National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for atmospheric trace gases

  1. Atmospheric Trace Gases from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication, Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. The collections under the CDIAC heading of Atmospheric Trace Gases include: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Atmospheric Methane, Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide, Atmospheric Hydrogen, Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases, Radionuclides, Aerosols, and Other Trace Gases.

  2. Carbon dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center: A for Atmospheric trace gases. Annual progress report, FY 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtis, M.D. [comp.] [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Jones, S.B.; Nelson, T.R.; Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments made by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases during the fiscal year 1994. Topics discussed in this report include; organization and staff, user services, systems, communications, Collaborative efforts with China, networking, ocean data and activities of the World Data Center-A.

  3. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases Fiscal Year 2000 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.

    2001-11-15

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which includes the World Data Center (WDC) for Atmospheric Trace Gases, is the primary global change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). More than just an archive of data sets and publications, CDIAC has, since its inception in 1982, enhanced the value of its holdings through intensive quality assurance, documentation, and integration. Whereas many traditional data centers are discipline-based (for example, meteorology or oceanography), CDIAC's scope includes potentially anything and everything that would be of value to users concerned with the greenhouse effect and global climate change, including concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of CO{sub 2} and other trace gases to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea levels.

  4. Oil and gas exploration system and method for detecting trace amounts of hydrocarbon gases in the atmosphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wamsley, Paula R. (Littleton, CO); Weimer, Carl S. (Littleton, CO); Nelson, Loren D. (Evergreen, CO); O'Brien, Martin J. (Pine, CO)

    2003-01-01

    An oil and gas exploration system and method for land and airborne operations, the system and method used for locating subsurface hydrocarbon deposits based upon a remote detection of trace amounts of gases in the atmosphere. The detection of one or more target gases in the atmosphere is used to indicate a possible subsurface oil and gas deposit. By mapping a plurality of gas targets over a selected survey area, the survey area can be analyzed for measurable concentration anomalies. The anomalies are interpreted along with other exploration data to evaluate the value of an underground deposit. The system includes a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system with a spectroscopic grade laser light and a light detector. The laser light is continuously tunable in a mid-infrared range, 2 to 5 micrometers, for choosing appropriate wavelengths to measure different gases and avoid absorption bands of interference gases. The laser light has sufficient optical energy to measure atmospheric concentrations of a gas over a path as long as a mile and greater. The detection of the gas is based on optical absorption measurements at specific wavelengths in the open atmosphere. Light that is detected using the light detector contains an absorption signature acquired as the light travels through the atmosphere from the laser source and back to the light detector. The absorption signature of each gas is processed and then analyzed to determine if a potential anomaly exists.

  5. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for atmospheric trace gases: FY 1993 activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W. |

    1994-01-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provide technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC (including World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases) during the period October 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of NDPS, CMPS, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints are provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also presented.

  6. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases Fiscal Year 2001 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.

    2002-10-15

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which includes the World Data Center (WDC) for Atmospheric Trace Gases, is the primary global change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). More than just an archive of data sets and publications, CDIAC has, since its inception in 1982, enhanced the value of its holdings through intensive quality assurance, documentation, and integration. Whereas many traditional data centers are discipline-based (for example, meteorology or oceanography), CDIAC's scope includes potentially anything and everything that would be of value to users concerned with the greenhouse effect and global climate change, including concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of CO{sub 2} and other trace gases to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea levels. CDIAC is located within the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. CDIAC is co-located with ESD researchers investigating global-change topics, such as the global carbon cycle and the effects of carbon dioxide on climate and vegetation. CDIAC staff are also connected with current ORNL research on related topics, such as renewable energy and supercomputing technologies. CDIAC is supported by the Environmental Sciences Division (Jerry Elwood, Director) of DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research. CDIAC represents DOE in the multi-agency Global Change Data and Information System (GCDIS). Wanda Ferrell is DOE's Program Manager with overall responsibility for CDIAC. Roger Dahlman is responsible for CDIAC's AmeriFlux tasks, and Anna Palmisano for CDIAC's Ocean Data tasks. CDIAC is made up of three groups: Data Systems, Information Services, and Computer Systems, with nineteen full-time or part-time staff. The following section provides details on CDIAC's staff and organization. The Data Systems Group identifies and obtains databases important to global-change research; analyzes data; compiles needed databases; provides data management and support to specific programs [e.g., NARSTO, Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE), AmeriFlux, Oceans]; and prepares documentation to ensure the long-term utility of CDIAC's data holdings. The Information Services Group responds to data and information requests; maintains records of all request activities; analyzes user statistics; assists in Web development and maintenance; and produces CDIAC's newsletter (CDIAC Communications), the fiscal year annual reports, and various information materials. The Computer Systems Group provides computer system support for all CDIAC and WDC activities; designs and maintains CDIAC's computing system network; ensures compliance with ORNL/DOE computing security regulations; ensures long-term preservation of CDIAC data holdings through systematic backups; evaluates, develops, and implements software; ensures standards compliance; generates user statistics; provides Web design, development, and oversight; and provides systems analysis and programming assistance for scientific data projects.

  7. Fiscal Year 1998 Annual Report, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, World Data Center -- A for Atmospheric Trace Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Hook, L.A.; Jones, S.B.; Kaiser, D.P.; Nelson, T.R.

    1999-03-01

    Once again, the most recent fiscal year was a productive one for the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), as well as a year for change. The FY 1998 in Review section in this report summarizes quite a few new and updated data and information products, and the ''What's Coming in FY 1999'' section describes our plans for this new fiscal year. During FY 1998, CDIAC began a data-management system for AmeriFlux, a long-term study of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere of the Western Hemisphere and the atmosphere. The specific objectives of AmeriFlux are to establish an infrastructure for guiding, collecting, synthesizing, and disseminating long-term measurements of CO{sub 2}, water, and energy exchange from a variety of ecosystems; collect critical new information to help define the current global CO{sub 2} budget; enable improved predictions of future concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2}; and enhance understanding of carbon fluxes. Net Ecosystem Production (NEP), and carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere. The data-management system, available from CDIAC'S AmeriFlux home page (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/programs/ameriflux/ ) is intended to provide consistent, quality-assured, and documented data across all AmeriFlux sites in the US, Canada, Costa Rica, and Brazil. It is being developed by Antoinette Brenkert and Tom Boden, with assistance from Susan Holladay (who joined CDIAC specifically to support the AmeriFlux data-management effort).

  8. Climate change and trace gases BY JAMES HANSEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Andrew

    Climate change and trace gases BY JAMES HANSEN 1,*, MAKIKO SATO 1 , PUSHKER KHARECHA 1 , GARY climate change that could run out of our control, with great dangers for humans and other creatures and the global environment. Keywords: climate change; trace gases; climate feedbacks; black carbon; sea level

  9. Detectability of biosignature gases in the atmospheres of terrestrial exoplanets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Messenger, Stephen Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Biosignature gases in the atmosphere of an exoplanet provide a means by which we can deduce the possible existence of life on that planet. As the list of possible biosignature gases is ever growing, the need to determine ...

  10. BIOSIGNATURE GASES IN H?-DOMINATED ATMOSPHERES ON ROCKY EXOPLANETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seager, Sara

    Super-Earth exoplanets are being discovered with increasing frequency and some will be able to retain stable H2-dominated atmospheres. We study biosignature gases on exoplanets with thin H2 atmospheres and habitable surface ...

  11. Global atmospheric chemistry: Integrating over fractional cloud cover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neu, Jessica L; Prather, Michael J; Penner, Joyce E

    2007-01-01

    trace gases and atmospheric chemistry, in Climate Change2007 Global atmospheric chemistry: Integrating over2007), Global atmospheric chemistry: Integrating over

  12. Laboratory measurements and modeling of trace atmospheric species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheehy, Philip M. (Philip Michael)

    2005-01-01

    Trace species play a major role in many physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere. Improving our understanding of the impact of each species requires a combination of laboratory exper- imentation, field measurements, ...

  13. BNL-65897-AB NEW DETECTABILITY IN ATMOSPHERIC PERFLUOROCARBON TRACING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BNL-65897-AB NEW DETECTABILITY IN ATMOSPHERIC PERFLUOROCARBON TRACING Russell N. Dietz, Gunnar I-source releases initially impacted the coast over a 5- to 40-mile extent; the next day, in some cases.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886. #12;

  14. Earth is warm because of "greenhouse gases" in atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callender, Craig

    " properties of carbon dioxide, water. #12;Early 20th century, scientists realized that if CO2 content changed "Calculation shows that doubling or tripling the amount of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases

  15. A field study on the trace metal behavior in atmospheric circulating fluidized-bed coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lind, T.; Kauppinen, E.I.; Jokiniemi, J.K.; Maenhaut, W.

    1994-12-31

    Trace element behavior in atmospheric circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) of Venezuelan bituminous coal was studied by determining particle size distributions in the CFBC flue gas. The size distributions of calcium, iron, aluminium, and 21 trace elements, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Lu, Pb, and Th, in the size range 0.01--70{micro}m, were determined by collecting aerosols with a low-pressure impactor-cyclone sampling train from the flue gases of an 80-MW(th) CFBC boiler upstream of the electrostatic precipitator. The collected samples were analyzed gravimetrically and with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), particle-induced X-ray emission analysis (PIXE), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The number size distributions of the aerosols were determined with a differential electrical mobility method in the size range 0.01--0.8 {micro}m. In the ultrafine particle mode, i.e., D{sub p} < 0.1 {micro}m, the CFBC number concentrations varied strongly during the experiments, being one to two orders of magnitude lower than those observed in pulverized coal combustion. For all of the elements studied, 75% or more were found in particles larger than 5{micro}m. None of the studied elements showed significant vaporization and subsequent chemical surface reaction or condensation in the CFBC. The Sr, Se, V, Zn, Ga, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Lu, and Th size distributions resembled those of aluminium, suggesting their occurrence in aluminosilicate-rich particles in the fly ash. The association of the trace elements with aluminium in the fly ash particles may result from reactions of the trace elements with the aluminosilicate mineral particles inside the burning coal particles, or their initial occurrence in association with these minerals.

  16. Oceanic Trace Gases Numeric Data Packages from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Most data sets or packages, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. CDIAC lists the following numeric data packages under the broad heading of Oceanic Trace Gases: Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained during the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16S_2005 ( 01/11/05 - 022405) • Determination of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Parameters during the R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer Cruise in the Southern Indian Ocean (WOCE Section S04I, 050396 - 070496) • Inorganic Carbon, Nutrient, and Oxygen Data from the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16N_2003a (060403 – 081103) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Maurice Ewing Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A17, 010494 - 032194) • Global Ocean Data Analysis Project GLODAP: Results and Data • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Cruises in the North Atlantic Ocean on WOCE Sections AR24 (1102 – 120596) and A24, A20, and A22 (053097 – 090397) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic and Chemical Data Obtained During the Nine R/V Knorr Cruises Comprising the Indian Ocean CO2 Survey (WOCE Sections I8SI9S, I9N, I8NI5E, I3, I5WI4, I7N, I1, I10, and I2; 120 194 – 012296) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 28/1 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A8, 032994 - 051294) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Cruise 138-3, -4, and -5 in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P6E, P6C, and P6W, 050292 - 073092) • Global Distribution of Total Inorganic Carbon and Total Alkalinity below the deepest winter mixed layer depths • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V John V. Vickers Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P13, NOAA CGC92 Cruise, 080492 – 102192) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Hesperides Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A5, 071492 - 081592) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas G. Thompson Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P10, 100593 – 111093) • The International Intercomparison Exercise of Underway fCO2 Systems during the R/V Meteor Cruise 36/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained during the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A10, Dec. 1992-Jan, 1993) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C, R/V Knorr , Oct. 1992-April 1993) • Surface Water and Atmospheric Underway Carbon Data Obtained During the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Indian Ocean Survey Cruises (R/V Knorr, Dec. 1994 – Jan, 1996) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Akademik Ioffe Cruise in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section S4P, Feb.-April 1992) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-1 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE section P17C) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-3 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE section P16C) • Carbon-14 Measurements in Surface Water CO2 from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, 1965-1994 • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During R/V Meteor Cruise 18/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A1E) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained in the Central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P17S and P16S) during the TUNES-2 Expedition of the R/V Th

  17. Laser Spectroscopic Trace-Gas Sensor Networks for Atmospheric Monitoring Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Lin

    Laser Spectroscopic Trace-Gas Sensor Networks for Atmospheric Monitoring Applications Stephen So@princeton.edu ABSTRACT Laser-based atmospheric trace-gas sensors have great potential for long-term, real a laser based chemical sensing technology with wide-area autonomous wireless sensor networking

  18. A comprehensive study of different gases in inductively coupled plasma torch operating at one atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Punjabi, Sangeeta B.; Joshi, N. K.; Mangalvedekar, H. A.; Lande, B. K.; Das, A. K.; Kothari, D. C.

    2012-01-15

    A numerical study is done to understand the possible operating regimes of RF-ICP torch (3 MHz, 50 kW) using different gases for plasma formation at atmospheric pressure. A two dimensional numerical simulation of RF-ICP torch using argon, nitrogen, oxygen, and air as plasma gas has been investigated using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software fluent{sup (c)}. The operating parameters varied here are central gas flow, sheath gas flow, RF-power dissipated in plasma, and plasma gas. The temperature contours, flow field, axial, and radial velocity profiles were investigated under different operating conditions. The plasma resistance, inductance of the torch, and the heat distribution for various plasma gases have also been investigated. The plasma impedance of ICP torch varies with different operating parameters and plays an important role for RF oscillator design and power coupling. These studies will be useful to decide the design criteria for ICP torches required for different material processing applications.

  19. EDDY RESOLVING NUTRIENT ECODYNAMICS IN THE GLOBAL PARALLEL OCEAN PROGRAM AND CONNECTIONS WITH TRACE GASES IN THE SULFUR, HALOGEN AND NMHC CYCLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. CHU; S. ELLIOTT

    2000-08-01

    Ecodynamics and the sea-air transfer of climate relevant trace gases are intimately coupled in the oceanic mixed layer. Ventilation of species such as dimethyl sulfide and methyl bromide constitutes a key linkage within the earth system. We are creating a research tool for the study of marine trace gas distributions by implementing coupled ecology-gas chemistry in the high resolution Parallel Ocean Program (POP). The fundamental circulation model is eddy resolving, with cell sizes averaging 0.15 degree (lat/long). Here we describe ecochemistry integration. Density dependent mortality and iron geochemistry have enhanced agreement with chlorophyll measurements. Indications are that dimethyl sulfide production rates must be adjusted for latitude dependence to match recent compilations. This may reflect the need for phytoplankton to conserve nitrogen by favoring sulfurous osmolytes. Global simulations are also available for carbonyl sulfide, the methyl halides and for nonmethane hydrocarbons. We discuss future applications including interaction with atmospheric chemistry models, high resolution biogeochemical snapshots and the study of open ocean fertilization.

  20. Chapter 2: Sources and Deposition of Trace Metals 2.1 Main Sources of Atmospheric Pollution...............................................7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    5 Chapter 2: Sources and Deposition of Trace Metals 2.1 Main Sources of Atmospheric Pollution distances causing regional or global pollution. Fig. 2.1: Sources of trace metals in the environment. Contamination of the atmosphere by pollutant trace metals affects the environment directly through its impact

  1. Production of stable, non-thermal atmospheric pressure rf capacitive plasmas using gases other than helium or neon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Jaeyoung; Henins, Ivars

    2005-06-21

    The present invention enables the production of stable, steady state, non-thermal atmospheric pressure rf capacitive .alpha.-mode plasmas using gases other than helium and neon. In particular, the current invention generates and maintains stable, steady-state, non-thermal atmospheric pressure rf .alpha.-mode plasmas using pure argon or argon with reactive gas mixtures, pure oxygen or air. By replacing rare and expensive helium with more readily available gases, this invention makes it more economical to use atmospheric pressure rf .alpha.-mode plasmas for various materials processing applications.

  2. Investigation of light emission from a parallel-plate avalanche chamber filled with noble gases and with TEA, TMAE, and $H_{2}O$ vapours at atmospheric pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peskov, Vladimir; Dominik, Wojciech; Sauli, Fabio

    1989-01-01

    Investigation of light emission from a parallel-plate avalanche chamber filled with noble gases and with TEA, TMAE, and $H_{2}O$ vapours at atmospheric pressure

  3. BIOMASS BURNING IN THE AMAZON: LINKS BETWEEN BURNING, SCIAMACHY TRACE GASES, AND AEROSOL AND SURFACE PROPERTIES FROM THE ORAC-AATSR RETRIEVAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    BIOMASS BURNING IN THE AMAZON: LINKS BETWEEN BURNING, SCIAMACHY TRACE GASES, AND AEROSOL@atm.ox.ac.uk AEROSOL AND GAS PROPERTIESSEASONALITY OF BURNING Biomass burning in the Amazon shows strong seasonal in aerosol optical depth (AOD) and effective radius, linked to biomass burning through detected fires. Use

  4. Characteristic emission enhancement in the atmosphere with Rn trace using metal assisted LIBS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hashemi, M. M.; Parvin, P. Moosakhani, A.; Mortazavi, S. Z.; Reyhani, A.; Majdabadi, A.; Abachi, S.

    2014-06-15

    Several characteristic emission lines from the metal targets (Cu, Zn and Pb) were investigated in trace presence of radon gas in the atmospheric air, using Q-SW Nd:YAG laser induced plasma inside a control chamber. The emission lines of metal species are noticeably enhanced in (Rn+air), relative to those in the synthetic air alone. Similar spectra were also taken in various sub-atmospheric environments in order to determine the optimum pressure for enhancement. Solid-state nuclear track detectors were also employed to count the tracks due to alpha particles for the activity assessment.

  5. Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 49414956 Ground-based and aircraft measurements of trace gases in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01

    /Physics Department, State University of New York, Old Westbury, NY 11568, USA c Arizona Department of Environmental of 1998, an extensive measurement campaign was fielded in the city of Phoenix and its environs 1) (Maricopa Ozone Emissions Inventory, 1999). In fact, there are no coal-fired power plants

  6. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akagi, Sheryl; Yokelson, Robert J.; Burling, Ian R.; Meinardi, S.; Simpson, I.; Blake, D. R.; McMeeking, Gavin; Sullivan, Amy; Lee, Taehyoung; Kredenweis, Sonia; Urbanski, Shawn; Reardon, James; Griffith, David WT; Johnson, Timothy J.; Weise, David

    2013-02-01

    In October-November 2011 we measured the trace gas emission factors from 7 prescribed fires in South Carolina, U.S. using two Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) systems and whole air sampling (WAS) into canisters followed by gas-chromatographic analyses. The fires were intended to emulate high-intensity burns as they were lit during the dry season and in most cases represented stands that had not been treated with prescribed burns in 10+ years, if at all. A total of 97 trace gas species are reported here from both airborne and ground-based platforms making this one of the most detailed field studies of fire emissions to date. The measurements included the first data for a suite of monoterpene compounds emitted via distillation of plant tissues during real fires. The known chemistry of the monoterpenes and their measured abundance of ~0.40% of CO (molar basis), ~3.9% of NMOC (molar basis), and ~21% of organic aerosol (mass basis), suggests that they impacted post-emission formation of ozone, aerosol, and small organic trace gases such as methanol and formaldehyde in the sampled plumes. The variability in the terpene emissions in South Carolina (SC) fire plumes was high and, in general, the speciation of the emitted gas-phase non-methane organic compounds was surprisingly different from that observed in a similar study in nominally similar pine forests in North Carolina ~20 months earlier. It is likely that the slightly different ecosystems, time of year and the precursor variability all contributed to the variability in plume chemistry observed in this study and in the literature. The ?HCN/?CO emission ratio, however, is fairly consistent at 0.9 ± 0.06 % for airborne fire measurements in coniferous-dominated ecosystems further confirming the value of HCN as a good biomass burning indicator/tracer. The SC results also support an earlier finding that C3-C4 alkynes may be of use as biomass burning indicators on the time-scale of hours to a day. It was possible to measure the chemical evolution of the plume on four of the fires and significant ozone (O3) formation (?O3/?CO from 10-90%) occurred in all of these plumes. Slower O3 production was observed on a cloudy day with low co-emissions of NOx and the fastest O3 production was observed on a sunny day when the plume almost certainly incorporated significant additional NOx by passing over the Columbia, SC metropolitian area. Due to rapid plume dilution, it was only possible to acquire high quality downwind data for two other species (formaldehyde and methanol) on two of the fires. In all four cases significant increases were observed. This is likely the first direct observation of post-emission methanol production in biomass burning plumes and the precursors likely included terpenes.

  7. Carbon Bearing Trace Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of raregovAboutRecovery ActToolsForNorthfor

  8. An analytical inversion method for determining regional and global emissions of greenhouse gases: Sensitivity studies and application to halocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stohl, A.

    A new analytical inversion method has been developed to determine the regional and global emissions of long-lived atmospheric trace gases. It exploits in situ measurement data from three global networks and builds on ...

  9. Nighttime chemical evolution of aerosol and trace gases in a power plant plume: Implications for secondary organic nitrate and organosulfate aerosol formation, NO? radical chemistry, and N?O? heterogeneous hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaveri, Rahul A.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Brechtel, Fred J.; Gilles, Marry K.; Hubbe, John M.; Jayne, J. T.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Laskin, Alexander; Madronich, Sasha; Onasch, Timothy B.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Springston, Stephen R.; Thornton, Joel A.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2010-06-22

    Chemical evolution of aerosols and trace gases in the Salem Harbor power plant plume was monitored with the DOE G-1 aircraft on the night of July 30-31, 2002. Quasi-Lagrangian sampling in the plume at increasing downwind distances/processing times was guided by a constant-volume tetroon that was released near the power plant at sunset. While no evidence of fly ash particles was found, concentrations of particulate organics, sulfate, and nitrate were higher in the plume than in the nearby background air. These species were internally mixed and the particles were acidic, suggesting that particulate nitrate was in the form of organic nitrate. The enhanced particulate organic and nitrate masses in the plume were inferred to be as secondary organic aerosol, possibly formed from the NO3 radical-initiated oxidation of isoprene and other trace organic gases in the presence of acidic sulfate particles. The enhanced particulate sulfate concentrations observed in the plume were attributed to direct emissions of gaseous SO3/H2SO4 from the power plant. Furthermore, concentration of nucleation mode particles was significantly higher in the plume than in background air, suggesting that some of the emitted H2SO4 had nucleated to form new particles. Spectromicroscopic analyses of particle samples suggested that some sulfate was likely in the form of organosulfates. Constrained Lagrangian model analysis of the aircraft and tetroon observations showed that heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 was negligibly slow. These results have significant implications for several scientific and regulatory issues related to the impacts of power plant emissions on atmospheric chemistry, air quality, visibility, and climate.

  10. Coupling field and laboratory measurements to estimate the emission factors of identified and unidentified trace gases for prescribed fires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yokelson, Robert J.; Burling, Ian R.; Gilman, Jessica; Warneke, Carsten; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; de Gouw, Joost A.; Akagi, Sheryl; Urbanski, Shawn; Veres, Patrick; Roberts, James M.; Kuster, W. C.; Reardon, James; Griffith, David WT; Johnson, Timothy J.; Hosseini, SeyedEhsan; Miller, J. Wayne; Cocker, David R.; Jung, H.; Weise, David

    2013-01-07

    Vegetative fuels commonly consumed in prescribed fires were collected from five locations in the southeastern and southwestern U.S. and burned in a series of 77 fires at the U.S. Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions were measured by gravimetric filter sampling with subsequent analysis for elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and 38 elements. The trace gas emissions were measured with a large suite of state-of-the-art instrumentation including an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP FTIR) spectrometer, proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), proton-transfer ion-trap mass spectrometry (PIT-MS), negative-ion proton-transfer chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (NI-PT-CIMS), and gas chromatography with MS detection (GC-MS). 204 trace gas species (mostly non-methane organic compounds (NMOC)) were identified and quantified with the above instruments. An additional 152 significant peaks in the unit mass resolution mass spectra were quantified, but either could not be identified or most of the signal at that molecular mass was unaccounted for by identifiable species. As phase II of this study, we conducted airborne and ground-based sampling of the emissions from real prescribed fires mostly in the same land management units where the fuels for the lab fires were collected. A broad variety, but smaller number of species (21 trace gas species and PM2.5) was measured on 14 fires in chaparral and oak savanna in the southwestern US, as well as pine forest understory in the southeastern US and Sierra Nevada mountains of California. These extensive field measurements of emission factors (EF) for temperate biomass burning are useful both for modeling and to examine the representativeness of our lab fire EF. The lab/field EF ratio for the pine understory fuels was not statistically different from one, on average. However, our lab EF for “smoldering compounds” emitted by burning the semi-arid SW fuels should likely be increased by about a factor of 2.7 to better represent field fires. Based on the lab/field comparison, we present a table with emission factors for 365 pyrogenic species (including unidentified species) for 4 broad fuel types: pine understory, semi-arid shrublands, evergreen canopy, and duff. To our knowledge this is the most complete measurement of biomass burning emissions to date and it should enable improved representation of smoke in atmospheric models. The results provide important insights into the nature of smoke. For example, ~35% (range from 16-71%) of the mass of gas-phase NMOC species was attributed to the species that we could not identify. These unidentified species are likely not represented in most models, but some provision should be made for the fact that they will react in the atmosphere. In addition, the total mass of gas-phase NMOC divided by the mass of co-emitted PM2.5 averaged ~2.6 for the main fire types with a range from ~1.8-8.8. About 36-63% of the NMOC were likely semivolatile or of intermediate volatility. Thus, the gas-phase NMOC represent a large reservoir of potential precursors for secondary formation of organic aerosol. For the one fire in organic soil (Alaskan duff) about 28% of the emitted carbon was present as gas-phase NMOC in contrast to the other fuels for which NMOC accounted for only ~1-3% of emitted carbon. 71% of the mass of NMOC emitted by the smoldering duff was un-identified. The duff results highlight the need to learn more about the emissions from smoldering organic soils. The ?NMOC/“NOx-as-NO” ratio was consistently about ten for the main fire types when accounting for all NMOC, indicating strongly NOx-limited O3 production conditions. Finally, the fuel consumption per unit area was measured on 6 of the 14 prescribed fires and averaged 7.08 ± 2.09 (1?) Mg ha-1.

  11. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    Shetter, R. : Emissions from biomass burning in the Yucatan,for open and domestic biomass burning for use in atmosphericC. : Influence of plumes from biomass burning on atmospheric

  12. Atmospheric photochemistry, surface features, and potential biosignature gases of terrestrial exoplanets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Renyu, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    The endeavor to characterize terrestrial exoplanets warrants the study of chemistry in their atmospheres. Here I present a comprehensive one-dimensional photochemistry-thermochemistry model developed from the ground up for ...

  13. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    tetrachlo- ride, carbonyl sulfide and other atmosphericU. : The flux of carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfideCO 2 , CH 4 , CO, carbonyl sulfide (OCS), dimethyl sulfide (

  14. Evidence for multiple magma ocean outgassing and atmospheric loss episodes from mantle noble gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tucker, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    The energy associated with giant impacts is large enough to generate global magma oceans during Earth's accretion. However, geochemical evidence requiring a terrestrial magma ocean is scarce. Here we present evidence for at least two separate magma ocean outgassing episodes on Earth based on the ratio of primordial 3He to 22Ne in the present-day mantle. We demonstrate that the depleted mantle 3He/22Ne ratio is at least 10 while a more primitive mantle reservoir has a 3He/22Ne ratio of 2.3 to 3. The 3He/22Ne ratios of the mantle reservoirs are higher than possible sources of terrestrial volatiles, including the solar nebula ratio of 1.5. Therefore, a planetary process must have raised the mantle's 3He/22Ne ratio. We show that long-term plate tectonic cycling is incapable of raising the mantle 3He/22Ne ratio and may even lower it. However, ingassing of a gravitationally accreted nebular atmosphere into a magma ocean on the proto-Earth explains the 3He/22Ne and 20Ne/22Ne ratios of the primitive mantle reservoir....

  15. A new WRF-Chem treatment for studying regional-scale impacts of cloud processes on aerosol and trace gases in parameterized cumuli

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Berg, L. K.; Shrivastava, M.; Easter, R. C.; Fast, J. D.; Chapman, E. G.; Liu, Y.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2015-02-24

    A new treatment of cloud effects on aerosol and trace gases within parameterized shallow and deep convection, and aerosol effects on cloud droplet number, has been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.2.1 that can be used to better understand the aerosol life cycle over regional to synoptic scales. The modifications to the model include treatment of the cloud droplet number mixing ratio; key cloud microphysical and macrophysical parameters (including the updraft fractional area, updraft and downdraft mass fluxes, and entrainment) averaged over the population of shallow clouds, or a single deep convectivemore »cloud; and vertical transport, activation/resuspension, aqueous chemistry, and wet removal of aerosol and trace gases in warm clouds. These changes have been implemented in both the WRF-Chem chemistry packages as well as the Kain–Fritsch (KF) cumulus parameterization that has been modified to better represent shallow convective clouds. Testing of the modified WRF-Chem has been completed using observations from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS). The simulation results are used to investigate the impact of cloud–aerosol interactions on regional-scale transport of black carbon (BC), organic aerosol (OA), and sulfate aerosol. Based on the simulations presented here, changes in the column-integrated BC can be as large as –50% when cloud–aerosol interactions are considered (due largely to wet removal), or as large as +40% for sulfate under non-precipitating conditions due to sulfate production in the parameterized clouds. The modifications to WRF-Chem are found to account for changes in the cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and changes in the chemical composition of cloud droplet residuals in a way that is consistent with observations collected during CHAPS. Efforts are currently underway to port the changes described here to the latest version of WRF-Chem, and it is anticipated that they will be included in a future public release of WRF-Chem.« less

  16. Airborne and ground-based measurements of the trace gases and particles emitted from prescribed fires in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burling, Ian; Yokelson, Robert J.; Akagi, Sheryl; Urbanski, Shawn; Wold, Cyle E.; Griffith, David WT; Johnson, Timothy J.; Reardon, James; Weise, David

    2011-12-07

    We measured the emission factors for 19 trace gas species and particulate matter (PM2.5) from 14 prescribed fires in chaparral and oak savanna in the southwestern US, as well as pine forest understory in the southeastern US and Sierra Nevada mountains of California. These are likely the most extensive emission factor field measurements for temperate biomass burning to date and the only published emission factors for temperate oak savanna fuels. This study helps close the gap in emissions data available for temperate zone fires relative to tropical biomass burning. We present the first field measurements of the biomass burning emissions of glycolaldehyde, a possible precursor for aqueous phase secondary organic aerosol formation. We also measured the emissions of phenol, another aqueous phase secondary organic aerosol precursor. Our data confirm previous suggestions that urban deposition can impact the NOx emission factors and thus subsequent plume chemistry. For two fires, we measured the emissions in the convective smoke plume from our airborne platform at the same time the unlofted residual smoldering combustion emissions were measured with our ground-based platform after the flame front passed through. The smoke from residual smoldering combustion was characterized by emission factors for hydrocarbon and oxygenated organic species that were up to ten times higher than in the lofted plume, including significant 1,3-butadiene and isoprene concentrations which were not observed in the lofted plume. This should be considered in modeling the air quality impacts of smoke that disperses at ground level, and we show that the normally-ignored unlofted emissions can also significantly impact estimates of total emissions. Preliminary evidence of large emissions of monoterpenes was seen in the residual smoldering spectra, but we have not yet quantified these emissions. These data should lead to an improved capacity to model the impacts of biomass burning in similar ecosystems.

  17. On the global distribution of neutral gases in Titan's upper atmosphere and its effect on the thermal structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo

    distribution of neutral gases by winds and diffusion. Our calculations suggest that solar driven dynamics at equinox near 1400 km reaching up to 50%. The reverse happens on the dayside, where lighter gases and vertical winds, and thereby adiabatic heating and cooling. On the dayside, changes in solar EUV absorption

  18. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  19. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Fischer, Marc

    2013-05-29

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  20. Impacts of aerosols on the chemistry of atmospheric trace gases: a case study of peroxides and HO2 radicals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    - + H2O2 + H+ SO4 2- + H2O + 2H+ 6.9×107 4000 R44 HSO3- + O3 HSO4 - + O2 3.7×105 5530 R45 SO3 2- + O3+ + SO4 2- Cu(SO4) 2.3×102 E6 HSO4 - SO4 2- + H+ 1.02×10-2 -2700 E7 HSO3 - SO3 2- + H+ 6.22×10-8 -1960

  1. Integrated Study of MFRSR-derived Parameters of Atmospheric Aerosols and Trace Gases Over the ARM CART Site Extended Facili...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLANIs gravity aOverviewISM Integrated Safety

  2. Trace-element evidence for the origin of desert varnish by direct aqueous atmospheric deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus

    , Ni, Pb and the rare-earth elements (REEs). In particular, they have anomalously high Ce/La and low Y Nivedita Thiagarajan, Cin-Ty Aeolus Lee* Department of Earth Science, MS-126, Rice University, Houston, TX elemental fractionations. One remaining possibility is that the Fe, Mn and trace metals in varnish

  3. The impact of atmospheric aerosols on trace metal chemistry in open ocean surface seawater 3. Lead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maring, H.B.; Duce, R.A. )

    1990-04-15

    Atmospheric aerosols collected at Enewetak Atoll in the tropical North Pacific were exposed to seawater in laboratory experiments to assess the impact of atmospheric aerosols on lead chemistry in surface seawater. The net atmospheric flux of soluble lead to the ocean is between 16 and 32 pmol cm{sup {minus}2}/yr at Enewetak. The stable lead isotopic composition of soluble aerosol lead indicates that it is of anthropogenic origin. Anthropogenic aerosol lead from Central and North America appears to be less soluble and/or to dissolve less rapidly than that from Asia. Dissolved organic matter and possibly lower pH appear to increase the nonaluminosilicate aerosol lead solubility and/or dissolution rate. The isotopic composition of lead in air, seawater and dry deposition suggests that after deposition in the ocean, nonaluminosilicate particulate lead can be reinjected into the atmosphere during sea salt aerosol production.

  4. Influence of oxygen traces on an atmospheric-pressure radio-frequency capacitive argon plasma discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Shouzhe; Wu Qi; Yan Wen; Wang Dezhen [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, Electron Beams, Dalian University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China) and School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Uhm, Han S. [Kwangwoon Academy of Advanced Studies, Kwangwoon University, 447-1 Wolgye-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    An atmospheric-pressure capacitive discharge source driven by radio-frequency power supply at 13.56 MHz has been developed experimentally that is capable of producing a homogeneous and cold glow discharge in O{sub 2}/Ar. With respect to the influence of oxygen component when diluted into argon plasma discharge on the discharge characteristics, the measurements of the electrical parameters (impedance, phase angle, resistance, and reactance) are made systematically and the densities of the metastable and resonant state of argon are determined by means of optical emission spectroscopy (OES). It is shown that the admixture of oxygen into argon plasma not only changes the electric characteristics but also alters the optical emission spectra greatly due to strong interaction between the oxygen content and the argon in the plasma environment.

  5. Chapter 22 Greenhouse Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (EPA 2010b). The GHGs present in the earth's atmosphere include water vapor (H 2 O), ozone (O 3 ), CO 2 , methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and trace amounts of...

  6. Room-temperature mid-infrared laser sensor for trace gas detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    important atmospheric trace gases such as nitric oxide NO , carbon monoxide CO , nitrous ox- ide N2O , formaldehyde H2CO , methane CH4 , and sulfur dioxide SO2 . Applications that require such measurements include- bines high-speed, high-precision, remote sensing capabilities and convenient access to wavelengths

  7. Upper ocean model of dissolved atmospheric gases. Final report for the period 1 August 1991--31 May 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schudlich, R.; Emerson, S.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes results from three years of funding for a modelling study of processes controlling the distribution of metabolic chemical tracers in surface waters. We determined concentrations of the gases O{sub 2}, Ar, N{sub 2}, and the stable isotope ratio ({sup 18}O/{sup 16}O) of molecular oxygen in surface waters at Station ALOHA in conjunction with the Global Ocean Flux Study (GOFS) Hawaiian Ocean Time-series project during the years 1989- 90 and 1992-93. Under this contract we have incorporated chemical tracers into an existing ocean mixed-layer model to simulate the physical processes controlling the distribution and seasonal cycle of dissolved gases in the upper ocean. The broad background of concurrent chemical, physical, and biological measurements at Station ALOHA provides enough redundancy of ``ground truth`` to assess the model`s accuracy. Biological oxygen production estimated from modelled chemical tracers agrees with estimates based on measurement of carbon fluxes into the deep ocean and nitrate fluxes into the upper ocean during 1989-90 and 1992-93, verifying for the first time the utility of chemical tracers for determining biological fluxes in the ocean. Our results suggest that in the euphotic zone (the upper 100 m of the ocean), the net biological O{sub 2} production is 1.0-2. 0 moles m{sup -2}yr{sup - 1}. Inert gas (Ar, N{sub 2}) supersaturation levels show that air and bubble injection are important modes of air-sea gas transfer in the Station ALOHA region.

  8. A 350-year atmospheric history for carbonyl sulfide inferred from Antarctic firn air and air trapped in ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saltzman, Eric

    A 350-year atmospheric history for carbonyl sulfide inferred from Antarctic firn air and air August 2004; published 17 November 2004. [1] Carbonyl sulfide (COS) and other trace gases were measured: atmosphere composition, carbonyl sulfide, stratosphere sulfate aerosol Citation: Montzka, S. A., M. Aydin, M

  9. Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operationsand Lee, P. : Does the Alberta tar sands industry pollute?gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76

  10. Design and application of a mobile ground-based observatory for continuous measurements of atmospheric trace gas and criteria pollutant species

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bush, S. E.; Hopkins, F. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Lai, C.-T.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-08-26

    Ground-based measurements of atmospheric trace gas species and criteria pollutants are essential for understanding emissions dynamics across space and time. Gas composition in the lower 50 m of the atmosphere has the greatest direct impacts on human health as well as ecosystem processes; hence data at this level are necessary for addressing carbon-cycle- and public-health-related questions. However, such surface data are generally associated with stationary measurement towers, where spatial representation is limited due to the high cost of establishing and maintaining an extensive network of measurement stations. We describe here a compact mobile laboratory equipped to provide high-precision, high-frequency, continuous,more »on-road synchronous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O, NOx, O3, aerosol, meteorological, and geospatial position data. The mobile laboratory has been deployed across the western USA. In addition to describing the vehicle and its capacity, we present data that illustrate the use of the laboratory as a powerful tool for investigating the spatial structure of urban trace gas emissions and criteria pollutants at spatial scales ranging from single streets to whole ecosystem and regional scales. We assess the magnitude of known point sources of CH4 and also identify fugitive urban CH4 emissions. We illustrate how such a mobile laboratory can be used to better understand emissions dynamics and quantify emissions ratios associated with trace gas emissions from wildfire incidents. Lastly, we discuss additional mobile laboratory applications in health and urban metabolism.« less

  11. Design and application of a mobile ground-based observatory for continuous measurements of atmospheric trace-gas and criteria pollutant species

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bush, S. E.; Hopkins, F. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Lai, C.-T.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-01-06

    Ground-based measurements of atmospheric trace gas species and criteria pollutants are essential for understanding emissions dynamics across space and time. Gas composition in the surface 50 m has the greatest direct impacts on human health as well as ecosystem processes, hence data at this level is necessary for addressing carbon cycle and public health related questions. However, such surface data are generally associated with stationary measurement towers, where spatial representation is limited due to the high cost of establishing and maintaining an extensive network of measurement stations. We describe here a compact mobile laboratory equipped to provide high-precision, high-frequency, continuous,more »on-road synchronous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O, NOx, O3, aerosol, meteorological, and geospatial position data. The mobile laboratory has been deployed across the western USA. In addition to describing the vehicle and its capacity, we present data that illustrate the use of the laboratory as a powerful tool for investigating the spatial structure of urban trace gas emissions and criteria pollutants at spatial scales ranging from single streets to whole ecosystem and regional scales. We identify fugitive urban CH4 emissions and assess the magnitude of CH4 emissions from known point sources. We illustrate how such a mobile laboratory can be used to better understand emissions dynamics and quantify emissions ratios associated with trace gas emissions from wildfire incidents. Lastly, we discuss additional mobile laboratory applications in health and urban metabolism.« less

  12. Field measurements of trace gases emitted by prescribed fires in southeastern U.S. pine forests using an open-path FTIR system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akagi, Sheryl; Burling, Ian R.; Mendoza, Albert; Johnson, Timothy J.; Cameron, Melanie; Griffith, David WT; Paton-Walsh, C.; Weise, David; Reardon, James; Yokelson, Robert J.

    2014-01-08

    We report trace-gas emission factors from three pine-understory prescribed fires in South Carolina, U.S. measured during the fall of 2011. The fires were an attempt to simulate high-intensity burns and the fuels included mature pine stands not frequently subjected to prescribed fire that were lit following a sustained period of drought. In this work we focus on the emission factor measurements made using a fixed open-path gas analyzer Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) system. We compare these emission factors with those measured using a roving, point sampling, land-based FTIR and an airborne FTIR that were deployed on the same fires. We also compare to emission factors measured by a similar open-path FTIR system deployed on savanna fires in Africa. The data suggest that the method in which the smoke is sampled can strongly influence the relative abundance of the emissions that are observed. The airborne FTIR probed the bulk of the emissions, which were lofted in the convection column and the downwind chemistry while the roving ground-based point sampling FTIR measured the contribution of individual residual smoldering combustion fuel elements scattered throughout the burn site. The open-path FTIR provided a fixed path-integrated sample of emissions produced directly upwind mixed with emissions that were redirected by wind gusts, or right after ignition and before the adjacent plume achieved significant vertical development. It typically probed two distinct combustion regimes, “flaming-like” (immediately after adjacent ignition) and “smoldering-like”, denoted “early” and “late”, respectively. The calculated emission factors from open-path measurements were closer to the airborne than to the point measurements, but this could vary depending on the calculation method or from fire to fire given the changing MCE and dynamics over the duration of a typical burn. The emission factors for species whose emissions are not highly fuel dependent (e.g. CH4 and CH3OH) from all three systems can be plotted versus modified combustion efficiency and fit to a single consistent trend suggesting that differences between the systems for these species may be mainly due to the unique mix of flaming and smoldering that each system sampled. For other more fuel dependent species, the different fuels sampled also likely contributed to platform differences in emission factors. The path-integrated sample of the ground-level smoke layer adjacent to the fire provided by the open-path measurements is important for estimating fire-line exposure to smoke for wildland fire personnel. We provide a table of estimated fire-line exposures for numerous known air toxics based on synthesizing results from several studies. Our data suggest that peak exposures are more likely to challenge permissible exposure limits for wildland fire personnel than shift-average exposures.

  13. Lifetimes and eigenstates in atmospheric chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, Michael J

    1994-01-01

    Perturbation dynamics in atmospheric chemistry. J. Geophys.isotopic variations in atmospheric chemistry. Geophys. Res.M. et al. 2001 Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases (

  14. Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    control of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide during the growingof atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) and some similaritiesF. : The mass budgets of carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide,

  15. SEASONAL CHANGES IN TITAN'S POLAR TRACE GAS ABUNDANCE OBSERVED BY CASSINI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teanby, N. A. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Wills Memorial Building, Queen's Road, Bristol BS8 1RJ (United Kingdom); Irwin, P. G. J. [Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); De Kok, R. [SRON, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Nixon, C. A., E-mail: n.teanby@bristol.ac.u [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2010-11-20

    We use a six-year data set (2004-2010) of mid-infrared spectra measured by Cassini's Composite InfraRed Spectrometer to search for seasonal variations in Titan's atmospheric temperature and composition. During most of Cassini's mission Titan's northern hemisphere has been in winter, with an intense stratospheric polar vortex highly enriched in trace gases, and a single south-to-north circulation cell. Following northern spring equinox in mid-2009, dramatic changes in atmospheric temperature and composition were expected, but until now the temporal coverage of polar latitudes has been too sparse to discern trends. Here, we show that during equinox and post-equinox periods, abundances of trace gases at both poles have begun to increase. We propose that increases in north polar trace gases are due to a seasonal reduction in gas depletion by horizontal mixing across the vortex boundary. A simultaneous south polar abundance increase suggests that Titan is now entering, or is about to enter, a transitional circulation regime with two branches, rather than the single branch circulation pattern previously observed.

  16. Institute for Climate & Atmospheric Science Department of Earth & Atmospheric Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azevedo, Ricardo

    platforms to study numerous trace gases including carbon dioxide. We operate a suite of remote sensing is elucidating the carbon cycle through the satellite data (e.g., AIRS, TES, GOSAT, and OCO2

  17. Reactive greenhouse gas scenarios: Systematic exploration of uncertainties and the role of atmospheric chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, Michael J; Holmes, Christopher D; Hsu, Juno

    2012-01-01

    and time scales in atmospheric chemistry, Philos. Trans. R.PRATHER ET AL. : ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND GREENHOUSE GASESet al. (2001), Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases,

  18. Time scales in atmospheric chemistry: Theory, GWPs for CH 4 and CO, and runaway growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, Michael J

    1996-01-01

    Program and NSF's Atmospheric Chemistry Program for supporteigenstates in atmospheric chemistry, (2) Exponential decaytracer gases and atmospheric chemistry, in steady-state

  19. Time scales in atmospheric chemistry: Theory, GWPs for CH4 and CO, and runaway growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, MJ; Prather, MJ

    1996-01-01

    Program and NSF's Atmospheric Chemistry Program for supporteigenstates in atmospheric chemistry, (2) Exponential decaytracer gases and atmospheric chemistry, in steady-state

  20. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.

    1986-08-26

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  1. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL)

    1986-01-01

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  2. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL)

    1986-01-01

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  3. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, S.

    1986-08-19

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  4. The HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) study of the carbon cycle and greenhouse gases measured meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol constituents along transects from approximately pole-to-pole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .) · Ancillary flight information, field catalogs, data quality reports, software, and documentation · Pole products and user documentation. Files are in ASCII text format. Products include: · A comprehensive merged structure data: 1) greenhouse gases and carbon cycle gases, 2) ozone and water vapor, 3) black carbon

  5. PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERES. I. PHOTOCHEMISTRY MODEL AND BENCHMARK CASES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Renyu; Seager, Sara; Bains, William

    2012-12-20

    We present a comprehensive photochemistry model for exploration of the chemical composition of terrestrial exoplanet atmospheres. The photochemistry model is designed from the ground up to have the capacity to treat all types of terrestrial planet atmospheres, ranging from oxidizing through reducing, which makes the code suitable for applications for the wide range of anticipated terrestrial exoplanet compositions. The one-dimensional chemical transport model treats up to 800 chemical reactions, photochemical processes, dry and wet deposition, surface emission, and thermal escape of O, H, C, N, and S bearing species, as well as formation and deposition of elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid aerosols. We validate the model by computing the atmospheric composition of current Earth and Mars and find agreement with observations of major trace gases in Earth's and Mars' atmospheres. We simulate several plausible atmospheric scenarios of terrestrial exoplanets and choose three benchmark cases for atmospheres from reducing to oxidizing. The most interesting finding is that atomic hydrogen is always a more abundant reactive radical than the hydroxyl radical in anoxic atmospheres. Whether atomic hydrogen is the most important removal path for a molecule of interest also depends on the relevant reaction rates. We also find that volcanic carbon compounds (i.e., CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}) are chemically long-lived and tend to be well mixed in both reducing and oxidizing atmospheres, and their dry deposition velocities to the surface control the atmospheric oxidation states. Furthermore, we revisit whether photochemically produced oxygen can cause false positives for detecting oxygenic photosynthesis, and find that in 1 bar CO{sub 2}-rich atmospheres oxygen and ozone may build up to levels that have conventionally been accepted as signatures of life, if there is no surface emission of reducing gases. The atmospheric scenarios presented in this paper can serve as the benchmark atmospheres for quickly assessing the lifetime of trace gases in reducing, weakly oxidizing, and highly oxidizing atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets for the exploration of possible biosignature gases.

  6. Rapid and gradual modes of aerosol trace metal dissolution in seawater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mackey, KRM; Chien, CT; Post, AF; Saito, MA; Paytan, A

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic,” in Trace Metals in Seawater, NATO Conferencesolubility of trace metals from natural and anthropogenicresponses to atmospheric metal deposi- tion in the coastal

  7. Trace-gas sensing using the compliance voltage of an external cavity quantum cascade laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.

    2013-06-04

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are increasingly being used to detect, identify, and measure levels of trace gases in the air. External cavity QCLs (ECQCLs) provide a broadly-tunable infrared source to measure absorption spectra of chemicals and provide high detection sensitivity and identification confidence. Applications include detecting chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals, monitoring building air quality, measuring greenhouse gases for atmospheric research, monitoring and controlling industrial processes, analyzing chemicals in exhaled breath for medical diagnostics, and many more. Compact, portable trace gas sensors enable in-field operation in a wide range of platforms, including handheld units for use by first responders, fixed installations for monitoring air quality, and lightweight sensors for deployment in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). We present experimental demonstration of a new chemical sensing technique based on intracavity absorption in an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL). This new technique eliminates the need for an infrared photodetector and gas cell by detecting the intracavity absorption spectrum in the compliance voltage of the laser device itself. To demonstrate and characterize the technique, we measure infrared absorption spectra of chemicals including water vapor and Freon-134a. Sub-ppm detection limits in one second are achieved, with the potential for increased sensitivity after further optimization. The technique enables development of handheld, high-sensitivity, and high-accuracy trace gas sensors for in-field use.

  8. Impacts of greenhouse gases and aerosol direct and indirect effects on clouds and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dufresne, Jean-Louis

    Impacts of greenhouse gases and aerosol direct and indirect effects on clouds and radiation/C.N.R.S., Villeneuve d'Ascq, France Among anthropogenic perturbations of the Earth's atmosphere, greenhouse gases the radiative impacts of five species of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, CFC-11 and CFC-12) and sulfate

  9. D) Kinetic Study of Key Ozone Depleting Substances and Greenhouse Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, Charles H.

    O(1 D) Kinetic Study of Key Ozone Depleting Substances and Greenhouse Gases Munkhbayar Baasandorj) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) is reaction with the O(1 D) atom. In this study, rate coefficients, k, for the O(1 D) and greenhouse gases (GHGs). Quantifying the atmospheric loss processes of ODSs and GHGs is essential

  10. Eddy covariance flux measurements of pollutant gases in urban Mexico City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velasco, Erik

    Eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of the atmosphere/surface exchange of gases over an urban area are a direct way to improve and evaluate emissions inventories, and, in turn, to better understand urban atmospheric ...

  11. Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases Ron Zevenhoven Helsinki University of Technology Programme Solid Fuel Committee Ås, Norway Helsinki University of Technology Espoo, Finland #12;limited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3 Chapter 2 Flue gases and fuel gases 2.1 Introduction

  12. Tin oxide thick film by doping rare earth for detecting traces of CO{sub 2}: Operating in oxygen-free atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Ya; Zhang, Guozhu; Zhang, Shunping; Zeng, Dawen; Xie, Changsheng, E-mail: csxie@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • La, Gd, and Lu doped SnO{sub 2} with their sensing properties toward CO{sub 2} were compared. • The microstructures of SnO{sub 2}-based nanoparticles were elaborately characterized. • La-SnO{sub 2} thick film shows superior response toward trace ppm CO{sub 2}. • Our sensing material can be recommended to employ in oxygen-free environment. - Abstract: SnO{sub 2} thick films doped with atomic ratios ranging from 0 up to 8 at.% La, 8 at.% Gd, 8 at.% Lu were fabricated, respectively, via hydrothermal and impregnation methods. The crystal phase, morphology, and chemical composition of the SnO{sub 2}-based nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, EDX, HRTEM and XPS. Sensing properties of La-SnO{sub 2}, Gd-SnO{sub 2}, Lu-SnO{sub 2} films, as well as the pure SnO{sub 2} film, were analyzed toward CO{sub 2} in the absence of O{sub 2}. It was found that the optimal doping element was La and the best doping ratio was 4 at.%. The maximum response appeared at an operating temperature of 250 °C, on which condition the 4 at.% La-SnO{sub 2} exhibited a remarkable improvement of response from 5.12 to 29.8 when increasing CO{sub 2} concentration from 50 to 500 ppm. Furthermore, the working mechanism underlying such enhancement in CO{sub 2}-sensing functions by La additive in the absence of O{sub 2} was proposed and discussed.

  13. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beverly, Claude R. (Paducah, KY); Ernstberger, Harold G. (Paducah, KY)

    1988-01-01

    A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases.

  14. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, E.G.

    1985-07-03

    A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases. 1 fig.

  15. Atmospheric chemistry results from the ANTCI 2005 Antarctic plateau airborne study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    et al. [2004]. g Except ethane, which had a detection limitthe trace gases CO, ethane, ethyne, and the halocarbonb) methyl chloroform, (c) ethane, and (d) ethyne. Overall,

  16. Sensitive Multi-Species Emissions Monitoring: Infrared Laser-Based Detection of Trace-Level Contaminants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steill, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes our development of spectroscopic chemical analysis techniques and spectral modeling for trace-gas measurements of highly-regulated low-concentration species present in flue gas emissions from utility coal boilers such as HCl under conditions of high humidity. Detailed spectral modeling of the spectroscopy of HCl and other important combustion and atmospheric species such as H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 O, NO 2 , SO 2 , and CH 4 demonstrates that IR-laser spectroscopy is a sensitive multi-component analysis strategy. Experimental measurements from techniques based on IR laser spectroscopy are presented that demonstrate sub-ppm sensitivity levels to these species. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify HCl at ppm levels with extremely high signal-to-noise even under conditions of high relative humidity. Additionally, cavity ring-down IR spectroscopy is used to achieve an extremely high sensitivity to combustion trace gases in this spectral region; ppm level CH 4 is one demonstrated example. The importance of spectral resolution in the sensitivity of a trace-gas measurement is examined by spectral modeling in the mid- and near-IR, and efforts to improve measurement resolution through novel instrument development are described. While previous project reports focused on benefits and complexities of the dual-etalon cavity ring-down infrared spectrometer, here details on steps taken to implement this unique and potentially revolutionary instrument are described. This report also illustrates and critiques the general strategy of IR- laser photodetection of trace gases leading to the conclusion that mid-IR laser spectroscopy techniques provide a promising basis for further instrument development and implementation that will enable cost-effective sensitive detection of multiple key contaminant species simultaneously.

  17. Guidance Document CompressedGases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    gases are toxic, flammable, pyrophoric, or corrosive. Liquefied compressed gases (cryogenic liquids of exposure may be delayed. Cold "Burns": Rapidly escaping gas from a cylinder can cause destruction freezing

  18. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandenburg, Axel

    of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic formats. For more information about Wiley products, visit our web site at www.wiley.com. Library of Congress Cataloging components of the atmosphere, nitrogen, oxygen, water, carbon dioxide, and the noble gases. In the late

  19. Greenhouse Gases CHAPTER 4 Why some gases are greenhouse gases, but

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenhouse Gases CHAPTER 4 Why some gases are greenhouse gases, but most aren't, and some. It has the essential ingre- dient of the greenhouse effect, but it is missing numerous things, the mixing ratio is currently about 390 ppm, and its pCO2 is about 390 atm. 29 #12;30 CHAPTER 4 Greenhouse

  20. Trace analysis of atmospheric organic bases 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Dwayne C.

    1984-01-01

    of the Kuderna- Danish Concentration Step. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 IV Recoveries Using the Kuderna-Danish Concentrator . 44 VI VII Recoveries of n-Hydrocarbons After a Soxhlet Extraction and KD Concentration Step. B Recoveries of Several...) Structure of metallic phthalocyanin (MPc) A) Thermal desorption system used in the analysis of the metallic TPP and Pc adsorbents. 8) Close up view of the ultra-torr union and the Tenax trap, and C) Typical adsorbent tube. . . . . . . . . . Analytical...

  1. Thermodynamics of sustaining gases in the roughness of submerged superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelesh A. Patankar

    2015-05-22

    Rough surfaces submerged in a liquid can remain almost dry if the liquid does not fully wet the roughness and gases are sustained in roughness grooves. Such partially dry surfaces can help reduce drag or enhance boiling. Gases sustained in roughness grooves would be composed of air and the vapor phase of the liquid itself. The thermodynamics of sustaining vapor was considered in a prior work [Patankar, Soft Matter, 2010, 6:1613]. Here, the thermodynamics of sustaining gases (e.g. air) is considered. Governing equations are presented along with a solution methodology to determine a critical condition to sustain gases. The critical roughness scale to sustain gases is estimated for different degrees of saturation of gases dissolved in the liquid. It is shown that roughness spacings of less than a micron are essential to sustain gases on surfaces submerged in water at atmospheric pressure. This is consistent with prior empirical data.

  2. Evolution of the geothermal fluids at Los Azufres, Mexico, as traced by noble gas isotopes, 18

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evolution of the geothermal fluids at Los Azufres, Mexico, as traced by noble gas isotopes, 18 O, D: Noble gases Strontium isotopes Helium isotopes Geothermal energy Los Azufres Araró Mexico Isotopes of noble gases, CO2, H2O and Sr were measured in 10 geothermal wells and 8 hot springs, fumaroles and mud

  3. A comparison of hydrocarbon gases from springs and seeps of varied geologic provinces of the northwestern US

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenson, T.D.; Kvenvolden, K.A. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States))

    1993-04-01

    The northwestern US hosts a remarkable quantity and variety of thermal springs and seeps. Although many studies have dealt with the liquids and non-hydrocarbon gases emanating from these sources, few have focused on hydrocarbon gases. methane in particular is now recognized as an important reactive trace gas in the earth's atmosphere. To understand better the magnitude and occurrence of natural sources of hydrocarbons to the atmosphere, the authors have begun a survey of these gases throughout the northwestern US. This area encompasses a number of different tectonic regimes: the Yellowstone Hot Spot, the northern Basin and Range province, the Cascade volcanic arc, and the Cascadia subduction complex. Methane is present in each area at concentration levels ranging from about 2 ppmv (parts per million by volume) to 99.9% (by volume). Hydrothermal activity in the Yellowstone area produces spring gases containing less than 4% methane, with CO[sub 2] as the balance gas. The Teton area has a wide variety of gas compositions with either methane, carbon dioxide, or nitrogen as the primary gas component. In the northern Great Basin, thermal springs and seeps typically occur along fault zones at the base of mountain ranges. Methane concentrations range from 0.2 to 47%, with HMW HC concentrations from 0 to 3,100 ppmv. Areas covered by the Cenozoic Columbia River basalts and the basalts of the Snake River Plain continue to have high heat flow and produce thermal springs and seeps, usually along fault zones. Gases from the southern Cascade volcanic arc (Mt. Shasta and Mt. Lassen) are composed typically of carbon dioxide, with minor amounts of methane (less than 0.2%); however some fumaroles at Mt. Lassen have minor quantities of HMW HC. Along the Pacific coast, melanges of the Cascadia subduction complex host many seeps and springs. In some seeps the gas consists almost exclusively of methane (94.3 to 99.9%) with amounts of HMW HC ranging from about 5 ppmv to 3.5%.

  4. Traffic Congestion and Greenhouse Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barth, Matthew; Boriboonsomsin, Kanok

    2009-01-01

    TATES IS A source of greenhouse gas emissions, and thereforeis increased emissions of greenhouse gases. Althoughthat driving contributes to greenhouse gas emis- sions, the

  5. Investigating and Using Biomass Gases

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Investigating and Using Biomass Gases Grades: 9-12 Topic: Biomass Authors: Eric Benson and Melissa Highfill Owner: National Renewable Energy Laboratory This educational material is...

  6. Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program was suspended May 2011. It was a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., could report to the Energy Information Administration, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

  7. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

    1994-04-05

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

  8. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY); Dietz, Russell N. (Patchogue, NY)

    1994-01-01

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

  9. Development of the first nonhydrostatic nested-grid grid-point global atmospheric modeling system on parallel machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kao, C.Y.J.; Langley, D.L.; Reisner, J.M.; Smith, W.S.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Evaluating the importance of global and regional climate response to increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases requires a comprehensive global atmospheric modeling system (GAMS) capable of simulations over a wide range of atmospheric circulations, from complex terrain to continental scales, on high-performance computers. Unfortunately, all of the existing global circulation models (GCMs) do not meet this requirements, because they suffer from one or more of the following three shortcomings: (1) use of the hydrostatic approximation, which makes the models potentially ill-posed; (2) lack of a nested-grid (or multi-grid) capability, which makes it difficult to consistently evaluate the regional climate response to the global warming, and (3) spherical spectral (opposed to grid-point finite-difference) representation of model variables, which hinders model performance for parallel machine applications. The end product of the research is a highly modularized, multi-gridded, self-calibratable (for further parameterization development) global modeling system with state-of-the-science physics and chemistry. This system will be suitable for a suite of atmospheric problems: from local circulations to climate, from thunderstorms to global cloud radiative forcing, from urban pollution to global greenhouse trace gases, and from the guiding of field experiments to coupling with ocean models. It will also provide a unique testbed for high-performance computing architecture.

  10. Photon Maps Photon Tracing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lischinski, Dani

    Photon Maps Photon Tracing Simulating light propagation by shooting photons from the light sources. Photon Tracing Storing the incidences of photon's path. Implementing surface properties statistically. Russian Roulette. Photon Tracing Photon maps keep: Incidence point (in 3D). The normal at that point

  11. Method for removing acid gases from a gaseous stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorin, Everett (San Rafael, CA); Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA)

    1981-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking a heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure by contacting the feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating a gaseous stream containing hydrogen, at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases from the molten metal halide and regenerating the molten metal halide, thereby producing a purified molten metal halide stream for recycle to the hydrocracking zone, an improvement comprising; contacting the gaseous acid gas, hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels-containing stream with the feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to remove acid gases from the acid gas containing stream. Optionally at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels are separated from gaseous stream containing hydrogen, hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases prior to contacting the gaseous stream with the feedstock.

  12. Reactive greenhouse gas scenarios: Systematic exploration of uncertainties and the role of atmospheric chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, Michael J; Holmes, Christopher D; Hsu, Juno

    2012-01-01

    et al. (2011b), The RCP greenhouse gas concentrations andResearch Council (2010), Greenhouse Gas Emissions: MethodsATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND GREENHOUSE GASES Prather, M. , and

  13. Scalable Communication Trace Compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Agarwal, Khushbu

    2010-05-17

    Characterizing the communication behavior of parallel programs through tracing can help understand an application’s characteristics, model its performance, and predict behavior on future systems. However, lossless communication traces can get prohibitively large, causing programmers to resort to variety of other techniques. In this paper, we present a novel approach to lossless communication trace compression. We augment the sequitur compression algorithm to employ it in communication trace compression of parallel programs. We present optimizations to reduce the memory overhead, reduce size of the trace files generated, and enable compression across multiple processes in a parallel program. The evaluation shows improved compression and reduced overhead over other approaches, with up to 3 orders of magnitude improvement for the NAS MG benchmark. We also observe that, unlike existing schemes, the trace files sizes and the memory overhead incurred are less sensitive to, if not independent of, the problem size for the NAS benchmarks.

  14. On detecting biospheres from thermodynamic disequilibrium in planetary atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krissansen-Totton, Joshua; Catling, David C

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric chemical disequilibrium has been proposed as a method for detecting extraterrestrial biospheres from exoplanet observations. Chemical disequilibrium is potentially a generalized biosignature since it makes no assumptions about particular biogenic gases or metabolisms. Here, we present the first rigorous calculations of the thermodynamic chemical disequilibrium in the atmospheres of Solar System planets, in which we quantify the difference in Gibbs free energy of an observed atmosphere compared to that of all the atmospheric gases reacted to equilibrium. The purely gas phase disequilibrium in Earth's atmosphere, as measured by this available Gibbs free energy, is not unusual by Solar System standards and smaller than that of Mars. However, Earth's atmosphere is in contact with a surface ocean, which means that gases can react with water, and so a multiphase calculation that includes aqueous species is required. We find that the disequilibrium in Earth's atmosphere-ocean system (in joules per mole o...

  15. Atmospheric Environment ] (

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raman, Sethu

    that the influence of the urban region on wind patterns and atmospheric stability could be studied. HeightAtmospheric Environment ] (

  16. ARM - Amount of Greenhouse Gases in the Global Atmosphere

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016 NewsUsers'OrganizationgovAboutAcronyms

  17. Apparatus and method for atmospheric pressure reactive atom plasma processing for shaping of damage free surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr; Jeffrey W. (Livermore, CA)

    2009-03-31

    Fabrication apparatus and methods are disclosed for shaping and finishing difficult materials with no subsurface damage. The apparatus and methods use an atmospheric pressure mixed gas plasma discharge as a sub-aperture polisher of, for example, fused silica and single crystal silicon, silicon carbide and other materials. In one example, workpiece material is removed at the atomic level through reaction with fluorine atoms. In this example, these reactive species are produced by a noble gas plasma from trace constituent fluorocarbons or other fluorine containing gases added to the host argon matrix. The products of the reaction are gas phase compounds that flow from the surface of the workpiece, exposing fresh material to the etchant without condensation and redeposition on the newly created surface. The discharge provides a stable and predictable distribution of reactive species permitting the generation of a predetermined surface by translating the plasma across the workpiece along a calculated path.

  18. Predicted Abundances of Carbon Compounds in Volcanic Gases on Io

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Schaefer; Bruce Fegley Jr

    2004-09-17

    We use chemical equilibrium calculations to model the speciation of carbon in volcanic gases on Io. The calculations cover wide temperature (500-2000 K), pressure (10^-8 to 10^+2 bars), and composition ranges (bulk O/S atomic ratios \\~0 to 3), which overlap the nominal conditions at Pele (1760 K, 0.01 bar, O/S ~ 1.5). Bulk C/S atomic ratios ranging from 10^-6 to 10^-1 in volcanic gases are used with a nominal value of 10^-3 based upon upper limits from Voyager for carbon in the Loki plume on Io. Carbon monoxide and CO2 are the two major carbon gases under all conditions studied. Carbonyl sulfide and CS2 are orders of magnitude less abundant. Consideration of different loss processes (photolysis, condensation, kinetic reactions in the plume) indicates that photolysis is probably the major loss process for all gases. Both CO and CO2 should be observable in volcanic plumes and in Io's atmosphere at abundances of several hundred parts per million by volume for a bulk C/S ratio of 10^-3.

  19. Global and regional emissions of HFC-125 (CHF[subscript 2]CF[subscript 3]) from in situ and air archive atmospheric observations at AGAGE and SOGE observatories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Doherty, S.

    High-frequency, in situ observations from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) and System for Observation of halogenated Greenhouse gases in Europe (SOGE) networks for the period 1998 to 2008, combined ...

  20. A Biomass-based Model to Estimate the Plausibility of Exoplanet Biosignature Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seager, S; Hu, R

    2013-01-01

    Biosignature gas detection is one of the ultimate future goals for exoplanet atmosphere studies. We have created a framework for linking biosignature gas detectability to biomass estimates, including atmospheric photochemistry and biological thermodynamics. The new framework is intended to liberate predictive atmosphere models from requiring fixed, Earth-like biosignature gas source fluxes. New biosignature gases can be considered with a check that the biomass estimate is physically plausible. We have validated the models on terrestrial production of NO, H2S, CH4, CH3Cl, and DMS. We have applied the models to propose NH3 as a biosignature gas on a "cold Haber World," a planet with a N2-H2 atmosphere, and to demonstrate why gases such as CH3Cl must have too large of a biomass to be a plausible biosignature gas on planets with Earth or early-Earth-like atmospheres orbiting a Sun-like star. To construct the biomass models, we developed a functional classification of biosignature gases, and found that gases (such...

  1. The extreme nonlinear optics of gases and femtosecond optical filamentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milchberg, H. M.; Chen, Y.-H.; Cheng, Y.-H.; Jhajj, N.; Palastro, J. P.; Rosenthal, E. W.; Varma, S.; Wahlstrand, J. K.; Zahedpour, S. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Under certain conditions, powerful ultrashort laser pulses can form greatly extended, propagating filaments of concentrated high intensity in gases, leaving behind a very long trail of plasma. Such filaments can be much longer than the longitudinal scale over which a laser beam typically diverges by diffraction, with possible applications ranging from laser-guided electrical discharges to high power laser propagation in the atmosphere. Understanding in detail the microscopic processes leading to filamentation requires ultrafast measurements of the strong field nonlinear response of gas phase atoms and molecules, including absolute measurements of nonlinear laser-induced polarization and high field ionization. Such measurements enable the assessment of filamentation models and make possible the design of experiments pursuing applications. In this paper, we review filamentation in gases and some applications, and discuss results from diagnostics developed at Maryland for ultrafast measurements of laser-gas interactions.

  2. CLIMATICALLY-ACTIVE GASES IN THE EASTERN BOUNDARY UPWELLING AND OXYGEN MINIMUM ZONE (OMZ) SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbe, Christoph S.

    . In this contribution we introduce Index Terms-- Air-Sea Interactions, Fluxes, Green House Gases, Satellite Retrieval) contribute very significantly to the gas exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere, notably with respect (Oxygen Minimum Zone) contribute very significantly to the gas exchange between the ocean

  3. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature version 2.1 (MEGAN2.1): an extended and updated framework for modeling biogenic emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guenther, A. B.

    The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature version 2.1 (MEGAN2.1) is a modeling framework for estimating fluxes of biogenic compounds between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere using simple mechanistic ...

  4. Greenhouse gases mitigation options and strategies for Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mwandosya, M.J.; Meena, H.E.

    1996-12-31

    Tanzania became a party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UN FCCC) when she ratified the Convention in March, 1996. Now that Tanzania and other developing countries are Parties to the UN FCCC, compliance with its provisions is mandatory. The legal requirements therefore provide a basis for their participation in climate change studies and policy formulation. All parties to the Convention are required by Article 4.1 of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) to develop, periodically update, publish, and make available national inventories of anthropogenic emissions and removal of greenhouse gases that are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. This study on possible options for the mitigation of greenhouse gases in Tanzania is a preliminary effort towards the fulfilment of the obligation. In order to fulfil their obligations under the UN FCCC and have a meaningful mitigation assessment, identification and quantification of anthropogenic sources of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases in the country was undertaken. In this respect, the study of anthropogenic emissions by source and removals by sink of GHGs in Tanzania was done with the main objective of increasing the quantity and quality of base-line data available in order to further scientific understanding of the relationship of greenhouse gas emissions to climate change. Furthermore, the study facilitated identification of national policy and technological options that could reduce the level of emissions in the country.

  5. Tracing Geothermal Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael C. Adams Greg Nash

    2004-03-31

    Chemical compounds have been designed under this contract that can be used to trace water that has been injected into vapor-dominated and two-phase geothermal fields. Increased knowledge of the injection flow is provided by the tracers, and this augments the power that can be produced. Details on the stability and use of these tracers are included in this report.

  6. Summary Elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and tropospheric ozone ([O3]) have the poten-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Summary Elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and tropospheric ozone ([O3 gases (greenhouse gases) altered by human activities (IPCC 2007), only carbon dioxide (CO2 vegeta- tion properties affect local and regional climate, as well as how atmospheric forcing

  7. Quantifying the Digital Traces of Hurricane Sandy on Flickr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    Quantifying the Digital Traces of Hurricane Sandy on Flickr Tobias Preis1 *, Helen Susannah Moat1 social science. To investigate user attention to the Hurricane Sandy disaster in 2012, we analyze data to Hurricane Sandy bears a striking correlation to the atmospheric pressure in the US state New Jersey during

  8. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1985--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-10

    The Earth`s capacity to support life depends on the moderating influences of gases that envelop the planet and warm its surface and protect it from harmful radiation. These gases are referred to as ``greenhouse gases.`` Their warming capacity, called ``the greenhouse effect,`` is essential to maintaining a climate hospitable to all plant, animal, and human life. In recent years, however, there has been increasing concern that human activity may be affecting the intricate balance between the Earth`s absorption of heat from the sun and its capacity to reradiate excess heat back into space. Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities may be an important mechanism that affects global climate. Thus, research is intensifying to improve our understanding of the role human activities might play in influencing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. On the basis of scientific findings of the past few decades, the US Government and the international community at large are now taking steps toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. This report contributes to that process. Mandated by Congress this report provides estimates of US emissions of the principal greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorcarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds. Estimates are for the period 1985 to 1990. Preliminary estimates for 1991 have also been included, whenever data were available.

  9. Method of concurrently filtering particles and collecting gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Mark A; Meike, Annemarie; Anderson, Brian L

    2015-04-28

    A system for concurrently filtering particles and collecting gases. Materials are be added (e.g., via coating the ceramic substrate, use of loose powder(s), or other means) to a HEPA filter (ceramic, metal, or otherwise) to collect gases (e.g., radioactive gases such as iodine). The gases could be radioactive, hazardous, or valuable gases.

  10. Thermalization of Gases: A First Principles Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clifford Chafin

    2015-06-20

    Previous approaches of emergent thermalization for condensed matter based on typical wavefunctions are extended to generate an intrinsically quantum theory of gases. Gases are fundamentally quantum objects at all temperatures, by virtue of rapid delocalization of their constituents. When there is a sufficiently broad spread in the energy of eigenstates, a well-defined temperature is shown to arise by photon production when the samples are optically thick. This produces a highly accurate approximation to the Planck distribution so that thermalization arises from the initial data as a consequence of purely quantum and unitary dynamics. These results are used as a foil for some common hydrodynamic theory of ultracold gases. It is suggested here that strong history dependence typically remains in these gases and so limits the validity of thermodynamics in their description. These problems are even more profound in the extension of hydrodynamics to such gases when they are optically thin, even when their internal energy is not low. We investigate rotation of elliptically trapped gases and consistency problems with deriving a local hydrodynamic approach. The presence of vorticity that is "hidden" from order parameter approaches is discussed along with some buoyancy intrinsically associated with vorticity that gives essential quantum corrections to gases in the regimes where standard perturbation approaches to the Boltzmann equations are known to fail to converge. These results suggest that studying of trapped gases in the far from ultracold regions may yield interesting results not described by classical hydrodynamics.

  11. Deriving emissions time series from sparse atmospheric mole fractions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rigby, Matthew

    A growth-based Bayesian inverse method is presented for deriving emissions of atmospheric trace species from temporally sparse measurements of their mole fractions. This work is motivated by many recent studies that have ...

  12. Scientific Achievement Networks of highly photoresponsive crystalline GaSe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geohegan, David B.

    Scientific Achievement Networks of highly photoresponsive crystalline GaSe nanosheets a crystalline GaSe target was adjusted to directly grow networks of interconnected triangular GaSe crystalline nanosheets of ~ 200 nm size (inset shows atomic

  13. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Gaisser

    2006-12-11

    This paper is a brief overview of the theory and experimental data of atmospheric neutrino production at the fiftieth anniversary of the experimental discovery of neutrinos.

  14. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Molina, Mario J.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavaka, Miguel; Velasco, Erik

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation. The measurement phase of the MILAGRO Campaign was successfully completed in March 2006 with excellent participation from the international scientific community and outstanding cooperation from the Mexican government agencies and institutions. The project reported here was led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Molina Center for Energy and the Environment (MIT/MCE2) team and coordinated with DOE/ASP-funded collaborators at Aerodyne Research Inc., University of Colorado at Boulder and Montana State University. Currently 24 papers documenting the findings from this project have been published. The results from the project have improved significantly our understanding of the meteorological and photochemical processes contributing to the formation of ozone, secondary aerosols and other pollutants. Key findings from the MCMA-2003 include a vastly improved speciated emissions inventory from on-road vehicles: the MCMA motor vehicles produce abundant amounts of primary PM, elemental carbon, particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and a wide range of air toxics; the feasibility of using eddy covariance techniques to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds in an urban core and a valuable tool for validating local emissions inventory; a much better understanding of the sources and atmospheric loadings of volatile organic compounds; the first spectroscopic detection of glyoxal in the atmosphere; a unique analysis of the high fraction of ambient formaldehyde from primary emission sources; characterization of ozone formation and its sensitivity to VOCs and NOx; a much more extensive knowledge of the composition, size distribution and atmospheric mass loadings of both primary and secondary fine PM, including the fact that the rate of MCMA SOA production greatly exceeded that predicted by current atmospheric models; evaluations of significant errors that can arise from standard air quality monitors for O3 and NO2; and the implementation of an innovative Markov Chain Monte Carlo method for inorganic aerosol modeling as a powerful tool to analyze aerosol data and predict gas phase concentrations where these are unavailable. During the MILAGRO Campaign the collaborative team utilized a combination of central fixed sites and a mobile laboratory deployed throughout the MCMA to representative urban and boundary sites to measure trace gases and fine particles. Analysis of the extensive 2006 data sets has confirmed the key findings from MCMA-2002/2003; additionally MCMA-2006 provided more detailed gas and aerosol chemistry and wider regional scale coverage. Key results include an updated 2006 emissions inventory; extension of the flux system to measure fluxes of fine particles; better understanding of the sources and apportionment of aerosols, including contribution from biomass burning and industrial sources; a comprehensive evaluation of metal containing particles in a com

  15. Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology: Editorial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology510) 486-7419 Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science andand interviews on greenhouse gas emissions science and

  16. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model (GREET) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated...

  17. Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases Mission The team establishes an energy conservation program, as deemed appropriate for LM operations...

  18. Light Collection in Liquid Noble Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinsey, Dan [Yale University

    2013-05-29

    Liquid noble gases are increasingly used as active detector materials in particle and nuclear physics. Applications include calorimeters and neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, direct dark matter, muon electron conversion, and the neutron electric dipole moment. One of the great advantages of liquid noble gases is their copious production of ultraviolet scintillation light, which contains information about event energy and particle type. I will review the scintillation properties of the various liquid noble gases and the means used to collect their scintillation light, including recent advances in photomultiplier technology and wavelength shifters.

  19. Denitrification of combustion gases. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, R.T.

    1980-10-09

    A method for treating waste combustion gas to remove the nitrogen oxygen gases therefrom is disclosed wherein the waste gas is first contacted with calcium oxide which absorbs and chemically reacts with the nitrogen oxide gases therein at a temperature from about 100/sup 0/ to 430/sup 0/C. The thus reacted calcium oxide (now calcium nitrate) is then heated at a temperature range between about 430/sup 0/ and 900/sup 0/C, resulting in regeneration of the calcium oxide and production of the decomposition gas composed of nitrogen and nitrogen oxide gas. The decomposition gases can be recycled to the calcium oxide contacting step to minimize the amount of nitrogen oxide gases in the final product gas.

  20. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  1. Interpretation of observed atmospheric variations of CO2 and CH4. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barlow, James Mathew

    2015-06-30

    The overarching theme of my thesis is understanding observed variations of northern hemisphere atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations. I focus my analysis on high-latitude observations of these gases, as there are large...

  2. Biological production of products from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2002-01-22

    A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  3. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L.

    1989-07-18

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above. 3 figs.

  4. Zevenhoven & Kilpinen FLUE GASES and FUEL GASES 19.6.2001 2-1 Chapter 2 Flue gases and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    , trace elements such as mercury and nickel, and super-toxics such as dioxins. All these compounds) and several other trace elements, acidic compounds such as HCl and HF, and dioxins/furans must be controlled.1 Introduction Combustion processes for heat and power generation and the incineration of household waste

  5. Alkali and Halogen Chemistry in Volcanic Gases on Io

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Schaefer; Bruce Fegley Jr

    2004-09-20

    We use chemical equilibrium calculations to model the speciation of alkalis and halogens in volcanic gases emitted on Io. The calculations cover wide temperature (500-2000 K) and pressure (10^-6 to 10^+1 bars) ranges, which overlap the nominal conditions at Pele (T = 1760 K, P = 0.01 bars). About 230 compounds of 11 elements (O, S, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, F, Cl, Br, I) are considered. We predict the major alkali and halogen species in a Pele-like volcanic gas and the major alklai and halogen condensates. We also model disequilibrium chemistry of the alkalis and halogens in the volcanic plume. Based on this work and our prior modeling for Na, K, and Cl in a volcanic plume, we predict the major loss processes for the alkali halide gases are photolysis and/or condensation onto grains. On the basis of elemental abundances and photochemical lifetimes, we recommend searching for gaseous KCl, NaF, LiF, LiCl, RbF, RbCl, CsF, and CsCl around volcanic vents during eruptions. Based on abundance considerations and observations of brown dwarfs, we also recommend a search of Io's extended atmosphere and the Io plasma torus for neutral and ionized Li, Cs, Rb, and F.

  6. Atmospheric science and power production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randerson, D.

    1984-07-01

    This is the third in a series of scientific publications sponsored by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the two later organizations, the US Energy Research and Development Adminstration, and the US Department of Energy. The first book, Meteorology and Atomic Energy, was published in 1955; the second, in 1968. The present volume is designed to update and to expand upon many of the important concepts presented previously. However, the present edition draws heavily on recent contributions made by atmospheric science to the analysis of air quality and on results originating from research conducted and completed in the 1970s. Special emphasis is placed on how atmospheric science can contribute to solving problems relating to the fate of combustion products released into the atmosphere. The framework of this book is built around the concept of air-quality modeling. Fundamentals are addressed first to equip the reader with basic background information and to focus on available meteorological instrumentation and to emphasize the importance of data management procedures. Atmospheric physics and field experiments are described in detail to provide an overview of atmospheric boundary layer processes, of how air flows around obstacles, and of the mechanism of plume rise. Atmospheric chemistry and removal processes are also detailed to provide fundamental knowledge on how gases and particulate matter can be transformed while in the atmosphere and how they can be removed from the atmosphere. The book closes with a review of how air-quality models are being applied to solve a wide variety of problems. Separate analytics have been prepared for each chapter.

  7. Estimating Bacteria Emissions from Inversion of Atmospheric Transport: Sensitivity to Modelled Particle Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrows, Susannah M.; Rayner, Perter; Butler, T.; Lawrence, M.

    2013-06-04

    Model-simulated transport of atmospheric trace components can be combined with observed concentrations to obtain estimates of ground-based sources using various inversion techniques. These approaches have been applied in the past primarily to obtain source estimates for long-lived trace gases such as CO2. We consider the application of similar techniques to source estimation for atmospheric aerosols, by using as a case study the estimation of bacteria emissions from different ecosystem regions in the global atmospheric chemistry and climate model ECHAM5/MESSy-Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC). Simulated particle concentrations in the tropopause region and at high latitudes, as well as transport of particles to tundra and land ice regions are shown to be highly sensitive to scavenging in mixed-phase clouds, which is poorly characterized in most global climate models. This may be a critical uncertainty in correctly simulating the transport of aerosol particles to the Arctic. Source estimation via Monte Carlo Markov Chain is applied to a suite of sensitivity simulations and the global mean emissions are estimated. We present an analysis of the partitioning of uncertainties in the global mean emissions that are attributable to particle size, CCN activity, the ice nucleation scavenging ratios for mixed-phase and cold clouds, and measurement error. Uncertainty due to CCN activity or to a 1 um error in particle size is typically between 10% and 40% of the uncertainty due to data uncertainty, as measured by the 5%-ile to 95%-ile range of the Monte Carlo ensemble. Uncertainty attributable to the ice nucleation scavenging ratio in mized-phase clouds is as high as 10% to 20% of the data uncertainty. Taken together, the four model 20 parameters examined contribute about half as much to the uncertainty in the estimated emissions as do the measurements. This was a surprisingly large contribution from model uncertainty in light of the substantial data uncertainty, which ranges from 81% to 870% for each of ten ecosystems for this case study. The effects of these and other model parameters in contributing to the uncertainties in the transport of atmospheric aerosol particles should be treated explicitly and systematically in both forward and inverse modelling studies.

  8. Survey and assessment of the effects of nonconventional gases on gas distribution equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasionowski, W.J.; Scott, M.I.; Gracey, W.C.

    1982-10-01

    A literature search and a survey of the gas industry were conducted to assess potential problems in the distribution of nonconventional gases. Available literature did not uncover data that would describe potential problems or substantiate the presence of harmful trace elements in final gas compositions produced from various SNG processes. Information from the survey indicates that some companies have encountered problems with nonconventional gases and extraneous additives such as landfill gas, refinery off-gases, oil gas, carbureted water gas, coke-oven gas, propane-air, and compressor lubricant oils. These nonconventional gases and compressor oils may 1) cause pipeline corrosion, 2) degrade some elastomeric materials and greases and affect the integrity of seals, gaskets, O-rings, and meter and regulator diaphragms, and 3) cause operational and safety problems. The survey indicated that 62% of the responding companies plan to use supplemental gas, with most planning on more than one type. Distribution companies intend to significantly increase their use of polyethylene piping from 11.6% in 1980 to 22.4% in 2000 for gas mains and from 33.4% to 50.3% in 2000 for gas service lines.

  9. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMeeking, Gavin R.

    2009-01-01

    mercury emissions during biomass combustion: Controllingin biomass smoke from residential wood combustion: Emissions1997), Emissions from smoldering combustion of biomass

  10. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMeeking, Gavin R.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Baker, Stephen; Carrico, Christian M.; Chow, Judith C.; Collett, Jr., Jeffrey L.; Hao, Wei Min; Holden, Amanda S.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Malm, William C.; Moosmuller, Hans; Sullivan, Amy P.; Wold, Cyle E.

    2009-05-15

    We characterized the gas- and speciated aerosol-phase emissions from the open combustion of 33 different plant species during a series of 255 controlled laboratory burns during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiments (FLAME). The plant species we tested were chosen to improve the existing database for U.S. domestic fuels: laboratory-based emission factors have not previously been reported for many commonly-burned species that are frequently consumed by fires near populated regions and protected scenic areas. The plants we tested included the chaparral species chamise, manzanita, and ceanothus, and species common to the southeastern US (common reed, hickory, kudzu, needlegrass rush, rhododendron, cord grass, sawgrass, titi, and wax myrtle). Fire-integrated emission factors for gas-phase CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2-4} hydrocarbons, NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3} and particle-phase organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} generally varied with both fuel type and with the fire-integrated modified combustion efficiency (MCE), a measure of the relative importance of flaming- and smoldering-phase combustion to the total emissions during the burn. Chaparral fuels tended to emit less particulate OC per unit mass of dry fuel than did other fuel types, whereas southeastern species had some of the largest observed EF for total fine particulate matter. Our measurements often spanned a larger range of MCE than prior studies, and thus help to improve estimates for individual fuels of the variation of emissions with combustion conditions.

  11. Bayesian Monte Carlo analysis applied to regional-scale inverse emission modeling for reactive trace gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    the a priori uncertainties in anthropogenic NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions: (1) The a posteriori probability density function (pdf) for NOx emissions is not modified in its averageBayesian Monte Carlo analysis applied to regional-scale inverse emission modeling for reactive

  12. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozonemore »and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.« less

  13. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler-Golden, S.; Bernstein, L.S.; Bien, F.

    1988-08-23

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas. 12 figs.

  14. Epidemic Contact Tracing via Communication Traces Katayoun Farrahi1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    interactions, where contagious outbreaks propagate. However, due to privacy constraints and noisy data traces may be a viable option to arrest contagious outbreaks. Citation: Farrahi K, Emonet R, Cebrian M

  15. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry (2006) 53: 1342 DOI: 10.1007/s10874-006-0948-0 C Springer 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry (2006) 53: 13­42 DOI: 10.1007/s10874-006-0948-0 C Springer 2006. Introduction Convective clouds impact tropospheric chemistry through transport and transfor- mation of trace and Dana, 1979). They also transport and mix trace species between the atmospheric boundary layer

  16. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min × 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

  17. Cmo simular flujo de gases reactivos con

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    ¿Cómo simular flujo de gases reactivos con RetrasoCodeBright? Maarten W. Saaltink #12;Procesos Difusión de especies gaseosas Flujo de gas reactivo Se forma/consume especies gaseosas por reacciones dispersión #12;Tipos de fenómenos Descomposición de materia orgánica CH2O + O2(g) CO2(g) + H2O CH2O + 0.8NO3

  18. Lesson Summary Students will use models of Earth's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    to Do Scientific Inquiry Physical Science Transfer of Energy Earth and Space Science Structure the greenhouse from the captured solar energy. Certain gases in Earth's atmosphere ­ especially water vapor by storing and releasing energy from the sun. Materials: Large pickle jars, smaller jelly jar, laboratory

  19. Unstructured Adaptive Mesh MOL Solvers for Atmospheric Reacting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    . Achieving high resolution in air pollution models is a difficult challenge because of the large number for the next generation of air pollution models in order to "capture important smaller scale atmospheric in understanding the complex processes which lead to the formation of pollutants such as greenhouse gases, acid

  20. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turick, Charles E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases.

  1. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turick, C.E.

    1997-06-10

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases. 3 figs.

  2. Scale-invariant nonlinear optics in gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heyl, C M; Miranda, M; Louisy, M; Kovacs, K; Tosa, V; Balogh, E; Varjú, K; L'Huillier, A; Couairon, A; Arnold, C L

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear optical methods are becoming ubiquitous in many areas of modern photonics. They are, however, often limited to a certain range of input parameters, such as pulse energy and average power, since restrictions arise from, for example, parasitic nonlinear effects, damage problems and geometrical considerations. Here, we show that many nonlinear optics phenomena in gaseous media are scale-invariant if spatial coordinates, gas density and laser pulse energy are scaled appropriately. We develop a general scaling model for (3+1)-dimensional wave equations, demonstrating the invariant scaling of nonlinear pulse propagation in gases. Our model is numerically applied to high-order harmonic generation and filamentation as well as experimentally verified using the example of pulse post-compression via filamentation. Our results provide a simple recipe for up-or downscaling of nonlinear processes in gases with numerous applications in many areas of science.

  3. Chemical Constraints on the Water and Total Oxygen Abundances in the Deep Atmosphere of Saturn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Channon Visscher; Bruce Fegley Jr

    2005-01-07

    Thermochemical equilibrium and kinetic calculations for the trace gases CO, PH3, and SiH4 give three independent constraints on the water and total oxygen abundances of Saturn's deep atmosphere. A lower limit to the water abundance of H2O/H2 > 1.7 x 10^-3 is given by CO chemistry while an upper limit of H2O/H2 water enrichment on Saturn of 1.9 to 6.1 times the solar system abundance (H2O/H2 = 8.96 x 10^-4). The total oxygen abundance must be at least 1.7 times the solar system abundance (O/H2 = 1.16 x 10^-3) in order for the SiH4 to remain below a detection limit of SiH4/H2 < 2 x 10^-10. A combination of the CO, PH3, and SiH4 constraints suggests that the total oxygen abundance on Saturn is 3.2 to 6.4 times the solar system abundance. Our results indicate that oxygen on Saturn is less enriched than other heavy elements (such as C and P) relative to a solar system composition. This work was supported by NASA NAG5-11958.

  4. Glass Membrane For Controlled Diffusion Of Gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelby, James E. (Alfred Station, NY); Kenyon, Brian E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2001-05-15

    A glass structure for controlled permeability of gases includes a glass vessel. The glass vessel has walls and a hollow center for receiving a gas. The glass vessel contains a metal oxide dopant formed with at least one metal selected from the group consisting of transition metals and rare earth metals for controlling diffusion of the gas through the walls of the glass vessel. The vessel releases the gas through its walls upon exposure to a radiation source.

  5. Trace Estimates for Stable Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-05-01

    May 1, 2007 ... In this paper we study the behaviour in time of the trace (the partition function) ... cess with independent and stationary increments and characteristic function. E0ei?Xt = e?t|?|? ... theory of heat semigroups as described in [14]. In fact, it follows ..... For bounded. C1,1 domains it is known that Ex(?D) ? c(D, ?)?.

  6. Device for accurately measuring mass flow of gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hylton, J.O.; Remenyik, C.J.

    1994-08-09

    A device for measuring mass flow of gases which utilizes a substantially buoyant pressure vessel suspended within a fluid/liquid in an enclosure is disclosed. The pressure vessel is connected to a weighing device for continuously determining weight change of the vessel as a function of the amount of gas within the pressure vessel. In the preferred embodiment, this pressure vessel is formed from inner and outer right circular cylindrical hulls, with a volume between the hulls being vented to the atmosphere external the enclosure. The fluid/liquid, normally in the form of water typically with an added detergent, is contained within an enclosure with the fluid/liquid being at a level such that the pressure vessel is suspended beneath this level but above a bottom of the enclosure. The buoyant pressure vessel can be interconnected with selected valves to an auxiliary pressure vessel so that initial flow can be established to or from the auxiliary pressure vessel prior to flow to or from the buoyant pressure vessel. 5 figs.

  7. Device for accurately measuring mass flow of gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hylton, James O. (Clinton, TN); Remenyik, Carl J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A device for measuring mass flow of gases which utilizes a substantially buoyant pressure vessel suspended within a fluid/liquid in an enclosure. The pressure vessel is connected to a weighing device for continuously determining weight change of the vessel as a function of the amount of gas within the pressure vessel. In the preferred embodiment, this pressure vessel is formed from inner and outer right circular cylindrical hulls, with a volume between the hulls being vented to the atmosphere external the enclosure. The fluid/liquid, normally in the form of water typically with an added detergent, is contained within an enclosure with the fluid/liquid being at a level such that the pressure vessel is suspended beneath this level but above a bottom of the enclosure. The buoyant pressure vessel can be interconnected with selected valves to an auxiliary pressure vessel so that initial flow can be established to or from the auxiliary pressure vessel prior to flow to or from the buoyant pressure vessel.

  8. Trace element emissions. Semi-annual report, October 1994--February 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pigeaud, A.; Maru, H.; Wilemski, G.; Helble, J.

    1995-02-01

    Many trace elements can exist in raw coal gas either in the form of metallic vapors or gaseous compounds which, besides their action on potentially ``very clean`` advanced power generating systems such as fuel cells and gas turbines, can also be detrimental to plant and animal life when released into the atmosphere. Therefore, volatile trace contaminants from coal which can also be toxic must be removed before they become detrimental to both power plant performance/endurance and the environment. Five trace elements were selected in this project based on: abundance in solid coal, volatility during gasification, effects on downstream systems and toxicity to plant and animal life. An understanding was sought in this investigation of the interactions of these five trace elements (and their high temperature species) with the different components in integrated cleanup and power generating systems, as well as the ultimate effects with respect to atmospheric emissions. Utilizing thermodynamic calculations and various experimental techniques, it was determined that a number of trace contaminants that exist in coal may be substantially removed by flyash, and after that by different sorbent systems. High temperature cleanup of contaminants by sorbents such as zinc titanate, primarily to remove sulfur, can also absorb some metallic contaminants such as cadmium and antimony. Further polishing will be required, however, to eliminate trace contaminant species incorporating the elements arsenic, selemium, lead, and mercury.

  9. Statistical analysis of aerosol species, trace gasses, and meteorology in Chicago

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Timothy E.

    ) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to atmospheric aerosol and trace gas concentrations and Schmeling 2006, 2007; Shen et al. 2009). The composition of aerosols is region-specific and encompasses inorganic and organic species of natural and anthropogenic ori- gin, present due to primary emission

  10. Minnesota's Computer Industry: History, Legacies, Traces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sobelman, Gerald E.

    : payroll, taxes, suburban development History | Legacies | Traces #12;Control Data at Minnesota state fair | Legacies | Traces A. Univac West 7th (1956) 2750 Shepard Road, Saint Paul B. ERA plant #1 (1946) Midway

  11. Distributed trace using central performance counter memory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Satterfield, David L; Sexton, James C

    2013-10-22

    A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

  12. Distributed trace using central performance counter memory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Satterfield, David L.; Sexton, James C.

    2013-01-22

    A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

  13. Casimir Effect and Trace formula Andreas Wirzba

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirzba, Andreas - Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik (HISKP)

    1 Casimir Effect and Trace formula Andreas Wirzba Institut f¨ur Kernphysik Forschungszentrum J¨ulich · · Andreas Wirzba Casimir effect and trace formula Copenhagen, 17 May 2006 #12;1 Casimir Effect and Trace formula Andreas Wirzba Institut f¨ur Kernphysik Forschungszentrum J¨ulich 1. Introduction to the Casimir

  14. Trace Explosive Detection Using Nanosensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senesac, Larry R [ORNL; Thundat, Thomas George [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Selective and sensitive detection of explosives is very important in countering terrorist threats. Detecting trace explosives has become a very complex and expensive endeavor because of a number of factors, such as the wide variety of materials that can be used as explosives, the lack of easily detectable signatures, the vast number of avenues by which these weapons can be deployed, and the lack of inexpensive sensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. High sensitivity and selectivity, combined with the ability to lower the deployment cost of sensors using mass production, is essential in winning the war on explosives-based terrorism. Nanosensors have the potential to satisfy all the requirements for an effective platform for the trace detection of explosives.

  15. Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

  16. The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs Danish consumption and emissions, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption and emissions, 2007 Tomas Sander Poulsen AND EMISSION OF F-GASES 7 1.1.1 Consumption 7 1.1.2 Emission 7 1.1.3 Trends in total GWP contribution from F 21 4 EMISSION OF F-GASES 23 4.1.1 Emissions of HFCs from refrigerants 23 4.1.2 Emissions of HFCs from

  17. Deviation from the Knudsen law on quantum gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babac, Gulru

    2014-12-09

    Gas flow in micro/nano scale systems has been generally studied for the Maxwell gases. In the limits of very low temperature and very confined domains, the Maxwellian approximation can break down and the quantum character of the gases becomes important. In these cases, Knudsen law, which is one of the important equations to analyze rarefied gas flows is invalid and should be reanalyzed for quantum gases. In this work, the availability of quantum gas conditions in the high Knudsen number cases is discussed and Knudsen law is analyzed for quantum gases.

  18. Test Results For Physical Separation Of Tritium From Noble Gases...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Test Results For Physical Separation Of Tritium From Noble Gases And It's Implications For Sensitivity And Accuracy In Air And Stack Monitoring Test Results For Physical Separation...

  19. Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve Fuel Economy for Cars and Trucks Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Finalize...

  20. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  1. Removal of mercury from waste gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muster, U.; Marr, R.; Pichler, G.; Kremshofer, S.; Wilferl, R.; Draxler, J.

    1996-12-31

    Waste and process gases from thermal power, incineration and metallurgical plants or those from cement and alkali chloride industries contain metallic, inorganic and organic mercury. Widespread processes to remove the major amount of mercury are absorption and adsorption. Caused by the lowering of the emission limit from 200 to 50 {mu}g/m{sup 3} [STP] by national and European legislators, considerable efforts were made to enhance the efficiency of the main separation units of flue gas cleaning plants. Specially impregnated ceramic carriers can be used for the selective separation of metallic, inorganic and organic mercury. Using the ceramic reactor removal rates lower than 5 {mu}g/m{sup 3} [STP] of gaseous mercury and its compounds can be achieved. The ceramic reactor is active, regenerable and stable for a long term operation. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  2. AMIII Termodinamica dos Gases Ideais 17 de Janeiro de 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natário, José

    AMIII ­ Termodinâ??amica dos Gases Ideais 17 de Janeiro de 2002 N moles de um gâ??as ideal em equil dos gases ideais). A Primeira Lei da Termodinâ??amica afirma que existe uma funâ?ºcâ?ao E : M # R, dita pela Segunda Lei da Termodinâ??amica. 2 #12;

  3. Continuous cryopump with a method for removal of solidified gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.; Herman, H.

    1988-05-05

    An improved cryopump for the removal of gases from a high vacuum, comprising a cryopanel incorporating honeycomb structure, refrigerant means thermally connected to the cryopanel, and a rotatable channel moving azimuthally around an axis located near the center of the cryopanel, removing gases adsorbed within the honeycomb structure by subliming them and conducting them outside the vacuum vessel. 4 figs.

  4. Atmospheric Chemistry in Giant Planets, Brown Dwarfs, and Low-Mass Dwarf Stars II. Sulfur and Phosphorus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Channon Visscher; Katharina Lodders; Bruce Fegley Jr

    2006-06-06

    Thermochemical equilibrium and kinetic calculations are used to model sulfur and phosphorus chemistry in giant planets, brown dwarfs, and extrasolar giant planets (EGPs). The chemical behavior of individual S- and P-bearing gases and condensates is determined as a function of pressure, temperature, and metallicity. The results are independent of particular model atmospheres and, in principle, the equilibrium composition along the pressure-temperature profile of any object can be determined. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the dominant S-bearing gas throughout substellar atmospheres and approximately represents the atmospheric sulfur inventory. Silicon sulfide (SiS) is a potential tracer of weather in substellar atmospheres. Disequilibrium abundances of phosphine (PH3) approximately representative of the total atmospheric phosphorus inventory are expected to be mixed upward into the observable atmospheres of giant planets and T dwarfs. In hotter objects, several P-bearing gases (e.g., P2, PH3, PH2, PH, HCP) become increasingly important at high temperatures.

  5. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 295308, 2007 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/7/295/2007/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappellaz, Jérôme

    for the atmospheric trace gases CO2, CH4 and N2O is mainly based on the analysis of air extracted from firn (in

  6. ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol and Cloud Experiments in the Eastern...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    horizontal variabilities of aerosol, trace gases, cloud, drizzle, and atmospheric thermodynamics are critically needed for understanding and quantifying the budget of MBL aerosol,...

  7. Trace elements in coal by glow discharge mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, M.L.; Wilson, C.R.; Pestovich, J. Jr.

    1995-08-01

    A need and a demand exist for determining trace elements in coal and coal related by-products, especially those elements which may potentially be a health hazard. The provisions of the 1990 clean air act require that the EPA evaluate the emissions of electric utilities for trace elements and other potentially hazardous organic compounds. The coal fired electric utility industry supplies roughly 60% of the total generating capacity of 2,882,525 million kilowatt hours (nearly 3 trillion kilowatt hours) generated in the U.S. This is accomplished by 414 power plants scattered across the country that burned 813,508,000 short tons of coal in 1993. The relative volatility of some inorganic constituents in coal makes them more prone to be emitted to the atmosphere following combustion. The production of analytical data for trace elements is known to be a difficult task in coal and by-products of coal combustion (fly ash, bottom ash, gas streams, etc.), in terms of both sample collection and analytical determinations. There are several common analytical methods available to the analyst to determine trace elements in coal and coal by-products. In general analytical germs, the material to be analyzed can be totally solubilized (or extracted), or the elements analytes can be determined in the material as a solid. A relatively new elemental technique, Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS) can be used with solids as well. This new analytical technique had never before been applied directly to coal. The radio frequency-glow discharge quadropole mass spectrometer was used to analyze coal directly for the first time ever by rf-GDMS. The rf-GDMS technique is described.

  8. Latitudinal survey of middle atmospheric water vapor revealed by shipboard microwave spectroscopy. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrader, M.L.

    1994-05-01

    Water vapor is one of the most important greenhouse gases and is an important tracer of atmospheric motions in the middle atmosphere. It also plays an important role in the chemistry of the middle atmosphere and through its photodissociation by solar radiation, it is the major source of hydrogen escaping to space. Ground-based microwave measurements conducted in the 1980s have provided a fair understanding of the seasonal variation of mesospheric water vapor in the northern hemisphere mid-latitudes, but the global distribution of water vapor in the middle atmosphere is only beginning to be revealed by space-based measurements.

  9. Traces on Module Categories over Fusion Categories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregor Schaumann

    2015-01-27

    We consider traces on module categories over pivotal fusion categories which are compatible with the module structure. It is shown that such module traces characterise the Morita classes of special haploid symmetric Frobenius algebras. Moreover, they are unique up to a scale factor and they equip the dual category with a pivotal structure. This implies that for each pivotal structure on a fusion category over the complex numbers there exists a conjugate pivotal structure defined by the canonical module trace.

  10. Regional respiratory tract absorption of inhaled reactive gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, F.J.; Overton, J.H.; Kimbell, J.S.; Russell, M.L.

    1992-06-29

    Highly reactive gases present unique problems due to the number of factors which must be taken into account to determine regional respiratory tract uptake. The authors reviewed some of the physical, chemical, and biological factors that affect dose and that must be understood to interpret toxicological data, to evaluate experimental dosimetry studies, and to develop dosimetry models. Selected dosimetry experiments involving laboratory animals and humans were discussed, showing the variability and uptake according to animal species and respiratory tract region for various reactive gases. New experimental dosimetry approaches, such as those involving isotope ratio mass spectroscopy and cyclotron generation reactive gases, were discussed that offer great promise for improving the ability to study regional respiratory tract absorption of reactive gases. Various dosimetry modeling applications were discussed which demonstrate: the importance of airflow patterns for site-specific dosimetry in the upper respiratory tract, the influence of the anatomical model used to make inter- and intraspecies dosimetric comparisons, the influence of tracheobronchial path length on predicted dose curves, and the implications of ventilatory unit structure and volume on dosimetry and response. Collectively, these examples illustrate important aspects of regional respiratory tract absorption of inhaled reactive gases. Given the complex nature of extent and pattern of injury in the respiratory tract from exposure to reactive gases, understanding interspecies differences in the absorption of reactive gases will continue to be an important area for study.

  11. Measuring non-condensable gases in steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doornmalen, J. P. C. M. van; Kopinga, K., E-mail: k.kopinga@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15

    In surgery, medical devices that are used should be sterilized. To obtain surface steam sterilization conditions, not only in the sterilizer chamber itself but also in the loads to be sterilized, the amount of non-condensable gases (NCGs), for instance air, should be very low. Even rather small fractions of NCGs (below 1 %) seriously hamper steam penetration in porous materials or devices with hollow channels (e.g., endoscopes). A recently developed instrument which might detect the presence of residual NCGs in a reliable and reproducible way is the 3M{sup TM} Electronic Test System (ETS). In this paper, a physical model is presented that describes the behavior of this instrument. This model has been validated by experiments in which known fractions of NCGs were introduced in a sterilizer chamber in which an ETS was placed. Despite several approximations made in the model, a good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental results. The basic principle of the ETS, measuring the heat transfer by condensation on a cooled surface, permits a very sensitive detection of NCGs in harsh environments like water vapor at high temperatures and pressures. Our model may serve to develop adapted and optimized versions of this instrument for use outside the field of sterilization, e.g., in heat exchangers based on steam condensation.

  12. The second virial coefficient of the major atmospheric gases at low temperatures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claitor, Lilburn Carroll

    1948-01-01

    that encounters between molecules are rare, the only forces acting on the molecules are those of the retaining vessel. The behavior of a gas under such conditions 's expressed oy the ideal gas law, PV = RT where P is pressure, V is volume, R is the universal..., and, so long as encounters between three or more molecules are rare, the behavior of the gas can be expressed by PV = RT (I + Bj)) where') is the molal density and B is the second viriai coefficient. Th1s equation can also be written, approxi...

  13. Rethinking Downstream Regulation: California's Opportunity to Engage Households in Reducing Greenhouse Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    households in reducing greenhouse gases. Energy Policy (Tradable Permits for Greenhouse Gas Emissions: a Primer WithEIA, 2006a. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United

  14. Cryogenic method for measuring nuclides and fission gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perdue, P.T.; Haywood, F.F.

    1980-05-02

    A cryogenic method is provided for determining airborne gases and particulates from which gamma rays are emitted. A special dewar counting vessel is filled with the contents of the sampling flask which is immersed in liquid nitrogen. A vertically placed sodium-iodide or germanium-lithium gamma-ray detector is used. The device and method are of particular use in measuring and identifying the radioactive noble gases including emissions from coal-fired power plants, as well as fission gases released or escaping from nuclear power plants.

  15. Acceleration of the Retinal Vascular Tracing Algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kepner, Jeremy

    Acceleration of the Retinal Vascular Tracing Algorithm using FPGAs Direction Filter Design FPGA along with image processing results at frame rate with low latency Results MEMORY 2 Results MEMORY 3 Memory Switching Design #12;Retinal Vascular Tracing Application Goal: Detection and enhancement

  16. Chemistry of atmospheres formed during accretion of the Earth and other terrestrial planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaefer, L

    2009-01-01

    We used chemical equilibrium and chemical kinetic calculations to model chemistry of the volatiles released by heating different types of carbonaceous, ordinary and enstatite chondritic material as a function of temperature and pressure. Our results predict the composition of atmospheres formed by outgassing during accretion of the Earth and other terrestrial planets. Outgassing of CI and CM carbonaceous chondritic material produces H2O-rich (steam) atmospheres in agreement with the results of impact experiments. However, outgassing of other types of chondritic material produces atmospheres dominated by other gases. Outgassing of ordinary (H, L, LL) and high iron enstatite (EH) chondritic material yields H2-rich atmospheres with CO and H2O being the second and third most abundant gases. Outgassing of low iron enstatite (EL) chondritic material gives a CO-rich atmosphere with H2, CO2, and H2O being the next most abundant gases. Outgassing of CV carbonaceous chondritic material gives a CO2-rich atmosphere with ...

  17. A Study of Atmospheric Deposition of Air Toxics to the Waters of Puget Sound 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguirre, Danielle

    2009-06-09

    Air pollutants can be deposited in many forms such as rain, snow, and gases. Urban centers are major sources of combustion-derived particulate matter, black carbon, and volatile organic carbon to the atmosphere. Expansion of urban centers in the 20...

  18. Modeling shows that alternative soil management can decrease greenhouse gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Gryze, Steven; Albarracin, Maria Victoria; Catala-Luque, Rosa; Howitt, Richard E; Six, Johan

    2009-01-01

    warmer temperatures. Reducing greenhouse gases A (SacramentoMan. Yes Agricultural greenhouse-gas emis- sions can beWhether the decrease in greenhouse-gas emissions comes from

  19. Measuring the Isotopic Composition of Solar Wind Noble Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floss, Christine

    in meteorites are depleted by many orders of magnitude compared with the solar nebula and, although lunar soils the various components, these gases were extracted using stepped pyrolysis and analyzed in sensitive mass

  20. Low-Value Waste Gases as an Energy Source 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waibel, R. T.

    1996-01-01

    Waste gases with potentially useful fuel value are generated at any number of points in refineries, chemical plants and other industrial and commercial sites. The higher quality streams have been utilized successfully in fuel systems for years...

  1. Method of producing pyrolysis gases from carbon-containing materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mudge, Lyle K. (Richland, WA); Brown, Michael D. (West Richland, WA); Wilcox, Wayne A. (Kennewick, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA)

    1989-01-01

    A gasification process of improved efficiency is disclosed. A dual bed reactor system is used in which carbon-containing feedstock materials are first treated in a gasification reactor to form pyrolysis gases. The pyrolysis gases are then directed into a catalytic reactor for the destruction of residual tars/oils in the gases. Temperatures are maintained within the catalytic reactor at a level sufficient to crack the tars/oils in the gases, while avoiding thermal breakdown of the catalysts. In order to minimize problems associated with the deposition of carbon-containing materials on the catalysts during cracking, a gaseous oxidizing agent preferably consisting of air, oxygen, steam, and/or mixtures thereof is introduced into the catalytic reactor at a high flow rate in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the reactor. This oxidizes any carbon deposits on the catalysts, which would normally cause catalyst deactivation.

  2. Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the Dixie Valley Region, Nevada (1996-1999) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report:...

  3. Viscosities of natural gases at high pressures and high temperatures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, Anup

    2007-09-17

    Estimation of viscosities of naturally occurring petroleum gases provides the information needed to accurately work out reservoir-engineering problems. Existing models for viscosity prediction are limited by data, especially at high pressures...

  4. Studying coherence in ultra-cold atomic gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Daniel E. (Daniel Edward)

    2007-01-01

    This thesis will discuss the study of coherence properties of ultra-cold atomic gases. The atomic systems investigated include a thermal cloud of atoms, a Bose-Einstein condensate and a fermion pair condensate. In each ...

  5. Radio-frequency spectroscopy of ultracold atomic Fermi gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schirotzek, Andre

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents experiments investigating the phase diagram of ultracold atomic Fermi gases using radio-frequency spectroscopy. The tunability of many experimental parameters including the temperature, the interparticle ...

  6. Atmospheric Transport of Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, T.V.

    2003-03-03

    The purpose of atmospheric transport and diffusion calculations is to provide estimates of concentration and surface deposition from routine and accidental releases of pollutants to the atmosphere. This paper discusses this topic.

  7. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.; Liu, D.K.

    1992-11-17

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50 C is attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2], alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] can be removed in an economic fashion. 9 figs.

  8. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA)

    1992-01-01

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. are attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO and SO.sub.2 can be removed in an economic fashion.

  9. Non-hydrodynamic transport in trapped unitary Fermi gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jasmine Brewer; Paul Romatschke

    2015-08-05

    Many strongly coupled fluids are known to share similar hydrodynamic transport properties. In this work we argue that this similarity could extend beyond hydrodynamics to transient dynamics through the presence of non-hydrodynamic modes. We review non-hydrodynamic modes in kinetic theory and gauge/gravity duality and discuss their signatures in trapped Fermi gases close to unitarity. Reanalyzing previously published experimental data, we find hints of non-hydrodynamic modes in cold Fermi gases in two and three dimensions.

  10. Non-hydrodynamic transport in trapped unitary Fermi gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, Jasmine

    2015-01-01

    Many strongly coupled fluids are known to share similar hydrodynamic transport properties. In this work we argue that this similarity could extend beyond hydrodynamics to transient dynamics through the presence of non-hydrodynamic modes. We review non-hydrodynamic modes in kinetic theory and gauge/gravity duality and discuss their signatures in trapped Fermi gases close to unitarity. Reanalyzing previously published experimental data, we find hints of non-hydrodynamic modes in cold Fermi gases in two and three dimensions.

  11. Biological production of ethanol from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products is disclosed. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various product, such as organic acids, alcohols H.sub.2, SCP, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  12. Atmospheric chemistry and global change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, MJ

    1999-01-01

    and particles. Thus Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Changethe future of atmospheric chemistry. BROWSINGS Tornadothe complexity of atmospheric chemistry well, but trips a

  13. Nighttime chemical evolution of aerosol and trace gases in a power plant plume: Implications for secondary organic nitrate and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    distances and processing times was guided by a constantvolume balloon that was released near the power plant implications for several issues related to the impacts of power plant emissions on air quality and climate. Introduction [2] Fossilfuelfired power plants in the United States contributed 18% and 66% of the national

  14. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    D. W. T. : Emissions from smoldering combustion of biomassemissions of oxygenated organic species from biomass combustion,

  15. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    a large natural gas power plant, and at the fire source areairport and a natural gas power plant; thus mixing of burn

  16. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    formaldehyde (HCHO), 1,3-butadiene (C 4 H 6 ), methanol (CHHCN) Ammonia (NH 3 ) 1,3-Butadiene (C 4 H 6 ) Isoprene (C 5H , C H , C H , furan, 1,3-butadiene, and limonene. b bdl =

  17. Fractionation of soil gases by diffusion of water vapor, gravitational settling, and thermal diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Severinghaus, J.P.; Bender, M.L. [Univ. of Rhode Island, RI (United States)] [Univ. of Rhode Island, RI (United States); Keeling, R.F. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, LaJolla, CA (United States)] [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, LaJolla, CA (United States); Broecker, W.S. [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States)] [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Air sampled from the moist unsaturated zone in a sand dune exhibits depletion in the heavy isotopes of N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. We propose that the depletion is caused by a diffusive flux of water vapor out of the dune, which sweeps out the other gases, forcing them to diffuse back into the dune. The heavy isotopes of N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} diffuse back more slowly, resulting in a steady-state depletion of the heavy isotopesin the dune interior. We predict the effect`s magnitude with molecular diffusion theory and reproduce it in a laboratory simulation, finding good agreement between field, theory, and lab. The magnitude of the effect is governed by the ratio of the binary diffusivities against water vapor of a pair of gases, and increases {approximately} linearly with the difference between the water vapor mole fraction of the site and the advectively mixed reservoir with which it is in diffusive contact (in most cases the atmosphere). 32 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  18. Easy system call tracing for Plan 9.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minnich, Ronald G.

    2010-09-01

    Tracing system calls makes debugging easy and fast. On Plan 9, traditionally, system call tracing has been implemented with acid. New systems do not always implement all the capabilities needed for Acid, particularly the ability to rewrite the process code space to insert breakpoints. Architecture support libraries are not always available for Acid, or may not work even on a supported architecture. The requirement that Acid's libraries be available can be a problem on systems with a very small memory footprint, such as High Performance Computing systems where every Kbyte counts. Finally, Acid tracing is inconvenient in the presence of forks, which means tracing shell pipelines is particularly troublesome. The strace program available on most Unix systems is far more convenient to use and more capable than Acid for system call tracing. A similar system on Plan 9 can simplify troubleshooting. We have built a system calling tracing capability into the Plan 9 kernel. It has proven to be more convenient than strace in programming effort. One can write a shell script to implement tracing, and the C code to implement an strace equivalent is several orders of magnitude smaller.

  19. EIT and TRACE responses to flare plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Tripathi; G. Del Zanna; H. E. Mason; C. Chifor

    2008-02-26

    Aims: To understand the contribution of active region and flare plasmas to the $\\lambda$195 channels of SOHO/EIT (Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope) and TRACE (Transition Region and Coronal Explorer). Methods: We have analysed an M8 flare simultaneously observed by the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS), EIT, TRACE and RHESSI. We obtained synthetic spectra for the flaring region and an outer region using the differential emission measures (DEM) of emitting plasma based on CDS and RHESSI observations and the CHIANTI atomic database. We then predicted the EIT and TRACE count rates. Results: For the flaring region, both EIT and TRACE images taken through the $\\lambda$195 filter are dominated by Fe ${\\rm XXIV}$ (formed at about 20 MK). However, in the outer region, the emission was primarily due to the Fe${\\rm XII}$, with substantial contributions from other lines. The average count rate for the outer region was within 25% the observed value for EIT, while for TRACE it was a factor of two higher. For the flare region, the predicted count rate was a factor of two (in case of EIT) and a factor of three (in case of TRACE) higher than the actual count rate. Conclusions: During a solar flare, both TRACE and EIT $\\lambda$195 channels are found to be dominated by Fe ${\\rm XXIV}$ emission. Reasonable agreement between predictions and observations is found, however some discrepancies need to be further investigated.

  20. Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennis, J A

    1971-01-01

    Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue

  1. Impact of rising greenhouse gases on mid-latitude storm tracks and associated hydroclimate variability and change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seager, Richard

    2014-12-08

    Project Summary This project aimed to advance physical understanding of how and why the mid-latitude jet streams and storm tracks shift in intensity and latitude in response to changes in radiative forcing with an especial focus on rising greenhouse gases. The motivation, and much of the work, stemmed from the importance that these mean and transient atmospheric circulation systems have for hydroclimate. In particular drying and expansion of the subtropical dry zones has been related to a poleward shift of the mid-latitude jets and storm tracks. The work involved integrated assessment of observation and model projections as well as targeted model simulations.

  2. Treatment of soil, vegetation and snow in land surface models: a test of the BiosphereAtmosphere Transfer Scheme with the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    surface consists of soil, vegetation, snow, glaciers, inland waters, mountains, animals, human beings to study the complicated transfer or diffusion of energy, water and trace gases within each study object of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA b Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona

  3. Process for removal of carbonyl sulfide in liquified hydrocarbon gases with absorption of acid gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beavon, D.K.; Mackles, M.

    1980-11-11

    Liquified hydrocarbon gases containing at least carbonyl sulfide as an impurity are purified by intimately mixing the liquified hydrocarbon gas with an aqueous absorbent for hydrogen sulfide in a hydrolysis zone maintained at a temperature and a pressure sufficient to maintain the liquified hydrocarbon gas in the liquid state and hydrolyze the carbonyl sulfide to hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. The liquified hydrocarbon gas containing at least a portion of the formed carbonyl sulfide and carbon dioxide is separated from the liquid absorbent and passed to an absorption zone where it is contacted with a liquid hydrogen sulfide absorbent where at least the formed hydrogen sulfide is separated from the liquified petroleum gas. A stage of absorption of at least hydrogen sulfide may proceed mixing of the liquified hydrocarbon gas with the absorbent in the hydrolysis reaction zone. The absorbent employed does not combine irreversibly with carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide, and preferably is an aqueous solution of diethanolamine.

  4. Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, K.C.; Markun, F.; Zawadzki, M.T.

    1998-04-28

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir. 6 figs.

  5. Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Markun, Francis (Joliet, IL); Zawadzki, Mary T. (South Bend, IN)

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir.

  6. Trace Element Analysis At Nw Basin & Range Region (Coolbaugh...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trace Element Analysis At Nw Basin & Range Region (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Trace Element...

  7. Trace Element Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trace Element Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Trace...

  8. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases and production of phosphoric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA)

    1992-01-01

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorous preferably in a wet scrubber. The addition of yellow phosphorous in the system induces the production of O.sub.3 which subsequently oxidizes NO to NO.sub.2. The resulting NO.sub.2 dissolves readily and can be reduced to form ammonium ions by dissolved SO.sub.2 under appropriate conditions. In a 20 acfm system, yellow phosphorous is oxidized to yield P.sub.2 O.sub.5 which picks up water to form H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 mists and can be collected as a valuable product. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, better than 90% of SO.sub.2 and NO in simulated flue gas can be removed. Stoichiometric ratios (P/NO) ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 were obtained.

  9. Methane present in an extrasolar planet atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark R. Swain; Gautam Vasisht; Giovanna Tinetti

    2008-02-07

    Molecules present in exoplanetary atmospheres are expected to strongly influence the atmospheric radiation balance, trace dynamical and chemical processes, and indicate the presence of disequilibrium effects. Since molecules have the potential to reveal the exoplanet atmospheric conditions and chemistry, searching for them is a high priority. The rotational-vibrational transition bands of water, carbon monoxide, and methane are anticipated to be the primary sources of non-continuum opacity in hot-Jovian planets. Since these bands overlap in wavelength, and the corresponding signatures from them are weak, decisive identification requires precision infrared spectroscopy. Here we report on a near-infrared transmission spectrum of the planet HD 189733b showing the presence of methane. Additionally, a resolved water-vapour band at 1.9 microns confirms the recent claim of water in this object. On thermochemical grounds, carbon-monoxide is expected to be abundant in the upper atmosphere of hot-Jovian exoplanets; thus the detection of methane rather than carbon-monoxide in such a hot planet could signal the presence of a horizontal chemical gradient away from the permanent dayside, or it may imply an ill-understood photochemical mechanisms that leads to an enhancement of methane.

  10. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, Milton (Palos Park, IL); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Nagy, Zoltan (Woodridge, IL)

    1984-01-01

    A process for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous, the fly ash having a silicate base and containing surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like, with the process being carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl.sub.3 in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl.sub.3 to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  11. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Wai, C.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1983-08-15

    A process is described for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous. The fly ash has a silicate base and contains surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like. The process is carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl/sub 3/ in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl/sub 3/ to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  12. Traces on finite W-algebras

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Etingof, Pavel I.

    We compute the space of Poisson traces on a classical W-algebra, i.e., linear functionals invariant under Hamiltonian derivations. Modulo any central character, this space identifies with the top cohomology of the corresponding ...

  13. CP-violating CFT and trace anomaly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu Nakayama

    2012-01-26

    It is logically possible that the trace anomaly in four dimension includes the Hirzebruch-Pontryagin density in CP violating theories. Although the term vanishes at free conformal fixed points, we realize such a possibility in the holographic renormalization group and show that it is indeed possible. The Hirzebruch-Pontryagin term in the trace anomaly may serve as a barometer to understand how much CP is violated in conformal field theories.

  14. Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Gaisser

    2005-02-18

    Starting with an historical review, I summarize the status of calculations of the flux of atmospheric neutrinos and how they compare to measurements.

  15. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-10-01

    This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

  16. “Hard probes” of strongly-interacting atomic gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishida, Yusuke

    2012-06-18

    We investigate properties of an energetic atom propagating through strongly interacting atomic gases. The operator product expansion is used to systematically compute a quasiparticle energy and its scattering rate both in a spin-1/2 Fermi gas and in a spinless Bose gas. Reasonable agreement with recent quantum Monte Carlo simulations even at a relatively small momentum k/kF > 1.5 indicates that our large-momentum expansions are valid in a wide range of momentum. We also study a differential scattering rate when a probe atom is shot into atomic gases. Because the number density and current density of the target atomic gas contribute to the forward scattering only, its contact density (measure of short-range pair correlation) gives the leading contribution to the backward scattering. Therefore, such an experiment can be used to measure the contact density and thus provides a new local probe of strongly interacting atomic gases.

  17. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Thomas A Boden (CDIAC Di-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ; oceanic trace gases; solar and atmospheric radiation; trace gas emissions; vegetation response to CO2 PROJECT START DATE: January 1, 1982 PROJECT END DATE: Ongoing SPONSOR: US DOE, Office of Science, Office of the atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other radiatively active gases; the role of the terres

  18. Methods, systems, and devices for deep desulfurization of fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (Richland, WA); Huo, Qisheng (Richland, WA)

    2012-04-17

    A highly effective and regenerable method, system and device that enables the desulfurization of warm fuel gases by passing these warm gasses over metal-based sorbents arranged in a mesoporous substrate. This technology will protect Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts and other sulfur sensitive catalysts, without drastic cooling of the fuel gases. This invention can be utilized in a process either alone or alongside other separation processes, and allows the total sulfur in such a gas to be reduced to less than 500 ppb and in some instances as low as 50 ppb.

  19. Castaing Instability and Precessing Domains in Confined Alkali Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Kuklov; A. E. Meyerovich

    2002-02-05

    We explore analogy between two-component quantum alkali gases and spin-polarized helium systems. Recent experiments in trapped gases are put into the frame of the existing theory for Castaing instability in transverse channel and formation of homogeneous precessing domains in spin-polarized systems. Analogous effects have already been observed in spin-polarized $% ^{3}He$ and $^{3}He- ^{4}He$ mixtures systems. The threshold effect of the confining potential on the instability is analyzed. New experimental possibilities for observation of transverse instability in a trap are discussed.

  20. Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-01-01

    Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

  1. Conserving Energy by Recovering Heat from Hot Waste Gases 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magnuson, E. E.

    1979-01-01

    ;::;,. """"= ;e - -e-- - ~ ------- ., ~ A~ PULL THRU - WITH SUPPLEMENTARY BURNER t t - ~"~ ~ - t77 7'0.. Fig. No. B ;i' ~ A+-, j + ~ ~s:- i.I A..-J PUSH THRU OR PULL THRU - W ITII SUPPI F'MF'NTARY ALJRNER years later a steel company discharging... BY RECOVERING HEAT FROM HOT WASTE GASES E. E. Magnuson Consultant and Training Director Eclipse Lookout Co. - Division of Eclipse, Inc. Chattanooga, Tennessee Intent of this paper is to show how recovery of heat in hot waste gases reduces nation...

  2. Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology: Editorial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Maroto-Valer, M.M.

    2011-02-01

    This editorial introduces readers and contributors to a new online journal. Through the publication of articles ranging from peer-reviewed research papers and short communications, to editorials and interviews on greenhouse gas emissions science and technology, this journal will disseminate research results and information that address the global crisis of anthropogenic climate change. The scope of the journal includes the full spectrum of research areas from capture and separation of greenhouse gases from flue gases and ambient air, to beneficial utilization, and to sequestration in deep geologic formations and terrestrial (plant and soil) systems, as well as policy and technoeconomic analyses of these approaches.

  3. The trace formula The Langevin process in R

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrmann, Samuel

    The trace formula The Langevin process in R Symmetric spaces and the Malliavin calculus and the trace formula Jean-Michel Bismut Universit´e Paris-Sud, Orsay `A la m´emoire de Paul Malliavin Jean-Michel Bismut The Malliavin calculus and the trace formula #12;The trace formula The Langevin process in R

  4. Foundations of the Trace Assertion Method of Module Interface Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sekerinski, Emil

    states and the behaviors observed are fully described by traces built from access program invocations

  5. Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences 1959­2009 WayneBurt. #12;Oceanography and Atmospheric in Oceanography (TENOC). Wayne Burt immediately responds with proposal to President Strand of Oregon State College to start a graduate Department of Oceanography. 1959 Oregon State Board of Higher Education approves

  6. {sup 39}Ar Detection at the 10{sup -16} Isotopic Abundance Level with Atom Trap Trace Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, W.; Williams, W.; Bailey, K.; O'Connor, T. P.; Mueller, P.; Davis, A. M.; Hu, S.-M.; Sun, Y. R.; Lu, Z.-T.; Purtschert, R.; Sturchio, N. C.

    2011-03-11

    Atom trap trace analysis, a laser-based atom counting method, has been applied to analyze atmospheric {sup 39}Ar (half-life=269 yr), a cosmogenic isotope with an isotopic abundance of 8x10{sup -16}. In addition to the superior selectivity demonstrated in this work, the counting rate and efficiency of atom trap trace analysis have been improved by 2 orders of magnitude over prior results. The significant applications of this new analytical capability lie in radioisotope dating of ice and water samples and in the development of dark matter detectors.

  7. Hydrothermal venting of greenhouse gases triggering Early Jurassic global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svensen, Henrik

    Hydrothermal venting of greenhouse gases triggering Early Jurassic global warming Henrik Svensen a carbon cycle. The event lasted for approximately 200,000 years and was manifested by a global warming, and the Toarcian global warming. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: climate change; Toarcian

  8. Use of low temperature blowers for recirculation of hot gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maru, H.C.; Forooque, M.

    1982-08-19

    An apparatus is described for maintaining motors at low operating temperatures during recirculation of hot gases in fuel cell operations and chemical processes such as fluidized bed coal gasification. The apparatus includes a means for separating the hot process gas from the motor using a secondary lower temperature gas, thereby minimizing the temperature increase of the motor and associated accessories.

  9. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption contribution to the debate on environmental policy in Denmark. #12;3 Contents 1 SUMMARY 5 1.1 OZONE OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES 19 3.1 IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 19 3.1.1 CFCs 19 3.1.2 Tetrachloromethane 19 3

  10. Lieb-Thirring Bounds for Interacting Bose Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas Lundholm; Fabian Portmann; Jan Philip Solovej

    2015-02-02

    We study interacting Bose gases and prove lower bounds for the kinetic plus interaction energy of a many-body wave function in terms of its particle density. These general estimates are then applied to various types of interactions, including hard sphere (in 3D) and hard disk (in 2D) as well as a general class of homogeneous potentials.

  11. Thermodynamic and hydrodynamic behaviour of interacting Fermi gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goulko, Olga

    2012-01-10

    Fermionic matter is ubiquitous in nature, from the electrons in metals and semiconductors or the neutrons in the inner crust of neutron stars, to gases of fermionic atoms, like 40K or 6Li that can be created and studied under laboratory conditions...

  12. OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-12-01

    This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost.

  13. HTheorems in some kinetic models of chemically reacting dense gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polewczak, Jacek

    gases: -- search for the RET (Revised Enskog Theory) analog's of the reacting hard­sphere system -- H as perturbations to the non­reactive terms. This was confirmed in a series of papers by B.Shizgal and M.Karplus (J by an equilibrium computations, where solvent e#ects enter through the free energy at the transition state. (for

  14. Trace anomaly on a quantum spacetime manifold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spallucci, Euro; Smailagic, Anais; Nicolini, Piero

    2006-04-15

    In this paper we investigate the trace anomaly in a space-time where single events are delocalized as a consequence of short distance quantum coordinate fluctuations. We obtain a modified form of heat kernel asymptotic expansion which does not suffer from short distance divergences. Calculation of the trace anomaly is performed using an IR regulator in order to circumvent the absence of UV infinities. The explicit form of the trace anomaly is presented and the corresponding 2D Polyakov effective action and energy-momentum tensor are obtained. The vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor in the Boulware, Hartle-Hawking and Unruh vacua is explicitly calculated in a rt section of a recently found, noncommutative inspired, Schwarzschild-like solution of the Einstein equations. The standard short distance divergences in the vacuum expectation values are regularized in agreement with the absence of UV infinities removed by quantum coordinate fluctuations.

  15. Analyzing PICL trace data with MEDEA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merlo, A.P.; Worley, P.H.

    1993-11-01

    Execution traces and performance statistics can be collected for parallel applications on a variety of multiprocessor platforms by using the Portable Instrumented Communication Library (PICL). The static and dynamic performance characteristics of performance data can be analyzed easily and effectively with the facilities provided within the MEasurements Description Evaluation and Analysis tool (MEDEA). This report describes the integration of the PICL trace file format into MEDEA. A case study is then outlined that uses PICL and MEDEA to characterize the performance of a parallel benchmark code executed on different hardware platforms and using different parallel algorithms and communication protocols.

  16. Ensemble Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Addis, R.P.

    2002-06-24

    Prognostic atmospheric dispersion models are used to generate consequence assessments, which assist decision-makers in the event of a release from a nuclear facility. Differences in the forecast wind fields generated by various meteorological agencies, differences in the transport and diffusion models, as well as differences in the way these models treat the release source term, result in differences in the resulting plumes. Even dispersion models using the same wind fields may produce substantially different plumes. This talk will address how ensemble techniques may be used to enable atmospheric modelers to provide decision-makers with a more realistic understanding of how both the atmosphere and the models behave.

  17. Physics of Aquatic Systems II, 8. Dating young waters Universitt HeidelbergInstitut fr Umweltphysik Physics of Aquatic Systems II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner

    · Industrial activity has lead to increases of several trace gases in the atmosphere (CO2, CH4, CFCs, etc/drying, foam blowing, heat transfer fluid · Production since ~1930, strong increase in atmosphere since ~1960

  18. Formation of ozone and growth of aerosols in young smoke plumes from biomass burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarado, Matthew James

    2008-01-01

    The combustion of biomass is a major source of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Regional and global-scale models of atmospheric chemistry and climate take estimates for these emissions and arbitrarily "mix" them into ...

  19. Toxicity of atmospheric aerosols on marine phytoplankton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    address: Center for Atmospheric Chemistry Study, Departmenttween phytoplankton, atmospheric chemistry, and climate areno. 12 ? 4601– 4605 CHEMISTRY Atmospheric aerosol deposition

  20. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, Roland L. (Bloomfield, CO); Cannon, Theodore W. (Golden, CO)

    1988-01-01

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

  1. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

    1988-10-25

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

  2. Autumn 2014 Atmospheric Circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doty, Sharon Lafferty

    to perform atmospheric chemistry measurements in this remote region of ubiquitous oil and gas drilling 30 days they raised $12,000, enough to support Maria's travel to Utah and to cover the costs

  3. Uniqueness of chemical equilibria in ideal mixtures of ideal gases Joseph M. Powersa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    forces between mol- ecules of the same type. Ideal mixtures, which include gases which obey Dalton's law

  4. System for trapping and storing gases for subsequent chemical reduction to solids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogel, John S. (San Jose, CA); Ognibene, Ted J. (Oakland, CA); Bench, Graham S. (Livermore, CA); Peaslee, Graham F. (Holland, MI)

    2009-11-03

    A system for quantitatively reducing oxide gases. A pre-selected amount of zinc is provided in a vial. A tube is provided in the vial. The zinc and the tube are separated. A pre-selected amount of a catalyst is provided in the tube. Oxide gases are injected into the vial. The vial, tube, zinc, catalyst, and the oxide gases are cryogenically cooled. At least a portion of the vial, tube, zinc, catalyst, and oxide gases are heated.

  5. Spent fuel pool analysis using TRACE code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez-Saez, F.; Carlos, S.; Villanueva, J. F.; Martorell, S.

    2012-07-01

    The storage requirements of Spent Fuel Pools have been analyzed with the purpose to increase their rack capacities. In the past, the thermal limits have been mainly evaluated with conservative codes developed for this purpose, although some works can be found in which a best estimate code is used. The use of best estimate codes is interesting as they provide more realistic calculations and they have the capability of analyzing a wide range of transients that could affect the Spent Fuel Pool. Two of the most representative thermal-hydraulic codes are RELAP-5 and TRAC. Nowadays, TRACE code is being developed to make use of the more favorable characteristics of RELAP-5 and TRAC codes. Among the components coded in TRACE that can be used to construct the model, it is interesting to use the VESSEL component, which has the capacity of reproducing three dimensional phenomena. In this work, a thermal-hydraulic model of the Maine Yankee spent fuel pool using the TRACE code is developed. Such model has been used to perform a licensing calculation and the results obtained have been compared with experimental measurements made at the pool, showing a good agreement between the calculations predicted by TRACE and the experimental data. (authors)

  6. Privacy Vulnerability of Published Anonymous Mobility Traces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-08-01

    Energy; and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under. Grant No. ... conversations, news articles, online social networks, or Web blogs, though the ... or transition probabilities of each user between locations. Chow et al. .... is reasonable if the objective of the adversary is to identify as many trace ...

  7. Privacy Vulnerability of Published Anonymous Mobility Traces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-07-07

    Sep 20, 2010 ... a function of the nodal mobility (captured in both real and synthetic traces), the ... Systems; K.6.5 [Management of Computing and Infor- mation Systems]: Security and ..... We first describe them for case A1: (1) MLE Approach ...

  8. WRF/Chem Simulations Over Fairbanks, AK Atmospheric Stability and Energy Correlation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moelders, Nicole

    1 WRF/Chem Simulations Over Fairbanks, AK Atmospheric Stability and Energy Correlation Analysis deposition. #12;3 The interactions and cycles of energy, water and trace gas components are also simulated, Alaska, that is characteristic of the Tanana valley; Specifically, Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE

  9. Analise Matematica III Turma Especial Ficha Extra 3 Termodinamica dos Gases Ideais

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natário, José

    Anâ??alise Matemâ??atica III ­ Turma Especial Ficha Extra 3 ­ Termodinâ??amica dos Gases Ideais N estado dos gases ideais: PV = NRT (onde R â??e a constante dos gases ideais). A Primeira Lei da Termodinâ??amica pela Segunda Lei da Termodinâ??amica. 2 #12;

  10. New model more accurately tracks gases for underground nuclear...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    knowledge about atmospheric conditions (e.g., the barometric pressure that creates a vacuum) and seasonal variabilities in different regions. This team's research investigated...

  11. Apparatus for the plasma destruction of hazardous gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Michael (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A plasma cell for destroying hazardous gases. An electric-discharge cell having an electrically conducting electrode onto which an alternating high-voltage waveform is impressed and a dielectric barrier adjacent thereto, together forming a high-voltage electrode, generates self-terminating discharges throughout a volume formed between this electrode and a grounded conducting liquid electrode. The gas to be transformed is passed through this volume. The liquid may be flowed, generating thereby a renewable surface. Moreover, since hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids may be formed from destruction of various chlorofluorocarbons in the presence of water, a conducting liquid may be selected which will neutralize these corrosive compounds. The gases exiting the discharge region may be further scrubbed if additional purification is required.

  12. Apparatus for the plasma destruction of hazardous gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, M.

    1995-02-07

    A plasma cell for destroying hazardous gases is described. An electric-discharge cell having an electrically conducting electrode onto which an alternating high-voltage waveform is impressed and a dielectric barrier adjacent thereto, together forming a high-voltage electrode, generates self-terminating discharges throughout a volume formed between this electrode and a grounded conducting liquid electrode. The gas to be transformed is passed through this volume. The liquid may be flowed, generating thereby a renewable surface. Moreover, since hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids may be formed from destruction of various chlorofluorocarbons in the presence of water, a conducting liquid may be selected which will neutralize these corrosive compounds. The gases exiting the discharge region may be further scrubbed if additional purification is required. 4 figs.

  13. Frequency-dependent fluctuation-dissipation relations in granular gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guy Bunin; Yair Shokef; Dov Levine

    2008-05-19

    The Green-Kubo relation for two models of granular gases is discussed. In the Maxwell model in any dimension, the effective temperature obtained from the Green-Kubo relation is shown to be frequency independent, and equal to the average kinetic energy, known as the granular temperature. In the second model analyzed, a mean-field granular gas, the collision rate of a particle is taken to be proportional to its velocity. The Green-Kubo relation in the high frequency limit is calculated for this model, and the effective temperature in this limit is shown to be equal to the granular temperature. This result, taken together with previous results, showing a difference between the effective temperature at zero frequency (the Einstein relation) and the granular temperature, shows that the Green-Kubo relation for granular gases is violated.

  14. Clostridium stain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (2207 Tall Oaks Dr., Fayetteville, AR 72703)

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

  15. Clostridium strain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, J.L.

    1997-01-14

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 4 figs.

  16. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. C. Kwon

    2007-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 130-156 seconds at 120-140 C to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases, evaluate removal capabilities of hydrogen sulfide and COS from coal gases with formulated catalysts, and develop an economic regeneration method of deactivated catalysts. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,300-3,800-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-1,900 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-21 v% hydrogen, 29-34 v% CO, 8-10 v% CO{sub 2}, 5-18 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 114-132 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-140 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 116-129 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is

  17. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2009-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash coat, and catalytic metals, to develop a regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor. The task of developing kinetic rate equations and modeling the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants will be abandoned since formulation of catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS is being in progress. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 46-570 seconds under reaction conditions to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases and evaluate their capabilities in reducing hydrogen sulfide and COS in coal gases. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,200-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-20,000-ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-27 v% hydrogen, 29-41 v% CO, 8-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of simulated coal gas mixtures to the reactor are 30 - 180 cm{sup 3}/min at 1 atm and 25 C (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio

  18. Wave Speed in the Macroscopic Extended Model for Ultrarelativistic Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Borghero; F. Demontis; S. Pennisi

    2010-12-07

    An exact macroscopic extended model for ultrarelativistic gases, with an arbitrary number of moments, is present in the literature. Here we exploit equations determining wave speeds for that model. We find interesting results; for example, the whole system for their determination can be divided into independent subsystems and some, but not all, wave speeds are expressed by rational numbers. Moreover, the extraordinary property that these wave speeds for the macroscopic model are the same of those in the kinetic model, is proved.

  19. Steam Tracing...New Technologies for the 21st Century 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitzer, R. K.; Barth, R. E.; Bonorden, C.

    1999-01-01

    For decades, steam tracing has been an accepted practice in the heating of piping, vessels, and equipment. This paper presents recent product innovations such as "burn-safe" and "energy efficient" steam tracing products. For the many applications...

  20. 12.479 Trace-Element Geochemistry, Spring 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Frederick

    The emphasis of this course is to use Trace Element Geochemistry to understand the origin and evolution of igneous rocks. The approach is to discuss the parameters that control partitioning of trace elements between phases ...

  1. Emission of reduced malodorous sulfur gases from wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devai, I.; DeLaune, R.D.

    1999-03-01

    The emission of malodorous gaseous compounds from wastewater collection and treatment facilities is a growing maintenance and environmental problem. Numerous gaseous compounds with low odor detection thresholds are emitted from these facilities. Sulfur-bearing gases represent compounds with the lowest odor detection threshold. Using solid adsorbent preconcentration and gas chromatographic methods, the quantity and composition of reduced malodorous sulfur gases emitted from various steps of the treatment process were determined in wastewater treatment plants in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Hydrogen sulfide, which is a malodorous, corrosive, and potentially toxic gas, was the most dominant volatile reduced sulfur (S) compound measured. Concentrations were not only more than the odor detection threshold of hydrogen sulfide, but above levels that may affect health during long-term exposure. The concentrations of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide were significantly less than hydrogen sulfide. However, even though emissions of reduced sulfur gases other than hydrogen sulfide were low, previous studies suggested that long-term exposure to such levels may cause respiratory problems and other symptoms.

  2. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report is the fifth annual update, covering national emissions over the period 1989--1995, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1996. The estimates contained in this report have been revised from those in last year`s report. Emissions estimates for carbon dioxide are reported in metric tons of carbon; estimates for other gases are reported in metric tons of gas. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapter 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Five appendixes are included with this report. 216 refs., 11 figs., 38 tabs.

  3. Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

  4. 13, 1479714822, 2013 Atmospheric waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    .5194/acpd-13-14797-2013 © Author(s) 2013. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Sciences ss Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics OpenAccess Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics OpenAccess Discussions Atmospheric Measurement s Discussions This discussion paper is/has been under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

  5. The middle Martian atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaquin, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Profiles of scattered light above the planetary limb from 116 Viking Orbiter images are used to constrain the temporal and spatial behavior of aerosols suspended in the Martian atmosphere. The data cover a wide range of seasons, locations, and viewing geometry, providing information about the aerosol optical properties and vertical distribution. The typical atmospheric column contains one or more discrete, optically thin, ice-like haze layers between 30 and 90 km elevation whose composition is inferred to be water ice. Below the detached hazes, a continuous haze, interpreted to have a large dust component, extends from as much as 50 km to the surface. The haze distribution exhibits an annual variation that reflects a seasonally driven circulation in the middle atmosphere. The potential role of stationary gravity waves in modifying the middle atmosphere circulation is explored using a linear theory applied to a realistic Martian environment. Martian topography derived from radar observations is decomposed into Fourier harmonics and used to linearly superpose gravity waves arising from each component. The larger amplitude topography on Mars combined with the absence of extended regions of smooth topography like oceans generates larger wave amplitudes than on the Earth. The circulation of the middle atmosphere is examined using a two-dimensional, linearized, axisymmetric model successfully employed in the study of the terrestrial mesosphere. Illustrations of temperature and wind speeds are presented for the southern summer solstice and southern spring equinox.

  6. Ambient methods and apparatus for rapid laser trace constituent analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, Stuart C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grandy, Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jeffery, Charles L. (Blackfoot, ID)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for measuring trace amounts of constituents in samples by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence under ambient conditions. The laser induced fluorescence is performed at a selected wavelength corresponding to an absorption state of a selected trace constituent. The intensity value of the emission decay signal which is generated by the trace constituent is compared to calibrated emission intensity decay values to determine the amount of trace constituent present.

  7. Atmospheric-pressure plasma decontamination/sterilization chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herrmann, Hans W. (Los Alamos, NM); Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    An atmospheric-pressure plasma decontamination/sterilization chamber is described. The apparatus is useful for decontaminating sensitive equipment and materials, such as electronics, optics and national treasures, which have been contaminated with chemical and/or biological warfare agents, such as anthrax, mustard blistering agent, VX nerve gas, and the like. There is currently no acceptable procedure for decontaminating such equipment. The apparatus may also be used for sterilization in the medical and food industries. Items to be decontaminated or sterilized are supported inside the chamber. Reactive gases containing atomic and metastable oxygen species are generated by an atmospheric-pressure plasma discharge in a He/O.sub.2 mixture and directed into the region of these items resulting in chemical reaction between the reactive species and organic substances. This reaction typically kills and/or neutralizes the contamination without damaging most equipment and materials. The plasma gases are recirculated through a closed-loop system to minimize the loss of helium and the possibility of escape of aerosolized harmful substances.

  8. Etching process of silicon dioxide with nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamakawa, Koji; Hori, Masaru; Goto, Toshio; Den, Shoji; Katagiri, Toshirou; Kano, Hiroyuki [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-Cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Nagoya University, Furo-Cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-Cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Department of Engineering, Katagiri Engineering Co., Ltd., Minamikase Saiwai-ku, Kawasaki 661-8661 (Japan); NU-EcoEngineering Co., Ltd., Ooaza, Kurozasa Aza, Umazutsumi, Miyoshi-cho, Nishikamo-gun, Aichi 470-0201 (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    An ultrahigh etch rate (14 {mu}m/min) of SiO{sub 2} and a high selectivity of SiO{sub 2}/Si over 200 were achieved using a microwave-excited nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma source employing He, NF{sub 3}, and H{sub 2}O gases, which have been developed for application to microelectromechanical systems and other bionanotechnology fields. In order to clarify the etching mechanism, two diagnostic methods have been performed: (1) imaging of plasma emission with an intensified charge-coupled device camera, and (2) absorption measurements using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The etching characteristics are discussed in relation to the spatial distributions of the species involved. The etch rate depended considerably on the distance between the plasma and the substrate. Some radicals generated from the feed gases reached the substrate directly, while other radicals recombined into different species, which reached the substrate. An abundance of HF molecules were produced through a reaction between radicals generated by the atmospheric pressure discharge of NF{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O. From these measurements, it has been found that the HF molecules generated played a role in producing the high etch rate of SiO{sub 2} and high etch selectivity of SiO{sub 2}/Si.

  9. Trace element analysis of Texas lignite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahar, Sean

    1982-01-01

    , were discharged as gases. As, Cd, Cu, Ga, Mo, Pb, Se, and Zn were concentrated in the fly ash no't collected by the pre- cipitator and discharged through the stack. Al, Ba, CA, Ce. Co, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Mg, Mn, Rb, Sc, Si, Sm, Sr, Ta, Th, and Ti..., Ge, Hf, I, K, La, Li, Na, Nb, P, Pd, Pt, S, Sc, Si, Sr, Ta, Te, Th, Ti, H, W, and Zr are included in Tables 15-19. These elements are extra, as they were not desired for the intended research, but analysis was made as a matter of course, so...

  10. Isotopic abundance in atom trap trace analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Zheng-Tian; Hu, Shiu-Ming; Jiang, Wei; Mueller, Peter

    2014-03-18

    A method and system for detecting ratios and amounts of isotopes of noble gases. The method and system is constructed to be able to measure noble gas isotopes in water and ice, which helps reveal the geological age of the samples and understand their movements. The method and system uses a combination of a cooled discharge source, a beam collimator, a beam slower and magneto-optic trap with a laser to apply resonance frequency energy to the noble gas to be quenched and detected.

  11. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 118 (2003) 113124 An automated sampler for collection of atmospheric trace gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehleringer, Jim

    2003-01-01

    . © 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: CO2; Carbon dioxide; Stable isotopes for personnel to be present at remote field sites for sample collection. In practice, this has limited sampling air samples in remote areas. The sampler was designed with the primary goal of collecting samples

  12. Observations of Exoplanet Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crossfield, Ian J M

    2015-01-01

    Detailed characterization of an extrasolar planet's atmosphere provides the best hope for distinguishing the makeup of its outer layers, and the only hope for understanding the interplay between initial composition, chemistry, dynamics & circulation, and disequilibrium processes. In recent years, some areas have seen rapid progress while developments in others have come more slowly and/or have been hotly contested. This article gives an observer's perspective on the current understanding of extrasolar planet atmospheres prior to the considerable advances expected from the next generation of observing facilities. Atmospheric processes of both transiting and directly-imaged planets are discussed, including molecular and atomic abundances, cloud properties, thermal structure, and planetary energy budgets. In the future we can expect a continuing and accelerating stream of new discoveries, which will fuel the ongoing exoplanet revolution for many years to come.

  13. Trace element concentrations in melanotic swine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, R.M.; Parkinson, T.F.; Veit, H.P.

    1983-10-01

    A number of investigations have been made on the role of certain trace elements in oncogenesis. In prior work, it was found that manganese and zinc concentrations in human skin cancers differed markedly from the values in normal tissue./sub 1/ The purpose of the present research was to determine trace element concentrations in skin and other tissues of normal and melanotic miniature swine. In-vivo determinations of skin tissue were carried out using x-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) while tissue biopsies were measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). If significant differences between normal and cancerous skin tissues can be established, the former method should prove valuable as a rapid noninvasive diagnostic method.

  14. Trace anomaly of the conformal gauge field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sladkowski, J

    1993-01-01

    The proposed by Bastianelli and van Nieuwenhuizen new method of calculations of trace anomalies is applied in the conformal gauge field case. The result is then reproduced by the heat equation method. An error in previous calculation is corrected. It is pointed out that the introducing gauge symmetries into a given system by a field-enlarging transformation can result in unexpected quantum effects even for trivial configurations.

  15. Overview of the United States Department of Energy's ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stokes, G.M. ); Tichler, J.L. )

    1990-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is initiating a major atmospheric research effort, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM). The program is a key component of DOE's research strategy to address global climate change and is a direct continuation of DOE's decade-long effort to improve the ability of General Circulation Models (GCMs) to provide reliable simulations of regional, and long-term climate change in response to increasing greenhouse gases. The effort is multi-disciplinary and multi-agency, involving universities, private research organizations and more than a dozen government laboratories. The objective of the ARM Research is to provide an experimental testbed for the study of important atmospheric effects, particularly cloud and radiative processes, and to test parameterizations of these processes for use in atmospheric models. This effort will support the continued and rapid improvement of GCM predictive capability. 2 refs.

  16. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental study of the effect of atmospheric pressure on the ice point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey, A. H. [Thermophysical Properties Division National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado (United States)] [Thermophysical Properties Division National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado (United States); McLinden, M. O. [Thermophysical Properties Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado (United States)] [Thermophysical Properties Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Tew, W. L. [Sensor Science Division National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States)] [Sensor Science Division National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States)

    2013-09-11

    We present a detailed thermodynamic analysis of the temperature of the ice point as a function of atmospheric pressure. This analysis makes use of accurate international standards for the properties of water and ice, and of available high-accuracy data for the Henry's constants of atmospheric gases in liquid water. The result is an ice point of 273.150 019(5) K at standard atmospheric pressure, with higher ice-point temperatures (varying nearly linearly with pressure) at lower pressures. The effect of varying ambient CO{sub 2} concentration is analyzed and found to be significant in comparison to other uncertainties in the model. The thermodynamic analysis is compared with experimental measurements of the temperature difference between the ice point and the triple point of water performed at elevations ranging from 145 m to 4302 m, with atmospheric pressures from 101 kPa to 60 kPa.

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  18. Autumn 2012 Atmospheric Circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doty, Sharon Lafferty

    wind, and accumulated precipitation at a designated city. Forecasts are made over a two-week period Department 1 The UW Atmospheric Sciences spring forecast contest has been an annual tradition there will be a marine push or a convergence zone wrecking their forecast for maximum temperature and precipitation

  19. Laboratory for Atmospheric and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics Activity Report 2013 University of Colorado at Boulder from the Naval Research Center and the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory (now the Phillips Laboratory), the University of Colorado formed a research group called the Upper Air Laboratory (UAL

  20. Laboratory for Atmospheric and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics Activity Report 2012 University of Colorado at Boulder from the Naval Research Center and the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory (now the Phillips Laboratory), the University of Colorado formed a research group called the Upper Air Laboratory (UAL

  1. Laboratory for Atmospheric and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics Activity Report 2008 University of Colorado at Boulder, Jet Propulsion Laboratory) LASP: A Brief History In 1946-47, a handful of American universities joined Laboratory (now the Phillips Laboratory), the University of Colorado formed a research group called the Upper

  2. Laboratory for Atmospheric and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    1 Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics Activity Report 2010 University of Colorado from the Na- val Research Center and the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory (now the Phillips Laboratory), the University of Colorado formed a research group called the Upper Air Laboratory (UAL

  3. Nonperturbative Predictions for Cold Atom Bose Gases with Tunable Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Fred; Chien, Chih-Chun; Mihaila, Bogdan; Timmermans, Eddy; Dawson, John F.

    2010-12-10

    We derive a theoretical description for dilute Bose gases as a loop expansion in terms of composite-field propagators by rewriting the Lagrangian in terms of auxiliary fields related to the normal and anomalous densities. We demonstrate that already in leading order this nonperturbative approach describes a large interval of coupling-constant values, satisfies Goldstone's theorem, yields a Bose-Einstein transition that is second order, and is consistent with the critical temperature predicted in the weak-coupling limit by the next-to-leading-order large-N expansion.

  4. An Effective Method of Accelerating Bose Gases Using Magnetic Coils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Haichang; Zhai, Yueyang; Pan, Ruizhi; Yang, Shifeng

    2014-07-23

    are settled around an ultra-vacuum glass container on a cop- per supporter that can be cooled by water. To prevent the eddy current in the copper frame when being ener- gized, some crucial parts in the holder are fabricated with gaps. The potential energy... the relationship of different current supply and delay time versus the ultimate velocity of the atom,we theoretically predict the method of accelerating the gases to an expected velocity. This method is of great convenience and significance for the applications...

  5. Liquefaction and storage of thermal treatment off-gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stull, D.M. . Rocky Flats Plant); Golden, J.O. )

    1992-09-08

    A fluidized bed catalytic oxidation unit is being developed for use in the destruction of mixed waste at the Rocky Flats Plant. Cyclones, filters, in situ neutralization of acid gases, and a catalytic converter are used to meet emission standards. Because there is concern by the public that these measures may not be adequate, two off-gas capture systems were evaluated. Both systems involve liquefaction of carbon dioxide produced in the oxidation process. The carbon dioxide would be released only after analysis proved that all appropriate emission standards are met.

  6. Separation of gases through gas enrichment membrane composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swedo, Raymond J. (Mt. Prospect, IL); Kurek, Paul R. (Schaumburg, IL)

    1988-01-01

    Thin film composite membranes having as a permselective layer a film of a homopolymer of certain vinyl alkyl ethers are useful in the separation of various gases. Such homopolymers have a molecular weight of greater than 30,000 and the alkyl group of the vinyl alkyl monomer has from 4 to 20 carbon atoms with branching within the alkyl moiety at least at the carbon atom bonded to the ether oxygen or at the next adjacent carbon atom. These membranes show excellent hydrolytic stability, especially in the presence of acidic or basic gaseous components.

  7. Separation of gases through gas enrichment membrane composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swedo, R.J.; Kurek, P.R.

    1988-07-19

    Thin film composite membranes having as a permselective layer a film of a homopolymer of certain vinyl alkyl ethers are useful in the separation of various gases. Such homopolymers have a molecular weight of greater than 30,000 and the alkyl group of the vinyl alkyl monomer has from 4 to 20 carbon atoms with branching within the alkyl moiety at least at the carbon atom bonded to the ether oxygen or at the next adjacent carbon atom. These membranes show excellent hydrolytic stability, especially in the presence of acidic or basic gaseous components.

  8. Two-phase compressibility factors for retrograde gases 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rayes, Daniel George

    1989-01-01

    . K. , M Cain, W. D. , Jr. and Jennings, J. W. : "An Improved Method for the Determination of the Reservoir Specific Gravity for Retrograde Gases, " JPT (July 1989) 747-752. 7. Craft, B. C. and Hawkins, M. F. : A li P 1 m R rv ir En ine rin...). Variable Mean Standard Deviation Minimum Maximum H2S CO2 N2 CI C2 C3 IC4 NC4 IC5 NC5 C6 C7+ M. W. C7+ S. G. C7+ 1, 01840 0. 00997 0. 02545 0. 01840 0. 73233 0. 07584 0. 03948 0. 00859 0. 01482 0. 00611 0. 00637 0. 00857 0. 05404...

  9. Prospecting by sampling and analysis of airborne particulates and gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1984-05-01

    A method is claimed for prospecting by sampling airborne particulates or gases at a ground position and recording wind direction values at the time of sampling. The samples are subsequently analyzed to determine the concentrations of a desired material or the ratios of the desired material to other identifiable materials in the collected samples. By comparing the measured concentrations or ratios to expected background data in the vicinity sampled, one can select recorded wind directions indicative of the upwind position of the land-based source of the desired material.

  10. Hazardous Gases VASILIS M. FTHENAKIS Department of Applied Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journalvivo Low-DoseOptions for Accidental Releases of Hazardous Gases

  11. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowers forecastof Greenhouse Gases Program

  12. 1. Introduction to the relative trace formula Give an idea of the relative trace formula along any of the sources [CPS90,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ould Ahmedou, Mohameden

    1. Introduction to the relative trace formula Give an idea of the relative trace formula along any (91h:11042) [Jac05] Herv´e Jacquet, A guide to the relative trace formula, Automorphic representations2192826 (2006g:11100) [Lap10] Erez M. Lapid, Some applications of the trace formula and the relative trace

  13. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH: ATMOSPHERES, VOL. 118, 112, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50505, 2013 SO2 as a possible proxy for volcanic ash in aviation hazard avoidance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    gases such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, and sulphur dioxide into the atmosphere [Robock, 2000 accurately using satellite data, while sulphur dioxide is much easier to detect accurately, but is much less]. These eruptions can occur in remote locations which are not the focus of regular measurements, and the first

  14. Analyzing PICL trace data with MEDEA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merlo, A.P.; Worley, P.H.

    1994-04-01

    Execution traces and performance statistics can be collected for parallel applications on a variety of multiprocessor platforms by using the Portable Instrumented Communication Library (PICL). The static and dynamic performance characteristics of performance characteristics of performance data can be analyzed easily and effectively with the facilities provided within the MEasurements Description Evaluation and Analysis tool (MEDEA). A case study is then outlined that uses PICL and MEDEA to characterize the performance of a parallel benchmark code executed on different hardware platforms and using different parallel algorithms and communication protocols.

  15. Instantaneous and efficient surface wave excitation of a low pressure gas or gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levy, Donald J. (Berkeley, CA); Berman, Samuel M. (San Francisco, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A system for instantaneously ionizing and continuously delivering energy in the form of surface waves to a low pressure gas or mixture of low pressure gases, comprising a source of rf energy, a discharge container, (such as a fluorescent lamp discharge tube), an rf shield, and a coupling device responsive to rf energy from the source to couple rf energy directly and efficiently to the gas or mixture of gases to ionize at least a portion of the gas or gases and to provide energy to the gas or gases in the form of surface waves. The majority of the rf power is transferred to the gas or gases near the inner surface of the discharge container to efficiently transfer rf energy as excitation energy for at least one of the gases. The most important use of the invention is to provide more efficient fluorescent and/or ultraviolet lamps.

  16. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griesbach, O.A.; Stencel, J.R.

    1987-10-02

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The moisture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H/sub 2/ or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  17. Electron Stimulated Desorption of Condensed Gases on Cryogenic Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tratnik, H; Hilleret, Noël

    2005-01-01

    In ultra-high vacuum systems outgassing from vacuum chamber walls and desorption from surface adsorbates are usually the factors which in°uence pressure and residual gas composition. In particular in beam vacuum systems of accelerators like the LHC, where surfaces are exposed to intense synchro- tron radiation and bombardment by energetic ions and electrons, properties like the molecular desorption yield or secondary electron yield can strongly in°uence the performance of the accelerator. In high-energy particle accelerators operating at liquid helium temperature, cold surfaces are exposed to the bombardment of energetic photons, electrons and ions. The gases released by the subsequent desorption are re-condensed on the cold surfaces and can be re-desorbed by the impinging electrons and ions. The equilibrium coverage reached on the surfaces exposed to the impact of energetic particles depends on the desorption yield of the condensed gases and can a®ect the operation of the accelerator by modifying th...

  18. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

  19. Process for recovery of sulfur from acid gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Towler, Gavin P. (Kirkbymoorside, GB2); Lynn, Scott (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1995-01-01

    Elemental sulfur is recovered from the H.sub.2 S present in gases derived from fossil fuels by heating the H.sub.2 S with CO.sub.2 in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of a catalyst selected as one which enhances the thermal dissociation of H.sub.2 S to H.sub.2 and S.sub.2. The equilibrium of the thermal decomposition of H.sub.2 S is shifted by the equilibration of the water-gas-shift reaction so as to favor elemental sulfur formation. The primary products of the overall reaction are S.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. Small amounts of COS, SO.sub.2 and CS.sub.2 may also form. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture results in a substantial increase in the efficiency of the conversion of H.sub.2 S to elemental sulfur. Plant economy is further advanced by treating the product gases to remove byproduct carbonyl sulfide by hydrolysis, which converts the COS back to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S. Unreacted CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H.sub.2 and CO, which has value either as a fuel or as a chemical feedstock and recovers the hydrogen value from the H.sub.2 S.

  20. Dark resonances for ground state transfer of molecular quantum gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manfred J. Mark; Johann G. Danzl; Elmar Haller; Mattias Gustavsson; Nadia Bouloufa; Olivier Dulieu; Houssam Salami; Tom Bergeman; Helmut Ritsch; Russell Hart; Hanns-Christoph Nägerl

    2008-11-05

    One possible way to produce ultracold, high-phase-space-density quantum gases of molecules in the rovibronic ground state is given by molecule association from quantum-degenerate atomic gases on a Feshbach resonance and subsequent coherent optical multi-photon transfer into the rovibronic ground state. In ultracold samples of Cs_2 molecules, we observe two-photon dark resonances that connect the intermediate rovibrational level |v=73,J=2> with the rovibrational ground state |v=0,J=0> of the singlet $X^1\\Sigma_g^+$ ground state potential. For precise dark resonance spectroscopy we exploit the fact that it is possible to efficiently populate the level |v=73,J=2> by two-photon transfer from the dissociation threshold with the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) technique. We find that at least one of the two-photon resonances is sufficiently strong to allow future implementation of coherent STIRAP transfer of a molecular quantum gas to the rovibrational ground state |v=0,J=0>.

  1. Atmospheric Chemistry Theodore S. Dibble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dibble, Theodore

    SYLLABUS FOR Atmospheric Chemistry FCH 511 Fall 2014 Theodore S. Dibble Professor of Chemistry 421 in Required Text Seinfeld, J. H. and Pandis, S. N. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution nineteenth year at ESF, and my seventeenth year teaching FCH 511 (Atmospheric Chemistry). I have done a lot

  2. Atmospheric chemistry of an Antarctic volcanic plume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    L. , et al. (2010), Atmospheric chemistry results from theI. , et al. (2006), Atmospheric chemistry of a 33 – 34 hourvolcanic eruptions on atmospheric chemistry, Chem. Geol. ,

  3. TAPAS, a web-based service of atmospheric transmission computation for astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertaux, J L; Ferron, S; Boone, C; Bodichon, R

    2013-01-01

    Spectra of astronomical targets acquired from ground-based instruments are affected by the atmospheric transmission. The authors and their institutes are developing a web-based service, TAPAS (Transmissions of the AtmosPhere for AStromomical data). This service, freely available, is developed and maintained within the atmospheric ETHER data center. TAPAS computes the atmospheric transmission in the line-of-sight to the target indicated by the user. The user files a request indicating the time, ground location, and either the equatorial coordinates of the target or the Zenith Angle of the line-of sight (LOS). The actual atmospheric profile (temperature, pressure, humidity, ozone content) at that time and place is retrieved from the ETHER atmospheric data base (from a combination of ECMWF meteorological field and other informations), and the atmospheric transmission is computed from LBLRTM software and HITRAN data base for a number of gases: O2, H2O, O3, CO2, and Rayleigh extinction. The first purpose of TAPAS ...

  4. Workshop on L-functions and Trace Formula - Department of ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    $author.value

    A working workshop, aimed at reporting the latest progress on the subject. ... of spectral terms in what I called the stabilization of the (hypothetical) r-trace formula

  5. TRACE IDENTIFICATION OF CESIUM AND SODIUM IN NEUTRAL BEAM RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruby, L.

    2010-01-01

    TRACE IDENTIFICATION OF CESIUM AND Lawrence Ruby LawrenceBerkeley, California 94720 Cesium and sodium in vapor formthe extent to which the cesium and sodium migrate in the

  6. Trace-Element Distribution In An Active Hydrothermal System,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    trace-element dispersion patterns. Multielement analyses of surface rock samples, soil samples and drill cuttings from deep exploration wells provide a three-dimensional...

  7. Tracing Technologies: Prisoners' Views in the Era of CSI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, SA

    2013-01-01

    Tracing Technologies: Prisoners’ Views in the Era of CSI.Studies, they argue that prisoners have ‘professionalinterview study of Austrian prisoners. The study design was

  8. Potential trace element emissions from the gasification of Illinois...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the gasification of Illinois coals. Duplicate determinations of 34 elements in coal and ash samples Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Potential trace element emissions...

  9. Magnetic Field Line Tracing Calculations for Conceptual PFC Design...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Magnetic Field Line Tracing Calculations for Conceptual PFC Design in the National Compact Stellarator Experiment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetic...

  10. ARM Carbon Cycle Gases Flasks at SGP Site

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Biraud, Sebastien

    2013-03-26

    Data from flasks are sampled at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program ARM, Southern Great Plains Site and analyzed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA, Earth System Research Laboratory ESRL. The SGP site is included in the NOAA Cooperative Global Air Sampling Network. The surface samples are collected from a 60 m tower at the ARM SGP Central Facility, usually once per week in the afternoon. The aircraft samples are collected approximately weekly from a chartered aircraft, and the collection flight path is centered over the tower where the surface samples are collected. The samples are collected by the ARM and LBNL Carbon Project.

  11. ARM Carbon Cycle Gases Flasks at SGP Site

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Biraud, Sebastien

    Data from flasks are sampled at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program ARM, Southern Great Plains Site and analyzed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA, Earth System Research Laboratory ESRL. The SGP site is included in the NOAA Cooperative Global Air Sampling Network. The surface samples are collected from a 60 m tower at the ARM SGP Central Facility, usually once per week in the afternoon. The aircraft samples are collected approximately weekly from a chartered aircraft, and the collection flight path is centered over the tower where the surface samples are collected. The samples are collected by the ARM and LBNL Carbon Project.

  12. Final report on activities and findings under DOE grant “Interactive Photochemistry in Earth System Models to Assess Uncertainty in Ozone and Greenhouse Gases”

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prather, Michael J.

    2014-11-07

    Atmospheric chemistry controls the abundances and hence climate forcing of important greenhouse gases including N2O, CH4, HFCs, CFCs, and O3. Attributing climate change to human activities requires, at a minimum, accurate models of the chemistry and circulation of the atmosphere that relate emissions to abundances. This DOE-funded research provided realistic, yet computationally optimized and affordable, photochemical modules to the Community Earth System Model (CESM) that augment the CESM capability to explore the uncertainty in future stratospheric-tropospheric ozone, stratospheric circulation, and thus the lifetimes of chemically controlled greenhouse gases from climate simulations. To this end, we have successfully implemented Fast-J (radiation algorithm determining key chemical photolysis rates) and Linoz v3.0 (linearized photochemistry for interactive O3, N2O, NOy and CH4) packages in LLNL-CESM and for the first time demonstrated how change in O2 photolysis rate within its uncertainty range can significantly impact on the stratospheric climate and ozone abundances. From the UCI side, this proposal also helped LLNL develop a CAM-Superfast Chemistry model that was implemented for the IPCC AR5 and contributed chemical-climate simulations to CMIP5.

  13. ARM - Atmospheric Heat Budget

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016Study (CHAPS)Archive CampaignListAtmospheric Heat

  14. ARM - Atmospheric Pressure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016Study (CHAPS)Archive CampaignListAtmospheric

  15. Atmospheric PSF Interpolation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby a contractor ofvarDOE PAGES11 PPPL-Atmospheric PSF

  16. Stable microwave coaxial cavity plasma system at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80918 (United States); Hong, J. M.; Lee, K. H. [Plasma Systems and Materials (PSM) Inc., Sungnam-Si, Gyonggi-Do 190-1 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, J. J. [Department of Radio Science and Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 447-1 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    We present a systematic study of the development of a novel atmospheric microwave plasma system for material processing in the pressure range up to 760 torr and the microwave input power up to 6 kW. Atmospheric microwave plasma was reliably produced and sustained by using a cylindrical resonator with the TM{sub 011} cavity mode. The applicator and the microwave cavity, which is a cylindrical resonator, are carefully designed and optimized with the time dependent finite element Maxwell equation solver. The azimuthal apertures are placed at the maximum magnetic field positions between the cavity and the applicator to maximize the coupling efficiency into the microwave plasma at a resonant frequency of 2.45 GHz. The system consists of a magnetron power supply, a circulator, a directional coupler, a three-stub tuner, a dummy load, a coaxial cavity, and a central cavity. Design and construction of the resonant structures and diagnostics of atmospheric plasma using optical experiments are discussed in various ranges of pressure and microwave input power for different types of gases.

  17. Finite-size energy of non-interacting Fermi gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Gebert

    2014-06-14

    We prove the asymptotics of the difference of the ground-state energies of two non-interacting $N$-particle Fermi gases on the half line of length $L$ in the thermodynamic limit up to order $1/L$. We are particularly interested in subdominant terms proportional to $1/L$, called finite-size energy. In the nineties Affleck and co-authors [Aff97, ZA97, AL94] claimed that the finite-size energy equals the decay exponent occuring in Anderson's orthogonality catastrophe. It turns out that the finite-size energy depends on the details of the thermodynamic limit and typically also includes a linear term in the scattering phase shift.

  18. Elliptic flow and nearly perfect fluidity in dilute Fermi gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schaefer

    2010-12-16

    In this contribution we summarize recent progress in understanding the shear viscosity of strongly correlated dilute Fermi gases. We discuss predictions from kinetic theory, and show how these predictions can be tested using recent experimental data on elliptic flow. We find agreement between theory and experiments in the high temperature regime $T\\gg T_F$, where $T_F$ is the the temperature where quantum degeneracy effects become important. In the low temperature regime, $T\\sim T_F$, the strongest constraints on the shear viscosity come from experimental studies of the damping of collective modes. These experiments indicate that $\\eta/s\\lsim 0.5\\hbar/k_B$, where $\\eta$ is the shear viscosity and $s$ is the entropy density.

  19. Wave speeds in the macroscopic extended model for ultrarelativistic gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borghero, F.; Demontis, F.; Pennisi, S.

    2013-11-15

    Equations determining wave speeds for a model of ultrarelativistic gases are investigated. This model is already present in literature; it deals with an arbitrary number of moments and it was proposed in the context of exact macroscopic approaches in Extended Thermodynamics. We find these results: the whole system for the determination of the wave speeds can be divided into independent subsystems which are expressed by linear combinations, through scalar coefficients, of tensors all of the same order; some wave speeds, but not all of them, are expressed by square roots of rational numbers; finally, we prove that these wave speeds for the macroscopic model are the same of those furnished by the kinetic model.

  20. The exponent in the orthogonality catastrophe for Fermi gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Gebert; Heinrich Küttler; Peter Müller; Peter Otte

    2015-06-15

    We quantify the asymptotic vanishing of the ground-state overlap of two non-interacting Fermi gases in $d$-dimensional Euclidean space in the thermodynamic limit. Given two one-particle Schr\\"odinger operators in finite-volume which differ by a compactly supported bounded potential, we prove a power-law upper bound on the ground-state overlap of the corresponding non-interacting $N$-particle systems. We interpret the decay exponent $\\gamma$ in terms of scattering theory and find $\\gamma = \\pi^{-2}{\\lVert\\arcsin{\\lvert T_E/2\\rvert}\\rVert}_{\\mathrm{HS}}^2$, where $T_E$ is the transition matrix at the Fermi energy $E$. This exponent reduces to the one predicted by Anderson [Phys. Rev. 164, 352-359 (1967)] for the exact asymptotics in the special case of a repulsive point-like perturbation.

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging with hyper-polarized noble gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, D.M.; George, J.S.; Penttila, S.I.; Caprihan, A.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a six-month, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The nuclei of noble gases can be hyper polarized through a laser-driven spin exchange to a degree many orders of magnitude larger than that attainable by thermal polarization without requiring a strong magnetic field. The increased polarization from the laser pumping enables a good nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal from a gas. The main goal of this project was to demonstrate diffusion-weighted imaging of such hyper-polarized noble gas with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Possible applications include characterizing porosity of materials and dynamically imaging pressure distributions in biological or acoustical systems.

  2. Noble gases and cosmogenic radionuclides in the Eltanin Pacific meteorite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogard, D D; Garrison, D H; Caffee, M W; Kyte, F; Nishiizumi, K

    2000-01-14

    A 1.5 cm long, 1.2 g specimen of the Eltanin meteorite was found at 10.97 m depth in Polarstern piston core PS2704-1. The early studies indicated that the small fragments of the Eltanin meteorite was debris from a km-sized asteroid which impacted into the deep-ocean basin. In this study, the authors measured {sup 39}Ar-{sup 40}Ar age, noble gases, and cosmogenic radionuclides in splits of specimen as a part of consortium studies of Eltanin meteorite. They concluded that the specimen was about 3 m deep from the asteroid surface. The exposure age of the Eltanin asteroid was about 20 Myr.

  3. Free Energies of Dilute Bose gases: upper bound

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun Yin

    2010-12-19

    We derive a upper bound on the free energy of a Bose gas system at density $\\rho$ and temperature $T$. In combination with the lower bound derived previously by Seiringer \\cite{RS1}, our result proves that in the low density limit, i.e., when $a^3\\rho\\ll 1$, where $a$ denotes the scattering length of the pair-interaction potential, the leading term of $\\Delta f$ the free energy difference per volume between interacting and ideal Bose gases is equal to $4\\pi a (2\\rho^2-[\\rho-\\rhoc]^2_+)$. Here, $\\rhoc(T)$ denotes the critical density for Bose-Einstein condensation (for the ideal gas), and $[\\cdot ]_+$ $=$ $\\max\\{\\cdot, 0\\}$ denotes the positive part.

  4. Loschmidt echo in one-dimensional interacting Bose gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lelas, K.; Seva, T.; Buljan, H.

    2011-12-15

    We explore Loschmidt echo in two regimes of one-dimensional interacting Bose gases: the strongly interacting Tonks-Girardeau (TG) regime, and the weakly interacting mean-field regime. We find that the Loschmidt echo of a TG gas decays as a Gaussian when small (random and time independent) perturbations are added to the Hamiltonian. The exponent is proportional to the number of particles and the magnitude of a small perturbation squared. In the mean-field regime the Loschmidt echo shows richer behavior: it decays faster for larger nonlinearity, and the decay becomes more abrupt as the nonlinearity increases; it can be very sensitive to the particular realization of the noise potential, especially for relatively small nonlinearities.

  5. Catalytic process for removing toxic gases from gas streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baglio, J.A.; Gaudet, G.G.; Palilla, F.C.

    1983-02-22

    A multi-stage process for reducing the content of sulfurcontaining gases-notably hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide-in waste gas streams is provided. In the first stage, the gas stream is passed through a reaction zone at a temperature between about 150 and 350/sup 0/C in the presence of a pretreated novel catalyst of the formula xLn/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in which Ln is yttrium or a rare earth element and T is cobalt, iron or nickel, and each of x and y is independently a number from 0 to 3, said catalyst being substantially non-crystalline and having a surface area of from about 10 m/sup 2//g to about 40 m/sup 2//g. The preferred catalyst is one in which Ln is lanthanum, T is cobalt, and x and y range from 1 to 3, including non-integers. The first stage yields a product stream having a reduced content of sulfur-containing gases, including specifically, substantial reduction of carbonyl sulfide and virtual elimination of carbon disulfide. An intermediate stage is a claus reaction, which may take place in one or more reaction zones, at temperatures less than about 130/sup 0/ C, in the presence of known catalysts such as bauxite, alumina or cobalt molybdates. The final stage is the air oxidation of hydrogen sulfide at a temperature between about 150 and 300/sup 0/ C in the presence of a catalyst usable in first stage.

  6. Can the trace formula describe weak localisation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert S. Whitney; Igor V. Lerner; Robert A. Smith

    1999-02-24

    We attempt to systematically derive perturbative quantum corrections to the Berry diagonal approximation of the two-level correlation function (TLCF) for chaotic systems. To this end, we develop a ``weak diagonal approximation'' based on a recent description of the first weak localisation correction to conductance in terms of the Gutzwiller trace formula. This semiclassical method is tested by using it to derive the weak localisation corrections to the TLCF for a semiclassically disordered system. Unfortunately the method is unable to correctly reproduce the ``Hikami boxes'' (the relatively small regions where classical paths are glued together by quantum processes). This results in the method failing to reproduce the well known weak localisation expansion. It so happens that for the first order correction it merely produces the wrong prefactor. However for the second order correction, it is unable to reproduce certain contributions, and leads to a result which is of a different form to the standard one.

  7. Holographic Trace Anomaly and Local Renormalization Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Srivatsan; Zhu, Yechao

    2015-01-01

    The Hamilton-Jacobi method in holography has produced important results both at a renormalization group (RG) fixed point and away from it. In this paper we use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to compute the holographic trace anomaly for four- and six-dimensional boundary conformal field theories (CFTs), assuming higher-derivative gravity and interactions of scalar fields in the bulk. The scalar field contributions to the anomaly appear in CFTs with exactly marginal operators. Moving away from the fixed point, we show that the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism provides a deep connection between the holographic and the local RG. We derive the local RG equation holographically, and verify explicitly that it satisfies Weyl consistency conditions stemming from the commutativity of Weyl scalings. We also consider massive scalar fields in the bulk corresponding to boundary relevant operators, and comment on their effects to the local RG equation.

  8. Holographic Trace Anomaly and Local Renormalization Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivatsan Rajagopal; Andreas Stergiou; Yechao Zhu

    2015-08-19

    The Hamilton-Jacobi method in holography has produced important results both at a renormalization group (RG) fixed point and away from it. In this paper we use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to compute the holographic trace anomaly for four- and six-dimensional boundary conformal field theories (CFTs), assuming higher-derivative gravity and interactions of scalar fields in the bulk. The scalar field contributions to the anomaly appear in CFTs with exactly marginal operators. Moving away from the fixed point, we show that the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism provides a deep connection between the holographic and the local RG. We derive the local RG equation holographically, and verify explicitly that it satisfies Weyl consistency conditions stemming from the commutativity of Weyl scalings. We also consider massive scalar fields in the bulk corresponding to boundary relevant operators, and comment on their effects to the local RG equation.

  9. Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects Within The Frame Of Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerlich, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that authors trace back to the traditional works of Fourier 1824, Tyndall 1861 and Arrhenius 1896 and is still supported in global climatology essentially describes a fictitious mechanism in which a planetary atmosphere acts as a heat pump driven by an environment that is radiatively interacting with but radiatively equilibrated to the atmospheric system. According to the second law of thermodynamics such a planetary machine can never exist. Nevertheless, in almost all texts of global climatology and in a widespread secondary literature it is taken for granted that such mechanism is real and stands on a firm scientific foundation. In this paper the popular conjecture is analyzed and the underlying physical principles are clarified. By showing that (a) there are no common physical laws between the warming phenomenon in glass houses and the fictitious atmospheric greenhouse effects, (b) there are no calculations to determine an average surface temperature of a planet, ...

  10. Abstract--Airborne pollution and explosive gases threaten human health and occupational safety, therefore generating high

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mason, Andrew

    Abstract--Airborne pollution and explosive gases threaten human health and occupational safety and a thumb-drive sized prototype system. I. INTRODUCTION xposure to air pollution consistently ranks among to occupational safety as energy demands rise. Airborne pollutants and explosive gases vary in both time and space

  11. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series 70. Solubility of Gases in Glassy Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magee, Joseph W.

    IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series 70. Solubility of Gases in Glassy Polymers Volume Editors Russell Synthesis, Moscow, Russia Received December 11, 1998 Solubility of gases in polymers is an important in polymers is a fun- damental concern in such areas as food packaging, beverage storage, and polymer pro

  12. Fluctuations and State Preparation in Quantum Degenerate Gases of Sodium and Lithium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fluctuations and State Preparation in Quantum Degenerate Gases of Sodium and Lithium by Edward Su and State Preparation in Quantum Degenerate Gases of Sodium and Lithium by Edward Su Submitted- periments with sodium and lithium in optical lattices. We describe progress towards the implementation

  13. Title of Dissertation: HIGH POWER NONLINEAR PROPAGATION OF LASER PULSES IN TENUOUS GASES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    ABSTRACT Title of Dissertation: HIGH POWER NONLINEAR PROPAGATION OF LASER PULSES IN TENUOUS GASES gas focusing, is observed. For even higher powers, the laser pulse is partially trapped by the plasma laser pulses in tenuous gases is studied. The dynamics of these pulses will be affected by nonlinear

  14. Bromocarbons in the tropical coastal and open ocean atmosphere during the 2009 Prime Expedition Scientific Cruise (PESC-09)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohd Nadzir, M. S.; Phang, S. M.; Abas, M. R.; Abdul Rahman, N.; Abu Samah, A.; Sturges, W. T.; Oram, D. E.; Mills, G. P.; Leedham, E. C.; Pyle, J. A.; Harris, N. R. P.; Robinson, A. D.; Ashfold, M. J.; Mead, M. I.; Latif, M. T.; Khan, M. F.; Amiruddin, A. M.; Banan, N.; Hanafiah, M. M.

    2014-08-14

    Cl). Biogenic emissions from the oceans have been identified as one of the main natu- ral sources where organisms such as macroalgae (seaweeds) and microalgae (phytoplankton) can release large quanti- ties of halocarbon gases into the atmosphere (Sturges et al... seaweed biomass, with cultivated Kappaphycus and Eucheuma at Semporna, and Sargassum and other brown algae at Kunak. Samples 17 and 21 had slightly elevated levels of C2Cl4, suggesting a possible influence from local anthropogenic sources. Pyle et al...

  15. HANKEL OPERATORS AND THE DIXMIER TRACE ON STRICTLY PSEUDOCONVEX DOMAINS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Genkai

    = [Tf2 , Tf1 ] . . . [Tf2n , Tf2n-1 ] is never trace-class if n > 1. 1991 Mathematics Subject research plan no. MSM4781305904, and the Swedish Research Council (VR). Typeset by AMS-TEX 1 #12;2 M) to the unit ball Bn , n > 1, in a different direction -- using the Dixmier trace. This may be notable

  16. Coherent Ray Tracing for Complex Light Transport Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    soft shadows from area light sources, large ray packets for real-time Whitted ray tracing, and adaptive lighting, depth of field, motion blur, and diffuse inter-reflections. This is an adaptive Monte CarloCoherent Ray Tracing for Complex Light Transport Effects Ryan S. Overbeck Advised by: Ravi

  17. ANIMAL TRACING: BENEFITS IN CATTLE INDUSTRY AND PRIVATE INCENTIVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    ANIMAL TRACING: BENEFITS IN CATTLE INDUSTRY AND PRIVATE INCENTIVES LEVAN ELBAKIDZE Assistant are those of the author and not necessarily the sponsor." #12;ANIMAL TRACING: BENEFITS IN CATTLE INDUSTRY major economic damages in the cattle industry. One of the strategies to mitigate potential outbreak

  18. Tracing Cattle Breeds with Principal Components Analysis Ancestry Informative SNPs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paschou, Peristera

    Tracing Cattle Breeds with Principal Components Analysis Ancestry Informative SNPs Jamey Lewis1 that can be used to trace the breed of unknown cattle samples. Taking advantage of the power of Principal the origin of individual cattle. In doing so, we present a thorough examination of population genetic

  19. Role of metastable atoms in the propagation of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Qing; Zhu Ximing; Li Jiangtao; Pu Yikang [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-02-15

    In the experiment of plasma jets generated in a tube dielectric barrier discharge configuration, three distinguishable modes, namely, laminar, transition, and turbulent jet modes, have been identified. Flows of helium, neon, and argon gases shared the hydrodynamic law when their plasma jets spraying into ambient air of atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Aiming to reveal the basic processes, we propose that plasma jet length is mainly determined by reactions involving metastable atoms. These processes are responsible for the variation in plasma jet length versus gas flow rate and working gas species. To investigate this proposal in detail, we have obtained three significant experimental results, i.e., (1) the plasma jet lengths of helium, neon, and argon are different; (2) the plasma jet length of krypton slightly changes with gas flow rate, with three modes indistinguishable; and (3) there are large differences between optical emission spectra of helium, neon, argon, and krypton flow gases. These observations are in good agreement with our proposal.

  20. Quantifying Climate Feedbacks from Abrupt Changes in High-Latitude Trace-Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlosser, Courtney Adam; Walter-Anthony, Katey; Zhuang, Qianlai; Melillo, Jerry

    2013-04-26

    Our overall goal was to quantify the potential for threshold changes in natural emission rates of trace gases, particularly methane and carbon dioxide, from pan-arctic terrestrial systems under the spectrum of anthropogenically forced climate warming, and the extent to which these emissions provide a strong feedback mechanism to global climate warming. This goal is motivated under the premise that polar amplification of global climate warming will induce widespread thaw and degradation of the permafrost, and would thus cause substantial changes in the extent of wetlands and lakes, especially thermokarst (thaw) lakes, over the Arctic. Through a coordinated effort of field measurements, model development, and numerical experimentation with an integrated assessment model framework, we have investigated the following hypothesis: There exists a climate-warming threshold beyond which permafrost degradation becomes widespread and thus instigates strong and/or sharp increases in methane emissions (via thermokarst lakes and wetland expansion). These would outweigh any increased uptake of carbon (e.g. from peatlands) and would result in a strong, positive feedback to global climate warming.

  1. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. C. Kwon

    2006-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2} in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives using a monolithic catalyst reactor, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 40-560 seconds at 120-150 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperatures, total pressure, space time, and catalyst regeneration on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,600-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,800-2,000 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 23-27 v% hydrogen, 36-41 v% CO, 10-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 30-180 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-150 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is mai

  2. Trace Assessment for BWR ATWS Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, L.Y.; Diamond, D.; Arantxa Cuadra, Gilad Raitses, Arnold Aronson

    2010-04-22

    A TRACE/PARCS input model has been developed in order to be able to analyze anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) in a boiling water reactor. The model is based on one developed previously for the Browns Ferry reactor for doing loss-of-coolant accident analysis. This model was updated by adding the control systems needed for ATWS and a core model using PARCS. The control systems were based on models previously developed for the TRAC-B code. The PARCS model is based on information (e.g., exposure and moderator density (void) history distributions) obtained from General Electric Hitachi and cross sections for GE14 fuel obtained from an independent source. The model is able to calculate an ATWS, initiated by the closure of main steam isolation valves, with recirculation pump trip, water level control, injection of borated water from the standby liquid control system and actuation of the automatic depres-surization system. The model is not considered complete and recommendations are made on how it should be improved.

  3. Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a Solar + Earth Spectrum IR Absorbers Grey Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect #12;Radiation: Solar and Earth Surface B"(T) Planck Ideal Emission Integrate and it emits Note: heat balance Fvis( = Fout = Te 4 z #12;(simple Greenhouse cont.) 0 1 2 3 4 Ground Space Top

  4. Glass surface deactivants for sulfur-containing gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farwell, S.O.; Gluck, S.J.

    1980-10-01

    In gas chromatographic technique for measuring reduced sulfur-containing gases in biogenic air fluxes, the major problem seemed to be the irreversible adsorption of the polar sulfur compounds on the glass surfaces of the cryogenic sampling traps. This article discusses the comparative degrees of Pyrex glass surface passivation for over 25 chemical deactivants and their related pretreatment procedures. Since H/sub 2/S was discovered to be the sulfur compound with a consistently lower recovery efficiency than COS, CH/sub 3/SH, CH/sub 3/SCH, CS/sub 2/ or CH/sub 3/SSCH/sub 3/, the percent recovery for H/sub 2/S was employed as the indicator of effectiveness for the various deactivation treatments. Tables are presented summarizing the mean H/sub 2/S recoveries for chlorosilane deactivants and for the mean H/sub 2/S recoveries for different pyrex surface pretreatments with an octadecyltrialkoxysilane deactivation. The general conclusion of this investigation is that the relative degree of passivation for glass surfaces by present deactivation techniques is dependent on the types of analyzed compounds and the nature of the glass surface.

  5. Noble gases on metal surfaces: Insights on adsorption site preference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, De-Li; Al-Saidi, W. A.; Johnson, J. Karl

    2011-12-19

    We use a nonlocal van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) approach to reexamine the problem of why noble gases are experimentally observed to adsorb on low-coordination atop sites rather than on high-coordination hollow sites for several different metal surfaces. Previous calculations using density functional theory (DFT) within the local density approximation (LDA) ascribed the site preference to reduced Pauli repulsion at atop sites, largely due to reduced exchange repulsion within LDA-DFT. In contrast, our vdW-DF calculations show that site preference is not due to differences in the exchange repulsion at all, but rather the result of a delicate balance between the electrostatic and kinetic energies; surprisingly, exchange-correlation energies play a negligible role in determining site preference. In contrast to previous calculations, we find that experimental results cannot be explained in terms of binding energy differences between atop and hollow sites. Instead, we show that the hollow sites are transition states rather than minima on the two-dimensional potential energy surface, and therefore not likely to be observed in experiments. This phenomenon is quite general, holding for close-packed and non-close-packed metal surfaces. We show that inclusion of nonlocal vdW interactions is crucial for obtaining results in quantitative agreement with experiments for adsorption energies, equilibrium distances, and vibrational energies.

  6. On flame kernel formation and propagation in premixed gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisazadeh-Far, Kian; Metghalchi, Hameed [Northeastern University, Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Parsinejad, Farzan [Chevron Oronite Company LLC, Richmond, CA 94801 (United States); Keck, James C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Flame kernel formation and propagation in premixed gases have been studied experimentally and theoretically. The experiments have been carried out at constant pressure and temperature in a constant volume vessel located in a high speed shadowgraph system. The formation and propagation of the hot plasma kernel has been simulated for inert gas mixtures using a thermodynamic model. The effects of various parameters including the discharge energy, radiation losses, initial temperature and initial volume of the plasma have been studied in detail. The experiments have been extended to flame kernel formation and propagation of methane/air mixtures. The effect of energy terms including spark energy, chemical energy and energy losses on flame kernel formation and propagation have been investigated. The inputs for this model are the initial conditions of the mixture and experimental data for flame radii. It is concluded that these are the most important parameters effecting plasma kernel growth. The results of laminar burning speeds have been compared with previously published results and are in good agreement. (author)

  7. Process for removal of sulfur compounds from fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Raymond H. (Richland, WA); Stegen, Gary E. (Richland, WA)

    1978-01-01

    Fuel gases such as those produced in the gasification of coal are stripped of sulfur compounds and particulate matter by contact with molten metal salt. The fuel gas and salt are intimately mixed by passage through a venturi or other constriction in which the fuel gas entrains the molten salt as dispersed droplets to a gas-liquid separator. The separated molten salt is divided into a major and a minor flow portion with the minor flow portion passing on to a regenerator in which it is contacted with steam and carbon dioxide as strip gas to remove sulfur compounds. The strip gas is further processed to recover sulfur. The depleted, minor flow portion of salt is passed again into contact with the fuel gas for further sulfur removal from the gas. The sulfur depleted, fuel gas then flows through a solid absorbent for removal of salt droplets. The minor flow portion of the molten salt is then recombined with the major flow portion for feed to the venturi.

  8. In-Situ Microbial Conversion of Sequestered Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, M; Balin, D F

    2012-09-06

    The objectives of the project are to use microbiological in situ bioconversion technology to convert sequestered or naturally-occurring greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, into methane and other useful organic compounds. The key factors affecting coal bioconversion identified in this research include (1) coal properties, (2) thermal maturation and coalification process, (3) microbial population dynamics, (4) hydrodynamics (5) reservoir conditions, and (6) the methodology of getting the nutrients into the coal seams. While nearly all cultures produced methane, we were unable to confirm sustained methane production from the enrichments. We believe that the methane generation may have been derived from readily metabolized organic matter in the coal samples and/or biosoluble organic material in the coal formation water. This raises the intriguing possibility that pretreatment of the coal in the subsurface to bioactivate the coal prior to the injection of microbes and nutrients might be possible. We determined that it would be more cost effective to inject nutrients into coal seams to stimulate indigenous microbes in the coal seams, than to grow microbes in fermentation vats and transport them to the well site. If the coal bioconversion process can be developed on a larger scale, then the cost to generate methane could be less than $1 per Mcf

  9. Trace metal composition of suspended particulate matter in the water column of the Black Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, James W.

    Trace metal composition of suspended particulate matter in the water column of the Black Sea Ouz Keywords: Black Sea Geochemistry Biogeochemistry Biogeochemical cycle Trace metals Trace elements Tracers Particulates Suspended particulate matter Biogenic matter Biogenic material Plankton Planktonic metal

  10. Atmospheric science encompasses meteorology and climatology, as well as fields such as atmospheric chemistry and remote sensing.Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    chemistry and remote sensing.Atmospheric scientists apply physics, mathematics, and chemistry to understandAtmospheric science encompasses meteorology and climatology, as well as fields such as atmospheric the atmosphere and its interactions with land and sea. One of the goals of atmospheric science is to understand

  11. Dynamics of the solar chromosphere. V. High-frequency modulation in ultraviolet image sequences from TRACE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. G. de Wijn; R. J. Rutten; T. D. Tarbell

    2007-06-13

    We search for signatures of high-frequency oscillations in the upper solar photosphere and low chromosphere in the context of acoustic heating of outer stellar atmospheres. We use ultraviolet image sequences of a quiet center-disk area from the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) mission which were taken with strict cadence regularity. The latter permits more reliable high-frequency diagnosis than in earlier work. Spatial Fourier power maps, spatially averaged coherence and phase-difference spectra, and spatio-temporal k-f decompositions all contain high-frequency features that at first sight seem of considerable intrinsic interest but actually are more likely to represent artifacts of different nature. Spatially averaged phase difference measurement provides the most sensitive diagnostic and indicates the presence of acoustic modulation up to f=20 mHz (periods down to 50 seconds) in internetwork areas.

  12. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chappell, W R

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this research program is to understand the potential impact of an oil shale industry on environmental levels of trace contaminants in the region. The program involves a comprehensive study of the sources, release mechanisms, transport, fate, and effects of toxic trace chemicals, principally the trace elements, in an oil shale industry. The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by shale and oil production and use. The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, and Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements are not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. Many of the so-called standard methods for analyzing trace elements in oil shale-related materials are inadequate. A sampling manual is being written for the environmental scientist and practicing engineer. A new combination of methods is developed for separating the minerals in oil shale into different density fractions. Microbial investigations have tentatively identified the existence of thiobacilli in oil shale materials such as leachates. (DC)

  13. 5, 911936, 2005 Intercomparison of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    is of interest because ozone is one of the most important trace gases in the atmosphere. Ozone is a green house gas and provides shielding from UV ra- diation. Following the discovery of the ozone hole (Farman et

  14. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 14811490, 2011 www.atmos-meas-tech.net/4/1481/2011/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer on board the NASA Aura platform useful for identifying and quanti- fying trace atmospheric gases, among which are ozone, car- bon

  15. Ecosystem fluxes of hydrogen: a comparison of flux-gradient methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meredith, Laura Kelsey

    Our understanding of biosphere–atmosphere exchange has been considerably enhanced by eddy covariance measurements. However, there remain many trace gases, such as molecular hydrogen (H[subscript 2]), that lack suitable ...

  16. Reduced impact logging minimally alters tropical rainforest carbon and energy exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    Brazil | Amazon | land use | micrometeorology D eforestation in the tropics affects the land–atmosphere ex- change of trace gases and energyand energy (W·m ?2 ) ?uxes, calculated as (? = logged ? unlogged), in Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil.

  17. DIVISION OF MARINE AND ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyu, Mei-Ling

    DIVISION OF MARINE AND ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY The missions of the Division of Marine and Atmospheric Chemistry (MAC) are to carry out broadly based research on the chemistry of the atmosphere and marine and stratosphere. Atmospheric Chemistry Research activities in atmospheric chemistry and modeling are diverse

  18. The propagation of light pollution in the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cinzano, Pierantonio

    2012-01-01

    Methods to map artificial night sky brightness and stellar visibility across large territories or their distribution over the entire sky at any site are based on the computation of the propagation of light pollution with Garstang models, a simplified solution of the radiative transfer problem in the atmosphere which allows a fast computation by reducing it to a ray-tracing approach. We present here up-to-date Extended Garstang Models (EGM) which provide a more general numerical solution for the radiative transfer problem applied to the propagation of light pollution in the atmosphere. We also present the LPTRAN software package, an application of EGM to high-resolution DMSP-OLS satellite measurements of artificial light emissions and to GTOPO30 digital elevation data, which provides an up-to-date method to predict the artificial brightness distribution of the night sky at any site in the World at any visible wavelength for a broad range of atmospheric situations and the artificial radiation density in the atm...

  19. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for atomspheric trace gases: Catalog of data bases and reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtis, M.D.

    1995-04-01

    This document provides information about the many reports and other materials made available by the US Department of Energy`s Global Change Research Program (GCRP). Section A provides information about the activities, scope, and direction of the GCRP; Sections B,C, D, and E contain information about research that has been sponsered by GCRP; Sections F and G contains information about the numeric data packages and computer model pa kages the have been compiled by the GCRP; Section H describes reports about research dealing with the responses of vegetation to carbon dioxide; and Section I conatins reports from various workshops, symposia, and reviews.

  20. Surface interactions involved in flashover with high density electronegative gases.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, Keith Conquest; Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Wallace, Zachariah Red; Lehr, Jane Marie

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the interactions involved with flashover along a surface in high density electronegative gases. The focus is on fast ionization processes rather than the later time ionic drift or thermalization of the discharge. A kinetic simulation of the gas and surface is used to examine electron multiplication and includes gas collision, excitation and ionization, and attachment processes, gas photoionization and surface photoemission processes, as well as surface attachment. These rates are then used in a 1.5D fluid ionization wave (streamer) model to study streamer propagation with and without the surface in air and in SF6. The 1.5D model therefore includes rates for all these processes. To get a better estimate for the behavior of the radius we have studied radial expansion of the streamer in air and in SF6. The focus of the modeling is on voltage and field level changes (with and without a surface) rather than secondary effects, such as, velocities or changes in discharge path. An experiment has been set up to carry out measurements of threshold voltages, streamer velocities, and other discharge characteristics. This setup includes both electrical and photographic diagnostics (streak and framing cameras). We have observed little change in critical field levels (where avalanche multiplication sets in) in the gas alone versus with the surface. Comparisons between model calculations and experimental measurements are in agreement with this. We have examined streamer sustaining fields (field which maintains ionization wave propagation) in the gas and on the surface. Agreement of the gas levels with available literature is good and agreement between experiment and calculation is good also. Model calculations do not indicate much difference between the gas alone versus the surface levels. Experiments have identified differences in velocity between streamers on the surface and in the gas alone (the surface values being larger).

  1. Nonperturbative Effects on the Ferromagnetic Transition in Repulsive Fermi Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lianyi He; Xu-Guang Huang

    2012-04-26

    It is generally believed that a dilute spin-1/2 Fermi gas with repulsive interactions can undergo a ferromagnetic phase transition to a spin-polarized state at a critical gas parameter $(k_{\\rm F}a)_c$. Previous theoretical predictions of the ferromagnetic phase transition have been based on the perturbation theory, which treats the gas parameter as a small number. On the other hand, Belitz, Kirkpatrick, and Vojta (BKV) have argued that the phase transition in clean itinerant ferromagnets is generically of first order at low temperatures, due to the correlation effects that lead to a nonanalytic term in the free energy. The second-order perturbation theory predicts a first-order phase transition at $(k_{\\rm F}a)_c=1.054$, consistent with the BKV argument. However, since the critical gas parameter is expected to be of order O(1), perturbative predictions may be unreliable. In this paper we study the nonperturbative effects on the ferromagnetic phase transition by summing the particle-particle ladder diagrams to all orders in the gas parameter. We consider a universal repulsive Fermi gas where the effective range effects can be neglected, which can be realized in a two-component Fermi gas of $^6$Li atoms by using a nonadiabatic field switch to the upper branch of a Feshbach resonance with a positive s-wave scattering length. Our theory predicts a second-order phase transition, which indicates that ferromagnetic transition in dilute Fermi gases is possibly a counterexample to the BKV argument. The predicted critical gas parameter $(k_{\\rm F}a)_c=0.858$ is in good agreement with the recent quantum Monte Carlo result $(k_{\\rm F}a)_c=0.86$ for a nearly zero-range potential [S. Pilati, \\emph{et al}., Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 105}, 030405 (2010)]. We also compare the spin susceptibility with the quantum Monte Carlo result and find good agreement.

  2. Methods for separating oxygen from oxygen-containing gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mackay, Richard (Lafayette, CO); Schwartz, Michael (Boulder, CO); Sammells, Anthony F. (Boulder, CO)

    2000-01-01

    This invention provides mixed conducting metal oxides particularly useful for the manufacture of catalytic membranes for gas-phase oxygen separation processes. The materials of this invention have the general formula: A.sub.x A'.sub.x A".sub.2-(x+x') B.sub.y B'.sub.y B".sub.2-(y+y') O.sub.5+z ; where x and x' are greater than 0; y and y' are greater than 0; x+x' is less than or equal to 2; y+y' is less than or equal to 2; z is a number that makes the metal oxide charge neutral; A is an element selected from the f block lanthanide elements; A' is an element selected from Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; A" is an element selected from the f block lanthanides or Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; B is an element selected from the group consisting of Al, Ga, In or mixtures thereof; and B' and B" are different elements and are independently selected from the group of elements Mg or the d-block transition elements. The invention also provides methods for oxygen separation and oxygen enrichment of oxygen deficient gases which employ mixed conducting metal oxides of the above formula. Examples of the materials used for the preparation of the membrane include A.sub.x Sr.sub.x' B.sub.y Fe.sub.y' Co.sub.2-(y+y') O.sub.5+z, where x is about 0.3 to about 0.5, x' is about 1.5 to about 1.7, y is 0.6, y' is between about 1.0 and 1.4 and B is Ga or Al.

  3. L-?Functions and Trace Formula Workshop Schedule

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-05-11

    L-?Functions and Trace Formula Workshop Schedule. May 11 – May 13, 2015 at Purdue University. Monday, May 11. 9:15 am – 9:30 am: Casselman/Shahidi:.

  4. Tax Deduction Qualified Software: TRACE Version 6.3.2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides required documentation that the TRACE version 6.3.2 meets Internal Revenue Code §179D (c)(1) and (d) Regulations Notice 2006-52, Section 6 requirements as amplified by Notice 2008-40, Section 4 requirements.

  5. Trace formulas for fourth order operators on unit interval, II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrey Badanin; Evgeny Korotyaev

    2014-12-16

    We consider self-adjoint fourth order operators on the unit interval with the Dirichlet type boundary conditions. For such operators we determine few trace formulas, similar to the case of Gelfand--Levitan formulas for second order operators.

  6. Ichnotaxonomic assessment of Mazon Creek area trace fossils, Illinois, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LoBue, David J.

    2010-08-12

    The Francis Creek Shale Member (FCSM) of the Mid-Pennsylvanian Carbondale Formation along Mazon Creek in northern Illinois is known for soft-bodied organisms preserved within siderite concretions. Trace fossils, though ...

  7. TRACING FLUID SOURCES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM USING FLUID...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TRACING FLUID SOURCES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM USING FLUID-INCLUSION GAS CHEMISTRY Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings:...

  8. Vascular flora and gradient analysis of the Natchez Trace Parkway 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, Nena Mae Monique

    2009-06-02

    Vascular plant collections were made on the Natchez Trace Parkway over a 15 month period beginning in August 2004. These collections along with previous work done by the National Park Service (NPS) produced a flora of 750 ...

  9. Understanding reservoir mechanisms using phase and component streamline tracing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Sarwesh

    2009-05-15

    Conventionally streamlines are traced using total flux across the grid cell faces. The visualization of total flux streamlines shows the movement of flood, injector-producer relationship, swept area and movement of tracer. ...

  10. Rethinking Downstream Regulation: California's Opportunity to Engage Households in Reducing Greenhouse Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    greenhouse gases. Energy Policy (2008), doi:10.1016/j.rebound effect—a survey. Energy Policy 28 (6-7), 389–401.and climate policy. Energy Policy 32 (4), 481–491. Leiby,

  11. Kinetic modeling of nitric oxide removal from exhaust gases by Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chenanda, Cariappa Mudappa

    1993-01-01

    Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction is one of the most promising techniques for the removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion exhaust gases. These techniques are based on the injection of certain compounds, such as cyanuric acid and ammonia...

  12. Method and apparatus for separating mixtures of gases using an acoustic wave

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geller, Drew A.; Swift, Gregory W.; Backhaus, Scott N.

    2004-05-11

    A thermoacoustic device separates a mixture of gases. An elongated duct is provided with first and second ends and has a length that is greater than the wavelength of sound in the mixture of gases at a selected frequency, and a diameter that is greater than a thermal penetration depth in the mixture of gases. A first acoustic source is located at the first end of the duct to generate acoustic power at the selected frequency. A plurality of side branch acoustic sources are spaced along the length of the duct and are configured to introduce acoustic power into the mixture of gases so that a first gas is concentrated at the first end of the duct and a second gas is concentrated at the second end of the duct.

  13. Metal-organic frameworks with high capacity and selectivity for harmful gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    , MOF-199, and IRMOF-62, as selective adsorbents for eight harmful gases: sulfur dioxide, ammonia, chlorine, tetrahydrothiophene, benzene, dichloromethane, ethyl- ene oxide, and carbon monoxide. Kinetic breakthrough measure- ments are used to determine the calculated dynamic adsorption capacity of each

  14. Quantifying emissions of greenhouse gases from South Asia through a targeted measurement campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganesan, Anita Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N20) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) are powerful greenhouse gases with global budgets that are well-known but regional distributions that are not adequately constrained for the purposes of ...

  15. Quantum coherence and magnetism in bosonic and fermionic gases of ultracold atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jo, Gyu-Boong

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, two sets of experimental studies in bosonic and fermionic gases are described. In the first part of the thesis, itinerant ferromagnetism was studied in a strongly interacting Fermi gas of ultracold atoms. ...

  16. Biological sweetening of energy gases mimics in biotrickling filters Marc Fortuny a,c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Hydrogen sulfide; Gas sweetening; Biotrickling filter; Desulfurization; Fuel gas; Biogas 1. Introduction in energy-rich gases such as biogas from anaerobic digesters which may contain H2S concentrations exceeding

  17. Technique for identifying, tracing, or tracking objects in image data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Robert J. (Albuquerque, NM); Rothganger, Fredrick (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-08-28

    A technique for computer vision uses a polygon contour to trace an object. The technique includes rendering a polygon contour superimposed over a first frame of image data. The polygon contour is iteratively refined to more accurately trace the object within the first frame after each iteration. The refinement includes computing image energies along lengths of contour lines of the polygon contour and adjusting positions of the contour lines based at least in part on the image energies.

  18. Trace determination of lead by helium-4 activation analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vargas Bernal, Maria E.

    1984-01-01

    TRACE DETERMINATION OF LEAD BY HELIUM-4 ACTIVATION ANALYSIS A Thesis by MARIA E. VARGAS BERNAL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1984 Major Subject: Chemistry TRACE DETERMINATION OF LEAD BY HELIUM-4 ACTIVATION ANALYSIS A Thesis by MARIA E. VARGAS BERNAL Approved as to style and format by: Emile A. Schweikert (Chairman of Committee) Marvin W. Rowe (Member) Gerald A. Sc...

  19. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY - RESPONSE TO HUMAN INFLUENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LOGAN, J; PRATHER, M; WOFSY, S; MCELROY, M

    1978-01-01

    Trans. II 70, 253. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY Clyne, M. A. A. &data for modelling atmospheric chemistry. NBS Technical NoteChem. 80, 2711. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY Sanadze, G. A. 1963 On

  20. IMPROVED QUASISTEADYSTATEAPPROXIMATION METHODS FOR ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY INTEGRATION #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jay, Laurent O.

    IMPROVED QUASI­STEADY­STATE­APPROXIMATION METHODS FOR ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY INTEGRATION # L. O. JAY QSSA are presented. Key words. atmospheric chemistry, sti# ordinary di#erential equations, quasi PII. S1064827595283033 1. Introduction. As our scientific understanding of atmospheric chemistry

  1. Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne

    2005-11-08

    A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

  2. Iron-based alloys with corrosion resistance to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Natesan, K.

    1992-11-17

    An iron-based alloy with improved performance with exposure to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases with the alloy containing about 9--30 wt. % Cr and a small amount of Nb and/or Zr implanted on the surface of the alloy to diffuse a depth into the surface portion, with the alloy exhibiting corrosion resistance to the corrosive gases without bulk addition of Nb and/or Zr and without heat treatment at temperatures of 1000--1100 C. 7 figs.

  3. Scale-free Universal Spectrum for Atmospheric Aerosol Size Distribution for Davos, Mauna Loa and Izana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Selvam

    2014-08-14

    Atmospheric flows exhibit fractal fluctuations and inverse power law form for power spectra indicating an eddy continuum structure for the selfsimilar fluctuations. A general systems theory for fractal fluctuations developed by the author is based on the simple visualisation that large eddies form by space-time integration of enclosed turbulent eddies, a concept analogous to Kinetic Theory of Gases in Classical Statistical Physics. The ordered growth of atmospheric eddy continuum is in dynamical equilibrium and is associated with Maximum Entropy Production. The model predicts universal (scale-free) inverse power law form for fractal fluctuations expressed in terms of the golden mean. Atmospheric particulates are held in suspension in the fractal fluctuations of vertical wind velocity. The mass or radius (size) distribution for homogeneous suspended atmospheric particulates is expressed as a universal scale-independent function of the golden mean, the total number concentration and the mean volume radius. Model predicted spectrum is in agreement (within two standard deviations on either side of the mean) with total averaged radius size spectra for the AERONET (aerosol inversions) stations Davos and Mauna Loa for the year 2010 and Izana for the year 2009 daily averages. The general systems theory model for aerosol size distribution is scale free and is derived directly from atmospheric eddy dynamical concepts. At present empirical models such as the log normal distribution with arbitrary constants for the size distribution of atmospheric suspended particulates are used for quantitative estimation of earth-atmosphere radiation budget related to climate warming/cooling trends. The universal aerosol size spectrum will have applications in computations of radiation balance of earth-atmosphere system in climate models.

  4. Infrared Observations of Exoplanet Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crossfield, Ian James Mills

    2012-01-01

    However, atmospheres of cool planets can still be studiedvia outgassing as the planet cools (Rogers & Seager 2010).at low resolution) and the cool, low-mass planet GJ 1214b (

  5. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion...

  6. Laser Atmospheric Studies with VERITAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. M. Hui; for the VERITAS collaboration

    2007-09-25

    As a calibrated laser pulse propagates through the atmosphere, the amount of Rayleigh-scattered light arriving at the VERITAS telescopes can be calculated precisely. This technique was originally developed for the absolute calibration of ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray fluorescence telescopes but is also applicable to imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). In this paper, we present two nights of laser data taken with the laser at various distances away from the VERITAS telescopes and compare it to Rayleigh scattering simulations.

  7. Zevenhoven & Kilpinen Greenhouse Gases, Ozone-Depleting Gases 19.6.2001 9-1 Figure 9.1 Increasing world population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    ), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) trap the outgoing solar radiation that is reflected by the earth by blocking "hard" ultraviolet solar radiation. #12;Zevenhoven & Kilpinen Greenhouse Gases, Ozone by using experimental data from e.g. air trapped in polar ice. CO2 concentrations started to rise in ~1800

  8. Abiotic ozone and oxygen in atmospheres similar to prebiotic Earth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Segura, Antígona; Claire, Mark W.; Robinson, Tyler D.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2014-09-10

    The search for life on planets outside our solar system will use spectroscopic identification of atmospheric biosignatures. The most robust remotely detectable potential biosignature is considered to be the detection of oxygen (O{sub 2}) or ozone (O{sub 3}) simultaneous to methane (CH{sub 4}) at levels indicating fluxes from the planetary surface in excess of those that could be produced abiotically. Here we use an altitude-dependent photochemical model with the enhanced lower boundary conditions necessary to carefully explore abiotic O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} production on lifeless planets with a wide variety of volcanic gas fluxes and stellar energy distributions. On some of these worlds, we predict limited O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} buildup, caused by fast chemical production of these gases. This results in detectable abiotic O{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} features in the UV-visible, but no detectable abiotic O{sub 2} features. Thus, simultaneous detection of O{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} by a UV-visible mission is not a strong biosignature without proper contextual information. Discrimination between biological and abiotic sources of O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} is possible through analysis of the stellar and atmospheric context—particularly redox state and O atom inventory—of the planet in question. Specifically, understanding the spectral characteristics of the star and obtaining a broad wavelength range for planetary spectra should allow more robust identification of false positives for life. This highlights the importance of wide spectral coverage for future exoplanet characterization missions. Specifically, discrimination between true and false positives may require spectral observations that extend into infrared wavelengths and provide contextual information on the planet's atmospheric chemistry.

  9. Modulational instability, wave breaking and formation of large scale dipoles in the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Iafrati; A. Babanin; M. Onorato

    2012-08-27

    In the present Letter we use the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the Navier-Stokes equation for a two-phase flow (water and air) to study the dynamics of the modulational instability of free surface waves and its contribution to the interaction between ocean and atmosphere. If the steepness of the initial wave is large enough, we observe a wave breaking and the formation of large scale dipole structures in the air. Because of the multiple steepening and breaking of the waves under unstable wave packets, a train of dipoles is released and propagate in the atmosphere at a height comparable with the wave length. The amount of energy dissipated by the breaker in water and air is considered and, contrary to expectations, we observe that the energy dissipation in air is larger than the one in the water. Possible consequences on the wave modelling and on the exchange of aerosols and gases between air and water are discussed.

  10. Arthur-Selberg trace formula CRM, June 30-July 3, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lapid, Erez

    #12;#12;Arthur-Selberg trace formula Erez Lapid CRM, June 30-July 3, 2009 #12;Contents Applications of the Selberg Trace Formula 1. Weyl's law #12;Contents Applications of the Selberg Trace Formula 1. Weyl's law 2. Prime Geodesic Theorem #12;Contents Applications of the Selberg Trace Formula 1. Weyl's law 2. Prime

  11. Waste Heat Recovery from High Temperature Off-Gases from Electric Arc Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U [ORNL; Thekdi, Arvind [E3M Inc; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study and review of available waste heat in high temperature Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) off gases and heat recovery techniques/methods from these gases. It gives details of the quality and quantity of the sensible and chemical waste heat in typical EAF off gases, energy savings potential by recovering part of this heat, a comprehensive review of currently used waste heat recovery methods and potential for use of advanced designs to achieve a much higher level of heat recovery including scrap preheating, steam production and electric power generation. Based on our preliminary analysis, currently, for all electric arc furnaces used in the US steel industry, the energy savings potential is equivalent to approximately 31 trillion Btu per year or 32.7 peta Joules per year (approximately $182 million US dollars/year). This article describes the EAF off-gas enthalpy model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to calculate available and recoverable heat energy for a given stream of exhaust gases coming out of one or multiple EAF furnaces. This Excel based model calculates sensible and chemical enthalpy of the EAF off-gases during tap to tap time accounting for variation in quantity and quality of off gases. The model can be used to estimate energy saved through scrap preheating and other possible uses such as steam generation and electric power generation using off gas waste heat. This article includes a review of the historical development of existing waste heat recovery methods, their operations, and advantages/limitations of these methods. This paper also describes a program to develop and test advanced concepts for scrap preheating, steam production and electricity generation through use of waste heat recovery from the chemical and sensible heat contained in the EAF off gases with addition of minimum amount of dilution or cooling air upstream of pollution control equipment such as bag houses.

  12. Chemistry of Atmospheric Brown Carbon Alexander Laskin,*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Chemistry of Atmospheric Brown Carbon Alexander Laskin,*, Julia Laskin,*, and Sergey A. Nizkorodov fraction of atmospheric aerosol and has profound effects on air quality, atmospheric chemistry, and climate of radiation through Earth's atmosphere. The cloud albedo effect, Special Issue: 2015 Chemistry in Climate

  13. System and method for converting wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, R.L.; Sinclair, B.W.

    1984-07-31

    A method of converting natural wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) may comprise the steps of: separating natural gas from petroleum fluids exiting a wellhead; compressing the natural gas; refrigerating the natural gas, liquefying at least a portion thereof; separating LPG from gas vapors of the refrigerated natural gas; storing the separated LPG in a storage tank with a vapor space therein; and recirculating a portion of the LPG vapors in the storage tank with the natural gas exiting the wellhead to enhance recovery of LPG. A system for performing the method may comprise: a two-stage gas compressor connected to the wellhead; a refrigeration unit downstream of the gas compressor for refrigerating the compressed gases therefrom; at least one product separator downstream of the refrigerator unit for receiving refrigerated and compressed gases discharged from the refrigerator unit and separating LPG therein from gases remaining in vapor form; and a storage tank for receiving and storing the separated LPG therein, the storage tank having a vapor space therein connected upstream of the gas compressor through a pressure regulator allowing recirculation of some LPG vapors with the natural gases through said system.

  14. Cumulant expansions for atmospheric flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Meyer, Bettina; Marston, J B

    2015-01-01

    The equations governing atmospheric flows are nonlinear, and consequently the hierarchy of cumulant equations is not closed. But because atmospheric flows are inhomogeneous and anisotropic, the nonlinearity may manifests itself only weakly through interactions of mean fields with disturbances such as thermals or eddies. In such situations, truncations of the hierarchy of cumulant equations hold promise as a closure strategy. We review how truncations at second order can be used to model and elucidate the dynamics of turbulent atmospheric flows. Two examples are considered. First, we study the growth of a dry convective boundary layer, which is heated from below, leading to turbulent upward energy transport and growth of the boundary layer. We demonstrate that a quasilinear truncation of the equations of motion, in which interactions of disturbances among each other are neglected but interactions with mean fields are taken into account, can successfully capture the growth of the convective boundary layer. Seco...

  15. Observations of atmospheric tides on Mars at the season and latitude of the Phoenix atmospheric entry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    Observations of atmospheric tides on Mars at the season and latitude of the Phoenix atmospheric atmospheric entry of NASA's Phoenix Mars probe using Phoenix Atmospheric Structure Experiment (ASE) data atmospheric entry, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L24204, doi:10.1029/2010GL045382. 1. Introduction [2] Phoenix

  16. Trace metal mapping by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaiser, Jozef [ORNL; Novotny, Dr. Karel [Masaryk University; Hrdlicka, A [Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic; Malina, R [Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic; Hartl, M [Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic; Kizek, R [Mendel University of Brno; Adam, V [Mendel University of Brno

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a sensitive optical technique capable of fast multi-elemental analysis of solid, gaseous and liquid samples. The potential applications of lasers for spectrochemical analysis were developed shortly after its invention; however the massive development of LIBS is connected with the availability of powerful pulsed laser sources. Since the late 80s of 20th century LIBS dominated the analytical atomic spectroscopy scene and its application are developed continuously. Here we review the utilization of LIBS for trace elements mapping in different matrices. The main emphasis is on trace metal mapping in biological samples.

  17. Growing consumption of petroleum products worldwide has resulted in the proliferation of vessels carrying oil, chemicals, and gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neimark, Alexander V.

    Growing consumption of petroleum products worldwide has resulted in the proliferation of vessels carrying oil, chemicals, and gases into our harbors. Meeting our society's surging demand for commodities

  18. High explosives vapor detection by atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization/tandem mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Asano, K.G.

    1996-02-01

    The combination of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization with tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of traces of high explosives is described. Particular emphasis is placed on use of the quadrupole ion trap as the type of tandem mass spectrometer. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge provides a simple, rugged, and efficient means for anion formation while the quadrupole ion trap provides for efficient tandem mass spectrometry. Mass selective ion accumulation and non-specific ion activation methods can be used to overcome deleterious effects arising from ion/ion interactions. Such interactions constitute the major potential technical barrier to the use of the ion trap for real-time monitoring of targeted compounds in uncontrolled and highly variable matrices. Tailored waveforms can be used to effect both mass selective ion accumulation and ion activation. Concatenated tailored waveforms allow for both functions in a single experiment thereby providing the capability for monitoring several targeted species simultaneously. The combination of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization with a state-of-the-art analytical quadrupole ion trap is a highly sensitive and specific detector for traces of high explosives. The combination is also small and inexpensive relative to virtually any other form of tandem mass spectrometry. The science and technology underlying the glow discharge/ion trap combination is sufficiently mature to form the basis for an engineering effort to make the detector portable. 85 refs.

  19. Method of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Richard J. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A continuous method is presented for removing both oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from combustion or exhaust gases with the regeneration of the absorbent. Exhaust gas is cleaned of particulates and HCl by a water scrub prior to contact with a liquid absorbent that includes an aqueous solution of bisulfite and sulfite ions along with a metal chelate, such as, an iron or zinc aminopolycarboxylic acid. Following contact with the combustion gases the spent absorbent is subjected to electrodialysis to transfer bisulfite ions into a sulfuric acid solution while splitting water with hydroxide and hydrogen ion migration to equalize electrical charge. The electrodialysis stack includes alternate layers of anion selective and bipolar membranes. Oxides of nitrogen are removed from the liquid absorbent by air stripping at an elevated temperature and the regenerated liquid absorbent is returned to contact with exhaust gases for removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides.

  20. The Spectral Backbone of Excitation Transport in Ultra-Cold Rydberg Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scholak, Torsten; Buchleitner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The spectral structure underlying excitonic energy transfer in ultra-cold Rydberg gases is studied numerically, in the framework of random matrix theory, and via self-consistent diagrammatic techniques. Rydberg gases are made up of randomly distributed, highly polarizable atoms that interact via strong dipolar forces. Dynamics in such a system is fundamentally different from cases in which the interactions are of short range, and is ultimately determined by the spectral and eigenvector structure. In the energy levels' spacing statistics, we find evidence for a critical energy that separates delocalized eigenstates from states that are localized at pairs or clusters of atoms separated by less than the typical nearest-neighbor distance. We argue that the dipole blockade effect in Rydberg gases can be leveraged to manipulate this transition across a wide range: As the blockade radius increases, the relative weight of localized states is reduced. At the same time, the spectral statistics -- in particular, the den...

  1. Emission of biogenic sulfur gases from Chinese paddy soil and rice plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhen Yang [Nanjing Univ. of Science and Technology (China); Li Kong [Nanjing Agricultural Univ. (China)

    1996-12-31

    Biogenic sulfur gases emitted from terrestrial ecosystem may play in important role in global sulfur cycle and have a profound influence on global climate change. But very little is known concerning emissions from paddy soil and rice plant, which are abundant in many parts of the world. As a big agricultural country, this is about 33 million hectare rice planted in China. With laboratory incubation and closed chamber method in the field, the biogenic sulfur gases emitted from Chinese paddy soil and rice plant were detected in both conditions: hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), methyl mercaptan (MSH), carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}), dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Among which, DMS was predominant part of sulfur emission. Emission of sulfur gases from different paddy field exhibit high spatial and temporal variability. The application of fertilizer and organic manure, total sulfur content in wetland, air temperature were positively correlated to the emission of volatile sulfur gases from paddy soil. Diurnal and seasonal variation of total volatile sulfur gases and DMS indicate that their emissions were greatly influenced by the activity of the rice plant. The annual emission of total volatile sulfur gases, from Nanjing paddy field is ranged from 4.0 to 9.5 mg S m{sup -2}yr{sup -1}, that of DMS is ranged from 3.1 to 6.5 mg S m{sup -2}yr{sup -1}. Rice plant could absorb COS gas, that may be one of the sinks of COS.

  2. A BIOMASS-BASED MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE PLAUSIBILITY OF EXOPLANET BIOSIGNATURE GASES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seager, Sara

    Biosignature gas detection is one of the ultimate future goals for exoplanet atmosphere studies. We have created a framework for linking biosignature gas detectability to biomass estimates, including atmospheric photochemistry ...

  3. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The general specifications for a Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor Design Report (PAFBC) plant are presented. The design tasks for the PAFBC are described in the following areas: Coal/Limestone preparation and feed system; pulse combustor; fluidized bed; boiler parts; and ash handling system.

  4. Critical phenomena in atmospheric precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    LETTERS Critical phenomena in atmospheric precipitation OLE PETERS1,2,3 * AND J. DAVID NEELIN3 1 convection and precipitation (the order parameter)--with correlated regions on scales of tens to hundreds the climatological mean by an order of magnitude or more. Moist convection and the accompanying precipitation have

  5. Comparison of heavy ion-induced K? x-ray satellite spectra from gases and solids 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demarest, John Allen

    1977-01-01

    COMPARISON OF HEAVY ION-INDUCED IQX X-RAY SATELLITE SPECTRA FROM GASES AND SOLIDS A Thesis by JOHN ALLEN DEMAREST Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1977 Ma)or Subject: Chemistry COMPARISON OF HEAVY ION-INDUCED Ks X-RAY SATELLITE SPECTRA FROM GASES AND SOLIDS A Thesis by JOHN ALLEN DEMAREST Approved as to style and content by (Chairman of Committee) 7&F~. ~MA (Head...

  6. Energies and damping rates of elementary excitations in spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensed gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gergely Szirmai; Peter Szepfalusy; Krisztian Kis-Szabo

    2003-05-15

    Finite temperature Green's function technique is used to calculate the energies and damping rates of elementary excitations of the homogeneous, dilute, spin-1 Bose gases below the Bose-Einstein condensation temperature both in the density and spin channels. For this purpose the self-consistent dynamical Hartree-Fock model is formulated, which takes into account the direct and exchange processes on equal footing by summing up certain classes of Feynman diagrams. The model is shown to fulfil the Goldstone theorem and to exhibit the hybridization of one-particle and collective excitations correctly. The results are applied to the gases of ^{23}Na and ^{87}Rb atoms.

  7. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1984-06-19

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  8. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur-containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1982-07-07

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorbtion capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  9. Automated Tracing of Horizontal Neuron Processes During Retinal Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerekes, Ryan A [ORNL; Martins, Rodrigo [St. Jude Children's Research Hospital; Dyer, Michael A [ORNL; Gleason, Shaun Scott [ORNL; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Davis, Denise [St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

    2011-01-01

    In the developing mammalian retina, horizontal neurons undergo a dramatic reorganization oftheir processes shortly after they migrate to their appropriate laminar position. This is an importantprocess because it is now understood that the apical processes are important for establishing theregular mosaic of horizontal cells in the retina and proper reorganization during lamination isrequired for synaptogenesis with photoreceptors and bipolar neurons. However, this process isdifficult to study because the analysis of horizontal neuron anatomy is labor intensive and time-consuming. In this paper, we present a computational method for automatically tracing the three-dimensional (3-D) dendritic structure of horizontal retinal neurons in two-photon laser scanningmicroscope (TPLSM) imagery. Our method is based on 3-D skeletonization and is thus able topreserve the complex structure of the dendritic arbor of these cells. We demonstrate theeffectiveness of our approach by comparing our tracing results against two sets of semi-automatedtraces over a set of 10 horizontal neurons ranging in age from P1 to P5. We observe an averageagreement level of 81% between our automated trace and the manual traces. This automatedmethod will serve as an important starting point for further refinement and optimization.

  10. Reconstructing Critical Paths from Execution Traces Martijn Hendriks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaandrager, Frits

    Reconstructing Critical Paths from Execution Traces Martijn Hendriks Embedded Systems Institute of constructing critical paths from incomplete information. In general, a directed acyclic graph of tasks with their execution times (i.e., a task graph) is necessary to extract critical paths. We assume, however, that only

  11. Accurate Critical Path Analysis via Random Trace Construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zilles, Craig

    Accurate Critical Path Analysis via Random Trace Construction Pierre Salverda Charles Tucker Craig to their profiled behavior. We demonstrate our technique in the context of critical path analysis, showing it can achieve the same accuracy as a hardware critical path predictor, but with lower hardware requirements. Key

  12. Effect of Microbial Activity on Trace Element Release from Sewage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 The microbial role performed using thiosulfate as the sole energy source revealed the presence of both known and putative S-effective management alternative. Unfor- tunately, sewage sludge also contains potentially toxic trace elements

  13. Reflected and Transmitted Irradiance from Area Sources using Vertex Tracing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    Reflected and Transmitted Irradiance from Area Sources using Vertex Tracing Michael M. Stark irradiance analytically from polygonal luminaires in polygonal environments has proven effective for direct- ally used edge-based solutions to the irradiance integral; our previous work pre- sented a vertex

  14. Parallel Seismic Ray Tracing in a Global Earth Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genaud, Stéphane

    from the hypocenter (source) to one station. The #28;nal objective of the seismic tomography process1 Parallel Seismic Ray Tracing in a Global Earth Model Marc Grunberg * , Stéphane Genaud of the Earth interior, and seismic tomogra- phy is a means to improve knowledge in this #28;eld. In order

  15. Optimal Suspicion Functions for Tardos Traitor Tracing Schemes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Descriptors E.4 [Data]: Coding and Information Theory; G.1 [Mathematics of Computing]: Numerical Analysis; G.1 functions for Tardos traitor tracing schemes. In the simple decoder approach (computation of a score.6 [Numerical Analysis]: Optimization--Constrained optimization, Stochastic programming General Terms Design

  16. LANDFILL UNDERGROUND POLLUTION DETECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION USING INORGANIC TRACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    LANDFILL UNDERGROUND POLLUTION DETECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION USING INORGANIC TRACES M. O. LOOSER1 received 1 January 1998; accepted in revised form 1 January 1999) AbstractÐSince water is the main contamination arrow in the underground, it is necessary to get good indicators to be able to detect pollution

  17. Trace extensions, determinant bundles, and gauge group cocycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joakim Arnlind; Jouko Mickelsson

    2002-09-04

    We study the geometry of determinant line bundles associated to Dirac operators on compact odd dimensional manifolds. Physically, these arise as (local) vacuum line bundles in quantum gauge theory. We give a simplified derivation of the commutator anomaly formula using a construction based on noncyclic trace extensions and associated multiplicative renormalized determinants.

  18. Trace Elements Greg Mullins, Extension Nutrient Management Specialist, Virginia Tech

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    the plants. Manganese (Mn) Manganese deficiency has been found on soybeans and peanuts grown in VirginiaTrace Elements Greg Mullins, Extension Nutrient Management Specialist, Virginia Tech Steve Heckendorn, Soil Test Laboratory Manager, Virginia Tech Soil Test Note #4 Introduction Your Soil Test Report

  19. Realistic Performance Analysis of WSN Protocols Through Trace Based Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Qi "Chee"

    Realistic Performance Analysis of WSN Protocols Through Trace Based Simulation Alan Marchiori, Lin It is a difficult endeavor to realistically evaluate the perfor- mance of wireless sensor network (WSN) protocols. Generic network simulators are often used, but they tend to rely on synthetic models. Because WSN

  20. TRACE FORMULAS AND BORGTYPE THEOREMS FOR MATRIXVALUED JACOBI AND DIRAC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TRACE FORMULAS AND BORG­TYPE THEOREMS FOR MATRIX­VALUED JACOBI AND DIRAC FINITE DIFFERENCE­valued Jacobi opera­ tors H and supersymmetric Dirac di#erence operators D are proved. More precisely, assuming reflectionless matrix coe#cients A, B in the self­adjoint Jacobi operator H = AS + + A - S - + B (with

  1. Towards understanding heterogeneous clouds at scale: Google trace analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , their distribution, and the actual resource utilization. Unlike previous scheduler traces we are aware of, this one comparison of actual resource utilization with the user-supplied resource estimates available to the cluster, Ericsson, Facebook, Fusion-IO, General Electric, Hewlett Packard, Hitachi, Huawei, IBM, Intel, Mark

  2. Trace Partitioning in Abstract Interpretation Based Static Analyzers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauborgne, Laurent

    designing a tractable static analysis, one usually needs to approximate the trace semantics. This paper information about the execution order and the concrete flow paths is lost. However, this reachable states or -1 at the end of this piece of code; in par* *ticular sgn cannot be equal to 0. As a consequence

  3. Nitrous Oxide Nitrous oxide (chemical formula N2O), is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere, with a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, David

    is from the use of nitrogenous fertilizer in the agricultural sector; others include combustion of fossil radiative forcing following a 1 kg pulse emission of N2O, relative to the same quantity following a 1 kg pulse emission of CO2. The GWP time horizon must also be specified ­ typically it is 100 yr, but IPCC

  4. Concentrations and Origins of Atmospheric Lead and Other Trace Species at a Rural Site in Northern China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    .g., utility boilers), and waste management (e.g., incinerators) [U.S. EPA, 2007a]. Even at relatively low composition data: a biomass burning source, an industrial and coal combustion source, a secondary aerosol, primarily representing emissions from industrial processes and relatively small-scale coal burning

  5. Concentrations and origins of atmospheric lead and other trace species at a rural site in northern China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Ning

    smallscale coal burning such as in home and institutional heating, was identified as the main source factors in the aerosol composition data: a biomass burning source, an industrial and coal combustion source, a secondary aerosol source, and a dust source. The first three sources were strongest in weak

  6. Spatial Heterogeneity of Trace Species Distributions in the Atmosphere and their effects on Climate Change

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541C. TemperatureThousandNeutron Scattering Facilities »of

  7. Trace metal levels in sediments of Pearl Harbor (Hawaii)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.; Tamura, T.

    1986-09-01

    This study was conducted to measure the distribution of lead and other trace metals in the sediments of Pearl Harbon (Hawaii) to determine whether paint chips from vessels of the US Navy's Inactive Fleet have affected the environmental quality of Middle Loch. Sediment cores (ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 m long) were collected from Middle Loch near the Naval Inactive Ships Maintenance Facility and in an area of West Loch that is relatively isolated and unaffected by naval operations. Concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc averaged 180 ..mu..g/g, 49 ..mu..g/g, and 272 ..mu..g/g, respectively, in recent Middle Loch sediments. These concentrations are significantly higher than those in either historical Middle Loch sediments or recent West Loch sediments. However, except for lead, the concentrations in recent Middle Loch sediments are similar to those of older Middle Loch sediments, which indicates that the increase in trace metal contamination began before the onset of Inactive Fleet operations (about 1946). Increased trace metal levels in recent Middle Loch sediments might be expected to result from two potential sources: (1) sewage discharges and (2) paint from inactive vessels. Since paint contains elevated levels of lead and zinc but little copper, the elevated copper levels in Middle Loch sediments tend to implicate sewage as the source of trace metal contamination. Moreover, the lead:zinc ratio of recent Middle Loch sediments (0.18:1) is a factor of 10 lower than that measured in paint (2.1:1), and the Middle Loch lead:zinc ratio is not significantly greater than that measured in recent West Loch sediments (0.21:1). Hence, we suggest that sewage rather than paint is the major source of trace metal contamination of Middle Loch. This is consistent with the findings of a previous study by US navy personnel.

  8. Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karamalidis, Athanasios; Torres, Sharon G.; Hakala, Jacqueline A.; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising; however, possible CO2 or CO2-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define to provide a range of concentrations that can be used as the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations. Storage source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from cements and sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, and basalts from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin, Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands, and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution was tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g., pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments because of the presence of CO2. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rocks exceed the MCLs byan order of magnitude, while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  9. HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Trace elements and alkaliTrace elements and alkali

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    mg/m³STPSTP @ 11 % O22, dry Power plant Finland (1990+) MSW incinerator Finland (1994) MSW incinerator EU * (2000) Power plant Germany (1999) MSW incinerator Germany (1999) Waste incinerator USA (1995 UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Gas turbine inlet specifications for trace elementsGas turbine inlet

  10. Method and apparatus for separating gases based on electrically and magnetically enhanced monolithic carbon fiber composite sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judkins, R.R.; Burchell, T.D.

    1999-07-20

    A method for separating gases or other fluids involves placing a magnetic field on a monolithic carbon fiber composite sorption material to more preferentially attract certain gases or other fluids to the sorption material to which a magnetic field is applied. This technique may be combined with the known pressure swing adsorption'' technique utilizing the same sorption material. 1 fig.

  11. Revised and Updated Thermochemical Properties of the Gases Mercapto ,,HS..., Disulfur Monoxide ,,S2O..., Thiazyl ,,NS...,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fegley Jr., Bruce

    in the 4th edition of the NIST-JANAF Thermochemical Tables. Updated enthalpies of formation were includedRevised and Updated Thermochemical Properties of the Gases Mercapto ,,HS..., Disulfur Monoxide ,,S2 to compute the thermochemical tables for four ideal gases: mercapto HS , disulfur monox- ide (S2O), thiazyl

  12. BoseEinstein condensation of atomic gases Frederic Chevy and Jean Dalibard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalibard, Jean

    Bose­Einstein condensation of atomic gases Fr´ed´eric Chevy and Jean Dalibard Laboratoire Kastler The discovery of the superfluid transition of liquid helium [1, 2] marked the first achievement of Bose­Einstein, gaseous Bose­Einstein condensates (BECs) discovered in 1995 after the development of laser cooling

  13. Kolstad: EKC Dec 2005 Interpreting Estimated Environmental Kuznets Curves for Greenhouse Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolstad, Charles

    Kolstad: EKC Dec 2005 Interpreting Estimated Environmental Kuznets Curves for Greenhouse Gases to avoid damage from climate change and regulations limiting greenhouse gas emissions at the country level to the Socioeconomic Drivers of Greenhouse Gas Emissions. As the issue was framed (Leifman and Heil, 2005

  14. ANTHROPOGENIC AND NATURAL SOURCES AND SINKS OF GREENHOUSE GASES FOR THE UK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Ian J.

    ANTHROPOGENIC AND NATURAL SOURCES AND SINKS OF GREENHOUSE GASES FOR THE UK by W. Neil Adger Katrina are listed at the back of this publication. #12;ANTHROPOGENIC AND NATURAL SOURCES AND SINKS OF GREENHOUSE The Climate Change Framework Convention will require countries to calculate inventories of greenhouse gas

  15. Spin noise spectroscopy to probe quantum states of ultracold fermionic atom gases Bogdan Mihaila,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mihaila, Bogdan

    Spin noise spectroscopy to probe quantum states of ultracold fermionic atom gases Bogdan Mihaila,1 2006 We theoretically demonstrate that optical measurements of electron spin noise can interactions predict entirely new sets of resonances in the spin noise spectrum. Once the correct effective

  16. Integrated Model for Production-Distribution Coordination in an Industrial Gases Supply-chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    and their demand/consumption profiles Max/Min inventory at production sites and customer locations Max and Respective Production limits Daily Electricity Prices (off-peak and peak) Customers and their demand/consumptionIntegrated Model for Production-Distribution Coordination in an Industrial Gases Supply-chain Pablo

  17. Experiments on the reduction of nitric oxide from exhaust gases by selective non-catalytic reactions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narney, John Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    The use of ammonia in a selective non-catalytic process for the removal of nitric oxide (NO) from exhaust gases was studied. A quartz lined flow reactor system was constructed in order to examine the behavior of the process with 15% oxygen...

  18. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption contribution to the debate on environmental policy in Denmark. #12;3 Contents 1 SUMMARY 5 1.1 OZONE OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES 18 3.1 IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 18 3.1.1 CFCs 18 3.1.2 Tetrachloromethane 19 3

  19. Heavy noble gases in solar wind delivered by Genesis mission Alex Meshik a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    knowledge of the isotopic composition of the heavy noble gases in solar wind and, by inference, the Sun measured in the Genesis solar wind collectors generally agree with the less precise values obtained from), captured by Genesis Mission collectors (http://genesismis- sion.jpl.nasa.gov/; Burnett et al., 2003

  20. Effects of Biochar and Basalt Additions on Carbon Sequestration and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases in Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Effects of Biochar and Basalt Additions on Carbon Sequestration and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases Emissions--Carbon Dioxide Emissions--Sequestration and Storage--Biochar--Basalt--Organic Fertilizers, this investigation focuses on the range of potential of different soil additives to enhance sequestration and storage

  1. AMIII -Termodin^amica dos Gases Ideais 17 de Janeiro de 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira dos Santos, Pedro

    AMIII - Termodin^amica dos Gases Ideais 17 de Janeiro de 2002 N moles de um g´as ideal em equil ideais). A Primeira Lei da Termodin^amica afirma que existe uma fun¸c~ao E : M R, dita a energia interna pela Segunda Lei da Termodin^amica. 2 #12;

  2. AMIII -Termodin^amica dos Gases Ideais 10 de Julho de 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granja, Gustavo

    AMIII - Termodin^amica dos Gases Ideais 10 de Julho de 2002 N moles de um g´as ideal em equil ideais). A Primeira Lei da Termodin^amica afirma que existe uma fun¸c~ao E : M R, dita a energia interna pela Segunda Lei da Termodin^amica. 2 #12;

  3. Analise Matematica III -Turma Especial Ficha Extra 2 -Termodin^amica dos Gases Ideais

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natário, José

    An´alise Matem´atica III - Turma Especial Ficha Extra 2 - Termodin^amica dos Gases Ideais N Termodin^amica afirma que existe uma fun¸c~ao E : M R, dita a energia interna do g´as, cuja derivada garantida em sistemas termodin^amicos gerais pela Segunda Lei da Termodin^amica. 2 #12;

  4. Isotopic studies of rare gases in terrestrial samples and natural nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    This project is concerned with research in rare gas mass spectrometry. We read the natural record that isotopes of the rare gases provide. We study fluids using a system (RARGA) that is sometimes deployed in the field. In 1990 there was a strong effort to reduce the backlog of RARGA samples on hand, so that it was a year of intensive data gathering. Samples from five different areas in the western United States and samples from Guatemala and Australia were analyzed. In a collaborative study we also began analyzing noble gases from rocks associated with the fluids. An important objective, continuing in 1991, is to understand better the reasons for somewhat elevated {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios in regions where there is no contemporary volcanism which could produce the effect by addition of mantle helium. Our helium data have given us and our collaborators some insights, which are to be followed up, into gold mineralization in geothermal regions. Our DOE work in calibrating a sensitive laser microprobe mass spectrometer for noble gases in fluid inclusions continues. Having completed a series of papers on noble gases in diamonds, we next will attempt to make precise isotopic measurements on xenon from mantle sources, in search of evidence for terrestrially elusive {sup 244}Pu decay.

  5. Steam Production from Waste Stack Gases in a Carbon Black Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Istre, R. I.

    1981-01-01

    Waste stack gases from carbon black plant bag filters are used as fuel to produce superheated steam - G25 PSIG and 7500F. This steam is out into a steam header that serves Conoco plants in the Lake Charles, Louisiana area. Combustion of the waste...

  6. Theoretical Gas Phase Mass Transfer Coefficients for Endogenous Gases in the Lungs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Steven C.

    Theoretical Gas Phase Mass Transfer Coefficients for Endogenous Gases in the Lungs PETER CONDORELLI, is produced within the tissue of the airways of the lungs.16 As an intercellular messenger, NO is involved is available regarding the basic gas exchange dynamics of NO in the lungs. Ingested ethanol EtOH is transported

  7. Abstract--Energy consumption and the concomitant Green House Gases (GHG) emissions of network infrastructures are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Abstract--Energy consumption and the concomitant Green House Gases (GHG) emissions of network on the overall power consumption and on the GHG emissions with just 25% of green energy sources. I. INTRODUCTION]. In the zero carbon approach, renewable (green) energy sources (e.g. sun, wind, tide) are employed and no GHGs

  8. The origins and concentrations of water, carbon, nitrogen and noble gases on Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 The origins and concentrations of water, carbon, nitrogen and noble gases on Earth Bernard Marty (PSN) are still present in the mantle, presumably signing the sequestration of PSN gas at an early), and up to ~500 ppm C, both largely sequestrated in the solid Earth. This volatile content is equivalent

  9. Influence of Induced Interactions on the Superfluid Transition in Dilute Fermi Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Heiselberg; C. J. Pethick; H. Smith; L. Viverit

    2000-04-20

    We calculate the effects of induced interactions on the transition temperature to the BCS state in dilute Fermi gases. For a pure Fermi system with 2 species having equal densities, the transition temperature is suppressed by a factor $(4e)^{1/3}\\approx 2.2$, and for $\

  10. Future climate change in the Southern Hemisphere: Competing effects of ozone and greenhouse gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arblaster, Julie

    Future climate change in the Southern Hemisphere: Competing effects of ozone and greenhouse gases J 2010; accepted 19 October 2010; published 19 January 2011. [1] Future anthropogenic climate change simulations. Citation: Arblaster, J. M., G. A. Meehl, and D. J. Karoly (2011), Future climate change

  11. LETTER doi:10.1038/nature10176 Increased soil emissions of potent greenhouse gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osenberg, Craig W.

    , such as microbial activity and water content1,2 . In turn, these changes might be expected to alter the production and consumption of the important greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) (refs 2, 3). However, these emissions are expected to negate at least 16.6 per cent of the climate change miti- gation potential

  12. Electronic structure of the Si(111):GaSe van der Waals-like surface termination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olmstead, Marjorie

    Electronic structure of the Si(111):GaSe van der Waals-like surface termination Reiner Rudolph-like surface termination has been determined by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using photons. This explains both the absence of a surface core-level shift in Si 2p photoelectron spectra of the terminated

  13. Documentation for Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2008

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 required the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) to prepare an inventory of aggregate U.S. national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987-1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report documents the methodology for the seventeenth annual inventory, covering national emissions over the period 1990-2008.

  14. Classical disordered ground states: Super-ideal gases and stealth and equi-luminous materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stillinger, Frank

    Classical disordered ground states: Super-ideal gases and stealth and equi-luminous materials of wave vectors; and iii "equi-luminous" materials, which scatter radiation equally intensely of many-particle systems--the zero-temperature particle ar- rangement that minimizes potential energy per

  15. Predictive Modeling of Mercury Speciation in Combustion Flue Gases Using GMDH-Based Abductive Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

    and boiler operating conditions. Prediction performance compares favourably with neural network models for future work to further improve performance. Index Terms: Mercury speciation, Flue gases, Boiler emissions activities are coal-fired electric utility boilers, where speciation depends on the operating conditions

  16. Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Dry Gases in the Cathode of PEM Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockie, John

    Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Dry Gases in the Cathode of PEM Fuel Cells M.J. Kermani1 J and N2, through the cathode of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is studied numerically) an energy equation, written in a form that has enthalpy as the dependent variable. Keywords: PEM fuel cells

  17. The sulfur content of volcanic gases on Mars Fabrice Gaillard, a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    The sulfur content of volcanic gases on Mars Fabrice Gaillard, a and Bruno Scaillet1, a a CNRS sulfur contents of the martian regolith and lack of detection of extensive carbonate deposits suggest that the latest geological events that shaped the landscapes of Mars were dominated by acidic waters possibly

  18. Plasmon mass and Drude weight in strongly spin-orbit-coupled two-dimensional electron gases 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agarwal, Amit; Chesi, Stefano; Jungwirth, T.; Sinova, Jairo; Vignale, G.; Polini, Marco.

    2011-01-01

    -coupled 2D electron and hole gases, which are promising candidates for semiconductor spintronics,1 (ii) graphene2 (a monolayer of carbon atoms arranged in a 2D honeycomb lattice), which has attracted a great deal of interest because of the massless...

  19. Noble gases identify the mechanisms of fugitive gas contamination in drinking-water wells overlying the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Noble gases identify the mechanisms of fugitive gas contamination in drinking-water wells overlying 12, 2014 (received for review November 27, 2013) Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have and economic sustainability of shale-gas extraction. We analyzed 113 and 20 samples from drinking-water wells

  20. H-Theorems in some kinetic models of chemically reacting dense gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polewczak, Jacek

    gases: ­ search for the RET (Revised Enskog Theory) analog's of the reacting hard-sphere system ­ H as perturbations to the non-reactive terms. This was confirmed in a series of papers by B.Shizgal and M.Karplus (J by an equilibrium computations, where solvent effects enter through the free energy at the transition state. (for

  1. Space Science: Atmospheres Evolution of planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    ;Atmospheres / Evolution Heat Sources Compressional Energy Trapped Radioactive Material Tidal InteractionsSpace Science: Atmospheres Part- 7a Evolution of planets Out-Gassing/ Volcanoes Evolution Initial Species Solar abundance Solar wind composition? Carbonaceous chondrites? Variables Early sun

  2. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2012)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerber, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2012) Published online in Wiley Online Library using National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP) concentrations and sea- surface temperatures (SSTs). These integrations enable the relative role of ozone

  3. Equilibration of an atmosphere by geostrophic turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jansen, Malte F. (Malte Friedrich)

    2013-01-01

    A major question for climate studies is to quantify the role of turbulent eddy fluxes in maintaining the observed atmospheric mean state. It has been argued that eddy fluxes keep the mid-latitude atmosphere in a state that ...

  4. Land and Atmospheric Science GRAD STUDENT HANDBOOK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Land and Atmospheric Science GRAD STUDENT HANDBOOK 20142015 WELCOME Welcome to the Graduate Program in Land and Atmospheric Science at the University of Minnesota. It is a sciencebased interdisciplinary program focused on the fundamentals of Earth system processes related

  5. Radar range measurements in the atmosphere.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-02-01

    The earth's atmosphere affects the velocity of propagation of microwave signals. This imparts a range error to radar range measurements that assume the typical simplistic model for propagation velocity. This range error is a function of atmospheric constituents, such as water vapor, as well as the geometry of the radar data collection, notably altitude and range. Models are presented for calculating atmospheric effects on radar range measurements, and compared against more elaborate atmospheric models.

  6. Earth and Atmospheric Sciences | More Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Nuclear Forensics Climate & Environment Sensors and Measurements Chemical & Engineering Materials Computational Earth Science Systems Modeling...

  7. Obfuscatory obscanturism: making workload traces of commercially-sensitive systems safe to release

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortes, Corinna

    such as traces, researchers must make assumptions, but these may be at odds with the actual workloads. For example, traces from Hadoop MapReduce analytics clusters at Facebook and Yahoo showed that small jobs

  8. Direct Painting Software for Tracing on 3D Brain Surfaces with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Direct Painting Software for Tracing on 3D Brain Surfaces with Global Conformal Parameterization 1 4 Illustrates tracing on the brain surface with the direct painting software. (a) shows the global

  9. Combining sedimentological, trace metal (Mn, Mo) and molecular evidence for reconstructing past water-column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    Combining sedimentological, trace metal (Mn, Mo) and molecular evidence for reconstructing past online 22 June 2013 Abstract Here, we present sedimentological, trace metal, and molecular evidence underscores the value of combining sedimentological, geochemical, and microbiological approaches

  10. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A .gamma.-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the annular region therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly shaping the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, no ions survive for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  11. Comment on "Radiative forcings for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases" by Byrne and Goldblatt (2014)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kochanov, R. V.; Gordon, I. E.; Rothman, L. S.; Sharpe, S. W.; Johnson, T. J.; Sams, R. L.

    2015-08-25

    In the recent article by Byrne and Goldblatt, "Radiative forcing for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases", Clim. Past. 10, 1779–1801 (2014), the authors employ the HITRAN2012 spectroscopic database to evaluate the radiative forcing of 28 Archean gases. As part of the evaluation of the status of the spectroscopy of these gases in the selected spectral region (50–1800 cm-1), the cross sections generated from the HITRAN line-by-line parameters were compared with those of the PNNL database of experimental cross sections recorded at moderate resolution. The authors claimed that for NO2, HNO3, H2CO, H2O2, HCOOH, C2H4, CH3OH and CH3Br there exist largemore »or sometimes severe disagreements between the databases. In this work we show that for only three of these eight gases a modest discrepancy does exist between the two databases and we explain the origin of the differences. For the other five gases, the disagreements are not nearly at the scale suggested by the authors, while we explain some of the differences that do exist. In summary, the agreement between the HITRAN and PNNL databases is very good, although not perfect. Typically differences do not exceed 10 %, provided that HITRAN data exist for the bands/wavelengths of interest. It appears that a molecule-dependent combination of errors has affected the conclusions of the authors. In at least one case it appears that they did not take the correct file from PNNL (N2O4 (dimer)+ NO2 was used in place of the monomer). Finally, cross sections of HO2 from HITRAN (which do not have a PNNL counterpart) were not calculated correctly in BG, while in the case of HF misleading discussion was presented there based on the confusion by foreign or noise features in the experimental PNNL spectra.« less

  12. A Recognized Leader in Marine & Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    D/Masters Applied Marine Physics Marine & Atmospheric Chemistry Marine Affairs & Policy (Masters Only) MarineA Recognized Leader in Marine & Atmospheric Studies Our graduate program has over 250 students University of MiaMi rosenstiel school of Marine & atMospheric science #12;Miami Ranks #5: fDi Magazine's Top

  13. Atmospheric evolution on Venus Bruce Fegley, Jr.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Atmospheric evolution on Venus Bruce Fegley, Jr. Planetary Chemistry Laboratory Department by Hunten et al. (1983), of Magellan results by Bougher et al. (1997), and atmospheric chemistry on Venus and Ancient Environments Edited by Vivien Gornitz January 2004 #12;2 ATMOSPHERIC EVOLUTION ON VENUS Overview

  14. Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

  15. Proof of the Atmospheric Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Arthur P

    2008-01-01

    A recently advanced argument against the atmospheric greenhouse effect is refuted. A planet without an infrared absorbing atmosphere is mathematically constrained to have an average temperature less than or equal to the effective radiating temperature. Observed parameters for Earth prove that without infrared absorption by the atmosphere, the average temperature of Earth's surface would be at least 33 K lower than what is observed.

  16. Atmospheric composition change - global and regional air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    in urban air. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5, 2881–deep convective system. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 4,processes in atmospheric chemistry. Chemical Society Review

  17. Coupling of nitrous oxide and methane by global atmospheric chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, MJ; Hsu, J

    2010-01-01

    supported by NSF’s Atmospheric Chemistry program (grant ATM-Methane by Global Atmospheric Chemistry Michael J. Prathergas, through atmospheric chemistry that en- hances the

  18. Formation mechanisms and quantification of organic nitrates in atmospheric aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew Waite

    2010-01-01

    and J. Viidanoja, Atmospheric chemistry of c 3 -c 6organic nitrates, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9 (4),organic aerosol yields, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

  19. 1997 Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul H. Wine

    1998-11-23

    DOE's Atmospheric Chemistry Program is providing partial funding for the Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists (ACCESS) and FY 1997 Gordon Research Conference in Atmospheric Chemistry

  20. Trace Formula in Noncommutative Geometry and the Zeros of the Riemann Zeta Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connes, Alain

    Trace Formula in Noncommutative Geometry and the Zeros of the Riemann Zeta Function Alain CONNES interpretation of the explicit formulas of number theory as a trace formula on the noncommutative space of Adele classes. This reduces the Riemann hypothesis to the validity of the trace formula and eliminates

  1. A RELATIVE TRACE FORMULA FOR A COMPACT RIEMANN KIMBALL MARTIN, MARK MCKEE, AND ERIC WAMBACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Kimball

    A RELATIVE TRACE FORMULA FOR A COMPACT RIEMANN SURFACE KIMBALL MARTIN, MARK MCKEE, AND ERIC WAMBACH Abstract. We study a relative trace formula for a compact Riemann surface with respect to a closed geodesic estimates on the lengths of geodesic segments which start and end orthogonally on C. Variant trace formulas

  2. RAY TRACING IN THE SMOOTHED ACOUSTIC SEG/EAGE SALT MODEL.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    RAY TRACING IN THE SMOOTHED ACOUSTIC SEG/EAGE SALT MODEL. PART 1: SEISMOGRAMS V â?? ACLAV BUCHA­waves in the smoothed acoustic SEG/EAGE Salt Model are computed. The shot­receiver configuration is derived from that the smoothed SEG/EAGE Salt Model is suitable for two­point ray tracing. KEY WORDS Velocity model, ray tracing

  3. The effects of shifting modality between study and test: a fuzzy-trace theory analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerkens, David Preston

    2001-01-01

    The present research was designed to test properties of the fuzzy-trace theory memory model. Fuzzy-trace theory is a global memory model that posits that multiple memory traces are formed for every experience. According to the theory there are two...

  4. From GPS Traces to a Routable Road Map Department of Computer Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krumm, John

    pulls together traces that belong on the same road in response to simulated potential energy wellsFrom GPS Traces to a Routable Road Map Lili Cao Department of Computer Science University presents a method for automatically converting raw GPS traces from everyday vehicles into a routable road

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF BENZENE AS A TRACE REACTANT IN TITAN AEROSOL ANALOGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trainer, Melissa G.; Sebree, Joshua A.; Heidi Yoon, Y.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2013-03-20

    Benzene has been detected in Titan's atmosphere by Cassini instruments, with concentrations ranging from sub-ppb in the stratosphere to ppm in the ionosphere. Sustained levels of benzene in the haze formation region could signify that it is an important reactant in the formation of Titan's organic aerosol. To date, there have not been laboratory investigations to assess the influence of benzene on aerosol properties. We report a laboratory study on the chemical composition of organic aerosol formed from C{sub 6}H{sub 6}/CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2} via far ultraviolet irradiation (120-200 nm). The compositional results are compared to those from aerosol generated by a more ''traditional Titan'' mixture of CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2}. Our results show that even a trace amount of C{sub 6}H{sub 6} (10 ppm) has significant impact on the chemical composition and production rates of organic aerosol. There are several pathways by which photolyzed benzene may react to form larger molecules, both with and without the presence of CH{sub 4}, but many of these reaction mechanisms are only beginning to be explored for the conditions at Titan. Continued work investigating the influence of benzene in aerosol growth will advance understanding of this previously unstudied reaction system.

  6. Trace element patterns in lichens following uranium mine closures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fahselt, D.; Wu, T.W.; Mott, B. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada)

    1995-09-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine trace elements in Cladina mitis (Sandst). Hale & Culb. along transects extending from uranium mines at Elliot Lake and Agnew Lake in central Ontario, Canada. Levels of 11 elements were reported and the presence of uranium (U) was confirmed, although U concentrations were much less than in Cladina rangiferina 10 years earlier. Among the elements identified in lichen thalli was Th, which occurred in higher concentrations than U. All trace elements, including the two radionuclides, were found in deteriorating thallus parts as well as living podetia, and five of these seem to have originated as airborne particulates from minesites. In spite of mine closures, levels of Th and U remained higher near sources of ore dust and there was little relationship between radionuclide concentrations in thallus and substrate. 24 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Ray tracing a three dimensional scene using a grid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago; Parker, Steven G; Knoll, Aaron

    2013-02-26

    Ray tracing a three-dimensional scene using a grid. One example embodiment is a method for ray tracing a three-dimensional scene using a grid. In this example method, the three-dimensional scene is made up of objects that are spatially partitioned into a plurality of cells that make up the grid. The method includes a first act of computing a bounding frustum of a packet of rays, and a second act of traversing the grid slice by slice along a major traversal axis. Each slice traversal includes a first act of determining one or more cells in the slice that are overlapped by the frustum and a second act of testing the rays in the packet for intersection with any objects at least partially bounded by the one or more cells overlapped by the frustum.

  8. Fast stereoscopic images with ray-traced volume rendering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adelson, S.J.; Hansen, C.D.

    1994-05-01

    One of the drawbacks of standard volume rendering techniques is that is it often difficult to comprehend the three-dimensional structure of the volume from a single frame; this is especially true in cases where there is no solid surface. Generally, several frames must be generated and viewed sequentially, using motion parallax to relay depth. Another option is to generate a single spectroscopic pair, resulting in clear and unambiguous depth information in both static and moving images. Methods have been developed which take advantage of the coherence between the two halves of a stereo pair for polygon rendering and ray-tracing, generating the second half of the pair in significantly less time than that required to completely render a single image. This paper reports the results of implementing these techniques with parallel ray-traced volume rendering. In tests with different data types, the time savings is in the range of 70--80%.

  9. Stress Tensors from Trace Anomalies in Conformal Field Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher P. Herzog; Kuo-Wei Huang

    2013-04-08

    Using trace anomalies, we determine the vacuum stress tensors of arbitrary even dimensional conformal field theories in Weyl flat backgrounds. We demonstrate a simple relation between the Casimir energy on the real line times a sphere and the type A anomaly coefficient. This relation generalizes earlier results in two and four dimensions. These field theory results for the Casimir are shown to be consistent with holographic predictions in two, four, and six dimensions.

  10. Lyapunov exponents for 2D ray tracing without interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Lyapunov exponents for 2­D ray tracing without interfaces LudŸek KlimeŸs Department of Geophysics@seis.karlov.mff.cuni.cz Summary The Lyapunov exponents asymptotically quantify the exponential divergence of rays. The ``Lyapunov exponent'' for a finite 2­D ray and the average ``Lyapunov exponents'' for a set of finite 2­D rays

  11. Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karamalidis, Athanasios K.; Torres, Sharon G.; Hakala, J. Alexandra; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Carroll, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising, however, possible CO{sub 2} or CO{sub 2}-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define trace metal source terms from the reaction of supercritical CO{sub 2}, storage reservoir brines, reservoir and cap rocks. Storage reservoir source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, basalts and cements from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin – Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution is tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g. pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments due to the presence of CO{sub 2}. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rock exceed the MCLs by an order of magnitude while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the reservoir and caprock source term to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  12. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Design and Engineering of most components in the Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed System was completed prior to September 1992. The components remaining to be designed at that time were: Aerovalves for the Pulse Combustor; Gas and coal injectors for the Pulse Combustor; Lines for PC tailpipes; Air plenum and inlet silencer; Refractory lined hot gas duct connecting outlet hot cyclone to boiler; Structure and platforms, and ladders around PAFBC vessel access and major equipment. Design work is currently in progress on all of the above components. Items 1, 2, 3 and 4 are 50% completed, and items 5 6 are 75% complete.

  13. Molybdenum-based additives to mixed-metal oxides for use in hot gas cleanup sorbents for the catalytic decomposition of ammonia in coal gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayala, Raul E. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to additives to mixed-metal oxides that act simultaneously as sorbents and catalysts in cleanup systems for hot coal gases. Such additives of this type, generally, act as a sorbent to remove sulfur from the coal gases while substantially simultaneously, catalytically decomposing appreciable amounts of ammonia from the coal gases.

  14. Natalie Marie Mahowald Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahowald, Natalie

    in the Community Atmosphere Model: development of framework and impact on radiative forcing, Atmospheric Chemistry, Atmospheric Chemistry and 1 1 Natalie Marie Mahowald Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Professor Director

  15. Evidence for Water in the Atmosphere of HAT-P-26b Using LDSS-3C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Kevin B; Seifahrt, Andreas; Gilbert, Greg; Line, Michael R; Desert, Jean-Michel; Fortney, Jonathan J

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of a physically-diverse set of transiting exoplanets is an important and necessary step towards establishing the physical properties linked to the production of obscuring clouds or hazes. Only planets with identifiable spectroscopic features can effectively enhance our understanding of atmospheric chemistry and metallicity. Using data acquired by the newly-commissioned LDSS-3C instrument on Magellan and the Spitzer Space Telescope, we find evidence for water in the transmission spectrum of the Neptune-mass planet HAT-P-26b. Surprisingly, we detect no trace of potassium. Our measured spectrum is best explained by either a high-metallicity, cloud-free atmosphere or a solar-metallicity atmosphere with a cloud deck at ~10 mbar. The presence of strong spectral features in our data suggests that future observations at higher precision could break this degeneracy and reveal the planet's atmospheric composition. We also update HAT-P-26b's transit ephemeris, t_0 = 2455304.65218(25) BJD_TDB, and or...

  16. Regional Ecosystem-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange Via Atmospheric Budgets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, K.J.; Richardson, S.J.; Miles, N.L.

    2007-03-07

    Inversions of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio measurements to determine CO2 sources and sinks are typically limited to coarse spatial and temporal resolution. This limits our ability to evaluate efforts to upscale chamber- and stand-level CO2 flux measurements to regional scales, where coherent climate and ecosystem mechanisms govern the carbon cycle. As a step towards the goal of implementing atmospheric budget or inversion methodology on a regional scale, a network of five relatively inexpensive CO2 mixing ratio measurement systems was deployed on towers in northern Wisconsin. Four systems were distributed on a circle of roughly 150-km radius, surrounding one centrally located system at the WLEF tower near Park Falls, WI. All measurements were taken at a height of 76 m AGL. The systems used single-cell infrared CO2 analyzers (Licor, model LI-820) rather than the siginificantly more costly two-cell models, and were calibrated every two hours using four samples known to within ± 0.2 ppm CO2. Tests prior to deployment in which the systems sampled the same air indicate the precision of the systems to be better than ± 0.3 ppm and the accuracy, based on the difference between the daily mean of one system and a co-located NOAA-ESRL system, is consistently better than ± 0.3 ppm. We demonstrate the utility of the network in two ways. We interpret regional CO2 differences using a Lagrangian parcel approach. The difference in the CO2 mixing ratios across the network is at least 2?3 ppm, which is large compared to the accuracy and precision of the systems. Fluxes estimated assuming Lagrangian parcel transport are of the same sign and magnitude as eddy-covariance flux measurements at the centrally-located WLEF tower. These results indicate that the network will be useful in a full inversion model. Second, we present a case study involving a frontal passage through the region. The progression of a front across the network is evident; changes as large as four ppm in one minute are captured. Influence functions, derived using a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion model driven by the CSU Regional Atmospheric Modeling System and nudged to NCEP reanalysis meteorological fields, are used to determine source regions for the towers. The influence functions are combined with satellite vegetation observations to interpret the observed trends in CO2 concentration. Full inversions will combine these elements in a more formal analytic framework.

  17. Effect of global warming and increases in atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] on water stress in soybeans during critical reproductive stages: A regional study of Iowa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haskett, J.D.; Pachepsky, Y.A.; Acock, B.

    1997-12-31

    The anthropogenic increase in radiatively active gases in the atmosphere has been well documented. Recently the impact of this increase on the earth`s climate has been confirmed. Agriculture is vulnerable to climatic change, and estimating the likely response to such changes is critical. Many studies of these responses have included soybeans both because they are an important commodity and because they are sensitive to changes in atmospheric CO, concentration. Such studies have generally focused on yield response. While this is critical it does not provide information on the underlying causal link between climate and atmospheric change and changes in soybean yield. The current work examines the impact of climatic change on water stress during the critical periods of soybean reproductive development.

  18. Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mollot, Darren J. (Morgantown, WV); Bonk, Donald L. (Louisville, OH); Dowdy, Thomas E. (Orlando, FL)

    1998-01-01

    Polluting NO.sub.x gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO.sub.x gases are removed is directed to introducing NO.sub.x -free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor.

  19. Methane activation using noble gases in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Sungkwon; Hoon Lee, Dae; Seok Kang, Woo; Song, Young-Hoon

    2013-08-15

    The conversion of methane is measured in a planar-type dielectric barrier discharge reactor using three different noble gases—He, Ne, and Ar—as additives. The empirical results obtained clearly indicate that methane activation is considerably affected by thy type of noble gas used. Through 0-D calculations, the discharge parameters inside the reactor, i.e., electron temperature and electron density, are estimated using experiment results. A comparison of the discharge characteristics and experimental results shows that the electron temperature is an important factor in achieving high methane activation and the mixture with Ar gas shows the highest methane conversion. These results are constructed using the mechanisms of energy and charge transfer from excited and ionized noble gas atoms to methane molecules, considering the number density of active atoms of noble gases. Finally, electron temperatures obtained for gas mixtures having different reactant compositions and concentrations are analyzed to estimate methane activation.

  20. Travelling waves in a mixture of gases with bimolecular reversible reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Rossani; A. M. Scarfone

    2003-12-01

    Starting from the kinetic approach for a mixture of reacting gases whose particles interact through elastic scattering and a bimolecular reversible chemical reaction, the equations that govern the dynamics of the system are obtained by means of the relevant Boltzmann-like equation. Conservation laws are considered. Fluid dynamic approximations are used at the Euler level to obtain a close set of PDEs for six unknown macroscopic fields. The dispersion relation of the mixture of reacting gases is explicitly derived in the homogeneous equilibrium state. A set of ODE that governs the propagation of a plane travelling wave is obtained using the Galilei invariance. After numerical integration some solutions, including the well-known Maxwellian and the hard spheres cases, are found for various meaningful interaction laws. The main macroscopic observables for the gas mixture such as the drift velocity, temperature, total density, pressure and its chemical composition are shown.