trebbia; Jérôme Estève; Hong Chang; Isabelle Bouchoule; Denis Boiron; Alain Aspect; Tom Jeltes; John McNamara; Wim Hogervorst; Wim Vassen

    2006-09-04

    We discuss experiments to produce and detect atom correlations in a degenerate or nearly degenerate gas of neutral atoms. First we treat the atomic analog of the celebrated Hanbury Brown Twiss experiment, in which atom correlations result simply from interference effects without any atom interactions.We have performed this experiment for both bosons and fermions. Next we show how atom interactions produce correlated atoms using the atomic analog of spontaneous four-wavemixing. Finally, we briefly mention experiments on a one dimensional gas on an atom chip in which correlation effects due to both interference and interactions have been observed.

  10. Commons as insurance: safety nets or poverty traps? Philippe Delacote

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langerhans, Brian

    Commons as insurance: safety nets or poverty traps? Philippe Delacote Economics Department, EUI. The aim of this paper is to consider the potential poverty-trap implications of this use. If the capacity, the introduction of an insurance scheme could be an exit to the poverty trap and relax pressure on the resource

  11. Cavity Nonlinear Optics at Low Photon Numbers from Collective Atomic Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subhadeep Gupta; Kevin L. Moore; Kater W. Murch; Dan M. Stamper-Kurn

    2007-09-05

    We report on Kerr nonlinearity and dispersive optical bistability of a Fabry-Perot optical resonator due to the displacement of ultracold atoms trapped within. In the driven resonator, such collective motion is induced by optical forces acting upon up to $10^5$ $^{87}$Rb atoms prepared in the lowest band of a one-dimensional intracavity optical lattice. The longevity of atomic motional coherence allows for strongly nonlinear optics at extremely low cavity photon numbers, as demonstrated by the observation of both branches of optical bistability at photon numbers below unity.

  12. Diverse classical walking of a single atom in an amplitude-modulated standing wave lattice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin Zhang; H. Y. Kong; S. X. Qu

    2010-12-23

    The classical walking behaviors of a single atom in an amplitude-modulated standing wave lattice beyond the internal dynamics are investigated. Based on a simple effective model, we identify a diversity of dynamic regimes of atomic motion by periodically adjusting the lattice depth. Harmonic oscillation or pendulum rotation with classical step-jumping, random scattering walking, chaotic transportation, quasi-periodic trapped motion and roughly ballistic free flying are found in this simple model within different parametric regions by approximate analyses. Our study demonstrates a complex motion of single atom in modulating optical lattice beyond the quantum description.

  13. Rapid chain tracing of polypeptide backbones in electron-density maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C., E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    A method for rapid chain tracing of polypeptide backbones at moderate resolution is presented. A method for the rapid tracing of polypeptide backbones has been developed. The method creates an approximate chain tracing that is useful for visual evaluation of whether a structure has been solved and for use in scoring the quality of electron-density maps. The essence of the method is to (i) sample candidate C{sup ?} positions at spacings of approximately 0.6 Å along ridgelines of high electron density, (ii) list all possible nonapeptides that satisfy simple geometric and density criteria using these candidate C{sup ?} positions, (iii) score the nonapeptides and choose the highest scoring ones, and (iv) find the longest chains that can be made by connecting nonamers. An indexing and storage scheme that allows a single calculation of most distances and density values is used to speed up the process. The method was applied to 42 density-modified electron-density maps at resolutions from 1.5 to 3.8 Å. A total of 21 428 residues in these maps were traced in 24 CPU min with an overall r.m.s.d. of 1.61 Å for C{sup ?} atoms compared with the known refined structures. The method appears to be suitable for rapid evaluation of electron-density map quality.

  14. Analyzing PICL trace data with MEDEA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merlo, A.P.; Worley, P.H.

    1993-11-01

    Execution traces and performance statistics can be collected for parallel applications on a variety of multiprocessor platforms by using the Portable Instrumented Communication Library (PICL). The static and dynamic performance characteristics of performance data can be analyzed easily and effectively with the facilities provided within the MEasurements Description Evaluation and Analysis tool (MEDEA). This report describes the integration of the PICL trace file format into MEDEA. A case study is then outlined that uses PICL and MEDEA to characterize the performance of a parallel benchmark code executed on different hardware platforms and using different parallel algorithms and communication protocols.

  15. A high-flux BEC source for mobile atom interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Rudolph; Waldemar Herr; Christoph Grzeschik; Tammo Sternke; Alexander Grote; Manuel Popp; Dennis Becker; Hauke Müntinga; Holger Ahlers; Achim Peters; Claus Lämmerzahl; Klaus Sengstock; Naceur Gaaloul; Wolfgang Ertmer; Ernst M. Rasel

    2015-06-16

    Quantum sensors based on coherent matter-waves are precise measurement devices whose ultimate accuracy is achieved with Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) in extended free fall. This is ideally realized in microgravity environments such as drop towers, ballistic rockets and space platforms. However, the transition from lab-based BEC machines to robust and mobile sources with comparable performance is a challenging endeavor. Here we report on the realization of a miniaturized setup, generating a flux of $4 \\times 10^5$ quantum degenerate $^{87}$Rb atoms every 1.6$\\,$s. Ensembles of $1 \\times 10^5$ atoms can be produced at a 1$\\,$Hz rate. This is achieved by loading a cold atomic beam directly into a multi-layer atom chip that is designed for efficient transfer from laser-cooled to magnetically trapped clouds. The attained flux of degenerate atoms is on par with current lab-based BEC experiments while offering significantly higher repetition rates. Additionally, the flux is approaching those of current interferometers employing Raman-type velocity selection of laser-cooled atoms. The compact and robust design allows for mobile operation in a variety of demanding environments and paves the way for transportable high-precision quantum sensors.

  16. Optical meta-atom for localization of light with quantized energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lannebère, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    The capacity to confine light into a small region of space is of paramount importance in many areas of modern science. Here, we suggest a mechanism to store a quantized "bit" of light - with a very precise amount of energy - in an open core-shell plasmonic structure ("meta-atom") with a nonlinear optical response. Notwithstanding the trapped light state is embedded in the radiation continuum, its lifetime is not limited by the radiation loss. Interestingly, it is shown that the interplay between the nonlinear response and volume plasmons enables breaking fundamental reciprocity restrictions, and coupling very efficiently an external light source to the meta-atom. The collision of an incident optical pulse with the meta-atom may be used to release the trapped radiation "bit".

  17. Comment on "Atomic mass compilation 2012" by B. Pfeiffer, K. Venkataramaniah, U. Czok, C. Scheidenberger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Audi, Georges; Block, Michael; Bollen, Georg; Herfurth, Frank; Goriely, Stéphane; Hardy, John C; Kondev, Filip G; Kluge, Juergen H; Lunney, David; Pearson, Mike J; Savard, Guy; Sharma, Kumar; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Yuhu

    2014-01-01

    This "Comment" submitted to ADNDT on December 13, 2013 concerns a publication entitled "Atomic Mass Compilation 2012", which is due to appear in the March 2014 issue of the journal Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables (available online on September 6, 2013). We would like to make it clear that this paper is not endorsed by the Atomic Mass Evaluation (AME) international collaboration. The AME provides carefully recommended evaluated data, published periodically. The "Atomic Mass Compilation 2012" is not to be associated with the latest publication, AME2012, nor with any of the previously published mass evaluations that were developed under the leadership of Prof. A.H. Wapstra. We found the data presented in "Atomic Mass Compilation 2012" to be misleading and the approach implemented to be lacking in rigour since it does not allow to unambiguously trace the original published mass values. Furthermore, the method used in "Atomic Mass Compilation 2012" is not valid and leads to erroneous and contradictory outputs,...

  18. The Laser Ion Source Trap (LIST) coupled to a gas cell catcher

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Sonoda; T. E. Cocolios; J. Gentens; M. Huyse; O. Ivanov; Yu. Kudryavtsev; D. Pauwels; P. Van den Bergh; P. Van Duppen

    2009-06-18

    The proof of principle of the Laser Ion Source Trap (LIST) coupled to a gas cell catcher system has been demonstrated at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL). The experiments were carried out by using the modified gas cell-based laser ion source and the SextuPole Ion Guide (SPIG). Element selective resonance laser ionization of neutral atoms was taking place inside the cold jet expanding out of the gas cell catcher. The laser path was oriented in longitudinal as well as transverse geometries with respect to the atoms flow. The enhancement of beam purity and the feasibility for in-source laser spectroscopy were investigated in off-line and on-line conditions.

  19. Non-vanishing ponderomotive AC electrophoretic effect for particle trapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, Weihau; Park, Jae Hyun nmn; Krstic, Predrag S; Reed, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    We present here a study on overlooked aspects of alternating current (AC) electrokinetics AC electrophoretic (ACEP) phenomena. The dynamics of a particle with both polarizability and net charges in a non-uniform AC electric trapping field is investigated. It is found that either electrophoretic (EP) or dielectrophoretic (DEP) effects can dominate the trapping dynamics, depending on experimental conditions. A dimensionless parameter gamma is developed to predict the relative strength of EP and DEP effects in a quadrupole AC field. An ACEP trap is feasible for charged particles in salt-free or low salt concentration solutions. In contrast to DEP traps, an ACEP trap favors the downscaling of the particle size.

  20. Spent fuel pool analysis using TRACE code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez-Saez, F.; Carlos, S.; Villanueva, J. F.; Martorell, S.

    2012-07-01

    The storage requirements of Spent Fuel Pools have been analyzed with the purpose to increase their rack capacities. In the past, the thermal limits have been mainly evaluated with conservative codes developed for this purpose, although some works can be found in which a best estimate code is used. The use of best estimate codes is interesting as they provide more realistic calculations and they have the capability of analyzing a wide range of transients that could affect the Spent Fuel Pool. Two of the most representative thermal-hydraulic codes are RELAP-5 and TRAC. Nowadays, TRACE code is being developed to make use of the more favorable characteristics of RELAP-5 and TRAC codes. Among the components coded in TRACE that can be used to construct the model, it is interesting to use the VESSEL component, which has the capacity of reproducing three dimensional phenomena. In this work, a thermal-hydraulic model of the Maine Yankee spent fuel pool using the TRACE code is developed. Such model has been used to perform a licensing calculation and the results obtained have been compared with experimental measurements made at the pool, showing a good agreement between the calculations predicted by TRACE and the experimental data. (authors)

  1. Privacy Vulnerability of Published Anonymous Mobility Traces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-08-01

    Energy; and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under. Grant No. ... conversations, news articles, online social networks, or Web blogs, though the ... or transition probabilities of each user between locations. Chow et al. .... is reasonable if the objective of the adversary is to identify as many trace ...

  2. Privacy Vulnerability of Published Anonymous Mobility Traces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-07-07

    Sep 20, 2010 ... a function of the nodal mobility (captured in both real and synthetic traces), the ... Systems; K.6.5 [Management of Computing and Infor- mation Systems]: Security and ..... We first describe them for case A1: (1) MLE Approach ...

  3. Dynamic trapping near a quantum critical point

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Kolodrubetz; Emanuel Katz; Anatoli Polkovnikov

    2015-03-02

    The study of dynamics in closed quantum systems has recently been revitalized by the emergence of experimental systems that are well-isolated from their environment. In this paper, we consider the closed-system dynamics of an archetypal model: spins near a second order quantum critical point, which are traditionally described by the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. Imbuing the driving field with Newtonian dynamics, we find that the full closed system exhibits a robust new phenomenon -- dynamic critical trapping -- in which the system is self-trapped near the critical point due to efficient absorption of field kinetic energy by heating the quantum spins. We quantify limits in which this phenomenon can be observed and generalize these results by developing a Kibble-Zurek scaling theory that incorporates the dynamic field. Our findings can potentially be interesting in the context of early universe physics, where the role of the driving field is played by the inflaton or a modulus.

  4. Progress towards a practical multicell positron trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danielson, J. R. [Physics Department, University of California, San Diego La Jolla CA 92093-0319 (United States); Hurst, N. C.; Surko, C. M. [Physics Department, University of California, San Diego La Jolla CA 92093-0319 (United States)

    2013-03-19

    Described here is progress in an experimental program to develop a 21 cell multicell trap for the accumulation and storage of {approx} 10{sup 12} positrons. The basic architecture is an arrangement of multiple Penning-Malmberg (PM) trapped plasmas (i.e., cells) arranged in parallel in a common vacuum system and magnetic field. Experiments are described that are intended to address several key issues, including the effects of large space charge potentials and high plasma densities on: plasma heating, deterioration of confinement, and decreased efficiency of rotating electric fields in producing plasma compression. The confinement of PM plasmas displaced both radially and toward the ends of the uniform magnetic field region will also be investigated.

  5. Deeply-trapped molecules in self-nanostructured gas-phase material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alharbi, M; Debord, B; Gerome, F; Benabid, F

    2015-01-01

    Since the advent of atom laser-cooling, trapping or cooling natural molecules has been a long standing and challenging goal. Here, we demonstrate a method for laser-trapping molecules that is radically novel in its configuration, in its underlined physical dynamics and in its outcomes. It is based on self-optically spatially-nanostructured high pressure molecular hydrogen confined in hollow-core photonic-crystal-fibre. An accelerating molecular-lattice is formed by a periodic potential associated with Raman saturation except for a 1-dimentional array of nanometer wide and strongly-localizing sections. In these sections, molecules with a speed of as large as 1800 m/s are trapped, and stimulated Raman scattering in the Lamb-Dicke regime occurs to generate high power forward and backward-Stokes continuous-wave laser with sideband-resolved sub-Doppler emission spectrum. The spectrum exhibits a central line with a sub-recoil linewidth of as low as 14 kHz, more than 5 orders-of-magnitude narrower than in convention...

  6. Deeply-trapped molecules in self-nanostructured gas-phase material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Alharbi; A. Husakou; B. Debord; F. Gerome; F. Benabid

    2015-06-03

    Since the advent of atom laser-cooling, trapping or cooling natural molecules has been a long standing and challenging goal. Here, we demonstrate a method for laser-trapping molecules that is radically novel in its configuration, in its underlined physical dynamics and in its outcomes. It is based on self-optically spatially-nanostructured high pressure molecular hydrogen confined in hollow-core photonic-crystal-fibre. An accelerating molecular-lattice is formed by a periodic potential associated with Raman saturation except for a 1-dimentional array of nanometer wide and strongly-localizing sections. In these sections, molecules with a speed of as large as 1800 m/s are trapped, and stimulated Raman scattering in the Lamb-Dicke regime occurs to generate high power forward and backward-Stokes continuous-wave laser with sideband-resolved sub-Doppler emission spectrum. The spectrum exhibits a central line with a sub-recoil linewidth of as low as 14 kHz, more than 5 orders-of-magnitude narrower than in conventional Raman scattering, and sidebands comprising Mollow triplet, molecular motional-sidebands and four-wave-mixing.

  7. Transport quantum logic gates for trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Leibfried; E. Knill; C. Ospelkaus; D. J. Wineland

    2007-08-28

    Many efforts are currently underway to build a device capable of large scale quantum information processing (QIP). Whereas QIP has been demonstrated for a few qubits in several systems, many technical difficulties must be overcome in order to construct a large-scale device. In one proposal for large-scale QIP, trapped ions are manipulated by precisely controlled light pulses and moved through and stored in multizone trap arrays. The technical overhead necessary to precisely control both the ion geometrical configurations and the laser interactions is demanding. Here we propose methods that significantly reduce the overhead on laser beam control for performing single and multiple qubit operations on trapped ions. We show how a universal set of operations can be implemented by controlled transport of ions through stationary laser beams. At the same time, each laser beam can be used to perform many operations in parallel, potentially reducing the total laser power necessary to carry out QIP tasks. The overall setup necessary for implementing transport gates is simpler than for gates executed on stationary ions. We also suggest a transport-based two-qubit gate scheme utilizing microfabricated permanent magnets that can be executed without laser light.

  8. Trapped ion scaling with pulsed fast gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. D. B. Bentley; A. R. R. Carvalho; J. J. Hope

    2015-07-10

    Fast entangling gates for trapped ions offer vastly improved gate operation times relative to implemented gates, as well as approaches to trap scaling. Gates on neighbouring ions only involve local ions when performed sufficiently fast, and we find that even a fast gate between distant ions with few degrees of freedom restores all the motional modes given more stringent gate speed conditions. We compare pulsed fast gate schemes, defined by a timescale faster than the trap period, and find that our proposed scheme has less stringent requirements on laser repetition rate for achieving arbitrary gate time targets and infidelities well below $10^{-4}$. By extending gate schemes to ion crystals, we explore the effect of ion number on gate fidelity for coupling neighbouring pairs of ions in large crystals. Inter-ion distance determines the gate time, and a factor of five increase in repetition rate, or correspondingly the laser power, reduces the infidelity by almost two orders of magnitude. We also apply our fast gate scheme to entangle the first and last ions in a crystal. As the number of ions in the crystal increases, significant increases in the laser power are required to provide the short gate times corresponding to fidelity above 0.99.

  9. Trace analysis of atmospheric organic bases 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Dwayne C.

    1984-01-01

    of the Kuderna- Danish Concentration Step. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 IV Recoveries Using the Kuderna-Danish Concentrator . 44 VI VII Recoveries of n-Hydrocarbons After a Soxhlet Extraction and KD Concentration Step. B Recoveries of Several...) Structure of metallic phthalocyanin (MPc) A) Thermal desorption system used in the analysis of the metallic TPP and Pc adsorbents. 8) Close up view of the ultra-torr union and the Tenax trap, and C) Typical adsorbent tube. . . . . . . . . . Analytical...

  10. Optical atomic magnetometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Budker, Dmitry; Higbie, James; Corsini, Eric P.

    2013-11-19

    An optical atomic magnetometers is provided operating on the principles of nonlinear magneto-optical rotation. An atomic vapor is optically pumped using linearly polarized modulated light. The vapor is then probed using a non-modulated linearly polarized light beam. The resulting modulation in polarization angle of the probe light is detected and used in a feedback loop to induce self-oscillation at the resonant frequency.

  11. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huxford, T.J.

    1993-11-16

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal. 6 figures.

  12. Atomizing nozzle and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ting, Jason (Ames, IA); Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert L. (Ames, IA)

    2000-03-16

    A high pressure close-coupled gas atomizing nozzle includes multiple discrete gas jet discharge orifices having aerodynamically designed convergent-divergent geometry with an first converging section communicated to a gas supply manifold and to a diverging section by a constricted throat section to increase atomizing gas velocity. The gas jet orifices are oriented at gas jet apex angle selected relative to the melt supply tip apex angle to establish a melt aspiration condition at the melt supply tip.

  13. Steam Tracing...New Technologies for the 21st Century 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitzer, R. K.; Barth, R. E.; Bonorden, C.

    1999-01-01

    For decades, steam tracing has been an accepted practice in the heating of piping, vessels, and equipment. This paper presents recent product innovations such as "burn-safe" and "energy efficient" steam tracing products. For the many applications...

  14. 12.479 Trace-Element Geochemistry, Spring 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Frederick

    The emphasis of this course is to use Trace Element Geochemistry to understand the origin and evolution of igneous rocks. The approach is to discuss the parameters that control partitioning of trace elements between phases ...

  15. Ambient methods and apparatus for rapid laser trace constituent analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, Stuart C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grandy, Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jeffery, Charles L. (Blackfoot, ID)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for measuring trace amounts of constituents in samples by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence under ambient conditions. The laser induced fluorescence is performed at a selected wavelength corresponding to an absorption state of a selected trace constituent. The intensity value of the emission decay signal which is generated by the trace constituent is compared to calibrated emission intensity decay values to determine the amount of trace constituent present.

  16. High energy halogen atom reactions activated by nuclear transformations. Progress report, February 15, 1980-February 14, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The stereochemistry of high energy /sup 18/F, /sup 34m/Cl, and /sup 76/Br substitution reactions involving enantiomeric molecules in the gas and condensed phase is studied. The gas to condensed state transition in halogen high energy chemistry, involving chlorine, bromine, and iodine activated by the (n,..gamma..) and (I.T.) processes in halomethanes, saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons is being investigated in more detail. Special attention is given to defining the nature of the enhancement yields in the condensed phase. High energy halogen reactions in liquid and frozen aqueous solutions of organic and biomolecular solutes are studied in an attempt to learn more about these reactions. The applications of high energy chemistry techniques and theory to neutron activation analysis of biological systems are being continued. Special attention is given to developing procedures for trace molecular determinations in biological systems. The applications of hot halogen atoms as indicators of solute-solute interactions in liquid and frozen aqueous solutions of halogenated bases and nucleosides are being developed. Experiments are designed to explain the mechanisms of the radioprotection offered biomolecular solutes trapped within the frozen ice lattice. Reactions of bromine and iodine activated by isomeric transition with halogenated biomolecular solutes in liquid and frozen aqueous solutions are studied. The high energy reactions of iodine with the isomers of pentene have been studied in low pressure gaseous systems employing additives and rare gas moderators and liquid systems. Reactivity of excited complex formation and structural effects of electrophilic iodine attack on the pi-bond systems are studied.

  17. Universal bosonic tetramers of dimer-atom-atom structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Deltuva

    2012-03-28

    Unstable four-boson states having an approximate dimer-atom-atom structure are studied using momentum-space integral equations for the four-particle transition operators. For a given Efimov trimer the universal properties of the lowest associated tetramer are determined. The impact of this tetramer on the atom-trimer and dimer-dimer collisions is analyzed. The reliability of the three-body dimer-atom-atom model is studied.

  18. Universal bosonic tetramers of dimer-atom-atom structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deltuva, A

    2012-01-01

    Unstable four-boson states having an approximate dimer-atom-atom structure are studied using momentum-space integral equations for the four-particle transition operators. For a given Efimov trimer the universal properties of the lowest associated tetramer are determined. The impact of this tetramer on the atom-trimer and dimer-dimer collisions is analyzed. The reliability of the three-body dimer-atom-atom model is studied.

  19. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1986-08-15

    The atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process for the enrichment of uranium is evaluated. (AIP)

  20. Trace element concentrations in melanotic swine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, R.M.; Parkinson, T.F.; Veit, H.P.

    1983-10-01

    A number of investigations have been made on the role of certain trace elements in oncogenesis. In prior work, it was found that manganese and zinc concentrations in human skin cancers differed markedly from the values in normal tissue./sub 1/ The purpose of the present research was to determine trace element concentrations in skin and other tissues of normal and melanotic miniature swine. In-vivo determinations of skin tissue were carried out using x-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) while tissue biopsies were measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). If significant differences between normal and cancerous skin tissues can be established, the former method should prove valuable as a rapid noninvasive diagnostic method.

  1. Trace anomaly of the conformal gauge field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sladkowski, J

    1993-01-01

    The proposed by Bastianelli and van Nieuwenhuizen new method of calculations of trace anomalies is applied in the conformal gauge field case. The result is then reproduced by the heat equation method. An error in previous calculation is corrected. It is pointed out that the introducing gauge symmetries into a given system by a field-enlarging transformation can result in unexpected quantum effects even for trivial configurations.

  2. Dual Species Effusive Source and Zeeman Slower for Cold Atom Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowden, William; Semczuk, Mariusz; Dare, Kahan; Madison, Kirk W

    2015-01-01

    We present a dual-species effusive source and Zeeman slower capable of producing slow atomic beams of two elements with a large mass difference, and we realize this design to slow and load $^6$Li and $^{85}$Rb into a magneto-optical trap. Key design choices, such as separating the effusive sources and allowing for the computer control of the magnetic field profile, ensure that the apparatus can be easily modified to facilitate the cooling of alternative atomic species making it applicable for a variety of cold atom experiments. By utilizing the quadrupole magnetic field of the magneto-optic trap as a secondary slowing field, we are able to shorten our Zeeman slower making for a more compact and robust system without compromising performance. Secondary slowing by the MOT trapping field is optimized by tuning the exit speed of atoms from the Zeeman slower through the use of a disengagement coil. We outline the construction and analyze the emission properties of our effusive sources. Finally, we verify the perfo...

  3. Quantum anomalous Hall effect with cold atoms trapped in a square lattice 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xiong-Jun; Liu, Xin; Wu, Congjun; Sinova, Jairo

    2010-01-01

    We propose an experimental scheme to realize the quantum anomalous Hall effect in an anisotropic square optical lattice which can be generated from available experimental setups of double-well lattices with minor modifications. A periodic gauge...

  4. Energy Conservation Through Effective Steam Trapping 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diamante, L.; Nagengast, C.

    1979-01-01

    the bottom edge and out, the bucket becomes bouyant, floats up, closes the valve and the flow stops. The slight static pressure the water around the bucket exerts on the steam inside will begin to drive it out through the small hole in the top we spoke... at which condensate is forming, thus steam will eventually flow into the trap. Steam unlike condensate, or air in a relative sense, is highly compressible and will undergo a substantial volume change in expanding from the inlet to outlet pressure...

  5. Gas turbine engines with particle traps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, Gary L. (Tempe, AZ); Sumner, D. Warren (Phoenix, AZ); Sheoran, Yogendra (Scottsdale, AZ); Judd, Z. Daniel (Phoenix, AZ)

    1992-01-01

    A gas turbine engine (10) incorporates a particle trap (46) that forms an entrapment region (73) in a plenum (24) which extends from within the combustor (18) to the inlet (32) of a radial-inflow turbine (52, 54). The engine (10) is thereby adapted to entrap particles that originate downstream from the compressor (14) and are otherwise propelled by combustion gas (22) into the turbine (52, 54). Carbonaceous particles that are dislodged from the inner wall (50) of the combustor (18) are incinerated within the entrapment region (73) during operation of the engine (10).

  6. Protection #2: Trap and Remove Sediment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgramExemptions |(Conference)ProjectProposedAmerica'sTrap and Remove

  7. Low power zinc-oxide based charge trapping memory with embedded silicon nanoparticles via poole-frenkel hole emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Atab, Nazek; Nayfeh, Ammar; Ozcan, Ayse; Alkis, Sabri; Okyay, Ali K.; Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara

    2014-01-06

    A low power zinc-oxide (ZnO) charge trapping memory with embedded silicon (Si) nanoparticles is demonstrated. The charge trapping layer is formed by spin coating 2?nm silicon nanoparticles between Atomic Layer Deposited ZnO steps. The threshold voltage shift (?V{sub t}) vs. programming voltage is studied with and without the silicon nanoparticles. Applying ?1?V for 5?s at the gate of the memory with nanoparticles results in a ?V{sub t} of 3.4?V, and the memory window can be up to 8?V with an excellent retention characteristic (>10 yr). Without nanoparticles, at ?1?V programming voltage, the ?V{sub t} is negligible. In order to get ?V{sub t} of 3.4?V without nanoparticles, programming voltage in excess of 10?V is required. The negative voltage on the gate programs the memory indicating that holes are being trapped in the charge trapping layer. In addition, at 1?V the electric field across the 3.6?nm tunnel oxide is calculated to be 0.36 MV/cm, which is too small for significant tunneling. Moreover, the ?V{sub t} vs. electric field across the tunnel oxide shows square root dependence at low fields (E??2.7 MV/cm). This indicates that Poole-Frenkel Effect is the main mechanism for holes emission at low fields and Phonon Assisted Tunneling at higher fields.

  8. Gas insulated transmission line having tapered particle trapping ring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, insulating supports and an insulating gas. A particle-trapping ring is secured to each insulating support, and it is comprised of a central portion and two tapered end portions. The ends of the particle trapping ring have a smaller diameter than the central portion of the ring, so as to enable the use of the particle trapping ring in a curved transmission line.

  9. Inertial measurement with trapped particles: A microdynamical system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, E. Rehmi; Popescu, George A.; Gershenfeld, Neil [Center for Bits and Atoms, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 20 Ames Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2010-04-05

    We describe an inertial measurement device based on an electrodynamically trapped proof mass. Mechanical constraints are replaced by guiding fields, permitting the trap stiffness to be tuned dynamically. Optical readout of the proof mass motion provides a measurement of acceleration and rotation, resulting in an integrated six degree of freedom inertial measurement device. We demonstrate such a device - constructed without microfabrication - with sensitivity comparable to that of commercial microelectromechanical systems technology and show how trapping parameters may be adjusted to increase dynamic range.

  10. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

  11. Atomic Force Microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

  12. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

  13. Ion temperature gradient driven turbulence with strong trapped...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    depends on ion free energy and electron dissipation, which implies that non-adiabatic electrons are essential to recover non-trivial dynamics of trapped ion granulations. Relevant...

  14. Experimental demonstration of a surface-electrode multipole ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maurice, Mark; Green, Dylan; Farr, Andrew; Burke, Timothy; Hilleke, Russell; Clark, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We report on the design and experimental characterization of a surface-electrode multipole ion trap. Individual microscopic sugar particles are confined in the trap. The trajectories of driven particle motion are compared with a theoretical model, both to verify qualitative predictions of the model, and to measure the charge-to-mass ratio of the confined particle. The generation of harmonics of the driving frequency is observed as a key signature of the nonlinear nature of the trap. We remark on possible applications of our traps, including to mass spectrometry.

  15. Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and the Development of a Representative Model Development...

  16. Bait formulations and longevity of navel orangeworm egg traps tested

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuenen, L.P.S. Bas; Bentley, Walt; Rowe, Heather; Ribeiro, Brian

    2008-01-01

    there were 1% or 3% crude almond oil received more eggshaving no letters crude almond oil or traps baited with inone standard error. crude almond oil received significantly

  17. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    installed steam traps may have failed-thus allowing live steam to escape into the condensate return system. In systems with a regularly scheduled maintenance program, leaking...

  18. Wavebreaking and Particle Trapping in Collisionless Plasmas: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shadwick, Bradley A [University of Nebraska-Lincoln

    2013-08-01

    The final report describing accomplishments in understanding phase-space processes involved in particle trapping and in developing advance numerical models of laser-plasma interactions.

  19. Anomalous dynamic behaviour of optically trapped high aspect ratio nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toe, Wen Jun; Angstmann, Christopher; Gao, Qiang; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Henry, Bruce; Reece, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of high aspect ratio nanowires trapped axially in a single gradient force optical tweezers. A power spectrum analysis of the Brownian dynamics reveals a broad spectral resonance of the order of a kHz with peak properties that are strongly dependent on the input trapping power. Modelling of the dynamical equations of motion of the trapped nanowire that incorporate non-conservative effects through asymmetric coupling between translational and rotational degrees of freedom provides excellent agreement with the experimental observations. An associated observation of persistent cyclical motion around the equilibrium trapping position using winding analysis provides further evidence for the influence of non-conservative forces.

  20. Neutron-Mirror-Neutron Oscillations in a Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Kerbikov; O. Lychkovskiy

    2008-06-01

    We calculate the rate of neutron-mirror-neutron oscillations for ultracold neutrons trapped in a storage vessel. Recent experimental bounds on the oscillation time are discussed.

  1. Light Trapping, Absorption and Solar Energy Harvesting by Artificial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 14 SOLAR ENERGY light-trapping, photonic crystals, high-efficiency thin-film solar cells Word Cloud...

  2. Ratchet Cellular Automata for Colloids in Dynamic Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. J. Olson Reichhardt; C. Reichhardt

    2006-02-13

    We numerically investigate the transport of kinks in a ratchet cellular automata geometry for colloids interacting with dynamical traps. We find that thermal effects can enhance the transport efficiency in agreement with recent experiments. At high temperatures we observe the creation and annihilation of thermally induced kinks that degrade the signal transmission. We consider both the deterministic and stochastic cases and show how the trap geometry can be adjusted to switch between these two cases. The operation of the dynamical trap geometry can be achieved with the adjustment of fewer parameters than ratchet cellular automata constructed using static traps.

  3. Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Diesel Emission Control Technology Review Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps Diesel Particulate Filters: Market Introducution...

  4. Percolation mechanism through trapping/de-trapping process at defect states for resistive switching devices with structure of Ag/Si{sub x}C{sub 1?x}/p-Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yanhong; Gao, Ping; Li, La; Peng, Wei [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, No. 2 Linggong Road, Ganjingzi District, Dalian 116024 (China); Jiang, Xuening; Zhang, Jialiang [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, No. 2 Linggong Road, Ganjingzi District, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-08-14

    Pure Si{sub x}C{sub 1?x} (x?>?0.5) and B-containing Si{sub x}C{sub 1?x} (x?>?0.5) based resistive switching devices (RSD) with the structure of Ag/Si{sub x}C{sub 1?x}/p-Si were fabricated and their switching characteristics and mechanism were investigated systematically. Percolation mechanism through trapping/ de-trapping at defect states was suggested for the switching process. Through the introduction of B atoms into Si{sub x}C{sub 1?x}, the density of defect states was reduced, then, the SET and RESET voltages were also decreased. Based on the percolation theory, the dependence of SET/RESET voltage on the density of defect states was analyzed. These results supply a deep understanding for the SiC-based RSD, which have a potential application in extreme ambient conditions.

  5. Energy trapping from Hagedorn densities of states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connor Behan; Klaus Larjo; Nima Lashkari; Brian Swingle; Mark Van Raamsdonk

    2013-04-26

    In this note, we construct simple stochastic toy models for holographic gauge theories in which distributions of energy on a collection of sites evolve by a master equation with some specified transition rates. We build in only energy conservation, locality, and the standard thermodynamic requirement that all states with a given energy are equally likely in equilibrium. In these models, we investigate the qualitative behavior of the dynamics of the energy distributions for different choices of the density of states for the individual sites. For typical field theory densities of states (\\log(\\rho(E)) ~ E^{\\alphaenergy spread out relatively quickly. For large N gauge theories with gravitational duals, the density of states for a finite volume of field theory degrees of freedom typically includes a Hagedorn regime (\\log(\\rho(E)) ~ E). We find that this gives rise to a trapping of energy in subsets of degrees of freedom for parametrically long time scales before the energy leaks away. We speculate that this Hagedorn trapping may be part of a holographic explanation for long-lived gravitational bound states (black holes) in gravitational theories.

  6. 1. Introduction to the relative trace formula Give an idea of the relative trace formula along any of the sources [CPS90,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ould Ahmedou, Mohameden

    1. Introduction to the relative trace formula Give an idea of the relative trace formula along any (91h:11042) [Jac05] Herv´e Jacquet, A guide to the relative trace formula, Automorphic representations2192826 (2006g:11100) [Lap10] Erez M. Lapid, Some applications of the trace formula and the relative trace

  7. Ultracold Atoms: How Quantum Field Theory Invaded Atomic Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultracold Atoms: How Quantum Field Theory Invaded Atomic Physics Eric Braaten Ohio State University May 6, 2015 4:00 p.m. (coffee @ 3:30) The development of the technology for...

  8. Analyzing PICL trace data with MEDEA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merlo, A.P.; Worley, P.H.

    1994-04-01

    Execution traces and performance statistics can be collected for parallel applications on a variety of multiprocessor platforms by using the Portable Instrumented Communication Library (PICL). The static and dynamic performance characteristics of performance characteristics of performance data can be analyzed easily and effectively with the facilities provided within the MEasurements Description Evaluation and Analysis tool (MEDEA). A case study is then outlined that uses PICL and MEDEA to characterize the performance of a parallel benchmark code executed on different hardware platforms and using different parallel algorithms and communication protocols.

  9. VOLUME 87, NUMBER 25 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 17 DECEMBER 2001 Ion-Trap Quantum Logic Using Long-Wavelength Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wunderlich, Christof

    radiation in the radiofrequency or microwave regime. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.87.257904 PACS numbers: 03 Logic Using Long-Wavelength Radiation Florian Mintert1 and Christof Wunderlich2,* 1 I. Institut für radiation; the atom with mass m is trapped in a harmonic potential characterized by angular frequency vl

  10. Successful Implementation of a Sustainable Trap Management Program. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, J.

    2013-01-01

    significant cost penalty in delaying implementation of a program to manage the steam trap population. Plants typically embark on a trap management initiative by focusing on a survey, but may not maximize returns because they fail to execute or sustain possible...

  11. Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Trap Selectivity Studies: Mesh Size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Trap Selectivity Studies: Mesh Size VINCENT GUILLORY and PAUL had replaced drop nets and trot lines as the dominant gear in the commercial blue crab, Callinectes, LA 70343. ABSTRACT-Catch rates and sizes of blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, were com pared in traps

  12. Laser desorption lamp ionization source for ion trap mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Laser desorption lamp ionization source for ion trap mass spectrometry Qinghao Wu and Richard N. Zare* A two-step laser desorption lamp ionization source coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer (LDLI-ITMS) has been constructed and characterized. The pulsed infrared (IR) output of an Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm

  13. Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells Zongfu Yu1 , Aaswath Raman and is becoming increasingly urgent for current solar cell research. The standard theory of light trapping-generation solar cells. The ultimate success of photovoltaic (PV) cell technology requires great advancements

  14. Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grandidier, Jonathan

    Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere, photovoltaics, resonant dielectric structures, solar cells * Corresponding author: e-mail jgrandid for addressing the key challenge of light trapping in thin-film solar cells. We experimentally and theoretically

  15. Optimized holographic optical traps Marco Polin, Kosta Ladavac,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    approach for characterizing their performance. This combination makes possible real-time adaptive trap widely known as an optical tweezer [1]. Multiple beams of light pass- ing simultaneously through-time characterization and optimization of entire arrays of traps through digital video microscopy. Such adaptive

  16. Steam Trap Testing and Evaluation: An Actual Plant Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feldman, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    With rising steam costs and a high failure rate on the Joliet Plants standard steam trap, a testing and evaluation program was begun to find a steam trap that would work at Olin-Joliet. The basis was to conduct the test on the actual process...

  17. Directional spontaneous emission and lateral Casimir-Polder force on an atom close to a nanofiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan Scheel; Stefan Yoshi Buhmann; Christoph Clausen; Philipp Schneeweiss

    2015-05-06

    We study the spontaneous emission of an excited atom close to an optical nanofiber and the resulting scattering forces. For a suitably chosen orientation of the atomic dipole, the spontaneous emission pattern becomes asymmetric and a resonant Casimir--Polder force parallel to the fiber axis arises. For a simple model case, we show that the such a lateral force is due to the interaction of the circularly oscillating atomic dipole moment with its image inside the material. With the Casimir--Polder energy being constant in the lateral direction, the predicted lateral force does not derive from a potential in the usual way. Our results have implications for optical force measurements on a substrate as well as for laser cooling of atoms in nanophotonic traps.

  18. Natural orbits of atomic Cooper pairs in a nonuniform Fermi gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. H. Pong; C. K. Law

    2006-05-08

    We examine the basic mode structure of atomic Cooper pairs in an inhomogeneous Fermi gas. Based on the properties of Bogoliubov quasi-particle vacuum, the single particle density matrix and the anomalous density matrix share the same set of eigenfunctions. These eigenfunctions correspond to natural pairing orbits associated with the BCS ground state. We investigate these orbits for a Fermi gas in a spherical harmonic trap, and construct the wave function of a Cooper pair in the form of Schmidt decomposition. The issue of spatial quantum entanglement between constituent atoms in a pair is addressed.

  19. Coherent population trapping of a single nuclear spin under ambient conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Jamonneau; G. Hétet; A. Dréau; J. -F. Roch; V. Jacques

    2015-08-31

    Coherent control of quantum systems has far-reaching implications in quantum engineering. In this context, coherent population trapping (CPT) involving dark resonances has played a prominent role, leading to a wealth of major applications including laser cooling of atoms and molecules, optical magnetometry, light storage and highly precise atomic clocks. Extending CPT methods to individual solid-state quantum systems has been only achieved in cryogenic environments for electron spin impurities and superconducting circuits. Here, we demonstrate efficient CPT of a single nuclear spin in a room temperature solid. To this end, we make use of a three-level system with a $\\Lambda$-configuration in the microwave domain, which consists of nuclear spin states addressed through their hyperfine coupling to the electron spin of a single nitrogen-vacancy defect in diamond. Dark state pumping requires a relaxation mechanism which, in atomic systems, is simply provided by spontaneous emission. In this work, the relaxation process is externally controlled through incoherent optical pumping and separated in time from consecutive coherent microwave excitations of the nuclear spin $\\Lambda$-system. Such a pumping scheme with controlled relaxation allows us (i) to monitor the sequential accumulation of population into the dark state and (ii) to reach a new regime of CPT dynamics for which periodic arrays of dark resonances can be observed, owing to multiple constructive interferences. This work offers new prospects for quantum state preparation, information storage in hybrid quantum systems and metrology.

  20. A Pneumatic Actuated Microfluidic Beads-Trapping Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Guocheng; Cai, Ziliang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-08-20

    The development of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic microbeads trapping device is reported in this paper. Besides fluid channels, the proposed device includes a pneumatic control chamber and a beads-trapping chamber with a filter array structure. The pneumatic flow control chamber and the beads-trapping chamber are vertically stacked and separated by a thin membrane. By adjusting the pressure in the pneumatic control chamber, the membrane can either be pushed against the filter array to set the device in trapping mode or be released to set the device in releasing mode. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics simulation was conducted to optimize the geometry design of the filter array structure; the device fabrication was also carried out. The prototype device was tested and the preliminary experimental results showed that it can be used as a beads-trapping unit for various biochemistry and analytical chemistry applications, especially for flow injection analysis systems.

  1. Energy Transport in Trapped Ion Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Ramm; Thaned Pruttivarasin; Hartmut Häffner

    2013-12-20

    We experimentally study energy transport in chains of trapped ions. We use a pulsed excitation scheme to rapidly add energy to the local motional mode of one of the ions in the chain. Subsequent energy readout allows us to determine how the excitation has propagated throughout the chain. We observe energy revivals that persist for many cycles. We study the behavior with an increasing number of ions of up to 37 in the chain, including a zig-zag configuration. The experimental results agree well with the theory of normal mode evolution. The described system provides an experimental toolbox for the study of thermodynamics of closed systems and energy transport in both classical and quantum regimes.

  2. Contaminant trap for gas-insulated apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adcock, James L. (Knoxville, TN); Pace, Marshall O. (Knoxville, TN); Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01

    A contaminant trap for a gas-insulated electrical conductor is provided. A resinous dielectric body such as Kel-F wax, grease or other sticky polymeric or oligomeric compound is disposed on the inside wall of the outer housing for the conductor. The resinous body is sufficiently sticky at ambient temperatures to immobilize contaminant particles in the insulating gas on the exposed surfaces thereof. An electric resistance heating element is disposed in the resinous body to selectively raise the temperature of the resinous body to a molten state so that the contaminant particles collected on the surface of the body sink into the body so that the surface of the resinous body is renewed to a particle-less condition and, when cooled, returns to a sticky collecting surface.

  3. Debris trap in a turbine cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Ian David (Clifton Park, NY)

    2002-01-01

    In a turbine having a rotor and a plurality of stages, each stage comprising a row of buckets mounted on the rotor for rotation therewith; and wherein the buckets of at least one of the stages are cooled by steam, the improvement comprising at least one axially extending cooling steam supply conduit communicating with an at least partially annular steam supply manifold; one or more axially extending cooling steam feed tubes connected to the manifold at a location radially outwardly of the cooling steam supply conduit, the feed tubes arranged to supply cooling steam to the buckets of at least one of the plurality of stages; the manifold extending radially beyond the feed tubes to thereby create a debris trap region for collecting debris under centrifugal loading caused by rotation of the rotor.

  4. Final report on LDRD project : narrow-linewidth VCSELs for atomic microsystems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, Weng Wah; Geib, Kent Martin; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Serkland, Darwin Keith

    2011-09-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are well suited for emerging photonic microsystems due to their low power consumption, ease of integration with other optical components, and single frequency operation. However, the typical VCSEL linewidth of 100 MHz is approximately ten times wider than the natural linewidth of atoms used in atomic beam clocks and trapped atom research, which degrades or completely destroys performance in those systems. This report documents our efforts to reduce VCSEL linewidths below 10 MHz to meet the needs of advanced sub-Doppler atomic microsystems, such as cold-atom traps. We have investigated two complementary approaches to reduce VCSEL linewidth: (A) increasing the laser-cavity quality factor, and (B) decreasing the linewidth enhancement factor (alpha) of the optical gain medium. We have developed two new VCSEL devices that achieved increased cavity quality factors: (1) all-semiconductor extended-cavity VCSELs, and (2) micro-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (MECSELs). These new VCSEL devices have demonstrated linewidths below 10 MHz, and linewidths below 1 MHz seem feasible with further optimization.

  5. Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeAngelis, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    PLoS ONE: Characterization of Trapped Lignin-DegradingAccess For Readers Hubs Characterization of Trapped Lignin-11:36:02 AM] PLoS ONE: Characterization of Trapped Lignin-

  6. Fabrication and heating rate study of microscopic surface electrode ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniilidis, N.

    We report heating rate measurements in a microfabricated gold-on-sapphire surface electrode ion trap with a trapping height of approximately 240 ?m. Using the Doppler recooling method, we characterize the trap heating rates ...

  7. Environmental Performance Characterization of Atomic Layer Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Chris; Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Rahtu and R. Gordon. “Atomic layer deposition of transitionoxide films grown by atomic layer deposition from iodide andand S. M. George. “Atomic layer deposition of ultrathin and

  8. A microfabricated atomic clock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knappe, Svenja; Shah, Vishal; Schwindt, Peter D.D.; Hollberg, Leo; Kitching, John; Liew, Li-Anne; Moreland, John [Time and Frequency Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305-3328 (United States); Electromagnetics Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305-3328 (United States)

    2004-08-30

    Fabrication techniques usually applied to microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are used to reduce the size and operating power of the core physics assembly of an atomic clock. With a volume of 9.5 mm{sup 3}, a fractional frequency instability of 2.5x10{sup -10} at 1 s of integration, and dissipating less than 75 mW of power, the device has the potential to bring atomically precise timing to hand-held, battery-operated devices. In addition, the design and fabrication process allows for wafer-level assembly of the structures, enabling low-cost mass-production of thousands of identical units with the same process sequence, and easy integration with other electronics.

  9. Stochastic modeling and survival analysis of marginally trapped neutrons for a magnetic trapping neutron lifetime experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. J. Coakley; M. S. Dewey; M. G. Huber; P. R. Huffman; C. R. Huffer; D. E. Marley; H. P. Mumm; C. M. O'Shaughnessy; K. W. Schelhammer; A. K. Thompson; A. T. Yue

    2015-08-10

    In a variety of neutron lifetime experiments, in addition to $\\beta-$decay, neutrons can be lost by other mechanisms including wall losses. Failure to account for these other loss mechanisms produces systematic measurement error and associated systematic uncertainties in neutron lifetime measurements. In this work, we develop a physical model for neutron wall losses and construct a competing risks survival analysis model to account for losses due to the joint effect of $\\beta-$decay losses, wall losses of marginally trapped neutrons, and an additional absorption mechanism. We determine the survival probability function associated with the wall loss mechanism by a Monte Carlo method. Based on a fit of the competing risks model to a subset of the NIST experimental data, we determine the mean lifetime of trapped neutrons to be approximately 700 s -- considerably less than the current best estimate of (880.1 $\\pm$ 1.1) s promulgated by the Particle Data Group [1]. Currently, experimental studies are underway to determine if this discrepancy can be explained by neutron capture by ${}^3$He impurities in the trapping volume. Analysis of the full NIST data will be presented in a later publication.

  10. Quantum chaos of an ion trapped in a linear ion trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berman, Gennady P. [Theoretical Division T-13, and CNLS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Theoretical Division T-13, and CNLS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); James, Daniel F. V. [Theoretical Division T-4, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Theoretical Division T-4, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Kamenev, Dimitri I. [Theoretical Division T-13, and CNLS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States) [Theoretical Division T-13, and CNLS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Nizhny Novgorod State University, Nizhny Novgorod, 603600, Russia (Russian Federation)

    2000-06-01

    We describe the transition to quantum chaos of an ion trapped in a linear ion trap and interacting with two laser fields. Under the conditions of adiabatic illumination of the upper level of the ion, and when the frequencies of the two laser beams are slightly different, the system is reduced to a quantum linear oscillator interacting with a monochromatic wave. The property of localization over the quantum resonance cells is proposed to exploit in order to facilitate the process of measurement of the probability distribution of an ion on the vibrational levels. In the regime of strong chaos the time-averaged values of the energy and dispersion of energy are computed and compared with the corresponding classical quantities for different values of the perturbation amplitude. In the exact resonance case, the classical analog of the system possesses an infinite inhomogeneous stochastic web. We analyze the quantum dynamics inside the inhomogeneous web. It is shown that the quantum system mimics on average the dynamics of the corresponding classical system. Formation of the quantum resonance cells is illustrated in the case of a finite detuning from the exact resonance, and under increasing of the wave amplitude. The parameters of the model and the initial conditions are close to the real physical situation which can be realized in the system of cold trapped ion perturbed by two lasers fields with close frequencies. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Reaction dynamics of atomic chlorine with methane: Importance of methane bending and torsional excitation in controlling reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reaction dynamics of atomic chlorine with methane: Importance of methane bending and torsional with methane vibrationally excited in trace quantities into low-energy bending and torsional modes­7 and detailed the effect on reactivity of C­H stretch vibrational excitation.5­7 This paper concerns our most

  12. Spectra of In-like Tungsten, $W^{25+}$, from the Shanghai permanent magnet electron beam ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, W; Shi, Z; Fei, Z; R,; Zhao,; Brage, T; Huldt, S; Hutton, R; Zou, Y

    2015-01-01

    Three visible lines of M1 transitions from In-like W were recorded using the Shanghai permanent magnet electron beam ion trap. The experimental wavelengths were measured as 493.84 $\\pm$ 0.15, 226.97 $\\pm$ 0.13 and 587.63 $\\pm$ 0.23 nm (vacuum wavelengths). These results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions obtained using large-scale Relativistic Many-Body Perturbation Theory, in the form of the Flexible Atomic Code, and some explorations with the Muliconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock code GRASP2K.

  13. Workshop on L-functions and Trace Formula - Department of ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    $author.value

    A working workshop, aimed at reporting the latest progress on the subject. ... of spectral terms in what I called the stabilization of the (hypothetical) r-trace formula

  14. TRACE IDENTIFICATION OF CESIUM AND SODIUM IN NEUTRAL BEAM RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruby, L.

    2010-01-01

    TRACE IDENTIFICATION OF CESIUM AND Lawrence Ruby LawrenceBerkeley, California 94720 Cesium and sodium in vapor formthe extent to which the cesium and sodium migrate in the

  15. Trace-Element Distribution In An Active Hydrothermal System,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    trace-element dispersion patterns. Multielement analyses of surface rock samples, soil samples and drill cuttings from deep exploration wells provide a three-dimensional...

  16. Tracing Technologies: Prisoners' Views in the Era of CSI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, SA

    2013-01-01

    Tracing Technologies: Prisoners’ Views in the Era of CSI.Studies, they argue that prisoners have ‘professionalinterview study of Austrian prisoners. The study design was

  17. Potential trace element emissions from the gasification of Illinois...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the gasification of Illinois coals. Duplicate determinations of 34 elements in coal and ash samples Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Potential trace element emissions...

  18. Magnetic Field Line Tracing Calculations for Conceptual PFC Design...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Magnetic Field Line Tracing Calculations for Conceptual PFC Design in the National Compact Stellarator Experiment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetic...

  19. Progress towards high precision measurements on ultracold metastable hydrogen and trapping deuterium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinberger, Julia K., 1974-

    2004-01-01

    (cont.) not achieve deuterium trapping through helium-surface cooling. It is proposed that buffer gas loading can be used to cryogenically cool and trap deuterium.

  20. Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts investigation of potential...

  1. Volumetric imaging of holographic optical traps Yohai Roichman, Ilias Cholis, and David G. Grier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Volumetric imaging of holographic optical traps Yohai Roichman, Ilias Cholis, and David G. Grier distributions. We create volumetric representations by by holographically translating the traps through

  2. Correlation measurements in nuclear {beta}-decay using traps and polarized low energy beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naviliat-Cuncic, Oscar

    2013-05-06

    Precision measurements in nuclear {beta}-decay provide sensitive means to test discrete symmetries in the weak interaction and to determine some of the fundamental constants in semi-leptonic decays, like the coupling of the lightest quarks to charged weak bosons. The main motivation of such measurements is to find deviations from Standard Model predictions as possible indications of new physics. In this contribution I will focus on two topics related to precision measurements in nuclear {beta}-decay: i) the determination of the V{sub ud} element of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix from nuclear mirror transitions and ii) the search for exotic scalar or tensor contributions from {beta}{nu} angular correlations. The purpose is to underline the role being played by experimental techniques based on the confinement of radioactive species with atom and ion traps as well as the plans to use low energy polarized beams.

  3. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler-Golden, S.; Bernstein, L.S.; Bien, F.

    1988-08-23

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas. 12 figs.

  4. Can the trace formula describe weak localisation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert S. Whitney; Igor V. Lerner; Robert A. Smith

    1999-02-24

    We attempt to systematically derive perturbative quantum corrections to the Berry diagonal approximation of the two-level correlation function (TLCF) for chaotic systems. To this end, we develop a ``weak diagonal approximation'' based on a recent description of the first weak localisation correction to conductance in terms of the Gutzwiller trace formula. This semiclassical method is tested by using it to derive the weak localisation corrections to the TLCF for a semiclassically disordered system. Unfortunately the method is unable to correctly reproduce the ``Hikami boxes'' (the relatively small regions where classical paths are glued together by quantum processes). This results in the method failing to reproduce the well known weak localisation expansion. It so happens that for the first order correction it merely produces the wrong prefactor. However for the second order correction, it is unable to reproduce certain contributions, and leads to a result which is of a different form to the standard one.

  5. Holographic Trace Anomaly and Local Renormalization Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Srivatsan; Zhu, Yechao

    2015-01-01

    The Hamilton-Jacobi method in holography has produced important results both at a renormalization group (RG) fixed point and away from it. In this paper we use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to compute the holographic trace anomaly for four- and six-dimensional boundary conformal field theories (CFTs), assuming higher-derivative gravity and interactions of scalar fields in the bulk. The scalar field contributions to the anomaly appear in CFTs with exactly marginal operators. Moving away from the fixed point, we show that the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism provides a deep connection between the holographic and the local RG. We derive the local RG equation holographically, and verify explicitly that it satisfies Weyl consistency conditions stemming from the commutativity of Weyl scalings. We also consider massive scalar fields in the bulk corresponding to boundary relevant operators, and comment on their effects to the local RG equation.

  6. Holographic Trace Anomaly and Local Renormalization Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivatsan Rajagopal; Andreas Stergiou; Yechao Zhu

    2015-08-19

    The Hamilton-Jacobi method in holography has produced important results both at a renormalization group (RG) fixed point and away from it. In this paper we use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to compute the holographic trace anomaly for four- and six-dimensional boundary conformal field theories (CFTs), assuming higher-derivative gravity and interactions of scalar fields in the bulk. The scalar field contributions to the anomaly appear in CFTs with exactly marginal operators. Moving away from the fixed point, we show that the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism provides a deep connection between the holographic and the local RG. We derive the local RG equation holographically, and verify explicitly that it satisfies Weyl consistency conditions stemming from the commutativity of Weyl scalings. We also consider massive scalar fields in the bulk corresponding to boundary relevant operators, and comment on their effects to the local RG equation.

  7. Optics and interferometry with atoms and molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Alexander D.

    Interference with atomic and molecular matter waves is a rich branch of atomic physics and quantum optics. It started with atom diffraction from crystal surfaces and the separated oscillatory fields technique used in atomic ...

  8. Enhanced memory effect with embedded graphene nanoplatelets in ZnO charge trapping layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Atab, Nazek; Nayfeh, Ammar; Cimen, Furkan; Alkis, Sabri; Okyay, Ali K.

    2014-07-21

    A charge trapping memory with graphene nanoplatelets embedded in atomic layer deposited ZnO (GNIZ) is demonstrated. The memory shows a large threshold voltage V{sub t} shift (4?V) at low operating voltage (6/?6?V), good retention (>10 yr), and good endurance characteristic (>10{sup 4} cycles). This memory performance is compared to control devices with graphene nanoplatelets (or ZnO) and a thicker tunnel oxide. These structures showed a reduced V{sub t} shift and retention characteristic. The GNIZ structure allows for scaling down the tunnel oxide thickness along with improving the memory window and retention of data. The larger V{sub t} shift indicates that the ZnO adds available trap states and enhances the emission and retention of charges. The charge emission mechanism in the memory structures with graphene nanoplatelets at an electric field E???5.57 MV/cm is found to be based on Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. The fabrication of this memory device is compatible with current semiconductor processing, therefore, has great potential in low-cost nano-memory applications.

  9. Day After Trinity: Oppenheimer and the Atomic Bomb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Documentary

    2005-10-31

    On October 31st at 4:00 pm in Panofsky Auditorium SLAC’s Colloquium Series will present the exceptional Oscar-nominated documentary The Day After Trinity. The film offers invaluable insight into historic events which have forever changed the face of our world – this screening should not to be missed. After witnessing the tremendous destructive power of the atomic bomb, J. Robert Oppenheimer declared “I have become death”. Still topically relevant a quarter of a century since its release, Director Jon Else’s documentary uses interviews, archival footage, and narration to reveal the internal landscape of the man whose leadership at Los Alamos, New Mexico, defined the rise of the Manhattan Project and the beginning of the Atomic Age. The Day After Trinity traces the unexpected path of Oppenheimer’s career - from his formation of the Los Alamos colony and the first successful atomic bomb detonation at the Trinity test site in 1945, to his final years spent branded as a security risk and excluded from the atomic energy research he pioneered due to his opposition to the development of the Hydrogen bomb.

  10. Extending the applicability of an open-ring trap to perform experiments with a single laser-cooled ion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. M. Cornejo; M. Colombano; J. Doménech; M. Block; P. Delahaye; D. Rodríguez

    2015-07-08

    An open-ring ion trap, also referred to as transparent trap was initially built up to perform $\\beta$-$\

  11. Steam Traps-The Oft Forgotten Energy Conservation Treasure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pychewicz, F. S.

    1985-01-01

    of every steam system. It is common to find 10-60% of the team traps in any facility malfunctioning. The result ant waste can easily equal 5-15% of a plant' total steam generation with concomitant processing and safety problems from failed open... into the effective utilization of st l am traps and, hopefully, will serve as a guide or your energy saving efforts in this vital are CHAMPION The key to the success of an effective team trap program rests with a single individual the person selected...

  12. Trap seal for open circuit liquid cooled turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grondahl, Clayton M. (Clifton Park, NY); Germain, Malcolm R. (Ballston Lake, NY)

    1980-01-01

    An improved trap seal for open circuit liquid cooled turbines is disclosed. The trap seal of the present invention includes an annular recess formed in the supply conduit of cooling channels formed in the airfoil of the turbine buckets. A cylindrical insert is located in the annular recesses and has a plurality of axial grooves formed along the outer periphery thereof and a central recess formed in one end thereof. The axial grooves and central recess formed in the cylindrical insert cooperate with the annular recess to define a plurality of S-shaped trap seals which permit the passage of liquid coolant but prohibit passage of gaseous coolant.

  13. 2100 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 59, NO. 8, AUGUST 2012 A Distributed Bulk-Oxide Trap Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    a distributed circuit model for bulk-oxide traps based on tunneling between the semiconductor surface and trap explained by the distributed bulk-oxide trap model. Index Terms--Bulk-oxide trap, III­V, MOS, tunneling. I-oxide traps or border traps, do have long time constants as they interact with the conduction band electrons

  14. HANKEL OPERATORS AND THE DIXMIER TRACE ON STRICTLY PSEUDOCONVEX DOMAINS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Genkai

    = [Tf2 , Tf1 ] . . . [Tf2n , Tf2n-1 ] is never trace-class if n > 1. 1991 Mathematics Subject research plan no. MSM4781305904, and the Swedish Research Council (VR). Typeset by AMS-TEX 1 #12;2 M) to the unit ball Bn , n > 1, in a different direction -- using the Dixmier trace. This may be notable

  15. Climate change and trace gases BY JAMES HANSEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Andrew

    Climate change and trace gases BY JAMES HANSEN 1,*, MAKIKO SATO 1 , PUSHKER KHARECHA 1 , GARY climate change that could run out of our control, with great dangers for humans and other creatures and the global environment. Keywords: climate change; trace gases; climate feedbacks; black carbon; sea level

  16. Coherent Ray Tracing for Complex Light Transport Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    soft shadows from area light sources, large ray packets for real-time Whitted ray tracing, and adaptive lighting, depth of field, motion blur, and diffuse inter-reflections. This is an adaptive Monte CarloCoherent Ray Tracing for Complex Light Transport Effects Ryan S. Overbeck Advised by: Ravi

  17. ANIMAL TRACING: BENEFITS IN CATTLE INDUSTRY AND PRIVATE INCENTIVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    ANIMAL TRACING: BENEFITS IN CATTLE INDUSTRY AND PRIVATE INCENTIVES LEVAN ELBAKIDZE Assistant are those of the author and not necessarily the sponsor." #12;ANIMAL TRACING: BENEFITS IN CATTLE INDUSTRY major economic damages in the cattle industry. One of the strategies to mitigate potential outbreak

  18. Tracing Cattle Breeds with Principal Components Analysis Ancestry Informative SNPs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paschou, Peristera

    Tracing Cattle Breeds with Principal Components Analysis Ancestry Informative SNPs Jamey Lewis1 that can be used to trace the breed of unknown cattle samples. Taking advantage of the power of Principal the origin of individual cattle. In doing so, we present a thorough examination of population genetic

  19. Cast-to-shape electrokinetic trapping medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Franklin, Elizabeth; Prickett, Zane T.; Artau, Alexander

    2004-08-03

    A three-dimensional microporous polymer network material, or monolith, cast-to-shape in a microchannel. The polymer monolith, produced by a phase separation process, is capable of trapping and retaining charged protein species from a mixture of charged and uncharged species under the influence of an applied electric field. The retained charged protein species are released from the porous polymer monolith by a pressure driven flow in the substantial absence of the electric field. The pressure driven flow is independent of direction and thus neither means to reverse fluid flow nor a multi-directional flow field is required, a single flow through the porous polymer monolith can be employed, in contrast to prior art systems. The monolithic polymer material produced by the invention can function as a chromatographic medium. Moreover, by virtue of its ability to retain charged protein species and quantitatively release the retained species the porous polymer monolith can serve as a means for concentrating charged protein species from, for example, a dilute solution.

  20. Cast-to-shape electrokinetic trapping medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Franklin, Elizabeth (Rolla, MO); Prickett, Zane T. (Golden, CO); Artau, Alexander (Pleasanton, CA)

    2006-05-30

    A three-dimensional microporous polymer network material, or monolith, cast-to-shape in a microchannel. The polymer monolith, produced by a phase separation process, is capable of trapping and retaining charged protein species from a mixture of charged and uncharged species under the influence of an applied electric field. The retained charged protein species are released from the porous polymer monolith by a pressure driven flow in the substantial absence of the electric field. The pressure driven flow is independent of direction and thus neither means to reverse fluid flow nor a multi-directional flow field is required, a single flow through the porous polymer monolith can be employed, in contrast to prior art systems. The monolithic polymer material produced by the invention can function as a chromatographic medium. Moreover, by virtue of its ability to retain charged protein species and quantitatively release the retained species the porous polymer monolith can serve as a means for concentrating charged protein species from, for example, a dilute solution.

  1. Atomic Energy Commission Takes Over Responsibility for all Atomic...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Takes Over Responsibility for all Atomic Energy Programs | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile...

  2. Generating Entanglement between Atomic Spins with Low-Noise Probing of an Optical Cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Kevin C; Greve, Graham P; Thompson, James K

    2015-01-01

    Atomic projection noise limits the ultimate precision of all atomic sensors, including clocks, inertial sensors, magnetometers, etc. The independent quantum collapse of $N$ atoms into a definite state (for example spin up or down) leads to an uncertainty $\\Delta \\theta_{SQL}=1/\\sqrt{N}$ in the estimate of the quantum phase accumulated during a Ramsey sequence or its many generalizations. This phase uncertainty is referred to as the standard quantum limit. Creating quantum entanglement between the $N$ atoms can allow the atoms to partially cancel each other's quantum noise, leading to reduced noise in the phase estimate below the standard quantum limit. Recent experiments have demonstrated up to $10$~dB of phase noise reduction relative to the SQL by making collective spin measurements. This is achieved by trapping laser-cooled Rb atoms in an optical cavity and precisely measuring the shift of the cavity resonance frequency by an amount that depends on the number of atoms in spin up. Detecting the probe light ...

  3. Generating Entanglement between Atomic Spins with Low-Noise Probing of an Optical Cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kevin C. Cox; Joshua M. Weiner; Graham P. Greve; James K. Thompson

    2015-04-20

    Atomic projection noise limits the ultimate precision of all atomic sensors, including clocks, inertial sensors, magnetometers, etc. The independent quantum collapse of $N$ atoms into a definite state (for example spin up or down) leads to an uncertainty $\\Delta \\theta_{SQL}=1/\\sqrt{N}$ in the estimate of the quantum phase accumulated during a Ramsey sequence or its many generalizations. This phase uncertainty is referred to as the standard quantum limit. Creating quantum entanglement between the $N$ atoms can allow the atoms to partially cancel each other's quantum noise, leading to reduced noise in the phase estimate below the standard quantum limit. Recent experiments have demonstrated up to $10$~dB of phase noise reduction relative to the SQL by making collective spin measurements. This is achieved by trapping laser-cooled Rb atoms in an optical cavity and precisely measuring the shift of the cavity resonance frequency by an amount that depends on the number of atoms in spin up. Detecting the probe light with high total efficiency reduces excess classical and quantum back-action of the probe. Here we discuss recent progress and a technique for reducing the relative frequency noise between the probe light and the optical cavity, a key requirement for further advances.

  4. Instability of collective excitations and power laws of an attractive Bose-Einstein condensate in an anharmonic trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debnath, P. K. [Santoshpur Sri Gouranga Vidyapith (H.S.), P.O. Kulitapara, Howrah 711312 (India); Chakrabarti, Barnali [Department of Physics, Lady Brabourne College, P1/ 2 Surawardi Avenue, Kolkata 700017 (India)

    2010-10-15

    We study the instability of collective excitations of a three-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate with repulsive and attractive interactions in a shallow trap designed as a quadratic plus a quartic potential. By using a correlated many-body theory, we determine the excitation modes and probe the critical behavior of collective modes, having a crucial dependence on the anharmonic parameter. We examine the power-law behavior of monopole frequency near criticality. In Gross-Pitaevskii variational treatment [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1576 (1998)] the power-law exponent is determined as one-fourth power of (1-(A/A{sub cr})), A is the number of condensate atoms and A{sub cr} is the critical number near collapse. We observe that the power-law exponent becomes (1/6) in our calculation for the pure harmonic trap and it becomes (1/7), for traps with a small anharmonic distortion. However for large anharmonicity the power law breaks down.

  5. Cavity Sideband Cooling of a Single Trapped Ion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuletic, Vladan

    We report a demonstration and quantitative characterization of one-dimensional cavity cooling of a single trapped [superscript 88]Sr[superscript +] ion in the resolved-sideband regime. We measure the spectrum of cavity ...

  6. Laser ablation loading of a surface-electrode ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David R. Leibrandt; Robert J. Clark; Jaroslaw Labaziewicz; Paul Antohi; Waseem Bakr; Kenneth R. Brown; Isaac L. Chuang

    2007-06-22

    We demonstrate loading by laser ablation of $^{88}$Sr$^+$ ions into a mm-scale surface-electrode ion trap. The laser used for ablation is a pulsed, frequency-tripled Nd:YAG with pulse energies of 1-10 mJ and durations of 3-5 ns. An additional laser is not required to photoionize the ablated material. The efficiency and lifetime of several candidate materials for the laser ablation target are characterized by measuring the trapped ion fluorescence signal for a number of consecutive loads. Additionally, laser ablation is used to load traps with a trap depth (40 meV) below where electron impact ionization loading is typically successful ($\\gtrsim$ 500 meV).

  7. What To Do With Cold Traps and Why 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risko, J. R.; Walter, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Increased emphasis on energy management has helped sites reduce system cost through the diagnosis and repair of “Leaking” or “Blowing” steam traps (“Leakage Failures”). Timely maintenance response is a significant action to lower energy use and GHG...

  8. Construction and Operation of a Floating Alaska Salmon Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dismantling a trap Storage . . ... Acknowledgments ill Page 2 4 4 4 4 6 6 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 12 12

  9. SOLAR CELLS Low trap-state density and long

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    REPORTS SOLAR CELLS Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide) perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have now achieved 20.1% certified power con- version efficiencies (1

  10. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, Daniel D. (Livermore, CA); Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA)

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  11. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-12-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  12. The Penning trap system used by the BASE experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcastel, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    A cut-away schematic of the Penning trap system used by BASE. The experiment receives antiprotons from CERN's AD; negative hydrogen ions are formed during injection into the apparatus. The set-up works with only a pair of particles at a time, while a cloud of a few hundred others are held in the reservoir trap, for future use. Here, an antiproton is in the measurement trap, while the negative hydyrogen ion is in held by the downstream park electrode. When the antiproton has been measured, it is moved to the upstream park electrode and the hydrogen ion is brought in to the measurement trap. This is repeated thousands of times, enabling a high-precision comparison of the charge-to-mass ratios of the two particles.

  13. The Engineered Approach to Energy and Maintenance Effective Steam Trapping 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krueger, R. G.; Wilt, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    .0420" 21.85 0.0935" 51.84 0.1440" 91.20 0.1910" 1.10 0.0210" 4.62 0.0430" 21.94 0.0937" 54.02 0.1470" 93.60 0.1935" 1.26 0.0225" 5.40 0.0465" 23.04 0.0960" 55.87 0.1495" 96.04 0.1960" 1.44 0.0240" 5.49 0.0469" 24.01 0.0980" 57.76 0.1520" 99.00 0... and effective trap consumes 1-2 Ibs./hr. steam just to functionally efficient. Energy operating targets function properly. An inverted bucket trap loses 2-4 should include an analysis of steam trapping practices Ibs./hr. and a thermodynamic disc trap 0.5-1 lbs...

  14. Neutron lifetime measurements using gravitationally trapped ultracold neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. P. Serebrov; V. E. Varlamov; A. G. Kharitonov; A. K. Fomin; Yu. N. Pokotilovski; P. Geltenbort; I. A. Krasnoschekova; M. S. Lasakov; R. R. Taldaev; A. V. Vassiljev; O. M. Zherebtsov

    2009-02-02

    Our experiment using gravitationally trapped ultracold neutrons (UCN) to measure the neutron lifetime is reviewed. Ultracold neutrons were trapped in a material bottle covered with perfluoropolyether. The neutron lifetime was deduced from comparison of UCN losses in the traps with different surface-to-volume ratios. The precise value of the neutron lifetime is of fundamental importance to particle physics and cosmology. In this experiment, the UCN storage time is brought closer to the neutron lifetime than in any experiments before:the probability of UCN losses from the trap was only 1% of that for neutron beta decay. The neutron lifetime obtained,878.5+/-0.7stat+/-0.3sys s, is the most accurate experimental measurement to date.

  15. Stable Metal-Organic Frameworks Containing Single-Molecule Traps...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stable Metal-Organic Frameworks Containing Single-Molecule Traps for Enzyme Encapsulation Previous Next List Dawei Feng, Tian-Fu Liu, Jie Su, Mathieu Bosch, Zhangwen Wei, Wei Wan,...

  16. From transistor to trapped-ion computers for quantum chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. -H. Yung; J. Casanova; A. Mezzacapo; J. McClean; L. Lamata; A. Aspuru-Guzik; E. Solano

    2013-07-16

    Over the last few decades, quantum chemistry has progressed through the development of computational methods based on modern digital computers. However, these methods can hardly fulfill the exponentially-growing resource requirements when applied to large quantum systems. As pointed out by Feynman, this restriction is intrinsic to all computational models based on classical physics. Recently, the rapid advancement of trapped-ion technologies has opened new possibilities for quantum control and quantum simulations. Here, we present an efficient toolkit that exploits both the internal and motional degrees of freedom of trapped ions for solving problems in quantum chemistry, including molecular electronic structure, molecular dynamics, and vibronic coupling. We focus on applications that go beyond the capacity of classical computers, but may be realizable on state-of-the-art trapped-ion systems. These results allow us to envision a new paradigm of quantum chemistry that shifts from the current transistor to a near-future trapped-ion-based technology.

  17. Light trapping limits in plasmonic solar cells: an analytical investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    We analytically investigate the light trapping performance in plasmonic solar cells with Si/metallic structures. We consider absorption enhancements for surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at planar Si/metal interfaces and ...

  18. Tests of Lorentz Symmetry with Penning Traps and Antihydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neil Russell

    2005-11-22

    Possibilities for testing Lorentz symmetry using precision experiments with antiprotons in Penning traps and with antihydrogen spectroscopy are reviewed. Estimates of bounds on relevant coefficients for Lorentz violation in the Standard-Model Extension (SME) are considered.

  19. Energy Conservation Thru Steam Trap Surveys and Preventive Maintenance Programs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boynton, T.; Dewhirst, B.

    1980-01-01

    justification for the survey program. Defective steam traps and their energy characteristics will also be discussed. An on-going preventive maintenance program can be initiated from the information derived from the survey. Sustained energy efficiency...

  20. Quantum transport in ultracold atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chih-Chun Chien; Sebastiano Peotta; Massimiliano Di Ventra

    2015-04-11

    Ultracold atoms confined by engineered magnetic or optical potentials are ideal systems for studying phenomena otherwise difficult to realize or probe in the solid state because their atomic interaction strength, number of species, density, and geometry can be independently controlled. This review focuses on quantum transport phenomena in atomic gases that mirror and oftentimes either better elucidate or show fundamental differences with those observed in mesoscopic and nanoscopic systems. We discuss significant progress in performing transport experiments in atomic gases, contrast similarities and differences between transport in cold atoms and in condensed matter systems, and survey inspiring theoretical predictions that are difficult to verify in conventional setups. These results further demonstrate the versatility offered by atomic systems in the study of nonequilibrium phenomena and their promise for novel applications.

  1. Laser induced rotation of trapped chiral and achiral nematic droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marjan Mosallaeipour; Yashodhan Hatwalne; N. V. Madhusudana; Sharath Ananthamurthy

    2010-02-05

    We study the response of optically trapped achiral and chiralised nematic liquid crystal droplets to linear as well as circular polarised light. We find that there is internal dissipation in rotating achiral nematic droplets trapped in glycerine. We also demonstrate that some chiralised droplets rotate under linearly polarised light. The best fit to our data on chiralised droplets indicates that rotational frequency of these droplets with radius R is approximately proportional to1/R^2, rather than to 1/R^3.

  2. Nanoantennas for enhanced light trapping in transparent organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voroshilov, Pavel M; Belov, Pavel A

    2014-01-01

    We propose a light-trapping structure offering a significant enhancement of photovoltaic absorption in transparent organic solar cells operating at infrared while the visible light transmission keeps sufficiently high. The main mechanism of light trapping is related with the excitation of collective oscillations of the metal nanoantenna arrays, characterized by advantageous field distribution in the volume of the solar cell. It allows more than triple increase of infrared photovoltaic absorption.

  3. Optical Trapping and Control of a Nanowire by a Nanoaperture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aporvari, Mehdi Shafiei; Volpe, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that a single sub-wavelength nanoaperture in a metallic thin film can be used to achieve dynamic optical trapping and control of a single dielectric nanowire. A nanoaperture can trap a nanowire, control its orientation when illuminated by a linearly-polarized incident field, and also rotate the nanowire when illuminated by a circularly-polarized incident field. Compared to other designs, this approach has the advantages of a low-power driving field entailing low heating and photodamage.

  4. Master equation approach to protein folding and kinetic traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marek Cieplak; Malte Henkel; Jan Karbowski; Jayanth R. Banavar

    1998-04-21

    The master equation for 12-monomer lattice heteropolymers is solved numerically and the time evolution of the occupancy of the native state is determined. At low temperatures, the median folding time follows the Arrhenius law and is governed by the longest relaxation time. For good folders, significant kinetic traps appear in the folding funnel whereas for bad folders, the traps also occur in non-native energy valleys.

  5. The Effects of Derelict Blue Crab Traps on Marine Organisms in the Lower York River, Virginia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrizio, Mary C.

    addition of over 100,000 traps annually to the Chesapeake Bay derelict trap population in Virginia. The top are vandalized, or storms roll the traps, pulling the buoy below the surface. In Florida, Alabama, Mississippi waters. Blue crabs and various fish species that are entrapped and die in derelict traps can act

  6. Influence of static electric fields on an optical ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Schneider; Martin Enderlein; Thomas Huber; Stephan Dürr; Tobias Schaetz

    2011-12-16

    We recently reported on a proof-of-principle experiment demonstrating optical trapping of an ion in a single-beam dipole trap superimposed by a static electric potential [Nat. Photonics 4, 772--775 (2010)]. Here, we first discuss the experimental procedures focussing on the influence and consequences of the static electric potential. These potentials can easily prevent successful optical trapping, if their configuration is not chosen carefully. Afterwards, we analyse the dipole trap experiments with different analytic models, in which different approximations are applied. According to these models the experimental results agree with recoil heating as the relevant heating effect. In addition, a Monte-Carlo simulation has been developed to refine the analysis. It reveals a large impact of the static electric potential on the dipole trap experiments in general. While it supports the results of the analytic models for the parameters used in the experiments, the analytic models cease their validity for significantly different parameters. Finally, we propose technical improvements for future realizations of experiments with optically trapped ions.

  7. Einstein's Hydrogen Atom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. S. Kim

    2011-12-02

    In 1905, Einstein formulated his special relativity for point particles. For those particles, his Lorentz covariance and energy-momentum relation are by now firmly established. How about the hydrogen atom? It is possible to perform Lorentz boosts on the proton assuming that it is a point particle. Then what happens to the electron orbit? The orbit could go through an elliptic deformation, but it is not possible to understand this problem without quantum mechanics, where the orbit is a standing wave leading to a localized probability distribution. Is this concept consistent with Einstein's Lorentz covariance? Dirac, Wigner, and Feynman contributed important building blocks for understanding this problem. The remaining problem is to assemble those blocks to construct a Lorentz-covariant picture of quantum bound states based on standing waves. It is shown possible to assemble those building blocks using harmonic oscillators.

  8. Trace Assessment for BWR ATWS Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, L.Y.; Diamond, D.; Arantxa Cuadra, Gilad Raitses, Arnold Aronson

    2010-04-22

    A TRACE/PARCS input model has been developed in order to be able to analyze anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) in a boiling water reactor. The model is based on one developed previously for the Browns Ferry reactor for doing loss-of-coolant accident analysis. This model was updated by adding the control systems needed for ATWS and a core model using PARCS. The control systems were based on models previously developed for the TRAC-B code. The PARCS model is based on information (e.g., exposure and moderator density (void) history distributions) obtained from General Electric Hitachi and cross sections for GE14 fuel obtained from an independent source. The model is able to calculate an ATWS, initiated by the closure of main steam isolation valves, with recirculation pump trip, water level control, injection of borated water from the standby liquid control system and actuation of the automatic depres-surization system. The model is not considered complete and recommendations are made on how it should be improved.

  9. Trace metal composition of suspended particulate matter in the water column of the Black Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, James W.

    Trace metal composition of suspended particulate matter in the water column of the Black Sea Ouz Keywords: Black Sea Geochemistry Biogeochemistry Biogeochemical cycle Trace metals Trace elements Tracers Particulates Suspended particulate matter Biogenic matter Biogenic material Plankton Planktonic metal

  10. Atomic Scale Characterization of Compound Semiconductors Using Atom Probe Tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorman, B. P.; Norman, A. G.; Lawrence, D.; Prosa, T.; Guthrey, H.; Al-Jassim, M.

    2011-01-01

    Internal interfaces are critical in determining the performance of III-V multijunction solar cells. Studying these interfaces with atomic resolution using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atom probe tomography (APT), and density functional calculations enables a more fundamental understanding of carrier dynamics in photovoltaic (PV) device structures. To achieve full atomic scale spatial and chemical resolution, data acquisition parameters in laser pulsed APT must be carefully studied to eliminate surface diffusion. Atom probe data with minimized group V ion clustering and expected stoichiometry can be achieved by adjusting laser pulse power, pulse repetition rate, and specimen preparation parameters such that heat flow away from the evaporating surface is maximized. Applying these improved analysis conditions to III-V based PV gives an atomic scale understanding of compositional and dopant profiles across interfaces and tunnel junctions and the initial stages of alloy clustering and dopant accumulation. Details on APT experimental methods and future in-situ instrumentation developments are illustrated.

  11. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chappell, W R

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this research program is to understand the potential impact of an oil shale industry on environmental levels of trace contaminants in the region. The program involves a comprehensive study of the sources, release mechanisms, transport, fate, and effects of toxic trace chemicals, principally the trace elements, in an oil shale industry. The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by shale and oil production and use. The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, and Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements are not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. Many of the so-called standard methods for analyzing trace elements in oil shale-related materials are inadequate. A sampling manual is being written for the environmental scientist and practicing engineer. A new combination of methods is developed for separating the minerals in oil shale into different density fractions. Microbial investigations have tentatively identified the existence of thiobacilli in oil shale materials such as leachates. (DC)

  12. The Atomic City / The Magic of the Atom - 1950's Atomic Energy Commission Documentary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-06-04

    The story of American cities located near atomic power plants, and steps taken monitoring radiation to ensure the safety of the public who live nearby. .

  13. Rapid and gradual modes of aerosol trace metal dissolution in seawater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mackey, KRM; Chien, CT; Post, AF; Saito, MA; Paytan, A

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic,” in Trace Metals in Seawater, NATO Conferencesolubility of trace metals from natural and anthropogenicresponses to atmospheric metal deposi- tion in the coastal

  14. The MOTion trap: a hybrid atom-ion trap system for experiments in cold-chemistry and the production of cold polar molecular ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Scott Trevor

    2013-01-01

    interaction in the hybrid system, the self heating rate ismass dependent heating e?ects for the hybrid system of this

  15. Spectral Emission of Moving Atom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. X. Zheng-Johansson

    2008-03-17

    A renewed analysis of the H.E. Ives and G.R. Stilwell's experiment on moving hydrogen canal rays (J. Opt. Soc. Am., 1938, v.28, 215) concludes that the spectral emission of a moving atom exhibits always a redshift which informs not the direction of the atom's motion. The conclusion is also evident from a simple energy relation: atomic spectral radiation is emitted as an orbiting electron consumes a portion of its internal energy on transiting to a lower-energy state which however has in a moving atom an additional energy gain; this results in a redshift in the emission frequency. Based on auxiliary experimental information and a scheme for de Broglie particle formation, we give a vigorous elucidation of the mechanism for deceleration radiation of atomic electron; the corresponding prediction of the redshift is in complete agreement with the Ives and Stilwell's experimental formula.

  16. In-situ control system for atomization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, I.E.; Figliola, R.S.; Terpstra, R.L.

    1995-06-13

    Melt atomizing apparatus comprising a melt supply orifice for supplying the melt for atomization and gas supply orifices proximate the melt supply orifice for supplying atomizing gas to atomize the melt as an atomization spray is disclosed. The apparatus includes a sensor, such as an optical and/or audio sensor, for providing atomization spray data, and a control unit responsive to the sensed atomization spray data for controlling at least one of the atomizing gas pressure and an actuator to adjust the relative position of the gas supply orifice and melt supply in a manner to achieve a desired atomization spray. 3 figs.

  17. DROPOUTS IN SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES: ASSOCIATED WITH LOCAL TRAPPING BOUNDARIES OR CURRENT SHEETS?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seripienlert, A.; Ruffolo, D.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Chuychai, P. E-mail: scdjr@mahidol.ac.t E-mail: piyanate@gmail.co

    2010-03-10

    In recent observations by the Advanced Composition Explorer, the intensity of solar energetic particles exhibits sudden, large changes known as dropouts. These have been explained in terms of turbulence or a flux tube structure in the solar wind. Dropouts are believed to indicate filamentary magnetic connection to a localized particle source near the solar surface, and computer simulations of a random-phase model of magnetic turbulence have indicated a spatial association between dropout features and local trapping boundaries (LTBs) defined for a two-dimensional (2D) + slab model of turbulence. Previous observations have shown that dropout features are not well associated with sharp magnetic field changes, as might be expected in the flux tube model. Random-phase turbulence models do not properly treat sharp changes in the magnetic field, such as current sheets, and thus cannot be tested in this way. Here, we explore the properties of a more realistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence model (2D MHD), in which current sheets develop and the current and magnetic field have characteristic non-Gaussian statistical properties. For this model, computer simulations that trace field lines to determine magnetic connection from a localized particle source indicate that sharp particle gradients should frequently be associated with LTBs, sometimes with strong 2D magnetic fluctuations, and infrequently with current sheets. Thus, the 2D MHD + slab model of turbulent fluctuations includes some realistic features of the flux tube view and is consistent with the lack of an observed association between dropouts and intense magnetic fields or currents.

  18. Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Balsavich, John (Foxborough, MA)

    1991-01-01

    A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to supersonic velocities.

  19. L-?Functions and Trace Formula Workshop Schedule

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-05-11

    L-?Functions and Trace Formula Workshop Schedule. May 11 – May 13, 2015 at Purdue University. Monday, May 11. 9:15 am – 9:30 am: Casselman/Shahidi:.

  20. Tax Deduction Qualified Software: TRACE Version 6.3.2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides required documentation that the TRACE version 6.3.2 meets Internal Revenue Code §179D (c)(1) and (d) Regulations Notice 2006-52, Section 6 requirements as amplified by Notice 2008-40, Section 4 requirements.

  1. Trace formulas for fourth order operators on unit interval, II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrey Badanin; Evgeny Korotyaev

    2014-12-16

    We consider self-adjoint fourth order operators on the unit interval with the Dirichlet type boundary conditions. For such operators we determine few trace formulas, similar to the case of Gelfand--Levitan formulas for second order operators.

  2. Ichnotaxonomic assessment of Mazon Creek area trace fossils, Illinois, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LoBue, David J.

    2010-08-12

    The Francis Creek Shale Member (FCSM) of the Mid-Pennsylvanian Carbondale Formation along Mazon Creek in northern Illinois is known for soft-bodied organisms preserved within siderite concretions. Trace fossils, though ...

  3. Laboratory measurements and modeling of trace atmospheric species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheehy, Philip M. (Philip Michael)

    2005-01-01

    Trace species play a major role in many physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere. Improving our understanding of the impact of each species requires a combination of laboratory exper- imentation, field measurements, ...

  4. TRACING FLUID SOURCES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM USING FLUID...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TRACING FLUID SOURCES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM USING FLUID-INCLUSION GAS CHEMISTRY Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings:...

  5. Vascular flora and gradient analysis of the Natchez Trace Parkway 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, Nena Mae Monique

    2009-06-02

    Vascular plant collections were made on the Natchez Trace Parkway over a 15 month period beginning in August 2004. These collections along with previous work done by the National Park Service (NPS) produced a flora of 750 ...

  6. Understanding reservoir mechanisms using phase and component streamline tracing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Sarwesh

    2009-05-15

    Conventionally streamlines are traced using total flux across the grid cell faces. The visualization of total flux streamlines shows the movement of flood, injector-producer relationship, swept area and movement of tracer. ...

  7. Theory of sub-Doppler cooling of three-level {Lambda} atoms in standing light waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosachev, D.V.; Rozhdestvenskii, Yu.V. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-01

    A general theory of cooling of three-level {Lambda} atoms in two standing light waves between which there is a relative spatial phase shift is presented for arbitrary ratios of the intensity and detuning. It is shown that in the case of equal detuning of the light waves, deep (sub-Doppler) cooling of three-level atoms occurs for any values of the spatial phase shift. For zero spatial phase shift, the atoms are strongly cooled due to coherent population trapping in the given atom-field interaction scheme. On the other hand, for the case of different frequency detunings, sub-Doppler cooling of {Lambda} atoms is possible only with a nonzero relative phase shift; it is shown that this is associated with the so-called {open_quotes}Sisyphus{close_quotes} cooling mechanism. The authors underscore that in their scheme neither a polarization gradient of the exciting waves nor a magnetic field is required to achieve this type of cooling pattern; two standing waves acting on different transitions of a {Lambda} atom are sufficient. 13 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Technique for identifying, tracing, or tracking objects in image data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Robert J. (Albuquerque, NM); Rothganger, Fredrick (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-08-28

    A technique for computer vision uses a polygon contour to trace an object. The technique includes rendering a polygon contour superimposed over a first frame of image data. The polygon contour is iteratively refined to more accurately trace the object within the first frame after each iteration. The refinement includes computing image energies along lengths of contour lines of the polygon contour and adjusting positions of the contour lines based at least in part on the image energies.

  9. Trace determination of lead by helium-4 activation analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vargas Bernal, Maria E.

    1984-01-01

    TRACE DETERMINATION OF LEAD BY HELIUM-4 ACTIVATION ANALYSIS A Thesis by MARIA E. VARGAS BERNAL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1984 Major Subject: Chemistry TRACE DETERMINATION OF LEAD BY HELIUM-4 ACTIVATION ANALYSIS A Thesis by MARIA E. VARGAS BERNAL Approved as to style and format by: Emile A. Schweikert (Chairman of Committee) Marvin W. Rowe (Member) Gerald A. Sc...

  10. Highly Charged Ions in Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Penning Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guise, Nicholas D; Tan, Joseph N

    2013-01-01

    A newly constructed apparatus at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is designed for the isolation, manipulation, and study of highly charged ions. Highly charged ions are produced in the NIST electron-beam ion trap (EBIT), extracted through a beamline that selects a single mass/charge species, then captured in a compact Penning trap. The magnetic field of the trap is generated by cylindrical NdFeB permanent magnets integrated into its electrodes. In a room-temperature prototype trap with a single NdFeB magnet, species including Ne10+ and N7+ were confined with storage times of order 1 second, showing the potential of this setup for manipulation and spectroscopy of highly charged ions in a controlled environment. Ion capture has since been demonstrated with similar storage times in a more-elaborate Penning trap that integrates two coaxial NdFeB magnets for improved B-field homogeneity. Ongoing experiments utilize a second-generation apparatus that incorporates this two-magnet Penning tra...

  11. Quantum properties of light scattered from structured many-body phases of ultracold atoms in quantum optical lattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caballero-Benitez, Santiago F

    2015-01-01

    Quantum trapping potentials for ultracold gases change the landscape of classical properties of scattered light and matter. The atoms in a quantum many-body correlated phase of matter change the properties of light and vice versa. The properties of both light and matter can be tuned by design and depend on the interplay between long-range (nonlocal) interactions mediated by an optical cavity and short-range processes of the atoms. Moreover, the quantum properties of light get significantly altered by this interplay, leading the light to have nonclassical features. Further, these nonclassical features can be designed and optimised.

  12. A self-injected, diode-pumped, solid-state ring laser for laser cooling of Li atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miake, Yudai; O'Hara, Kenneth M; Gensemer, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We have constructed a solid-state light source for experiments with laser cooled lithium atoms based on a Nd:YVO$_4$ ring laser with second-harmonic generation. Unidirectional lasing, an improved mode selection, and a high output power of the ring laser was achieved by weak coupling to an external cavity which contained the lossy elements required for single frequency operation. Continuous frequency tuning is accomplished by controlling two PZTs in the internal and the external cavities simultaneously. The light source has been utilized to trap and cool fermionic lithium atoms into the quantum degenerate regime.

  13. Bell's Inequality and Universal Quantum Gates in a Cold-Atom Chiral Fermionic p-Wave Superfluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Chuanwei; Tewari, Sumanta; Das Sarma, S.

    2007-11-30

    We propose and analyze a probabilistic scheme to entangle two spatially separated topological qubits in a p{sub x}+ip{sub y} superfluid using controlled collisions between atoms in movable dipole traps and unpaired atoms inside vortex cores in the superfluid. We discuss how to test the violation of Bell's inequality with the generated entanglement. A set of universal quantum gates is shown to be implementable deterministically using the entanglement despite the fact that the entangled states can be created only probabilistically.

  14. Anticipating the atom: popular perceptions of atomic power before Hiroshima 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    d'Emal, Jacques-Andre Christian

    1994-01-01

    Before Hiroshima made the Bomb an object of popular concern, possible implications and applications of atomic physics had been discussed in the public forum. The new science of X-rays and radium promised the possibilities of unlimited energy...

  15. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merli, Isabella Desan; Guazzelli da Silveira, Marcilei A.; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-11

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) ?Sv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) ?Sv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) ?Sv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 ?Sv/year.

  16. Trace species detection: Spectroscopy and molecular energy transfer at high temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Monitoring the concentration of trace species such as atomic and molecular free radicals is essential in forming predictive models of combustion processes. LIF-based techniques have the necessary sensitivity for concentration and temperature measurements but have limited accuracy due to collisional quenching in combustion applications. The goal of this program is to use spectroscopic and kinetic measurements to quantify nonradiative and collisional effects on LIF signals and to develop new background-free alternatives to LIF. The authors have measured the natural linewidth of several OH A-X (3,0) rotational transitions to determine predissociation lifetimes in the upper state, which were presumed to be short compared to quenching lifetimes, and as a result, quantitative predictions about the applicability of predissociation fluorescence methods at high pressures are made. The authors are investigating collisional energy transfer in the A-state of NO. Quenching rates which enable direct corrections to NO LIF quantum yields at high temperature were calculations. These quenching rates are now being used in studies of turbulence/chemistry interactions. The authors have measured the electric dipole moment {mu} of excited-state NO using Stark quantum-beat spectroscopy. {mu} is an essential input to a harpoon model which predicts quenching efficiencies for NO (A) by a variety of combustion-related species. The authors are developing new coherent multiphoton techniques for measurements of atomic hydrogen concentration in laboratory flames to avoid the quenching problems associated with previous multiphoton LIF schemes.

  17. Chemical factors influencing selenium atomization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buren, Mary Sue

    1980-01-01

    Atomization. (August 1980) Mary Sue Buren, B, S. , Angelo State University Chairman of Advisory Comm1ttee: Dr. Thomas M. Vickrey Selenium in an acid1c matrix was analyzed using graphite furnace atom1c absorption with Zeeman-effect background correct1on.... Nickel(II} and lanthanum( III) were introduced as matrix modifiers to determine their effect on interferences 1n selenium atom1zation. In add1tion to matr1x mod1ficat1on, surface coating the graphite furnace with z1rconium and tantalum salts was also...

  18. Computer analysis of sodium cold trap design and performance. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1983-11-01

    Normal steam-side corrosion of steam-generator tubes in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) results in liberation of hydrogen, and most of this hydrogen diffuses through the tubes into the heat-transfer sodium and must be removed by the purification system. Cold traps are normally used to purify sodium, and they operate by cooling the sodium to temperatures near the melting point, where soluble impurities including hydrogen and oxygen precipitate as NaH and Na/sub 2/O, respectively. A computer model was developed to simulate the processes that occur in sodium cold traps. The Model for Analyzing Sodium Cold Traps (MASCOT) simulates any desired configuration of mesh arrangements and dimensions and calculates pressure drops and flow distributions, temperature profiles, impurity concentration profiles, and impurity mass distributions.

  19. Plasma-beam traps and radiofrequency quadrupole beam coolers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maggiore, M., E-mail: mario.maggiore@lnl.infn.it; Cavenago, M.; Comunian, M.; Chirulotto, F.; Galatà, A.; De Lazzari, M.; Porcellato, A. M.; Roncolato, C.; Stark, S. [INFN-LNL, viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)] [INFN-LNL, viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Caruso, A.; Longhitano, A. [INFN-LNS, via S. Sofia 54, 95123 Catania (Italy)] [INFN-LNS, via S. Sofia 54, 95123 Catania (Italy); Cavaliere, F.; Maero, G.; Paroli, B.; Pozzoli, R.; Romé, M. [INFN Sezione di Milano and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [INFN Sezione di Milano and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    Two linear trap devices for particle beam manipulation (including emittance reduction, cooling, control of instabilities, dust dynamics, and non-neutral plasmas) are here presented, namely, a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) beam cooler and a compact Penning trap with a dust injector. Both beam dynamics studies by means of dedicated codes including the interaction of the ions with a buffer gas (up to 3 Pa pressure), and the electromagnetic design of the RFQ beam cooler are reported. The compact multipurpose Penning trap is aimed to the study of multispecies charged particle samples, primarily electron beams interacting with a background gas and/or a micrometric dust contaminant. Using a 0.9 T solenoid and an electrode stack where both static and RF electric fields can be applied, both beam transport and confinement operations will be available. The design of the apparatus is presented.

  20. Parallel transport quantum logic gates with trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Clercq, Ludwig; Marinelli, Matteo; Nadlinger, David; Oswald, Robin; Negnevitsky, Vlad; Kienzler, Daniel; Keitch, Ben; Home, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    Quantum information processing will require combinations of gate operations and communication, with each applied in parallel to large numbers of quantum systems. These tasks are often performed sequentially, with gates implemented by pulsed fields and information transported either by moving the physical qubits or using photonic links. For trapped ions, an alternative approach is to implement quantum logic gates by transporting the ions through static laser beams, combining qubit operations with transport. This has significant advantages for scalability since the voltage waveforms required for transport can potentially be generated using micro-electronics integrated into the trap structure itself, while both optical and microwave control elements are significantly more bulky. Using a multi-zone ion trap, we demonstrate transport gates on a qubit encoded in the hyperfine structure of a beryllium ion. We show the ability to perform sequences of operations, and to perform parallel gates on two ions transported t...

  1. Recent progress in tailoring trap-based positron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natisin, M. R.; Hurst, N. C.; Danielson, J. R.; Surko, C. M. [Physics Department, University of California, San Diego La Jolla CA 92093-0319 (United States)

    2013-03-19

    Recent progress is described to implement two approaches to specially tailor trap-based positron beams. Experiments and simulations are presented to understand the limits on the energy spread and pulse duration of positron beams extracted from a Penning-Malmberg (PM) trap after the particles have been buffer-gas cooled (or heated) in the range of temperatures 1000 {>=} T {>=} 300 K. These simulations are also used to predict beam performance for cryogenically cooled positrons. Experiments and simulations are also presented to understand the properties of beams formed when plasmas are tailored in a PM trap in a 5 tesla magnetic field, then non-adiabatically extracted from the field using a specially designed high-permeability grid to create a new class of electrostatically guided beams.

  2. First-principles study on the interaction of nitrogen atom with ?–uranium: From surface adsorption to bulk diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Qiulei; Deng, Huiqiu, E-mail: hqdeng@hnu.edu.cn, E-mail: hqdeng@gmail.com; Xiao, Shifang; Li, Xiaofan; Hu, Wangyu [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Ao, Bingyun; Chen, Piheng [Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, P.O. Box 718-35, Mianyang 621907 (China)

    2014-04-28

    Experimental studies of nitriding on uranium surfaces show that the modified layers provide considerable protection against air corrosion. The bimodal distribution of nitrogen is affected by both its implantation and diffusion, and the diffusion of nitrogen during implantation is also governed by vacancy trapping. In the present paper, nitrogen adsorption, absorption, diffusion, and vacancy trapping on the surface of and in the bulk of ?–uranium are studied with a first-principles density functional theory approach and the climbing image nudged elastic band method. The calculated results indicate that, regardless of the nitrogen coverage, a nitrogen atom prefers to reside at the hollow1 site and octahedral (Oct) site on and below the surface, respectively. The lowest energy barriers for on-surface and penetration diffusion occur at a coverage of 1/2 monolayer. A nitrogen atom prefers to occupy the Oct site in bulk ?–uranium. High energy barriers are observed during the diffusion between neighboring Oct sites. A vacancy can capture its nearby interstitial nitrogen atom with a low energy barrier, providing a significant attractive nitrogen-vacancy interaction at the trapping center site. This study provides a reference for understanding the nitriding process on uranium surfaces.

  3. Heating rate and electrode charging measurements in a scalable, microfabricated, surface-electrode ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. T. C. Allcock; T. P. Harty; H. A. Janacek; N. M. Linke; C. J. Ballance; A. M. Steane; D. M. Lucas; R. L. Jarecki Jr.; S. D. Habermehl; M. G. Blain; D. Stick; D. L. Moehring

    2011-05-24

    We characterise the performance of a surface-electrode ion "chip" trap fabricated using established semiconductor integrated circuit and micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) microfabrication processes which are in principle scalable to much larger ion trap arrays, as proposed for implementing ion trap quantum information processing. We measure rf ion micromotion parallel and perpendicular to the plane of the trap electrodes, and find that on-package capacitors reduce this to heating rate for a single trapped ion. The performance of this trap is found to be comparable with others of the same size scale.

  4. Fast transport of two ions in an anharmonic trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Palmero; E. Torrontegui; D. Guéry-Odelin; J. G. Muga

    2013-10-08

    We design fast trajectories of a trap to transport two ions using a shortcut-to-adiabaticity technique based on invariants. The effects of anharmonicity are analyzed first perturbatively, with an approximate, single relative-motion mode, description. Then we use classical calculations and full quantum calculations. This allows to identify discrete transport times that minimize excitation in the presence of anharmonicity. An even better strategy to suppress the effects of anharmonicity in a continuous range of transport times is to modify the trajectory using an effective trap frequency shifted with respect to the actual frequency by the coupling between relative and center of mass motions.

  5. Electron beam ion source and electron beam ion trap (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, Reinard [Scientific Software Service, Kapellenweg 2a, D-63571 Gelnhausen (Germany); Kester, Oliver [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) and its trap variant [electron beam ion trap (EBIT)] celebrated their 40th and 20th anniversary, respectively, at the EBIS/T Symposium 2007 in Heidelberg. These technologically challenging sources of highly charged ions have seen a broad development in many countries over the last decades. In contrast to most other ion sources the recipe of improvement was not ''sorcery'' but a clear understanding of the physical laws and obeying the technological constraints. This review will report important achievements of the past as well as promising developments in the future.

  6. Imaging atoms in 3-D

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ercius, Peter

    2014-06-27

    Berkeley Lab's Peter Ercius discusses "Imaging atoms in 3-D" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas

  7. Imaging atoms in 3-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ercius, Peter

    2013-10-31

    Berkeley Lab's Peter Ercius discusses "Imaging atoms in 3-D" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas

  8. Theoretical studies of atomic transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, C.F.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses: lifetime of excited states; core-polarization studies; large relativistic calculations; Monte Carlo Hartree-Fock (MCHF) atomic structure package; and MCHF codes for the hypercube. (LSP)

  9. Efimov physics in cold atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braaten, Eric . E-mail: braaten@mps.ohio-state.edu; Hammer, H.-W. . E-mail: hammer@itkp.uni-bonn.de

    2007-01-15

    Atoms with a large scattering length have universal low-energy properties that do not depend on the details of their structure or their interactions at short distances. In the 2-atom sector, the universal properties are familiar and depend only on the scattering length. In the 3-atom sector for identical bosons, the universal properties include the existence of a sequence of shallow triatomic molecules called Efimov trimers and log-periodic dependence of scattering observables on the energy and the scattering length. In this review, we summarize the universal results that are currently known. We also summarize the experimental information that is currently available with an emphasis on 3-atom loss processes.

  10. Efimov Physics in Cold Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric Braaten; H. -W. Hammer

    2006-12-05

    Atoms with a large scattering length have universal low-energy properties that do not depend on the details of their structure or their interactions at short distances. In the 2-atom sector, the universal properties are familiar and depend only on the scattering length. In the 3-atom sector for identical bosons, the universal properties include the existence of a sequence of shallow triatomic molecules called Efimov trimers and log-periodic dependence of scattering observables on the energy and the scattering length. In this review, we summarize the universal results that are currently known. We also summarize the experimental information that is currently available with an emphasis on 3-atom loss processes.

  11. Arthur-Selberg trace formula CRM, June 30-July 3, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lapid, Erez

    #12;#12;Arthur-Selberg trace formula Erez Lapid CRM, June 30-July 3, 2009 #12;Contents Applications of the Selberg Trace Formula 1. Weyl's law #12;Contents Applications of the Selberg Trace Formula 1. Weyl's law 2. Prime Geodesic Theorem #12;Contents Applications of the Selberg Trace Formula 1. Weyl's law 2. Prime

  12. VOLUME 79, NUMBER 4 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 28 JULY 1997 Two-Step Condensation of the Ideal Bose Gas in Highly Anisotropic Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    develops a macroscopic occupation. This behavior shows general features of Bose-Einstein conden- sation. It should be possible to verify these predictions using present-day atom traps. The two- step behavior can of the ideal Bose gas. Most textbooks, e.g., [2], calculate the behavior of the ideal Bose gas in a three

  13. Emergence of a measurement basis in atom-photon scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yinnon Glickman; Shlomi Kotler; Nitzan Akerman; Roee Ozeri

    2012-06-18

    The process of quantum measurement has been a long standing source of debate. A measurement is postulated to collapse a wavefunction onto one of the states of a predetermined set - the measurement basis. This basis origin is not specified within quantum mechanics. According to the theory of decohernce, a measurement basis is singled out by the nature of coupling of a quantum system to its environment. Here we show how a measurement basis emerges in the evolution of the electronic spin of a single trapped atomic ion due to spontaneous photon scattering. Using quantum process tomography we visualize the projection of all spin directions, onto this basis, as a photon is scattered. These basis spin states are found to be aligned with the scattered photon propagation direction. In accordance with decohernce theory, they are subjected to a minimal increase in entropy due to the photon scattering, while, orthogonal states become fully mixed and their entropy is maximally increased. Moreover, we show that detection of the scattered photon polarization measures the spin state of the ion, in the emerging basis, with high fidelity. Lastly, we show that while photon scattering entangles all superpositions of pointer states with the scattered photon polarization, the measurement-basis states themselves remain classically correlated with it. Our findings show that photon scattering by atomic spin superpositions fulfils all the requirements from a quantum measurement process.

  14. Development of monolithic 3D ion traps microfabricated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hensinger, Winfried

    surface traps [1,2], 2) 3D Au coated alumina [3-5],3) 3D degenerate Silicon [6], 4) monolithic 3D Ga. 6) Electroplating to 5 µm thickness of Au. Concept Fabrication method Potential -25 V 25 V 0 V

  15. Electron beam ion sources and traps ,,invited... Reinard Beckera)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electron beam ion sources and traps ,,invited... Reinard Beckera) Institut fu¨r Angewandte Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universita¨t, Frankfurt, Germany Presented on 7 September 1999 The electron beam method of stepwise ionization to highest charge states has found applications in electron beam ion

  16. Trapping and Frequency Variability in Electron Acoustic Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Trapping and Frequency Variability in Electron Acoustic Waves C.F. Driscoll, F. Anderegg, D 92093 USA Abstract. Electron Acoustic Waves (EAWs) with a phase velocity less than twice the plasma. Keywords: add some here PACS: 52.27.Jt, 52.35.Fp, 52.35.Sb Electron Acoustic Waves (EAWs) are the low

  17. Model of Flux Trapping in Cooling Down Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kubo, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    The flux trapping that occurs in the process of cooling down of the superconducting cavity is studied. The critical fields $B_{c2}$ and $B_{c1}$ depend on a position when a material temperature is not uniform. In a region with $T\\simeq T_c$, $B_{c2}$ and $B_{c1}$ are strongly suppressed and can be smaller than the ambient magnetic field, $B_a$. A region with $B_{c2}\\le B_a$ is normal conducting, that with $B_{c1}\\le B_a B_a$ is in the Meissner state. As a material is cooled down, these three domains including the vortex state domain sweep and pass through the material. In this process, vortices contained in the vortex state domain are trapped by pinning centers distributing in the material. A number of trapped fluxes can be evaluated by using the analogy with the beam-target collision event, where beams and a target correspond to pinning centers and the vortex state domain, respectively. We find a number of trapped fluxes and thus the residual resistance are proportional to the ambient magnetic field and the...

  18. Electrostatic trapping of single conducting nanoparticles between nanoelectrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dekker, Cees

    nanoparticle show single electron tunneling coexisting with tunnel-barrier suppression. © 1997 AmericanElectrostatic trapping of single conducting nanoparticles between nanoelectrodes A. Bezryadina Received 4 June 1997; accepted for publication 8 July 1997 For molecular electronics, one needs the ability

  19. ACOUSTIC WAVE TRAPPING IN ONE-DIMENSIONAL AXISYMMETRIC ARRAYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ACOUSTIC WAVE TRAPPING IN ONE- DIMENSIONAL AXISYMMETRIC ARRAYS by M. MCIVER (Department of the wave numbers of Rayleigh-Bloch modes for an array of circular plates. An integral equation for the acoustic wave-field in the neighbourhood of such an array is obtained and solved with the use of a Galerkin

  20. A computational introduction to quantum statistics using harmonically trapped particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ligare, Martin

    and multiplicities. The examples illustrate the effect of quantum statistics on the sharing of energy between weaklyA computational introduction to quantum statistics using harmonically trapped particles Martin the statistical definition of entropy and the second law of thermodynamics [Am. J. Phys. 65, 26 (1997)]. I