Sample records for atmospheric pressure pipeline

  1. Atmospheric Pressure Reactor System | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Pressure Reactor System Atmospheric Pressure Reactor System The atmospheric pressure reactor system is designed for testing the efficiency of various catalysts for the...

  2. ARM - Atmospheric Pressure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearchSOLICITATIONIMODI FICATION OFMaterialsAnnual Reports27,ListAtmospheric

  3. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A .gamma.-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the annular region therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly shaping the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, no ions survive for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  4. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF PRESSURE PULSING PIPELINE UNPLUGGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR HANFORD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Servin, M. A. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Garfield, J. S. [AEM Consulting, LLC (United States); Golcar, G. R. [AEM Consulting, LLC (United States)

    2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to unplug key waste transfer routes is generally essential for successful tank farms operations. All transfer lines run the risk of plugging but the cross site transfer line poses increased risk due to its longer length. The loss of a transfer route needed to support the waste feed delivery mission impacts the cost and schedule of the Hanford clean up mission. This report addresses the engineering feasibility for two pressure pulse technologies, which are similar in concept, for pipeline unplugging.

  5. FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gudmundsson, Jon Steinar

    FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS DETERMINATION DU and Technology, Norway ABSTRACT Pressure drop experiments on natural gas flow at 80 to 120 bar pressure and high of natural gas at typical operating pressures (100-180 bar). At such Reynolds numbers the classical Colebrook

  6. atmospheric pressure ionization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Atmospheric Pressure, in Vivo, and Imaging Mass. For example, atmospheric pressure infrared MALDI (AP IR-MALDI), capable of producing ions from small ionization (DESI),5...

  7. NETL SOFC: Atmospheric Pressure Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Saleshttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gif Directorate -AdvancedMIRTBD525AdaptingWaterTerryAtmospheric

  8. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

  9. Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM); Henins, Ivars (Los Alamos, NM); Babayan, Steve E. (Huntington Beach, CA); Hicks, Robert F. (Los Angeles, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two planar, parallel electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the volume therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly spacing the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, there is a negligible density of ions surviving for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike the situation for low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  10. asme pressure vessels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program & Sensors Hydrogen Delivery Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) Pipeline for Off-Board Hydrogen: L-C Atmosphere: 1500 psi H2, ambient pressure Air...

  11. asme pressure vessel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program & Sensors Hydrogen Delivery Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) Pipeline for Off-Board Hydrogen: L-C Atmosphere: 1500 psi H2, ambient pressure Air...

  12. alloy pressure vessels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program & Sensors Hydrogen Delivery Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) Pipeline for Off-Board Hydrogen: L-C Atmosphere: 1500 psi H2, ambient pressure Air...

  13. alloy pressure vessel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program & Sensors Hydrogen Delivery Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) Pipeline for Off-Board Hydrogen: L-C Atmosphere: 1500 psi H2, ambient pressure Air...

  14. aged pressure vessel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program & Sensors Hydrogen Delivery Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) Pipeline for Off-Board Hydrogen: L-C Atmosphere: 1500 psi H2, ambient pressure Air...

  15. MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTY PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL GRADE API PIPELINE STEELS IN HIGH PRESSURE GASEOUS HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stalheim, Mr. Douglas [DGS Metallurgical Solutions Inc; Boggess, Todd [Secat; San Marchi, Chris [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Jansto, Steven [Reference Metals Company; Somerday, Dr. B [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Muralidharan, Govindarajan [ORNL; Sofronis, Prof. Petros [University of Illinois

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The continued growth of the world s developing countries has placed an ever increasing demand on traditional fossil fuel energy sources. This development has lead to increasing research and development of alternative energy sources. Hydrogen gas is one of the potential alternative energy sources under development. Currently the most economical method of transporting large quantities of hydrogen gas is through steel pipelines. It is well known that hydrogen embrittlement has the potential to degrade steel s mechanical properties when hydrogen migrates into the steel matrix. Consequently, the current pipeline infrastructure used in hydrogen transport is typically operated in a conservative fashion. This operational practice is not conducive to economical movement of significant volumes of hydrogen gas as an alternative to fossil fuels. The degradation of the mechanical properties of steels in hydrogen service is known to depend on the microstructure of the steel. Understanding the levels of mechanical property degradation of a given microstructure when exposed to hydrogen gas under pressure can be used to evaluate the suitability of the existing pipeline infrastructure for hydrogen service and guide alloy and microstructure design for new hydrogen pipeline infrastructure. To this end, the 2 Copyright 2010 by ASME microstructures of relevant steels and their mechanical properties in relevant gaseous hydrogen environments must be fully characterized to establish suitability for transporting hydrogen. A project to evaluate four commercially available pipeline steels alloy/microstructure performance in the presences of gaseous hydrogen has been funded by the US Department of Energy along with the private sector. The microstructures of four pipeline steels were characterized and then tensile testing was conducted in gaseous hydrogen and helium at pressures of 800, 1600 and 3000 psi. Based on measurements of reduction of area, two of the four steels that performed the best across the pressure range were selected for evaluation of fracture and fatigue performance in gaseous hydrogen at 800 and 3000 psi. This paper will describe the work performed on four commercially available pipeline steels in the presence of gaseous hydrogen at pressures relevant for transport in pipelines. Microstructures and mechanical property performances will be compared. In addition, recommendations for future work related to gaining a better understanding of steel pipeline performance in hydrogen service will be discussed.

  16. Pressure Capacity Reduction of X52 Pipeline Steel Damaged by a Semi-Elliptical Pitting Corrosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. M. Kazerouni Sangi; Y. Gholipour

    Abstract—Steel made pipelines with different diameters are used for transmitting oil and gas which in many cases are buried in soil under the sea bed or immersed in sea water. External corrosion of pipes is an important form of deterioration due to the aggressive environment of sea water. Corrosion normally results in pits. Hence, using the finite element method, namely ABAQUS software, this paper estimates the amount of pressure capacity reduction of a pipecontaining a semi-elliptical pitting corrosion and the rate of corrosion during the pipeline life of 25 years.

  17. Pipelines (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section regulates pipelines that are used to carry natural or synthetic gas at a pressure of more than 90 pounds per square inch, along with pipelines used to carry petroleum products and coal...

  18. The electrodeless discharge at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laroussi, M.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently the generation and applications of atmospheric pressure plasmas received increased interest in the plasma research community. Applications such as the surface modification of materials, and the decontamination of matter have been under investigation. In this context, the authors introduce a new means of generating an atmospheric pressure discharge, which is suitable for use in the above-mentioned applications, and in the treatment of undesirable or polluting gases, such as VOC's. This device is a capacitively coupled discharge. It is basically made of a non-conducting tube with two independent loops of wire wrapped around it, and separated by a distance d. A stable discharge is generated inside the tube when an AC voltage of few hundred volts to few kilovolts, at a frequency of few kilohertz, is applied between the loops. One end of the tube is completely open to the outside air, and a seed gas (generally a noble gas such as Helium) is introduced in the tube. The plasma generated with this method is weakly ionized, cold, and is maintained by a relatively low input power (few tens of watts, depending on the size of the tube). In this paper, the discharge electrical characteristics, its radiation emission characteristics, and the measurement of relevant plasma parameters will be presented.

  19. Freight pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H. (University of Missouri, Columbia, MO (US)); Round, G.F. (McMaster University (CA))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book presents papers on slurry pipelines, pneumatic pipelines, capsule pipelines, pipeline education, and pipeline research.

  20. a533b pressure vessel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program & Sensors Hydrogen Delivery Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) Pipeline for Off-Board Hydrogen: L-C Atmosphere: 1500 psi H2, ambient pressure Air...

  1. atmospheric pressure corona: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric conditions. Our module is capable of measuring temperature, pressure, wind speed, and particle concentration. The module will take measurements every minute and the...

  2. atmospheric pressure plasmas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric conditions. Our module is capable of measuring temperature, pressure, wind speed, and particle concentration. The module will take measurements every minute and the...

  3. atmospheric pressure measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric conditions. Our module is capable of measuring temperature, pressure, wind speed, and particle concentration. The module will take measurements every minute and the...

  4. atmospheric pressure radio: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric conditions. Our module is capable of measuring temperature, pressure, wind speed, and particle concentration. The module will take measurements every minute and the...

  5. atmospheric pressure plasma: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric conditions. Our module is capable of measuring temperature, pressure, wind speed, and particle concentration. The module will take measurements every minute and the...

  6. atmospheric pressure field: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric conditions. Our module is capable of measuring temperature, pressure, wind speed, and particle concentration. The module will take measurements every minute and the...

  7. atmospheres pressure mixed: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 12 - 21% Oxygen - 1% other gases (argon,...

  8. atmospheric pressure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 12 - 21% Oxygen - 1% other gases (argon,...

  9. atmospheric pressure hf: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 12 - 21% Oxygen - 1% other gases (argon,...

  10. atmospheric pressure photoionization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 12 - 21% Oxygen - 1% other gases (argon,...

  11. atmospheric pressure argon: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 12 - 21% Oxygen - 1% other gases (argon,...

  12. atmospheric pressure nitrogen: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 12 - 21% Oxygen - 1% other gases (argon,...

  13. atmospheric pressure direct: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 12 - 21% Oxygen - 1% other gases (argon,...

  14. atmospheric pressure cvd: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 12 - 21% Oxygen - 1% other gases (argon,...

  15. atmospheric pressure glow: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 12 - 21% Oxygen - 1% other gases (argon,...

  16. atmospheric pressure photoionisation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 12 - 21% Oxygen - 1% other gases (argon,...

  17. atmospheric pressure microdischarge: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 12 - 21% Oxygen - 1% other gases (argon,...

  18. atmospheric pressure cell: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 12 - 21% Oxygen - 1% other gases (argon,...

  19. atmospheric pressure maldi: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 12 - 21% Oxygen - 1% other gases (argon,...

  20. Numerical solutions for determining wave-induced pressure distributions around buried pipelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, Ngok-Wai

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Committee: Dr. Richard. F. Dominguez Numerical models using both the finite difference and i'inite element technique are developed to simulate the interaction of a two-dimensional pipe-soil-wave system. The wave-induced pressure distribution in the soil... in the soil media in the immediate vicinity of the pipelines. Numerical models using both the finite difference and. finite element technique are developed to simulate the pipe-soil-wave system. The dynamic damping of wave pressure through soil sediment...

  1. Stability measurements of PPL atmospheric pressure arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roquemore, L.; Zweben, S.J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Wurden, G.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments on the stability of atmospheric pressure arcs have been started at PPL to understand and improve the performance of arc furnaces used for processing applications in metallurgy and hazardous waste treatment. Previous studies have suggested that the violent instabilities in such arcs may be due to kink modes. A 30 kW, 500 Amp CW DC experimental arc furnace was constructed with a graphite cathode and a molten steel anode. The arc plasma is diagnosed with 4000 frames/sec digital camera, Hall probes, and voltage and current monitors. Under certain conditions, the arc exhibits an intermittent helical instability, with the helix rotating at {approx}600 Hz. The nature of the instability is investigated. A possible instability mechanism is the self-magnetic field of the arc, with saturation occurring due to inhomogeneous heating in a helical arc. The effect of external DC and AC magnetic fields on the instability is investigated. Additionally, arc deflection due to external transverse magnetic field is investigated. The deflection angle is found to be proportional to the applied field, and is in good agreement with a simple model of the {rvec J} x {rvec b} force on the arc jet.

  2. Nitrogen Atmospheric Pressure Post Discharges for Surface Biological Decontamination inside

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Nitrogen Atmospheric Pressure Post Discharges for Surface Biological Decontamination inside Small) (PET) capillary tubes of different shapes and lengths and decontamination of flow tubes, both for several years at the Orsay Plasma Lab. Its biological decontamination efficiency has been demonstrated

  3. A simplified system of pressure surfaces for atmospheric analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shay, Francis Schofield

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LIBRARY A g M COLLEGE OF TEXAS A SIMPLIFIED SYSTEM OF PRESSURE SURFACES FOR ATMOSPHERIC ANALYSIS A Thesis By FRANCIS S. SHAY + Captain USAF Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OP SCIENCE May 1959 Major Subject: Meteorology A SIMPLIFIED SYSTEM OF PRESSURE SURFACES FOR ATMOSPHERIC ANALYSIS A Thesis By FRANCIS S. SHAY Captain USAF jpp roved j as to style and content...

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric pressure helium-oxygen Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Copyright permission to reproduce figures andor text from this article 12;Remote Atmospheric-Pressure... ) were treated with an atmospheric-pressure oxygen and...

  5. Atmospheric pressure helium afterglow discharge detector for gas chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rice, Gary (Gloucester, VA); D'Silva, Arthur P. (Ames, IA); Fassel, Velmer A. (Ames, IA)

    1986-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for providing a simple, low-frequency electrodeless discharge system for atmospheric pressure afterglow generation. A single quartz tube through which a gas mixture is passed is extended beyond a concentric electrode positioned thereabout. A grounding rod is placed directly above the tube outlet to permit optical viewing of the discharge between the electrodes.

  6. Atmospheric pressure helium afterglow discharge detector for gas chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rice, G.; D'Silva, A.P.; Fassel, V.A.

    1985-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for providing a simple, low-frequency, electrodeless discharge system for atmospheric pressure afterglow generation. A single quartz tube through which a gas mixture is passed is extended beyond a concentric electrode positioned thereabout. A grounding rod is placed directly above the tube outlet to permit optical viewing of the discharge between the electrodes.

  7. Atmospheric-pressure guided streamers for liposomal membrane disruption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svarnas, P.; Aleiferis, Sp. [High Voltage Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Patras, Rion 26504 (Greece); Matrali, S. H. [Pharmaceutical Technology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, Rion 26504 (Greece); Gazeli, K. [High Voltage Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Patras, Rion 26504 (Greece); IPREM-LCABIE, Plasmas et Applications, UPPA, 64000 Pau (France); Clement, F. [IPREM-LCABIE, Plasmas et Applications, UPPA, 64000 Pau (France); Antimisiaris, S. G. [Pharmaceutical Technology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, Rion 26504 (Greece); Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (ICES)-FORTH, Rion 26504 (Greece)

    2012-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential to use liposomes (LIPs) as a cellular model in order to study interactions of cold atmospheric-pressure plasma with cells is herein investigated. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma is formed by a dielectric-barrier discharge reactor. Large multilamellar vesicle liposomes, consisted of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, are prepared by the thin film hydration technique, to encapsulate a small hydrophilic dye, i.e., calcein. The plasma-induced release of calcein from liposomes is then used as a measure of liposome membrane integrity and, consequently, interaction between the cold atmospheric plasma and lipid bilayers. Physical mechanisms leading to membrane disruption are suggested, based on the plasma characterization including gas temperature calculation.

  8. Cellular membrane collapse by atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Kangil; Sik Yang, Sang, E-mail: jsjlee@ajou.ac.kr, E-mail: ssyang@ajou.ac.kr [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jun Ahn, Hak; Lee, Jong-Soo, E-mail: jsjlee@ajou.ac.kr, E-mail: ssyang@ajou.ac.kr [Department of Biological Sciences, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biological Sciences, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Jae-Ho [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellular membrane dysfunction caused by air plasma in cancer cells has been studied to exploit atmospheric-pressure plasma jets for cancer therapy. Here, we report that plasma jet treatment of cervical cancer HeLa cells increased electrical conductivity across the cellular lipid membrane and caused simultaneous lipid oxidation and cellular membrane collapse. We made this finding by employing a self-manufactured microelectrode chip. Furthermore, increased roughness of the cellular lipid membrane and sequential collapse of the membrane were observed by atomic force microscopy following plasma jet treatment. These results suggest that the cellular membrane catastrophe occurs via coincident altered electrical conductivity, lipid oxidation, and membrane roughening caused by an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet, possibly resulting in cellular vulnerability to reactive species generated from the plasma as well as cytotoxicity to cancer cells.

  9. Preparation of nanodiamonds from carbon nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamali, Ali Reza; Fray, Derek J.

    2015-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    2012, Accepted 00th January 2012 DOI: 10.1039/x0xx00000x www.rsc.org/ Preparation of nanodiamonds from carbon nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure Ali Reza Kamalia, Derek J. Fraya A route for producing diamond nanocrystals is reported... into the graphite between the layers of graphite/graphene under the influence of the cathodic potential. The electrolysis reaction can be expressed as: 2Li+ + Cl- = 2Li (at the cathode) + Cl2 (at the anode) ?G°800° C = 650.8kJ (1). Although the diameter...

  10. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma as an antifungal therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Peng; Wu Haiyan [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Sun Yi; Liu Wei; Li Ruoyu [Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Peking Univ. 1st Hospital and Research Center for Medical Mycology, Peking Univ., Beijing 100034 (China); Zhu Weidong; Lopez, Jose L. [Department of Applied Science and Technology and Center for Microplasma Science and Technology, Saint Peter's College, Jersey City, New Jersey 07306 (United States); Zhang Jue; Fang Jing [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A microhollow cathode based, direct-current, atmospheric pressure, He/O{sub 2} (2%) cold plasma microjet was used to inactive antifungal resistants Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Candida glabrata in air and in water. Effective inactivation (>90%) was achieved in 10 min in air and 1 min in water. Antifungal susceptibility tests showed drastic reduction of the minimum inhibitory concentration after plasma treatment. The inactivation was attributed to the reactive oxygen species generated in plasma or in water. Hydroxyl and singlet molecular oxygen radicals were detected in plasma-water system by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. This approach proposed a promising clinical dermatology therapy.

  11. Electron kinetics in a microdischarge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levko, Dmitry [LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France)] [LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France)

    2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron kinetics during a microdischarge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure is studied using the one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell/Monte Carlo Collisions model. It is obtained that the electron energy distribution function can be divided into three parts, namely, the non-equilibrium low-energy part, the Maxwellian function at moderate energies, and the high-energy tail. Simulation results showed that the role of the high-energy tail of electron energy distribution increases, when the distance between electrodes increases.

  12. Electrical characteristics and formation mechanism of atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Lijuan; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Weijing; Meng, Ying; Ouyang, Jiting, E-mail: jtouyang@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of atmospheric pressure plasma jet produced by a coplanar dielectric barrier discharge in helium in external electrostatic and magnetic field is investigated. Net negative charges in the plasma jet outside the tube were detected. The deflection of the plume in the external field was observed. The plasma jet is suggested to be formed by the electron beam from the temporal cathode which is accelerated by a longitudinal field induced by the surface charges on the dielectric tube or interface between the helium and ambient air. The helium flow is necessary for the jet formation in the surrounding air.

  13. Driven Motion and Instability of an Atmospheric Pressure Arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Max Karasik

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric pressure arcs are used extensively in applications such as welding and metallurgy. However, comparatively little is known of the physics of such arcs in external magnetic fields and the mechanisms of the instabilities present. In order to address questions of equilibrium and stability of such arcs, an experimental arc furnace is constructed and operated in air with graphite cathode and steel anode at currents 100-250 A. The arc is diagnosed with a gated intensified camera and a collimated photodiode array, as well as fast voltage and current probes.

  14. Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is alwaysISOSource HeatEnergy Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for

  15. Etching process of silicon dioxide with nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamakawa, Koji; Hori, Masaru; Goto, Toshio; Den, Shoji; Katagiri, Toshirou; Kano, Hiroyuki [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-Cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Nagoya University, Furo-Cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-Cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Department of Engineering, Katagiri Engineering Co., Ltd., Minamikase Saiwai-ku, Kawasaki 661-8661 (Japan); NU-EcoEngineering Co., Ltd., Ooaza, Kurozasa Aza, Umazutsumi, Miyoshi-cho, Nishikamo-gun, Aichi 470-0201 (Japan)

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrahigh etch rate (14 {mu}m/min) of SiO{sub 2} and a high selectivity of SiO{sub 2}/Si over 200 were achieved using a microwave-excited nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma source employing He, NF{sub 3}, and H{sub 2}O gases, which have been developed for application to microelectromechanical systems and other bionanotechnology fields. In order to clarify the etching mechanism, two diagnostic methods have been performed: (1) imaging of plasma emission with an intensified charge-coupled device camera, and (2) absorption measurements using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The etching characteristics are discussed in relation to the spatial distributions of the species involved. The etch rate depended considerably on the distance between the plasma and the substrate. Some radicals generated from the feed gases reached the substrate directly, while other radicals recombined into different species, which reached the substrate. An abundance of HF molecules were produced through a reaction between radicals generated by the atmospheric pressure discharge of NF{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O. From these measurements, it has been found that the HF molecules generated played a role in producing the high etch rate of SiO{sub 2} and high etch selectivity of SiO{sub 2}/Si.

  16. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Cleaning of Contaminated Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert F. Hicks; Hans W. Herrmann

    2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate a practical, environmentally benigh technology for the surface decontamination and decommissioning of radioactive waste. A low temperature, atmospheric pressure plasma has been developed with initial support from the DOE, Environmental Management Sciences Program. This devise selectively etches radioactive metals from surfaces, rendering objects radiation free and suitable for decommissioning. The volatile reaction products are captured on filters, which yields a tremendous reduction in the volume of the waste. The technology shows a great potential for accelerating the clean-up effort for the equipment and structures contaminated with radioactive materials within the DOE complex. The viability of this technology has been demonstrated by selectively and rapidly stripping uranium from stainless steel surfaces at low temperature. Studies on uranium oxide have shown that etch rates of 4.0 microns per minute can be achieved at temperature below 473 K. Over the past three years, we have made numerous improvements in the design of the atmospheric pressure plasma source. We are now able to scale up the plasma source to treat large surface areas.

  17. Atmospheric-pressure plasma decontamination/sterilization chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herrmann, Hans W. (Los Alamos, NM); Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric-pressure plasma decontamination/sterilization chamber is described. The apparatus is useful for decontaminating sensitive equipment and materials, such as electronics, optics and national treasures, which have been contaminated with chemical and/or biological warfare agents, such as anthrax, mustard blistering agent, VX nerve gas, and the like. There is currently no acceptable procedure for decontaminating such equipment. The apparatus may also be used for sterilization in the medical and food industries. Items to be decontaminated or sterilized are supported inside the chamber. Reactive gases containing atomic and metastable oxygen species are generated by an atmospheric-pressure plasma discharge in a He/O.sub.2 mixture and directed into the region of these items resulting in chemical reaction between the reactive species and organic substances. This reaction typically kills and/or neutralizes the contamination without damaging most equipment and materials. The plasma gases are recirculated through a closed-loop system to minimize the loss of helium and the possibility of escape of aerosolized harmful substances.

  18. atmospheric pressure surface: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K. 27 Ch4. Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances Geosciences Websites Summary: Greenhouse Effect and Atmospheric Warming Atmosphere absorbs heat energy A real greenhouse traps...

  19. Optical emission spectroscopy of atmospheric pressure microwave plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia Haijun; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Michio [Research Center for Photovoltaics (RCPVs), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Kuraseko, Hiroshi [Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., Production Technology Development Center, 6 Yawata-Kaigandori, Chiba 290-8555 (Japan)

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The optical emission behaviors of Ar, He, and Ar+He plasmas generated in air using an atmospheric pressure microwave plasma source have been studied employing optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Emissions from various source gas species and air were observed. The variations in the intensities and intensity ratios of specific emissions as functions of the microwave power and gas flow rate were analyzed to investigate the relationship between the emission behavior and the plasma properties. We find that dependence of the emission behavior on the input microwave power is mainly determined by variations in electron density and electron temperature in the plasmas. On the other hand, under different gas flow rate conditions, changes in the density of the source gas atoms also significantly affect the emissions. Interestingly, when plasma is generated using an Ar+He mixture, emissions from excited He atoms disappear while a strong H{sub {alpha}} signal appears. The physics behind these behaviors is discussed in detail.

  20. Controlled Microdroplet Transport in an Atmospheric Pressure Microplasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maguire, P D; Kelsey, C P; Bingham, A; Montgomery, E P; Bennet, E D; Potts, H E; Rutherford, D; McDowell, D A; Diver, D A; Mariotti, D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the controlled injection of near-isolated micron-sized liquid droplets into a low temperature He-Ne steady-state rf plasma at atmospheric pressure. The H2O droplet stream is constrained within a 2 mm diameter quartz tube. Imaging at the tube exit indicates a log-normal droplet size distribution with an initial count mean diameter of 15 micrometers falling to 13 micrometers with plasma exposure. The radial velocity profile is approximately parabolic indicating near laminar flow conditions with the majority of droplets travelling at >75% of the local gas speed and having a plasma transit time of < 100 microseconds. The maximum gas temperature, determined from nitrogen spectral lines, was below 400 K and the observed droplet size reduction implies additional factors beyond standard evaporation, including charge and surface chemistry effects. The successful demonstration of controlled microdroplet streams opens up possibilities for gas-phase microreactors and remote delivery of active species for pla...

  1. Phenomena of oscillations in atmospheric pressure direct current glow discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Fu-cheng [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)] [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Yan, Wen; Wang, De-zhen [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-sustained oscillations in a dc glow discharge with a semiconductor layer at atmospheric pressure were investigated by means of a one-dimensional fluid model. It is found that the dc glow discharge initially becomes unstable in the subnormal glow region and gives rise to oscillations of plasma parameters. A variety of oscillations with one or more frequencies have been observed under different conditions. The discharge oscillates between the glow discharge mode and the Townsend discharge mode in the oscillations with large amplitude while operates in the subnormal glow discharge mode all the while in the oscillations with small amplitude. Fourier Transform spectra of oscillations reveal the transition mechanism between different oscillations. The effects of semiconductor conductivity on the oscillation frequency of the dominant mode, gas voltage, as well as the discharge current have also been analyzed.

  2. The influence of atmospheric pressure on landfill methane emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czepiel, P.M.; Shorter, J.H.; Mosher, B.; Allwine, E.; McManus, J.B.; Harriss, R.C.; Kolb, C.E.; Lamb, B.K

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfills are the largest source of anthropogenic methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions to the atmosphere in the United States. However, few measurements of whole landfill CH{sub 4} emissions have been reported. Here, we present the results of a multi-season study of whole landfill CH{sub 4} emissions using atmospheric tracer methods at the Nashua, New Hampshire Municipal landfill in the northeastern United States. The measurement data include 12 individual emission tests, each test consisting of 5-8 plume measurements. Measured emissions were negatively correlated with surface atmospheric pressure and ranged from 7.3 to 26.5 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} min{sup -1}. A simple regression model of our results was used to calculate an annual emission rate of 8.4x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} year{sup -1}. These data, along with CH{sub 4} oxidation estimates based on emitted landfill gas isotopic characteristics and gas collection data, were used to estimate annual CH{sub 4} generation at this landfill. A reported gas collection rate of 7.1x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} year{sup -1} and an estimated annual rate of CH{sub 4} oxidation by cover soils of 1.2x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} year{sup -1} resulted in a calculated annual CH{sub 4} generation rate of 16.7x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} year{sup -1}. These results underscore the necessity of understanding a landfill's dynamic environment before assessing long-term emissions potential.

  3. Laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) for atmospheric pressure, In vivo, and imaging mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos (Reston, VA); Nemes, Peter (Silver Spring, MD)

    2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation (LA) with electrospray ionization (ESI).

  4. Laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) for atmospheric pressure, in vivo, and imaging mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).

  5. Laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) for atmospheric pressure, in vivo, and imaging mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter

    2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).

  6. atmospheric pressure radio-frequency: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric conditions. Our module is capable of measuring temperature, pressure, wind speed, and particle concentration. The module will take measurements every minute and...

  7. atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 12 - 21% Oxygen - 1% other gases (argon,...

  8. Flammability Characteristics of Hydrogen and Its Mixtures with Light Hydrocarbons at Atmospheric and Sub-atmospheric Pressures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le, Thuy Minh Hai

    2013-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    /vapor. This research focuses on the flammability limits of hydrogen and its binary mixtures with light hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, n-butane, and ethylene) at sub-atmospheric pressures. The flammability limits of hydrogen, light hydrocarbons, and binary mixtures...

  9. Flammability Characteristics of Hydrogen and Its Mixtures with Light Hydrocarbons at Atmospheric and Sub-atmospheric Pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le, Thuy Minh Hai

    2013-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    /vapor. This research focuses on the flammability limits of hydrogen and its binary mixtures with light hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, n-butane, and ethylene) at sub-atmospheric pressures. The flammability limits of hydrogen, light hydrocarbons, and binary mixtures...

  10. Influence of dissociative recombination on the LTE of argon high-frequency plasmas at atmospheric pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    at atmospheric pressure A. Sáinz1 , J. Margot2 , M. C. García1 , M. D. Calzada1 1 Grupo de Espectroscopía de influencing its analytical performances are the electron density (ne) and temperature (Te), as well as the gas+ ) are also expected to play an important role in the discharge kinetics. At atmospheric pressure

  11. Pulsed, atmospheric pressure plasma source for emission spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duan, Yixiang; Jin, Zhe; Su, Yongxuan

    2004-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-power, plasma source-based, portable molecular light emission generator/detector employing an atmospheric pressure pulsed-plasma for molecular fragmentation and excitation is described. The average power required for the operation of the plasma is between 0.02 W and 5 W. The features of the optical emission spectra obtained with the pulsed plasma source are significantly different from those obtained with direct current (dc) discharge higher power; for example, strong CH emission at 431.2 nm which is only weakly observed with dc plasma sources was observed, and the intense CN emission observed at 383-388 nm using dc plasma sources was weak in most cases. Strong CN emission was only observed using the present apparatus when compounds containing nitrogen, such as aniline were employed as samples. The present apparatus detects dimethylsulfoxide at 200 ppb using helium as the plasma gas by observing the emission band of the CH radical. When coupled with a gas chromatograph for separating components present in a sample to be analyzed, the present invention provides an apparatus for detecting the arrival of a particular component in the sample at the end of the chromatographic column and the identity thereof.

  12. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental study of the effect of atmospheric pressure on the ice point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey, A. H. [Thermophysical Properties Division National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado (United States)] [Thermophysical Properties Division National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado (United States); McLinden, M. O. [Thermophysical Properties Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado (United States)] [Thermophysical Properties Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Tew, W. L. [Sensor Science Division National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States)] [Sensor Science Division National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States)

    2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed thermodynamic analysis of the temperature of the ice point as a function of atmospheric pressure. This analysis makes use of accurate international standards for the properties of water and ice, and of available high-accuracy data for the Henry's constants of atmospheric gases in liquid water. The result is an ice point of 273.150 019(5) K at standard atmospheric pressure, with higher ice-point temperatures (varying nearly linearly with pressure) at lower pressures. The effect of varying ambient CO{sub 2} concentration is analyzed and found to be significant in comparison to other uncertainties in the model. The thermodynamic analysis is compared with experimental measurements of the temperature difference between the ice point and the triple point of water performed at elevations ranging from 145 m to 4302 m, with atmospheric pressures from 101 kPa to 60 kPa.

  13. atmospheric pressure phenomena: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and structure compared well by atmospheric bores and solitons strongly depend upon the life cycle of these phenomena. 1. Introduction One Geerts, Bart 344 Flight Path Planning...

  14. atmospheric pressure study: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Explosion At The Polar Arctic Sunrise Physics (arXiv) Summary: We attempt is to provide accumulated evidence and qualitative understanding of the associated atmospheric phenomena...

  15. Transitions between corona, glow, and spark regimes of nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges in air at atmospheric pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of large volume, low power, high chemical reactivity, and low gas temperature. At atmospheric pressure in air at atmospheric pressure David Z. Pai,a Deanna A. Lacoste, and Christophe O. Laux Laboratoire EM2C January 2010; published online 6 May 2010 In atmospheric pressure air preheated from 300 to 1000 K

  16. Modeling the barotropic response of the global ocean to atmospheric wind and pressure forcing -comparisons with observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling the barotropic response of the global ocean to atmospheric wind and pressure forcing] A global simulation of the ocean response to atmospheric wind and pressure forcing has been run during the barotropic response of the global ocean to atmospheric wind and pressure forcing - comparisons

  17. PID control of gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coltharp, B.; Bergmann, J. [Baker CAC, Kingwood, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of low cost digital controllers for pipeline control is increasing as the reliability and cost improves. In pipeline applications, the proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) controller algorithm is often used. However, the unique problems associated with pipeline operation have caused manufacturers to modify the basic control algorithms. Features such as set point ramping, built in pressure control, freeze on input error, and high and low output limits help assure safe and predictable pipeline operation.

  18. atmospheric pressure chemical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    small ancient craters2 Geosciences Websites Summary: by P via direct and indirect greenhouse effects2-6 . The13 size of craters embedded within ancient by atmospheric effects9...

  19. atmospheric pressure cold: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    equatorial cold tongue mode attains its maximum Haak, Hein 16 FLOWS OF MASS, MOMENTUM AND ENERGY IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE A SOHOORIENTED VIEW OF COLD LOOPS Physics Websites Summary:...

  20. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of TiN from tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium and ammonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of titanium in a nitrogen atmosphere forms TiN with only a slight dependence on substrate temperatureAtmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of TiN from tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium, Massachusetts 02138 (Received 15 December 1994; accepted 28 October 1995) Near stoichiometric titanium nitride

  1. atmospheric pressure air: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and power for a given heat transfer capability and ambient temperature in an air motorcompressor to achieve a given pressure ratio. It is shown that the optimal frontier is...

  2. atmospheric pressure pulsed: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P (T -aH)T (T... Shay, Francis Schofield 2012-06-07 79 Effect of Electromagnetic Pulse Transverse Inhomogeneity on the Ion Acceleration by Radiation Pressure CERN Preprints...

  3. Characteristics of radio-frequency atmospheric pressure dielectric-barrier discharge with dielectric electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussain, S., E-mail: shussain@uos.edu.pk, E-mail: shussainuos@yahoo.com; Qazi, H. I. A.; Badar, M. A. [Department of Physics, University of Sargodha, 40100 Sargodha (Pakistan)] [Department of Physics, University of Sargodha, 40100 Sargodha (Pakistan)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental investigation to characterize the properties and highlight the benefits of atmospheric pressure radio-frequency dielectric-barrier discharge (rf DBD) with dielectric electrodes fabricated by anodizing aluminium substrate is presented. The current-voltage characteristics and millisecond images are used to distinguish the ? and ? modes. This atmospheric rf DBD is observed to retain the discharge volume without constriction in ? mode. Optical emission spectroscopy demonstrates that the large discharge current leads to more abundant reactive species in this plasma source.

  4. Experimental study on the emission spectra of microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Boya; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Guixin, E-mail: guixin@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liao, Shanshan [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shenzhen Power Supply Co. Ltd., Shenzhen 518000, Guangdong (China)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study on microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure was conducted by employing optical emission spectroscopy. Based on a microwave plasma generation device developed for nanoparticle synthesis, we studied the influence of input microwave power and gas flow rate on the optical emission behaviors and electron temperature of plasma using Ar, He, and N{sub 2} as working gas, respectively. The physics behind these behaviors was discussed. The results are useful in characterizing microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure and can be used for improving nanoparticle synthesis system for commercial use in the future.

  5. Columnar discharge mode between parallel dielectric barrier electrodes in atmospheric pressure helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, Yanpeng; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Yaoge [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)] [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a fast-gated intensified charge-coupled device, end- and side-view photographs were taken of columnar discharge between parallel dielectric barrier electrodes in atmospheric pressure helium. Based on three-dimensional images generated from end-view photographs, the number of discharge columns increased, whereas the diameter of each column decreased as the applied voltage was increased. Side-view photographs indicate that columnar discharges exhibited a mode transition ranging from Townsend to glow discharges generated by the same discharge physics as atmospheric pressure glow discharge.

  6. Striated microdischarges in an asymmetric barrier discharge in argon at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoder, Tomas; Loffhagen, Detlef; Wilke, Christian; Grosch, Helge; Schaefer, Jan; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Brandenburg, Ronny [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The investigation of striated microdischarges in barrier discharges in argon at atmospheric pressure is reported. Microdischarges were investigated by means of electrical measurements correlated with intensified CCD camera imaging. The scaling law theory known from low-pressure glow discharge diagnostics was applied in order to describe and explain this phenomenon. The investigated microdischarge is characterized as a transient atmospheric-pressure glow discharge with a stratified column. It can be described by similarity parameters i/r{approx_equal}0.13 A/cm, pr{approx_equal}5 Torr cm, and 3<{lambda}/r<5 with the current i, pressure p, interval of subsequent striations {lambda}, and radius of the plasma channel r. An attempt to describe the mechanism of creation of a striated structure is given, based on an established model of the spatial electron relaxation.

  7. Role of trace impurities in large-volume noble gas atmospheric-pressure glow discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    Role of trace impurities in large-volume noble gas atmospheric-pressure glow discharges Xiaohui. Large-volume APG discharges find numerous applications in processing of material surfaces,1 ozone-purity helium is presented, and the role of trace impurities in such noble gas plasmas is established. Trace

  8. Atmospheric pressure intercalation of oxygen via wrinkles between graphene and a metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Atmospheric pressure intercalation of oxygen via wrinkles between graphene and a metal Amina with graphene, an atomically thin sheet of carbon atoms in a honeycomb lattice. These prospects are urging, has reached such maturity that graphene now appears as an alternative to indium tin oxide

  9. Radio frequency induced ionized collisional flow model for application at atmospheric pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Subrata

    Radio frequency induced ionized collisional flow model for application at atmospheric pressures and radio frequency (rf) induced plasma-sheath dynamics, using multifluid equations. For the former, argon inherent in nonequilibrium discharges such as obtained through radio frequency (rf) or microwave excitation

  10. Relation between plasma plume density and gas flow velocity in atmospheric pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Taka, Shogo; Ogura, Kazuo [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied atmospheric pressure plasma generated using a quartz tube, helium gas, and copper foil electrode by applying RF high voltage. The atmospheric pressure plasma in the form of a bullet is released as a plume into the atmosphere. To study the properties of the plasma plume, the plasma plume current is estimated from the difference in currents on the circuit, and the drift velocity is measured using a photodetector. The relation of the plasma plume density n{sub plu}, which is estimated from the current and the drift velocity, and the gas flow velocity v{sub gas} is examined. It is found that the dependence of the density on the gas flow velocity has relations of n{sub plu} ? log(v{sub gas}). However, the plasma plume density in the laminar flow is higher than that in the turbulent flow. Consequently, in the laminar flow, the density increases with increasing the gas flow velocity.

  11. GAS PIPELINE PIGABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ted Clark; Bruce Nestleroth

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In-line inspection equipment is commonly used to examine a large portion of the long distance transmission pipeline system that transports natural gas from well gathering points to local distribution companies. A piece of equipment that is inserted into a pipeline and driven by product flow is called a ''pig''. Using this term as a base, a set of terms has evolved. Pigs that are equipped with sensors and data recording devices are called ''intelligent pigs''. Pipelines that cannot be inspected using intelligent pigs are deemed ''unpigable''. But many factors affect the passage of a pig through a pipeline, or the ''pigability''. The pigability pipeline extend well beyond the basic need for a long round hole with a means to enter and exit. An accurate assessment of pigability includes consideration of pipeline length, attributes, pressure, flow rate, deformation, cleanliness, and other factors as well as the availability of inspection technology. All factors must be considered when assessing the appropriateness of ILI to assess specific pipeline threats.

  12. Sulfur capture by oil shale ashes under atmospheric and pressurized FBC conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yrjas, K.P.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kuelaots, I.; Ots, A. [Tallinn Technical Univ. (Estonia). Thermal Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    When oil shale contains large quantities of limestone, a significant auto-absorption of sulfur is possible under suitable conditions. The sulfur capture by oil shale ashes has been studied using a pressurized thermogravimetric apparatus. The chosen experimental conditions were typical for atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed combustion. The Ca/S molar ratios in the two oil shales studied were 8 (Estonian) and 10 (Israeli). The samples were first burned in a gas atmosphere containing O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} (and CO{sub 2} if pressurized). After the combustion step, SO{sub 2} was added and sulfation started. The results with the oil shales were compared to those obtained with an oil shale cyclone ash from the Narva power plant in Estonia. In general, the results from the sulfur capture experiments under both atmospheric and pressurized conditions showed that the oil shale cannot only capture its own sulfur but also significant amounts of additional sulfur of another fuel if the fuels are mixed together. For example from the runs at atmospheric pressure, the conversion of CaO to CaSO{sub 4} was about 70% for Israeli oil shale and about 55% for Estonian oil shale (850 C). For the cyclone ash the corresponding conversion was about 20%. In comparison it could be mentioned that under the same conditions the conversions of natural limestones are about 30%. The reason the cyclone ash was a poor sulfur absorbent was probably due to its temperature history. In Narva the oil shale was burned at a significantly higher temperature (1,400 C) than was used in the experiments (750 C and 850 C). This caused the ash to sinter and the reactive surface area of the cyclone ash was therefore decreased.

  13. Atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition web coating with in situ monitoring of film thickness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yersak, Alexander S.; Lee, Yung C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, 1045 Regent Drive, 422 UCB, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0422 (United States); Spencer, Joseph A.; Groner, Markus D., E-mail: mgroner@aldnanosolutions.com [ALD NanoSolutions, Inc., 580 Burbank Street, Unit 100, Broomfield, Colorado 80020 (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectral reflectometry was implemented as a method for in situ thickness monitoring in a spatial atomic layer deposition (ALD) system. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were grown on a moving polymer web substrate at 100?°C using an atmospheric pressure ALD web coating system, with film growth of 0.11–0.13?nm/cycle. The modular coating head design and the in situ monitoring allowed for the characterization and optimization of the trimethylaluminum and water precursor exposures, purge flows, and web speed. A thickness uniformity of ±2% was achieved across the web. ALD cycle times as low as 76?ms were demonstrated with a web speed of 1?m/s and a vertical gap height of 0.5?mm. This atmospheric pressure ALD system with in situ process control demonstrates the feasibility of low-cost, high throughput roll-to-roll ALD.

  14. Numerical simulation of torus breakdown to chaos in an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.; Wang, Y. H.; Wang, D. Z. [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Electron, and Ion Beams, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Electron, and Ion Beams, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the routes to chaos occurring in atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge systems by changing controlling parameters is very important to predict and control the dynamical behaviors. In this paper, a route of a quasiperiodic torus to chaos via the strange nonchaotic attractor is observed in an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge driven by triangle-wave voltage. By increasing the driving frequency, the discharge system first bifurcates to a quasiperiodic torus from a stable single periodic state, and then torus and phase-locking periodic state appear and disappear alternately. In the meantime, the torus becomes increasingly wrinkling and stretching, and gradually approaches a fractal structure with the nonpositive largest Lyapunov exponent, i.e., a strange nonchaotic attractor. After that, the discharge system enters into chaotic state. If the driving frequency is further increased, another well known route of period-doubling bifurcation to chaos is also observed.

  15. Processing materials inside an atmospheric-pressure radiofrequency nonthermal plasma discharge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S.; Henins, Ivars; Park, Jaeyoung; Herrmann, Hans W.

    2006-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for the processing of materials involving placing a material either placed between an radio-frequency electrode and a ground electrode, or which is itself one of the electrodes. This is done in atmospheric pressure conditions. The apparatus effectively etches or cleans substrates, such as silicon wafers, or provides cleaning of spools and drums, and uses a gas containing an inert gas and a chemically reactive gas.

  16. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet with high-voltage power supply based on piezoelectric transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babij, Micha?; Kowalski, Zbigniew W., E-mail: zbigniew.w.kowalski@pwr.wroc.pl; Nitsch, Karol; Gotszalk, Teodor [Wroc?aw University of Technology, Wybrze?e Wyspia?skiego 27, 50-370 Wroc?aw (Poland)] [Wroc?aw University of Technology, Wybrze?e Wyspia?skiego 27, 50-370 Wroc?aw (Poland); Silberring, Jerzy [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland)] [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet, an example of the nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), generates low-temperature plasmas that are suitable for the atomization of volatile species and can also be served as an ionization source for ambient mass and ion mobility spectrometry. A new design of APPJ for mass spectrometry has been built in our group. In these plasma sources magnetic transformers (MTs) and inductors are typically used in power supplies but they present several drawbacks that are even more evident when dealing with high-voltage normally used in APPJs. To overcome these disadvantages, high frequency generators with the absence of MT are proposed in the literature. However, in the case of miniaturized APPJs these conventional power converters, built of ferromagnetic cores and inductors or by means of LC resonant tank circuits, are not so useful as piezoelectric transformer (PT) based power converters due to bulky components and small efficiency. We made and examined a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet with PT supplier served as ionization source for ambient mass spectrometry, and especially mobile spectrometry where miniaturization, integration of components, and clean plasma are required. The objective of this paper is to describe the concept, design, and implementation of this miniaturized piezoelectric transformer-based atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

  17. Production of stable, non-thermal atmospheric pressure rf capacitive plasmas using gases other than helium or neon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Jaeyoung; Henins, Ivars

    2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention enables the production of stable, steady state, non-thermal atmospheric pressure rf capacitive .alpha.-mode plasmas using gases other than helium and neon. In particular, the current invention generates and maintains stable, steady-state, non-thermal atmospheric pressure rf .alpha.-mode plasmas using pure argon or argon with reactive gas mixtures, pure oxygen or air. By replacing rare and expensive helium with more readily available gases, this invention makes it more economical to use atmospheric pressure rf .alpha.-mode plasmas for various materials processing applications.

  18. THE HABITABLE ZONE OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vladilo, Giovanni; Murante, Giuseppe; Silva, Laura [INAF-Trieste Astronomical Observatory, Trieste (Italy)] [INAF-Trieste Astronomical Observatory, Trieste (Italy); Provenzale, Antonello [Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate-CNR, Torino (Italy)] [Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate-CNR, Torino (Italy); Ferri, Gaia; Ragazzini, Gregorio, E-mail: vladilo@oats.inaf.it [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy)] [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    As a contribution to the study of the habitability of extrasolar planets, we implemented a one-dimensional energy balance model (EBM), the simplest seasonal model of planetary climate, with new prescriptions for most physical quantities. Here we apply our EBM to investigate the surface habitability of planets with an Earth-like atmospheric composition but different levels of surface pressure. The habitability, defined as the mean fraction of the planet's surface on which liquid water could exist, is estimated from the pressure-dependent liquid water temperature range, taking into account seasonal and latitudinal variations of surface temperature. By running several thousands of EBM simulations we generated a map of the habitable zone (HZ) in the plane of the orbital semi-major axis, a, and surface pressure, p, for planets in circular orbits around a Sun-like star. As pressure increases, the HZ becomes broader, with an increase of 0.25 AU in its radial extent from p = 1/3 to 3 bar. At low pressure, the habitability is low and varies with a; at high pressure, the habitability is high and relatively constant inside the HZ. We interpret these results in terms of the pressure dependence of the greenhouse effect, the efficiency of horizontal heat transport, and the extent of the liquid water temperature range. Within the limits discussed in the paper, the results can be extended to planets in eccentric orbits around non-solar-type stars. The main characteristics of the pressure-dependent HZ are modestly affected by variations of planetary properties, particularly at high pressure.

  19. Meteorological Tables for Determination of Precipitable Water, Temperatures and Pressures Aloft for a Saturated Pseudoadiabatic Atmosphere -- in the Metric System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eihle, W. O.; Powers, R. J.; Clark, R.A.

    TR-16 1968 Meteorological Tables for Determination of Precipitable Water, Temperatures and Pressures Aloft for a Saturated Pseudoadiabatic Atmosphere?in the Metric System W.O. Eihle R.J. Powers R.A. Clark...

  20. The habitable zone of Earth-like planets with different levels of atmospheric pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladilo, Giovanni; Silva, Laura; Provenzale, Antonello; Ferri, Gaia; Ragazzini, Gregorio

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a contribution to the study of the habitability of extrasolar planets, we implemented a 1-D Energy Balance Model (EBM), the simplest seasonal model of planetary climate, with new prescriptions for most physical quantities. Here we apply our EBM to investigate the surface habitability of planets with an Earth-like atmospheric composition but different levels of surface pressure. The habitability, defined as the mean fraction of the planet's surface on which liquid water could exist, is estimated from the pressure-dependent liquid water temperature range, taking into account seasonal and latitudinal variations of surface temperature. By running several thousands of EBM simulations we generated a map of the habitable zone (HZ) in the plane of the orbital semi-major axis, a, and surface pressure, p, for planets in circular orbits around a Sun-like star. As pressure increases, the HZ becomes broader, with an increase of 0.25 AU in its radial extent from p=1/3 bar to p=3 bar. At low pressure, the habitability is...

  1. Numerical study on microwave-sustained argon discharge under atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y.; Hua, W., E-mail: huaw@scu.edu.cn; Guo, S. Y. [School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)] [School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical study on microwave sustained argon discharge under atmospheric pressure is reported in this paper. The purpose of this study is to investigate both the process and effects of the conditions of microwave-excited gas discharge under atmospheric pressure, thereby aiding improvements in the design of the discharge system, setting the appropriate working time, and controlling the operating conditions. A 3D model is presented, which includes the physical processes of electromagnetic wave propagation, electron transport, heavy species transport, gas flow, and heat transfer. The results can be obtained by means of the fluid approximation. The maxima of the electron density and gas temperature are 4.96?×?10{sup 18} m{sup ?3} and 2514.8?K, respectively, and the gas pressure remains almost unchanged for typical operating conditions with a gas flow rate of 20 l/min, microwave power of 1000 W, and initial temperature of 473?K. In addition, the conditions (microwave power, gas flow rate, and initial temperature) of discharge are varied to obtain deeper information about the electron density and gas temperature. The results of our numerical study are valid and clearly describe both the physical process and effects of the conditions of microwave-excited argon discharge.

  2. Cathodic protection retrofit of an offshore pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winters, R.H.; Holk, A.C. [Tenneco Energy, Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cathodic protection (CP) anodes and corrosion coating on two offshore pipelines were damaged during deep water installation. In-situ methods for deep-water inspection and repair of the pipelines` CP and coating systems were developed and used. High-pressure natural gas Pipeline. A design was 5.6 miles of 8.625 in. OD by 0.406 in. W.T. API SL, Grade X-42, seamless line pipe. Pipeline B design was 0.3 miles of similar specification pipe. Both pipelines were mill-coated with 14 mil of fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE) corrosion coating. Girth welds were field-coated with FBE.

  3. Selective killing of ovarian cancer cells through induction of apoptosis by nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iseki, Sachiko; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Kondo, Hiroki; Hori, Masaru [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Nakamura, Kae; Hayashi, Moemi; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Kikkawa, Fumitaka [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Kano, Hiroyuki [NU Eco-Engineering Co., Ltd., 1237-87 Umazutsumi, Kurozasa-cho, Miyoshi-shi, Nishikamo-gun, Aichi 470-0201 (Japan)

    2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Two independent ovarian cancer cell lines and fibroblast controls were treated with nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP). Most ovarian cancer cells were detached from the culture dish by continuous plasma treatment to a single spot on the dish. Next, the plasma source was applied over the whole dish using a robot arm. In vitro cell proliferation assays showed that plasma treatments significantly decreased proliferation rates of ovarian cancer cells compared to fibroblast cells. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis showed that plasma treatment of ovarian cancer cells induced apoptosis. NEAPP could be a promising tool for therapy for ovarian cancers.

  4. Pulsed microwave discharge in a capillary filled with atmospheric-pressure gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gritsinin, S. I., E-mail: gritsinins@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Gushchin, P. A. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (Russian Federation)] [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (Russian Federation); Davydov, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Ivanov, E. V. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (Russian Federation)] [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (Russian Federation); Kossyi, I. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A pulsed microwave coaxial capillary plasma source generating a thin plasma filament along the capillary axis in an atmospheric-pressure argon flow is described. The dynamics of filament formation is studied, and the parameters of the gas and plasma in the contraction region are determined. A physical model of discharge formation and propagation is proposed. The model is based on the assumption that, under the conditions in which the electric fields is substantially below the threshold value, the discharge operates in a specific form known as a self-sustained-non-self-sustained (SNS) microwave discharge.

  5. A plasma needle for generating homogeneous discharge in atmospheric pressure air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Xuechen; Yuan Ning; Jia Pengying; Chen Junying [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Homogeneous discharge in air is often considered to be the ultimate low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas for industrial applications. In this paper, we present a method whereby stable homogeneous discharge in open air can be generated by a simple plasma needle. The discharge mechanism is discussed based on the spatially resolved light emission waveforms from the plasma. Optical emission spectroscopy is used to determine electron energy and rotational temperature, and results indicate that both electron energy and rotational temperature increase with increasing the applied voltage. The results are analyzed qualitatively based on the discharge mechanism.

  6. CO Oxidation on Pt-Group Metals from Ultrahigh Vacuum to Near Atmospheric Pressures. 2. Palladium and Platinum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    CO Oxidation on Pt-Group Metals from Ultrahigh Vacuum to Near Atmospheric Pressures. 2. PalladiumVed: NoVember 3, 2008 CO oxidation on Pd(100), -(111), -(110), and Pt(110) single crystals was studied compositions. At low pressures the reaction fell into two regimes, one with a CO-dominant surface where the CO2

  7. The effect of bed temperature on oxygen partial pressures in an atmospheric fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malik, S.R. [PCSIR, Karachi (Pakistan). Fuel Research Centre; Gibbs, B.M. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Fuel and Energy

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the factors which cause corrosion of in-bed material is the existence of low oxygen levels. Therefore, oxygen`s partial pressure measurements are important for corrosion studies in atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC). The effect of bed temperature on oxygen levels has been discussed in this paper. The experiments were conducted on a 0.3 meters square combustor. In-bed oxygen partial pressures were measured using zirconia oxygen probes and recorded on a computerized data logging system. Detail statistical analysis of the data has been presented. The probability density function (PDF) was the most important statistical parameter which reveals not only how long environment is exposed to oxidizing reducing conditions but also the probability whether corrosion could occur.

  8. Pipeline Setback Ordinance (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute establishes the Office of Pipeline Safety to regulate pipelines in Minnesota. Among other duties, the office is responsible for implementing a Model Pipeline Setback Ordinance.

  9. Ultrahigh-speed etching of organic films using microwave-excited nonequilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamakawa, Koji; Hori, Masaru; Goto, Toshio; Den, Shoji; Katagiri, Toshirou; Kano, Hiroyuki [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-Cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Depertment of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Nagoya University, Furo-Cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-Cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Department of Engineering, Katagiri Engineering Co., Ltd., 3-5-34 Shitte Tsurumu-Ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0003 (Japan); NU-EcoEngineering Co., Ltd., Ooaza Kurozasa Aza Umazutsumi Miyoshi-cho Nishikamo-gun Aichi 470-0201 (Japan)

    2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrahigh etch rate (24 {mu}m/min at 155 deg. C and 0.3 mm/min at 325 deg. C) of an organic film was successfully achieved using a microwave-excited nonequilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasma source employing He and O{sub 2} gases. This has the potential to be applied to various kinds of fabrication of structures for microelectromechanical systems and bionanotechnology. A stable glow discharge was realized between the narrow gap (200 {mu}m) electrodes covered with a dielectric film in atmospheric pressure. The etching characteristics were investigated by changing the O{sub 2} flow rate and the distance of the substrate from the electrode. In order to clarify the ultrahigh etching mechanism, in situ diagnostic methods, including two-dimensional imaging of optical emissions in the plasma with an intensified charge-coupled device camera, electron-density evaluation using the Stark-broadened profile of the hydrogen Balmer beta line in optical emission spectroscopy, and two dimensional spatial distribution of ozone density measured with ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy, have been performed. It was found that O atoms were the dominant etching species for ultrahigh-speed etching of the organic film, and the effect of ozone on the etching process was negligible.

  10. Pipeline ADC Design Methodology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hui

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scaling vs. R. Figure 4.8 Pipeline ADC Structures. Figure2.4 A Pipelined ADC. Figure 3.1 Pipeline ADC Transfer Curve.Modes (b) data latency in pipeline ADC Figure 3.3 Detailed

  11. Effects of gravity and pressure on laminar coflow methaneair diffusion flames at pressures from 1 to 60 atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groth, Clinton P. T.

    levels exhibited a similar power- law dependence of the maximum carbon conversion on pressure gravitational acceleration scales with pres- sure-squared, increasing pressure drastically alters the shapes

  12. Final Report DE-FG02-00ER54583: "Physics of Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharges" and "Nanoparticle Nucleation and Dynamics in Low-Pressure Plasmas"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uwe Kortshagen; Joachim Heberlein; Steven L. Girshick

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was funded over two periods of three years each, with an additional year of no-cost extension. Research in the first funding period focused on the physics of uniform atmospheric pressure glow discharges, the second funding period was devoted to the study of the dynamics of nanometer-sized particles in plasmas.

  13. Electron density and temperature measurement by continuum radiation emitted from weakly ionized atmospheric pressure plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Sanghoo; Choe, Wonho, E-mail: wchoe@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Youn Moon, Se [High-enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jaeyoung [5771 La Jolla Corona Drive, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States)

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron-atom neutral bremsstrahlung continuum radiation emitted from weakly ionized plasmas is investigated for electron density and temperature diagnostics. The continuum spectrum in 450–1000?nm emitted from the argon atmospheric pressure plasma is found to be in excellent agreement with the neutral bremsstrahlung formula with the electron-atom momentum transfer cross-section given by Popovi?. In 280–450?nm, however, a large discrepancy between the measured and the neutral bremsstrahlung emissivities is observed. We find that without accounting for the radiative H{sub 2} dissociation continuum, the temperature, and density measurements would be largely wrong, so that it should be taken into account for accurate measurement.

  14. Apparatus and method for atmospheric pressure reactive atom plasma processing for shaping of damage free surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr; Jeffrey W. (Livermore, CA)

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication apparatus and methods are disclosed for shaping and finishing difficult materials with no subsurface damage. The apparatus and methods use an atmospheric pressure mixed gas plasma discharge as a sub-aperture polisher of, for example, fused silica and single crystal silicon, silicon carbide and other materials. In one example, workpiece material is removed at the atomic level through reaction with fluorine atoms. In this example, these reactive species are produced by a noble gas plasma from trace constituent fluorocarbons or other fluorine containing gases added to the host argon matrix. The products of the reaction are gas phase compounds that flow from the surface of the workpiece, exposing fresh material to the etchant without condensation and redeposition on the newly created surface. The discharge provides a stable and predictable distribution of reactive species permitting the generation of a predetermined surface by translating the plasma across the workpiece along a calculated path.

  15. Spatiotemporal correlation between microdischarges in concentric ring pattern in dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong Lifang; Liu Liang; Wang Yongjie; Yue Han; Li Xinchun [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China) and Hebei Key Laboratory of Optic-electronic Information Materials, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatiotemporal correlation between microdischarges of the concentric ring pattern in a dielectric barrier discharge in argon at atmospheric pressure is studied by the wavelet-correlation technique for the first time. The concentric ring patterns lasting more than 5 min have been obtained under circular boundaries with different sizes by suddenly raising the applied voltage. The average correlation coefficient between microdischarge clusters increases with their discharge region increasing. The wavelet-correlation shows a higher correlation degree between the microdischarge clusters at the edge where (d|U{sub appl}|/dt)<0 than at the edge where (d|U{sub appl}|/dt)>0 in per half-cycle of the applied voltage U{sub appl}.

  16. Effect of dielectric wall temperature on plasma plume in an argon atmospheric pressure discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Jian; Huo, Yuxin; Wang, Youyin; Yu, Daren, E-mail: yudaren@hit.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Tang, Jingfeng; Wei, Liqiu [Academy of Fundamental and Interdisciplinary Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this letter, the effect of the dielectric wall temperature on the length and volume of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is investigated using a single-electrode configuration driven with an AC power supply. To distinguish the APPJ status from the argon flow rate, the three modes, laminar, transition, and turbulent, are separated. When the dielectric wall is heated, the APPJ length and volume are enhanced. Also, the transition regions remarkably expand over a large range of flow rates. The results indicate that different factors contribute to the expansion of the transition region. The increase in the radial and axial velocities is the main cause of the expansion of the transition region to the low-velocity region. The expansion to the high-velocity region is dominantly induced by a change in the viscosity.

  17. Surface Modification of Material by Irradiation of Low Power Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akamatsu, Hiroshi; Ichikawa, Kazunori [Kobe City College of Technology, 8-3 Gakuenhigashimachi, Kobe, Hyogo, 651-2194 (Japan); Azuma, Kingo [University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosya, Himeji, Hyogo, 671-2280 (Japan); Onoi, Masahiro [Metal Technology Co., Ltd., 713 Shake Aza Narihira, Ebina, Kanagawa, 243-0424 (Japan)

    2010-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Application of a low power atmospheric pressure plasma jet for surface modifications of acrylic, aluminum, and highly crystalline graphite has been carried out experimentally. The plasma jet was generated with batteries-driven high voltage modulator. The power consumed for the plasma generation was estimated to be 0.12 W. The plasma had hydroxyl radicals, which is known as a strong oxider from an observation of optical emission spectrum. After the irradiation of the plasma, the surfaces of acrylic and aluminum became to be hydrophilic from the compartment of contact angle of water on these surfaces. The surface of highly crystalline graphite irradiated by the plasma jet had oxygen-rich functional groups such as C-O, C = O, and O = C-O.

  18. High-pressure arcs as vacuum-atmosphere interface and plasma lens for nonvacuum electron beam welding machines, electron beam melting, and nonvacuum ion material modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hershcovitch, A. [AGS Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States)] [AGS Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric pressure plasmas can be used to provide a vacuum-atmosphere interface as an alternative to differential pumping. Vacuum-atmosphere interface utilizing a cascade arc discharge was successfully demonstrated and a 175 keV electron beam was successfully propagated from vacuum through such a plasma interface and out into atmospheric pressure. Included in the article are a theoretical framework, experimental results, and possible applications for this novel interface. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  19. Surface pretreatment of plastics with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet - Influence of generator power and kinematics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moritzer, E., E-mail: elmar.moritzer@ktp.upb.de; Leister, C., E-mail: elmar.moritzer@ktp.upb.de [Kunststofftechnik Paderborn (KTP), University of Paderborn, Warburger Strasse 100, D-33098 Paderborn (Germany)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The industrial use of atmospheric pressure plasmas in the plastics processing industry has increased significantly in recent years. Users of this treatment process have the possibility to influence the target values (e.g. bond strength or surface energy) with the help of kinematic and electrical parameters. Until now, systematic procedures have been used with which the parameters can be adapted to the process or product requirements but only by very time-consuming methods. For this reason, the relationship between influencing values and target values will be examined based on the example of a pretreatment in the bonding process with the help of statistical experimental design. Because of the large number of parameters involved, the analysis is restricted to the kinematic and electrical parameters. In the experimental tests, the following factors are taken as parameters: gap between nozzle and substrate, treatment velocity (kinematic data), voltage and duty cycle (electrical data). The statistical evaluation shows significant relationships between the parameters and surface energy in the case of polypropylene. An increase in the voltage and duty cycle increases the polar proportion of the surface energy, while a larger gap and higher velocity leads to lower energy levels. The bond strength of the overlapping bond is also significantly influenced by the voltage, velocity and gap. The direction of their effects is identical with those of the surface energy. In addition to the kinematic influences of the motion of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet, it is therefore especially important that the parameters for the plasma production are taken into account when designing the pretreatment processes.

  20. Array of surface-confined glow discharges in atmospheric pressure helium: Modes and dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, D.; Liu, D. X., E-mail: liudingxin@gmail.com, E-mail: mglin5g@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Biomedicine, State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi (China); Nie, Q. Y.; Li, H. P. [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, H. L. [Frank Reidy Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23508 (United States); Kong, M. G., E-mail: liudingxin@gmail.com, E-mail: mglin5g@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Biomedicine, State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi (China); Frank Reidy Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23508 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States)

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Array of atmospheric pressure surface discharges confined by a two-dimensional hexagon electrode mesh is studied for its discharge modes and temporal evolution so as to a theoretical underpinning to their growing applications in medicine, aerodynamic control, and environmental remediation. Helium plasma surface-confined by one hexagon-shaped rim electrode is shown to evolve from a Townsend mode to a normal and abnormal glow mode, and its evolution develops from the rim electrodes as six individual microdischarges merging in the middle of the hexagon mesh element. Within one hexagon element, microdischarges remain largely static with the mesh electrode being the instantaneous cathode, but move towards the hexagon center when the electrode is the instantaneous anode. On the entire array electrode surface, plasma ignition is found to beat an unspecific hexagon element and then spreads to ignite surrounding hexagon elements. The spreading of microdischarges is in the form of an expanding circle at a speed of about 3?×?10{sup 4} m/s, and their quenching starts in the location of the initial plasma ignition. Plasma modes influence how input electrical power is used to generate and accelerate electrons and as such the reaction chemistry, whereas plasma dynamics are central to understand and control plasma instabilities. The present study provides an important aspect of plasma physics of the atmospheric surface-confined discharge array and a theoretical underpinning to its future technological innovation.

  1. Temporally, spatially, and spectrally resolved barrier discharge produced in trapped helium gas at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiper, Alina Silvia; Popa, Gheorghe [Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, 700506 Iasi (Romania)] [Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, 700506 Iasi (Romania)

    2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental study was made on induced effects by trapped helium gas in the pulsed positive dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operating in symmetrical electrode configuration at atmospheric pressure. Using fast photography technique and electrical measurements, the differences in the discharge regimes between the stationary and the flowing helium are investigated. It was shown experimentally that the trapped gas atmosphere (TGA) has notable impact on the barrier discharge regime compared with the influence of the flowing gas atmosphere. According to our experimental results, the DBD discharge produced in trapped helium gas can be categorized as a multi-glow (pseudo-glow) discharge, each discharge working in the sub-normal glow regime. This conclusion is made by considering the duration of current pulse (few {mu}s), their maximum values (tens of mA), the presence of negative slope on the voltage-current characteristic, and the spatio-temporal evolution of the most representative excited species in the discharge gap. The paper focuses on the space-time distribution of the active species with a view to better understand the pseudo-glow discharge mechanism. The physical basis for these effects was suggested. A transition to filamentary discharge is suppressed in TGA mode due to the formation of supplementary source of seed electrons by surface processes (by desorption of electrons due to vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules, originated from barriers surfaces) rather than volume processes (by enhanced Penning ionisation). Finally, we show that the pseudo-glow discharge can be generated by working gas trapping only; maintaining unchanged all the electrical and constructive parameters.

  2. Leakage Risk Assessment of CO2 Transportation by Pipeline at the Illinois Basin Decatur Project, Decatur, Illinois

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzoldi, A.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S.M. , 2007, Natural Gas Pipeline Technology Overview.high-pressure natural- gas pipelines: J. Loss Prevention inrisk assessments of CO 2 pipelines, in Elsevier, ed. , 9th

  3. Radon entry into buildings: Effects of atmospheric pressure fluctuations and building structural factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, A.L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved understanding of the factors that control radon entry into buildings is needed in order to reduce the public health risks caused by exposure to indoor radon. This dissertation examines three issues associated with radon entry into buildings: (1) the influence of a subslab gravel layer and the size of the openings between the soil and the building interior on radon entry; (2) the effect of atmospheric pressure fluctuations on radon entry; and (3) the development and validation of mathematical models which simulate radon and soil-gas entry into houses. Experiments were conducted using two experimental basements to examine the influence of a subslab gravel layer on advective radon entry driven by steady indoor-outdoor pressure differences. These basement structures are identical except that in one the floor slab lies directly on native soil whereas in the other the slab lies on a high-permeability gravel layer. The measurements indicate that a high permeability subslab gravel layer increases the advective radon entry rate into the structure by as much as a factor of 30. The magnitude of the enhancement caused by the subslab gravel layer depends on the area of the openings in the structure floor; the smaller the area of these openings the larger the enhancement in the radon entry rate caused by the subslab gravel layer. A three-dimensional, finite-difference model correctly predicts the effect of a subslab gravel layer and open area configuration on advective radon entry driven by steady indoor-outdoor pressure differences; however, the model underpredicts the absolute entry rate into each structure by a factor of 1.5.

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric pressure microwave Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric dynamics and to unravel the direct and coupling... atmosphere using remote sensing" ABSTRACT Understanding the influence of solar variability in the...

  5. Generation and diagnostics of atmospheric pressure CO{sub 2} plasma by laser driven plasma wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsui, Makoto; Yamagiwa, Yoshiki [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-4 Johoku, Naka, Hamamatsu, 432-8561 Shizuoka (Japan); Tanaka, Kensaku; Arakawa, Yoshihiro [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, 113-0033 Tokyo (Japan); Nomura, Satoshi; Komurasaki, Kimiya [Department of Advanced Energy, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8583 Chiba (Japan)

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric pressure CO{sub 2} plasma was generated by a laser driven plasma wind tunnel. At an ambient pressure of 0.38 MPa, a stable plasma was maintained by a laser power of 1000 W for more than 20 min. The translational temperature was measured using laser absorption spectroscopy with the atomic oxygen line at 777.19 nm. The measured absorption profiles were analyzed by a Voigt function considering Doppler, Stark, and pressure-broadening effects. Under the assumption of thermochemical equilibrium, all broadening effects were consistent with each other. The measured temperature ranged from 8500 K to 8900 K.

  6. Diamond and Related Materials, 2 (1993) 661 666 661 Degenerate four-wave mixing diagnostics of atmospheric pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    -3]. An r.f. inductively coupled plasma offers the benefits of an "electrodeless" discharge for minimum film application of this new spectroscopic technique to an atmospheric pressure plasma synthesis reactor. DFWM measurements of the CH radicals in the boundary layer of an r.f. inductively coupled plasma deposition reactor

  7. CO oxidation over Ru(0001) at near-atmospheric pressures: From chemisorbed oxygen to RuO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    modulation Infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy Reaction kinetics a b s t r a c t RuO2(110) was formed polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRAS) and post-reaction Auger electronCO oxidation over Ru(0001) at near-atmospheric pressures: From chemisorbed oxygen to RuO2 Feng Gao

  8. Constraints on early Mars atmospheric pressure1 inferred from small ancient craters2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kite, Edwin

    , airblasts, meteors, and meteorites. The 201327 Chelyabinsk airburst exemplifies atmospheric destruction

  9. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by transmission companies. Compressor stations at required distances boost the pressure that is lost through friction as the gas moves through the steel pipes (EPA 2000). The natural gas system is generally described in terms of production, processing and purification, transmission and storage, and distribution (NaturalGas.org 2004b). Figure 1.1-2 shows a schematic of the system through transmission. This report focuses on the transmission pipeline, compressor stations, and city gates.

  10. An Evaluation of Atmospheric-pressure Plasma for the Cost-Effective Deposition of Antireflection Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rob Sailer; Guruvenket Srinivasan; Kyle W. Johnson; Douglas L. Schulz

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma deposition (APPD) has previously been used to deposit various functional materials including polymeric surface modification layers, transparent conducting oxides, and photo catalytic materials. For many plasma polymerized coatings, reaction occurs via free radical mechanism where the high energy electrons from the plasma activate the olefinic carbon-carbon double bonds - a typical functional group in such precursors. The precursors for such systems are typically inexpensive and readily available and have been used in vacuum PECVD previously. The objectives are to investigate: (1) the effect of plasma power, gas composition and substrate temperature on the Si-based film properties using triethylsilane(TES) as the precursor; and (2) the chemical, mechanical, and optical properties of several experimental matrices based on Design of Experiment (DOE) principals. A simple APPD route has been utilized to deposit Si based films from an inexpensive precursor - Triethylsilane (TES). Preliminary results indicates formation of Si-C & Si-O and Si-O, Si-C & Si-N bonds with oxygen and nitrogen plasmas respectively. N{sub 2}-O{sub 2} plasma showed mixed trend; however oxygen remains a significant portion of all films, despite attempts to minimize exposure to atmosphere. SiN, SiC, and SiO ratios can be modified by the reaction conditions resulting in differing film properties. SE studies revealed that films with SiN bond possess refractive index higher than coatings with Si-O/Si-C bonds. Variable angle reflectance studies showed that SiOCN coatings offer AR properties; however thickness and refractive index optimization of these coatings remains necessary for application as potential AR coatings.

  11. CO Oxidation over AuPd(100) from Ultrahigh Vacuum to Near-Atmospheric Pressures: CO Adsorption-Induced Surface Segregation and Reaction Kinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    ; ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed: July 7, 2009 Polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorptionCO Oxidation over AuPd(100) from Ultrahigh Vacuum to Near-Atmospheric Pressures: CO Adsorption vacuum (UHV) and near-atmospheric pressures.28 AuPd(100) is a good choice for the study since

  12. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. In lieu of a field installation on an abandoned pipeline, a preliminary nondestructive testing protocol is being developed to determine the success or failure of the fiber-reinforced liner pipeline repairs. Optimization and validation activities for carbon-fiber repair methods are ongoing.

  13. Soot formation in laminar premixed methane/oxygen flames at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, F.; Lin, K.C.; Faeth, G.M. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flame structure and soot formation were studied within soot-containing laminar premixed methane/oxygen flames at atmospheric pressure. The following measurements were made: soot volume fractions by laser extinction, soot temperatures by multiline emission, gas temperatures (where soot was absent) by corrected fine-wire thermocouples, soot structure by thermophoretic sampling and transmission electron microscope (TEM), major gas species concentrations by sampling and gas chromatography, and gas velocities by laser velocimetry. Present measurements of gas species concentrations were in reasonably good agreement with earlier measurements due to Ramer et al. as well as predictions based on the detailed mechanisms of Frenklach and co-workers and Leung and Lindstedt; the predictions also suggest that H atom concentrations are in local thermodynamic equilibrium throughout the soot formation region. Using this information, it was found that measured soot surface growth rates could be correlated successfully by predictions based on the hydrogen-abstraction/carbon-addition (HACA) mechanisms of both Frenklach and co-workers and Colket and Hall, extending an earlier assessment of these mechanisms for premixed ethylene/air flames to conditions having larger H/C ratios and acetylene concentrations. Measured primary soot particle nucleation rates were somewhat lower than the earlier observations for laminar premixed ethylene/air flames and were significantly lower than corresponding rates in laminar diffusion flames, for reasons that still must be explained.

  14. Development of a dielectric barrier discharge enhanced plasma jet in atmospheric pressure air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Xuechen; Chang Yuanyuan; Jia Pengying [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Xu Longfei; Fang Tongzhen; Wang Long [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A plasma jet equipped with dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is developed to generate diffuse air plasma with fairly large gap and cross sectional area. The diffuse air plasma has two discharge modes under different gap widths from the nozzle to the ground plate electrode. For large gap width, a diffuse plume fills the whole space between the nozzle and the plate electrode after coaxial DBD is ignited when the applied voltage reaches a certain value. Rather than diffuse plasma plume, a bright plasma column bridges the nozzle and the plate electrode with further increasing the applied voltage under small gap width. By optical and electrical measurement, results show that the macroscopically diffuse discharge in air is obtained by the superimposition of radially distributed streamers that appear at different cycles of the applied voltage, and the bright plasma column belongs to atmospheric pressure glow discharge. The molecular vibrational temperature and the gas temperature are given as functions of the peak value of the applied voltage.

  15. An experimental study of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in argon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subedi, D. P. [Department of Natural Sciences, School of Science, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel (Nepal); Tyata, R. B. [Department of Natural Sciences, School of Science, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal and Department of Electrical, Khwopa College of Engineering, Libali-2, Bhaktapur (Nepal); Shrestha, R. [Department of Natural Sciences, School of Science, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal and Department of Physics, Basu College, Kalighat, Byasi, Bhaktapur (Nepal); Wong, C. S. [Plasma Technology Research Centre, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, experimental results on atmospheric pressure argon dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) have been presented. The discharge was generated using a high voltage (0 to 20 kV) power supply operating at frequency of 10 to 30 kHz and was studied by means of electrical and optical measurements. A homogeneous and steady discharge was observed between the electrodes with gap spacing from 1 mm to 3 mm and with a dielectric barrier of thickness 1.5 mm while argon gas is fed at a controlled flow rate of 2liter per min. The electron temperature (T{sub e}) and electron density (n{sub e}) of the plasma have been determined by means of optical emission spectroscopy. Our results show that the electron density is of the order of 10{sup 16} cm{sup ?3} while the electron temperature is estimated to be ? 1 eV. The homogeneity and non-thermal nature of the discharge were utilized in the investigation of the change in wettabilty of a polymer sample subjected to the treatment by the discharge. Contact angle analysis showed that the discharge was effective in improving the wettability of low density Polyethylene (LDPE) polymer sample after the treatment.

  16. Gas Pipeline Safety (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section establishes the Pipeline Safety Division within the Utility Regulatory Commission to administer federal pipeline safety standards and establish minimum state safety standards for...

  17. Pipeline Safety (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Public Service Commission has the authority enact regulations pertaining to pipeline safety. These regulations address pipeline monitoring, inspections, enforcement, and penalties.

  18. Intrastate Pipeline Safety (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations provide standards for gas and liquid pipeline maintenance and operating procedures, per the Federal Hazardous Liquid and Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Acts, and give the...

  19. Pipeline Safety (South Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The South Dakota Pipeline Safety Program, administered by the Public Utilities Commission, is responsible for regulating hazardous gas intrastate pipelines. Relevant legislation and regulations...

  20. Pipeline Operations Program (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Pipeline Operations Program regulates the construction, acquisition, abandonment and interconnection of natural gas pipelines, as well as, the transportation and use of natural gas supplies.

  1. On-line coating of glass with tin oxide by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Sopko, J.F. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); Houf, William G.; Chae, Yong Kee; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Li, M. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); McCamy, J.W. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA)

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of tin oxide is a very important manufacturing technique used in the production of low-emissivity glass. It is also the primary method used to provide wear-resistant coatings on glass containers. The complexity of these systems, which involve chemical reactions in both the gas phase and on the deposition surface, as well as complex fluid dynamics, makes process optimization and design of new coating reactors a very difficult task. In 2001 the U.S. Dept. of Energy Industrial Technologies Program Glass Industry of the Future Team funded a project to address the need for more accurate data concerning the tin oxide APCVD process. This report presents a case study of on-line APCVD using organometallic precursors, which are the primary reactants used in industrial coating processes. Research staff at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA, and the PPG Industries Glass Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA collaborated to produce this work. In this report, we describe a detailed investigation of the factors controlling the growth of tin oxide films. The report begins with a discussion of the basic elements of the deposition chemistry, including gas-phase thermochemistry of tin species and mechanisms of chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of tin precursors. These results provide the basis for experimental investigations in which tin oxide growth rates were measured as a function of all major process variables. The experiments focused on growth from monobutyltintrichloride (MBTC) since this is one of the two primary precursors used industrially. There are almost no reliable growth-rate data available for this precursor. Robust models describing the growth rate as a function of these variables are derived from modeling of these data. Finally, the results are used to conduct computational fluid dynamic simulations of both pilot- and full-scale coating reactors. As a result, general conclusions are reached concerning the factors affecting the growth rate in on-line APCVD reactors. In addition, a substantial body of data was generated that can be used to model many different industrial tin oxide coating processes. These data include the most extensive compilation of thermochemistry for gas-phase tin-containing species as well as kinetic expressions describing tin oxide growth rates over a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and reactant concentrations.

  2. A passive measurement of dissociated atom densities in atmospheric pressure air discharge plasmas using vacuum ultraviolet self-absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laity, George [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Applied Science and Technology Maturation Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Fierro, Andrew; Dickens, James; Neuber, Andreas [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Frank, Klaus [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Department of Physics, Friedrich–Alexander University at Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a method for determining the dissociation degree of atmospheric pressure air discharges by measuring the self-absorption characteristics of vacuum ultraviolet radiation from O and N atoms in the plasma. The atom densities are determined by modeling the amount of radiation trapping present in the discharge, without the use of typical optical absorption diagnostic techniques which require external sources of probing radiation into the experiment. For an 8.0?mm spark discharge between needle electrodes at atmospheric pressure, typical peak O atom densities of 8.5?×?10{sup 17}?cm{sup ?3} and peak N atom densities of 9.9?×?10{sup 17}?cm{sup ?3} are observed within the first ?1.0?mm of plasma near the anode tip by analyzing the OI and NI transitions in the 130.0–132.0?nm band of the vacuum ultraviolet spectrum.

  3. Soot formation in laminar premixed ethylene/air flames at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, F.; Sunderland, P.B.; Faeth, G.M. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soot formation was studied within laminar premixed ethylene/air flames (C/O ratios of 0.78--0.98) stabilized on a flat-flame burner operating at atmospheric pressure. Measurements included soot volume fractions by both laser extinction and gravimetric methods, temperatures by multiline emission, soot structure by thermophoretic sampling and transmission electric microscopy, major gas species concentrations by sampling and gas chromatography, concentrations of condensable hydrocarbons by gravimetric sampling, and velocities by laser velocimetry. These data were used to find soot surface growth rates and primary soot particle nucleation rates along the axes of the flames. Present measurements of soot surface growth rates were correlated successfully by predictions based on typical hydrogen-abstraction/carbon-addition (HACA) mechanisms of Frenklach and co-workers and Colket and Hall. These results suggest that reduced soot surface growth rates with increasing residence time seen in the present and other similar flames were mainly caused by reduced rates of surface activation due to reduced H atom concentrations as temperatures decrease as a result of radiative heat losses. Primary soot particle nucleation rates exhibited variations with temperature and acetylene concentrations that were similar to recent observations for diffusion flames; however, nucleation rates in the premixed flames were significantly lower than in the diffusion flames for reasons that still must be explained. Finally, predictions of yields of major gas species based on mechanisms from both Frenklach and co-workers and Leung and Lindstedt were in good agreement with present measurements and suggest that H atom concentrations (relevant to HACA mechanisms) approximate estimates based on local thermodynamic equilibrium in the present flames.

  4. Atmospheric pressure He-air plasma jet: Breakdown process and propagation phenomenon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begum, Asma [Independent University, Bangladesh, School of Engineering and Computer Science, Bashundhara, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Laroussi, Mounir [Old Dominion University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Norfolk, Virginia (United States); Pervez, Mohammad Rasel [Master Mind College, Department of Physics, Dhanmondi, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper He-discharge (plasma jet/bullet) in atmospheric pressure air and its progression phenomenon has been studied experimentally using ICCD camera, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and calibrated dielectric probe measurements. The repetitive nanosecond pulse has applied to a plasma pencil to generate discharge in the helium gas channel. The discharge propagation speed was measured from the ICCD images. The axial electric field distribution in the plasma jet is inferred from the optical emission spectroscopic data and from the probe measurement. The correlation between the jet velocities, jet length with the pulse duration is established. It shows that the plasma jet is not isolated from the input voltage along its propagation path. The discharge propagation speed, the electron density and the local and average electric field distribution along the plasma jet axis predicted from the experimental results are in good agreement with the data predicted by numerical simulation of the streamer propagation presented in different literatures. The ionization phenomenon of the discharge predicts the key ionization parameters, such as speed, peak electric field in the front, and electron density. The maximum local electric field measured by OES is 95 kV/cm at 1.3 cm of the jet axis, and average EF measured by probe is 24 kV/cm at the same place of the jet. The average and local electron density estimated are in the order of 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} and it reaches to the maximum of 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}.

  5. An atmospheric pressure, fluidized bed combustion system burning high-chlorine coals in the convection section

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, K.; Xie, W.; Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.

    2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility of fireside corrosion in power plant boiler components is always a major concern when the fuels include high-sulfur and high-chlorine coals (or refuse waste). Sulfur and chloride products may play important roles especially in fireside corrosion in atmospheric pressure, fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) systems, caused by the capture of sulfur and chlorine by limestone used as bed material in the combustor, and the resulting deposition of sulfur- or chlorine-rich compounds onto metallic surfaces. Results were reported from tests in a 0.1-MW{sub th} AFBC system where 1,000-h test burns were conducted using two coals with widely differing chlorine levels, and limestone was used as the sulfur sorbent. Coupons of three stainless steels (Types 304 [UNS S30400], 309 [UNS S30900], 347 [UNS S34700]) were exposed to the hot flue gases in the freeboard ({approximately} 10- cm below the location of the convection pass tubes). Deposits formed on the alloys contained high sulfur concentrations in their outer parts, as well as sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. Sulfur appeared to be associated with calcium and magnesium, suggesting that the fly ash may have reacted further after being deposited on the surface of the coupon. Areas of high sulfur concentration also correlated well with areas of high chromium content of the inner layers of the scales. cross sections of samples indicated that sulfur had penetrated into the alloy and reacted to form sulfide corrosion products. There was no direct evidence to show that alkali chlorides were involved in the corrosion process. No chloride was identified in the alloy samples. There was slight oxide spallation observed on all three alloys, with the degree of spallation in the following order: Type 304 > Type 347 > Type 309.

  6. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. The first round of optimization and validation activities for carbon-fiber repairs are complete. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the field trial portion of this program.

  7. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the field trial portion of this program.

  8. Components in the Pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorton, Ian; Wynne, Adam S.; Liu, Yan (Jenny); Yin, Jian

    2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Scientists commonly describe their data processing systems metaphorically as software pipelines. These pipelines input one or more data sources and apply a sequence of processing steps to transform the data and create useful results. While conceptually simple, pipelines often adopt complex topologies and must meet stringent quality of service requirements that place stress on the software infrastructure used to construct the pipeline. In this paper we describe the MeDICi Integration Framework, which is a component-based framework for constructing complex software pipelines. The framework supports composing pipelines from distributed heterogeneous software components and provides mechanisms for controlling qualities of service to meet demanding performance, reliability and communication requirements.

  9. Studies of the mechanism of the cluster formation in a thermally sampling atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albrecht, Sascha, E-mail: s.albrecht@fz-juelich.de; Stroh, Fred, E-mail: f.stroh@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Stratosphere (IEK-7), 52428 Jülich (Germany)] [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Stratosphere (IEK-7), 52428 Jülich (Germany); Klopotowski, Sebastian, E-mail: s.klopotowski@uni-wuppertal.de; Derpmann, Valerie, E-mail: v.derpmann@uni-wuppertal.de; Klee, Sonja, E-mail: s.klee@uni-wuppertal.de; Brockmann, Klaus J., E-mail: brockma@uni-wuppertal.de; Benter, Thorsten, E-mail: tbenter@uni-wuppertal.de [Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Institute for Pure and Applied Mass Spectrometry, University of Wuppertal, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany)] [Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Institute for Pure and Applied Mass Spectrometry, University of Wuppertal, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study a thermally sampling atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer is described and characterized. The ion transfer stage offers the capability to sample cluster ions at thermal equilibrium and during this transfer fundamental processes possibly affecting the cluster distribution are also readily identified. Additionally, the transfer stage combines optional collision-induced dissociation (CID) analysis of the cluster composition with thermal equilibrium sampling of clusters. The performance of the setup is demonstrated with regard to the proton-bound water cluster system. The benefit of the studied processes is that they can help to improve future transfer stages and to understand cluster ion reactions in ion mobility tubes and high-pressure ion sources. In addition, the instrument allows for the identification of fragmentation and protonation reactions caused by CID.

  10. atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    studied intensively and has overcome some of the constraints of traditional high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) diamond synthesis methods (more) Chen, Yu-Chun 2009-01-01 12...

  11. Pipeline Safety Rule (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Pipeline Safety Rule simply states, "The Minimum Federal Safety Standards for the transportation of natural and other gas by pipeline (Title 49, Chapter 1, Part 192) as published in the Federal...

  12. Pipeline Construction Guidelines (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Division of Pipeline Safety of the Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission regulates the construction of any segment of an interstate pipeline on privately owned land in Indiana. The division has...

  13. Program permits fast solution to pipeline loop requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bierman, G.D.

    1983-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A program developed for the HP-41CV hand-held calculator can provide pipeline engineers with a quick and easy means for determining loop requirements on existing gas-transmission pipelines. Adding pipe in parallel to an existing pipeline, referred to as looping, is necessary to insure that with a given flow rate, the gas will arrive at a certain point on the pipeline with a pressure equal to or greater than the minimum required pressure. The automatic loop program calculates loop by first determining the total number of segments which require looping within the section of pipeline being evaluated. A section of pipe is usually the pipeline between compressor stations and is divided into segments by either receipt or delivery points along the pipeline. The number of segments which require looping is found by adding loop to individual segments until the final pressure (i.e., the pressure at the point of interest downstream on the pipeline) is equal to or greater than the specified design pressure.

  14. Keystone XL pipeline update

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questions have been raised recently about the Keystone XL pipeline project, so we wanted to make some points clear.

  15. Analytical and experimental investigations of gas turbine model combustor acoustics operated at atmospheric pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Analytical and experimental investigations of gas turbine model combustor acoustics operated the eigenmodes of the combustor results from the resonant coupling between pressure disturbances in the flame distribution within the combustor, except when these frequencies match. When the frequencies are close to each

  16. ABB Review 4/2000 55 ultiphase pipelines connecting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    ABB Review 4/2000 55 ultiphase pipelines connecting remote wellhead platforms and subsea wells of the multi-phase pipelines connecting wells and remote installations to the processing unit. One common form and unstable, it is difficult to predict the pressure drop, heat and mass transfer. In addition, the flow

  17. Apparatus and method for enhanced chemical processing in high pressure and atmospheric plasmas produced by high frequency electromagnetic waves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Efthimion, Philip C. (Bedminister, NJ); Helfritch, Dennis J. (Flemington, NJ)

    1989-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for creating high temperature plasmas for enhanced chemical processing of gaseous fluids, toxic chemicals, and the like, at a wide range of pressures, especially at atmospheric and high pressures includes an electro-magnetic resonator cavity, preferably a reentrant cavity, and a wave guiding structure which connects an electro-magnetic source to the cavity. The cavity includes an intake port and an exhaust port, each having apertures in the conductive walls of the cavity sufficient for the intake of the gaseous fluids and for the discharge of the processed gaseous fluids. The apertures are sufficiently small to prevent the leakage of the electro-magnetic radiation from the cavity. Gaseous fluid flowing from the direction of the electro-magnetic source through the guiding wave structure and into the cavity acts on the plasma to push it away from the guiding wave structure and the electro-magnetic source. The gaseous fluid flow confines the high temperature plasma inside the cavity and allows complete chemical processing of the gaseous fluids at a wide range of pressures.

  18. Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaoude, Abdo Abou; El-Tawil, Khaled; Noura, Hassan; Ouladsine, Mustapha

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

  19. Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdo Abou Jaoude; Seifedine Kadry; Khaled El-Tawil; Hassan Noura; Mustapha Ouladsine

    2012-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

  20. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) Pipe diameter sizes range from 50.8 mm (2 in.) through 1,219.2 mm (48 in.). The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm to 762 mm (20 in. to 30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. An evaluation of potential repair methods clearly indicates that the project should continue to focus on the development of a repair process involving the use of GMAW welding and on the development of a repair process involving the use of fiber-reinforced composite liners.

  1. Low loss hollow optical-waveguide connection from atmospheric pressure to ultra-high vacuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ermolov, A.; Mak, K. F.; Tani, F.; Hölzer, P.; Travers, J. C. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)] [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Russell, P. St. J. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany) [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique for optically accessing ultra-high vacuum environments, via a photonic-crystal fiber with a long small hollow core, is described. The small core and the long bore enable a pressure ratio of over 10{sup 8} to be maintained between two environments, while permitting efficient and unimpeded delivery of light, including ultrashort optical pulses. This delivery can be either passive or can encompass nonlinear optical processes such as optical pulse compression, deep UV generation, supercontinuum generation, or other useful phenomena.

  2. PRESSURE ACTIVATED SEALANT TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael A. Romano

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop new, efficient, cost effective methods of internally sealing natural gas pipeline leaks through the application of differential pressure activated sealants. In researching the current state of the art for gas pipeline sealing technologies we concluded that if the project was successful, it appeared that pressure activated sealant technology would provide a cost effective alternative to existing pipeline repair technology. From our analysis of current field data for a 13 year period from 1985 to 1997 we were able to identify 205 leaks that were candidates for pressure activated sealant technology, affirming that pressure activated sealant technology is a viable option to traditional external leak repairs. The data collected included types of defects, areas of defects, pipe sizes and materials, incident and operating pressures, ability of pipeline to be pigged and corrosion states. This data, and subsequent analysis, was utilized as a basis for constructing applicable sealant test modeling.

  3. Pipeline Safety (Pennsylvania)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Pennsylvania legislature has empowered the Public Utility Commission to direct and enforce safety standards for pipeline facilities and to regulate safety practices of certificated utilities...

  4. FLUID TRANSIENTS IN A PIPELINE WITH ONE END OPEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, R

    2008-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Water hammer during multi-phase flow is rather complex, but in some cases an upper limit to the pressure surge magnitude during water hammer can be estimated. In the case considered here, a two mile long pipeline with a single high point was permitted to partially drain. Due to gravitational effects, air bubbles up through the pipe line to its highest point, but the time required for air to reach the top of the pipe is rather long. Consequently, some transients caused by valve operations are affected by air entrapment and some are not. The intent of this research was to investigate the complex interactions between air, water vapor, and liquid during water hammer in a long pipe with one end of the pipe open to atmospheric conditions. To understand the system dynamics, experimental data was obtained from a long pipeline with an open end and also from a short, transparent tube. Transient calculations were performed for valve closures and pump operations as applicable. The limitations of available calculation techniques were considered in detail.

  5. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Largest Natural Gas Pipeline...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Interstate Pipelines Table About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Thirty Largest U.S. Interstate Natural...

  6. Exotic drilling: contractor drills pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McReynolds, L.

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drilling of pipelines has been technologically developed for applications such as river crossings, tunnelling through tar-sand or oil-shale strata for more effective in situ combustion production projects, and drilling inside rather than through heavy oil pays to create extensive horizontal well bores suitable for steam heating the formation. The horizontal drilling concept for river crossing involves installation of pipelines in an inverted arc 25 to 100 ft below a river bed. The directional control required to produce a curved hole is maintained by rotating the bit without rotating the pipe. When the drill string is activated by a forward thrust, it creates a reactive subsurface pressure against the front surface of the bent sub, thus causing the bend. The bit then deviates in the direction of the bend. Little disruption of the environment occurs, and the directionally drilled crossings offer improved pipeline security, maintenance of year-round construction schedules, easier permitting, no navigational hazards or interruption for waterway traffic, elimination of bank restoration costs and most repair costs, and a maintenance-free crossing section.

  7. CO oxidation trends on Pt-group metals from ultrahigh vacuum to near atmospheric pressures: A combined in situ PM-IRAS and reaction kinetics study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    CO oxidation trends on Pt-group metals from ultrahigh vacuum to near atmospheric pressures Accepted for publication 14 October 2008 Available online 5 November 2008 Keywords: Pt-group metals CO a c t The CO oxidation reaction on Pt-group metals (Pt, Rh, and Pd) has been investigated at low (610À

  8. Natural Gas Pipeline Safety (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This article states minimum safety standards for the transportation of natural gas by pipeline and reporting requirements for operators of pipelines.

  9. Natural Gas Pipeline Utilities (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations apply to entities seeking to develop and operate natural gas pipelines and provide construction requirements for such pipelines. The regulations describe the authority of the...

  10. FEATURE ARTICLE Pipeline Corrosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botte, Gerardine G.

    F FEATURE ARTICLE Pipeline Corrosion Issues Related to Carbon Capture, Transportation, and Storage Capture, Transportation, and Storage--Aspects of Corrosion and Materials. "Until these new technologies are developed and applied, corrosion engineers are focusing on how to best design pipelines for CO2 transport

  11. BP and Hydrogen Pipelines DOE Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    efforts were undertaken · Conversion took place during a period of less regulation on pipeline activityBP and Hydrogen Pipelines DOE Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop August 30-31, 2005 Gary P · UK partnership opened the first hydrogen demonstration refueling station · Two hydrogen pipelines

  12. A dominant role of oxygen additive on cold atmospheric-pressure He + O{sub 2} plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Aijun; Liu, Dingxin, E-mail: liudingxin@gmail.com, E-mail: xhw@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Rong, Mingzhe; Wang, Xiaohua, E-mail: liudingxin@gmail.com, E-mail: xhw@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Centre for Plasma Biomedicine, State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Kong, Michael G. [Centre for Plasma Biomedicine, State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23508 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present in this paper how oxygen additive impacts on the cold atmospheric-pressure helium plasmas by means of a one-dimensional fluid model. For the oxygen concentration [O{sub 2}]?>??0.1%, the influence of oxygen on the electron characteristics and the power dissipation becomes important, e.g., the electron density, the electron temperature in sheath, the electron-coupling power, and the sheath width decreasing by 1.6 to 16 folds with a two-log increase in [O{sub 2}] from 0.1% to 10%. Also the discharge mode evolves from the ? mode to the ? mode. The reactive oxygen species are found to peak in the narrow range of [O{sub 2}]?=?0.4%–0.9% in the plasmas, similar to their power-coupling values. This applies to their wall fluxes except for those of O* and O{sub 2}{sup ?}. These two species have very short lifetimes, thus only when generated in boundary layers within several micrometers next to the electrode can contribute to the fluxes. The dominant reactive oxygen species and the corresponding main reactions are schematically presented, and their relations are quantified for selected applications.

  13. Numerical simulation of operation modes in atmospheric pressure uniform barrier discharge excited by a saw-tooth voltage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Xuechen; Niu Dongying; Yin Zengqian [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Fang Tongzhen; Wang Long [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The characteristics of dielectric barrier discharge excited by a saw-tooth voltage are simulated in atmospheric pressure helium based on a one-dimensional fluid model. A stepped discharge is obtained per half voltage cycle with gas gap width less than 2 mm by the simulation, which is different to the pulsed discharge excited by a sinusoidal voltage. For the stepped discharge, the plateau duration increases with increasing the voltage amplitude and decreasing the gas gap. Therefore, uniform discharge with high temporal duty ratio can be realized with small gap through increasing the voltage amplitude. The maximal densities of both electron and ion appear near the anode and the electric field is almost uniformly distributed along the gap, which indicates that the stepped discharge belongs to a Townsend mode. In contrast to the stepped discharge with small gas gap, a pulsed discharge can be obtained with large gas gap. Through analyzing the spatial density distributions of electron and ion and the electric field, the pulsed discharge is in a glow mode. The voltage-current (V-I) characteristics are analyzed for the above mentioned discharges under different gas gaps, from which the different discharge modes are verified.

  14. THE STRUCTURE SENSITIVITY OF n-HEPTANE DEHYDROCYCLIZATION AND HYDROGENOLYSIS CATALYZED BY PLATINUM SINGLE CRYSTALS AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillespie, W. D.; Herz, R. K.; Petersen, E. E.; Somorjai, G. A.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dehydrocyclization and hydrogenolysis of n~heptane catalyzed by platinum single crystal surfaces have been investigated at temperatures from 533 to 603 K in the range of one atmosphere total pressure, The flat (111), stepped (557), and kinked (10,8,7) and (25,10,7) surfaces used tn this study were characterized in ultrahigh vacuum by low energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy before and after reaction experiments. The rate of dehydrocyclization to toluene on the four surfaces increased in the order (111) (25,10,7) (557) (10,8,7), Hydrogenolysis, however, increased in the order (557) (10,8,7) (111) (25,10,7), As a result, the selectivity of toluene production versus hydrogenolysis increased by an order of magnitude in the order (25,10,7) (111) (10,8,7) (557). The sum of the rates of hydrogenolysis and toluene production remains relatively constant. The effect of preoxidation of the single crystal catalysts was to increase the rate of hydrogenolysis and decrease the rate of dehydrocyclization, Iri general, the reaction rates decreased with increasing reaction time. This decrease was shown to be the result of the depositon of irreversibly adsorbed carbonaceous species.

  15. Self-consistent fluid modeling and simulation on a pulsed microwave atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zhaoquan, E-mail: zqchen@aust.edu.cn [Faculty of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan, Anhui 232001 (China); Yin, Zhixiang, E-mail: zxyin66@163.com; Chen, Minggong; Hong, Lingli; Hu, Yelin; Huang, Yourui [College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan, Anhui 232001 (China); Xia, Guangqing; Liu, Minghai [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Kudryavtsev, A. A. [Faculty of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In present study, a pulsed lower-power microwave-driven atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jet has been introduced with the type of coaxial transmission line resonator. The plasma jet plume is with room air temperature, even can be directly touched by human body without any hot harm. In order to study ionization process of the proposed plasma jet, a self-consistent hybrid fluid model is constructed in which Maxwell's equations are solved numerically by finite-difference time-domain method and a fluid model is used to study the characteristics of argon plasma evolution. With a Guass type input power function, the spatio-temporal distributions of the electron density, the electron temperature, the electric field, and the absorbed power density have been simulated, respectively. The simulation results suggest that the peak values of the electron temperature and the electric field are synchronous with the input pulsed microwave power but the maximum quantities of the electron density and the absorbed power density are lagged to the microwave power excitation. In addition, the pulsed plasma jet excited by the local enhanced electric field of surface plasmon polaritons should be the discharge mechanism of the proposed plasma jet.

  16. Influence of Penning effect on the plasma features in a non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Zhengshi; Zhang, Guanjun [School of Electrical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Jiang, Nan; Cao, Zexian, E-mail: zxcao@iphy.ac.cn [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is a cold plasma source that promises various innovative applications. The influence of Penning effect on the formation, propagation, and other physical properties of the plasma bullets in APPJ remains a debatable topic. By using a 10?cm wide active electrode and a frequency of applied voltage down to 0.5?Hz, the Penning effect caused by preceding discharges can be excluded. It was found that the Penning effect originating in a preceding discharge helps build a conductive channel in the gas flow and provide seed electrons, thus the discharge can be maintained at a low voltage which in turn leads to a smaller propagation speed for the plasma bullet. Photographs from an intensified charge coupled device reveal that the annular structure of the plasma plume for He is irrelevant to the Penning ionization process arising from preceding discharges. By adding NH{sub 3} into Ar to introduce Penning effect, the originally filamentous discharge of Ar can display a rather extensive plasma plume in ambient as He. These results are helpful for the understanding of the behaviors of non-equilibrium APPJs generated under distinct conditions and for the design of plasma jet features, especially the spatial distribution and propagation speed, which are essential for application.

  17. A comparison between characteristics of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets sustained by nanosecond- and microsecond-pulse generators in helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Cheng; Shao, Tao, E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn; Wang, Ruixue; Yan, Ping [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Power Electronics and Electric Drive, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhou, Zhongsheng; Zhou, Yixiao [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Power source is an important parameter that can affect the characteristics of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets (APPJs), because it can play a key role on the discharge characteristics and ionization process of APPJs. In this paper, the characteristics of helium APPJs sustained by both nanosecond-pulse and microsecond-pulse generators are compared from the aspects of plume length, discharge current, consumption power, energy, and optical emission spectrum. Experimental results showed that the pulsed APPJ was initiated near the high-voltage electrode with a small curvature radius, and then the stable helium APPJ could be observed when the applied voltage increased. Moreover, the discharge current of the nanosecond-pulse APPJ was larger than that of the microsecond-pulse APPJ. Furthermore, although the nanosecond-pulse generator consumed less energy than the microsecond-pulse generator, longer plume length, larger instantaneous power per pulse and stronger spectral line intensity could be obtained in the nanosecond-pulse excitation case. In addition, some discussion indicated that the rise time of the applied voltage could play a prominent role on the generation of APPJs.

  18. Dynamic light scattering in sooting premixed atmospheric-pressure methane-, propane-, ethene-, and propene-oxygen flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamprecht, A.; Eimer, W.; Kohse-Hoeinghaus, K. [Univ. Bielefeld (Germany)] [Univ. Bielefeld (Germany)

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a systematic investigation under well-defined flame conditions, dynamic light scattering (DLS) was applied to the determination of soot particle radii with the aim of examining the suitability of this technique for accurate soot particle sizing. In particular, flat premixed methane-, propane-, ethene-, and propene-oxygen flames at atmospheric pressure were investigated, and particle sizes were obtained as a function of stoichiometry and height above the burner surface. In combination with absorption measurements, soot volume fraction and particle number density were determined; also, the temperature was measured at each flame condition. In comparison to absorption techniques, attractive features of DLS are its independence of the particle refractive index and its insensitivity to fluorescence interference; also, it offers spatial resolution. In principle, additional information on the particle size distribution as well as on the global shape of the particles may be obtained from DLS experiments. This study is therefore an evaluation of the potential of DLS as a complement to other soot diagnostic techniques.

  19. Enhanced surface flashover strength in vacuum of polymethylmethacrylate by surface modification using atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Tao, E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn; Yang, Wenjin; Zhang, Cheng; Yan, Ping [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Power Electronics and Electric Drive, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Niu, Zheng [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Schamiloglu, Edl [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer materials, such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), are widely used as insulators in vacuum. The insulating performance of a high-voltage vacuum system is mainly limited by surface flashover of the insulators rather than bulk breakdown. Non-thermal plasmas are an efficient method to modify the chemical and physical properties of polymer material surfaces, and enhance the surface insulating performance. In this letter, an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge is used to treat the PMMA surface to improve the surface flashover strength in vacuum. Experimental results indicate that the plasma treatment method using Ar and CF{sub 4} (10:1) as the working gas can etch the PMMA surface, introduce fluoride groups to the surface, and then alter the surface characteristics of the PMMA. The increase in the surface roughness can introduce physical traps that can capture free electrons, and the fluorination can enhance the charge capturing ability. The increase in the surface roughness and the introduction of the fluoride groups can enhance the PMMA hydrophobic ability, improve the charge capturing ability, decrease the secondary electron emission yield, increase the surface resistance, and improve the surface flashover voltage in vacuum.

  20. Code for Hydrogen Hydrogen Pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;2 Code for Hydrogen Pipelines Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop Augusta, Georgia August development · Charge from BPTCS to B31 Standards Committee for Hydrogen Piping/Pipeline code development · B31.12 Status & Structure · Hydrogen Pipeline issues · Research Needs · Where Do We Go From Here? #12;4 Code

  1. Composites Technology for Hydrogen Pipelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Composites Technology for Hydrogen Pipelines Barton Smith, Barbara Frame, Larry Anovitz and Cliff;Composites Technology for Hydrogen Pipelines Fiber-reinforced polymer pipe Project Overview: Investigate of pipeline per day. · $190k/mile capital cost for distribution pipelines · Hydrogen delivery cost below $1

  2. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repairs and for fiber-reinforced composite repair. To date, all of the experimental work pertaining to the evaluation of potential repair methods has focused on fiber-reinforced composite repairs. Hydrostatic testing was also conducted on four pipeline sections with simulated corrosion damage: two with composite liners and two without.

  3. New developments in pipeline charging preheated coal at Inland Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorensen, S.M. Jr.; Arsenault, A.A.; Rupp, P.A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first commercial installation of a new pipeline oven charging system for preheated coal, designed by Dynamic Air, Inc., was made at Inland Steel's C Battery in October 1979. With the Dynamic Air charging sytem, production losses due to pipeline delays have been virtually eliminated, pipeline maintenance requirements have been reduced by 90%, conveying steam requirements have been significantly reduced, and oven charge weights have been increased by 500 kg (1000 lb). A test program was subsequently conducted during November and December 1980, to evaluate the use of nitrogen as a conveying medium for pipeline oven charging with the Dynamic Air system. The test results clearly demonstrated that the same weight of preheated coal could be charged into an oven by using either steam or nitrogen as the conveying medium. Moreover, it was found that pipeline oven charging with the Dynamic Air system is a function of the mass flow rate of the conveying medium. With nitrogen charging, an average 9% increase in oven charge rates was obtained at comparable conveying gas mass flow rates and charging bin pressures. In addition, average oven pressure during charging was reduced by approximately 40% and solids carryover was reduced by 100 kg (220 lb) per oven charge with nitrogen charging. It was found that solids carryover during pipeline oven charging is a function of the average pressure generated in the oven during charging, but it was also found that a large oven pressure surge at the end of the charge can produce excessive carryover to completely mask the effect.

  4. Leaving the Premedical Pipeline at Cal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwan, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Why students drop out of the pipeline to health professionsLeaving the Premedical Pipeline at Cal By Elizabeth Kwanattrition from the premedical pipeline is appropriate. Not

  5. Capturing Latino Students in the Academic Pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gándara, Patricia; Larson, Katherine; Mehan, Hugh; Rumberger, Russell

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Latino Educational Pipeline Why Latino Students are atSTUDENTS IN THE ACADEMIC PIPELINE CAPTURING LATINO STUDENTSIN THE ACADEMIC PIPELINE Patricia Gcindara, Editor Katherine

  6. Pipeline Carriers (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pipeline carriers transporting crude petroleum, coal, the products of crude petroleum or coal, or carbon dioxide produced in the combustion or gasification of fossil fuels are required to abide by...

  7. Rnnotator Assembly Pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Jeff [DOE Joint Genome Institute

    2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Jeff Martin of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses a de novo transcriptome assembly pipeline from short RNA-Seq reads on June 3, 2010 at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

  8. Gas Pipelines (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter applies to any entity that owns, manages, operates, leases, or controls a pipeline for the purpose of transporting natural gas in the state for sale or compensation, as well as any...

  9. Gas Pipeline Securities (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute establishes that entities engaged in the transmission of gas by pipelines are not required to obtain the consent of the Utility Regulatory Commission for issuance of stocks,...

  10. ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric pressure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow, AlaskaWhenimage ARM Dataparticlemoisture

  11. Separation of VUV/UV photons and reactive particles in the effluent of a He/O2 atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, S; Narberhaus, F; Bandow, J E; Denis, B; Benedikt, J

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasmas can be used for treatment of living tissues or for inactivation of bacteria or biological macromolecules. The treatment is usually characterized by a combined effect of UV and VUV radiation, reactive species, and ions. This combination is usually beneficial for the effectiveness of the treatment but it makes the study of fundamental interaction mechanisms very difficult. Here we report on an effective separation of VUV/UV photons and heavy reactive species in the effluent of a micro scale atmospheric pressure plasma jet ($\\mu$-APPJ). The separation is realized by an additional flow of helium gas under well-defined flow conditions, which deflects heavy particles in the effluent without affecting the VUV and UV photons. Both components of the effluent, the photons and the reactive species, can be used separately or in combination for sample treatment. The results of treatment of a model plasma polymer film and vegetative Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli cells are shown an...

  12. Absolute atomic oxygen and nitrogen densities in radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure cold plasmas: Synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet high-resolution Fourier-transform absorption measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemi, K.; O'Connell, D.; Gans, T. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Oliveira, N. de; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L. [Synchrotron Soleil, l'Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Booth, J. P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactive atomic species play a key role in emerging cold atmospheric pressure plasma applications, in particular, in plasma medicine. Absolute densities of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen were measured in a radio-frequency driven non-equilibrium plasma operated at atmospheric pressure using vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy. The experiment was conducted on the DESIRS synchrotron beamline using a unique VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer. Measurements were carried out in plasmas operated in helium with air-like N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} (4:1) admixtures. A maximum in the O-atom concentration of (9.1 {+-} 0.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} m{sup -3} was found at admixtures of 0.35 vol. %, while the N-atom concentration exhibits a maximum of (5.7 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} at 0.1 vol. %.

  13. The quenching effect of hydrogen on the nitrogen in metastable state in atmospheric-pressure N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} microwave plasma torch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Shou-Zhe, E-mail: lisz@dlut.edu.cn; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Chuan-Jie; Zhang, Jialiang [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, Electron Beams (Dalian University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, Yong-Xing [College of Electrical Engineering, Dalian 116024 (China); Xia, Guang-Qing [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The atmospheric-pressure microwave N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} plasma torch is generated and diagnosed by optical emission spectroscopy. It is found that a large amount of N atoms and NH radicals are generated in the plasma torch and the emission intensity of N{sub 2}{sup +} first negative band is the strongest over the spectra. The mixture of hydrogen in nitrogen plasma torch causes the morphology of the plasma discharge to change with appearance that the afterglow shrinks greatly and the emission intensity of N{sub 2}{sup +} first negative band decreases with more hydrogen mixed into nitrogen plasma. In atmospheric-pressure microwave-induced plasma torch, the hydrogen imposes a great influence on the characteristics of nitrogen plasma through the quenching effect of the hydrogen on the metastable state of N{sub 2}.

  14. Characterization and fate of vapor-phase organic constituents from atmospheric pressure fluidized bed combustors (AFBC): East Stroudsburg University AFBC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Newton, G.J.; Henderson, T.R.; Hobbs, C.H.

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Very little research has been devoted to the characterization of vapor-phase organic compounds in gaseous streams. Because of the concerns that gaseous organic compounds from FBCs may include potentially toxic and/or mutagenic materials. We will measure vapor-phase hydrocarbon concentrations in the process streams of operating FBCs. This report describes our field sampling results on the atmospheric pressure fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) at the East Stroudsburg University during its normal operation for supplying heat and hot water to the campus. This AFBC has a bed size of 36 ft/sup 2/ and was burning anthracite culm. The culm consumption rates during the week of our sampling period were 1600 to 3000 lb/hr. Emphasis was placed on characterization of process stream effluents, including particles and vapor-phase organic constituents. Results indicated that the mass concentration (or loading) of particulate matter within the effluent stream was similar to other FBCs that have been studied. The particulate mass concentration measured after the baghouse location was 0.0048 g/m/sup 3/ (0.0047 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu). This was equivalent to a total of 35 g/hr of particulate emissions. The fraction of particulate material presented as organics (extractable fraction) was, on the average, less than 2% of total mass of particulate emissions. The vapor-phase organic contents indicated that the quantities of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were low, being less than 2.5 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ for any individual sample. Most of the PAHs detected were low boiling compounds such as naphthalene or phenanthrene, with trace amounts of pyrene. 22 refs., 13 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Abstract Atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) was as low as 18 Pa during the Pleistocene and is projected to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonovics, Janis

    Abstract Atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) was as low as 18 Pa during the Pleistocene and is projected to increase from 36 to 70 Pa CO2 before the end of the 21st century. High pCO2 often increases the growth and repro- duction of C3 annuals, whereas low pCO2 decreases growth and may reduce or prevent

  16. Pipeline Safety Program Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    programs prepared by pipeline operators in accordance with Federal pipeline safety regulations, grounding, and interference, · environmentally sensitive areas, · federal pipeline safety regulationsPipeline Safety Program Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed by UT-Battelle, LLC for the U

  17. The emissions of gases from abandoned mines: role of atmospheric pressure changes and air temperature on the surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    pressure were monitored. Gas flow can be influenced mainly by the temperature difference between external pressure influences gas flow in the coal mines, which can be considered as closed systems. Modelling has confirmed the differential pressure value measured that exceeds friction losses. Key words Mine gas emission

  18. Pipeline safety joint eliminates need for divers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sea-Hook coupling is a diverless pressure-compensated pipeline safety joint designed to protect the pipe from damage by excessive physical loads. The coupling provides a predetermined weak point in the line that will cause a controlled separation when the line is exposed to strong wave action or dragging anchors. Moreover, it offers prepressurized remote lockout protection, metal seal integrity, no hand-up separation, enclosed bolting, optimal manual lockout, and no springs or shear rings.

  19. A Low-Cost Natural Gas/Freshwater Aerial Pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin; Richard Cathcart

    2007-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Offered is a new type of low-cost aerial pipeline for delivery of natural gas, an important industrial and residential fuel, and freshwater as well as other payloads over long distances. The offered pipeline dramatically decreases the construction and operation costs and the time necessary for pipeline construction. A dual-use type of freight pipeline can improve an arid rural environment landscape and provide a reliable energy supply for cities. Our aerial pipeline is a large, self-lofting flexible tube disposed at high altitude. Presently, the term "natural gas" lacks a precise technical definition, but the main components of natural gas are methane, which has a specific weight less than air. A lift force of one cubic meter of methane equals approximately 0.5 kg. The lightweight film flexible pipeline can be located in the Earth-atmosphere at high altitude and poses no threat to airplanes or the local environment. The authors also suggest using lift force of this pipeline in tandem with wing devices for cheap shipment of a various payloads (oil, coal and water) over long distances. The article contains a computed macroproject in northwest China for delivery of 24 billion cubic meter of gas and 23 millions tonnes of water annually.

  20. Gas Pipeline Safety (West Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Gas Pipeline Safety Section of the Engineering Division is responsible for the application and enforcement of pipeline safety regulations under Chapter 24B of the West Virginia Code and 49 U.S...

  1. Programmable Graphics Pipelines Anjul Patney

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    Programmable Graphics Pipelines By Anjul Patney B.Tech. (Indian Institute of Technology Delhi) 2007 as Abstractions for Computer Graphics 5 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2 Modern Graphics Pipelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2

  2. CASE CRITICAL Keystone XL Pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    CASE CRITICAL Keystone XL Pipeline: A Line in the Sand? Case Critical is presented by ASU's Global Professor, ASU's School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning The Keystone XL Pipeline, a large

  3. The validity of analytical methods for predicting self burial of offshore pipelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Thomas Kenwood

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . To accomplish this, the pipeline is filled with water and tested at pressures equal to approximately 125% of the design maximum operating pressure (41). During this phase, the static loading consists of the weight of the submerged pipe plus the water... techn1ques. For example, the state of equilibrium resulting from a pipeline sinking until the soil pressure is sufficient for support is somewhat d1fferent from the static conditions on wh1ch bearing capacity equations have been derived. However...

  4. 0-7803-XXXX-X/06/$20.00 2009 IEEE 25th IEEE SEMI-THERM Symposium Sub-Atmospheric Pressure Pool Boiling of Water on a Screen-Laminate Enhanced Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirtz, Richard A.

    structures having wide ranging porosity and pore size. When deployed as a surface enhancement in a boiling pool-boiling experiments at one atmosphere and sub-atmospheric pressure assess the utility of fine factor of lamination [dimensionless] CHF = critical heat flux [W/cm2 ] Dh = pore hydraulic diameter [µm

  5. Using Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline Costs to Estimate Hydrogen Pipeline Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Nathan

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    future estimates of hydrogen pipelines. Construction Cost (does this mean for hydrogen pipelines? The objective of thisinto the cost of hydrogen pipelines. To this end I will

  6. Mobile sensor network to monitor wastewater collection pipelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Jungsoo

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced pipeline monitoringDesign of mobile pipeline floating sensor “SewerSnortIllustration of mobile pipeline floating sensor monitoring

  7. Simulation effectively sites surge-relief facilities on Saudi pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dempsey, J.J.; Al-Gouhi, A.H. (Saudi Arabian Oil Co., Dhahrain (Saudi Arabia))

    1993-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Pipeline hydraulic and surge analysis studies of the Saudi Aramco East-West crude-oil pipeline assisted in expanding the system's capacity by 50%. Surge studies predicted that operational upsets, such as the trip of a pump station, cause excessive surge pressures in the pipeline system at new flow rates. Additional surge studies showed that surge-relief stations must be located downstream from each of six pump stations. The new surge-relief stations and an increase in capacity of existing surge-relief stations protect the pipelines at the higher flow rates. The paper describes modeling the system, the analysis of the hydraulics, surge analysis, acoustic transit times, relief valve simulation, surge-relief protection, surge-relief stations, station locations, simulation results, tank sizing, and valve testing.

  8. Data-stationary pipelined machine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdou, I.E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper presents the data-stationary control concept of pipelined machines, with emphasis on its application in image processing systems. A parallel array of pipelined machines for image processing is considered, and data-stationary control is compared with time-stationary control. A system is proposed that is a parallel array of pipelined machines. Each pipeline is a multifunctional, statically configured, data-stationary device. The pipelines do not accommodate branching instructions or interrupts, and the design focus on vector processing only. The system can be used in other applications such as signal processing and arithmetic number crunching. 5 references.

  9. Enhancing protection for unusually sensitive ecological areas from pipeline releases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sames, Christina; Fink, Dennis

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ECOLOGICAL AREAS FROM PIPELINE RELEASES Christina Sames;Administration, Office of Pipeline Safety, DPS-10/ 400 7thof a hazardous liquid pipeline accident. Pipeline operators

  10. Electron density measurements of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal N{sub 2} plasma jet by Stark broadening and irradiance intensity methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Dezhi; Shen, Jie; Lan, Yan; Xie, Hongbing; Shu, Xingsheng; Meng, Yuedong; Li, Jiangang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); Cheng, Cheng, E-mail: chengcheng@ipp.ac.cn, E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chu, Paul K., E-mail: chengcheng@ipp.ac.cn, E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma jet excited by high frequency alternating current using nitrogen is developed and the electron density in the active region of this plasma jet is investigated by two different methods using optical emission spectroscopy, Stark broadening, and irradiance intensity method. The irradiance intensity method shows that the average electron density is about 10{sup 20}/m{sup 3} which is slightly smaller than that by the Stark broadening method. However, the trend of the change in the electron density with input power obtained by these two methods is consistent.

  11. The SINFONI pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Modigliani; Wolfgang Hummel; Roberto Abuter; Paola Amico; Pascal Ballester; Richard Davies; Christophe Dumas; Mattew Horrobin; Mark Neeser; Markus Kissler-Patig; Michele Peron; Juha Rehunanen; Juergen Schreiber; Thomas Szeifert

    2007-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The SINFONI data reduction pipeline, as part of the ESO-VLT Data Flow System, provides recipes for Paranal Science Operations, and for Data Flow Operations at Garching headquarters. At Paranal, it is used for the quick-look data evaluation. For Data Flow Operations, it fulfills several functions: creating master calibrations; monitoring instrument health and data quality; and reducing science data for delivery to service mode users. The pipeline is available to the science community for reprocessing data with personalised reduction strategies and parameters. The pipeline recipes can be executed either with EsoRex at the command line level or through the Gasgano graphical user interface. The recipes are implemented with the ESO Common Pipeline Library (CPL). SINFONI is the Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observations in the Near Infrared (1.1-2.45 um) at the ESO-VLT. SINFONI was developed and build by ESO and MPE in collaboration with NOVA. It consists of the SPIFFI integral field spectrograph and an adaptive optics module which allows diffraction limited and seeing limited observations. The image slicer of SPIFFI chops the SINFONI field of view on the sky in 32 slices which are re-arranged to a pseudo slit. The latter is dispersed by one of the four possible gratings (J, H, K, H+K). The detector thus sees a spatial dimension (along the pseudo-slit) and a spectral dimension. We describe in this paper the main data reduction procedures of the SINFONI pipeline, which is based on SPRED - the SPIFFI data reduction software developed by MPE, and the most recent developments after more than a year of SINFONI operations.

  12. CO Oxidation on Pt-Group Metals from Ultrahigh Vacuum to Near Atmospheric Pressures. F. Gao, Y. Cai, K. K. Gath, Y. Wang, M. S. Chen, Q. L. Guo, and D. W. Goodman*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    CO Oxidation on Pt-Group Metals from Ultrahigh Vacuum to Near Atmospheric Pressures. 1. Rhodium FVised Manuscript ReceiVed: NoVember 3, 2008 The CO oxidation reaction on Rh(111) was studied both at low pressures reactor at various gaseous reactant compositions. Surface CO and O coverages were determined using

  13. DOE Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laporte, TX to near Lake Charles, LA. This system has approximately 228 miles of DOT regulated H2 pipeline of DOT regulated H2 pipeline. Portions of this system operating since early 1983. Pipeline sizeDOE Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop August 31, 2005 Augusta, Georgia #12;Hydrogen Pipeline

  14. Heat engines and heat pumps in a hydrostatic atmosphere: How surface pressure and temperature control wind power output and circulation cell size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makarieva, A M; Nefiodov, A V; Sheil, D; Nobre, A D; Shearman, P L; Li, B -L

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The gross spatial features of the atmospheric kinetic energy budget are analytically investigated. Kinetic energy generation is evaluated in a hydrostatic atmosphere where the axisymmetric circulation cells are represented by Carnot cycles. The condition that kinetic energy generation is positive in the lower atmosphere is shown to limit the poleward cell extension via a relationship between the meridional differences in surface pressure and temperature $\\Delta p_s$ and $\\Delta T_s$: an upper limit to cell size exists when $\\Delta p_s$ increases sublinearly with $\\Delta T_s$. This is the case for the Hadley cells as demonstrated here using data from MERRA re-analysis. The limited cell size necessitates the appearance of heat pumps -- circulation cells with negative work output where the low-level air moves towards colder areas. These cells consume the positive work output of heat engines -- cells where the low-level air moves towards the warmer areas -- and can in principle drive the global efficiency of atmo...

  15. Optical emission spectroscopic diagnostics of a non-thermal atmospheric pressure helium-oxygen plasma jet for biomedical applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thiyagarajan, Magesh; Sarani, Abdollah; Nicula, Cosmina [Plasma Engineering Research Laboratory (PERL), College of Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University-Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 (United States)] [Plasma Engineering Research Laboratory (PERL), College of Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University-Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 (United States)

    2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we have applied optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics to investigate the characteristics of a non-thermal atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet. The discharge characteristics in the active and afterglow region of the plasma jet, that are critical for biomedical applications, have been investigated. The voltage-current characteristics of the plasma discharge were analyzed and the average plasma power was measured to be around 18 W. The effect of addition of small fractions of oxygen at 0.1%-0.5% on the plasma jet characteristics was studied. The addition of oxygen resulted in a decrease in plasma plume length due to the electronegativity property of oxygen. Atomic and molecular lines of selected reactive plasma species that are considered to be useful to induce biochemical reactions such as OH transitions A{sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}({nu}=0,1){yields}X{sup 2}{Pi}({Delta}{nu}=0) at 308 nm and A{sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}({nu}=0,1){yields}X{sup 2}{Pi}({Delta}{nu}=1) at 287 nm, O I transitions 3p{sup 5}P{yields}3s{sup 5}S{sup 0} at 777.41 nm, and 3p{sup 3}P{yields}3s{sup 3}S{sup 0} at 844.6 nm, N{sub 2}(C-B) second positive system with electronic transition C{sup 3}{Pi}{sub u}{sup {yields}}B{sup 3}{Pi}{sub g}'' in the range of 300-450 nm and N{sub 2}{sup +}(B-X) first negative system with electronic transition B{sup 2}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +}{yields}X{sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}({Delta}{nu}=0) at 391.4 nm have been studied. The atomic emission lines of helium were identified, including the He I transitions 3p{sup 3}P{sup 0}{yields}2s{sup 3}S at 388.8 nm, 3p{sup 1}P{sup 0}{yields} 2s{sup 1}S at 501.6 nm, 3d{sup 3}D{yields}2p{sup 3}P{sup 0} at 587.6 nm, 3d{sup 1}D{yields}2p{sup 1}P{sup 0} at 667.8 nm, 3s{sup 3}S{sup 1}{yields}2p{sup 3}P{sup 0} at 706.5 nm, 3s{sup 1}S{sup 0}{yields}2p{sup 1}P{sup 0} at 728.1 nm, and H{sub {alpha}} transition 2p-3d at 656.3 nm. Using a spectral fitting method, the OH radicals at 306-312 nm, the rotational and vibrational temperatures equivalent to gas temperatures of the discharge was measured and the effective non-equilibrium nature of the plasma jet was demonstrated. Our results show that, in the entire active plasma region, the gas temperature remains at 310 {+-} 25 K and 340 {+-} 25 K and it increases to 320 {+-} 25 K and 360 {+-} 25 K in the afterglow region of the plasma jet for pure helium and helium/oxygen (0.1%) mixture, respectively. Additionally, the vibrational temperatures range from 2200 {+-} 100 K and 2500 {+-} 100 K for pure helium and helium/oxygen (0.1%) mixture, respectively. The plasma jet was tested on heat sensitive polymer films used in biomedical applications such as polyethylene terephthalate and poly-L-lactide samples continuously for several minutes without causing any physical or thermal damage to the films. The plasma jet produces significant reactive species of interest while the gas temperatures remain very low demonstrating its potential for a range of biomedical applications.

  16. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  17. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES REVIEW & EVALUATION OF INTERNAL PIPELINE REPAIR TRIALS REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is generally ineffective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressure for pipe repaired with carbon fiber-reinforced composite liner was greater than that of the un-repaired pipe section with damage, indicating that this type of liner is effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the next phase of this project.

  18. Hydrodynamic forces on piggyback pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jakobsen, M.L.; Sayer, P. [Univ. of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An increasing number of new offshore pipelines have been designed as bundles, mainly because of overall cost reductions. One popular way of combining two pipelines with different diameters is the piggyback configuration, with the smaller pipeline strapped on top of the main pipeline. The external hydrodynamic forces on this combination are at present very roughly estimated; pipeline engineers need more data to support their designs. This paper presents experimental results for the in-line hydrodynamic loading on three different piggyback set-ups. The models comprised a 0.4 m main pipeline, and three piggyback pipelines with diameters of 0.038 m, 0.059 m and 0.099 m. Each small pipeline was separately mounted to the main pipeline, with a gap equal to its own diameter. These model sizes lie approximately between half- and full-scale. Experiments were undertaken for K{sub C} between 5 and 42, and R{sub e} in the range 0.0 * 10{sup 4} to 8.5 * 10{sup 5}. The results based on Morison`s equation indicate that a simple addition of the separate forces acting on each cylinder underestimates the actual force by up to 35% at low K{sub C} (< {approximately} 10) and by as much as 100% in the drag-dominated regime (K{sub C} > {approximately} 20).

  19. RNA-Seq Pipeline in Galaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Xiandong

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Assembly in Galaxy RNA-Seq q Pipeline p • QC : To find outRNA-Seq Pipeline in Galaxy Xiandong Meng 1 , Jeffrey Martinof California RNA--Seq Pipeline in Galaxy RNA Xiandong Meng

  20. Leaking Pipelines: Doctoral Student Family Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serrano, Christyna M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sari M. “Why the Academic Pipeline Leaks: Fewer Men thanone reason the academic pipeline leaks. 31 Blair-Loy, Mary.to leak out of the “academic pipeline. ” The term “academic

  1. Materials Solutions for Hydrogen Delivery in Pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ningileri, Shridas T.; Boggess, Todd A; Stalheim, Douglas

    2013-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of the study is as follows: Identify steel compositions/microstructures suitable for construction of new pipeline infrastructure and evaluate the potential use of the existing steel pipeline infrastructure in high pressure gaseous hydrogen applications. The microstructures of four pipeline steels were characterized and tensile testing was conducted in gaseous hydrogen and helium at pressures of 5.5 MPa (800 psi), 11 MPa (1600 psi) and 20.7 MPa (3000 psi). Based on reduction of area, two of the four steels that performed the best across the pressure range were selected for evaluation of fracture and fatigue performance in gaseous hydrogen at 5.5 MPa (800 psi) and 20.7 MPa (3000 psi). The basic format for this phase of the study is as follows: Microstructural characterization of volume fraction of phases in each alloy; Tensile testing of all four alloys in He and H{sub 2} at 5.5 MPa (800 psi), 11 MPa (1600 psi), and 20.7 MPa (3000 psi). RA performance was used to choose the two best performers for further mechanical property evaluation; Fracture testing (ASTM E1820) of two best tensile test performers in H{sub 2} at 5.5 MPa (800 psi) and 20.7 MPa (3000 psi); Fatigue testing (ASTM E647) of two best tensile test performers in H2 at 5.5 MPa (800 psi) and 20.7 MPa (3000 psi) with frequency =1.0 Hz and R-ratio=0.5 and 0.1.

  2. Praxair extending hydrogen pipeline in Southeast Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that Praxair Inc., an independent corporation created by the spinoff of Union Carbide Corp.'s Linde division, is extending its high purity hydrogen pipeline system from Channelview, Tex., to Port Arthur, Tex. The 70 mile, 10 in. extension begins at a new pressure swing adsorption (PSA) purification unit next to Lyondell Petrochemical Co.'s Channelview plant. The PSA unit will upgrade hydrogen offgas from Lyondell's methanol plant to 99.99% purity hydrogen. The new line, advancing at a rate of about 1 mile/day, will reach its first customer, Star Enterprise's 250,000 b/d Port Arthur refinery, in September.

  3. Data Reduction Pipeline for the MMT and Magellan Infrared Spectrograph

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chilingarian, Igor; Moran, Sean; Brown, Warren; McLeod, Brian; Fabricant, Daniel

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the new spectroscopic data reduction pipeline for the multi-object MMT/Magellan Infrared Spectrograph. The pipeline is implemented in idl as a stand-alone package and is publicly available in both stable and development versions. We describe novel algorithms for sky subtraction and correction for telluric absorption. We demonstrate that our sky subtraction technique reaches the Poisson limit set by the photon statistics. Our telluric correction uses a hybrid approach by first computing a correction function from an observed stellar spectrum, and then differentially correcting it using a grid of atmosphere transmission models for the target airmass value. The pipeline provides a sufficient level of performance for real time reduction and thus enables data quality control during observations. We reduce an example dataset to demonstrate the high data reduction quality.

  4. Detection of the internal corrosion in pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Detection of the internal corrosion in pipeline. Hyeonbae Kang. In this talk I will explain our new methods to detect internal corrosions in pipelines.

  5. Machinist Pipeline/Apprentice Program Program Description

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Machinist PipelineApprentice Program Program Description The Machinist Pipeline Program was created by the Prototype Fabrication Division to fill a critical need for skilled...

  6. Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of High Silica SiO2-TiO2 Antireflective Thin Films for Glass Based Solar Panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klobukowski, Erik R [ORNL; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E [ORNL; McCamy, James [PPG; Harris, Caroline [PPG; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of SiO2-TiO2 thin films employing [[(tBuO)3Si]2O-Ti(OiPr)2], which can be prepared from commercially available materials, results in antireflective thin films on float glass under industrially relevant manufacturing conditions. It was found that while the deposition temperature had an effect on the SiO2:TiO2 ratio, the thickness was dependent on the time of deposition. This study shows that it is possible to use APCVD employing a single source precursor containing titanium and silicon to produce thin films on float glass with high SiO2:TiO2 ratios.

  7. A finite-difference time-domain simulation of high power microwave generated plasma at atmospheric pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, Patrick J.; Beeson, Sterling R.; Krompholz, Hermann G.; Neuber, Andreas A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409-3102 (United States)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A finite-difference algorithm was developed to calculate several RF breakdown parameters, for example, the formative delay time that is observed between the initial application of a RF field to a dielectric surface and the formation of field-induced plasma interrupting the RF power flow. The analysis is focused on the surface being exposed to a background gas pressure above 50 Torr. The finite-difference algorithm provides numerical solutions to partial differential equations with high resolution in the time domain, making it suitable for simulating the time evolving interaction of microwaves with plasma; in lieu of direct particle tracking, a macroscopic electron density is used to model growth and transport. This approach is presented as an alternative to particle-in-cell methods due to its low complexity and runtime leading to more efficient analysis for a simulation of a microsecond scale pulse. The effect and development of the plasma is modeled in the simulation using scaling laws for ionization rates, momentum transfer collision rates, and diffusion coefficients, as a function of electric field, gas type and pressure. The incorporation of plasma material into the simulation involves using the Z-transform to derive a time-domain algorithm from the complex frequency-dependent permittivity of plasma. Therefore, the effect of the developing plasma on the instantaneous microwave field is calculated. Simulation results are compared with power measurements using an apparatus designed to facilitate surface flashover across a polycarbonate boundary in a controlled N{sub 2}, air, or argon environment at pressures exceeding 50 Torr.

  8. X-ray and runaway electron generation in repetitive pulsed discharges in atmospheric pressure air with a point-to-plane gap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao Tao; Yan Ping [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Power Electronics and Electric Drive, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Tarasenko, Victor F.; Shut'ko, Yuliya V. [Institute of High Current Electronics, Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Zhang Cheng [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, using two repetitive nanosecond generators, x-rays were detected in atmospheric air with a highly inhomogeneous electric field by a point-to- plane gap. The rise times of the generators were about 15 and 1 ns. The x-rays were directly measured by various dosimeters and a NaI scintillator with a photomultiplier tube. X-rays were detected in the continuous mode at pulse repetition frequency up to 1 kHz and a voltage pulse rise time of {approx}15 ns. It is shown that the maximum x-ray intensity is attainable at different pulse repetition frequencies depending on the voltage pulse parameters and cathode design. In atmospheric pressure air the x-ray intensity is found to increase with increasing the pulse repetition frequency up to 1 kHz. It is confirmed that the maximum x-ray intensity is attained in a diffuse discharge in a point-to-plane gap.

  9. Qualification of Innovative High Level Waste Pipeline Unplugging Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDaniel, D.; Gokaltun, S.; Varona, J.; Awwad, A.; Roelant, D.; Srivastava, R. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, FL (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past, some of the pipelines have plugged during high level waste (HLW) transfers resulting in schedule delays and increased costs. Furthermore, pipeline plugging has been cited by the 'best and brightest' technical review as one of the major issues that can result in unplanned outages at the Waste Treatment Plant causing inconsistent operation. As the DOE moves toward a more active high level waste retrieval, the site engineers will be faced with increasing cross-site pipeline waste slurry transfers that will result in increased probability of a pipeline getting plugged. Hence, availability of a pipeline unplugging tool/technology is crucial to ensure smooth operation of the waste transfers and in ensuring tank farm cleanup milestones are met. FIU had earlier tested and evaluated various unplugging technologies through an industry call. Based on mockup testing, two technologies were identified that could withstand the rigors of operation in a radioactive environment and with the ability to handle sharp 90 elbows. We present results of the second phase of detailed testing and evaluation of pipeline unplugging technologies and the objective is to qualify these pipeline unplugging technologies for subsequent deployment at a DOE facility. The current phase of testing and qualification comprises of a heavily instrumented 3-inch diameter (full-scale) pipeline facilitating extensive data acquisition for design optimization and performance evaluation, as it applies to three types of plugs atypical of the DOE HLW waste. Furthermore, the data from testing at three different lengths of pipe in conjunction with the physics of the process will assist in modeling the unplugging phenomenon that will then be used to scale-up process parameters and system variables for longer and site typical pipe lengths, which can extend as much as up to 19,000 ft. Detailed information resulting from the testing will provide the DOE end-user with sufficient data and understanding of the technology, and its limitations to aid in the benefit-cost analysis for management decision whether to deploy the technology or to abandon the pipeline as has been done in the past. In conclusion: The ultimate objective of this study is to qualify NuVision's unplugging technology for use at Hanford. Experimental testing has been conducted using three pipeline lengths and three types of blockages. Erosion rates have been obtained and pressure data is being analyzed. An amplification of the inlet pressure has been observed along the pipeline and is the key to determining up to what pipe lengths the technology can be used without surpassing the site pressure limit. In addition, we will attempt to establish what the expected unplugging rates will be at the longer pipe lengths for each of the three blockages tested. Detailed information resulting from the testing will provide the DOE end-user with sufficient data and understanding of the technology, and its limitations so that management decisions can be made whether the technology has a reasonable chance to successfully unplug a pipeline, such as a cross site transfer line or process transfer pipeline at the Waste Treatment Plant. (authors)

  10. Hydrogen pipeline compressors annual progress report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenske, G. R.; Erck, R. A. (Energy Systems)

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives are: (1) develop advanced materials and coatings for hydrogen pipeline compressors; (2) achieve greater reliability, greater efficiency, and lower capital in vestment and maintenance costs in hydrogen pipeline compressors; and (3) research existing and novel hydrogen compression technologies that can improve reliability, eliminate contamination, and reduce cost. Compressors are critical components used in the production and delivery of hydrogen. Current reciprocating compressors used for pipeline delivery of hydrogen are costly, are subject to excessive wear, have poor reliability, and often require the use of lubricants that can contaminate the hydrogen (used in fuel cells). Duplicate compressors may be required to assure availability. The primary objective of this project is to identify, and develop as required, advanced materials and coatings that can achieve the friction, wear, and reliability requirements for dynamically loaded components (seal and bearings) in high-temperature, high-pressure hydrogen environments prototypical of pipeline and forecourt compressor systems. The DOE Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop identified critical needs in the development of advanced hydrogen compressors - notably, the need to minimize moving parts and to address wear through new designs (centrifugal, linear, guided rotor, and electrochemical) and improved compressor materials. The DOE is supporting several compressor design studies on hydrogen pipeline compression specifically addressing oil-free designs that demonstrate compression in the 0-500 psig to 800-1200 psig range with significant improvements in efficiency, contamination, and reliability/durability. One of the designs by Mohawk Innovative Technologies Inc. (MiTi{reg_sign}) involves using oil-free foil bearings and seals in a centrifual compressor, and MiTi{reg_sign} identified the development of bearings, seals, and oil-free tribological coatings as crucial to the successful development of an advanced compressor. MiTi{reg_sign} and ANL have developed potential coatings for these rigorous applications; however, the performance of these coatings (as well as the nickel-alloy substrates) in high-temperature, high-speed hydrogen environments is unknown at this point.

  11. Questions and Issues on Hydrogen Pipelines: Pipeline Transmission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pipping of GH2 Pipeline. Background: FG 64 built in 50ies, KP added in 70ies, active mining area over total length hpwgwquestissuescampbell.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  12. The LOFAR Transients Pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swinbank, John D; Molenaar, Gijs J; Rol, Evert; Rowlinson, Antonia; Scheers, Bart; Spreeuw, Hanno; Bell, Martin E; Broderick, Jess W; Carbone, Dario; van der Horst, Alexander J; Law, Casey J; Wise, Michael; Breton, Rene P; Cendes, Yvette; Corbel, Stéphane; Eislöffel, Jochen; Falcke, Heino; Fender, Rob; Greißmeier, Jean-Mathias; Hessels, Jason W T; Stappers, Benjamin W; Stewart, Adam J; Wijers, Ralph A M J; Wijnands, Rudy; Zarka, Philippe

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current and future astronomical survey facilities provide a remarkably rich opportunity for transient astronomy, combining unprecedented fields of view with high sensitivity and the ability to access previously unexplored wavelength regimes. This is particularly true of LOFAR, a recently-commissioned, low-frequency radio interferometer, based in the Netherlands and with stations across Europe. The identification of and response to transients is one of LOFAR's key science goals. However, the large data volumes which LOFAR produces, combined with the scientific requirement for rapid response, make automation essential. To support this, we have developed the LOFAR Transients Pipeline, or TraP. The TraP ingests multi-frequency image data from LOFAR or other instruments and searches it for transients and variables, providing automatic alerts of significant detections and populating a lightcurve database for further analysis by astronomers. Here, we discuss the scientific goals of the TraP and how it has been desig...

  13. About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This information product provides the interested reader with a broad and non-technical overview of how the U.S. natural gas pipeline network operates, along with some insights into the many individual pipeline systems that make up the network. While the focus of the presentation is the transportation of natural gas over the interstate and intrastate pipeline systems, information on subjects related to pipeline development, such as system design and pipeline expansion, are also included.

  14. Using Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline Costs to Estimate Hydrogen Pipeline Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Nathan

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Warren R. “U.S. interstate pipelines begin 1993 on upbeat. ”66. ? True, Warren R. “Current pipeline costs. ” Oil & GasWarren R. “U.S. interstate pipelines ran more efficiently in

  15. Design Optimization of Innovative High-Level Waste Pipeline Unplugging Technologies - 13341

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pribanic, T.; Awwad, A.; Varona, J.; McDaniel, D.; Gokaltun, S.; Crespo, J. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami. FL 33174 (United States)] [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami. FL 33174 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Florida International University (FIU) is currently working on the development and optimization of two innovative pipeline unplugging methods: the asynchronous pulsing system (APS) and the peristaltic crawler system (PCS). Experiments were conducted on the APS to determine how air in the pipeline influences the system's performance as well as determine the effectiveness of air mitigation techniques in a pipeline. The results obtained during the experimental phase of the project, including data from pipeline pressure pulse tests along with air bubble compression tests are presented. Single-cycle pulse amplification caused by a fast-acting cylinder piston pump in 21.8, 30.5, and 43.6 m pipelines were evaluated. Experiments were conducted on fully flooded pipelines as well as pipelines that contained various amounts of air to evaluate the system's performance when air is present in the pipeline. Also presented are details of the improvements implemented to the third generation crawler system (PCS). The improvements include the redesign of the rims of the unit to accommodate a camera system that provides visual feedback of the conditions inside the pipeline. Visual feedback allows the crawler to be used as a pipeline unplugging and inspection tool. Tests conducted previously demonstrated a significant reduction of the crawler speed with increasing length of tether. Current improvements include the positioning of a pneumatic valve manifold system that is located in close proximity to the crawler, rendering tether length independent of crawler speed. Additional improvements to increase the crawler's speed were also investigated and presented. Descriptions of the test beds, which were designed to emulate possible scenarios present on the Department of Energy (DOE) pipelines, are presented. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for the systems are provided. (authors)

  16. Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines Presentation by 03-Babu for the DOE Hydrogen Pipeline...

  17. Latinas Straddling the Prison Pipeline through Gender (Non) Conformity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caraves, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the School-to-Prison Pipeline/Building Abolition Futures.rights/school-prison-pipeline Retrieved: September 12, 2014Chicano Educational Pipeline. New York: Routledge ------(

  18. The pipeline and future of drug development in schizophrenia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, J A; Roth, B L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pipeline and Future of Drug Development in SchizophreniaThe Drug Discovery Pipeline in Schizophrenia Keywords:discuss the current pipeline of drugs for schizophrenia,

  19. PIPELINES AS COMMUNICATION NETWORK LINKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelvin T. Erickson; Ann Miller; E. Keith Stanek; C.H. Wu; Shari Dunn-Norman

    2005-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of an investigation into two methods of using the natural gas pipeline as a communication medium. The work addressed the need to develop secure system monitoring and control techniques between the field and control centers and to robotic devices in the pipeline. In the first method, the pipeline was treated as a microwave waveguide. In the second method, the pipe was treated as a leaky feeder or a multi-ground neutral and the signal was directly injected onto the metal pipe. These methods were tested on existing pipeline loops at UMR and Batelle. The results reported in this report indicate the feasibility of both methods. In addition, a few suitable communication link protocols for this network were analyzed.

  20. Decoupled Sampling for Graphics Pipelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ragan-Kelley, Jonathan Millar

    We propose a generalized approach to decoupling shading from visibility sampling in graphics pipelines, which we call decoupled sampling. Decoupled sampling enables stochastic supersampling of motion and defocus blur at ...

  1. Gas Utility Pipeline Tax (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    All gas utilities, including any entity that owns, manages, operates, leases, or controls a pipeline for the purpose of transporting natural gas in the state for sale or compensation, as well as...

  2. Common Pipeline Carriers (North Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any entity that owns, operates, or manages a pipeline for the purpose of transporting crude petroleum, gas, coal, or carbon dioxide within or through the state of North Dakota, or is engaged in the...

  3. Pipeline Processing of VLBI Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Reynolds; Z. Paragi; M. Garrett

    2002-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of an on-going effort to simplify the data analysis path for VLBI experiments, a pipeline procedure has been developed at JIVE to carry out much of the data reduction required for EVN experiments in an automated fashion. This pipeline procedure runs entirely within AIPS, the standard data reduction package used in astronomical VLBI, and is used to provide preliminary calibration of EVN experiments correlated at the EVN MkIV data processor. As well as simplifying the analysis for EVN users, the pipeline reduces the delay in providing information on the data quality to participating telescopes, hence improving the overall performance of the array. A description of this pipeline is presented here.

  4. Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute confers upon the Iowa Utilities Board the authority to act as an agent of the federal government in determining pipeline company compliance with federal standards within the boundaries...

  5. Gas Pipelines, County Roads (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A contract with any Board of County Commissioners is required prior to the construction of a pipeline, conduit, or private drain across or along any county highway. The contract will include terms...

  6. Pipelines programming paradigms: Prefab plumbing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boeheim, C.

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mastery of CMS Pipelines is a process of learning increasingly sophisticated tools and techniques that can be applied to your problem. This paper presents a compilation of techniques that can be used as a reference for solving similar problems

  7. Hurricane-damaged Gulf of Mexico pipeline repaired with cold forging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, G. (Texaco Pipeline Inc., Houma, LA (United States)); DeGruy, P. (Texaco Inc., New Orleans, LA (United States)); Avery, L. (Big Inch Marine Systems Inc., Lafayette, LA (United States))

    1993-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Damage to Texaco Pipeline Inc.'s Eugene Island Pipeline System (EIPS) in last year's Hurricane Andrew prompted a complex repair project unique for the Gulf of Mexico. Damage, suffered when the anchor of a runaway semisubmersible drilling rig crashed into the 20-in. EPIS during the height of the storm, caused the pipeline to fail under pressure within 48 hr. after start-up following the storm. The paper describes the importance of the EIPS; system safety; Andrew's damage; locating the leak; repair options; the chosen system; mechanical bonding; end connectors and ball flanges; and diving operations.

  8. Simultaneous measurement of nitrogen and hydrogen dissociation from vacuum ultraviolet self-absorption spectroscopy in a developing low temperature plasma at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laity, George; Fierro, Andrew; Dickens, James; Neuber, Andreas [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)] [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Frank, Klaus [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Department of Physics, Friedrich-Alexander University at Erlangen - Nuernberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)] [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Department of Physics, Friedrich-Alexander University at Erlangen - Nuernberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a method for determining the dissociation density of N and H atoms present in a developing low temperature plasma, based on the emission and self-absorption of vacuum ultraviolet radiation produced from the plasma. Spark plasmas are produced via pulsed discharge in N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} mixtures at atmospheric pressure, where information on the dissociated densities of the constituent gas molecules is desired without employing invasive diagnostic techniques. By analyzing the self-absorption line profile of 121.5 nm Lyman-{alpha} H radiation emitted within the first {approx}1.0 mm of plasma near the anode tip, a peak dissociated H atom concentration of 5.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} was observed {approx}100 ns into spark formation, with an estimated electron density of 2.65 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} determined from Stark broadening. Similarly, simultaneous line fitting of the N 120.0/124.3 nm emission profiles revealed a peak dissociated N atom concentration of 3.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} during the same discharge period.

  9. Network Connectivity and Price Convergency: Gas Pipeline Deregulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Vany, Arthur; Walls, W. David

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Convergence: Gas Pipeline Deregulation Arthur De Vany W.Price Convergence: Gas Pipeline Deregulation Arthur De Vany

  10. Method and system for pipeline communication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson; John G. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2008-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A pipeline communication system and method includes a pipeline having a surface extending along at least a portion of the length of the pipeline. A conductive bus is formed to and extends along a portion of the surface of the pipeline. The conductive bus includes a first conductive trace and a second conductive trace with the first and second conductive traces being adapted to conformally couple with a pipeline at the surface extending along at least a portion of the length of the pipeline. A transmitter for sending information along the conductive bus on the pipeline is coupled thereto and a receiver for receiving the information from the conductive bus on the pipeline is also couple to the conductive bus.

  11. Computer Science and Information Technology Student Pipeline

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Student Pipeline Program Description Los Alamos National Laboratory's High Performance Computing and Information Technology Divisions recruit and hire promising...

  12. NAZ EDUCATION PIPELINE the-naz.org

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, S. Massoud

    NAZ EDUCATION PIPELINE the-naz.org 1200 W. Broadway #250 | Minneapolis, MN 55411 | Family Academy is a foundational component of the NAZ "cradle to career" pipeline. NAZ families can enroll in the Family Academy college ready. Families and children move through a "cradle to career" pipeline that provides

  13. Modeling and Validation of Pipeline Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mishra, Prabhat

    -on-Chip design process. Many existing approaches employ a bottom-up approach to pipeline validation, where description language (ADL) constructs, and thus allows a powerful top-down approach to pipeline validationModeling and Validation of Pipeline Specifications PRABHAT MISHRA and NIKIL DUTT University

  14. Chris Jesshope! 2. Pipelined and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jesshope, Chris

    to sequential tasks: Op: A ; B ; C ; D A B C D Pipelined concurrency requires sequences of operations. Given Opi, 0in, we execute sub-tasks concurrently as follows: Opi: Ai+3||Bi+2||Ci+1||Di Ai+3 Bi+2 Ci+1 Di

  15. Overview of pipeline safety legislation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldwell, J. [Caldwell and Associates, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pipeline regulation in the US as it has been known since 1968 is being changed. Several major actions are occurring in Government that will redirect the focus of pipeline safety regulation and how it is carried out by government and industry. The Congress is proposing to accept risk management as away of regulation and requiring risk assessment and cost analysis on all regulatory requirements. The DOT/OPS is developing a risk-prioritization program for regulatory activities to be used in evaluating existing regulations to identify those that are obsolete and need modifying or eliminating. The pipeline industry is taking on a proactive role in working with Congress and DOT/OPS to develop this agenda. For the first time in the regulatory history of pipeline safety, Congress, DOT/OPS, and the industry are talking to each other and working toward a common goal of less regulation, more flexible regulation, and placing the responsibility for safety in the hands of the industry.

  16. Atmospheric Thermodynamics Composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    1 Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ch1 Composition Ch2 Laws Ch3 Transfers Ch12 EnergyBalance Ch4 Water Ch Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http #12;2 Review from Ch. 1 · Thermodynamic quantities · Composition · Pressure · Density · Temperature

  17. Capsule injection system for a hydraulic capsule pipelining system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Henry (Columbia, MO)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An injection system for injecting capsules into a hydraulic capsule pipelining system, the pipelining system comprising a pipeline adapted for flow of a carrier liquid therethrough, and capsules adapted to be transported through the pipeline by the carrier liquid flowing through the pipeline. The injection system comprises a reservoir of carrier liquid, the pipeline extending within the reservoir and extending downstream out of the reservoir, and a magazine in the reservoir for holding capsules in a series, one above another, for injection into the pipeline in the reservoir. The magazine has a lower end in communication with the pipeline in the reservoir for delivery of capsules from the magazine into the pipeline.

  18. Questions and Issues on Hydrogen Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Questions and Issues on Hydrogen Pipelines Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen Doe Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Meeting August 31, 2005 #12;Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen --- 2 Copyright: Air Liquide Transmission of Hydrogen --- 3 Copyright: #12;Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen --- 4 Copyright: 3. Special

  19. Equivalence Checking for Function Pipelining in Behavioral Synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Fei

    on subtle design invariants. Function pipelining (a.k.a. system-level pipelining) is an important, correct-by-construction abstraction of function pipeline; thus, instead of developing pipelineEquivalence Checking for Function Pipelining in Behavioral Synthesis Kecheng Hao, Sandip Ray

  20. Transport of entrained air bubbles in fresh concrete due to pressure variations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macha, Ravi Kumar

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Continuous Pressure Trace [36]. Figure 24. Analysis of a Pressure Pulse [36]. 54 54 Figure 25. Effect of Concrete Workability on Pumpability and Pump Efficiency [36]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Figure 26, Dewatering in Pipeline [4]. Figure 27.... Pressure Transducer. Figure 39. Strip Chart Recorder. Figure 40. Residual Error for B ? A Mathematical Model, 94 97 97 102 Figure 41. Air Loss in Concrete Due to Pumping (After, Vibrated, and Turbulated). 106 Figure 42. Pressure in Pipeline. 108...

  1. Variation of corrosion behaviour of candidate heat exchanger alloys with local oxygen partial pressure in a 0. 6 meter diameter AFBC. [Atmospheric fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rocazella, M.A.; Wright, I.G.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The investigation reported in this article was aimed at characterising the types of corrosive environments encountered in AFBC by monitoring oxygen partial pressure at exposure locations, and correlating the corrosion behaviour of exposed alloys with the local oxygen partial pressure measurements.

  2. Flow of suspensions in pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nasr-El-Din, H.A. [Laboratory R& D Center, Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Slurry pipelines are used in many industrial applications. Several parameters are often needed by the operator, including critical deposit velocity, solids concentration, and particle velocity profiles. This chapter first reviews important formulas used to predict critical deposit velocity both in Newtonian and non-Newtonian (power-law) carrier fluids. Various methods to measure local velocity and solids concentration profiles in slurry pipelines are discussed. Local solids concentration can be measured by sample withdrawal technique. However, the sample should be withdrawn at isokinetic conditions. Sampling downstream of tees and elbows can result in significant errors in measuring solids concentration. Gamma-ray absorption methods can be used; however, two scans are needed to obtain local solids concentration. Bulk velocity of conductive slurries can be obtained using magnetic flow meters mounted on a vertical section of the pipe. Local particle velocity can be obtained using conductivity probes. NMR methods can be used to measure concentration and particle velocity profiles but are limited to small-diameter pipes. Vertical solids concentration of coarse slurries flowing in a horizontal pipeline exhibits a positive gradient near the bottom of the pipe. Traditional models to predict these profiles are given, and new mathematical models and computer software to determine these profiles are introduced. 104 refs., 31 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Hydrogen Pipeline Safety Our goal is to establish the codes and standards necessary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in high-pressure gaseous hydrogen environments. Objective Impact and Customers · Gasoline consumption), Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), TransCanada, the Northeast Gas Association, Pacific Energy, Pipeline from other national laboratories and government agencies. The workshop report (NIST-IR 6649) includes

  4. Virginia Natural Gas's Hampton Roads Pipeline Crossing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) Fall 2008 meeting—covers Virginia Natural Gas's (VNG's) pipeline project at Hampton Roads Crossing (HRX).

  5. Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline Siting Act (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act establishes a centralized and coordinated permitting process for the location of natural gas transmission pipeline corridors and the construction and maintenance of natural gas...

  6. Acoustic system for communication in pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, II, Louis Peter (San Ramon, CA); Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

    2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for communication in a pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid. The system includes an encoding and transmitting sub-system connected to the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes that transmits a signal in the frequency range of 3-100 kHz into the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid, and a receiver and processor sub-system connected to the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid that receives said signal and uses said signal for a desired application.

  7. GLAST (FERMI) Data-Processing Pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flath, Daniel L.; Johnson, Tony S.; Turri, Massimiliano; Heidenreich, Karen A.; /SLAC

    2011-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Data Processing Pipeline ('Pipeline') has been developed for the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) which launched June 11, 2008. It generically processes graphs of dependent tasks, maintaining a full record of its state, history and data products. The Pipeline is used to automatically process the data down-linked from the satellite and to deliver science products to the GLAST collaboration and the Science Support Center and has been in continuous use since launch with great success. The pipeline handles up to 2000 concurrent jobs and in reconstructing science data produces approximately 750GB of data products using 1/2 CPU-year of processing time per day.

  8. Hazardous Liquid Pipelines and Storage Facilities (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute regulates the permitting, construction, monitoring, and operation of pipelines transporting hazardous liquids, including petroleum products and coal slurries. The definition used in...

  9. Illinois Gas Pipeline Safety Act (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Standards established under this Act may apply to the design, installation, inspection, testing, construction, extension, operation, replacement, and maintenance of pipeline facilities. Whenever...

  10. Pipelines and Underground Gas Storage (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These rules apply to intrastate transport of natural gas and other substances via pipeline, as well as underground gas storage facilities. The construction and operation of such infrastructure...

  11. Petroleum Pipeline Eminent Domain Permit Procedures (Georgia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Petroleum Pipeline Eminent Domain Permit Procedures serve to protect Georgia's natural and environmental resources by requiring permits be issued by the Director of the Environmental Protection...

  12. Hydrogen Delivery Technologies and Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen Delivery Technologies and Systems Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen Strategic Initiatives, and Infrastructure Technologies Program #12;Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen --- 2 Copyright: Design & Operation development) #12;Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen --- 3 Copyright: Future H2 Infrastructure Wind Powered

  13. A feminist perspective on the school-to-labor pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hextrum, Kirsten

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the School-to-Labor Pipeline Collins, P. (1986) Learningon the School-to-Labor Pipeline Leonardo, Z. (2010).on the School-to-Labor Pipeline Kirsten Hextrum 1 University

  14. Structural Genomics of Minimal Organisms: Pipeline and Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sung-Hou

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Minimal Organisms: Pipeline and Results Sung-Hou Kim*,~500 genes, respectively). Pipeline: To achieve our mission,determination. Over all pipeline schemes for the single-path

  15. Trenches Under The Pipeline: The Educational Trajectories of Chicano Male Continuation High School Students

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malagon, Maria

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Trenches Under The Pipeline: The Educational Trajectories ofnavigate the educational pipeline, continuation high school

  16. An approach for simulation of paraffin deposition in pipelines as a function of flow characteristics with a reference to Teesside oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamouda, A.A.; Davidsen, S.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Paraffin deposition is experienced in pipelines during transportation of oil when the oil temperature is cooled below its paraffin deposition temperature. The formed paraffin crystals in the bulk flow are believed to be transported by molecular, brownian diffusion and shear dispersion. Gravity settling mechanism in previous work in the authors` laboratory has been shown to contribute to the total paraffin deposition, however, to a lesser extent than the above mentioned mechanisms. The work done here demonstrates that the paraffin deposition by molecular diffusion mechanism is a dominant one. This is in agreement with other previous studies done on the paraffin deposition. In this study, however, experimental design was made to quantify this statement. The paraffin concentration gradient (dc/dr) is the driving force of the molecular diffusion mechanism (where r is the pipeline radius). In pipelines the cooling rate is one of many factors that affect the paraffin deposition profile. Equipment was designed to simulate the flow characteristics at pipeline pressure. A three dimensional model was developed for paraffin deposition rates at various flow regimes. The developed experimental approach and the designed equipment for simulating the pipeline conditions are presented in this paper.

  17. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Pipeline Capacity and Utilization

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline353/06)Pipeline Utilization & Capacity About

  18. SCADA computer sytem controls major Saudi Aramco crude oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dempsey, J.; Al-Habib, R. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A replacement Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) computer system which monitors and controls two 1,100 kilometer pipelines and eleven associated pump stations is described. The SCADA system was designed to meet two objectives: (1) decentralize the overall control system and provide a distributed control system capable of regulatory control at each pump and pressure reducing station, and (2) provide system wide monitoring and supervisory control function during normal operations at the crude oil terminal. The SCADA computer system hardware (host computers and consoles), software modules, and applications are overviewed. A data flow diagram and a hardware configuration diagram are provided. 3 figs.

  19. Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines Project Objectives: To gain basic understanding of...

  20. Report to Congress: Dedicated Ethanol Pipeline Feasability Study...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Report to Congress: Dedicated Ethanol Pipeline Feasability Study - Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 Section 243 Report to Congress: Dedicated Ethanol Pipeline...

  1. argentinian pipeline enlargement: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fiber-reinforced polymer pipe Project Overview: Investigate 25 Code for Hydrogen Hydrogen Pipeline Renewable Energy Websites Summary: 12;2 Code for Hydrogen Pipelines...

  2. acicular ferrite pipeline: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fiber-reinforced polymer pipe Project Overview: Investigate 18 Code for Hydrogen Hydrogen Pipeline Renewable Energy Websites Summary: 12;2 Code for Hydrogen Pipelines...

  3. automatic pipeline monitoring: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fiber-reinforced polymer pipe Project Overview: Investigate 67 Code for Hydrogen Hydrogen Pipeline Renewable Energy Websites Summary: 12;2 Code for Hydrogen Pipelines...

  4. alaska gas pipeline: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and ROW Lower South Carolina Electric and Gas University of South Carolina Praxair Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group 4 A moving horizon solution to the gas pipeline...

  5. alaska pipeline system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fiber-reinforced polymer pipe Project Overview: Investigate 93 Code for Hydrogen Hydrogen Pipeline Renewable Energy Websites Summary: 12;2 Code for Hydrogen Pipelines...

  6. automatic pipeline analysing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fiber-reinforced polymer pipe Project Overview: Investigate 45 Code for Hydrogen Hydrogen Pipeline Renewable Energy Websites Summary: 12;2 Code for Hydrogen Pipelines...

  7. annotation pipelines differences: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fiber-reinforced polymer pipe Project Overview: Investigate 73 Code for Hydrogen Hydrogen Pipeline Renewable Energy Websites Summary: 12;2 Code for Hydrogen Pipelines...

  8. arctic gas pipeline: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and ROW Lower South Carolina Electric and Gas University of South Carolina Praxair Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group 3 A moving horizon solution to the gas pipeline...

  9. arctic gas pipelines: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and ROW Lower South Carolina Electric and Gas University of South Carolina Praxair Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group 3 A moving horizon solution to the gas pipeline...

  10. alaska highway pipeline: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fiber-reinforced polymer pipe Project Overview: Investigate 45 Code for Hydrogen Hydrogen Pipeline Renewable Energy Websites Summary: 12;2 Code for Hydrogen Pipelines...

  11. areas osbra pipeline: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fiber-reinforced polymer pipe Project Overview: Investigate 16 Code for Hydrogen Hydrogen Pipeline Renewable Energy Websites Summary: 12;2 Code for Hydrogen Pipelines...

  12. Hydrogen Delivery Technologies and Systems- Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen Delivery Technologies and Systems - Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen. Design and operations standards and materials for hydrogen and natural gas pipelines.

  13. Evalutation of Natural Gas Pipeline Materials and Infrastructure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evalutation of Natural Gas Pipeline Materials and Infrastructure for HydrogenMixed Gas Service Evalutation of Natural Gas Pipeline Materials and Infrastructure for HydrogenMixed...

  14. Energy Department Moves Forward on Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    guarantee program to encourage the construction of a pipeline that will bring Alaskan natural gas to the continental United States. The pipeline will provide access to Alaska's...

  15. Assessment of the Adequacy of Natural Gas Pipeline Capacity in...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Assessment of the Adequacy of Natural Gas Pipeline Capacity in the Northeast United States - November 2013 Assessment of the Adequacy of Natural Gas Pipeline Capacity in the...

  16. Evaluation of Natural Gas Pipeline Materials for Hydrogen Science...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation of Natural Gas Pipeline Materials for Hydrogen Science Evaluation of Natural Gas Pipeline Materials for Hydrogen Science Presentation by 04-Adams to DOE Hydrogen...

  17. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Regional Overview and Links

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Overview and Links About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Regional Overviews and Links to Pipeline...

  18. Harmonic distortion correction in pipelined analog to digital converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panigada, Andrea

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Background Correction of Harmonic Distortion in PipelinedBackground Correction of Harmonic Distortion in PipelinedADC with 69dB SNDR Enabled by Digital Harmonic Distortion

  19. Pluto's Atmosphere Does Not Collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olkin, C B; Borncamp, D; Pickles, A; Sicardy, B; Assafin, M; Bianco, F B; Buie, M W; de Oliveira, A Dias; Gillon, M; French, R G; Gomes, A Ramos; Jehin, E; Morales, N; Opitom, C; Ortiz, J L; Maury, A; Norbury, M; Ribas, F B; Smith, R; Wasserman, L H; Young, E F; Zacharias, M; Zacharias, N

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combining stellar occultation observations probing Pluto's atmosphere from 1988 to 2013 and models of energy balance between Pluto's surface and atmosphere, we conclude that Pluto's atmosphere does not collapse at any point in its 248-year orbit. The occultation results show an increasing atmospheric pressure with time in the current epoch, a trend present only in models with a high thermal inertia and a permanent N2 ice cap at Pluto's north rotational pole.

  20. Leakage Risk Assessment of CO{sub 2} Transportation by Pipeline at the Illinois Basin Decatur Project, Decatur, Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzoldi, A.; Oldenburg, C. M.

    2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Illinois Basin Decatur Project (IBDP) is designed to confirm the ability of the Mt. Simon Sandstone, a major regional saline-water-bearing formation in the Illinois Basin, to store 1 million tons of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injected over a period of three years. The CO{sub 2} will be provided by Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) from its Decatur, Illinois, ethanol plant. In order to transport CO{sub 2} from the capture facility to the injection well (also located within the ADM plant boundaries), a high-pressure pipeline of length 3,200 ft (975 m) has been constructed, running above the ground surface within the ADM plant footprint. We have qualitatively evaluated risks associated with possible pipeline failure scenarios that lead to discharge of CO{sub 2} within the real-world environment of the ADM plant in which there are often workers and visitors in the vicinity of the pipeline. There are several aspects of CO{sub 2} that make its transportation and potential leakage somewhat different from other substances, most notable is its non-flammability and propensity to change to solid (dry ice) upon strong decompression. In this study, we present numerical simulations using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods of the release and dispersion of CO{sub 2} from individual hypothetical pipeline failures (i.e., leaks). Failure frequency of the various components of a pipeline transportation system over time are taken from prior work on general pipeline safety and leakage modeling and suggest a 4.65% chance of some kind of pipeline failure over the three-years of operation. Following the Precautionary Principle (see below), we accounted for full-bore leakage scenarios, where the temporal evolution of the mass release rate from the high-pressure pipeline leak locations was simulated using a state-of-the-art Pipe model which considers the thermodynamic effects of decompression in the entire pipeline. Failures have been simulated at four representative locations along the pipeline route within the ADM plant. Leakage scenarios at sites along the route of the pipeline, where plant operations (e.g., vehicular and train transportation) seem to present a higher likelihood of accidental failure, for example due to vehicles or equipment crashing into the pipeline and completely severing it, were modeled by allowing them to have a double source consistent with the pipeline releasing high-pressure CO{sub 2} from both ends of the broken pipe after a full-bore offset rupture. Simulation results show that the built environment of the plant plays a significant role in the dispersion of the gas as leaking CO{sub 2} can impinge upon buildings and other infrastructure. In all scenarios simulated, the region of very high-concentration of CO{sub 2} is limited to a small area around the pipeline failure, suggesting the likelihood of widespread harmful CO{sub 2} exposure to plant personnel from pipeline leakage is low. An additional risk is posed by the blast wave that emanates from a high-pressure pipeline when it is breached quickly. We estimate the blast wave risk as low because it occurs only for a short time in the immediate vicinity of the rupture, and requires an instantaneous large-scale rupture to occur. We recommend consideration of signage and guard rails and posts to mitigate the likelihood of vehicles crashing into the pipeline. A standardized emergency response plan applicable to capture plants within industrial sites could be developed based on the IBDP that would be useful for other capture plants. Finally, we recommend carrying out coupled wellbore-reservoir blowout scenario modeling to understand the potential for hazardous conditions arising from an unexpected blowout at the wellhead.

  1. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  2. Reducing Power Dissipation in Pipelined Accumulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nannarelli, Alberto

    Reducing Power Dissipation in Pipelined Accumulators Gian Carlo Cardarilli(1), Alberto Nannarelli(2 Informatics, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark Abstract-- Fast accumulation is required). Accumulators nec- essary for DDFS are then deeply pipelined down to the bit-level with two main consequences

  3. Liquefaction and Pipeline Costs Bruce Kelly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Liquefaction and Pipeline Costs Bruce Kelly Nexant, Inc. Hydrogen Delivery Analysis Meeting May 8 are representative of hydrogen pipeline costs; 10 percent added to unit hydrogen costs as a contingency Better-9, 2007 Columbia, Maryland #12;2 Hydrogen Liquefaction Basic process Compress Cool to temperature

  4. atmospheric transparency studies: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pressures lower than 0.1 bar, transparency to thermal radiation allows shortwave heating to dominate, creating a stratosphere. At higher pressures, atmospheres become...

  5. Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agnew, Kieran [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)] [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes; - Hot tapping - a method of breaching the pipe while maintaining containment to remove residual liquids, - Crimp and shear - remote crimping, cutting and handling of pipe using the excavator - Pipe jacking - a way of removing pipes avoiding excavations and causing minimal disturbance and disruption. The details of the decommissioning trial design, the techniques employed, their application and effectiveness are discussed and evaluated here in. (authors)

  6. Rotary Pipeline Processors Simon Moore, Peter Robinson, Steve Wilcox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, Peter

    to the current range of superscalar designs using multiple instruction issue into parallel pipelines to increase] is designed around a bi-directional pipeline carry- ing instructions and arguments in one direction it will start to execute as soon as the data arrives. 2.2 Basic Pipeline Construction A rotary pipeline

  7. The Construction and Maintenance Plan for a Grand Banks Multi-Purpose Pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruneau, Steve

    ;Pipeline Repair Protocol 1 Leak detection and compressor shut down 2 Damage location 3 Excavate pipe 4 Murdoch Gorm Dunkirk Existing Gas Pipeline Proposed Gas Pipeline Existing Oil Pipeline 20" 30" 36" (2) 40 Gas Pipeline Proposed Gas Pipeline Existing Oil Pipeline 20" 30" 36" (2) 40" 40" 28" 42" 36" 40" 30

  8. Cathodic protection retrofit of an offshore pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winters, R.H.; Holk, A.C. [Tenneco Energy, Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cathodic protection anodes and corrosion coating on two 8-inch (203.2 mm) outside diameter (O.D.) offshore pipelines were damaged during deep water ({minus}380 feet, {minus}116 m) installation. In-situ methods for deep water inspection and repair of the pipelines` cathodic protection and coating systems were developed and performed. Methods are described in which underwater anode retrofits were performed and friction welding technology was used to re-attach anode leads. Standard procedures for underwater pipeline coating repair and remediation of damaged line pipe are provided.

  9. New regulatory environment changing pipeline operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fields, J.H. (Northwest Pipeline Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the effects of deregulation of the natural gas and pipeline industry as a result of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Orders 436, 500, and 636. It describes the changes as they affected Northwest Pipeline's structure and marketing strategies as the company had to move from a gas merchandiser to a gas transporter. It describes the capacity release options of the pipeline which allow the customers to buy, release, and renegotiate prices whenever they need to because of an increase or decrease in demand using current market prices. The paper discusses the natural gas distribution system which has evolved as a result of these regulations.

  10. Regulation changes create opportunities for pipeline manufacturers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santon, J.

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Transportation`s (DOT) Research and Special Programs Administration (RSPA) is proposing to change its safety standards for the repair of corroded or damaged steel pipe in gas and hazardous liquid pipelines. For pipeline operators, the expected revisions will allow new flexibility in approaches to pipeline repair. Less costly and less disruptive procedures will be acceptable. For manufacturers, the changes will open opportunities for development of corrosion repair technology. A highly competitive market in new repair technology can be expected to arise. Current regulations, new technologies, and proposed safety standards are described.

  11. EIS-0433: Keystone XL Pipeline

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The proposed Keystone XL project consists of a 1,700-mile crude oil pipeline and related facilities that would primarily be used to transport Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin crude oil from an oil supply hub in Alberta, Canada to delivery points in Oklahoma and Texas. This EIS, prepared by the Department of State, evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposed Keystone XL project. DOE’s Western Area Power Administration, a cooperating agency, has jurisdiction over certain proposed transmission facilities (construction and operation of a short 230-kv transmission line and construction of a new substation). The State Department published a notice in the Federal Register on February 3, 2012, regarding the denial of the Keystone XL presidential permit (77 FR 5614).

  12. Analysis and experimental study on formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse atmospheric pressure air plasmas in repetitive pulse mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Lee, E-mail: leeli@mail.hust.edu.cn; Liu, Lun; Liu, Yun-Long; Bin, Yu; Ge, Ya-Feng; Lin, Fo-Chang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, School of Electric and Electronic Engineering, HuaZhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric air diffuse plasmas have enormous application potential in various fields of science and technology. Without dielectric barrier, generating large-scale air diffuse plasmas is always a challenging issue. This paper discusses and analyses the formation mechanism of cold homogenous plasma. It is proposed that generating stable diffuse atmospheric plasmas in open air should meet the three conditions: high transient power with low average power, excitation in low average E-field with locally high E-field region, and multiple overlapping electron avalanches. Accordingly, an experimental configuration of generating large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas is designed. Based on runaway electron theory, a low duty-ratio, high voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator is chosen as a discharge excitation source. Using the wire-electrodes with small curvature radius, the gaps with highly non-uniform E-field are structured. Experimental results show that the volume-scaleable, barrier-free, homogeneous air non-thermal plasmas have been obtained between the gap spacing with the copper-wire electrodes. The area of air cold plasmas has been up to hundreds of square centimeters. The proposed formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas are proved to be reasonable and feasible.

  13. Design Improvements and Analysis of Innovative High-Level Waste Pipeline Unplugging Technologies - 12171

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pribanic, Tomas; Awwad, Amer; Crespo, Jairo; McDaniel, Dwayne; Varona, Jose; Gokaltun, Seckin; Roelant, David [Florida International University, Miami, Florida (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transferring high-level waste (HLW) between storage tanks or to treatment facilities is a common practice performed at the Department of Energy (DoE) sites. Changes in the chemical and/or physical properties of the HLW slurry during the transfer process may lead to the formation of blockages inside the pipelines resulting in schedule delays and increased costs. To improve DoE's capabilities in the event of a pipeline plugging incident, FIU has continued to develop two novel unplugging technologies: an asynchronous pulsing system and a peristaltic crawler. The asynchronous pulsing system uses a hydraulic pulse generator to create pressure disturbances at two opposite inlet locations of the pipeline to dislodge blockages by attacking the plug from both sides remotely. The peristaltic crawler is a pneumatic/hydraulic operated crawler that propels itself by a sequence of pressurization/depressurization of cavities (inner tubes). The crawler includes a frontal attachment that has a hydraulically powered unplugging tool. In this paper, details of the asynchronous pulsing system's ability to unplug a pipeline on a small-scale test-bed and results from the experimental testing of the second generation peristaltic crawler are provided. The paper concludes with future improvements for the third generation crawler and a recommended path forward for the asynchronous pulsing testing. (authors)

  14. Pipeline Access and Market Integration in the Natural Gas Industry: Evidence from Cointegration Tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Vany, Arthur; Walls, W. David

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    System for Natural Gas Pipelines." Study prepared underin the Natural Gas Pipeline Industry. Ph.D. dissertation,the remaining barfers to pipeline integration. REFERENCES

  15. Stuck in the Pipeline: A Critical Review of STEM Workforce Literature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metcalf, Heather

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and science careers: Leaky pipeline or gender filter? GenderL. (2006). Expanding the pipeline: Transforming the cultureThe incredible shrinking pipeline. Inroads: SIGCE Bulletin,

  16. Applications of the pipeline environment for visual informatics and genomics computations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    et al. : Applications of the pipeline environment for visualusing the LONI pipeline. Frontiers in Neuroinformatics 2010,Access Applications of the pipeline environment for visual

  17. BS-Seeker2: a versatile aligning pipeline for bisulfite sequencing data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RL: MethylCoder: software pipeline for bisulfite-treateda versatile aligning pipeline for bisulfite sequencing dataof BS Seeker, as a full pipeline for mapping bisulfite

  18. A Crack in the Pipeline: Why Female Underrepresented Racial Minority Students Leave Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vazquez-Akim, Jenn

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Espinosa, Lorelle L. (2011). Pipelines and pathways: womenAngeles A Crack in the Pipeline: Why Female UnderrepresentedA Crack in the Pipeline: Why Female Underrepresented Racial

  19. GenePRIMP: A GENE PRediction IMprovement Pipeline for Prokaryotic genomes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pati, Amrita

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PRediction IMprovement Pipeline for Amrita Pati 1 , NataliaGene Prediction IMprovement Pipeline, http://geneprimp.jgi-based post-processing pipeline that identifies erroneously

  20. Rnnotator: an automated de novo transcriptome assembly pipeline from stranded RNA-Seq reads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transcriptome assembly pipeline from stranded RNA-Seq readsRnnotator assembly pipeline. Figure 2. Read dereplicationan automated software pipeline that generates transcript

  1. Applications of the Pipeline Environment for Visual Informatics and Genomics Computations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    et al. : Applications of the pipeline environment for visualusing the LONI pipeline. Frontiers in Neuroinformatics 2010,Access Applications of the pipeline environment for visual

  2. Pipelines, Pathways, and Payoffs: Economic Challenges and Returns to Changing Demographics in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stiles, Jon; Brady, Henry

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Multiple Pathways Pipelines, Pathways, and Payoffs:Jon Stiles & Henry Brady Pipelines, Pathways, and Payoffs:of the educational pipeline to describe how students

  3. Efficient, distributed and interactive neuroimaging data analysis using the LONI Pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A. W. (2003). The LONI pipeline process- ing environment.in Neuroinformatics LONI Pipeline Thompson, P. M. (2006).provenance using the LONI pipeline workfl ow environment.

  4. Gas-phase synthesis of nitrogen-doped TiO{sub 2} nanorods by microwave plasma torch at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Yong Cheol; Kim, Jong Hun; Bang, Chan Uk; Uhm, Han Sup [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, San 5, Wonchon-Dong, Youngtong-Gu, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen (N)-doped titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanorods were directly synthesized via decomposition of gas-phase titanium tetrachloride (TiCl{sub 4}) by an atmospheric microwave plasma torch. X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscope, field-emission transmission electron microscope, and electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) have been employed to investigate fraction of the anatase and rutile phases, diameter and length, and chemical composition of the nanorods, respectively. The diameters of the nanorods are approximately 30-80 nm and the length is several micrometers. EELS data show that incorporation of N into the O site of TiO{sub 2} nanorods was enhanced in N{sub 2} gas by the microwave plasma torch. Also, a growth model of the rods was proposed on the basis of vapor-liquid-solid mechanism.

  5. Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillette, J .L.; Kolpa, R. L

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of hydrogen in the energy sector of the United States is projected to increase significantly in the future. Current uses are predominantly in the petroleum refining sector, with hydrogen also being used in the manufacture of chemicals and other specialized products. Growth in hydrogen consumption is likely to appear in the refining sector, where greater quantities of hydrogen will be required as the quality of the raw crude decreases, and in the mining and processing of tar sands and other energy resources that are not currently used at a significant level. Furthermore, the use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel has been proposed both by automobile manufacturers and the federal government. Assuming that the use of hydrogen will significantly increase in the future, there would be a corresponding need to transport this material. A variety of production technologies are available for making hydrogen, and there are equally varied raw materials. Potential raw materials include natural gas, coal, nuclear fuel, and renewables such as solar, wind, or wave energy. As these raw materials are not uniformly distributed throughout the United States, it would be necessary to transport either the raw materials or the hydrogen long distances to the appropriate markets. While hydrogen may be transported in a number of possible forms, pipelines currently appear to be the most economical means of moving it in large quantities over great distances. One means of controlling hydrogen pipeline costs is to use common rights-of-way (ROWs) whenever feasible. For that reason, information on hydrogen pipelines is the focus of this document. Many of the features of hydrogen pipelines are similar to those of natural gas pipelines. Furthermore, as hydrogen pipeline networks expand, many of the same construction and operating features of natural gas networks would be replicated. As a result, the description of hydrogen pipelines will be very similar to that of natural gas pipelines. The following discussion will focus on the similarities and differences between the two pipeline networks. Hydrogen production is currently concentrated in refining centers along the Gulf Coast and in the Farm Belt. These locations have ready access to natural gas, which is used in the steam methane reduction process to make bulk hydrogen in this country. Production centers could possibly change to lie along coastlines, rivers, lakes, or rail lines, should nuclear power or coal become a significant energy source for hydrogen production processes. Should electrolysis become a dominant process for hydrogen production, water availability would be an additional factor in the location of production facilities. Once produced, hydrogen must be transported to markets. A key obstacle to making hydrogen fuel widely available is the scale of expansion needed to serve additional markets. Developing a hydrogen transmission and distribution infrastructure would be one of the challenges to be faced if the United States is to move toward a hydrogen economy. Initial uses of hydrogen are likely to involve a variety of transmission and distribution methods. Smaller users would probably use truck transport, with the hydrogen being in either the liquid or gaseous form. Larger users, however, would likely consider using pipelines. This option would require specially constructed pipelines and the associated infrastructure. Pipeline transmission of hydrogen dates back to late 1930s. These pipelines have generally operated at less than 1,000 pounds per square inch (psi), with a good safety record. Estimates of the existing hydrogen transmission system in the United States range from about 450 to 800 miles. Estimates for Europe range from about 700 to 1,100 miles (Mohipour et al. 2004; Amos 1998). These seemingly large ranges result from using differing criteria in determining pipeline distances. For example, some analysts consider only pipelines above a certain diameter as transmission lines. Others count only those pipelines that transport hydrogen from a producer to a customer (e.g., t

  6. Experience with pipelined multiple instruction streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordon, H.F.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pipelining has been used to implement efficient, high-speed vector computers. It is also an effective method for implementing multiprocessors. The Heterogeneous Element Processor (HEP) built by Denelcor Incorporated is the first commercially available computer system to use pipelining to implement multiple processes. This paper introduces the architecture and programming environment of the HEP and surveys a range of scientific applications programs for which parallel versions have been produced, tested, and analyzed on this computer. In all cases, the ideal of one instruction completion every pipeline step time is closely approached. Speed limitations in the parallel programs are more often a result of the extra code necessary to ensure synchronization than of actual synchronization lockout at execution time. The pipelined multiple instruction stream architecture is shown to cover a wide range of applications with good utilization of the parallel hardware.

  7. Exploiting level sensitive latches in wire pipelining 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seth, Vikram

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The present research presents procedures for exploitation of level sensitive latches in wire pipelining. The user gives a Steiner tree, having a signal source and set of destination or sinks, and the location in rectangular plane, capacitive load...

  8. Pipeline Politics: Natural Gas in Eurasia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landrum, William W.; Llewellyn, Benjamin B.; Limesand, Craig M.; Miller, Dante J.; Morris, James P.; Nowell, Kathleen S.; Sherman, Charlotte L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    important to US efforts to reduce its reliance on Middle Eastern energy resources. Presently, pipelines in Eurasia stretch across thousands of miles throughout unstable political regions. Disruptions in gas and oil supplies negatively affect the economies...

  9. Natural Pipeline of America Check Presentation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An archaeological investigation of approximately 1000 feet of a proposed 22,000 foot natural gas pipeline in southeastern Orange County, Texas was performed by Brazos Valley Research Associates of Bryan, Texas in August 2001. No archaeological sites...

  10. On-the-fly pipeline parallelism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, I-Ting Angelina

    Pipeline parallelism organizes a parallel program as a linear sequence of s stages. Each stage processes elements of a data stream, passing each processed data element to the next stage, and then taking on a new element ...

  11. A Pipeline for Computational Historical Linguistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;A Pipeline for Computational Historical Linguistics Lydia Steiner Bioinformatics Group of computational methods. In the biological context, computational methods play a dominating role due, Interdisciplinary Center for Bioinformatics, University of Leipzig Peter F. Stadler Bioinformatics Group

  12. Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

  13. Report of the Committee on oil pipeline regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Safety, interpretations of FERC Opinion 154-B, and a variation on the theme of oil pipeline deregulation were the significant developments affecting oil pipelines in the year 1991 and early 1992. The introduction of amendments to the Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Act will result in Department of Transportation Regulations concerning in-depth reporting requirements of pipeline incidents and more frequent testing procedures to insure the safety of the pipeline. In November, 1991, Congressman Synar introduced a bill to streamline Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) procedures concerning oil pipelines.

  14. Scoping Study on the Safety Impact of Valve Spacing in Natural Gas Pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sulfredge, Charles David [ORNL

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Transportation's Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) is responsible for ensuring the safe, reliable, and environmentally sound operation of the nation's natural gas and hazardous liquid pipelines. Regulations adopted by PHMSA for gas pipelines are provided in 49 CFR 192, and spacing requirements for valves in gas transmission pipelines are presented in 49 CFR 192.179. The present report describes the findings of a scoping study conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist PHMSA in assessing the safety impact of system valve spacing. Calculations of the pressures, temperatures, and flow velocities during a set of representative pipe depressurization transients were carried out using a one-dimensional numerical model with either ideal gas or real gas properties for the fluid. With both ideal gas and real gas properties, the high-consequence area radius for any resulting fire as defined by Stevens in GRI-00/0189 was evaluated as one measure of the pipeline safety. In the real gas case, a model for convective heat transfer from the pipe wall is included to assess the potential for shut-off valve failures due to excessively low temperatures resulting from depressurization cooling of the pipe. A discussion is also provided of some additional factors by which system valve spacing could affect overall pipeline safety. The following conclusions can be drawn from this work: (1) Using an adaptation of the Stephens hazard radius criteria, valve spacing has a negligible influence on natural gas pipeline safety for the pipeline diameter, pressure range, and valve spacings considered in this study. (2) Over the first 30 s of the transient, pipeline pressure has a far greater effect on the hazard radius calculated with the Stephens criteria than any variations in the transient flow decay profile and the average discharge rate. (3) Other factors besides the Stephens criteria, such as the longer burn time for an accidental fire, greater period of danger to emergency personnel, increased unavoidable loss of gas, and possible depressurization cooling of the shut-off valves may also be important when deciding whether a change in the required valve spacing would be beneficial from a safety standpoint. (4) The average normalized discharge rate of {lambda}{sub avg} = 0.33 assumed by Stephens in developing his safety criteria is an excellent conservative value for natural gas discharge at the pressures, valve spacings, and pipe diameter used in this study. This conclusion remains valid even when real rather than ideal gas properties are considered in the analysis. (5) Significant pipe wall cooling effects (T{sub w} < -50 F or 228 K) can extend for a mile or more upstream from the rupture point within 30 s of a break. These conditions are colder than the temperature range specifications for many valve lubricants. The length of the low-temperature zone due to this cooling effect is also essentially independent of the system shut-off valve spacing or the distance between the break and a compressor station. (6) Having more redundant shut-off valves available would reduce the probability that pipe cooling effects could interfere with isolating the broken area following a pipeline rupture accident.

  15. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, Roland L. (Bloomfield, CO); Cannon, Theodore W. (Golden, CO)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

  16. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

    1988-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

  17. A leak detecting technique utilizing an abrupt and large pressure drop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres, James, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The distribution of clean, drinkable water is a problem that has been addressed in all civilizations. The most common form of transportation today, is the use of pressurized pipelines to carry the water long distances, but ...

  18. Innovative Sensors for Pipeline Crawlers: Rotating Permanent Magnet Inspection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Bruce Nestleroth; Richard J. Davis; Stephanie Flamberg

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Internal inspection of pipelines is an important tool for ensuring safe and reliable delivery of fossil energy products. Current inspection systems that are propelled through the pipeline by the product flow cannot be used to inspect all pipelines because of the various physical barriers they may encounter. To facilitate inspection of these ''unpiggable'' pipelines, recent inspection development efforts have focused on a new generation of powered inspection platforms that are able to crawl slowly inside a pipeline and can maneuver past the physical barriers that limit internal inspection applicability, such as bore restrictions, low product flow rate, and low pressure. The first step in this research was to review existing inspection technologies for applicability and compatibility with crawler systems. Most existing inspection technologies, including magnetic flux leakage and ultrasonic methods, had significant implementation limitations including mass, physical size, inspection energy coupling requirements and technology maturity. The remote field technique was the most promising but power consumption was high and anomaly signals were low requiring sensitive detectors and electronics. After reviewing each inspection technology, it was decided to investigate the potential for a new inspection method. The new inspection method takes advantage of advances in permanent magnet strength, along with their wide availability and low cost. Called rotating permanent magnet inspection (RPMI), this patent pending technology employs pairs of permanent magnets rotating around the central axis of a cylinder to induce high current densities in the material under inspection. Anomalies and wall thickness variations are detected with an array of sensors that measure local changes in the magnetic field produced by the induced current flowing in the material. This inspection method is an alternative to the common concentric coil remote field technique that induces low-frequency eddy currents in ferromagnetic pipes and tubes. Since this is a new inspection method, both theory and experiment were used to determine fundamental capabilities and limitations. Fundamental finite element modeling analysis and experimental investigations performed during this development have led to the derivation of a first order analytical equation for designing rotating magnetizers to induce current and positioning sensors to record signals from anomalies. Experimental results confirm the analytical equation and the finite element calculations provide a firm basis for the design of RPMI systems. Experimental results have shown that metal loss anomalies and wall thickness variations can be detected with an array of sensors that measure local changes in the magnetic field produced by the induced current flowing in the material. The design exploits the phenomenon that circumferential currents are easily detectable at distances well away from the magnets. Current changes at anomalies were detectable with commercial low cost Hall Effect sensors. Commercial analog to digital converters can be used to measure the sensor output and data analysis can be performed in real time using PC computer systems. The technology was successfully demonstrated during two blind benchmark tests where numerous metal loss defects were detected. For this inspection technology, the detection threshold is a function of wall thickness and corrosion depth. For thinner materials, the detection threshold was experimentally shown to be comparable to magnetic flux leakage. For wall thicknesses greater than three tenths of an inch, the detection threshold increases with wall thickness. The potential for metal loss anomaly sizing was demonstrated in the second benchmarking study, again with accuracy comparable to existing magnetic flux leakage technologies. The rotating permanent magnet system has the potential for inspecting unpiggable pipelines since the magnetizer configurations can be sufficiently small with respect to the bore of the pipe to pass obstructions that limit the application of many i

  19. A Cheap Levitating Gas/Load Pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Design of new cheap aerial pipelines, a large flexible tube deployed at high altitude, for delivery of natural (fuel) gas, water and other payload over a long distance is delineated. The main component of the natural gas is methane which has a specific weight less than air. A lift force of one cubic meter of methane equals approximately 0.5 kg (1 pound). The lightweight film flexible pipeline can be located in air at high altitude and, as such, does not damage the environment. Using the lift force of this pipeline and wing devices payloads of oil, water, or other fluids, or even solids such as coal, cargo, passengers can be delivered cheaply at long distance. This aerial pipeline dramatically decreases the cost and the time of construction relative to conventional pipelines of steel which saves energy and greatly lowers the capital cost of construction. The article contains a computed project for delivery 24 billion cubic meters of gas and tens of million tons of oil, water or other payload per year.

  20. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L.

    1989-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above. 3 figs.

  1. Pipeline charging of coke ovens with a preheated charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpov, A.V.; Khadzhioglo, A.V.; Kuznichenko, V.M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Work to test a pipeline charging method was conducted at the Konetsk Coke Works (a PK-2K coke oven system with a single gas main, oven width 407 mm, height 4300 mm, effective column 20.0 cm/sub 3/). This method consists of transporting the heated coal charge to the ovens through a pipe by means of steam. the charge is transported by high pressure chamber groups, and loaded by means of systems equipped with devices for separation, withdrawal and treatment of the spent steam. The principal goal of the present investigation was to test technical advances in the emission-free charging of preheated charges. The problem was, first, to create a reliable technology for separation of the steam from the charge immediately before loading it into the oven and, second, to provide a total elimination of emissions, thereby protecting the environment against toxic substances.

  2. api pipeline conference: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of both pipelining methods. We applied our method to 1-bit and 2-bit adder Ha, Dong S. 7 Hydrogen Pipeline Material Testing We provide critical data, measurement methods and...

  3. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2015 1:45:50 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N9102CN2" "Date","U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada...

  4. Some applications of pipelining techniques in parallel scientific computing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Yuanhua

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, we study the applicability of pipelining techniques to the development of parallel algorithms for scientific computation. General principles for pipelining techniques are discussed and two applications, Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization...

  5. Statistical Modeling of Corrosion Failures in Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cobanoglu, Mustafa Murat

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural gas pipelines are a critical component of the U.S. energy infrastructure. The safety of these pipelines plays a key role for the gas industry. Therefore, the understanding of failure characteristics and their consequences are very important...

  6. Statistical Modeling of Corrosion Failures in Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cobanoglu, Mustafa Murat

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    and deterioration processes in pipeline networks. Therefore, pipeline operators need to rethink their corrosion prevention strategies. These results of corrosion failures are forcing the companies to develop accurate maintenance models based on failure frequency...

  7. Some applications of pipelining techniques in parallel scientific computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Yuanhua

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, we study the applicability of pipelining techniques to the development of parallel algorithms for scientific computation. General principles for pipelining techniques are discussed and two applications, Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization...

  8. Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues The United States has 11...

  9. Altamont gas pipeline project delayed 1 year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Altamont Gas Transmission Co. will delay laying a 30 in., 620 mile pipeline to deliver Canadian gas to California until markets become more responsive. This paper reports that the decision will delay until November 1994 completion of the proposed 719 MMcfd, $612 million line. The original schedule called for construction to begin in spring 1993 with an in-service date of late 1993. Altamont pipeline is to transport gas from the US-Canadian border at Port of Wild Horse, Mont., to Opal, Wyo., where it will interconnect with the Kern River Transmission Co. pipeline to California. Altamont has obtained all regulatory approvals for its project. Altamont the project sponsors Tenneco Gas, Amoco Corp., and Entech Inc. support the decision to delay the start of construction.

  10. Coal-log pipeline system development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Project tasks include: (1) Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. (2) Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and tests the logs produced. (3) Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. (VC)

  11. Design of a model pipeline for testing of piezoelectric micro power generator for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lah, Mike M. (Mike Myoung)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to provide a reliable corrosion detection system for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS), a distributed wireless self-powered sensor array is needed to monitor the entire length of the pipeline at all times. ...

  12. Sedimentation in Coal-Water Slurry Pipelining Fabio Rosso

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosso, Fabio

    Sedimentation in Coal-Water Slurry Pipelining Fabio Rosso Dipartimento di Matematica `Ulisse Dini related to the pipelin- ing of a Coal-Water Slurry. The main aspects of the problem are both with experiments finding a remarkable agreement with the available data. 1 #12;1 Slurry handling and pipeline

  13. Evolution of Graphics Pipelines 1 Understanding the Graphics Heritage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verschelde, Jan

    Evolution of Graphics Pipelines 1 Understanding the Graphics Heritage the era of fixed-function graphics pipelines the stages to render triangles 2 Programmable Real-Time Graphics programmable vertex and fragment processors an example of a programmable pipeline unified graphics and computing processors GPU

  14. Sensor and transmitter system for communication in pipelines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Burnham, Alan K.

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for sensing and communicating in a pipeline that contains a fluid. An acoustic signal containing information about a property of the fluid is produced in the pipeline. The signal is transmitted through the pipeline. The signal is received with the information and used by a control.

  15. Architectural Considerations for Application-Specific Counterflow Pipelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Childers, Bruce

    a new pipeline organization called the Counterflow Pipeline (CFP). This paper evaluates CFP design to an application can be constructed automatically. Third, we present measurements that evaluate CFP design tradeArchitectural Considerations for Application-Specific Counterflow Pipelines Bruce R. Childers, Jack

  16. Method for route selection of transcontinental natural gas pipelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kouroupetroglou, Georgios

    1 Method for route selection of transcontinental natural gas pipelines Fotios G. Thomaidis1@kepa.uoa.gr Abstract. The route of transcontinental natural gas pipelines is characterized by complexity, compared choices. Keywords: Optimum route method, natural gas, transcontinental pipelines, Caspian Region ­ E

  17. Experience with pipelined multiple instruction streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, H.F.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors introduces the architecture and programming environment of the heterogeneous element processor (HEP) and surveys a range of scientific applications programs for which parallel versions have been produced, tested, and analyzed on this computer. In all cases, the ideal of one instruction completion every pipeline step time is closely approached. Speed limitations in the parallel programs are more often a result of the extra code necessary to ensure synchronization than of actual synchronization lockout at execution time. The pipelined multiple instruction stream architecture is shown to cover a wide range of applications with good utilization of the parallel hardware. 35 references.

  18. Pipeline inspection using an autonomous underwater vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egeskov, P.; Bech, M. [Maridan Aps., Hoersholm (Denmark); Bowley, R. [TSS Ltd., Weston-on-the-Green (United Kingdom); Aage, C. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Ocean Engineering

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pipeline inspection can be carried out by means of small Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), operating either with a control link to a surface vessel, or totally independently. The AUV offers an attractive alternative to conventional inspection methods where Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) or paravanes are used. A flatfish type AUV ``MARTIN`` (Marine Tool for Inspection) has been developed for this purpose. The paper describes the proposed types of inspection jobs to be carried out by ``MARTIN``. The design and construction of the vessel, its hydrodynamic properties, its propulsion and control systems are discussed. The pipeline tracking and survey systems, as well as the launch and recovery systems are described.

  19. Software design for panoramic astronomical pipeline processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lior Shamir; Robert J. Nemiroff; David O. Torrey; Wellesley E. Pereira

    2005-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the software requirement and design specifications for all-sky panoramic astronomical pipelines. The described software aims to meet the specific needs of super-wide angle optics, and includes cosmic-ray hit rejection, image compression, star recognition, sky opacity analysis, transient detection and a web server allowing access to real-time and archived data. The presented software is being regularly used for the pipeline processing of 11 all-sky cameras located in some of the world's premier observatories. We encourage all-sky camera operators to use our software and/or our hosting services and become part of the global Night Sky Live network.

  20. Self lubrication of bitumen froth in pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph, D.D. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper I will review the main properties of water lubricated pipelines and explain some new features which have emerged from studies of self-lubrication of Syncrudes` bitumen froth. When heavy oils are lubricated with water, the water and oil are continuously injected into a pipeline and the water is stable when in a lubricating sheath around the oil core. In the case of bitumen froth obtained from the Alberta tar sands, the water is dispersed in the bitumen and it is liberated at the wall under shear; water injection is not necessary because the froth is self-lubricating.

  1. The LAMOST Stellar Parameter Pipeline at Peking University --- LSP3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang, Maosheng; Yuan, Haibo; Huang, Yang; Huo, Zhiying; Zhang, Huawei; Chen, Bingqiu; Zhang, Huihua; Sun, Ningchen; Wang, Chun; Zhao, Yongheng; Shi, Jianrong; Luo, Ali; Li, Guoping; Wu, Yue; Bai, Zongrui; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Yuan, Hailong; Li, Guangwei

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce the LAMOST Stellar Parameter Pipeline at Peking University --- LSP3, developed and implemented for the determinations of radial velocity $V_{\\rm r}$ and stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature $T_{\\rm eff}$, surface gravity log\\,$g$, metallicity [Fe/H]) for the LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey of the Galactic Anti-center (LSS-GAC). We describe the algorithms of LSP3 and examine the accuracy of parameters yielded by it. The precision and accuracy of parameters yielded are investigated by comparing results of multi-epoch observations and of candidate members of open and globular clusters, with photometric calibration, as well as with independent determinations available from a number of external databases, including the PASTEL archive, the APOGEE, SDSS and RAVE surveys, as well as those released in the LAMOST DR1. The uncertainties of LSP3 parameters are characterized and quantified as a function of the spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and stellar atmospheric parameters. We conclude th...

  2. TENSILE TESTING OF CARBON STEEL IN HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, A; Thad Adams, T; Ps Lam, P

    2007-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An infrastructure of new and existing pipelines and systems will be required to carry and to deliver hydrogen as an alternative energy source under the hydrogen economy. Carbon and low alloy steels of moderate strength are currently used in hydrogen delivery systems as well as in the existing natural gas systems. It is critical to understand the material response of these standard pipeline materials when they are subjected to pressurized hydrogen environments. The methods and results from a testing program to quantify hydrogen effects on mechanical properties of carbon steel pipeline and pipeline weld materials are provided. Tensile properties of one type of steel (A106 Grade B) in base metal, welded and heat affected zone conditions were tested at room temperature in air and high pressure (10.34 MPa or 1500 psig) hydrogen. A general reduction in the materials ability to plastically deform was noted in this material when specimens were tested in hydrogen. Furthermore, the primary mode of fracture was changed from ductile rupture in air to cleavage with secondary tearing in hydrogen. The mechanical test results will be applied in future analyses to evaluate service life of the pipelines. The results are also envisioned to be part of the bases for construction codes and structural integrity demonstrations for hydrogen service pipeline and vessels.

  3. Innovative Electromagnetic Sensors for Pipeline Crawlers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Bruce Nestleroth

    2006-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Internal inspection of pipelines is an important tool for ensuring safe and reliable delivery of fossil energy products. Current inspection systems that are propelled through the pipeline by the product flow cannot be used to inspect all pipelines because of the various physical barriers they encounter. Recent development efforts include a new generation of powered inspection platforms that crawl slowly inside a pipeline and are able to maneuver past the physical barriers that can limit inspection. At Battelle, innovative electromagnetic sensors are being designed and tested for these new pipeline crawlers. The various sensor types can be used to assess a wide range of pipeline anomalies including corrosion, mechanical damage, and cracks. Battelle is in the final year on a projected three-year development effort. In the first year, two innovative electromagnetic inspection technologies were designed and tested. Both were based on moving high-strength permanent magnets to generate inspection energy. One system involved translating permanent magnets towards the pipe. A pulse of electric current would be induced in the pipe to oppose the magnetization according to Lenz's Law. The decay of this pulse would indicate the presence of defects in the pipe wall. This inspection method is similar to pulsed eddy current inspection methods, with the fundamental difference being the manner in which the current is generated. Details of this development effort were reported in the first semiannual report on this project. The second inspection methodology is based on rotating permanent magnets. The rotating exciter unit produces strong eddy currents in the pipe wall. At distances of a pipe diameter or more from the rotating exciter, the currents flow circumferentially. These circumferential currents are deflected by pipeline defects such as corrosion and axially aligned cracks. Simple sensors are used to detect the change in current densities in the pipe wall. The second semiannual report on this project reported on experimental and modeling results. The results showed that the rotating system was more adaptable to pipeline inspection and therefore only this system will be carried into the second year of the sensor development. In the third reporting period, the rotating system inspection was further developed. Since this is a new inspection modality without published fundamentals to build upon, basic analytical and experimental investigations were performed. A closed form equation for designing rotating exciters and positioning sensors was derived from fundamental principles. Also signal processing methods were investigated for detection and assessment of pipeline anomalies. A lock in amplifier approach was chosen as the method for detecting the signals. Finally, mechanical implementations for passing tight restrictions such as plug valves were investigated. This inspection concept is new and unique; a United States patent application has been submitted. In this reporting period, a general design of the rotating permanent magnet inspection system is presented. The rotating permanent magnet inspection system is feasible for pipes ranging in diameter from 8 to 18 inches using a two pole configuration. Experimental results and theoretical calculations provide the basis for selection of the critical design parameters. The parameters include a significant magnet to pipe separation that will facilitate the passage of pipeline features. With the basic values of critical components established, the next step is a detailed mechanical design of a pipeline ready inspection system.

  4. Energy Reduction in California Pipeline Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    technologies that can help California's industrial sectors reduce their energy consumption, their water use. In addition to significant baseline energy consumption, more energy is often required by pipelines Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research Program Industrial/Agriculture/Water EndUse Phone

  5. New system pinpoints leaks in ethylene pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamande, A. [Solvay et Cie, Jemeppe sur Sambre (Belgium); Condacse, V.; Modisette, J. [Modisette Associates, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model-based leak detection, PLDS, developed by Modisette Associates, Inc., Houston has been operating on the Solvay et Cie ethylene pipeline since 1989. The 6-in. pipeline extends from Antwerp to Jemeppe sur Sambre, a distance of 73.5 miles and is buried at a depth of 3 ft. with no insulation. Except for outlets to flares, located every 6 miles for test purposes, there are no injections or deliveries along the pipeline. Also, there are block valves, which are normally open, at each flare location. This paper reviews the design and testing procedures used to determine the system performance. These tests showed that the leak system was fully operational and no false alarms were caused by abrupt changes in inlet/outlet flows of the pipeline. It was confirmed that leaks larger than 2 tonnes/hr. (40 bbl/hr) are quickly detected and accurately located. Also, maximum leak detection sensitivity is 1 tonne/hr. (20 bbl/hr) with a detection time of one hour. Significant operational, configuration, and programming issues also were found during the testing program. Data showed that temperature simulations needed re-examining for improvement since accurate temperature measurements are important. This is especially true for ethylene since its density depends largely on temperature. Another finding showed the averaging period of 4 hrs. was too long and a 1 to 2 hr. interval was better.

  6. Ch.6 Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    ;Learning Objective Four: Driving forces of wind #12;Driving Forces within the Atmosphere Gravity. #12;Pressure gradient determines wind speed #12; The Coriolis force is an effect of Earth's rotation direction due to the pressure gradient force alone #12;Geostrophic Wind Pressure gradient force + Coriolis

  7. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Gaisser

    2006-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a brief overview of the theory and experimental data of atmospheric neutrino production at the fiftieth anniversary of the experimental discovery of neutrinos.

  8. Design of a high-pressure research flow loop for the experimental investigation of liquid loading in gas wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez Alvarez, Juan Jose

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    body with top and bottom welded-flat head covers with multiple openings to minimize its weight. The pipelines connecting major equipment and injection manifold located at the pressure vessel were selected based on the superficial velocities for air...

  9. Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments from Tarasa U.S.LLCEnergyEnergy Atlanta

  10. Free Floating Atmospheric Pressure Ball Plasmas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.Newof Energy Forrestal GarageD.ChargeFranklinFree-Floating

  11. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Pipeline Design and Risk Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo [Snamprogetti-Saipem, Via Toniolo, 1, 61032 Fano (Italy); Strom, Alexander [Institute of Geospheres Dynamics, Leninskiy Avenue, 38, Building 1, 119334, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Twin oil (20 and 24 inch) and gas (20 and 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE) - the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. Detailed Design was performed with due regard to actual topography and to avoid the possibility of the trenches freezing in winter, the implementation of specific drainage solutions and thermal protection measures.

  12. Kern River natural gas pipeline commissioned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Kern River Gas Transmission Co., the biggest gas pipeline built in the U.S. in the last decade, has been commissioned. The system was dedicated Mar. 6 at a meter station in an oil field near Bakersfield, Calif. The $984 million, 904 mile pipeline is a 50-50 venture of Tenneco Inc. and Williams Cos. Planning for the project began about 7 years ago. Current operating capacity of the line is 700 MMcfd. Plans call for boosting capacity by 452 MMcfd with added compression. Most of the gas will go to thermal enhanced oil recovery projects in heavy oil fields in California. This paper reports that other customers include utilities, independent electrical power producers, and cogeneration projects.

  13. The e-MERLIN Data Reduction Pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Argo, Megan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Written in Python and utilising ParselTongue to interface with the Astronomical Image Processing System (AIPS), the e-MERLIN data reduction pipeline is intended to automate the procedures required in processing and calibrating radio astronomy data from the e-MERLIN correlator. Driven by a plain text file of input parameters, the pipeline is modular and can be run in stages by the user, depending on requirements. The software includes options to load raw data, average in time and/or frequency, flag known sources of interference, flag more comprehensively with SERPent, carry out some or all of the calibration procedures including self-calibration), and image in either normal or wide-field mode. It also optionally produces a number of useful diagnostic plots at various stages so that the quality of the data can be assessed. The software is available for download from the e-MERLIN website or via Github.

  14. Coal slurry pipeline based midwest fuel hub

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huettenhain, H. [Bechtel Technology & Consulting San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Low sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coal is a sought after fuel to comply with the year 2000 emission regulation for utility boilers. PRB coal is presently not competitive East of the Mississippi mainly because of railroad switching requirements and boiler designs not compatible with the PRB fuel characteristics. The use of the Lakes for transportation is an exception. The Lakes shipping lanes however, are only open part of the year. It is proposed to construct a coal slurry pipeline from the center of Wyoming coalfields to a hub near Detroit with access to low cost waste energy from power generation stations. The coal slurry pipeline will transport up to 25 million tons per year of fine PRB coal which has been removed from the conventionally transported coal, namely coal transported by rail. The rail delivered coal will have less dust. The system fits the DOE Vision 21 concept to mine and utilize coal in highly efficient systems and with the least environmental impact. The PRB coal is of subbituminous rank and not directly compatible with the boilers in Michigan/Indiana/Ohio area, which are designed to burn bituminous coal. Upgrading of the PRB coal using the hydrothermal slurry upgrading process can transform the PRB coal into a higher Btu content fuel by removing a large portion of the inherent moisture. Such upgraded PRB coal has proven an excellent reactive fuel when burned conventionally as PC fuel, or even when burned in slurry form as Coal Water Fuel (CWF). The cost of the process can be recovered when the process is combined with a coal slurry pipeline transport system. The result is an upgraded competitive fuel or fuels, which can be used for co-firing or re-burning applications to reduce SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions of utility boilers. The fuels can be powdered for direct fuel injection into boilers or blast furnaces as well as CWF. Depending on the stability of the upgraded PRB coal, the pipeline product could also be dewatered and prepared for export. This paper describes the concept and preliminary cost information. It also reports on reactions of the industries, which could be involved in the complex system, namely, coal mining companies, railroads, pipeline operators, fuel suppliers, and utilities.

  15. Virtual Pipeline System Testbed to Optimize the U.S. Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Prakash Krishniswami; Virg Wallentine; Mohammed Abbaspour; Revathi Ranganathan; Ravi Addanki; Jeet Sengupta; Liubo Chen

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to develop a Virtual Pipeline System Testbed (VPST) for natural gas transmission. This study uses a fully implicit finite difference method to analyze transient, nonisothermal compressible gas flow through a gas pipeline system. The inertia term of the momentum equation is included in the analysis. The testbed simulate compressor stations, the pipe that connects these compressor stations, the supply sources, and the end-user demand markets. The compressor station is described by identifying the make, model, and number of engines, gas turbines, and compressors. System operators and engineers can analyze the impact of system changes on the dynamic deliverability of gas and on the environment.

  16. api x80 pipeline: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    C Fortran API 3. c 1959 Information Processing Society of Japan 3 Kasahara, Hironori 9 Hydrogen Pipeline Material Testing We provide critical data, measurement methods and...

  17. alaska oil pipeline: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Applied Oil Spill Research & Development Program Electronic Bibliography 1998-01-01 24 Hydrogen Pipeline Safety Our goal is to establish the codes and standards necessary...

  18. Enter the Post-Doc: The Untapped Sourcing Pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boscow, Ryan B.

    2011-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This article addresses the potential formulation and utilization of an industry-based Post-Doc program in order to create workforce candidate pipelines with targeted universities.

  19. ,"International Falls, MN Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    International Falls, MN Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of...

  20. ,"Highgate Springs, VT Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Highgate Springs, VT Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","L...

  1. ,"Corsby, ND Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (MMcf)...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Corsby, ND Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data...

  2. ,"Sault St Marie, MI Natural Gas Pipeline Exports to Canada ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sault St Marie, MI Natural Gas Pipeline Exports to Canada (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of...

  3. ,"Sweetgrass, MT Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sweetgrass, MT Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest...

  4. ,"North Troy, VT Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Troy, VT Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data...

  5. ,"Whitlash, MT Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Whitlash, MT Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest...

  6. ,"Champlain, NY Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Champlain, NY Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest...

  7. ,"Portal, ND Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (MMcf)...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Portal, ND Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data...

  8. ,"New York Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic...

  9. Panel 2, Hydrogen Delivery in the Natural Gas Pipeline Network

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in the Natural Gas Pipeline Network DOE'S HYDROGEN ENERGY STORAGE FOR GRID AND TRANSPORTATION SERVICES WORKSHOP Sacramento, CA May 14, 2014 Brian Weeks Gas Technology Institute 2 2...

  10. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Pipeline Steels: Causes and Remediation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Barriers: Hydrogen embrittlement of pipelines and remediation (mixing with water vapor?) hpwgwembrittlementsteelssofronis.pdf More Documents & Publications Webinar: I2CNER: An...

  11. Sequencing Technologies and Computational pipelines at the JGI

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sequencing Technologies and Computational pipelines at the JGI September 17, 2013 JGI logo 2 James Han, JGI sequencing QAQC group lead Tuesday, Sep. 17, 2003 OSF Room 238...

  12. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Aquifer Storage Reservoir...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Configuration About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Aquifer Underground Natural Gas Storage...

  13. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Depleted Reservoir Storage...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Configuration About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Depleted Production Reservoir Underground...

  14. Comparing Existing Pipeline Networks with the Potential Scale of Future U.S. CO2 Pipeline Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    There is growing interest regarding the potential size of a future U.S. dedicated CO2 pipeline infrastructure if carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies are commercially deployed on a large scale. In trying to understand the potential scale of a future national CO2 pipeline network, comparisons are often made to the existing pipeline networks used to deliver natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons to markets within the U.S. This paper assesses the potential scale of the CO2 pipeline system needed under two hypothetical climate policies and compares this to the extant U.S. pipeline infrastructures used to deliver CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and to move natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons from areas of production and importation to markets. The data presented here suggest that the need to increase the size of the existing dedicated CO2 pipeline system should not be seen as a significant obstacle for the commercial deployment of CCS technologies.

  15. A Dredging Knowledge-Base Expert System for Pipeline Dredges with Comparison to Field Data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Derek Alan

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A Pipeline Analytical Program and Dredging Knowledge{Base Expert{System (DKBES) determines a pipeline dredge's production and resulting cost and schedule. Pipeline dredge engineering presents a complex and dynamic process necessary to maintain...

  16. Analysis of oil-pipeline distribution of multiple products subject to delivery time-windows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jittamai, Phongchai

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation defines the operational problems of, and develops solution methodologies for, a distribution of multiple products into oil pipeline subject to delivery time-windows constraints. A multiple-product oil pipeline is a pipeline system...

  17. Tool Path Planning Generation For Finish Machining of Freeform Surfaces in the Cybercut Process Planning Pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Paul K; Dornfeld, David; Sundararajan, V.; Misra, Debananda

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CYBERCUT PROCESS PLANNING PIPELINE Paul K. Wright, David A.describes part of a "Pipeline of De- sign and Manufacturingversus surface finish. 2.5D PIPELINE AND 3D SURFACES Figure

  18. Black Radicals Make for Bad Citizens: Undoing the Myth of the School to Prison Pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sojoyner, Damien M

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    December 13). Prison pipeline hits Black students harder,http://politic365.com/2012/12/13/prison-pipeline-hits-black-The school-to-prison pipeline: Structuring legal reform. New

  19. MetAMOS: a modular and open source metagenomic assembly and analysis pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    assembly and analysis pipeline. Genome Biology 2013 14:R2.assembly and analysis pipeline Todd J Treangen 1,2† , Sergeyassembly and analysis pipeline. MetAMOS represents an

  20. Analysis of oil-pipeline distribution of multiple products subject to delivery time-windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jittamai, Phongchai

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation defines the operational problems of, and develops solution methodologies for, a distribution of multiple products into oil pipeline subject to delivery time-windows constraints. A multiple-product oil pipeline is a pipeline system...

  1. Beyond Myopic Inference in Big Data Pipelines Karthik Raman, Adith Swaminathan, Johannes Gehrke, Thorsten Joachims

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joachims, Thorsten

    ]: Learning General Terms Algorithms, Experimentation, Theory Keywords Big Data Pipelines, Modular Design Detection & Recognition pipeline. creation, model construction, testing, and visualization. In orderBeyond Myopic Inference in Big Data Pipelines Karthik Raman, Adith Swaminathan, Johannes Gehrke

  2. The Oil Network in US:The Oil Network in US: A Closer Look at PipelinesA Closer Look at Pipelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    The Oil Network in US:The Oil Network in US: A Closer Look at PipelinesA Closer Look at Pipelines of Oil Network in USHistory of Oil Network in US Origin of pipelines:Origin of pipelines: WWII: Relied of transportationtransportation Need for a complex network:Need for a complex network: Move the raw materials (crude oils), from

  3. Capsule Pipeline Research Center. 3-year Progress report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Capsule Pipeline Research Center is devoted to performing research in capsule pipelines so that this emerging technology can be developed for early use to transport solids including coal, grain, other agricultural products, solid wastes, etc. Important research findings and accomplishments during the first-three years include: success in making durable binderless coal logs by compaction, success in underwater extrusion of binderless coal logs, success in compacting and extruding coal logs with less than 3% hydrophobic binder at room temperature, improvement in the injection system and the pump-bypass scheme, advancement in the state-of-the-art of predicting the energy loss (pressure drop) along both stationary and moving capsules, demonstrated the effectiveness of using polymer for drag reduction in CLP, demonstrated the influence of zeta potential on coal log fabrication, improved understanding of the water absorption properties of coal logs, better understanding of the mechanism of coal log abrasion (wear), completed a detailed economic evaluation of the CLP technology and compared coal transportation cost by CLP to that by rail, truck and slurry pipelines, and completion of several areas of legal research. The Center also conducted important technology transfer activities including workshops, work sessions, company seminars, involvement of companies in CLP research, issuance of newsletters, completion of a video tape on CLP, and presentation of research findings at numerous national and international meetings.

  4. Space Science: Atmosphere Thermal Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Space Science: Atmosphere Part -2 Thermal Structure Review tropospheres Absorption of Radiation Adiabatic Lapse Rate ~ 9 K/km Slightly smaller than our estimate Pressure ~3000ft under ocean surface thickness (positive up) is the solar zenith angle Fs is the solar energy flux at frequency (when

  5. Panel: The Intersections of the IDEA and the School-to-Prison Pipeline (Audio file)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waterstone, Julie; Cannon, Yael; Rivera, Anna; Dudakia, Kunti

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as the School-to-Prison Pipeline-occurs, and will explorein the School-to-Prison Pipeline discourse will help the

  6. The VVDS data reduction pipeline: introducing VIPGI, the VIMOS Interactive Pipeline and Graphical Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Scodeggio; P. Franzetti; B. Garilli; A. Zanichelli; S. Paltani; D. Maccagni; D. Bottini; V. Le Brun; T. Contini; R. Scaramella; C. Adami; S. Bardelli; E. Zucca; L. Tresse; O. Ilbert; S. Foucaud; A. Iovino; R. Merighi; G. Zamorani; I. Gavignaud; D. Rizzo; H. J. McCracken; O. Le Fevre; J. P. Picat; G. Vettolani; M. Arnaboldi; S. Arnouts; M. Bolzonella; A. Cappi; S. Charlot; L. Guzzo; B. Marano; C. Marinoni; G. Mathez; A. Mazure; B. Meneux; R. Pello; A. Pollo; L. Pozzetti M. Radovich

    2004-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS), designed to measure 150,000 galaxy redshifts, requires a dedicated data reduction and analysis pipeline to process in a timely fashion the large amount of spectroscopic data being produced. This requirement has lead to the development of the VIMOS Interactive Pipeline and Graphical Interface (VIPGI), a new software package designed to simplify to a very high degree the task of reducing astronomical data obtained with VIMOS, the imaging spectrograph built by the VIRMOS Consortium for the European Southern Observatory, and mounted on Unit 3 (Melipal) of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Paranal Observatory (Chile). VIPGI provides the astronomer with specially designed VIMOS data reduction functions, a VIMOS-centric data organizer, and dedicated data browsing and plotting tools, that can be used to verify the quality and accuracy of the various stages of the data reduction process. The quality and accuracy of the data reduction pipeline are comparable to those obtained using well known IRAF tasks, but the speed of the data reduction process is significantly increased, thanks to the large set of dedicated features. In this paper we discuss the details of the MOS data reduction pipeline implemented in VIPGI, as applied to the reduction of some 20,000 VVDS spectra, assessing quantitatively the accuracy of the various reduction steps. We also provide a more general overview of VIPGI capabilities, a tool that can be used for the reduction of any kind of VIMOS data.

  7. Pipeline bottoming cycle study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical and economic feasibility of applying bottoming cycles to the prime movers that drive the compressors of natural gas pipelines was studied. These bottoming cycles convert some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas of the prime movers into shaft power and conserve gas. Three typical compressor station sites were selected, each on a different pipeline. Although the prime movers were different, they were similar enough in exhaust gas flow rate and temperature that a single bottoming cycle system could be designed, with some modifications, for all three sites. Preliminary design included selection of the bottoming cycle working fluid, optimization of the cycle, and design of the components, such as turbine, vapor generator and condensers. Installation drawings were made and hardware and installation costs were estimated. The results of the economic assessment of retrofitting bottoming cycle systems on the three selected sites indicated that profitability was strongly dependent upon the site-specific installation costs, how the energy was used and the yearly utilization of the apparatus. The study indicated that the bottoming cycles are a competitive investment alternative for certain applications for the pipeline industry. Bottoming cycles are technically feasible. It was concluded that proper design and operating practices would reduce the environmental and safety hazards to acceptable levels. The amount of gas that could be saved through the year 2000 by the adoption of bottoming cycles for two different supply projections was estimated as from 0.296 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a low supply projection to 0.734 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a high supply projection. The potential market for bottoming cycle equipment for the two supply projections varied from 170 to 500 units of varying size. Finally, a demonstration program plan was developed.

  8. The QUEST Data Processing Software Pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter Andrews; Charles Baltay; Anne Bauer; Nancy Ellman; Jonathan Jerke; Rochelle Lauer; David Rabinowitz; Julia Silge

    2007-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A program that we call the QUEST Data Processing Software Pipeline has been written to process the large volumes of data produced by the QUEST camera on the Samuel Oschin Schmidt Telescope at the Palomar Observatory. The program carries out both aperture and PSF photometry, combines data from different repeated observations of the same portion of sky, and produces a Master Object Catalog. A rough calibration of the data is carried out. This program, as well as the calibration procedures and quality checks on the output are described.

  9. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline System - Southwest Region

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688 760,877Southwest Region About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines

  10. Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department ofOral Testimony ofMonitoring, ProtectionofHydrogen Pipeline

  11. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Regional Definitions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline353/06)Pipeline Utilization &

  12. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Regulatory Authorities

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline353/06)Pipeline Utilization &Overview

  13. EIA-812, Monthly Product Pipeline Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin:DeploymentSite Name: Email: Terminal2, Monthly Product Pipeline

  14. Hydrogen Pipeline Discussion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEND D e e&FundingDiscussion Hydrogen Pipeline

  15. Term-Level Verification of a Pipelined CISC Microprocessor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Term-Level Verification of a Pipelined CISC Microprocessor Randal E. Bryant December, 2005 CMU verification, Microprocessor verification, UCLID #12;Abstract By abstracting the details of the data representations and operations in a microprocessor, term-level verification can formally prove that a pipelined

  16. TermLevel Verification of a Pipelined CISC Microprocessor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Term­Level Verification of a Pipelined CISC Microprocessor Randal E. Bryant December, 2005 CMU verification, Microprocessor verification, UCLID #12; Abstract By abstracting the details of the data representations and operations in a microprocessor, term­level verification can formally prove that a pipelined

  17. Accelerating Pipelined Integer and Floating-Point Accumulations in Configurable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martonosi, Margaret

    Accelerating Pipelined Integer and Floating-Point Accumulations in Configurable Hardware addition until the end of a repeated calculation such as accumulation or dot- product; this effectively and floating- point designs that use our technique. Our pipelined integer multiply-accumulate (MAC) design

  18. How Safe Are Pipelines? Diana Furchtgott-Roth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    18% 11% 14% 26% Natural Gas Distribution 25% 78% 76% 15% Hazardous Liquid 55% 11% 9% 53% #12;NumberHow Safe Are Pipelines? Diana Furchtgott-Roth Director, Economics21, Manhattan Institute Moving-Miles Transported: Petroleum Pipeline and Class I Rail Source: "Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement

  19. Rapid communication Mapping urban pipeline leaks: Methane leaks across Boston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    transmission and distribution pipelines for natural gas in the U. S. cause an average of 17 fatalities, 68 signatures w20& lighter (m ¼ À57.8&, Æ1.6& s.e., n ¼ 8). Repairing leaky natural gas distribution systems injuries, and $133 M in property damage each year (PHMSA, 2012). A natural gas pipeline explosion in San

  20. Localized Pipeline Encroachment Detector System Using Sensor Network 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ou, Xiaoxi 1986-

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Detection of encroachment on pipeline right-of-way is important for pipeline safety. An effective system can provide on-time warning while reducing the probability of false alarms. There are a number of industry and academic developments to tackle...

  1. Pipelined Mutual Exclusion and The Design of an Asynchronous Microprocessor *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Alain

    RVM46 -1 Pipelined Mutual Exclusion and The Design of an Asynchronous Microprocessor * Rajit; Pipelining; Microprocessor design; Program transformation. 1. Introduction Formal transformations are an e#11 by construction [3]. In the design of asynchronous systems, it is important to be able to decouple various parts

  2. Natural Gas Pipeline Leaks Across Washington, DC Robert B. Jackson,,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Natural Gas Pipeline Leaks Across Washington, DC Robert B. Jackson,,, * Adrian Down, Nathan G increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17 fatalities and $133 M in property damage annually. Natural gas leaks are also the largest anthropogenic

  3. A Pipelined Turbo Decoder with Random Convolutional Interleaver Werner Henkel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henkel, Werner

    A Pipelined Turbo Decoder with Random Convolutional Interleaver Werner Henkel University of Applied: jusif, sayir¡ @ftw.at Abstract-- This paper describes a pipelined iterative decoder ("Turbo" decoder. INTRODUCTION SINCE the introduction of "Turbo" codes in 1993 [1] the coding community has put much effort

  4. Statistical Methods for Estimating the Minimum Thickness Along a Pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    along the pipeline can be used to estimate corrosion levels. The traditional parametric model method for this problem is to estimate parameters of a specified corrosion distribution and then to use these parameters companies use pipelines to transfer oil, gas and other materials from one place to another. Manufactures

  5. Leak detection on an ethylene pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamande, A.; Condacse, V.; Modisette, J.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A model-based leak detection system has been in operation on the Solvay et Cie ethylene pipeline from Antwerp to Jemeppe on Sambre since 1989. The leak detection system, which is the commercial product PLDS of Modisette Associations, Inc., was originally installed by the supplier. Since 1991, all system maintenance and configuration changes have been done by Solvay et Cie personnel. Many leak tests have been performed, and adjustments have been made in the configuration and the automatic tuning parameters. The leak detection system is currently able to detect leaks of 2 tonnes/hour in 11 minutes with accurate location. Larger leaks are detected in about 2 minutes. Leaks between 0.5 and 1 tonne per hour are detected after several hours. (The nominal mass flow in the pipeline is 15 tonnes/hour, with large fluctuations.) Leaks smaller than 0.5 tonnes per hour are not detected, with the alarm thresholds set at levels to avoid false alarms. The major inaccuracies of the leak detection system appear to be associated with the ethylene temperatures.

  6. Atmospheric perturbations of large-scale nuclear war

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malone, R.C.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computer simulation of the injection into the atmosphere of a large quantity of smoke following a nuclear war are described. The focus is on what might happen to the smoke after it enters the atmosphere and what changes, or perturbations, could be induced in the atmospheric structure and circulation by the pressure of a large quantity of smoke. 4 refs., 7 figs. (ACR)

  7. Comparing Existing Pipeline Networks with the Potential Scale of Future U.S. CO2 Pipeline Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2009-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    There is growing interest regarding the potential size of a future U.S. dedicated carbon dioxide (CO2) pipeline infrastructure if carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies are commercially deployed on a large scale within the United States. This paper assesses the potential scale of the CO2 pipeline system needed under two hypothetical climate policies (so called WRE450 and WRE550 stabilization scenarios) and compares this to the extant U.S. pipeline infrastructures used to deliver CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and to move natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons from areas of production and importation to markets. The analysis reveals that between 11,000 and 23,000 additional miles of dedicated CO2 pipeline might be needed in the U.S. before 2050 across these two cases. While that is a significant increase over the 3,900 miles that comprise the existing national CO2 pipeline infrastructure, it is critically important to realize that the demand for additional CO2 pipeline capacity will unfold relatively slowly and in a geographically dispersed manner as new dedicated CCS-enabled power plants and industrial facilities are brought online. During the period 2010-2030, the growth in the CO2 pipeline system is on the order of a few hundred to less than a thousand miles per year. In comparison during the period 1950-2000, the U.S. natural gas pipeline distribution system grew at rates that far exceed these projections in growth in a future dedicated CO2 pipeline system. This analysis indicates that the need to increase the size of the existing dedicated CO2 pipeline system should not be seen as a major obstacle for the commercial deployment of CCS technologies in the U.S. Nevertheless, there will undoubtedly be some associated regulatory and siting issues to work through but these issues should not be unmanageable based on the size of infrastructure requirements alone.

  8. Atmospheric Aerosols Workshop | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Aerosols Workshop Atmospheric Aerosols Workshop EMSL Science Theme Advisory Panel Workshop - Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry, Climate Change, and Air Quality. Baer DR, BJ...

  9. Online Pipeline Transportation of Petroleum Products with no Due Dates 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Endler, Markus

    On­line Pipeline Transportation of Petroleum Products with no Due Dates 1 Ruy Luiz Milidi'u milidiu; 1 Introduction Petroleum products are typically transported through pipelines. Pipelines, 2001 Abstract: In this paper, we introduce a new model for pipeline transportation of petroleum

  10. Technoeconomic Analysis of Biomethane Production from Biogas and Pipeline Delivery (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2010-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation summarizes "A Technoeconomic Analysis of Biomethane Production from Biogas and Pipeline Delivery".

  11. A Reconfigurable, On-The-Fly, Resource-Aware, Streaming Pipeline Scheduler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    that create pipelines that are fully aware of the system's resources. In this paper, we present the design not offer enough expressiveness to cover all pipelines that can be constructed. Fully automated efficient pipeline construction presents multiple challenges. Some systems5, 17­19 build the pipeline on

  12. A Reconfigurable, OnTheFly, ResourceAware, Streaming Pipeline Scheduler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    that create pipelines that are fully aware of the system's resources. In this paper, we present the design not offer enough expressiveness to cover all pipelines that can be constructed. Fully automated efficient pipeline construction presents multiple challenges. Some systems 5, 17--19 build the pipeline on

  13. The Pipeline Design Pattern Allan Vermeulen, Gabe BegedDov, Patrick Thompson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Douglas C.

    1 The Pipeline Design Pattern Allan Vermeulen, Gabe Beged­Dov, Patrick Thompson ã Copyright Rogue in the processing pipeline. For example, the Web browser pipeline can be constructed in various ways depending Wave Software, Inc., 1995 Intent Build data pipelines in a configurable and typesafe manner. Motivation

  14. Atmospheric Aerosol Systems | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Themes Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Overview Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Biosystem Dynamics & Design Energy Materials & Processes Terrestrial & Subsurface Ecosystems...

  15. The Role of Peer Support for Girls and Women in the STEM Pipeline: Promoting Identification with STEM and Mitigating the Negative Effects of Sexism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robnett, Rachael

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AND WOMEN IN THE STEM PIPELINE: PROMOTING IDENTIFICATIONand Women in the STEM Pipeline: Promoting Identificationand Women in the STEM Pipeline: Promoting Identification

  16. The development of a chemical biology pipeline for the identification of small molecules that induce cardiopoiesis in murine embryonic stem cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushway, Paul Jay

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a Chemical Biology Pipeline for the Identification ofof a Chemical Biology Pipeline for the Identification ofhinge on the drug development pipeline and the importance of

  17. Response of continuous pipelines to tunnel induced ground deformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ieronymaki, Evangelia S

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis develops analytical solutions for estimating the bending moments and axial loads in a buried pipeline due to ground movements caused by tunnel construction in soft ground. The solutions combine closed-form, ...

  18. Ductile fracture and structural integrity of pipelines & risers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kofiani, Kirki N. (Kirki Nikolaos)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oil and Gas (O&G) industry has recently turned its interest towards deep and ultra-deep offshore installations in order to address the global increase of energy demand. Pipelines and risers are key components for the ...

  19. Special Provisions Affecting Gas, Water, or Pipeline Companies (South Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation confers the rights and privileges of telegraph and telephone companies (S.C. Code 58-9) on pipeline and water companies, and contains several additional provisions pertaining to...

  20. Structural Genomics of Minimal Organisms: Pipeline and Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sung-Hou

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of recombinant proteins. J. Struct. Funct. Genomics 5:69-74.proteins. J. Struct. Funct. Genomics 5:69-74. Oganesyan,Structural Genomics of Minimal Organisms: Pipeline and

  1. Calculating Horsepower Requirements and Sizing Supply Pipelines for Irrigation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fipps, Guy

    1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Pumping costs are often one of the largest single expenses in irrigated agriculture. This publication explains how to lower pumping costs by calculating horsepower requirements and sizing supply pipelines correctly. Examples take the reader through...

  2. Analysis of Subsea Buried Pipelines and Partially Buried Cables 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bai, Yanbin

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This research investigation addresses the analysis and numerical simulation of two very important offshore engineering problems. The first deals with the modeling of the steady state thermal field around buried pipelines conveying high temperature...

  3. Application Filing Requirements for Natural Gas Pipeline Construction Projects (Wisconsin)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any utility proposing to construct a natural gas pipeline requiring a Certificate of Authority (CA) under Wis. Stat. §196.49 must prepare an application for Commission review.  These regulations ...

  4. Extensible microprocessor without interlocked pipeline stages (emips), the reconfigurable microprocessor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittman, Richard Neil

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    have called our dynamically extensible microprocessor design the Extensible Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages, or eMIPS. The eMIPS architecture uses the interaction of fixed and configurable logic available in modern...

  5. "Assessment of the Adequacy of Natural Gas Pipeline Capacity...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    its "Assessment of the Adequacy of Natural Gas Pipeline Capacity in the Northeast United States" report. The report is now available for downloading. In 2005-06, the Office of...

  6. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Natural Gas Supply Basins...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Corridors About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates U.S. Natural Gas Supply Basins Relative to Major Natural...

  7. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Pipeline Steels: Causes and Remediation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation by 09-Sofronis to DOE Hydrogen Pipeline R&D Project Review Meeting held January 5-6, 2005 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee....

  8. EIS-0152: Iroquois, Tenn. Phase I, Pipeline Line Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission prepared this statement to asses the environmental impacts of constructing and operating an interstate natural gas pipeline and associated infrastructure to transport gas from Canada and domestic sources to the New England Market, as proposed by the Iroquois Gas Transmission System and the Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy was a cooperating agency during statement development and adopted the statement on 9/1/1990.

  9. Report of the Committee on oil pipeline regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report of the Committee on Oil Pipeline Regulations is divided into five sections. Section I addresses Order 561, a final rule entitled [open quotes]Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992,[close quotes] which was released by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) on October 23, 1993. Section II discusses the question of FERC jurisdiction over partial abandments of service, focusing on the ARCO Pipe Line Co. case which centered on whether a pipeline may discontinue shipping in one direction even though the pipeline will continue to ship in another direction, and the Chevron Pipe Line Co. case in which the Commission ruled that it does not have the authority to prevent a pipeline from temporarily suspending service. Section II addresses the Lakehead Pipe Line Co., Ltd. Partnership case, in which the Administrative Law Judge issued an Initial Decision resolving Phase I issues. Section IV of the article discusses whether or not a pipeline may base its rates on the cost of leasing capacity from an other pipeline. Five cases are examined in which pipelines that proposed initial rates allegedly based on the cost of a lease found their tariffs protested. Section V reviews the matter of the Williams Pipe Line Co. rate case in which the Commission issued an order on complaint in which it granted in part and denied in part several shippers' request for an order directing Williams Pipe Line Co. to (1) cease levying unauthorized charges, (2) pay reparations to shippers, and (3) be subjected to sanction for violations of the Interstate Commerce Act.

  10. Deliverability on the interstate natural gas pipeline system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deliverability on the Interstate Natural Gas Pipeline System examines the capability of the national pipeline grid to transport natural gas to various US markets. The report quantifies the capacity levels and utilization rates of major interstate pipeline companies in 1996 and the changes since 1990, as well as changes in markets and end-use consumption patterns. It also discusses the effects of proposed capacity expansions on capacity levels. The report consists of five chapters, several appendices, and a glossary. Chapter 1 discusses some of the operational and regulatory features of the US interstate pipeline system and how they affect overall system design, system utilization, and capacity expansions. Chapter 2 looks at how the exploration, development, and production of natural gas within North America is linked to the national pipeline grid. Chapter 3 examines the capability of the interstate natural gas pipeline network to link production areas to market areas, on the basis of capacity and usage levels along 10 corridors. The chapter also examines capacity expansions that have occurred since 1990 along each corridor and the potential impact of proposed new capacity. Chapter 4 discusses the last step in the transportation chain, that is, deliverability to the ultimate end user. Flow patterns into and out of each market region are discussed, as well as the movement of natural gas between States in each region. Chapter 5 examines how shippers reserve interstate pipeline capacity in the current transportation marketplace and how pipeline companies are handling the secondary market for short-term unused capacity. Four appendices provide supporting data and additional detail on the methodology used to estimate capacity. 32 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. The quality assurance of heat fused thermoplastic pipeline joints 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Earles, Larry Lee

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE QUALITY ASSURANCE OF HEAT FUSED THERMOPLASTIC PIPELINE JOINTS A Thesis by LARRY LEE EARLES Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment for the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1982 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering THE QUALITY ASSURANCE OF HEAT FUSED THERMOPLASTIC PIPELINE JOINTS A Thesis LARRY LEE EARLES Approved as to style and content by: Mario A. Colaluca (Chairman of Committee) Carl Gerhold (Member...

  12. EIS-0152: Iroquois/Tennessee Phase I Pipeline Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission prepared this statement to asses the environmental impacts of constructing and operating an interstate natural gas pipeline and associated infrastructure to transport gas from Canada and domestic sources to the New England Market, as proposed by the Iroquois Gas Transmission System and the Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy was a cooperating agency during statement development and adopted the statement on 9/1/1990.

  13. The liquefied natural gas pipeline: a system study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazel, Thomas Ray

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS PIPELINE: A SYSTEM STUDY A Thesis by THOMAS RAY HAZEL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1972 Major Subject...: Mechanical Engineering THE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS PIPELINE: A SYSTEM STUDY A Thesis by THOMAS RAY HAZEL Approved as to style and content by: Chairman o 'Committee) (Head of Department) (Member) (Member) (Member) (Member) (Member) May 1972 ABSTRACT...

  14. Modeling fatique behavior of dents in petroleum pipelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, Roger Lynn

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MODELING FATIGUE BEHAVIOR OF DENTS IN PETROLEUM PIPELINES A Thesis by ROGER LYNN HOFFMANN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1997 Major Subject: Civil Engineering MODELING FATIGUE BEHAVIOR OF DENTS IN PETROLEUM PIPELINES A Thesis by ROGER LYNN HOFFMANN Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

  15. The liquefied natural gas pipeline: a system study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazel, Thomas Ray

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS PIPELINE: A SYSTEM STUDY A Thesis by THOMAS RAY HAZEL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1972 Major Subject...: Mechanical Engineering THE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS PIPELINE: A SYSTEM STUDY A Thesis by THOMAS RAY HAZEL Approved as to style and content by: Chairman o 'Committee) (Head of Department) (Member) (Member) (Member) (Member) (Member) May 1972 ABSTRACT...

  16. The Economics of the Nord Stream Pipeline System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chyong, Chi Kong; Noël, Pierre; Reiner, David M.

      to  those  set  by  the  Polish  energy regulator  for  the Yamal?Europe pipeline  in Poland (€1.108/tcm/100km  in 2009) (A'LEMAR, 2009... The Economics of the Nord Stream Pipeline System Chi Kong Chyong, Pierre Noël and David M. Reiner September 2010 CWPE 1051 & EPRG 1026 www.eprg.group.cam.ac.uk E P R G W O R K IN G P A P E R Abstract...

  17. Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogozen, M.B.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

  18. Pressure-flow reducer for aerosol focusing devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gard, Eric (San Francisco, CA); Riot, Vincent (Oakland, CA); Coffee, Keith (Diablo Grande, CA); Woods, Bruce (Livermore, CA); Tobias, Herbert (Kensington, CA); Birch, Jim (Albany, CA); Weisgraber, Todd (Brentwood, CA)

    2008-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure-flow reducer, and an aerosol focusing system incorporating such a pressure-flow reducer, for performing high-flow, atmosphere-pressure sampling while delivering a tightly focused particle beam in vacuum via an aerodynamic focusing lens stack. The pressure-flow reducer has an inlet nozzle for adjusting the sampling flow rate, a pressure-flow reduction region with a skimmer and pumping ports for reducing the pressure and flow to enable interfacing with low pressure, low flow aerosol focusing devices, and a relaxation chamber for slowing or stopping aerosol particles. In this manner, the pressure-flow reducer decouples pressure from flow, and enables aerosol sampling at atmospheric pressure and at rates greater than 1 liter per minute.

  19. Nondestructive inspection of the condition of oil pipeline cleaning units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berdonosov, V.A.; Boiko, D.A.; Lapshin, B.M.; Chakhlov, V.L.

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the reasons for shutdowns of main oil pipelines is stoppage of the cleaning unit in cleaning of the inner surface of paraffin deposits caused by damage to the cleaning unit. The authors propose a method of searching for and determining the condition of the cleaning unit not requiring dismantling of the pipeline according to which the initial search for the cleaning unit is done with acoustic instruments (the increased acoustic noise at the point of stoppage of its is recorded) and subsequent inspection by a radiographic method. An experimental model of an instrument was developed making it possible to determine the location of a cleaning unit in an oil pipeline in stoppage of it from the acoustic noise. The instrument consists of two blocks, the remote sensor and the indicator block, which are connected to each other with a cable up to 10 m long. The design makes it possible to place the sensor at any accessible point of a linear part of the pipeline (in a pit, on a valve, etc.) while the indicator block may remain on the surface of the ground. The results obtained make it possible to adopt the optimum solutions on elimination of their malfunctioning and to prevent emergency situations without dismantling of the pipeline. With the equipment developed it is possible to inspect oil and gas pipelines with different reasons for a reduction in their throughput.

  20. Will heat from the pipeline affect groundwater and surface water? Response by Professor James Goeke The temperature of a pipeline buried 4 feet would

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    of the pipeline as a way to check for leaks? Do you have any specific concerns regarding oil or natural gas1 Water Will heat from the pipeline affect groundwater and surface water? Response by Professor James Goeke ­ The temperature of a pipeline buried 4 feet would probably affect surface water

  1. TASSEL 3.0 / 4.0 Pipeline Command Line Interface: Guide to using Tassel Pipeline Terry Casstevens (tmc46@cornell.edu)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buckler, Edward S.

    1 TASSEL 3.0 / 4.0 Pipeline Command Line Interface: Guide to using Tassel Pipeline Terry Casstevens values via the command line. ./run_pipeline.pl -Xms512m -Xmx10g -fork1... Examples ./run to change the following line to use a ; instead of a :. my $CP = join(":", @fl); #12;2 To launch the Tassel

  2. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Network Map

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline353/06)Pipeline UtilizationProcess and

  3. Urethane coatings rehabilitate large crude oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kresic, W. [Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc. (IPL) provides a vital transportation link for moving liquid petroleum resources from oil-producing areas of western Canada to refining centers and markets in eastern canada and the midwestern US. Together with Lakehead Pipe Line Co., Inc., the pipeline system consists of about 7,600 miles of pipe. Approximately 1.6 million bpd of crude oil and liquid hydrocarbons are transported by the system. Along with high-resolution inspection data, an in-house engineering critical assessment process based on Battelle`s NG-18 surface flaw equation was developed to identify corrosion anomalies needing structural reinforcement sleeve repairs. A majority of ht non-critical anomalies remained unearthed and were exposed to possible future growth which could become critical. Several rehabilitation methods were considered including on-going sleeve repair, selective pipe replacement, and coating reconditioning. Economics and logistics of sleeving programs and selective pipe replacement were well known at IPL. However, aspects of replacing a coating system over a relatively long length of pipe were not completely known. Preliminary cost estimates favored replacement of the coating over a massive sleeving program or pipe replacement. To gain further insight, IPL began a two-year pilot program to research long length coating replacement feasibility. Two sections of Line 3 ultimately were rehabilitated in this manner. This paper reviews the project.

  4. Compression station key to Texas pipeline project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This was probably the largest pipeline project in the US last year, and the largest in Texas in the last decade. The new compressor station is a key element in this project. TECO, its servicing dealer, and compression packager worked closely throughout the planning and installation stages of the project. To handle the amount of gas required, TECO selected the GEMINI F604-1 compressor, a four-throw, single-stage unit with a six-inch stroke manufactured by Weatherford Enterra Compression Co. (WECC) in Corpus Christi, TX. TECO also chose WECC to package the compressors. Responsibility for ongoing support of the units will be shared among TECO, the service dealer and the packager. TECO is sending people to be trained by WECC, and because the G3600 family of engines is still relatively new, both the Caterpillar dealer and WECC sent people for advanced training at Caterpillar facilities in Peoria, IL. As part of its service commitment to TECO, the servicing dealer drew up a detailed product support plan, encompassing these five concerns: Training, tooling; parts support; service support; and commissioning.

  5. INTRODUCTIONTOTHE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ? #12;WHAT ISTHE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE? #12;#12;1-D MODEL ATMOSPHERE · Averaged over space and time · GoodINTRODUCTIONTOTHE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE D. Shaun Bloomfield Trinity College Dublin #12;OUTLINE · What is the solar atmosphere? · How is the solar atmosphere observed? · What structures exist and how do they evolve

  6. Disproportionality fills in the gaps: Connections between achievement, discipline and special education in the School-to-Prison Pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Annamma, Subini; Morrison, Deb; Jackson, Darrell

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the school to prison pipeline. Journal of Law and EducationThe school-to-prison-pipeline: Structuring legal reform. New2005). School to prison pipeline. Retrieved from http://

  7. Three-dimensional morphology and gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm at cellular resolution I: data acquisition pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I: data acquisition pipeline The electronic version of thiswe describe an integrated pipeline of methods for studyingA three-dimensional analysis pipeline To be able to analyze

  8. Genome-wide SNP discovery in walnut with an AGSNP pipeline updated for SNP discovery in allogamous organisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in walnut with an AGSNP pipeline updated for SNP discoveryin walnut with an AGSNP pipeline updated for SNP discoverythe development of a pipeline (AGSNP) for genome-wide SNP

  9. REMOTE DETECTION OF INTERNAL PIPELINE CORROSION USING FLUIDIZED SENSORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narasi Sridhar; Garth Tormoen; Ashok Sabata

    2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pipelines present a unique challenge to monitoring because of the great geographical distances they cover, their burial depth, their age, and the need to keep the product flowing without much interruption. Most other engineering structures that require monitoring do not pose such combined challenges. In this regard, a pipeline system can be considered analogous to the blood vessels in the human body. The human body has an extensive ''pipeline'' through which blood and other fluids are transported. The brain can generally sense damage to the system at any location and alert the body to provide temporary repair, unless the damage is severe. This is accomplished through a vast network of fixed and floating sensors combined with a vast and extremely complex communication/decision making system. The project described in this report mimics the distributed sensor system of our body, albeit in a much more rudimentary fashion. Internal corrosion is an important factor in pipeline integrity management. At present, the methods to assess internal corrosion in pipelines all have certain limitations. In-line inspection tools are costly and cannot be used in all pipelines. Because there is a significant time interval between inspections, any impact due to upsets in pipeline operations can be missed. Internal Corrosion Direct Assessment (ICDA) is a procedure that can be used to identify locations of possible internal corrosion. However, the uncertainties in the procedure require excavation and location of damage using more detailed inspection tools. Non-intrusive monitoring techniques can be used to monitor internal corrosion, but these tools also require pipeline excavation and are limited in the spatial extent of corrosion they can examine. Therefore, a floating sensor system that can deposit at locations of water accumulation and communicate the corrosion information to an external location is needed. To accomplish this, the project is divided into four main tasks related to wireless data transmission, corrosion sensor development, sensor system motion and delivery, and consideration of other pipeline operations issues. In the first year of the program, focus was on sensor development and wireless data transmission. The second year of the program, which was discontinued due to funding shortfall, would have focused on further wireless transmission development, packaging of sensor on wireless, and other operational issues. Because, the second year funding has been discontinued, recommendations are made for future studies.

  10. Complexity analysis of pipeline mapping problems in distributed heterogeneous networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Ying [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Wu, Qishi [ORNL; Zhu, Mengxia [ORNL; Rao, Nageswara S [ORNL

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Largescale scientific applications require using various system resources to execute complex computing pipelines in distributed networks to support collaborative research. System resources are typically shared in the Internet or over dedicated connections based on their location, availability, capability, and capacity. Optimizing the network performance of computing pipelines in such distributed environments is critical to the success of these applications. We consider two types of largescale distributed applications: (1) interactive applications where a single dataset is sequentially processed along a pipeline; and (2) streaming applications where a series of datasets continuously flow through a pipeline. The computing pipelines of these applications consist of a number of modules executed in a linear order in network environments with heterogeneous resources under different constraints. Our goal is to find an efficient mapping scheme that allocates the modules of a pipeline to network nodes for minimum endtoend delay or maximum frame rate. We formulate the pipeline mappings in distributed environments as optimization problems and categorize them into six classes with different optimization goals and mapping constraints: (1) Minimum Endtoend Delay with No Node Reuse (MEDNNR), (2) Minimum Endtoend Delay with Contiguous Node Reuse (MEDCNR), (3) Minimum Endtoend Delay with Arbitrary Node Reuse (MEDANR), (4) Maximum Frame Rate with No Node Reuse or Share (MFRNNRS), (5) Maximum Frame Rate with Contiguous Node Reuse and Share (MFRCNRS), and (6) Maximum Frame Rate with Arbitrary Node Reuse and Share (MFRANRS). Here, 'contiguous node reuse' means that multiple contiguous modules along the pipeline may run on the same node and 'arbitrary node reuse' imposes no restriction on node reuse. Note that in interactive applications, a node can be reused but its resource is not shared. We prove that MEDANR is polynomially solvable and the rest are NP-complete. MEDANR, where either contiguous or noncontiguous modules in the pipeline can be mapped onto the same node, is essentially the Maximum n-hop Shortest Path problem, and can be solved using a dynamic programming method. In MEDNNR and MFRNNRS, any network node can be used only once, which requires selecting the same number of nodes for onetoone onto mapping. We show its NP-completeness by reducing from the Hamiltonian Path problem. Node reuse is allowed in MEDCNR, MFRCNRS and MFRANRS, which are similar to the Maximum n-hop Shortest Path problem that considers resource sharing. We prove their NP-completeness by reducing from the Disjoint-Connecting-Path Problem and Widest path with the Linear Capacity Constraints problem, respectively.

  11. REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary L. Burkhardt

    2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring the pipeline and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method developed by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating (thus resulting in a signal path to ground) changes the signal received at the receiving stations. The IACC method was shown to be a viable method that can be used to continuously monitor pipelines for third-party contact. Electrical connections to the pipeline can be made through existing cathodic protection (CP) test points without the need to dig up the pipe. The instrumentation is relatively simple, consisting of (1) a transmitting station with a frequency-stable oscillator and amplifier and (2) a receiving station with a filter, lock-in amplifier, frequency-stable oscillator, and remote reporting device (e.g. cell phone system). Maximum distances between the transmitting and receiving stations are approximately 1.61 km (1 mile), although the length of pipeline monitored can be twice this using a single transmitter and one receiver on each side (since the signal travels in both directions). Certain conditions such as poor pipeline coatings or strong induced 60-Hz signals on the pipeline can degrade IACC performance, so localized testing should be performed to determine the suitability for an IACC installation at a given location. The method can be used with pipelines having active CP systems in place without causing interference with operation of the CP system. The most appropriate use of IACC is monitoring of localized high-consequence areas where there is a significant risk of third-party contact (e.g. construction activity). The method also lends itself to temporary, low-cost installation where there is a short-term need for monitoring.

  12. Centrifuge modelling of lateral pipeline/soil interaction -- Phase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulin, M.J.; Phillips, R. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Centre for Cold Ocean Resources Engineering; Boivin, R. [NOVA Corp., Calgary, Alberta (Canada). NOVA Gas Transmission Limited Division

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An ongoing research program is investigating the load transfer behavior of buried pipelines subjected to lateral soil movement in cohesive soil. Phase 1 of this study, reported to OMAE `92, demonstrated that the centrifuge technique was appropriate for this application in determining the interaction conditions for the lateral loading of pipelines. Limited control of the shear strength masked geometric effects (trench width and burial depth) on the interaction factors and desiccation affected the interpretation of some of the interaction factors. The Phase 2 study investigated the geometric effects of pipeline soil cover, ditch width and also displacement rate. The study included a ``modelling of models`` test to verify the reliability of the centrifuge modelling technique. This paper addresses two issues: (1) The Phase 1 soil strength profiles and interaction factors were reanalyzed based on an improved understanding of the soil conditions at the time of testing; (2) A selection of the Phase 2 results are presented for a 0.95m diameter pipeline subjected to lateral soil movement. The program results are discussed and compared with current pipeline/soil interaction analysis methods.

  13. Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This study assesses the potential to deliver hydrogen through the existing natural gas pipeline network as a hydrogen and natural gas mixture to defray the cost of building dedicated hydrogen pipeline

  14. Alternatives for reducing the environmental risks associated with natural disasters and their effects on pipelines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wellborn, Michael Wayne

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Past pipeline failure reports have typically focused on corrosion and third party related events. However, natural disasters pose a substantial risk to pipeline integrity as well. Therefore, it was the objective of this thesis to analyze the risks...

  15. Behavioral modeling and digital calibration of pipeline analog to digital converters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bilhan, Erkan

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research focuses on digital calibration of pipeline analog to digital converters (ADCs) and also modeling of error sources and design parameters of pipeline ADCs. Modern applications such as communications systems require high resolution ADCs...

  16. Workgroup #2 Emerging Solutions and Technologies How can we keep the pipeline full of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Workgroup #2 Emerging Solutions and Technologies ­ How can we keep the pipeline full of energy to keep the pipeline full of energy efficiency innovations for use in the Pacific Northwest." Our Phase 1

  17. Behavioral modeling and digital calibration of pipeline analog to digital converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bilhan, Erkan

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research focuses on digital calibration of pipeline analog to digital converters (ADCs) and also modeling of error sources and design parameters of pipeline ADCs. Modern applications such as communications systems require high resolution ADCs...

  18. atmospheric nitric oxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    glacial period Adrian Schilt,1,3 Matthias Stocker, Thomas 196 CO Oxidation on Pt-Group Metals from Ultrahigh Vacuum to Near Atmospheric Pressures. F. Gao, Y. Cai, K. K. Gath, Y....

  19. Isolation valve selections play important role in pipelining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hingoraney, R.; Goto, D.N. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isolation valves are an integral part of every pipeline and play an important role in safe and proper operation. For almost every project, pipeline designers wrestle with choosing between the through-conduit gate valves and ball valves and their associated actuating mechanisms. Complicating this selection process are variables such as individual preferences and the lack of broad-based operating experience. As expected, there is no single valve and actuator combination that is correct for every pipeline or every application. Variables which must be considered and specifically evaluated for each valve installation include: operating characteristics, function, location, process fluid, materials options, space availability, maintenance, repair capability, delivery schedule, and costs. This paper reviews these issues.

  20. U. S. gas pipelines move to comply with Order 636

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that more US interstate gas pipelines have unveiled plans to comply with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Order 636 megarestructuring rule. In the latest developments: Texas Eastern Transmission Corp. (Tetco) filed the first Order 636 compliance proposal with FERC outlining new transportation rates, operational issues, and services the company plans to offer. Tenneco Gas will eliminate a layer of managers and split marketing and transportation functions into four divisions to deal with Order 646. ANR Pipeline Co. made organizational changes expected to help it participate faster and more effectively under Order 636. The company in mid-May made gas sales a stand alone activity, reorganized system sales by region, and consolidated transportation and storage functions. FERC's long awaited megarestructuring rule, issued early in April, aims to assure the open access, interstate pipelines provide equal services for all gas supplies. Companies are to submit transition plans to FERC by Nov. 2.

  1. Soft-Decision-Driven Channel Estimation for Pipelined Turbo Receivers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoon, Daejung

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider channel estimation specific to turbo equalization for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communication. We develop a soft-decision-driven sequential algorithm geared to the pipelined turbo equalizer architecture operating on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) symbols. One interesting feature of the pipelined turbo equalizer is that multiple soft-decisions become available at various processing stages. A tricky issue is that these multiple decisions from different pipeline stages have varying levels of reliability. This paper establishes an effective strategy for the channel estimator to track the target channel, while dealing with observation sets with different qualities. The resulting algorithm is basically a linear sequential estimation algorithm and, as such, is Kalman-based in nature. The main difference here, however, is that the proposed algorithm employs puncturing on observation samples to effectively deal with the inherent correlation among the multiple demappe...

  2. Alaskan Natural Gas Pipeline Developments (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Annual Energy Outlook 2007 reference case projects that an Alaska natural gas pipeline will go into operation in 2018, based on the Energy Information Administration's current understanding of the projects time line and economics. There is continuing debate, however, about the physical configuration and the ownership of the pipeline. In addition, the issue of Alaskas oil and natural gas production taxes has been raised, in the context of a current market environment characterized by rising construction costs and falling natural gas prices. If rates of return on investment by producers are reduced to unacceptable levels, or if the project faces significant delays, other sources of natural gas, such as unconventional natural gas production and liquefied natural gas imports, could fulfill the demand that otherwise would be served by an Alaska pipeline.

  3. Use of intelligent pigs to detect stress corrosion cracking in gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Culbertson, D.L. [Tenneco Energy, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To ensure the integrity and serviceability of gas pipelines, operators periodically utilize intelligent pigging. This inspection technique has proven to be a cost effective approach for determining the condition of operating pipelines. Recent advancements in intelligent pigging technology are now aiding the pipeline industry in the detection of stress corrosion cracking.

  4. Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M. W.; Antonia, O.; Penev, M.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States has 11 distinct natural gas pipeline corridors: five originate in the Southwest, four deliver natural gas from Canada, and two extend from the Rocky Mountain region. This study assesses the potential to deliver hydrogen through the existing natural gas pipeline network as a hydrogen and natural gas mixture to defray the cost of building dedicated hydrogen pipelines.

  5. Pipeline Transportation of Petroleum Products 1 Ruy Luiz Milidi'u

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Endler, Markus

    Pipeline Transportation of Petroleum Products 1 Ruy Luiz Milidi'u milidiu@inf.puc­rio.br Artur Introdution Petroleum products are typically transported in pipelines which are different from all other, 2000 Abstract: In this paper, we introduce a new model for pipeline transportation of petroleum

  6. REAL-TIME ACTIVE PIPELINE INTEGRITY DETECTION (RAPID) SYSTEM FOR CORROSION DETECTION AND QUANTIFICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    alone there are over 2 million miles of natural gas transmission and distribution pipeline providing 24REAL-TIME ACTIVE PIPELINE INTEGRITY DETECTION (RAPID) SYSTEM FOR CORROSION DETECTION detection Acellent has developed a Real-time Active Pipeline Integrity Detection (RAPID) system. The RAPID

  7. Hydrogen Pipeline Safety Our goal is to establish the codes and standards necessary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perkins, Richard A.

    Hydrogen Pipeline Safety METALS Our goal is to establish the codes and standards necessary miles of hydrogen pipelines are currently in operation in the U.S. (compared to > 1M miles of natural, materials, mechanical properties, and standards for hydrogen pipelines. Construction is complete on the 750

  8. AROW A 128 Channel Analogue Pipeline with Wilkinson ADC and Sparsification ASIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    AROW ­ A 128 Channel Analogue Pipeline with Wilkinson ADC and Sparsification ASIC Authors: FS on a capacitor pipeline. A level­1 trigger is sent to the front end electronics from the trigger processorA/fC, giving a combined gain of approximately 100mV/MIP. .Analogue storage capacitor pipeline with differential

  9. Optimized Sampling Frequencies for Weld Reliability Assessments of Long Pipeline Segments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    p. If this probability exceeds a certain regulated (small) threshold p 0 , the pipeline must. To be on the safe side, regulations require that a pipeline be repaired when it is possible that p â?? p 0 , iOptimized Sampling Frequencies for Weld Reliability Assessments of Long Pipeline Segments Cesar J

  10. Optimized Sampling Frequencies for Weld Reliability Assessments of Long Pipeline Segments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    p. If this probability exceeds a certain regulated (small) threshold p0, the pipeline must. To be on the safe side, regulations require that a pipeline be repaired when it is possible that p p0, i.e., when pOptimized Sampling Frequencies for Weld Reliability Assessments of Long Pipeline Segments Cesar J

  11. Automatic Modeling and Validation of Pipeline Specifications driven by an Architecture Description Language

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mishra, Prabhat

    ) design process. Many existing approaches employ a bottom-up approach to pipeline validation, where about the behavior of the pipelined ar- chitecture through ADL constructs, which allows a powerful topAutomatic Modeling and Validation of Pipeline Specifications driven by an Architecture Description

  12. An Automatic Image Reduction Pipeline for the Advanced Camera for Surveys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astonomy, Advanced Camera for Surveys Team

    are constructed similar to those used in STScI OPUS pipeline. Reading and manipulation of FITS images and tables and catalogs) for archiving purposes. Although Apsis was designed primarily as an automated pipeline, it canAn Automatic Image Reduction Pipeline for the Advanced Camera for Surveys John P. Blakeslee

  13. Transverse wave loading on partially buried marine pipelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webb, Richard Edgar

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TRANSVERSE WAVE LOADING ON PARTIALLY BURIED MARINE PIPELINES A Thesis by RICHARD EDGAR WEBB Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December l988 Ma)or Subject: Civil Engineering TRANSVERSE WAVE LOADING ON PARTIALLY BURIED MARINE PIPELINES A Thesis bY RICHARD EDGAR WEBB Approved as to style and content by: Derek V. M ris (Chair of Committee) Calvin E. Woods (Member) Norman R...

  14. EIS-0140: Ocean State Power Project, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission prepared this statement to evaluate potential impacts of construction and operation of a new natural gas-fired, combined-cycle power plant which would be located on a 40.6-acre parcel in the town of Burrillville, Rhode Island, as well as construction of a 10-mile pipeline to transport process and cooling water to the plant from the Blackstone River and a 7.5-mile pipeline to deliver No. 2 fuel oil to the site for emergency use when natural gas may not be available. The Economic Regulatory Administration adopted the EIS on 7/15/1988.

  15. Using Fuzzy Logic for Automatic Analysis of Astronomical Pipelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lior Shamir; Robert J. Nemiroff

    2005-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Fundamental astronomical questions on the composition of the universe, the abundance of Earth-like planets, and the cause of the brightest explosions in the universe are being attacked by robotic telescopes costing billions of dollars and returning vast pipelines of data. The success of these programs depends on the accuracy of automated real time processing of the astronomical images. In this paper the needs of modern astronomical pipelines are discussed in the light of fuzzy-logic based decision-making. Several specific fuzzy-logic algorithms have been develop for the first time for astronomical purposes, and tested with excellent results on data from the existing Night Sky Live sky survey.

  16. The effect of pipe spacing on marine pipeline scour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Westerhorstmann, Joseph Henry

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The stability of these subsea pipelines is threatened by loss of bed support resulting from scour. This thesis reviews pipeline scour and presents results of model testing on single and multiple pipes in contact with a sand bed. Few theoretical models exist... and clamp attachment. The maximum recommended cable and circuit resistance is 1. 0 ohm and frequency range in autocompensation mode is 0. 2 to above 10. 0 Hz. Scour profiles were measured with a point gauge profiler. The profiler was manually operated...

  17. The SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline. I. Description and Initial Validation Tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. S. Lee; T. C. Beers; T. Sivarani; C. Allende Prieto; L. Koesterke; R. Wilhelm; J. E. Norris; C. A. L. Bailer-Jones; P. Re Fiorentin; C. M. Rockosi; B. Yanny; H. Newberg; K. R. Covey

    2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the development and implementation of the SEGUE (Sloan Extension for Galactic Exploration and Understanding) Stellar Parameter Pipeline (SSPP). The SSPP derives, using multiple techniques, radial velocities and the fundamental stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity) for AFGK-type stars, based on medium-resolution spectroscopy and $ugriz$ photometry obtained during the course of the original Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-I) and its Galactic extension (SDSS-II/SEGUE). The SSPP also provides spectral classification for a much wider range of stars, including stars with temperatures outside of the window where atmospheric parameters can be estimated with the current approaches. This is Paper I in a series of papers on the SSPP; it provides an overview of the SSPP, and initial tests of its performance using multiple data sets. Random and systematic errors are critically examined for the current version of the SSPP, which has been used for the sixth public data release of the SDSS (DR-6).

  18. The SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline. II. Validation with Galactic Globular and Open Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. S. Lee; T. C. Beers; T. Sivarani; J. A. Johnson; D. An; R. Wilhelm; C. Allende Prieto; L. Koesterke; P. Re Fiorentin; C. A. L. Bailer-Jones; J. E. Norris; B. Yanny; C. M. Rockosi; H. J. Newberg; K. M. Cudworth; K. Pan

    2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We validate the performance and accuracy of the current SEGUE (Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration) Stellar Parameter Pipeline (SSPP), which determines stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity) by comparing derived overall metallicities and radial velocities from selected likely members of three globular clusters (M 13, M 15, and M 2) and two open clusters (NGC 2420 and M 67) to the literature values. Spectroscopic and photometric data obtained during the course of the original Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-I) and its first extension (SDSS-II/SEGUE) are used to determine stellar radial velocities and atmospheric parameter estimates for stars in these clusters. Based on the scatter in the metallicities derived for the members of each cluster, we quantify the typical uncertainty of the SSPP values, sigma([Fe/H]) = 0.13 dex for stars in the range of 4500 K < Teff < 7500 K and 2.0 < log g < 5.0, at least over the metallicity interval spanned by the clusters studied (-2.3 < [Fe/H] < 0). The surface gravities and effective temperatures derived by the SSPP are also compared with those estimated from the comparison of the color-magnitude diagrams with stellar evolution models; we find satisfactory agreement. At present, the SSPP underestimates [Fe/H] for near-solar-metallicity stars, represented by members of M 67 in this study, by about 0.3 dex.

  19. A contingency plan helps companies prepare for oilfield, pipeline spills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duey, R.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many hazards associated with oilfield, pipeline spills such as fires, litigation, fines, etc. Operators and companies need to have a plan in place and make sure their employees know what to do when disaster strikes. This paper describes emergency preparedness plans.

  20. Pipelined Implementation of the Hough Transform in a Pyramid Multiprocessor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atiquzzaman, Mohammed

    of the transform is its requirement for a large amount of computing power. The computational requirement. 1 Introduction The Hough transform [1] is a powerful technique to detect patterns in imagesPipelined Implementation of the Hough Transform in a Pyramid Multiprocessor M. Atiquzzaman Dept