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1

A Ground-Based Network for Atmospheric Pressure Fluctuations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 1992, a surface-based, mesoscale microbarograph array with four pressure sensors was installed near the Hohenpeißenberg, southern Germany, and has since been in continuous operation. In this paper, a description of the sensors, the network, ...

T. Hauf; U. Finke; J. Neisser; G. Bull; J-G. Stangenberg

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric pressure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

pressure pressure ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric pressure The pressure exerted by the atmosphere as a consequence of gravitational attraction exerted upon the "column" of air lying directly above the point in question. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments SONDE : Balloon-Borne Sounding System CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System

3

CDIAC Atmospheric Pressure Data Sets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Pressure Atmospheric Pressure CDIAC Climate Holdings Containing Atmospheric Pressure Data Global Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN); Vs. 1 (CDIAC NDP-041) R.S. Vose et al. Surface stations; monthly mean sea-level pressure Varies by station; through 1990 Extended Edited Synoptic Cloud Reports from Ships and Land Stations Over the Globe, 1952-2009 (CDIAC NDP-026C) C.J. Hahn, S.G. Warren, and R. Eastman Six-hourly synoptic observations of sea-level pressure Land 1971-2009; Ocean 1952-2008 Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN); Vs. 2 (Note: the above link takes you to NOAA's National Climatic Data Center website.) R.S. Vose et al. Surface stations; monthly mean sea-level pressure Varies by station; some through most recent month

4

atmospheric pressure | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

pressure pressure Dataset Summary Description (Abstract):Atmospheric Pressure (kPa)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Atmospheric Pressure (kPa)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; positive values are north and east. Boundaries of the -90/-180 region Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords atmospheric pressure climate NASA SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 46 MiB)

5

Basic Meteorological Observations for Schools: Atmospheric Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article addresses measurement of atmospheric surface pressure using economical instruments. It is intended to provide members of the Society with a ready reference to respond to inquiries from earth and physical science teachers at the ...

John T. Snow; Michelle E. Akridge; Shawn B. Harley

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Mars Atmosphere Pressure Periodicities from Viking Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first martian year of pressure data taken by the Viking landers on Mars is subjected to power spectrum analysis. The analysis suggests that strong periodicities are present in the martian atmosphere, especially at the high-latitude (48°N) ...

R. D. Sharman; J. A. Ryan

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows TDM - Karma Sawyer Robert C. Tenent National Renewable Energy Laboratory robert.tenent@nrel.gov 303-384-6775 4/4/2013 Insulating Glass Unit (IGU) Glass Transparent Conductor (TC) Active Electrode Counter Electrode Ion Conductor 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose and Objectives * Expense - Current market price of $50-$100/ft 2 - Projections indicate under $20/ft 2 needed - A new production paradigm is required * Aesthetics - Architects hesitant to adopt "smurf glass"

9

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows TDM - Karma Sawyer Robert C. Tenent National Renewable Energy Laboratory robert.tenent@nrel.gov 303-384-6775 4/4/2013 Insulating Glass Unit (IGU) Glass Transparent Conductor (TC) Active Electrode Counter Electrode Ion Conductor 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose and Objectives * Expense - Current market price of $50-$100/ft 2 - Projections indicate under $20/ft 2 needed - A new production paradigm is required * Aesthetics - Architects hesitant to adopt "smurf glass"

10

Free Floating Atmospheric Pressure Ball Plasmas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Free-Floating Atmospheric Pressure Ball Plasmas Free-Floating Atmospheric Pressure Ball Plasmas G. A. Wurden, Z. Wang, C. Ticos Los Alamos National Laboratory L Al NM 87545 USA Los Alamos, NM 87545 USA C. J. v. Wurden Los Alamos High School L Al NM 87544 Los Alamos, NM 87544 Presented at the PPPL Colloquium Sept. 17, 2008 U N C L A S S I F I E D Operated by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the DOE/NNSA LA-UR-08-06284 Outline of this talk *A discussion of ball lightning reports in nature *How can ball plasmas be made in the laboratory? *Detailed experiments on long lived free floating *Detailed experiments on long-lived free-floating atmospheric pressure ball plasmas C i f l b b ll l i h "b ll *Comparison of laboratory ball plasmas with "ball lightning" *Summary U N C L A S S I F I E D Operated by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the DOE/NNSA

11

Atmospheric pressure scanning transmission electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) images of gold nanoparticles (2.1 nm average diameter) at atmospheric pressure have been recorded through a 0.36 mm thick mixture of CO, O2 and He. This was accomplished using a reaction cell consisting of two electron-transparent silicon nitride membranes mounted on a specially designed specimen rod. Gas flow occurred through plastic tubing from the outside of the microscope to the specimen region and back. Gold nanoparticles of a full width half maximum diameter of 1.0 nm were visible above the background noise and the achieved resolution was 0.5 nm in accordance with calculations of the beam broadening.

De Jonge, Niels [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Bigelow, Wilbur C [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Atmospheric-pressure guided streamers for liposomal membrane disruption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential to use liposomes (LIPs) as a cellular model in order to study interactions of cold atmospheric-pressure plasma with cells is herein investigated. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma is formed by a dielectric-barrier discharge reactor. Large multilamellar vesicle liposomes, consisted of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, are prepared by the thin film hydration technique, to encapsulate a small hydrophilic dye, i.e., calcein. The plasma-induced release of calcein from liposomes is then used as a measure of liposome membrane integrity and, consequently, interaction between the cold atmospheric plasma and lipid bilayers. Physical mechanisms leading to membrane disruption are suggested, based on the plasma characterization including gas temperature calculation.

Svarnas, P.; Aleiferis, Sp. [High Voltage Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Patras, Rion 26504 (Greece); Matrali, S. H. [Pharmaceutical Technology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, Rion 26504 (Greece); Gazeli, K. [High Voltage Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Patras, Rion 26504 (Greece); IPREM-LCABIE, Plasmas et Applications, UPPA, 64000 Pau (France); Clement, F. [IPREM-LCABIE, Plasmas et Applications, UPPA, 64000 Pau (France); Antimisiaris, S. G. [Pharmaceutical Technology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, Rion 26504 (Greece); Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (ICES)-FORTH, Rion 26504 (Greece)

2012-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

13

Dissociation of carbon dioxide in atmospheric pressure microchannel plasma devices.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Plasma discharge of carbon dioxide at atmospheric pressure was successfully demonstrated in microchannel plasma devices at breakdown voltages lower than 1 kVRMS. Optical emissions of… (more)

Oh, Taegon

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Time and Space Variability of Spectral Estimates of Atmospheric Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the temporal and spatial behavior of atmospheric pressure spectra. The literature shows many examples of pressure, wind and temperature spectra whose shapes display a remarkable degree of universality. ...

Flavio G. Canavero; Franco Einaudi

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of High Silica SiO2-TiO2 Antireflective Thin Films for Glass Based Solar Panels  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of SiO2-TiO2 thin films employing [[(tBuO)3Si]2O-Ti(OiPr)2], which can be prepared from commercially available materials, results in antireflective thin films on float glass under industrially relevant manufacturing conditions. It was found that while the deposition temperature had an effect on the SiO2:TiO2 ratio, the thickness was dependent on the time of deposition. This study shows that it is possible to use APCVD employing a single source precursor containing titanium and silicon to produce thin films on float glass with high SiO2:TiO2 ratios.

Klobukowski, Erik R [ORNL; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E [ORNL; McCamy, James [PPG; Harris, Caroline [PPG; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Does the Surface Pressure Equal the Weight per Unit Area of a Hydrostatic Atmosphere?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The common statement that the surface pressure in a hydrostatic atmosphere is equal to the weight per unit area of the air aloft is shown to be true only for a Cartesian world. Here the unit area is the surface area of the base of the atmospheric ...

Peter R. Bannon; Craig H. Bishop; James B. Kerr

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Atmospheric Pressure Low Current Plasma for Syngas Production from Alcohol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract – Atmospheric pressure low current arc discharge between graphite electrodes with conical geometry in liquid ethanol/water mixture was investigated. Syngas production was demonstrated over large experimental conditions. In this paper we focus on discharge aspects. It is shown from pictures that the behavior of low current arc discharge with consumable electrodes represents non-stationary plasma. The energetic properties of plasmas can be used to carry out many applications, particularly in discharge based systems. Recently, research interest focuses on the Non Thermal Plasma (NTP) treatment of hydrocarbons, alcohol, or biomass aimed to improve the yield of synthetic gas (syngas: H2+CO) production at low cost [1, 4]. Experiments were performed on a plasma reactor consisting of two graphite electrodes with conical shape

Ahmed Khacef; Khadija Arabi; Olivier Aubry; Jean Marie Cormier

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Climate: monthly and annual average atmospheric pressure GIS data at  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

atmospheric pressure GIS data at atmospheric pressure GIS data at one-degree resolution of the World from NASA/SSE Dataset Summary Description (Abstract):Atmospheric Pressure (kPa)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Atmospheric Pressure (kPa)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; positive values are north and east. Boundaries of the -90/-180 region are -90 to -89 (south) and -180 to -179 (west). The last region, 89/180, is bounded by 89 to 90 (north) and 179 to 180 (east). The mid-point of the region is +0.5 added to the the Lat/Lon value. These data are

19

Computer Based Training: Pressure Measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ETTM Pressure Measurement is a computer based training module that allows users to access training when desired and review it at their own pace. It provides graphics and limited interactive features to enhance learning. The purpose of this training module is to provide an understanding of the engineering principles associated with pressure measurement through the review of: Definitions and laws, Operation of some typical plant pressure instruments and, Installation and correction considerations that will...

2010-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

20

Flammability Characteristics of Hydrogen and Its Mixtures with Light Hydrocarbons at Atmospheric and Sub-atmospheric Pressures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Knowledge of flammability limits is essential in the prevention of fire and explosion. There are two limits of flammability, upper flammability limit (UFL) and lower flammability limit (LFL), which define the flammable region of a combustible gas/vapor. This research focuses on the flammability limits of hydrogen and its binary mixtures with light hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, n-butane, and ethylene) at sub-atmospheric pressures. The flammability limits of hydrogen, light hydrocarbons, and binary mixtures of hydrogen and each hydrocarbon were determined experimentally at room temperature (20ºC) and initial pressures ranging from 1.0 atm to 0.1 atm. The experiments were conducted in a closed cylindrical stainless steel vessel with upward flame propagation. It was found that the flammable region of hydrogen initially widens when the pressure decreases from 1.0 atm to 0.3 atm, then narrows with the further decrease of pressure. In contrast, the flammable regions of the hydrocarbons narrow when the pressure decreases. For hydrogen and the hydrocarbons, pressure has a much greater impact on the UFLs than on the LFLs. For binary mixtures of hydrogen and the hydrocarbons, the flammable regions of all mixtures widen when the fraction of hydrogen in the mixture increases. When the pressure decreases, the flammable regions of all mixtures narrow. The applications of Le Chatelier’s rule and the Calculated Adiabatic Flame Temperature (CAFT) model to the flammability limits of the mixtures were verified. It was found that Le Chatelier’s rule could predict the flammability limits much better than the CAFT model. The adiabatic flame temperatures (AFTs), an important parameter in the risk assessment of fire and explosion, of hydrogen and the hydrocarbons were also calculated. The influence of sub-atmospheric pressures on the AFTs was investigated. A linear relationship between the AFT and the corresponding flammability limit is derived. Furthermore, the consequence of fire relating to hydrogen and the hydrocarbons is discussed based on the AFTs of the chemicals.

Le, Thuy Minh Hai

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric pressure base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

The effects of atmospheric pressure plasma on the synthesis of carbon nanotubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, we investigated the effects of atmospheric plasma on the synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) forests. Tall and high CNTs forests have been successfully grown on a large scale using a newly developed system called atmospheric pressure ... Keywords: Atmospheric pressure, Carbon nanotubes, Mass production, Plasma effects, Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

Seok Seung Shin; Bum Ho Choi; Young Mi Kim; Jong Ho Lee; Dong Chan Shin

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) for atmospheric pressure, in vivo, and imaging mass spectrometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).

Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

23

Laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) for atmospheric pressure, In vivo, and imaging mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation (LA) with electrospray ionization (ESI).

Vertes, Akos (Reston, VA); Nemes, Peter (Silver Spring, MD)

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

24

Nonisostatic Response of Sea Level to Atmospheric Pressure in the Eastern Mediterranean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We analyze 5 months of sea-level data from Katakolon, Greece, in terms of local atmospheric pressure and the two components of geostrophic wind. The response to pressure is isostatic at low and high frequencies, but significantly nonisostatic for ...

Christopher Garrett; Fouad Majaess

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Carbon nanostructures production by AC arc discharge plasma process at atmospheric pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon nanostructures have received much attention for a wide range of applications. In this paper, we produced carbon nanostructures by decomposition of benzene using AC arc discharge plasma process at atmospheric pressure. Discharge was carried out ...

Shenqiang Zhao; Ruoyu Hong; Zhi Luo; Haifeng Lu; Biao Yan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Rate of Work Done by Atmospheric Pressure on the Ocean General Circulation and Tides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Quantitative analysis of the energetics of the ocean is crucial for understanding its circulation and mixing. The power input by fluctuations in atmospheric pressure pa resulting from the S1 and S2 air tides and the stochastic continuum is ...

Rui M. Ponte

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

The Surface-Pressure Signature of Atmospheric Tides in Modern Climate Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although atmospheric tides driven by solar heating are readily detectable at the earth’s surface as variations in air pressure, their simulations in current coupled global climate models have not been fully examined. This work examines near-...

Curt Covey; Aiguo Dai; Dan Marsh; Richard S. Lindzen

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

AN INVESTIGATION OF URANIUM CORROSION IN 100 C WATER AND 200 C STEAM AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Material balance in atmospheric-pressure water and steam corrosion of uranium have been studied by examination of the phase composition and valence state of the corrosion product and by hydrogen-evolution measurements. The corrosion rates in atmospheric-pressure steam above 100 deg C are lower than those obtained in tests carried out in water with a hydrogen overpressure. The atmospheric-pressure-water corrosion product was found to be two phase: an oxygen- rich oxide, UO/sub 2.2/, and uncorroded metal particles. No hydride phase was detected, in contrast to previously reported evidence for hydride in uranium corrosion. The differences are explained on the basis of hydrogen pressure in the reaction vessel. (auth)

Stewart, O.M.; Berry, W.E.; Miller, P.D.; Vaughan, D.A.; Schroeder, J.B.; Fink, F.W.; Schwartz, C.M.

1958-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

29

Tailoring electron energy distribution functions through energy confinement in dual radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasmas  

SciTech Connect

A multi-scale numerical model based on hydrodynamic equations with semi-kinetic treatment of electrons is used to investigate the influence of dual frequency excitation on the effective electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in a radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasma. It is found that variations of power density, voltage ratio, and phase relationship provide separate control over the electron density and the mean electron energy. This is exploited to directly influence both the phase dependent and time averaged effective EEDF. This enables tailoring the EEDF for enhanced control of non-equilibrium plasma chemical kinetics at ambient pressure and temperature.

O'Neill, C.; Waskoenig, J. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Maths and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Gans, T. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Maths and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

2012-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

30

Surface Modification by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma for Improved Bonding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of plasma-treated carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites.behavior of a PAN-based carbon fiber-reinforced epoxyof plasma-treated carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites.

Williams, Thomas Scott

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

An Evaluation of Atmospheric-pressure Plasma for the Cost-Effective Deposition of Antireflection Coatings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Atmospheric-pressure plasma deposition (APPD) has previously been used to deposit various functional materials including polymeric surface modification layers, transparent conducting oxides, and photo catalytic materials. For many plasma polymerized coatings, reaction occurs via free radical mechanism where the high energy electrons from the plasma activate the olefinic carbon-carbon double bonds - a typical functional group in such precursors. The precursors for such systems are typically inexpensive and readily available and have been used in vacuum PECVD previously. The objectives are to investigate: (1) the effect of plasma power, gas composition and substrate temperature on the Si-based film properties using triethylsilane(TES) as the precursor; and (2) the chemical, mechanical, and optical properties of several experimental matrices based on Design of Experiment (DOE) principals. A simple APPD route has been utilized to deposit Si based films from an inexpensive precursor - Triethylsilane (TES). Preliminary results indicates formation of Si-C & Si-O and Si-O, Si-C & Si-N bonds with oxygen and nitrogen plasmas respectively. N{sub 2}-O{sub 2} plasma showed mixed trend; however oxygen remains a significant portion of all films, despite attempts to minimize exposure to atmosphere. SiN, SiC, and SiO ratios can be modified by the reaction conditions resulting in differing film properties. SE studies revealed that films with SiN bond possess refractive index higher than coatings with Si-O/Si-C bonds. Variable angle reflectance studies showed that SiOCN coatings offer AR properties; however thickness and refractive index optimization of these coatings remains necessary for application as potential AR coatings.

Rob Sailer; Guruvenket Srinivasan; Kyle W. Johnson; Douglas L. Schulz

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Modern Methods for Lipid AnalysisChapter 1 Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Techniques in Modern Lipid Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modern Methods for Lipid Analysis Chapter 1 Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Techniques in Modern Lipid Analysis Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Methods - Analyses Books AOCS Press 2F9B8A831F53D269EADF2AB8911EFA88 AOCS Pr

33

TAPAS, a web-based service of atmospheric transmission computation for astronomy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spectra of astronomical targets acquired from ground-based instruments are affected by the atmospheric transmission. The authors and their institutes are developing a web-based service, TAPAS (Transmissions of the AtmosPhere for AStromomical data). This service, freely available, is developed and maintained within the atmospheric ETHER data center. TAPAS computes the atmospheric transmission in the line-of-sight to the target indicated by the user. The user files a request indicating the time, ground location, and either the equatorial coordinates of the target or the Zenith Angle of the line-of sight (LOS). The actual atmospheric profile (temperature, pressure, humidity, ozone content) at that time and place is retrieved from the ETHER atmospheric data base (from a combination of ECMWF meteorological field and other informations), and the atmospheric transmission is computed from LBLRTM software and HITRAN data base for a number of gases: O2, H2O, O3, CO2, and Rayleigh extinction. The first purpose of TAPAS ...

Bertaux, J L; Ferron, S; Boone, C; Bodichon, R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

A Gas Pressure Scale Based on Primary Standard Piston ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Gas Pressure Scale Based on Primary Standard Piston Gauges. Summary: ... Distortion is a major contributor to uncertainty at higher pressures. ...

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

35

Langmuir probe diagnostics of an atmospheric pressure, vortex-stabilized nitrogen plasma jet  

SciTech Connect

Langmuir probe measurements in an atmospheric pressure direct current (dc) plasma jet are reported. Sweeping probes were used. The experiment was carried out using a dc non-transferred arc torch with a rod-type cathode and an anode of 5 mm diameter. The torch was operated at a nominal power level of 15 kW with a nitrogen flow rate of 25 Nl min{sup -1}. A flat ion saturation region was found in the current-voltage curve of the probe. The ion saturation current to a cylindrical probe in a high-pressure non local thermal equilibrium (LTE) plasma was modeled. Thermal effects and ionization/recombination processes inside the probe perturbed region were taken into account. Averaged radial profiles of the electron and heavy particle temperatures as well as the electron density were obtained. An electron temperature around 11 000 K, a heavy particle temperature around 9500 K and an electron density of about 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} m{sup -3}, were found at the jet centre at 3.5 mm downstream from the torch exit. Large deviations from kinetic equilibrium were found throughout the plasma jet. The electron and heavy particle temperature profiles showed good agreement with those reported in the literature by using spectroscopic techniques. It was also found that the temperature radial profile based on LTE was very close to that of the electrons. The calculations have shown that this method is particularly useful for studying spraying-type plasma jets characterized by electron temperatures in the range 9000-14 000 K.

Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B. R. [Grupo de Descargas Electricas, Departamento Ingenieria Electromecanica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, (2600) Venado Tuerto, Santa Fe (Argentina); Kelly, H. [Grupo de Descargas Electricas, Departamento Ingenieria Electromecanica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, (2600) Venado Tuerto, Santa Fe (Argentina) and Instituto de Fisica del Plasma (CONICET), Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales UBA Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

36

Free radicals induced in aqueous solution by non-contact atmospheric-pressure cold plasma  

SciTech Connect

To understand plasma-induced chemical processing in liquids, we investigated the formation of free radicals in aqueous solution exposed to different types of non-contact atmospheric-pressure helium plasma using the spin-trapping technique. Both hydroxyl radical (OH{center_dot}) and superoxide anion radical (O{sub 2}{sup -}{center_dot}) adducts were observed when neutral oxygen gas was additionally supplied to the plasma. In particular, O{sub 2}{sup -}{center_dot} can be dominantly induced in the solution via oxygen flow into the afterglow gas of helium plasma. This type of plasma treatment can potentially be used in medical applications to control infectious diseases, because the O{sub 2}{sup -}{center_dot} is crucial for sterilization of liquids via atmospheric-pressure plasma.

Tani, Atsushi; Fukui, Satoshi [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Ono, Yusuke; Kitano, Katsuhisa [Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ikawa, Satoshi [Technology Research Institute of Osaka Prefecture, Izumi, Osaka 594-1157 (Japan)

2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

37

GAPEX: A Ground-Based Atmospheric Profiling Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the week 29 October–4 November 1988, a Ground-based Atmospheric Profiling Experiment (GAPEX) was conducted at Denver Stapleton International Airport. The objective of GAPEX was to acquire and analyze atomspheric-temperature and moisture-...

W. L. Smith; H. E. Rvercomb; H. B. Howell; H. M. Woolf; R. O. Knuteson; R. G. Decker; M. J. Lynch; E. R. Westwater; R. G. Strauch; K. P. Moran; B. Stankov; M. J. Falls; J. Jordan; M. Jacobsen; W. F. Dabberdt; R. McBeth; G. Albright; C. Paneitz; G. Wright; P. T. May; M. T. Decker

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Modern Methods for Lipid AnalysisChapter 11 Analysis of Steroids by Liquid Chromatography — Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Mass Spectrometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modern Methods for Lipid Analysis Chapter 11 Analysis of Steroids by Liquid Chromatography — Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Mass Spectrometry Methods and Analyses eChapters Methods - Analyses Books 7B3610598EB68717295AAD02DBA4F828

39

High fidelity field simulations using density and pressure based approaches  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Density-based and pressure-based approaches in solving the Navier-Stokes equations for computational field simulations for compressible and incompressible flows have been presented. For the density-based flow solver, a generalized grid based framework ... Keywords: CFD, Density-based method, Pressure-based method

Gary C. Cheng; Roy P. Koomullil; Bharat K. Soni

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Development of a stable dielectric-barrier discharge enhanced laminar plasma jet generated at atmospheric pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A stable nonthermal laminar atmospheric-pressure plasma source equipped with dielectric-barrier discharge was developed to realize more efficient plasma generation, with the total energy consumption reduced to nearly 25% of the original. Temperature and emission spectra monitoring indicates that this plasma is uniform in the lateral direction of the jet core region. It is also found that this plasma contains not only abundant excited argon atoms but also sufficient excited N{sub 2} and OH. This is mainly resulted from the escape of abundant electrons from the exit, due to the sharp decrease of sustaining voltage and the coupling between ions and electrons.

Tang Jie; Li Shibo; Zhao Wei; Wang Yishan [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi'an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics of CAS, Xi'an (China); Duan Yixiang [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi'an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics of CAS, Xi'an (China); Research Center of Analytical Instrumentation, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric pressure base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Enhancement in Surface Atmospheric Pressure Variability Associated with a Major Geomagnetic Storm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Observational studies indicate that there is a close association between geomagnetic storm and meteorological parameters. Geomagnetic field lines follow closely the isobars of surface pressure . A Physical mechanism linking upper atmospheric geomagnetic storm disturbances with tropospheric weather has been proposed by the author and her group where it is postulated that vertical mixing by turbulent eddy fluctuations results in the net transport upward of positive charges originating from lower levels accompanied simultaneously by downward flow of negative charges from higher levels. The present study reports enhancement of high frequency (geomagnetic storm (Ap index = 246) on 13 march 1989.

A. M. Selvam; S. Fadnavis; S. U. Athale; M. I. R. Tinmaker

1998-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

42

Cold atmospheric pressure plasma jets: Interaction with plasmid DNA and tailored electron heating using dual-frequency excitation  

SciTech Connect

Recent progress in plasma science and technology has enabled the development of a new generation of stable cold non-equilibrium plasmas operating at ambient atmospheric pressure. This opens horizons for new plasma technologies, in particular in the emerging field of plasma medicine. These non-equilibrium plasmas are very efficient sources for energy transport through reactive neutral particles (radicals and metastables), charged particles (ions and electrons), UV radiation, and electro-magnetic fields. The effect of a cold radio frequency-driven atmospheric pressure plasma jet on plasmid DNA has been investigated. The formation of double strand breaks correlates well with the atomic oxygen density. Taken with other measurements, this indicates that neutral components in the jet are effective in inducing double strand breaks. Plasma manipulation techniques for controlled energy delivery are highly desirable. Numerical simulations are employed for detailed investigations of the electron dynamics, which determines the generation of reactive species. New concepts based on nonlinear power dissipation promise superior strategies to control energy transport for tailored technological exploitations.

Niemi, K.; O'Neill, C.; Cox, L. J.; Waskoenig, J.; Hyland, W. B.; McMahon, S. J.; Reuter, S.; Currell, F. J.; Graham, W. G.; O'Connell, D.; Gans, T. [Centre for Plasma Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

43

Atmospheric constraints for the CO2 partial pressure on terrestrial planets near the outer edge of the habitable zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In recent years, several potentially habitable, probably terrestrial exoplanets and exoplanet candidates have been discovered. The amount of CO2 in their atmosphere is of great importance for surface conditions and habitability. In the absence of detailed information on the geochemistry of the planet, this amount could be considered as a free parameter. Up to now, CO2 partial pressures for terrestrial planets have been obtained assuming an available volatile reservoir and outgassing scenarios. This study aims at calculating the allowed maximum CO2 pressure at the surface of terrestrial exoplanets orbiting near the outer boundary of the habitable zone by coupling the radiative effects of the CO2 and its condensation at the surface. These constraints might limit the permitted amount of atmospheric CO2, independent of the planetary reservoir. A 1D radiative-convective cloud-free atmospheric model was used. CO2 partial pressures are fixed according to surface temperature and vapor pressure curve. Considered scena...

von Paris, Philip; Hedelt, Pascal; Rauer, Heike; Selsis, Franck; Stracke, Barbara

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Palladium-catalyzed combustion of methane: Simulated gas turbine combustion at atmospheric pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric pressure tests were performed in which a palladium catalyst ignites and stabilizes the homogeneous combustion of methane. Palladium exhibited a reversible deactivation at temperatures above 750 C, which acted to ``self-regulate`` its operating temperature. A properly treated palladium catalyst could be employed to preheat a methane/air mixture to temperatures required for ignition of gaseous combustion (ca. 800 C) without itself being exposed to the mixture adiabatic flame temperature. The operating temperature of the palladium was found to be relatively insensitive to the methane fuel concentration or catalyst inlet temperature over a wide range of conditions. Thus, palladium is well suited for application in the ignition and stabilization of methane combustion.

Griffin, T.; Weisenstein, W. [ABB Corporate Research Center, Daettwill (Switzerland); Scherer, V. [ABB Kraftwerke, Mannheim (Germany); Fowles, M. [ICI Katalco, Cleveland (United Kingdom)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Effect of near atmospheric pressure nitrogen plasma treatment on Pt/ZnO interface  

SciTech Connect

The effect of near atmospheric pressure nitrogen plasma (NAP) treatment of platinum (Pt)/zinc oxide (ZnO) interface was investigated. NAP can nitride the ZnO surface at even room temperature. Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that NAP treatment reduced the surface electron accumulation at the ZnO surface and inhibited the Zn diffusion into the Pt electrode, which are critical issues affecting the Schottky barrier height and the ideality factor of the Pt/ZnO structure. After NAP treatment, the Pt Schottky contact indicated an improvement of electrical properties. NAP treatment is effective for the surface passivation and the Schottky contact formation of ZnO.

Nagata, Takahiro; Haemori, Masamitsu; Chikyow, Toyohiro [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Yamashita, Yoshiyuki [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Hideki; Kobayashi, Keisuke [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Uehara, Tsuyoshi [Sekisui Chemical Co., Ltd., Wadai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-4292 (Japan)

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Apparatus and method for atmospheric pressure reactive atom plasma processing for shaping of damage free surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fabrication apparatus and methods are disclosed for shaping and finishing difficult materials with no subsurface damage. The apparatus and methods use an atmospheric pressure mixed gas plasma discharge as a sub-aperture polisher of, for example, fused silica and single crystal silicon, silicon carbide and other materials. In one example, workpiece material is removed at the atomic level through reaction with fluorine atoms. In this example, these reactive species are produced by a noble gas plasma from trace constituent fluorocarbons or other fluorine containing gases added to the host argon matrix. The products of the reaction are gas phase compounds that flow from the surface of the workpiece, exposing fresh material to the etchant without condensation and redeposition on the newly created surface. The discharge provides a stable and predictable distribution of reactive species permitting the generation of a predetermined surface by translating the plasma across the workpiece along a calculated path.

Carr; Jeffrey W. (Livermore, CA)

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

47

Atmospheric-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of Iron Pyrite Thin Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Iron pyrite (cubic FeS{sub 2}) is a promising candidate absorber material for earth-abundant thin-film solar cells. In this report, single-phase, large-grain, and uniform polycrystalline pyrite thin films are fabricated on glass and molybdenum-coated glass substrates by atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition (AP-CVD) using the reaction of iron(III) acetylacetonate and tert-butyl disulfide in argon at 300 C, followed by sulfur annealing at 500--550 C to convert marcasite impurities to pyrite. The pyrite-marcasite phase composition depends strongly on the concentration of sodium in the growth substrate and the sulfur partial pressure during annealing. Phase and elemental composition of the films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The in-plane electrical properties are surprisingly insensitive to phase and elemental impurities, with all films showing p-type, thermally activated transport with a small activation energy ({approx}30 meV), a room- temperature resistivity of {approx}1 {Omega} cm, and low mobility. These ubiquitous electrical properties may result from robust surface effects. These CVD pyrite thin films are well suited to fundamental electrical studies and the fabrication of pyrite photovoltaic device stacks.

Berry, Nicholas; Cheng, Ming; Perkins, Craig L.; Limpinsel, Moritz; Hemminger, John C.; Law, Matt (NREL); (UCI)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

48

Characteristics of indium oxide plasma filters deposited by atmospheric pressure CVD  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thin films of undoped and tin-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} are being investigated for use as plasma filters in spectral control applications for thermal photovoltaic cells. These films are required to exhibit high reflectance at wavelengths longer than the plasma wavelength {lambda}{sub p}, high transmittance at wavelengths shorter than {lambda}{sub p} and low absorption throughout the spectrum. Both types of films were grown via atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) on Si (100) and fused silica substrates using trimethylindium (TMI), tetraethyltin (TET), and oxygen as the precursors. Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to measure the filter transmittance and reflectance between 1.8--20 {micro}m. Nominal conditions used during the growth of undoped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} were a substrate temperature of 450 C and partial pressures of 1.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} atm. and 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} atm. for TMI and O{sub 2} respectively. The O{sub 2}/TMI partial pressure ratio and substrate temperature were systematically varied to control the filter characteristics. The plasma wavelength {lambda}{sub p} was found to be a sensitive function of these parameters. Post-growth annealing of the films was done in inert as well as air ambient at elevated temperatures, but was found to have no beneficial effect. Tin-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} was grown under similar conditions as above, with a typical TET partial pressure of 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} atm. Here also, the material properties and consequently the optical response were found to be strongly dependent on growth conditions such as O{sub 2} and TET partial pressures. Both undoped and tin-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} grown on fused silica exhibited enhanced transmittance due to the close matching of refractive indices of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and silica. X-ray diffractometer measurements indicated that all these films were polycrystalline and highly textured towards the (111) direction. The best undoped and tin-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films had a {lambda}{sub p} around 2.7 {micro}m, peak reflectance greater than 75% and residual absorption below 20%. These results indicate the promise of undoped and tin-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a material for plasma filters.

Langlois, E.; Murthy, S.D.; Bhat, I.; Gutmann, R. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Brown, E.; Dziendziel, R.; Freeman, M.; Choudhury, N. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Experiment plan for characterization of the properties of molten rock at atmospheric and elevated pressures: Magma Energy Research Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Knowledge of the properties of molten rock (magma) is of importance to the Magma Energy Research Project of Sandia Laboratories. Facilities have been set up at Sandia to study the physical properties, chemistry, and corrosive nature of magma to 1600/sup 0/C and from atmospheric pressure to 4 kbar (400 MPa). Experiments at atmospheric pressure are being done in the presence of multicomponent gas mixtures to control the chemical activities of oxygen and sulfur. The high-pressure apparatus includes cold-seal small-volume pressure vessels (to 1100/sup 0/C and 1 kbar) and a large (750 cm/sup 3/ sample volume), internally heated pressure vessel (to 1600/sup 0/C and 4 kbar). The large vessel contains a number of penetrations for electrical leads and pressure lines, and is linked to a computer for data acquisition and control of experiments. Water and other dissolved volatiles (CO/sub 2/, CO, SO/sub 2/, S/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S, HCl, HF) have significant effects on all the properties of magma, and these effects will be studied in the high-pressure apparatus. Phase equilibria, viscosity, electrical conductivity, and materials compatibility will be the first properties to be examined under pressure. This report includes a review of the nature and chemical basis for the effects of dissolved volatiles on these properties of magma. 70 references, 10 figures.

Modreski, P.J.

1979-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Modern Methods for Lipid AnalysisChapter 8 Analysis of Carotenoids Using Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modern Methods for Lipid Analysis Chapter 8 Analysis of Carotenoids Using Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry Methods and Analyses eChapters Methods - Analyses Books AOCS Press 634F787D8F694E5A50C242671C4B87C5

51

Nonequilibrium Response of the Global Ocean to the 5-Day Rossby–Haurwitz Wave in Atmospheric Surface Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The response of the global ocean to the surface pressure signal associated with the well-known 5-day Rossby–Haurwitz atmospheric mode is explored using analytical and numerical tools. Solutions of the Laplace tidal equations for a flat-bottom, ...

Rui M. Ponte

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Pressure Effects on Two Superconducting Iron-based Families  

SciTech Connect

Insight into the mechanism of high-temperature superconductivity can be gained by pressure-dependent studies of structural, thermodynamics and transport data. The role of pressure may be complicated by the level of hydrostaticity. High-pressure studies on two iron-based families of RFeAsO (R = rare-earth metals) and AFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (A = alkaline-earth metals) are reviewed here.

Safa-Sefat, Athena [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Laser Microdissection and Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry Coupled for Multimodal Imaging  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the coupling of ambient laser ablation surface sampling, accomplished using a laser capture microdissection system, with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry for high spatial resolution multimodal imaging. A commercial laser capture microdissection system was placed in close proximity to a modified ion source of a mass spectrometer designed to allow for sampling of laser ablated material via a transfer tube directly into the ionization region. Rhodamine 6G dye of red sharpie ink in a laser etched pattern as well as cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine in a cerebellum mouse brain thin tissue section were identified and imaged from full scan mass spectra. A minimal spot diameter of 8 m was achieved using the 10X microscope cutting objective with a lateral oversampling pixel resolution of about 3.7 m. Distinguishing between features approximately 13 m apart in a cerebellum mouse brain thin tissue section was demonstrated in a multimodal fashion including co-registered optical and mass spectral chemical images.

Lorenz, Matthias [ORNL; Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL; Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

CO oxidation over ruthenium: identification of the catalytically active phases at near-atmospheric pressures  

SciTech Connect

CO oxidation was carried out over Ru(0001) and RuO2(110) thin film grown on Ru(0001) at various O2/CO ratios near atmospheric pressures. Reaction kinetics, coupled with in situ polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRAS) and post-reaction Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) measurements were used to identify the catalytically relevant phases at different reaction conditions. Under stoichiometric and reducing conditions at all reaction temperatures, as well as net-oxidizing reaction conditions below {approx}475 K, a reduced metallic phase with chemisorbed oxygen is the thermodynamically stable and catalytically active phase. On this surface CO oxidation occurs at surface defect sites, for example step edges. Only at net-oxidizing reaction conditions and above {approx}475 K is the RuO2 thin film grown on metallic Ru stable and active. However, RuO2 is not active itself without the existence of the metal substrate, suggesting the importance of a strong metal-substrate interaction (SMSI).

Gao, Feng; Goodman, Wayne D.

2012-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

55

3D atmospheric modeling based on MODTRAN4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

All the factors of atmospheric environment that influence the transmission of infrared radiation were analyzed in detail in the paper. Taking horizontally varying atmospheric property into consideration, a 3D model of atmospheric transmission of infrared ... Keywords: MODTRAN4, infrared radiation, model, path radiation, ratio of atmospheric transmission, simulation, single scatter solar radiation

Ge Li; Zhifeng Lu; Gang Guo; Kedi Huang

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

On-line coating of glass with tin oxide by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of tin oxide is a very important manufacturing technique used in the production of low-emissivity glass. It is also the primary method used to provide wear-resistant coatings on glass containers. The complexity of these systems, which involve chemical reactions in both the gas phase and on the deposition surface, as well as complex fluid dynamics, makes process optimization and design of new coating reactors a very difficult task. In 2001 the U.S. Dept. of Energy Industrial Technologies Program Glass Industry of the Future Team funded a project to address the need for more accurate data concerning the tin oxide APCVD process. This report presents a case study of on-line APCVD using organometallic precursors, which are the primary reactants used in industrial coating processes. Research staff at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA, and the PPG Industries Glass Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA collaborated to produce this work. In this report, we describe a detailed investigation of the factors controlling the growth of tin oxide films. The report begins with a discussion of the basic elements of the deposition chemistry, including gas-phase thermochemistry of tin species and mechanisms of chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of tin precursors. These results provide the basis for experimental investigations in which tin oxide growth rates were measured as a function of all major process variables. The experiments focused on growth from monobutyltintrichloride (MBTC) since this is one of the two primary precursors used industrially. There are almost no reliable growth-rate data available for this precursor. Robust models describing the growth rate as a function of these variables are derived from modeling of these data. Finally, the results are used to conduct computational fluid dynamic simulations of both pilot- and full-scale coating reactors. As a result, general conclusions are reached concerning the factors affecting the growth rate in on-line APCVD reactors. In addition, a substantial body of data was generated that can be used to model many different industrial tin oxide coating processes. These data include the most extensive compilation of thermochemistry for gas-phase tin-containing species as well as kinetic expressions describing tin oxide growth rates over a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and reactant concentrations.

Allendorf, Mark D.; Sopko, J.F. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); Houf, William G.; Chae, Yong Kee; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Li, M. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); McCamy, J.W. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA)

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Microwave plasma source operating with atmospheric pressure air-water mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall performance of a surface wave driven air-water plasma source operating at atmospheric pressure and 2.45 GHz has been analyzed. A 1D model previously developed has been improved in order to describe in detail the creation and loss processes of active species of interest. This model provides a complete characterization of the axial structure of the source, including the discharge and the afterglow zones. The main electron creation channel was found to be the associative ionization process N + O {yields} NO{sup +}+ e. The NO(X) relative density in the afterglow plasma jet ranges from 1.2% to 1.6% depending on power and water percentage, according to the model predictions and the measurements. Other types of species such as NO{sub 2} and nitrous acid HNO{sub 2} have also been detected by mass and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The relative population density of O({sup 3}P) ground state atoms increases from 8% to 10% in the discharge zone when the input microwave power increases from 200 to 400 W and the water percentage from 1% to 10%. Furthermore, high densities of O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}{Delta}{sub g}) singlet delta oxygen molecules and OH radicals (1% and 5%, respectively) can be achieved in the discharge zone. In the late afterglow the O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}{Delta}{sub g}) density is about 0.1% of the total density. This plasma source has a flexible operation and potential for channeling the energy in ways that maximize the density of active species of interest.

Tatarova, E.; Henriques, J. P.; Felizardo, E.; Lino da Silva, M.; Ferreira, C. M. [Institute of Plasmas and Nuclear Fusion, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Gordiets, B. [Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Local Balance and Variability of Atmospheric Heat Budget over Oceans: Observation and Reanalysis-based Estimates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We quantify systematic differences between modern observation- and reanalysis-based estimates of atmospheric heating rates and identify dominant variability modes over tropical oceans. Convergence of heat fluxes between the top of the atmosphere ...

Sun Wong; Tristan S. L’Ecuyer; William S. Olson; Xianan Jiang; Eric J. Fetzer

59

SMALL OIL BURNER CONCEPTS BASED ON LOW PRESSURE AIR ATOMIZATION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The development of several novel oil burner applications based on low pressure air atomization is described. The atomizer used is a prefilming, airblast nozzle of the type commonly used in gas turbine combustion. The air pressure used can be as low as 1,300 Pa and such pressure can be easily achieved with a fan. Advantages over conventional, pressure-atomized nozzles include ability to operate at low input rates without very small passages and much lower fuel pressure requirements. The development of three specific applications is presented. The first two are domestic heating burners covering a capacity range 10 to 26 kW. The third application presented involves the use of this burner in an oil-fired thermophotovoltaic power generator system. Here the design firing rate is 2.9 kW and the system produces 500 watts of electric power.

BUTCHER,T.; CELEBI,Y.; WEI,G.; KAMATH,B.

2000-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

60

J. Plasma Fusion Res. SERIES, Vol. 8 (2009) Experimental Study on Focusing Multiple Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Jets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have studied atmospheric-pressure plasma jets using a quartz tube and electrodes by applying low frequencies and high voltages. To increase the number of charged particles per unit area, a bundle of multiple plasma jets was concentrated at one point. To study the characteristics of the jet, the plasma was injected into a magnetic field produced by external electromagnetic coils. It was found that the plasma jet was affected by the magnetic field.

Kiyoyuki Yambe; Hajime Sakakita; Haruhisa Koguchi; Satoru Kiyama; Nagayasu Ikeda; Yoichi Hirano

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric pressure base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Chemically reactive species in liquids generated by atmospheric-pressure plasmas and their roles in plasma medicine  

SciTech Connect

Plasmas whose gas temperatures are close to room temperature may be generated in ambient air or a gas at atmospheric pressure with the use of low-frequency high voltage or low-power radio-frequency (RF) or microwave power applied to electrodes. Such plasmas can serve as a powerful source of free radicals and/or chemically reactive species that arise from atoms and molecules of the ambient gas. Recently use of such plasmas for medical purposes has attracted much attention as they can be implemented in possible medical devices that can cause blood coagulation, heal wounds, facilitate angiogenesis, sterilize surgical devices as well as living tissues without harming healthy cells, and selectively inactivate cancer cells. Especially of interest among reactive species generated by atmospheric-pressure plasmas (APP) are reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that are generated in liquid phase. Since most living tissues and cells are immersed in liquids (such as blood or culture media), reactive species generated by APPs in the gas phase are transported to the liquid phase and possibly converted to different types of reactive species therein before causing some influence on the tissues or cells. In this study, the rate equations are solved to evaluate concentrations of various reactive species in pure water that are originated by plasma reactions in atmosphere and possible effects of such species (including ROS/RNS) on living tissues and cells are discussed.

Hamaguchi, Satoshi [Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2013-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

62

Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 and ZnO at Atmospheric Pressure ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... a unique flow tube ALD reactor that operates at pressures between ~1 and 760 Torr. .... Scaling Theory of Continuum Dislocation Dynamics in Two and Three ...

63

Modern Methods for Lipid AnalysisCh 6 Regiospecific Analysis of Triacylglycerols using Hi Performance Liquid Chromatography/AtmosphericPressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modern Methods for Lipid Analysis Ch 6 Regiospecific Analysis of Triacylglycerols using Hi Performance Liquid Chromatography/AtmosphericPressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry Methods and Analyses eChapters Methods - Analyses Books

64

Modern Methods for Lipid AnalysisChapter 7 Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Triacylglycerolsby Atmospheric Pressure Ionization (APCI and ESI) Mass Spectrometry Techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modern Methods for Lipid Analysis Chapter 7 Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Triacylglycerolsby Atmospheric Pressure Ionization (APCI and ESI) Mass Spectrometry Techniques Methods and Analyses eChapters Methods - Analyses Books AO

65

Atmospheric Pressure Plasma CVD of Amorphous Hydrogenated Silicon Carbonitride (a-SiCN:H) Films Using Triethylsilane and Nitrogen  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous hydrogenated silicon carbonitride (a-SiCN:H) thin films are synthesized by atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapor (AP-PECVD) deposition using the Surfx Atomflow{trademark} 250D APPJ source with triethylsilane (HSiEt{sub 3}, TES) and nitrogen as the precursor and the reactive gases, respectively. The effect of the substrate temperature (T{sub s}) on the growth characteristics and the properties of a-SiCN:H films was evaluated. The properties of the films were investigated via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) for surface morphological analyses, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for chemical and compositional analyses; spectroscopic ellipsometry for optical properties and thickness determination and nanoindentation to determine the mechanical properties of the a-SiCN:H films. Films deposited at low T{sub s} depict organic like features, while the films deposited at high T{sub s} depict ceramic like features. FTIR and XPS studies reveal that an increases in T{sub s} helps in the elimination of organic moieties and incorporation of nitrogen in the film. Films deposited at T{sub s} of 425 C have an index of refraction (n) of 1.84 and hardness (H) of 14.8 GPa. A decrease in the deposition rate between T{sub s} of 25 and 250 C and increase in deposition rate between T{sub s} of 250 and 425 C indicate that the growth of a-SiCN:H films at lower T{sub s} are surface reaction controlled, while at high temperatures film growth is mass-transport controlled. Based on the experimental results, a potential route for film growth is proposed.

Srinivasan Guruvenket; Steven Andrie; Mark Simon; Kyle W. Johnson; Robert A. Sailer

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

66

Meteorological Applications of Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals from the Ground-Based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) is a well-calibrated ground-based instrument that measures high-resolution atmospheric emitted radiances from the atmosphere. The spectral resolution of the instrument is better than one ...

Wayne F. Feltz; William L. Smith; Robert O. Knuteson; Henry E. Revercomb; Harold M. Woolf; H. Ben Howell

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Investigation on plasma parameters and step ionization from discharge characteristics of an atmospheric pressure Ar microplasma jet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this communication, we report a technique to estimate the plasma parameters from the discharge characteristics of a microplasma device, operated in atmospheric pressure on the basis of homogeneous discharge model. By this technique, we investigate the plasma parameters of a microplasma jet produced by microplasma device consisting of coaxial capillary electrodes surrounded by dielectric tube. Our results suggest that the complex dependence of electrical discharge characteristics observed for microplasma device operated with Ar or it admixtures probably signify the existence of step ionization, which is well known in inductively coupled plasma.

Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Favre, M.; Chuaqui, H.; Wyndham, E. [Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Ave. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Kakati, M. [Thermal Plasma Processed Materials Laboratory, Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402, Assam (India)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

68

Demonstration of a nitrogen based carburizing atmosphere. Third quarterly report, 1 April-30 June 1979  

SciTech Connect

Energy consumption tests have been completed on a Radiant Tube Box (RTB) furnace which has a fibrous insulation. On this furnace an average of 9.7% of the energy used in processing parts with the conventional endothermic atmosphere practice was saved using nitrogen based atmosphere systems. Furthermore, the natural gas required at the heat treating facility to process the parts was reduced an average of 28.7%. Energy consumption of the furnace while idling under a methanol atmosphere was determined. When combined with the earlier reported data on endothermic and pure nitrogen atmospheres, a linear relationship between energy consumption and hydrogen concentration of the furnace atmosphere was found.

Peartree, R.J.

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Nonlinear propagation of a high-power focused femtosecond laser pulse in air under atmospheric and reduced pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the propagation of focused femtosecond gigawatt laser pulses in air under normal and reduced pressure in the case of Kerr self-focusing and photoionisation of the medium. The influence of gas density on the beam dimensions and power and the electron density in the plasma column in the nonlinear focus zone of the laser beam has been studied experimentally and by numerical simulation. It has been shown that, in rarefied air, the radiation-induced reduction in the rate of plasma formation diminishes the blocking effect of the plasma on the growth of the beam intensity in the case of tight focusing. This allows higher power densities of ultrashort laser pulses to be reached in the focal waist region in comparison with beam self-focusing under atmospheric pressure.

Geints, Yu E; Zemlyanov, A A; Ionin, Andrei A; Kudryashov, Sergei I; Seleznev, L V; Sinitsyn, D V; Sunchugasheva, E S

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

70

A Wavelet–Based Approach for Atmospheric Pollution Modeling: Algorithm Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A wavelet-based technique for numerical integration of species-conservation equations describing atmospheric pollutant transport and fate is described. This technique applies hexuplet families of spline-based biorthogonal wavelets using a quasi-...

Philip A. Ekstrom; Jeremy M. Hales

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Three-Dimensional Structure of Low-Frequency Pressure Variations in the Tropical Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results of a recent study show eastward propagation of information in the low-frequency variations of the tropical sea-level pressure (SLP) field. The current work extends that analysis to investigate the vertical structure of this signal. It is ...

T. P. Barnett

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Auto-ignition during instationary jet evolution of dimethyl ether (DME) in a high-pressure atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The auto-ignition process during transient injection of gaseous dimethyl ether (DME) in a constant high-pressure atmosphere is studied experimentally by laser-optical methods and compared with numerical calculations. With different non-intrusive measurement techniques jet properties and auto-ignition are investigated at high temporal and spatial resolution. The open jet penetrates a constant pressure oxidative atmosphere of up to 4 MPa. During the transient evolution, the fuel jet entrains air at up to 720 K. The subsequent auto-ignition of the ignitable part of the jet occurs simultaneously over a wide spatial extension. The ignition delay times are not affected by variation of the nozzle exit velocity. Thus, the low-temperature oxidation is slow compared with the shorter time scales of mixing, so that chemical kinetics is dominating the process. The typical two-stage ignition is resolved optically with high-speed shadowgraphy at a sampling rate of 10 kHz. The 2D fields of jet velocity and transient mixture fraction are measured phase-coupled with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Tracer Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) during the time-frame of ignition. The instationary Probability Density Functions (PDF) of mixture fraction are described very well by Beta functions within the complete area of the open jet. Additional 1D flamelet simulations of the auto-ignition process are computed with a detailed reaction mechanism for DME [S. Fischer, F. Dryer, H. Curran, Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 32 (12) (2000) 713-740; H. Curran, S. Fischer, F. Dryer, Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 32 (12) (2000) 741-759]. Calculated ignition delay times are in very good agreement with the measured mean ignition delay times of 3 ms. Supplemental flamelet simulations address the influence of DME and air temperature, pressure and strain. Underneath a critical strain rate the air temperature is identified to be the most sensitive factor on ignition delay time. (author)

Fast, G.; Kuhn, D.; Class, A.G. [Institut fuer Kern- und Energietechnik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Weberstrasse 5, D-76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Maas, U. [Institut fuer Technische Thermodynamik, Universitat Karlsruhe (TH), Kaiserstrasse 12, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

73

A dielectric-barrier discharge enhanced plasma brush array at atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect

This study developed a large volume cold atmospheric plasma brush array, which was enhanced by a dielectric barrier discharge by integrating a pair of DC glow discharge in parallel. A platinum sheet electrode was placed in the middle of the discharge chamber, which effectively reduced the breakdown voltage and working voltage. Emission spectroscopy diagnosis indicated that many excited argon atoms were distributed almost symmetrically in the lateral direction of the plasma. The concentration variations of reactive species relative to the gas flow rate and discharge current were also examined.

Li Xuemei; Zhan Xuefang; Yuan Xin; Zhao Zhongjun; Yan Yanyue; Duan Yixiang [Research Center of Analytical Instrumentation, Analytical Testing Center, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Tang Jie [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi'an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics of CAS, Xi'an (China)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

Apparatus and method for enhanced chemical processing in high pressure and atmospheric plasmas produced by high frequency electromagnetic waves  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for creating high temperature plasmas for enhanced chemical processing of gaseous fluids, toxic chemicals, and the like, at a wide range of pressures, especially at atmospheric and high pressures includes an electro-magnetic resonator cavity, preferably a reentrant cavity, and a wave guiding structure which connects an electro-magnetic source to the cavity. The cavity includes an intake port and an exhaust port, each having apertures in the conductive walls of the cavity sufficient for the intake of the gaseous fluids and for the discharge of the processed gaseous fluids. The apertures are sufficiently small to prevent the leakage of the electro-magnetic radiation from the cavity. Gaseous fluid flowing from the direction of the electro-magnetic source through the guiding wave structure and into the cavity acts on the plasma to push it away from the guiding wave structure and the electro-magnetic source. The gaseous fluid flow confines the high temperature plasma inside the cavity and allows complete chemical processing of the gaseous fluids at a wide range of pressures.

Efthimion, Philip C. (Bedminister, NJ); Helfritch, Dennis J. (Flemington, NJ)

1989-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

75

A Gaussian Plume Model of Atmospheric Dispersion Based on Second-Order Closure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A practical model of atmospheric dispersion of a passive tracer based on systematic reduction of the second-order closure transport equations using Gaussian shape assumptions is presented. The model is comparable with conventional Gaussian plume ...

R. I. Sykes; W. S. Lewellen; S. F. Parker

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Test facility for well logging cables (in air at atmospheric pressure)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A system has been built to test, in air at ambient pressure, short sections of electromechanical cables which are potentially useful for geothermal well logging service. Electrical characteristics of the test cable are monitored while the cable is exposed to elevated temperature and tensioned in a manner simulating loading experienced by a typical well logging cable. Cable conductor resistance, dielectric resistance and capacitance are measured. The cable can be exposed to bending, simulating that which occurs when passing over sheaves or wound on or off a drum. Cable anchors are arranged to permit nearly 100 percent strength tensioning in the heated section. Electrical connectors are made at the unstrained ends at ambient temperature. The system can also be used to tension test cable terminations at elevated temperatures.

Not Available

1977-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Frequency domain model-based intracranial pressure estimation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP), the pressure of the fluid surrounding the brain, can require urgent medical attention. Current methods for determining ICP are invasive, require neurosurgical expertise, and can ...

Hwang, Irena T. (Irena Tammy)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Production and Utilization of CO3- Produced by a Corona Discharge in Air for Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization is a multistep ionization process used in mass spectrometry and ion mobility spectrometry. The formation of product ions depends upon interactions with the analyte and the reactant ion species formed in the ionization source. The predominant reactant ion observed in a point-to-plane corona discharge in air occurs at m/z 60. There have been multiple references in the literature to the identity of this ion with some disagreement. It was postulated to be either CO3- or N2O2-. The identity of this ion is important as it is a key to the ionization of analytes. It was determined here to be CO3- through the use of 18O labeled oxygen. Further confirmation was provided through MS/MS studies. The ionization of nitroglycerine (NG) with CO3- produced the adduct NG•CO3-. This was compared to ionization with NO3- and Cl- reactant ions that also formed adducts with NG. The fragmentation patterns of these three adducts provides insight into the charge distribution and indicates that CO3- has a relatively high electron affinity similar to that of nitrate.

Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

79

Absolute atomic oxygen and nitrogen densities in radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure cold plasmas: Synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet high-resolution Fourier-transform absorption measurements  

SciTech Connect

Reactive atomic species play a key role in emerging cold atmospheric pressure plasma applications, in particular, in plasma medicine. Absolute densities of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen were measured in a radio-frequency driven non-equilibrium plasma operated at atmospheric pressure using vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy. The experiment was conducted on the DESIRS synchrotron beamline using a unique VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer. Measurements were carried out in plasmas operated in helium with air-like N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} (4:1) admixtures. A maximum in the O-atom concentration of (9.1 {+-} 0.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} m{sup -3} was found at admixtures of 0.35 vol. %, while the N-atom concentration exhibits a maximum of (5.7 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} at 0.1 vol. %.

Niemi, K.; O'Connell, D.; Gans, T. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Oliveira, N. de; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L. [Synchrotron Soleil, l'Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Booth, J. P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

80

Intercomparison of NDSC Ground-Based Solar FTIR Measurements of Atmospheric Gases at Lauder, New Zealand  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A formal intercomparison of atmospheric total column measurements of N2O, N2, CH4, O3, HCl, HNO3, and HF by two ground-based solar Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers conducted as part of the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric ...

D. W. T. Griffith; N. B. Jones; B. McNamara; C. Paton Walsh; W. Bell; C. Bernardo

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric pressure base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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81

Scanning Lidar Based Atmospheric Monitoring for Fluorescent Detectors of Cosmic Showers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurements of the cosmic-ray air-shower fluorescence at extreme energies require precise knowledge of atmospheric conditions. The absolute calibration of the cosmic-ray energy depends on the absorption of fluorescence light between its origin and point of its detection. To reconstruct basic atmospheric parameters we review a novel analysis method based on two- and multi-angle measurements performed by the scanning backscatter lidar system. Applied inversion methods, optical depth, absorption and backscatter coefficient, as well as other parameters that enter the lidar equation are discussed in connection to the attenuation of the light traveling from shower to fluorescence detector.

A. Filipcic; M. Horvat; D. Veberic; D. Zavrtanik; M. Zavrtanik

2002-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

82

Fibre-optic interferometric pressure sensor based on droplet-shaped PDMS elastomer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

*gkakaran@eie.gr Keywords: white-light interferometer, fibre-optic pressure sensor, PDMS-based Fabry. In this work, we present a low pressure sensor based on white-light Fabry-Perot interferometer where poly used as low-coherent white-light source transmitted through a single-mode fibre (SMF-28). The light

Vlachos, Kyriakos G.

83

Northern Hemispheric Trends of Pressure Indices and Atmospheric Circulation Patterns in Observations, Reconstructions, and Coupled GCM Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The decadal trend behavior of the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation is investigated utilizing long-term simulations with different state-of-the-art coupled general circulation models (GCMs) for present-day climate conditions (1990), ...

C. C. Raible; T. F. Stocker; M. Yoshimori; M. Renold; U. Beyerle; C. Casty; J. Luterbacher

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Integration and Ocean-Based Prelaunch Validation of GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager Legacy Atmospheric Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An ocean-based prelaunch evaluation of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-series (GOES-R) Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) legacy atmospheric profile (LAP) products is conducted using proxy data based upon the Spinning Enhanced ...

Hua Xie; Nicholas R. Nalli; Shanna Sampson; Walter W. Wolf; Jun Li; Timothy J. Schmit; Christopher D. Barnet; Everette Joseph; Vernon R. Morris; Fanglin Yang

85

Integration and Ocean-Based Prelaunch Validation of GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager Legacy Atmospheric Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An ocean-based prelaunch evaluation of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-R series Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) legacy atmospheric profile (LAP) products is conducted using proxy data based upon the Spinning Enhanced ...

Hua Xie; Nicholas R. Nalli; Shanna Sampson; Walter W. Wolf; Jun Li; Timothy J. Schmit; Christopher D. Barnet; Everette Joseph; Vernon R. Morris; Fanglin Yang

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Model atmospheres for M (sub)dwarfs; 1, the base model grid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have calculated a grid of more than 700 model atmospheres valid for a wide range of parameters encompassing the coolest known M~dwarfs M~subdwarfs and brown dwarf candidates: 1500\\le \\teff \\le 4000\\,K, 3.5\\le \\log(g)\\le 5.5, and -4.0\\le { [M/H]}\\le +0.5. Our equation of state includes 105 molecules and up to 27 ionization stages of 39 elements. In the calculations of the base grid of model atmospheres presented here, we include over 300 molecular bands of 4 molecules (TiO, VO, CaH, FeH) in the JOLA approximation, the water opacity of Ludwig (1971), collision induced opacities, b-f and f-f atomic processes, as well as about 2 million spectral lines selected from a list with more than 42 million atomic and 24 million molecular (H_2, CH, NH, OH, MgH, SiH, C_2, CN, CO, SiO) lines. High-resolution synthetic spectra are obtained using an opacity sampling method. The model atmospheres and spectra are calculated with the generalized stellar atmosphere code PHOENIX, assuming LTE, plane-parallel geometry, energy (ra...

Hauschildt, P H

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Pilot Study of the Effects of Simulated Turbine Passage Pressure on Juvenile Chinook Salmon Acclimated with Access to Air at Absolute Pressures Greater than Atmospheric  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The impacts of pressure on juvenile salmon who pass through the turbines of hydroelectric dams while migrating downstream on the Columbia and Snake rivers has not been well understood, especially as these impacts relate to injury to the fish's swim bladder. The laboratory studies described here were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Army Corps of Engineers Portland District at PNNL's fisheries research laboratories in 2004 to investigate the impacts of simulated turbine passage pressure on fish permitted to achieve neutral buoyancy at pressures corresponding to depths at which they are typically observed during downstream migration. Two sizes of juvenile Chinook salmon were tested, 80-100mm and 125-145mm total length. Test fish were acclimated for 22 to 24 hours in hyperbaric chambers at pressures simulating depths of 15, 30, or 60 ft, with access to a large air bubble. High rates of deflated swim bladders and mortality were observed. Our results while in conclusive show that juvenile salmon are capable of drawing additional air into their swimbladder to compensate for the excess mass of implanted telemetry devices. However they may pay a price in terms of increased susceptibility to injury, predation, and death for this additional air.

Carlson, Thomas J.; Abernethy, Cary S.

2005-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

88

Influence of Atmospheric Pressure and Water Table Fluctuations on Gas Phase Flow and Transport of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Unsaturated Zones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding the gas phase flow and transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in unsaturated zones is indispensable to develop effective environmental remediation strategies, to create precautions for fresh water protection, and to provide guidance for land and water resources management. Atmospheric pressure and water table fluctuations are two important natural processes at the upper and lower boundaries of the unsaturated zone, respectively. However, their significance has been neglected in previous studies. This dissertation systematically investigates their influence on the gas phase flow and transport of VOCs in soil and ground water remediation processes using analytically and numerically mathematical modeling. New semi-analytical and numerical solutions are developed to calculate the subsurface gas flow field and the gas phase transport of VOCs in active soil vapor extraction (SVE), barometric pumping (BP) and natural attenuation taking into account the atmospheric pressure and the water table fluctuations. The accuracy of the developed solutions are checked by comparing with published analytical solutions under extreme conditions, newly developed numerical solutions in COMSOL Multiphysics and field measured data. Results indicate that both the atmospheric pressure and the tidal-induced water table fluctuations significantly change the gas flow field in active SVE, especially when the vertical gas permeability is small (less than 0.4 Darcy). The tidal-induced downward moving water table increases the depth-averaged radius of influence (ROI) for the gas pumping well. However, this downward moving water table leads to a greater vertical pore gas velocity away from the gas pumping well, which is unfavorable for removing VOCs. The gas flow rate to/from the barometric pumping well can be accurately calculated by our newly developed solutions in both homogeneous and multi-layered unsaturated zones. Under natural unsaturated zone conditions, the time-averaged advective flux of the gas phase VOCs induced by the atmospheric pressure and water table fluctuations is one to three orders of magnitude less than the diffusive flux. The time-averaged advective flux is comparable with the diffusive flux only when the gas-filled porosity is very small (less than 0.05). The density-driven flux is negligible.

You, Kehua

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Expansion of the cathode spot and generation of shock waves in the plasma of a volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure helium  

SciTech Connect

The expansion of the cathode spot and the generation of shock waves during the formation and development of a pulsed volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure helium were studied by analyzing the emission spectra of the cathode plasma and the spatiotemporal behavior of the plasma glow. The transition of a diffuse volume discharge in a centimeter-long gap into a high-current diffuse mode when the gas pressure increased from 1 to 5 atm and the applied voltage rose from the statistical breakdown voltage to a 100% overvoltage was investigated. Analytical expressions for the radius of the cathode spot and its expansion velocity obtained in the framework of a spherically symmetric model agree satisfactorily with the experimental data.

Omarov, O. A.; Kurbanismailov, V. S.; Arslanbekov, M. A.; Gadzhiev, M. Kh.; Ragimkhanov, G. B.; Al-Shatravi, Ali J. G. [Dagestan State University (Russian Federation)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

90

Numerical simulations of gun-launched kinetic energy projectiles subjected to asymmetric projectile base pressure  

SciTech Connect

Three-dimensional numerical simulations were performed to determine the effect of an asymmetric base pressure on kinetic energy projectiles during launch. A matrix of simulations was performed in two separate launch environments. One launch environment represented a severe lateral load environment, while the other represented a nonsevere lateral load environment based on the gun tube straightness. The orientation of the asymmetric pressure field, its duration, the projectile`s initial position, and the tube straightness were altered to determine the effects of each parameter. The pressure asymmetry translates down the launch tube to exit parameters and is washed out by tube profile. Results from the matrix of simulations are presented.

Rabern, D.A.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

91

Numerical simulations of gun-launched kinetic energy projectiles subjected to asymmetric projectile base pressure  

SciTech Connect

Three-dimensional numerical simulations were performed to determine the effect of an asymmetric base pressure on kinetic energy projectiles during launch. A matrix of simulations was performed in two separate launch environments. One launch environment represented a severe lateral load environment, while the other represented a nonsevere lateral load environment based on the gun tube straightness. The orientation of the asymmetric pressure field, its duration, the projectile's initial position, and the tube straightness were altered to determine the effects of each parameter. The pressure asymmetry translates down the launch tube to exit parameters and is washed out by tube profile. Results from the matrix of simulations are presented.

Rabern, D.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Model Atmospheres for M (Sub)Dwarfs: I. The base model grid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have calculated a grid of more than 700 model atmospheres valid for a wide range of parameters encompassing the coolest known M~dwarfs, M~subdwarfs and brown dwarf candidates: $1500\\le \\teff \\le 4000\\,$K, $3.5\\le \\log(g)\\le 5.5$, and $-4.0\\le { [M/H]}\\le +0.5$. Our equation of state includes 105 molecules and up to 27 ionization stages of 39 elements. In the calculations of the base grid of model atmospheres presented here, we include over 300 molecular bands of 4 molecules (TiO, VO, CaH, FeH) in the JOLA approximation, the water opacity of Ludwig (1971), collision induced opacities, b-f and f-f atomic processes, as well as about 2 million spectral lines selected from a list with more than 42 million atomic and 24 million molecular (H$_2$, CH, NH, OH, MgH, SiH, C$_2$, CN, CO, SiO) lines. High-resolution synthetic spectra are obtained using an opacity sampling method. The model atmospheres and spectra are calculated with the generalized stellar atmosphere code PHOENIX, assuming LTE, plane-parallel geometry, energy (radiative plus convective) conservation, and hydrostatic equilibrium. The model spectra give close agreement with observations of M~dwarfs across a wide spectral range from the blue to the near-IR, with one notable exception: the fit to the water bands. We discuss several practical applications of our model grid, e.g., broadband colors derived from the synthetic spectra. In light of current efforts to identify genuine brown dwarfs, we also show how low-resolution spectra of cool dwarfs vary with surface gravity, and how the high-resolution line profile of the Li~I resonance doublet depends on the Li abundance.

France Allard; Peter H. Hauschildt

1996-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

93

Generation of negative ions in the gas phase from a 12CaO{center_dot}7Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membrane-coated ceramic heater under atmospheric pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

12CaO{center_dot}7Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (C12A7) crystal is able to generate strong and high purity oxygen anion (O{sup -}) beam under reduced pressure. However, the emission of O{sup -} or related species under atmospheric pressure has not been evaluated. In this study, the characteristics of negative ion species emissions from the C12A7 membrane-coated ceramic heater under atmospheric pressure were investigated by quadrupole mass spectrometer. Negative ion species were confirmed to be emitted even under atmospheric pressure. It was supposed that the detected negative ion clusters, such as O{sup -}(H{sub 2}O){sub n}, O{sub 2}{sup -}(H{sub 2}O){sub n}, and CO{sub 4}{sup -}(H{sub 2}O){sub n}, were generated by the reaction of negative ions emitted from the heater with impurities in He gas.

Yamamoto, Mitsuo [College of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Shima, Akio [Department of Chemical System Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Nishioka, Masateru [Research Center for Compact Chemical Process, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Miyagi 983-8551 (Japan); Sadakata, Masayoshi [Department of Environmental Chemical Engineering, Kogakuin University, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

94

Pressurized chemical-looping combustion of coal with an iron ore-based oxygen carrier  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a new combustion technology with inherent separation of CO{sub 2}. Most of the previous investigations on CLC of solid fuels were conducted under atmospheric pressure. A pressurized CLC combined cycle (PCLC-CC) system is proposed as a promising coal combustion technology with potential higher system efficiency, higher fuel conversion, and lower cost for CO{sub 2} sequestration. In this study pressurized CLC of coal with Companhia Valedo Rio Doce (CVRD) iron ore was investigated in a laboratory fixed bed reactor. CVRD iron ore particles were exposed alternately to reduction by 0.4 g of Chinese Xuzhou bituminous coal gasified with 87.2% steam/N{sub 2} mixture and oxidation with 5% O{sub 2} in N{sub 2} at 970 C. The operating pressure was varied between 0.1 MPa and 0.6 MPa. First, control experiments of steam coal gasification over quartz sand were performed. H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} are the major components of the gasification products, and the operating pressure influences the gas composition. Higher concentrations of CO{sub 2} and lower fractions of CO, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2} during the reduction process with CVRD iron ore was achieved under higher pressures. The effects of pressure on the coal gasification rate in the presence of the oxygen carrier were different for pyrolysis and char gasification. The pressurized condition suppresses the initial coal pyrolysis process while it also enhances coal char gasification and reduction with iron ore in steam, and thus improves the overall reaction rate of CLC. The oxidation rates and variation of oxygen carrier conversion are higher at elevated pressures reflecting higher reduction level in the previous reduction period. Scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses show that particles become porous after experiments but maintain structure and size after several cycles. Agglomeration was not observed in this study. An EDX analysis demonstrates that there is very little coal ash deposited on the oxygen carrier particles but no appreciable crystalline phases change as verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Overall, the limited pressurized CLC experiments carried out in the present work suggest that PCLC of coal is promising and further investigations are necessary. (author)

Xiao, Rui; Song, Min; Zhang, Shuai; Shen, Laihong [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Sipailou No. 2, Nanjing 210096 (China); Song, Qilei [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Sipailou No. 2, Nanjing 210096 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Lu, Zuoji [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Sipailou No. 2, Nanjing 210096 (China); GCL Engineering Limited, Zhujiang No. 1, Nanjing 210008 (China)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

95

X-ray emission from a nanosecond-pulse discharge in an inhomogeneous electric field at atmospheric pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes experimental studies of the dependence of the X-ray intensity on the anode material in nanosecond high-voltage discharges. The discharges were generated by two nanosecond-pulse generators in atmospheric air with a highly inhomogeneous electric field by a tube-plate gap. The output pulse of the first generator (repetitive pulse generator) has a rise time of about 15 ns and a full width at half maximum of 30-40 ns. The output of the second generator (single pulse generator) has a rise time of about 0.3 ns and a full width at half maximum of 1 ns. The electrical characteristics and the X-ray emission of nanosecond-pulse discharge in atmospheric air are studied by the measurement of voltage-current waveforms, discharge images, X-ray count and dose. Our experimental results showed that the anode material rarely affects electrical characteristics, but it can significantly affect the X-ray density. Comparing the density of X-rays, it was shown that the highest x-rays density occurred in the diffuse discharge in repetitive pulse mode, then the spark discharge with a small air gap, and then the corona discharge with a large air gap, in which the X-ray density was the lowest. Therefore, it could be confirmed that the bremsstrahlung at the anode contributes to the X-ray emission from nanosecond-pulse discharges.

Zhang Cheng; Shao Tao; Ren Chengyan; Zhang Dongdong [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Power Electronics and Electric Drive, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Tarasenko, Victor; Kostyrya, Igor D. [Institute of High Current Electronics, Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Ma Hao [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yan Ping [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Power Electronics and Electric Drive, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

96

Analytic fit of deviation caused by atmospheric refraction of starlight as a function of space-based sensor position  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple prescription describes how space-borne sensors with fields of view less than one degree can be properly aimed at starlight that passes near the Earth`s surface and is therefore refracted by the Earth`s atmosphere. Atmospheric refraction effects cause deviations up to about one degree that distort the light path and can cause the target to be missed. Deviations are contrasted with those experienced for a target on the Earth. Such refractive corrections have long been available for Earth-based sensors looking through the atmosphere. The corrections have not been available for sensors in space. The prescription is illustrated by example.

Vittitoe, C.N.; Schmidt, R.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Optics and Exploratory Technologies Dept.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

A finite-difference time-domain simulation of high power microwave generated plasma at atmospheric pressures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A finite-difference algorithm was developed to calculate several RF breakdown parameters, for example, the formative delay time that is observed between the initial application of a RF field to a dielectric surface and the formation of field-induced plasma interrupting the RF power flow. The analysis is focused on the surface being exposed to a background gas pressure above 50 Torr. The finite-difference algorithm provides numerical solutions to partial differential equations with high resolution in the time domain, making it suitable for simulating the time evolving interaction of microwaves with plasma; in lieu of direct particle tracking, a macroscopic electron density is used to model growth and transport. This approach is presented as an alternative to particle-in-cell methods due to its low complexity and runtime leading to more efficient analysis for a simulation of a microsecond scale pulse. The effect and development of the plasma is modeled in the simulation using scaling laws for ionization rates, momentum transfer collision rates, and diffusion coefficients, as a function of electric field, gas type and pressure. The incorporation of plasma material into the simulation involves using the Z-transform to derive a time-domain algorithm from the complex frequency-dependent permittivity of plasma. Therefore, the effect of the developing plasma on the instantaneous microwave field is calculated. Simulation results are compared with power measurements using an apparatus designed to facilitate surface flashover across a polycarbonate boundary in a controlled N{sub 2}, air, or argon environment at pressures exceeding 50 Torr.

Ford, Patrick J.; Beeson, Sterling R.; Krompholz, Hermann G.; Neuber, Andreas A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409-3102 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

98

Method and apparatus for directing ions and other charged particles generated at near atmospheric pressures into a region under vacuum  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for focusing dispersed charged particles. More specifically, a series of elements within a region maintained at a pressure between 10.sup.-1 millibar and 1 bar, each having successively larger apertures forming an ion funnel, wherein RF voltages are applied to the elements so that the RF voltage on any element has phase, amplitude and frequency necessary to define a confinement zone for charged particles of appropriate charge and mass in the interior of the ion funnel, wherein the confinement zone has an acceptance region and an emmitance region and where the acceptance region area is larger than the emmitance region area.

Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Shaffer, Scott A. (Seattle, WA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Regional Earth-Atmosphere Energy Balance Estimates Based on Assimilations with a GCM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The column budget technique described by Oort and Vonder Haar (1976) is used to assess the physical consistency and accuracy of estimates of the earth-atmosphere energy balance. Regional estimates of the atmospheric budget terms, the net ...

Michael A. Alexander; Siegfried D. Schubert

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Physical and Chemical Characterization of Kuwaiti Atmospheric Dust and Synthetic Dusts: Effects on the Pressure Drop and Fractional Efficiency of HEPA Filters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The importance of clean air to the indoor air quality affecting the well-being of human occupants and rising energy consumption has highlighted the critical role of air filter performance. Actual performance of air filters installed in air handling units in Kuwait tends to deviate from the performance predicted by laboratory results. Therefore, accurate filter performance prediction is important to estimate filter lifetime, and to reduce energy and maintenance operating costs. To ensure appropriate filter selection for a specific application, particulate contaminants existing in the Kuwaiti atmospheric dust were identified and characterized both physically and chemically and compared to the synthetic dust used in laboratories. This paper compares the physical and chemical characterization Kuwaiti atmospheric dust with the available commercial synthetic dusts. It also tests full scale HEPA pleated V-shaped filters used in Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) and gas turbine applications to study the effect of different synthetic dust types and their particle size distributions on the pressure drop and fractional efficiency using DEHS testing according to DIN 1822.

Al-Attar, I.; Wakeman, R. J.; Tarleton, E. S.; Husain, A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric pressure base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Dual atmosphere tolerance of Ag-CuO based air braze  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recently, a new braze filler metal based on the silver-copper oxide system was developed for use in sealing high-temperature, solid-state electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells. One of the concerns regarding the viability of this joining technique is the long-term stability of silver-based alloys under a high-temperature, dual oxidizing/reducing gas environment. This paper reports on an initial series of exposure experiments that were conducted to characterize the effects of (1) filler metal composition, (2) brazing temperature, and (3) exposure time on the microstructural stability of Ag-CuO brazed Al2O3/Al2O3 joints under a prototypic operating environment for an intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell stack. In general joints exposed simultaneously to air on one side and hydrogen on the other for short periods of time at 800°C (100 hrs) showed no signs of degradation with respect to hermeticity or joint microstructure. Samples exposed for longer periods of time (1000 hrs) displayed some internal porosity, which extends approximately halfway across the joint and is not interconnected. Little effect of the filler metal’s composition on its tolerance to dual atmosphere exposure was observed. However brazing temperature was found to have a measurable effect. Higher brazing temperature leads to a more extensive formation of an interfacial reaction phase, copper aluminate, which tends to tie up some of the free CuO in the filler metal and minimize the formation of porosity in the air brazed joints during long-term, dual-atmosphere exposure. The effect is due to the greater chemical stability of the copper aluminate relative to copper oxide.

Kim, Jin Yong Y.; Hardy, John S.; Weil, K. Scott

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

NETL: Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Stripping Process-Based  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Stripping Process-Based Technology for CO2 Capture Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Stripping Process-Based Technology for CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0007567 Carbon Capture Scientific is developing and testing a novel, proprietary, Gas Pressurized Stripping (GPS) process-based technology for CO2 capture from post-combustion flue gases. GPS process-based technology has many advantages. For the solvent based process it will be able to: Reduce the energy penalty associated with solvent regeneration Increase the CO2 desorption pressure Integrate CO2 capture and compression into one step Reduce CO2 compression needs Reduce solvent degradation These advantages could potentially eliminate CO2 compression entirely, hence reducing the total parasitic power load of a CO2 capture process to about 0.14kWh/kgCO2. This power load is a 60 percent reduction compared to the baseline case of 0.38kWh/kgCO2. The economic impact of this parasitic power reduction is a reduction in the incremental cost of electricity (COE) by about 21 mills/kWh.

103

PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT DEFLAGRATION RATE MEASUREMENTS OF LLM-105 AND TATB BASED EXPLOSIVES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The pressure dependent deflagration rates of LLM-105 and TATB based formulations were measured in the LLNL high pressure strand burner. The role of binder amount, explosive type, and thermal damage and their effects on the deflagration rate will be discussed. Two different formulations of LLM-105 and three formulations of TATB were studied and results indicate that binder amount and type play a minor role in the deflagration behavior. This is in sharp contrast to the HMX based formulations which strongly depend on binder amount and type. The effect of preheating these samples was considerably more dramatic. In the case of LLM-105, preheating the sample appears to have little effect on the deflagration rate. In contrast, preheating TATB formulations causes the deflagration rate to accelerate and become erratic. The thermal and mechanical properties of these formulations will be discussed in the context of their pressure and temperature dependent deflagration rates.

Glascoe, E A; Tan, N; Koerner, J; Lorenz, K T; Maienschein, J L

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

104

An environmental pressure index proposal for urban development planning based on the analytic network process  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces a new approach to prioritize urban planning projects according to their environmental pressure in an efficient and reliable way. It is based on the combination of three procedures: (i) the use of environmental pressure indicators, (ii) the aggregation of the indicators in an Environmental Pressure Index by means of the Analytic Network Process method (ANP) and (iii) the interpretation of the information obtained from the experts during the decision-making process. The method has been applied to a proposal for urban development of La Carlota airport in Caracas (Venezuela). There are three options which are currently under evaluation. They include a Health Club, a Residential Area and a Theme Park. After a selection process the experts chose the following environmental pressure indicators as ANP criteria for the project life cycle: used land area, population density, energy consumption, water consumption and waste generation. By using goal-oriented questionnaires designed by the authors, the experts determined the importance of the criteria, the relationships among criteria, and the relationships between the criteria and the urban development alternatives. The resulting data showed that water consumption is the most important environmental pressure factor, and the Theme Park project is by far the urban development alternative which exerts the least environmental pressure on the area. The participating experts coincided in appreciating the technique proposed in this paper is useful and, for ranking ordering these alternatives, an improvement from traditional techniques such as environmental impact studies, life-cycle analysis, etc.

Gomez-Navarro, Tomas, E-mail: tgomez@dpi.upv.e [Departamento de Proyectos de Ingenieria, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n. 46022, Valencia (Spain); Garcia-Melon, Monica, E-mail: mgarciam@dpi.upv.e [Departamento de Proyectos de Ingenieria, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n. 46022, Valencia (Spain); Acuna-Dutra, Silvia, E-mail: sacuna@unimet.edu.v [Departamento de Estudios Ambientales, Universidad Metropolitana, Autopista Guarenas, Sector La Urbina, Distribuidor Metropolitano, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Diaz-Martin, Diego, E-mail: ddiaz@unimet.edu.v [Departamento de Estudios Ambientales, Universidad Metropolitana, Autopista Guarenas, Sector La Urbina, Distribuidor Metropolitano, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

105

Knowledge-based duty cycle estimation in wireless sensor networks: Application for sound pressure monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wireless sensor networks comprise an important research area and a near future for industry and communications. Wireless sensor networks contain resource-constrained sensor nodes that are powered by small batteries, limited process and memory and wireless ... Keywords: Constrained device, Fuzzy rule based system, Multi-agent system, Sound pressure, Wireless sensor network

J. C. Cuevas-Martinez; J. Canada-Bago; J. A. Fernandez-Prieto; M. A. Gadeo-Martos

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Atmospheric Soundings in Near-Real Time from Combined Satellite and Ground-Based Remotely Sensed Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mobile profiling system has been developed that is capable of probing the atmosphere from the surface to over 30 km. The Mobile Profiling System (MPS) combines ground-based instruments, including a five-beam 924-MHz radar wind profiler, a radio ...

James Cogan; Edward Measure; Daniel Wolfe

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

1-D fluid model of atmospheric-pressure rf He+O{sub 2} cold plasmas: Parametric study and critical evaluation  

SciTech Connect

In this paper atmospheric-pressure rf He+O{sub 2} cold plasmas are studied by means of a 1-D fluid model. 17 species and 60 key reactions selected from a study of 250+ reactions are incorporated in the model. O{sub 2}{sup +}, O{sub 3}{sup -}, and O are the dominant positive ion, negative ion, and reactive oxygen species, respectively. Ground state O is mainly generated by electron induced reactions and quenching of atomic and molecular oxygen metastables, while three-body reactions leading to the formation of O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} are the main mechanisms responsible for O destruction. The fraction of input power dissipated by ions is {approx}20%. For the conditions considered in the study {approx}6% of the input power is coupled to ions in the bulk and this amount will increase with increasing electronegativity. Radial and electrode losses of neutral species are in most cases negligible when compared to gas phase processes as these losses are diffusion limited due to the large collisionality of the plasma. The electrode loss rate of neutral species is found to be nearly independent of the surface adsorption probability p for p > 0.001 and therefore plasma dosage can be quantified even if p is not known precisely.

Yang Aijun; Wang Xiaohua; Rong Mingzhe; Liu Dingxin [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Iza, Felipe [School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Kong, Michael G. [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

108

Demonstration of a nitrogen based carburizing atmosphere. Second quarterly report, January 1-March 31, 1979  

SciTech Connect

This second quarterly report details the energy consumption of two heat treating furnaces while employing different atmospheres. Idle energy consumption tests on a box type furnace with a fibrous insulation indicate 7 to 14% lower fuel consmption when pure nitrogen replaces endothermic as a furnace atmosphere. Production energy consumption tests on an integral quench furnace are inconclusive due to the limited data obtained thus far. As the program progresses, additional data will be available.

Peartree, R.J.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

INHIBITION OF METHANE ATMOSPHERIC FLAMES BY ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... atmospheric pressure was studied. The burner temperature was maintained at 65 “C by using a thermostat. The volumetric velocity ...

2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

110

An Improved Parameterization for Estimating Effective Atmospheric Emissivity for Use in Calculating Daytime Downwelling Longwave Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved parameterization is presented for estimating effective atmospheric emissivity for use in calculating downwelling longwave radiation based on temperature, humidity, pressure, and solar radiation observations. The first improvement is ...

Todd M. Crawford; Claude E. Duchon

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Application of a Differential Fuel-Cell Analyzer for Measuring Atmospheric Oxygen Variations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A commercially available differential fuel-cell analyzer has been adapted to make field-based ppm-level measurements of atmospheric O2 variations. With the implementation of rapid calibrations and active pressure and flow control, the analysis ...

Britton B. Stephens; Peter S. Bakwin; Pieter P. Tans; Ron M. Teclaw; Daniel D. Baumann

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system risk-based inspection guide: Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A review of the operating experience for the High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system at the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station is described in this report. The information for this review was obtained from Pilgrim Licensee Event Reports (LERs) that were generated between 1980 and 1989. These LERs have been categorized into 23 failure modes that have been prioritized based on probabilistic risk assessment considerations. In addition, the results of the Pilgrim operating experience review have been compared with the results of of a similar, industry wide operating experience review. this comparison provides an indication of areas in the Pilgrim HPCI system that should be given increased attention in the prioritization of inspection resources.

Shier, W.; Gunther, W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

A General, Cryogenically-Based Analytical Technique for the Determination of Trace Quantities of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analytical technique for the determination of trace (sub-ppbv) quantities of volatile organic compounds in air was developed. A liquid nitrogen-cooled trap operated at reduced pressures in series with a Dupont Nafion-based drying tube and a ...

Randolph A. Coleman; Wesley R. Cofer III; Robert A. Edahl Jr.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Atmospheric Aerosols  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

measuring equipment Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric aerosol research at Berkeley Lab seeks to understand the air quality and climate impacts of particles in the atmosphere. On...

115

Two-phase pressure drop across a hydrofoil-based micro pin device using R-123  

SciTech Connect

The two-phase pressure drop in a hydrofoil-based micro pin fin heat sink has been investigated using R-123 as the working fluid. Two-phase frictional multipliers have been obtained over mass fluxes from 976 to 2349 kg/m{sup 2} s and liquid and gas superficial velocities from 0.38 to 1.89 m/s and from 0.19 to 24 m/s, respectively. It has been found that the two-phase frictional multiplier is strongly dependent on flow pattern. The theoretical prediction using Martinelli parameter based on the laminar fluid and laminar gas flow represented the experimental data fairly well for the spray-annular flow. For the bubbly and wavy-intermittent flow, however, large deviations from the experimental data were recorded. The Martinelli parameter was successfully used to determine the flow patterns, which were bubbly, wavy-intermittent, and spray-annular flow in the current study. (author)

Kosar, Ali [Mechatronics Engineering Program, Sabanci University, Orhanli, Tuzla, 34956 Istanbul (Turkey)

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

116

A New Portable Instrument for In Situ Measurement of Atmospheric Methane Mole Fraction by Applying an Improved Tin Dioxide–Based Gas Sensor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new portable instrument based on a tin dioxide natural gas leak detector was developed to monitor the atmospheric methane mixing ratio in areas lacking sufficient infrastructure to sustain a conventional measurement system, such as a large ...

Hiroshi Suto; Gen Inoue

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Experimental Analysis of Water Based Drilling Fluid Aging Processes at High Temperature and High Pressure Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In efforts to render the safest, fastest, and most cost efficient drilling program for a high temperature and high pressure (HT/HP) well the maximization of drilling operational efficiencies is key. Designing an adequate, HT/HP well specific, drilling fluid is of most importance and a technological challenge that can greatly affect the outcome of the overall operational efficiency. It is necessary to have a sound fundamental understanding of the behavior that water-based muds (WBM) exhibit when exposed to HT/HP conditions. Therefore, in order to adequately design and treat a WBM for a HT/HP well specific drilling program, it is essential that the mud be evaluated at HT/HP conditions. Currently, industry standard techniques used to evaluate WBM characteristics involve aging the fluid sample to a predetermined temperature, based on the anticipated bottom hole temperature (BHT), either statically or dynamically, for a predetermined length, then cooling and mixing the fluid and measuring its rheological properties at a significantly lower temperature. This, along with the fact that the fluid is not subjected to the anticipated bottom hole pressure (BHP) during or after the aging process, brings to question if the properties recorded are those that are truly experienced down-hole. Furthermore, these testing methods do not allow the user to effectively monitor the changes during the aging process. The research in this thesis is focused on evaluating a high performance WBM and the current test procedures used to evaluate their validity. Experimental static and dynamic aging tests were developed for comparative analysis as well to offer a more accurate and precise method to evaluate the effects experienced by WBM when subjected to HT/HP conditions. The experimental tests developed enable the user to monitor and evaluate, in real-time, the rheological changes that occur during the aging of a WBM while being subjected to true BHT and BHP. Detailed standard and experimental aging tests were conducted and suggest that the standard industry tests offer false rheological results with respect to true BHT and BHP. Furthermore, the experimental aging tests show that high pressure has a significant effect on the rheological properties of the WBM at elevated temperatures.

Zigmond, Brandon

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

NP-3319, January 1984: Physically Based Regression Correlations of Embrittlement Data From Reactor Pressure Vessel Surveillance Programs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first physically based model for forecasting the embrittlement behavior of irradiation-damaged steels proved much more accurate than earlier models. Thisadvance offers utilities greater precision in establishing operating pressure-temperature limits for PWRs and in assessing the ability of reactor vessels to withstand pressurized thermal shock transients.BackgroundBombardment by high-energy neutrons in the belt line of nuclear reactors can ...

1984-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

119

Experimental Assessment of Water Based Drilling Fluids in High Pressure and High Temperature Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proper selection of drilling fluids plays a major role in determining the efficient completion of any drilling operation. With the increasing number of ultra-deep offshore wells being drilled and ever stringent environmental and safety regulations coming into effect, it becomes necessary to examine and understand the behavior of water based drilling fluids - which are cheaper and less polluting than their oil based counterpart - under extreme temperature and pressure conditions. In most of the existing literature, the testing procedure is simple - increase the temperature of the fluid in steps and record rheological properties at each step. A major drawback of this testing procedure is that it does not represent the continuous temperature change that occurs in a drilling fluid as it is circulated through the well bore. To have a better understanding of fluid behavior under such temperature variation, a continuous test procedure was devised in which the temperature of the drilling fluid was continuously increased to a pre-determined maximum value while monitoring one rheological parameter. The results of such tests may then be used to plan fluid treatment schedules. The experiments were conducted on a Chandler 7600 XHPHT viscometer and they seem to indicate specific temperature ranges above which the properties of the drilling fluid deteriorate. Different fluid compositions and drilling fluids in use in the field were tested and the results are discussed in detail.

Ravi, Ashwin

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Performance of carbon-based hot frit substrates. 2, Coating performance studies in hydrogen at atmospheric pressure  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Erosion tests were conducted on coated graphite and 2D, 3D carbon- carbons in 1 atm hydrogen at high temperatures. Refractory NbC, TaC coatings were used. It was found that the most effective combination of coating and substrate was TaC deposited by chemical vapor reaction method on AXF-5QI graphite.

Barletta, R.; Vanier, P.; Adams, J.; Svandrlik, J.; Powell, J.R.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric pressure base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Large-Scale Eddies in the Unstably Stratified Atmospheric Surface Layer. Part II: Turbulent Pressure Fluctuations and the Budgets of Heat Flux, Stress and Turbulent Kinetic Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is developed for retrieving turbulent pressure fluctuations from tower measurements of velocity and temperature, through use of the equations of motion. This method is applied to a series of large-scale eddies which are defined by their ...

J. M. Wilczak; Joost A. Businger

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Comparing modeled isoprene with aircraft-based measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) are involved in a complex series of reactions that regulate the levels of oxidants in the troposphere. Isoprene (C{sub 5}H{sub 8}), the primary NMHC emitted from deciduous trees, is one of the most important reactive hydrocarbons in the troposphere. The amount of isoprene entering the free troposphere is regulated by the compound's rate of emission from leaves and by chemical and physical processes in the forest canopy and the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). This study uses a coupled canopy-ABL model to simulate these complex processes and compares calculated isoprene concentration profiles with those measured during aircraft flights above a forested region in the northeastern US. Land use information is coupled with satellite remote sensing data to describe spatial changes in canopy density during the field measurements. The high-resolution transport-chemistry model of Gao et al. (1993) for the ABL and the forest canopy layer is used to simulate vertical changes in isoprene concentration due to turbulent mixing and chemical reactions. The one-dimensional (1-D) ABL model includes detailed radiation transfer, turbulent diffusion, biogenic emissions, dry deposition, and chemical processes within the forest canopy and the ABL. The measured profiles are compared with the model simulations to investigate the biological, physical, and chemical processes that regulate the levels of isoprene within the ABL.

Doskey, P.; Gao, W.

1997-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

123

Energy Transports by Ocean and Atmosphere Based on an Entropy Extremum Principle. Part 1: Zonal Averaged Transports  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Required global energy transports determined from Nimbus-7 satellite net radiation measurements have been separated into atmospheric and oceanic components by applying a maximum entropy production principle to the atmospheric system. Strong ...

Byung-Ju Sohn; Eric A. Smith

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Atmospheric Aerosols  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tom Kirchstetter with aerosol measurement instrument Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric aerosol research at LBNL seeks to understand the air quality and climate impacts of particles...

125

Suboptimal Schemes for Atmospheric Data Assimilation Based on the Kalman Filter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work is directed toward approximating the evolution of forecast error covariances for data assimilation. The performance of different algorithms based on simplification of the standard Kalman filter (KF) is studied. These are suboptimal ...

Ricardo Todling; Stephen E. Cohn

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Feasibility of developing risk-based rankings of pressure boundary systems for inservice inspection  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the Evaluation and Improvement of Non-destructive Examination Reliability for the In-service Inspection of Light Water Reactors Program sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to (1) assess current ISI techniques and requirements for all pressure boundary systems and components, (2) determine if improvements to the requirements are needed, and (3) if necessary, develop recommendations for revising the applicable ASME Codes and regulatory requirements. In evaluating approaches that could be used to provide a technical basis for improved inservice inspection plans, PNL has developed and applied a method that uses results of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to establish piping system ISI requirements. In the PNL program, the feasibility of generic ISI requirements is being addressed in two phases. Phase I involves identifying and prioritizing the systems most relevant to plant safety. The results of these evaluations will be later consolidated into requirements for comprehensive inservice inspection of nuclear power plant components that will be developed in Phase II. This report presents Phase I evaluations for eight selected plants and attempts to compare these PRA-based inspection priorities with current ASME Section XI requirements for Class 1, 2 and 3 systems. These results show that there are generic insights that can be extrapolated from the selected plants to specific classes of light water reactors.

Vo, T.V.; Smith, B.W.; Simonen, F.A.; Gore, B.F.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Robust controller design for main steam pressure based on SPEA2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Main steam pressure is an important physical quantity that reflects the energy supply-demand relationship between the boiler and turbine. It has a significant role in the unit operation. Because boiler burning behavior varies greatly and the model of ... Keywords: H? robust control, SPEA2, main steam pressure, weighing function matrix

Shuan Wang; Dapeng Hua; Zhiguo Zhang; Ming Li; Ke Yao; Zhanyou Wen

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Comparison of morphological and wavelet based methods in intracranial pressure signal analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of Intracranial Pressure signal (ICP) to predict the abrupt increases is extremely important, because this sudden elevation can be life threatening and sign of secondary brain injury. Segments with three minute duration were then constructed ... Keywords: intracranial hypertension, intracranial pressure (ICP), traumatic brain injury (TBI)

Nooshin Nabizadeh; Kayvan Najarian

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

An Air-Driven Pressure Booster Pump for Aircraft-Based Air Sampling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A diaphragm pump used to boost the intake pressure of a three-stage high-pressure air compressor for collecting large air samples during aircraft flights has been developed. The pump consists of a large (17 L) spherical body divided into two ...

C. A. M. Brenninkmeijep; P. A. Roberts

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Effect of hydrostatic pressure on the ambient pressure superconductor CePt3Si  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We studied the evolution of superconductivity (sc) and antiferromagnetism (afm) in the heavy fermion compound CePt3Si with hydrostatic pressure. We present a pressure-temperature phase diagram established by electrical transport measurements. Pressure shifts the superconducting transition temperature, Tc, to lower temperatures. Antiferromagnetism is suppressed at a critical pressure Pc ? 0.5 GPa. Key words: CePt3Si, superconductivity, antiferromagnetism, hydrostatic pressure Superconductivity (sc) is one of the most striking effects in solid state physics. In a conventional superconductor Cooper pairing is mediated by phonons. In general, magnetism destroys superconductivity. In heavy fermion systems, however, sc exists in close proximity to magnetism, promoting the suspicion that the sc is mediated by magnetic excitations. Since the discovery of sc in the heavy fermion compound CeCu2Si2 at atmospheric pressure [1], only a few Ce-based systems were found which also exhibit sc at atmospheric pressure, like CeMIn5 (M=Co, Ir) [4]. Most superconducting pure Ce-based systems show sc only under applied pressure sufficient to suppress long range magnetic order, like CeIn3 [2] or CeRh2Si2 [3]. CeIn3 displays a typical temperature-pressure phase diagram for these compounds; antiferromagnetism (afm) is suppressed to zero temperature with pressure and sc develops right in the vicinity where afm disappears [2]. Very recently another material, namely CePt3Si, was found showing magnetic order and sc at atmospheric pressure [5]. In contrast to the systems mentioned before, the crystal

M. Nicklas A

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

A Pressurized Water Reactor Plutonium Incinerator Based on Thorium Fuel and Seed-Blanket Assembly Geometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel cycle is proposed, whose purpose is the elimination and degradation of weapons-grade plutonium. This Radkowsky thorium-fuel Pu incinerator (RTPI) cycle is based on a core and assemblies retrofittable to a Westinghouse-type PWR. The RTPI assembly, however, is a seed-blanket unit. The seed is supercritical, loaded with Pu-Zr alloy as fuel in a high moderator-to-fuel ratio configuration. The blanket is subcritical, loaded mainly with ThO{sub 2}, generating and burning {sup 233}U in situ. Blankets are loaded once every 6 yr. The seed fuel management scheme is based on three batches, with one-third of the seed modules replaced every year. The core generates 1100 MW(electric). Equilibrium conditions are achieved with the second seed loading. For equilibrium conditions, the annual average of disposed (loaded) Pu is 1210 kg, of which 702 kg are completely eliminated, and 508 kg are discharged, but with significantly degraded isotopics (i.e., with a high percentage of even mass isotopes). Spontaneous fissions per second in a gram of this degraded Pu are {approx}500, resulting in significantly increased proliferation resistance.Every 6 yr the blanket discharge contains 780 kg of {sup 233}U (including {sup 233}Pa) and 36 kg of {sup 235}U. However, the blankets are initially loaded with an amount of natural uranium selected such that these U fissile isotopes constitute only 12% of the total U discharge, a percentage equivalent to 20% {sup 235}U enrichment; hence, both the discharged uranium isotopics satisfy proliferation-resistant criteria.The RTPI control variables, namely, the moderator temperature coefficient, the reactivity per ppm boron, and the control rods worth, are about equal to those of a PWR. The RTPI spent-fuel stockpile ingestion toxicity over a period of ten million years is about the same as the counterpart toxicities of a regular, or a mixed-oxide (MOX), PWR. Compared with known PWR MOX variants, the RTPI is, per 1000 MW(electric) and per annum, a significantly more efficient incinerator of weapons-grade plutonium.

Galperin, A. [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Israel); Segev, M. [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Israel); Todosow, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States)

2000-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

132

Long-Term, Autonomous Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Using an Ormosil Nanocomposite-Based Optical Sensor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to construct a prototype carbon dioxide sensor that can be commercialized to offer a low-cost, autonomous instrument for long-term, unattended measurements. Currently, a cost-effective CO2 sensor system is not available that can perform cross-platform measurements (ground-based or airborne platforms such as balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)) for understanding the carbon sequestration phenomenon. The CO2 sensor would support the research objectives of DOE-sponsored programs such as AmeriFlux and the North American Carbon Program (NACP). Global energy consumption is projected to rise 60% over the next 20 years and use of oil is projected to increase by approximately 40%. The combustion of coal, oil, and natural gas has increased carbon emissions globally from 1.6 billion tons in 1950 to 6.3 billion tons in 2000. This figure is expected to reach 10 billon tons by 2020. It is important to understand the fate of this excess CO2 in the global carbon cycle. The overall goal of the project is to develop an accurate and reliable optical sensor for monitoring carbon dioxide autonomously at least for one year at a point remote from the actual CO2 release site. In Phase I of this project, InnoSense LLC (ISL) demonstrated the feasibility of an ormosil-monolith based Autonomous Sensor for Atmospheric CO2 (ASAC) device. All of the Phase I objectives were successfully met.

Kisholoy Goswami

2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

133

Hot Corrosion of Nickel-Base Alloys in Biomass-Derived Fuel Simulated Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass fuels are considered to be a promising renewable source of energy. However, impurities present in the fuel may cause corrosion problems with the materials used in the hot sections of gas turbines and only limited data are available so far. As part of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy, the present study provides initial data on the hot corrosion resistance of different nickel-base alloys against sodium sulfate-induced corrosion as a baseline, and against salt compositions simulating biomass-derived fuel deposits. Single crystal nickel-superalloy Rene N5, a cast NiCrAlY alloy, a NiCoCrAlY alloy representing industrially used overlay compositions, and a model {beta}NiAl+Hf alloy were tested in 1h thermal cycles at 950 C with different salt coatings deposited onto the surfaces. Whereas the NiCoCrAlY alloy exhibited reasonable resistance against pure sodium sulfate deposits, the NiCrAiY alloy and Rene N5 were attacked severely. Although considered to be an ideal alumina former in air and oxygen at higher temperatures, {beta}NiAl+Hf also suffered from rapid corrosion attack at 950 C when coated with sodium sulfate. The higher level of potassium present in biomass fuels compared with conventional fuels was addressed by testing a NiCoCrAlY alloy coated with salts of different K/Na atomic ratios. Starting at zero Na, the corrosion rate increased considerably when sodium was added to potassium sulfate. In an intermediate region the corrosion rate was initially insensitive to the K/Na ratio but accelerated when very Na-rich compositions were deposited. The key driver for corrosion of the NiCoCrAlY alloy was sodium sulfate rather than potassium sulfate, and no simple additive or synergistic effect of combining sodium and potassium was found.

Leyens, C.; Pint, B.A.; Wright, I.G.

1999-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

134

Potential energy savings based on reduction of pressure in Central Heating System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methodology and practical recommendations on retrofitting existing Central Heating Systems to deliver steam at lower pressure are presented. The retrofitting, is examined in terms of engineering approaches and economic effectiveness. In addition to investigating the savings obtainable through reduction of thermal and leakage losses, other energy conservation opportunities related to reduction of steam pressure are considered. The latter includes less boiler blowdown, less energy used pumping feedwater, less steam vented from the deaerator, reduced boiler maintenance and repair requirements, and cogeneration of electricity by steam or gas turbines. Energy savings are estimated as up to 10%, and payback period as in the range of two to four years.

Minkov, V.; Hirsch, P.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Atmospheric optical calibration system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

Hulstrom, Roland L. (Bloomfield, CO); Cannon, Theodore W. (Golden, CO)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Atmospheric optical calibration system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

1988-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

137

Boundary element stress analysis for copper-based dies in pressure die casting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has recently been demonstrated that, for pressure die casting, high rates of heat extraction are possible with the use copper-alloyed dies suitably protected with a thermally sprayed steel layer. The structural integrity of dies of this type is paramount ... Keywords: Boundary elements, Casting, Elastostatics, Sprayed dies

M. T. Alonso Rasgado; K. Davey; L. D. Clark; S. Hinduja

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Preliminary analysis for adopting high pressure treatment: a simulation-based approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present in this paper a preliminary analysis of the simulation results in introducing high pressure treatment (HPT) into a meat production line. In particular, we first give a brief introduction to HPT and its applications. Next, we present a thorough ... Keywords: business process simulation, perishable products, production management, simulation analysis

Vassiliou Vassos; Menicou Michalis; Chartosia Niki; Christofi Stavros; Charalambides Marios

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

The Influence of Cloud-Base Temperature and Pressure on Droplet Concentration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cloud-base temperature is an important, but often neglected, parameter in the activation of cloud drops. Other factors being equal, clouds with colder bases will activate more condensation nuclei than clouds having warmer bases. In a typical case,...

David B. Johnson

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Exothermic-Based Atmospheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...Requirement Value Natural gas, m 3 (ft 3 ) 4.4 (155) Electric energy consumption, MJ (kW · h) 1.4 (0.4) Cooling water, L (gal) 1135 (300) Electric energy consumption for refrigerant dryer,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric pressure base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Evaluation of an LES-Based Wind Profiler Simulator for Observations of a Daytime Atmospheric Convective Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The daytime atmospheric convective boundary layer (CBL) is characterized by strong turbulence that is primarily caused by buoyancy forced from the heated underlying surface. The present study considers a combination of a virtual radar and large ...

Danny E. Scipión; Phillip B. Chilson; Evgeni Fedorovich; Robert D. Palmer

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Cirrus Clouds and the Large-Scale Atmospheric State: Relationships Revealed by Six Years of Ground-Based Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The properties of cirrus clouds observed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) in Oklahoma are documented from a nearly continuous 6-yr record of 35-GHz cloud radar data. Cirrus frequency over the ACRF is ...

Gerald G. Mace; Sally Benson; Erik Vernon

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Development and Testing of Instrumentation for UAV-Based Flux Measurements within Terrestrial and Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Instrumentation packages have been developed for small (18–28 kg) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to measure momentum fluxes as well as latent, sensible, and radiative heat fluxes in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and the topography below. ...

Benjamin D. Reineman; Luc Lenain; Nicholas M. Statom; W. Kendall Melville

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Evaluation of Various Approximations in Atmosphere and Ocean Modeling based on an Exact Treatment of Gravity Wave Dispersion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Various approximations of the governing equations of compressible fluid dynamics are commonly used in both atmospheric and ocean modeling. Their main purpose is to eliminate the acoustic waves that are potentially responsible for inefficiency in ...

John K. Dukowicz

145

A study of the performance of an ion shutter for drift tubes in atmospheric pressure ion mobility spectrometry: Computer models and experimental findings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ion mobility spectra are initiated when ions, derived from a sample, are pulsed or injected through ion shutters into a drift region. The effect on signal intensity from electric fields arising from the shutter grids (E{sub s}) and a superimposed electric field of the drift tube (E{sub d}) was determined experimentally and simulated computationally for ion motion at ambient pressure. The combination of these two fields influenced shutter performance in three ways: (1) intensity of an ion peak was suppressed by increased current in the baseline due to continuous leakage of ions into the drift region from insufficient E{sub s} to block ion motion when needed, at a given value of E{sub d}; (2) the ion shutter provided maximum peak intensity with some optimal ratio of E{sub s}/E{sub d} when ions were fully blocked except using the injection time; (c) the signal intensity was reduced when the blocking voltage of the ion shutter exceeded this optimal E{sub s}/E{sub d} ratio from ion depletion at the shutter grids. The optimal ratio from the computer models was equal to 1.50, whereas a value of 2.50 was obtained from the experimental findings. This difference was attributed to nonideal geometry with the grids of the shutter and the conducting elements in the drift tube establishing both E{sub s} and E{sub d}. As both the experimental and modeling results demonstrated, a mobility dependence of ion yield from the ionization source was found to cause a mobility dependent ion signal at the collector electrode.

Tadjimukhamedov, Fatkhulla K.; Eiceman, Gary A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States); Puton, Jaroslaw [Department of Environmental Sciences, Laboratory of Applied Environmental Chemistry, University of Kuopio, Mikkeli FIN-50100 (Finland); Stone, John A. [Department of Chemistry, Queens University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

146

Innovative high pressure gas MEM's based neutron detector for ICF and active SNM detection.  

SciTech Connect

An innovative helium3 high pressure gas detection system, made possible by utilizing Sandia's expertise in Micro-electrical Mechanical fluidic systems, is proposed which appears to have many beneficial performance characteristics with regards to making these neutron measurements in the high bremsstrahlung and electrical noise environments found in High Energy Density Physics experiments and especially on the very high noise environment generated on the fast pulsed power experiments performed here at Sandia. This same system may dramatically improve active WMD and contraband detection as well when employed with ultrafast (10-50 ns) pulsed neutron sources.

Martin, Shawn Bryan; Derzon, Mark Steven; Renzi, Ronald F.; Chandler, Gordon Andrew

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

ATMOSPHERIC RETRIEVAL FOR SUPER-EARTHS: UNIQUELY CONSTRAINING THE ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION WITH TRANSMISSION SPECTROSCOPY  

SciTech Connect

We present a retrieval method based on Bayesian analysis to infer the atmospheric compositions and surface or cloud-top pressures from transmission spectra of exoplanets with general compositions. In this study, we identify what can unambiguously be determined about the atmospheres of exoplanets from their transmission spectra by applying the retrieval method to synthetic observations of the super-Earth GJ 1214b. Our approach to inferring constraints on atmospheric parameters is to compute their joint and marginal posterior probability distributions using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique in a parallel tempering scheme. A new atmospheric parameterization is introduced that is applicable to general atmospheres in which the main constituent is not known a priori and clouds may be present. Our main finding is that a unique constraint of the mixing ratios of the absorbers and two spectrally inactive gases (such as N{sub 2} and primordial H{sub 2}+ He) is possible if the observations are sufficient to quantify both (1) the broadband transit depths in at least one absorption feature for each absorber and (2) the slope and strength of the molecular Rayleigh scattering signature. A second finding is that the surface pressure or cloud-top pressure can be quantified if a surface or cloud deck is present at low optical depth. A third finding is that the mean molecular mass can be constrained by measuring either the Rayleigh scattering slope or the shapes of the absorption features, thus enabling one to distinguish between cloudy hydrogen-rich atmospheres and high mean molecular mass atmospheres. We conclude, however, that without the signature of molecular Rayleigh scattering-even with robustly detected infrared absorption features (>10{sigma})-there is no reliable way to tell from the transmission spectrum whether the absorber is a main constituent of the atmosphere or just a minor species with a mixing ratio of X{sub abs} < 0.1%. The retrieval method leads us to a conceptual picture of which details in transmission spectra are essential for unique characterizations of well-mixed exoplanet atmospheres.

Benneke, Bjoern; Seager, Sara, E-mail: bbenneke@mit.edu [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

148

Acoustic Waves in the Turbulent Atmosphere: A Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The subject of atmospheric acoustics and its role in atmospheric research and in development of modern methods of ground-based remote sensing of the atmosphere are outlined. A historical overview of investigations of the effect of atmospheric ...

M. A. Kallistratova

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Behavior of MgO?Al2O3 Based Inclusions in High-Pressure Boiler ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2009. Symposium, Inclusions and Clean Steels. Presentation Title, Behavior of MgO?Al2O3 Based ...

150

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric moisture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

moisture moisture ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric moisture The moisture content of the air as indicated by several measurements including relative humidity, specific humidity, dewpoint, vapor pressure, water vapor mixing ratio, and water vapor density; note that precipitable water is a separate type. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AERI : Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer

151

A Fast Line-by-Line Method for Atmospheric Absorption Computations: The Automatized Atmospheric Absorption Atlas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A computationally fast line-by-line method for the determination of atmospheric absorption is described. This method is based on the creation of an Automatized Atmospheric Absorption Atlas (4A) covering all possible plausible atmospheric ...

N. A. Scott; A. Chedin

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Climatic changes from increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1970-Jan 1980  

SciTech Connect

The cited reports of Federally-funded research examine the relationship between climatic changes and an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Topics considered include the Greenhouse effect, global climatic models, and climatic effects from increased combustion of fossil fuels. (Contains 39 abstracts)

Reimherr, G.W.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

A pressure-based analysis of the historical western North Pacific tropical cyclone intensity record  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The western North Pacific Ocean is the most active tropical cyclone (TC) basin. However, recent studies are not conclusive on whether the TC activity is increasing or decreasing, at least when calculations are based on maximum sustained winds. For ...

Kenneth R. Knapp; John A. Knaff; Charles R. Sampson; Gustavo M. Riggio; Adam D. Schnapp

154

A Pressure-Based Analysis of the Historical Western North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Intensity Record  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The western North Pacific Ocean is the most active tropical cyclone (TC) basin. However, recent studies are not conclusive on whether the TC activity is increasing or decreasing, at least when calculations are based on maximum sustained winds. For ...

Kenneth R. Knapp; John A. Knaff; Charles R. Sampson; Gustavo M. Riggio; Adam D. Schnapp

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) System Risk-Based Inspection Guide for Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system has been examined from a risk perspective. A System Risk-Based Inspection Guide (S-RIG) has been developed as an aid to HPCI system inspections at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1, 2 and 3. The role of. the HPCI system in mitigating accidents is discussed in this S-RIG, along with insights on identified risk-based failure modes which could prevent proper operation of the system. The S-RIG provides a review of industry-wide operating experience, including plant-specific illustrative examples to augment the PRA and operational considerations in identifying a catalogue of basic PRA failure modes for the HPCI system. It is designed to be used as a reference for routine inspections, self-initiated safety system functional inspections (SSFIs), and the evaluation of risk significance of component failures at the nuclear power plant.

Wong, S.; DiBiasio, A.; Gunther, W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Ico-photonics-delphi2009.org Fibre-optic interferometric pressure sensor based on  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is delivered to the brain region of interest using a fiberoptic-based system or a light-emitting diode (LED-sensitive, molecular, neu- ronal activity "switches." These "switches" are microbial, light- sensitive ion conductance-regulat- ing activity of these "switches" can be controlled externally with light pulses. ChR2 is a cation

Vlachos, Kyriakos G.

157

Pressure multiplying dispenser  

SciTech Connect

A pressure multiplying dispenser for delivering fluid, preferably as a spray to the atmosphere, from a source of fluid, preferably a spray bottle, is described. The dispenser includes in combination a hollow cylindrical member, a nozzle delivery tube within the cylindrical member and a hollow actuator piston slideable within the cylindrical member which acts to multiply the pressure of a squeeze applied to the spray bottle.

DeFord, Henry S. (Kennewick, WA); Moss, Owen R. (Kennewick, WA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

BNL | Atmospheric Systems Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric System Research is a DOE observation-based research program Atmospheric System Research is a DOE observation-based research program created to advance process-level understanding of the key interactions among aerosols, clouds, precipitation, radiation, dynamics, and thermodynamics, with the ultimate goal of reducing the uncertainty in global and regional climate simulations and projections. General areas of research at BNL under this program include studies of aerosol and cloud lifecycles, and cloud-aerosol-precipitation interactions. Contact Robert McGraw, 631.344.3086 aerosols Aerosol Life Cycle The strategic focus of the Aerosol Life Cycle research is observation-based process science-examining the properties and evolution of atmospheric aerosols. Observations come from both long-term studies conducted by the

159

Final Technical Report: Development of the DUSTRAN GIS-Based Complex Terrain Model for Atmospheric Dust Dispersion  

SciTech Connect

Activities at U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) training and testing ranges can be sources of dust in local and regional airsheds governed by air-quality regulations. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory just completed a multi-year project to develop a fully tested and documented atmospheric dispersion modeling system (DUST TRANsport or DUSTRAN) to assist the DoD in addressing particulate air-quality issues at military training and testing ranges.

Allwine, K Jerry; Rutz, Frederick C.; Shaw, William J.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Fritz, Brad G.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Seiple, Timothy E.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Research on Active Power Factor Correction of the Electronic Ballast for High-Pressure Sodium Lamps Based on L6563  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the recent years, there has been a growing interest in the design of high-pressure sodium lamp electronic ballast. Two measures are proposed to improve the power factor of high-pressure sodium lamp electronic ballasts from the definition of harmonic ... Keywords: high-pressure sodium lamps, electronic ballast, active power factor correction, L6563

Sun Jing

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric pressure base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Stages of Chlorine-Based Bleaching  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...blend the pulp, chemicals, and steam A reaction tower or vessel (atmospheric or pressurized) with dilution

162

Investigation of factors affecting transient pressure wave propagation and implications to transient based leak detection methods in pipeline systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??xxii, 304 p. : ill. ; 30 cm HKUST Call Number: Thesis CIVL 2011 Duan Waterhammer models are used to design and analyze pressurized pipe… (more)

Duan, Huanfeng

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Generation of Turbulence by Atmospheric Gravity Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The standard current criterion for the generation of turbulence by atmospheric gravity waves and for the associated limitation on wave growth is based upon the standard criterion for static instability of the unperturbed atmosphere, namely, that ...

Colin O. Hines

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Air flow and pressure inside a pressure-swirl spray and their effects on spray development  

SciTech Connect

Air flow and pressure inside a pressure-swirl spray for direct injection (DI) gasoline engines and their effects on spray development have been analyzed at different injector operating conditions. A simulation tool was utilized and the static air pressure at the centerline of the spray was measured to investigate the static pressure and flow structure inside the swirl spray. To investigate the effect of static air pressure on swirl spray development, a liquid film model was applied and the Mie-scattered images were captured. The simulation and experiment showed that recirculation vortex and air pressure drop inside the swirl spray were observable and the air pressure drop was greater at high injection pressure. At high fuel temperature, the air pressure at the nozzle exit showed higher value compared to the atmospheric pressure and then continuously decreased up to few millimeters distance from the nozzle exit. The pressure drop at high fuel temperatures was more than that of atmospheric temperature. This reduced air pressure was recovered to the atmospheric pressure at further downstream. The results from the liquid film model and macroscopic spray images showed that the air pressure started to affect the liquid film trajectory about 3 mm from the nozzle exit and this effect was sustained until the air pressure recovered to the atmospheric pressure. However, the entrained air motion and droplet size have more significant influence on the spray development after the most of the liquid sheet is broken-up and the spray loses its initial momentum. (author)

Moon, Seoksu; Bae, Choongsik [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-701 (Korea); Abo-Serie, Essam [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Design, Coventry University, Priory Street, Coventry CV1 5FB (United Kingdom)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

165

Information Content and Uncertainties in Thermodynamic Profiles and Liquid Cloud Properties Retrieved from the Ground-Based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) observes spectrally resolved downwelling radiance emitted by the atmosphere in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Profiles of temperature and water vapor, and cloud liquid ...

D.D. Turner; U. Löhnert

166

THERMALLY DRIVEN ATMOSPHERIC ESCAPE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurately determining the escape rate from a planet's atmosphere is critical for determining its evolution. A large amount of Cassini data is now available for Titan's upper atmosphere and a wealth of data is expected within the next decade on escape from Pluto, Mars, and extra-solar planets. Escape can be driven by upward thermal conduction of energy deposited well below the exobase, as well as by nonthermal processes produced by energy deposited in the exobase region. Recent applications of a model for escape driven by upward thermal conduction, called the slow hydrodynamic escape model, have resulted in surprisingly large loss rates for the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. Based on a molecular kinetic simulation of the exobase region, these rates appear to be orders of magnitude too large. Therefore, the slow hydrodynamic model is evaluated here. It is shown that such a model cannot give a reliable description of the atmospheric temperature profile unless it is coupled to a molecular kinetic description of the exobase region. Therefore, the present escape rates for Titan and Pluto must be re-evaluated using the atmospheric model described here.

Johnson, Robert E., E-mail: rej@virginia.ed [Engineering Physics, Thornton Hall B102, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22902 (United States); Physics Department, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

2010-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

167

Study of the Role of Terrestrial Processes in the Carbon Cycle Based on Measurements of the Abundance and Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric CO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main objective of this project was to continue research to develop carbon cycle relationships related to the land biosphere based on remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 concentration and its isotopic ratios 13C/12C, 18O/16O, and 14C/12C. The project continued time-series observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and isotopic composition begun by Charles D. Keeling at remote sites, including Mauna Loa, the South Pole, and eight other sites. Using models of varying complexity, the concentration and isotopic measurements were used to study long-term change in the interhemispheric gradients in CO2 and 13C/12C to assess the magnitude and evolution of the northern terrestrial carbon sink, to study the increase in amplitude of the seasonal cycle of CO2, to use isotopic data to refine constraints on large scale changes in isotopic fractionation which may be related to changes in stomatal conductance, and to motivate improvements in terrestrial carbon cycle models. The original proposal called for a continuation of the new time series of 14C measurements but subsequent descoping to meet budgetary constraints required termination of measurements in 2007.

Stephen C. Piper; Ralph F. Keeling

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

168

Large Amplitude Spatial and Temporal Gradients in Atmospheric Boundary Layer CO2 Mole Fractions Detected With a Tower-Based Network in the U.S. Upper Midwest  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents observations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} mole fraction from a nine-tower, regional network deployed during the North American Carbon Program's Mid-Continent Intensive during 2007-2009. Within this network in a largely agricultural area, mean atmospheric CO{sub 2} gradients were strongly correlated with both ground-based inventory data and estimates from satellite remote sensing. The average seasonal drawdown for corn-dominated sites (35 ppm) is significantly larger than has been observed at other continental boundary layer sites. Observed growing-season median CO{sub 2} gradients are strongly dependent on local flux. The gradients between cross-vegetation site-pairs, for example, average 2.0 ppm/100 km, four times larger than the similar-vegetation site-pair average. Daily-timescale gradients are as large as 5.5 ppm/100 km, but dominated by advection rather than local flux. Flooding in 2008 led to a region-wide 23 week delay in growing-season minima. The observations show that regional-scale CO{sub 2} mole fraction networks yield large, coherent signals governed largely by regional sources and sinks of CO{sub 2}.

Miles, Natasha; Richardson, S. J.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Lauvaux, Thomas; Andrews, A.; West, Tristram O.; Bandaru, Varaprasad; Crosson, Eric R.

2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

169

Estimating the Meridional Energy Transports in the Atmosphere and Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The poleward energy transports in the atmosphere–ocean system are estimated for the annual mean and the four seasons based on satellite measurements of the net radiation balance at the top of the atmosphere, atmospheric transports of energy at ...

B. C. Carissimo; A. H. Oort; T. H. Vonder Haar

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

A General Strategy for Physics-Based Model Validation Illustrated with Earthquake Phenomenology, Atmospheric Radiative Transfer, and Computational Fluid Dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Validation is often defined as the process of determining the degree to which a model is an accurate representation of the real world from the perspective of its intended uses. Validation is crucial as industries and governments depend increasingly on predictions by computer models to justify their decisions. In this article, we survey the model validation literature and propose to formulate validation as an iterative construction process that mimics the process occurring implicitly in the minds of scientists. We thus offer a formal representation of the progressive build-up of trust in the model, and thereby replace incapacitating claims on the impossibility of validating a given model by an adaptive process of constructive approximation. This approach is better adapted to the fuzzy, coarse-grained nature of validation. Our procedure factors in the degree of redundancy versus novelty of the experiments used for validation as well as the degree to which the model predicts the observations. We illustrate the new methodology first with the maturation of Quantum Mechanics as the arguably best established physics theory and then with several concrete examples drawn from some of our primary scientific interests: a cellular automaton model for earthquakes, an anomalous diffusion model for solar radiation transport in the cloudy atmosphere, and a computational fluid dynamics code for the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. This article is an augmented version of Sornette et al. [2007] that appeared in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in 2007 (doi: 10.1073/pnas.0611677104), with an electronic supplement at URL http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/0611677104/DC1. Sornette et al. [2007] is also available in preprint form at physics/0511219.

Didier Sornette; Anthony B. Davis; James R. Kamm; Kayo Ide

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Identifying Cloud-Uncontaminated AIRS Spectra from Cloudy FOV Based on Cloud-Top Pressure and Weighting Functions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An effort is made to increase the number of Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS) cloud-uncontaminated infrared data for regional mesoscale data assimilation and short-term quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) applications. The cloud-top pressure ...

M. Carrier; X. Zou; William M. Lapenta

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Wind Tunnel Evaluation of PAM II Pressure Ports  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Portable Automated Mesonet II (PAM II) is a network of automated remote weather stations developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) for measuring wind speed and direction, atmospheric pressure, temperature, humidity, and ...

Fikri Adnan Akyüz; Henry Liu; Tom Horst

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Initial Assessment of the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR)-Based Aerosol Retrieval: Sensitivity Study  

SciTech Connect

The Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) being developed for airborne measurements will offer retrievals of aerosol microphysical and optical properties from multi-angular and multi-spectral measurements of sky radiance and direct-beam sun transmittance. In this study, we assess the expected accuracy of the 4STAR-based aerosol retrieval and its sensitivity to major sources of anticipated perturbations in the 4STAR measurements by adapting a theoretical approach previously developed for the AERONET measurements. The major anticipated perturbations are (1) an apparent enhancement of sky radiance at small scattering angles associated with the necessarily compact design of the 4STAR and (2) and an offset (i.e. uncertainty) of sky radiance calibration independent of scattering angle. The assessment is performed through application of the operational AERONET aerosol retrieval and constructed synthetic 4STAR-like data. Particular attention is given to the impact of these perturbations on the upwelling and downwelling broadband fluxes and the direct aerosol radiative forcing at the bottom and top of the atmosphere. The results from this study suggest that limitations in the accuracy of 4STAR-retrieved particle size distributions and scattering phase functions have diminished impact on the accuracy of retrieved bulk microphysical parameters, permitting quite accurate retrievals of properties including the effective radius (up to 10%, or 0.03), and the radiatively important optical properties, such as the asymmetry factor (up to 4%, or ±0.02) and single-scattering albedo (up to 6%, or ±0.04). Also, the obtained results indicate that the uncertainties in the retrieved aerosol optical properties are quite small in the context of the calculated fluxes and direct aerosol radiative forcing (up to 15%, or 3 Wm-2).

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Flynn, Connor J.; Redemann, Jens; Schmid, Beat; Russell, P. B.; Sinyuk, Alexander

2012-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

174

Conceptual study: potential energy savings based on reduction of pressure in the ANL-east central heating system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Retrofitting existing Central Heating Systems to deliver steam at lower pressure and where necessary retrofitting end users to perform satisfactorily at the lower pressure, is examined in terms of engineering approaches and economic effectiveness. In addition to investigating the savings obtainable through reduction of thermal and leakage losses, other energy conservation opportunities related to reduction of steam pressure are considered. The latter includes less boiler blowdown, less energy used pumping feedwater, less steam vented from the deaerator, reduced boiler maintenance and repair requirements, and cogeneration of electricity by steam or gas turbines. Methodology and practical recommendations are presented that, although related directly to Argonne, are applicable to other facilities. Energy savings are estimated as up to 10%, and payback period as in the range of two to four years.

Minkov, V.; Hirsch, P.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

SPRAYTRAN 1.0 User’s Guide: A GIS-Based Atmospheric Spray Droplet Dispersion Modeling System  

SciTech Connect

SPRAY TRANsport (SPRAYTRAN) is a comprehensive dispersion modeling system that is used to simulate the offsite drift of pesticides from spray applications. SPRAYTRAN functions as a console application within Environmental System Research Institute’s ArcMap Geographic Information System (Version 9.x) and integrates the widely-used, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved CALifornia PUFF (CALPUFF) dispersion model and model components to simulate longer-range transport and diffusion in variable terrain and spatially/temporally varying meteorological (e.g., wind) fields. Area sources, which are used to define spray blocks in SPRAYTRAN, are initialized using output files generated from a separate aerial-spray-application model called AGDISP (AGricultural DISPersal). The AGDISP model is used for estimating the amount of pesticide deposited to the spray block based on spraying characteristics (e.g., pesticide type, spray nozzles, and aircraft type) and then simulating the near-field (less than 300-m) drift from a single pesticide application. The fraction of pesticide remaining airborne from the AGDISP near-field simulation is then used by SPRAYTRAN for simulating longer-range (greater than 300 m) drift and deposition of the pesticide.

Allwine, K Jerry; Rutz, Frederick C.; Droppo, James G.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Bird, S. L.; Thistle, Harold W.

2006-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

176

CDIAC Atmospheric Moisture Data Sets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Moisture Atmospheric Moisture CDIAC Climate Holdings Containing Atmospheric Moisture Data Global Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Extended Edited Synoptic Cloud Reports from Ships and Land Stations Over the Globe, 1952-2009 (CDIAC NDP-026C) C.J. Hahn, S.G. Warren, and R. Eastman Six-hourly synoptic observations of dew point depression (combined with air temperature) Land 1971-2009; Ocean 1952-2008 Regional Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Six- and Three-Hourly Meteorological Observations from 223 Former U.S.S.R. Stations (CDIAC NDP-048) V. Razuvaev et al. Surface stations; 6- and 3-hourly observations of relative humidity, vapor pressure, humidity deficit, and dew point temperature Varies by station; through 2000

177

Krypton-85 in the atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurement results are presented on 85Kr content in the atmosphere over the European part of Russia in 1971-1995 based on the analysis of the commercial krypton, which is separated from air by industrial plants. Our results are by 15 per cent lower then 85Kr activites observed over West Europe. According our prediction by 2030 85Kr content in the atmosphere over Europe will amount to 1,5-3 Bq in m3 air. Average 85Kr release to the atmosphere from regeneration of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is estimated, some 180 TBq per a ton SNF. It is advisable to recommence monitoring of 85Kr content within Russia.

A. T. Korsakov; E. G. Tertyshnik

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

178

Krypton-85 in the atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurement results are presented on 85Kr content in the atmosphere over the European part of Russia in 1971-1995 based on the analysis of the commercial krypton, which is separated from air by industrial plants. Our results are by 15 per cent lower then 85Kr activites observed over West Europe. According our prediction by 2030 85Kr content in the atmosphere over Europe will amount to 1,5-3 Bq in m3 air. Average 85Kr release to the atmosphere from regeneration of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is estimated, some 180 TBq per a ton SNF. It is advisable to recommence monitoring of 85Kr content within Russia.

Korsakov, A T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

On Computing the Horizontal Pressure Gradient Force in Sigma Coordinates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Corby et al. present a finite-difference expression for the horizontal pressure gradient force in sigma coordinates that, in a barotropic atmosphere where the temperature varies linearly with logarithm of pressure, has the same net truncation ...

Maurice Danard; Qing Zhang; John Kozlowski

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Radiative Measurements of Pressure Modulator Operation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The pressure modulator is extensively used in atmospheric measurements but is not well characterized in terms of its spectroscopic operation. A series of measurements on a carbon monoxide radiometer is described and comparisons are made with ...

J. R. Drummond; A. Ashton

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric pressure base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Detection of water absorption in the dayside atmosphere of HD 189733 b using ground-based high-resolution spectroscopy at 3.2 microns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report a 5 sigma detection of water absorption features in the dayside spectrum of the hot Jupiter HD 189733 b. We used high-resolution (R~100,000) spectra taken at 3.2 microns with CRIRES on the VLT to trace the radial velocity shift of the water features in the planet's dayside atmosphere during 5 hours of its 2.2 day orbit as it approached secondary eclipse. Despite considerable telluric contamination in this wavelength regime, we detect the signal within our uncertainties at the expected combination of systemic velocity (Vsys=-3 +5-6 km/s) and planet orbital velocity (Kp=154 +14-10 km/s), and determine a H2O line contrast ratio of (1.3+/-0.2)x10^-3 with respect to the stellar continuum. We find no evidence of significant absorption or emission from other carbon-bearing molecules, such as methane, although we do note a marginal increase in the significance of our detection with the inclusion of carbon dioxide in our template spectrum. This result demonstrates that ground-based, high-resolution spectrosc...

Birkby, J L; Brogi, M; de Mooij, E J W; Schwarz, H; Albrecht, S; Snellen, I A G

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Prepared Nitrogen-Based Atmospheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...Requirement Molecular sieve Monoethanolamine Natural gas, m 3 (scf) 3.77 (133) 3.77 (133) Electric energy consumption, MJ (kW · h) 28 (7.8) 14.5 (4.0) Cooling water, L (gal) 2780 (735) 2500 (660)...

183

Pressure Tubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 8   Specifications for carbon and alloy steel pressure tubes (ASTM)...medium-strength carbon-molybdenum alloy

184

Dynamic Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The higher pressure range will cover the important application of gas turbine engine testing. Gas turbines are used for propulsion on aircraft and ...

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

185

A Microwave Occultation Observing System Optimized to Characterize Atmospheric Water, Temperature, and Geopotential via Absorption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new remote sensing concept extrapolated from the GPS occultation concept is presented in which the signal frequencies are chosen to determine atmospheric water, temperature, and the geopotential of atmospheric pressure surfaces. Using ...

E. R. Kursinski; S. Syndergaard; D. Flittner; D. Feng; G. Hajj; B. Herman; D. Ward; T. Yunck

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Simulation Errors Associated with the Neglect of Oceanic Salinity in an Atmospheric GCM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In all the atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) at the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA), the influence of oceanic salinity on the saturation vapor pressure of seawater is ignored. Since the relative humidity in the oceanic ...

Y. C. Sud; G. K. Walker

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Reconciling estimates of the contemporary North American carbon balance among terrestrial biosphere models, atmospheric inversions and a new approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange from inventory-based data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While fossil fuel emissions are calculated with relatively high precision, understanding the fate of those emissions with respect to sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems requires data and methods that can reduce uncertainties in the diagnosis of land-based CO2 sinks. The wide range in the land surface flux estimates is related to a number of factors, but most generally because of the different methodologies used to develop estimates of carbon stocks and flux, and the uncertainties inherent in each approach. The alternative approaches to estimating continental scale carbon fluxes that we explored here can be broadly classified as applying a top-down or bottom-up perspective. Top-down approaches calculate land-atmosphere carbon fluxes based on atmospheric budgets and inverse modeling. Bottom-up approaches rely primarily on measurements of carbon stock changes (the inventory approach) or on spatially distributed simulations of carbon stocks and/or fluxes using process-based modeling (the forward modelapproach).

Hayes, D. J.; Turner, D. P.; Stinson, Graham; McGuire, A. David; Wei, Yaxing; West, Tristram O.; Heath, L.; deJong, B.; McConkey, Brian; Birdsey, Richard A.; Kurz, Werner; Jacobson, Andy; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Pan, Y.; Post, W. M.; Cook, R. B.

2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

188

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composition and Reactions of Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Wednesday, 29 June 2005 00:00 Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while changing organic composition by 13 to 24% per day, an oxidation rate significantly slower than is currently used in atmospheric models. Since oxidation has a strong effect on particle lifetime in the atmosphere, these results will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change.

189

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while changing organic composition by 13 to 24% per day, an oxidation rate significantly slower than is currently used in atmospheric models. Since oxidation has a strong effect on particle lifetime in the atmosphere, these results will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change.

190

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while changing organic composition by 13 to 24% per day, an oxidation rate significantly slower than is currently used in atmospheric models. Since oxidation has a strong effect on particle lifetime in the atmosphere, these results will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change.

191

USING LIGA BASED MICROFABRICATION TO IMPROVE OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER EFFICIENCY OF PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR: I. Effects of Different Micro Pattern on Overall Heat Transfer.  

SciTech Connect

The Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs in Figure 1) were originally developed for naval propulsion purposes, and then adapted to land-based applications. It has three parts: the reactor coolant system, the steam generator and the condenser. The Steam generator (a yellow area in Figure 1) is a shell and tube heat exchanger with high-pressure primary water passing through the tube side and lower pressure secondary feed water as well as steam passing through the shell side. Therefore, a key issue in increasing the efficiency of heat exchanger is to improve the design of steam generator, which is directly translated into economic benefits. The past research works show that the presence of a pin-fin array in a channel enhances the heat transfer significantly. Hence, using microfabrication techniques, such as LIGA, micro-molding or electroplating, some special microstructures can be fabricated around the tubes in the heat exchanger to increase the heat-exchanging efficiency and reduce the overall size of the heat-exchanger for the given heat transfer rates. In this paper, micro-pin fins of different densities made of SU-8 photoresist are fabricated and studied to evaluate overall heat transfer efficiency. The results show that there is an optimized micro pin-fin configuration that has the best overall heat transfer effects.

Zhang, M.; Ibekwe, S.; Li, G.; Pang, S.S.; and Lian, K.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux in water-based nanofluids at low pressure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A nanofluid is a colloidal suspension of nano-scale particles in water, or other base fluids. Previous pool boiling studies have shown that nanofluids can improve the critical heat flux (CHF) by as much as 200%. In this ...

Kim, Sung Joong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Note: A portable, light-emitting diode-based ruby fluorescence spectrometer for high-pressure calibration  

SciTech Connect

Ruby (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, with {approx}0.5 wt. % Cr doping) is one of the most widely used manometers at the giga-Pascal scale. Traditionally, its fluorescence is excited with intense laser sources. Here, I present a simple, robust, and portable design that employs light-emitting diodes (LEDs) instead. This LED-based system is safer in comparison with laser-based ones.

Feng Yejun [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

194

CC Pressure Test  

SciTech Connect

The inner vessel heads including bypass and beam tubes had just been welded into place and dye penetrant checked. The vacuum heads were not on at this time but the vacuum shell was on covering the piping penetrating into the inner vessel. Signal boxes with all feed through boards, the instrumentation box, and high voltage boxes were all installed with their pump outs capped. All 1/4-inch instrumentation lines were terminated at their respective shutoff valves. All vacuum piping used for pumping down the inner vessel was isolated using o-ring sealed blind flanges. PV215A (VAT Series 12), the 4-inch VRC gate valve isolating the cyropump, and the rupture disk had to be removed and replaced with blind flanges before pressurizing due to their pressure limitations. Stresses in plates used as blind flanges were checked using Code calcualtions. Before the CC test, vacuum style blanks and clamps were hydrostatically pressure tested to 150% of the maximum test pressure, 60 psig. The Code inspector and Research Division Safety had all given their approval to the test pressure and procedure prior to filling the vessel with argon. The test was a major success. Based on the lack of any distinguishable pressure drop indicated on the pressure gages, the vessel appeared to be structurally sound throughout the duration of the test (approx. 3 hrs.). A major leak in the instrumentation tubing was discovered at half of the maximum test pressure and was quickly isolated by crimping and capping with a compression fitting. There were some slight deviations in the actual procedure used. The 44 psig relief valve located just outside the cleanroom had to be capped until the pressure in the vessel indicated 38 psi. This was to allow higher supply pressures and hence, higher flows through the pressurizing line. Also, in order to get pressure readings at the cryostat without exposing any personnel to the potentially dangerous stored energy near the maximum test pressure, a camera was installed at the top of the vessel to view the indicator mounted there. The monitor was viewed at the ante room adjacent to the cleanroom. The holding pressure of 32 psig (4/5 of the maximum test pressure) was only maintained for about 20 minutes instead of the half hour recommendation in the procedure. We felt that this was sufficient time to Snoop test and perform the pressure drop test. After the test was completed, the inspector for CBI Na-Con and the Research Divison Safety Officer signed all of required documentation.

Dixon, K.; /Fermilab

1990-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

195

Estimating the Fractal Dimension and the Predictability of the Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fractal dimension, Lyapunov-exponent spectrum, Kolmogorov entropy, and predictability are analyzed for chaotic attractors in the atmosphere by analyzing the time series of daily surface temperature and pressure over several regions of the ...

X. Zeng; R. A. Pielke; R. Eykholt

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Trend Analysis for Atmospheric Hydrocarbon Partitioning Using Continuous Thermodynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The partitioning of atmospheric hydrocarbons into vapor and condensed phases when the species count is large is considered using the formalism of continuous thermodynamics. The vapor saturation pressures and condensate species distribution are ...

K. Harstad

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

The Mass of the Atmosphere: A Constraint on Global Analyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The total mass of the atmosphere varies mainly from changes in water vapor loading; the former is proportional to global mean surface pressure and the water vapor component is computed directly from specific humidity and precipitable water using ...

Kevin E. Trenberth; Lesley Smith

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Climatic changes from increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. 1970-February 1981 (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for 1970-Feb 81  

SciTech Connect

The cited reports of Federally-funded research examine the relationship between climatic changes and an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Topics considered include the Greenhouse effect, global climatic models, and climatic effects from increased combustion of fossil fuels. (This updated bibliography contains 59 citations, 20 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

A Climatology of Diurnal and Semidiurnal Surface Wind Variations over the Tropical Pacific Ocean Based on the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Moored Buoy Array  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hourly measurements from 51 moored buoys in the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean array (9°N–8°S, 165°E–95°W) during 1993–2004 are used to document the climatological seasonal and annual mean patterns of diurnal and semidiurnal near-surface wind ...

Rei Ueyama; Clara Deser

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

PRESSURE TRANSDUCER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure or mechanical force transducer particularly adaptable to miniature telemetering systems is described. Basically the device consists of a transistor located within a magnetic field adapted to change in response to mechanical force. The conduction characteristics of the transistor in turn vary proportionally with changes in the magnetic flux across the transistor such that the output (either frequency of amplitude) of the transistor circuit is proportional to mechanical force or pressure.

Sander, H.H.

1959-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric pressure base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Evolution Dynamics of Tropical Ocean-Atmosphere Annual Cycle Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The structure of ocean-atmosphere annual cycle variability is extracted from the revised Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set SSTs, surface winds, and the latent heat (LH) and net shortwave (SW) surface fluxes using the covariance-based ...

Sumant Nigam; Yi Chao

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Estimates of Meridional Atmosphere and Ocean Heat Transports  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New estimates of the poleward energy transport based on atmospheric reanalyses from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ...

Kevin E. Trenberth; Julie M. Caron

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer. Part I: Instrument Design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer has been developed to measure the atmospheric downwelling infrared radiance spectrum at the earth's surface with high absolute accuracy. The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) ...

R. O. Knuteson; H. E. Revercomb; F. A. Best; N. C. Ciganovich; R. G. Dedecker; T. P. Dirkx; S. C. Ellington; W. F. Feltz; R. K. Garcia; H. B. Howell; W. L. Smith; J. F. Short; D. C. Tobin

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

The Boulder Atmospheric Observatory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) is a unique research facility for studying the planetary boundary layer and for testing and calibrating atmospheric sensors. The facility includes a 300 m tower instrumented with fast- and slow-response ...

J. C. Kaimal; J. E. Gaynor

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Observatory (UAO) Pilot Experiment at NYC" - Michael Reynolds, BNL 17:30 "EML Pilot Studies for the Urban Atmospheric Observatory" - Hsi-Na (Sam) Lee, EML 17:40 "A...

206

US Department of Energy`s high-temperature and high-pressure particulate cleanup for advanced coal-based power systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The availability of reliable, low-cost electricity is a cornerstone for the United States` ability to compete in the world market. The Department of Energy (DOE) projects the total consumption of electricity in the US to rise from 2.7 trillion kilowatt-hours in 1990 to 3.5 trillion in 2010. Although energy sources are diversifying, fossil fuel still produces 90 percent of the nation`s energy. Coal is our most abundant fossil fuel resource and the source of 56 percent of our electricity. It has been the fuel of choice because of its availability and low cost. A new generation of high-efficiency power systems has made it possible to continue the use of coal while still protecting the environment. Such power systems greatly reduce the pollutants associated with cola-fired plants built before the 1970s. To realize this high efficiency and superior environmental performance, advanced coal-based power systems will require gas stream cleanup under high-temperature and high-pressure (HTHP) process conditions. Presented in this paper are the HTHP particulate capture requirements for the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion (PFBC) power systems, the HTHP particulate cleanup systems being implemented in the PFBC and IGCC Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Projects, and the currently available particulate capture performance results.

Dennis, R.A.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Near-Continuous Profiling of Temperature, Moisture, and Atmospheric Stability Using the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) has funded the development and installation of five ground-based atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) systems at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The ...

W. F. Feltz; W. L. Smith; H. B. Howell; R. O. Knuteson; H. Woolf; H. E. Revercomb

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Investigation on the effects of ultra-high pressure and temperature on the rheological properties of oil-based drilling fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Designing a fit-for-purpose drilling fluid for high-pressure, high-temperature (HP/HT) operations is one of the greatest technological challenges facing the oil and gas industry today. Typically, a drilling fluid is subjected to increasing temperature and pressure with depth. While higher temperature decreases the drilling fluid’s viscosity due to thermal expansion, increased pressure increases its viscosity by compression. Under these extreme conditions, well control issues become more complicated and can easily be masked by methane and hydrogen sulfide solubility in oil-base fluids frequently used in HP/HT operations. Also current logging tools are at best not reliable since the anticipated bottom-hole temperature is often well above their operating limit. The Literature shows limited experimental data on drilling fluid properties beyond 350°F and 20,000 psig. The practice of extrapolation of fluid properties at some moderate level to extreme-HP/HT (XHP/HT) conditions is obsolete and could result in significant inaccuracies in hydraulics models. This research is focused on developing a methodology for testing drilling fluids at XHP/HT conditions using an automated viscometer. This state-of-the-art viscometer is capable of accurately measuring drilling fluids properties up to 600°F and 40,000 psig. A series of factorial experiments were performed on typical XHP/HT oil-based drilling fluids to investigate their change in rheology at these extreme conditions (200 to 600°F and 15,000 to 40,000 psig). Detailed statistical analyses involving: analysis of variance, hypothesis testing, evaluation of residuals and multiple linear regression are implemented using data from the laboratory experiments. I have developed the FluidStats program as an effective statistical tool for characterizing drilling fluids at XHP/HT conditions using factorial experiments. Results from the experiments show that different drilling fluids disintegrate at different temperatures depending on their composition (i.e. weighting agent, additives, oil/water ratio etc). The combined pressure-temperature effect on viscosity is complex. At high thresholds, the temperature effect is observed to be more dominant while the pressure effect is more pronounced at low temperatures. This research is vital because statistics show that well control incident rates for non- HP/HT wells range between 4% to 5% whereas for HP/HT wells, it is as high as 100% to 200%. It is pertinent to note that over 50% of the world’s proven oil and gas reserves lie below 14,000 ft subsea according to the Minerals Management Service (MMS). Thus drilling in HP/HT environment is fast becoming a common place especially in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) where HP/HT resistant drilling fluids are increasingly being used to ensure safe and successful operations.

Ibeh, Chijioke Stanley

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Atmospheric particulate emissions from dry abrasive blasting using coal slag  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal slag is one of the widely used abrasives in dry abrasive blasting. Atmospheric emissions from this process include particulate matter (PM) and heavy metals, such as chromium, lead, manganese, nickel. Quantities and characteristics of PM emissions depend on abrasive characteristics and process parameters. Emission factors are key inputs to estimate emissions. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of blast pressure, abrasive feed rate, and initial surface contamination on total PM (TPM) emission factors for coal slag. Rusted and painted mild steel surfaces were used as base plates. Blasting was carried out in an enclosed chamber, and PM was collected from an exhaust duct using U.S. Environment Protection Agency source sampling methods for stationary sources. Results showed that there is significant effect of blast pressure, feed rate, and surface contamination on TPM emissions. Mathematical equations were developed to estimate emission factors in terms of mass of emissions per unit mass of abrasive used, as well as mass of emissions per unit of surface area cleaned. These equations will help industries in estimating PM emissions based on blast pressure and abrasive feed rate. In addition, emissions can be reduced by choosing optimum operating conditions. 40 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Bhaskar Kura; Kalpalatha Kambham; Sivaramakrishnan Sangameswaran; Sandhya Potana [University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

210

Removal of Atmospheric Effects prom AVHRR Albedos  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on numerical simulations, coefficients are determined to be used in a linear relationship between clear-sky planetary albedo and surface albedo. Thew coefficients are given as functions of solar zenith angle and atmospheric parameters for ...

Peter Koepke

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Exploring Atmospheric Aerosols by Twilight Photometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The instrument twilight photometer was designed, developed, and installed at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune, India (18°43?N, 73°51?E), to monitor the vertical distribution of atmospheric aerosols. The instrument, based ...

B. Padma Kumari; S. H. Kulkarni; D. B. Jadhav; A. L. Londhe; H. K. Trimbake

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

ECN Pressure Test  

SciTech Connect

This note describes: the rationale for the test pressure of the inner ECN cryostat vessel, the equipment to be used in this test, the test procedure, the status of the vessel prior to the test, the actual test results, and a schematic diagram of the testing set up and the pressure testing permit. The test, performed in the evening of July 17, 1991, was a major success. Based on a neglible pressure drop indicated on the pressure gages (1/4 psi), the vessel appeared to be structurally sound throughout the duration of the test (approx. 1.5 hrs.). No pressure increases were observed on the indicators looking at the beam tube bellows volumes. There was no indication of bubbles form the soap test on the welds and most of the fittings that were checked. There were some slight deviations in the actual procedure used. The UO filter was removed after the vessel had bled down to about 18 psig in order to speed up that aspect of the test. The rationale was that the higher velocity gas had already passed through at the higher pressures and there was no visible traces of the black uo particles. The rate of 4 psi/10 minutes seemed incredibly slow and often that time was reduced to just over half that rate. The testing personnel was allowed to stay in the pit throughout the duration of the test; this was a slight relaxation of the rules.

Dixon, K.; /Fermilab

1991-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

213

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 ARM 2003 Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement WARNING! WARNING! Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Two Topics Two Topics * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ARM Status - Science ARM Status - Science * Steadily increasing productivity - Poster session - over 220 posters (may need to do something about submissions next year) - Peer-reviewed articles: 2.5 to 3 per year per

214

Development of a 3D atmospheric radiative transfer model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 3D atmospheric radiative transfer model is established based on MODTRAN4. Moreover, the methods of calculating the ratio of atmospheric transmission, path radiation and single scattering solar radiation are presented. This 3D model is running by ... Keywords: MODTRAN4, atmospheric radiative transfer model, infrared radiation

Zhifeng Lu; Ge Li; Gang Guo; Kedi Huang

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

SciTech Connect

Characterizing flow patterns and mixing of fossil fuel-derived CO{sub 2} is important for effectively using atmospheric measurements to constrain emissions inventories. Here we used measurements and a model of atmospheric radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) to investigate the distribution and fluxes of atmospheric fossil fuel CO{sub 2} across the state of California. We sampled {sup 14}C in annual C{sub 3} grasses at 128 sites and used these measurements to test a regional model that simulated anthropogenic and ecosystem CO{sub 2} fluxes, transport in the atmosphere, and the resulting {sup 14}C of annual grasses ({Delta}{sub g}). Average measured {Delta}{sub g} in Los Angeles, San Francisco, the Central Valley, and the North Coast were 27.7 {+-} 20.0, 44.0 {+-} 10.9, 48.7 {+-} 1.9, and 59.9 {+-} 2.5{per_thousand}, respectively, during the 2004-2005 growing season. Model predictions reproduced regional patterns reasonably well, with estimates of 27.6 {+-} 2.4, 39.4 {+-} 3.9, 46.8 {+-} 3.0, and 59.3 {+-} 0.2{per_thousand} for these same regions and corresponding to fossil fuel CO{sub 2} mixing ratios (Cf) of 13.7, 6.1, 4.8, and 0.3 ppm. {Delta}{sub g} spatial heterogeneity in Los Angeles and San Francisco was higher in the measurements than in the predictions, probably from insufficient spatial resolution in the fossil fuel inventories (e.g., freeways are not explicitly included) and transport (e.g., within valleys). We used the model to predict monthly and annual transport patterns of fossil fuel-derived CO{sub 2} within and out of California. Fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emitted in Los Angeles and San Francisco was predicted to move into the Central Valley, raising Cf above that expected from local emissions alone. Annually, about 21, 39, 35, and 5% of fossil fuel emissions leave the California airspace to the north, east, south, and west, respectively, with large seasonal variations in the proportions. Positive correlations between westward fluxes and Santa Ana wind conditions were observed. The southward fluxes over the Pacific Ocean were maintained in a relatively coherent flow within the marine boundary layer, while the eastward fluxes were more vertically dispersed. Our results indicate that state and continental scale atmospheric inversions need to consider areas where concentration measurements are sparse (e.g., over the ocean to the south and west of California), transport within and across the marine boundary layer, and terrestrial boundary layer dynamics. Measurements of {Delta}{sub g} can be very useful in constraining these estimates.

Riley, W.J.; Hsueh, D.Y.; Randerson, J.T.; Fischer, M.L.; Hatch, J.G.; Pataki, D.E.; Wang, W.; Goulden, M.L.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Development of an assessment methodology for geopressured zones of the upper Gulf Coast based on a study of abnormally pressured gas fields in south Texas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Detailed study of the producing gas fields in south Texas has identified a total of 47 abnormally pressured fields in a six-county area including Hidalgo, Brooks, Cameron, Willacy, Kenedy, and Live Oak Counties. An assessment methodology for assessing the potential of the deep geopressured zone in south Texas as an energy resource was developed, based on investigation of the reservoir parameters of these fields. This methodology is transferrable to broad areas of the Gulf Coast. The depth of the geopressured zone in the study area ranges from 7000 ft in western Hidalgo to 12,000 ft in central Cameron County. Temperature data from within the fields, corrected to undisturbed reservoir values, yields a 300/sup 0/F isogeothermal surface at depths from 10,500 ft to 17,000 ft over the study area. The question of fluid deliverability was found to be paramount in determining the potential of the geopressure-geothermal resource as a practical source of energy. The critical parameter is the effective reservoir permeability throughout the study region. Individual fields were assessed for their potential to produce large quantities of geothermal fluid based on reservoir study and detailed geological investigation. Five locations within the study region have been selected as potential candidates for further evaluation and possible eventual testing. Based on investigation of permeability and temperature, the upper limit of fluid temperature likely to be produced in the lower south Texas study region is 300/sup 0/F. In Live Oak County, the possibility of producing fluid at higher temperatures is somewhat improved, with a reasonable possibility of producing fluid at 350/sup 0/ to 375/sup 0/F.

Swanson, R K; Oetking, P; Osoba, J S; Hagens, R C

1976-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Reconciling estimates of the contemporary North American carbon balance among terrestrial biosphere models, atmospheric inversions and a new approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange from inventory-based data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We develop an approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange (NEE) using inventory-based information over North America (NA) for a recent 7-year period (ca. 2000 2006). The approach notably retains information on the spatial distribution of NEE, or the vertical exchange between land and atmosphere of all non-fossil fuel sources and sinks of CO2, while accounting for lateral transfers of forest and crop products as well as their eventual emissions. The total NEE estimate of a 327 252 TgC yr1 sink for NA was driven primarily by CO2 uptake in the Forest Lands sector (248 TgC yr1), largely in the Northwest and Southeast regions of the US, and in the Crop Lands sector (297 TgC yr1), predominantly in the Midwest US states. These sinks are counteracted by the carbon source estimated for the Other Lands sector (+218 TgC yr1), where much of the forest and crop products are assumed to be returned to the atmosphere (through livestock and human consumption). The ecosystems of Mexico are estimated tobe a small net source (+18 TgC yr1) due to land use change between 1993 and 2002. We compare these inventorybased estimates with results from a suite of terrestrial biosphere and atmospheric inversion models, where the mean continental-scale NEE estimate for each ensemble is 511 TgC yr1 and 931 TgC yr1, respectively. In the modeling approaches, all sectors, including Other Lands, were generally estimated to be a carbon sink, driven in part by assumed CO2 fertilization and/or lack of consideration of carbon sources from disturbances and product emissions. Additional fluxes not measured by the inventories, although highly uncertain, could add an additional 239 TgC yr1 to the inventory-based NA sink estimate, thus suggesting some convergence with the modeling approaches.

Hayes, Daniel J [ORNL; Turner, David P [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Stinson, Graham [Pacific Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service; Mcguire, David [University of Alaska; Wei, Yaxing [ORNL; West, Tristram O. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, PNNL; Heath, Linda S. [USDA Forest Service; De Jong, Bernardus [ECOSUR; McConkey, Brian G. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada; Birdsey, Richard A. [U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service; Kurz, Werner [Canadian Forest Service; Jacobson, Andrew [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Huntzinger, Deborah [University of Michigan; Pan, Yude [U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Cook, Robert B [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Robotic Joint Torque Testing: A Critical Tool in the Development of Pressure Suit Mobility Elements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pressure suits allow pilots and astronauts to survive in extreme environments at the edge of Earth’s atmosphere and in the vacuum of space. One obstacle that pilots and astronauts face is that gas-pressurized suits stiffen ...

Meyen, Forrest Edward

219

Influence of a Tropical Island Mountain on Solar Radiation, Air Temperature and Vapor Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measured solar radiation, air temperature, and water vapor pressure at 17 stations on the northwest flank of Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii are compared with modeled clear day solar radiation and free atmosphere air temperature and water vapor pressure. ...

Dennis Nullet

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

The Role of Terrain and Pressure Stresses in Rocky Mountain Lee Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The earth–atmosphere exchange of storm absolute dynamic circulation by mountain-induced surface pressure stress and the response of the circulation in a Rocky Mountain Ice cyclone is examined. Surface pressure stresses that transfer horizontal ...

Alan C. Czarnetzki; Donald R. Johnson

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric pressure base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Radiosonde Pressure Sensor Performance: Evaluation Using Tracking Radars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The pressure sensors on balloon-borne sondes relate the sonde measurements to height above the earth's surface through the hypsometric equation. It is crucial that sondes used to explore the vertical structure of the atmosphere do not contribute ...

C. L. Parsons; G. A. Norcross; R. L. Brooks

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Sea Level Pressure Minimum along the Kuroshio and Its Extension  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric effects of sea surface temperature (SST) fronts along the Kuroshio and Kuroshio Extension (K-KE) are investigated by examining spatial characteristics of the climatological sea level pressure (SLP), surface winds and surface heat flux (...

Youichi Tanimoto; Tomohisa Kanenari; Hiroki Tokinaga; Shang-Ping Xie

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Meteorological Variability and the Annual Surface Pressure Cycle on Mars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is commonly admitted that the seasonal surface pressure cycle, observed on Mars by the two Viking landers, is due to condensation and sublimation of the atmospheric carbon dioxide in the polar caps. A three Martian year numerical simulation ...

Frédéric Hourdin; Phu Le Van; François Forget; Olivier Talagrand

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

A Volcanologist'S Review Of Atmospheric Hazards Of Volcanic Activity...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

1982). Evidence based on measurements of S and Cl in erupted rocks, glass inclusions, gas samples, and atmospheric samples collected for both Mount St. Helens and Fuego...

225

Total atmospheric emissivities for a tropical climate  

SciTech Connect

The total atmospheric flux emissivities as a function of water vapor optical depth are reported for meteorological condtions in Thailand. The water vapor optical depth was first calculated as a function of height up to 12 km from the annual average upper air pressures, temperature, and dew points at Bangkok. The flux emissivity was then computed using tabulated data for the flux emissivities of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone at 20/sup 0/C. (SPH)

Exell, R.H.B.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

NETL: Pressure Swing Absorption Device  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pressure Swing Absorption Device and Process for Separating CO2 from Shifted Syngas and its Capture for Subsequent Storage Pressure Swing Absorption Device and Process for Separating CO2 from Shifted Syngas and its Capture for Subsequent Storage Project No.: DE-FE0001323 New Jersey Institute of Technology is developing an advanced pressure swing absorption-based (PSAB) device via laboratory-based experiments. The device will be used to accomplish a cyclic process to process low temperature post-shift-reactor synthesis gas resulting from the gasification process into purified hydrogen at high pressure for use by the combustion turbine of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant. The overall goal of the proposed work is to develop an advanced PSAB device and cyclic process for use in a coal-fired IGCC plant to produce purified hydrogen at high pressure and a highly purified CO2 stream suitable for use or sequestration.

227

Free Floating Atmospheric Pressure Ball Plasmas | Princeton Plasma...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Join Our Mailing List A Collaborative National Center for Fusion & Plasma Research Search form Search Search Home About Overview Learn More Visiting PPPL History...

228

Materials Reliability Program: High-Strength Structural Bolting and Nickel-Base Alloy Components in B&W-Design Pressurized Water Rea ctor Internals (MRP-273)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document summarizes information pertinent to the seven currently operating B&W-design 177-FA (fuel assembly) pressurized water reactors (PWRs) for the EPRI Materials Reliability Program (MRP).

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

229

A Coupled Atmosphere–Wave–Ocean Modeling System: Simulation of the Intensity of an Idealized Tropical Cyclone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A coupled atmosphere–wave–ocean modeling system (CAWOMS) based on the integration of atmosphere–wave, atmosphere–ocean, and wave–current interaction processes is developed. The component models consist of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)...

Bin Liu; Huiqing Liu; Lian Xie; Changlong Guan; Dongliang Zhao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Simulation of Atmospheric Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A spectral atmospheric circulation model is time-integrated for approximately 18 years. The model has a global computational domain and realistic geography and topography. The model undergoes an annual cycle as daily values of seasonally varying ...

Syukuro Manabe; Douglas G. Hahn

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Atmospheric Laser Communication  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric laser communication, often referred to as free-space optics (FSO) or free-space laser (FSL) communication, is similar to fiber optic cable in terms of carrier wavelength and bandwidth capability, but data are transmitted directly ...

Kenneth W. Fischer*Michael R. Witiw; Jeffrey A. Baars+; T. R. Oke

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Atmospheric Available Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The total potential energy of the atmosphere is the sum of its internal and gravitational energies. The portion of this total energy available to be converted into kinetic energy is determined relative to an isothermal, hydrostatic, equilibrium ...

Peter R. Bannon

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Determination of Atmospheric Temperature Profiles from a Statistical Combination of Ground-Based Profiler and Operational NOAA 6/7 Satellite Retrievals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiometric soundings from the Wave Propagation Laboratory's ground-based Profiler, the NOAA 6/7 satellites, and the combination of the two, were compared in their ability to derive temperature and moisture profiles. Radiosonde data for the ...

E. R. Westwater; W. B. Sweezy; L. M. McMillin; Charles Dean

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

The role of GPS precipitable water vapor and atmosphere stability index in the statistically-based rainfall estimation using MTSAT data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A rainfall estimation method was developed based on the statistical relationships between cloud top temperature and rainfall rates acquired by both the 10.8 ?m channel of the Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) series and the Automated ...

Dwi Prabowo Yuga Suseno; Tomohito J. Yamada

235

Electrochemical cell having improved pressure vent  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The electrochemical cell of the instant invention includes a case having a gas outlet, one or more positive electrodes positioned within the case, one or more negative electrodes positioned within the case electrode separators positioned between the positive and negative electrodes, electrolyte positioned within the case, and a pressure vent for releasing internal pressure occurring in the case to the surrounding atmosphere. The pressure vent is affixed to the case covering the gas outlet, the pressure vent includes a vent housing having a hollow interior area in gaseous communication with the surrounding atmosphere and the interior of the case via the gas outlet, a pressure release piston positioned within the hollow interior area, the pressure release piston sized to surround the gas outlet and having a seal groove configured to encapsulate all but one surface of a seal mounted within the seal groove, leaving the non-encapsulated surface of the seal exposed, and a compression spring positioned to urge the pressure release piston to compress the seal in the seal groove and block the gas outlet in the case.

Dean, Kevin (Pontiac, MI); Holland, Arthur (Troy, MI); Fillmore, Donn (Waterford, MI)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA); Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA); Hencken, Kenneth R. (Pleasanton, CA); Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Neyer, David W. (Castro Valley, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

ON THE STABILITY OF SUPER-EARTH ATMOSPHERES  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the stability of super-Earth atmospheres around M stars using a seven-parameter, analytical framework. We construct stability diagrams in the parameter space of exoplanetary radius versus semimajor axis and elucidate the regions in which the atmospheres are stable against the condensation of their major constituents, out of the gas phase, on their permanent nightside hemispheres. We find that super-Earth atmospheres that are nitrogen-dominated (Earth-like) occupy a smaller region of allowed parameter space, compared to hydrogen-dominated atmospheres, because of the dual effects of diminished advection and enhanced radiative cooling. Furthermore, some super-Earths which reside within the habitable zones of M stars may not possess stable atmospheres, depending on the mean molecular weight and infrared photospheric pressure of their atmospheres. We apply our stability diagrams to GJ 436b and GJ 1214b, and demonstrate that atmospheric compositions with high mean molecular weights are disfavored if these exoplanets possess solid surfaces and shallow atmospheres. Finally, we construct stability diagrams tailored to the Kepler data set, for G and K stars, and predict that about half of the exoplanet candidates are expected to harbor stable atmospheres if Earth-like conditions are assumed. We include 55 Cancri e and CoRoT-7b in our stability diagram for G stars.

Heng, Kevin [ETH Zuerich, Institute for Astronomy, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093, Zuerich (Switzerland); Kopparla, Pushkar [ETH Zuerich, Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092, Zuerich (Switzerland)

2012-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

238

Early evolution of the terrestrial atmosphere and hydrosphere  

SciTech Connect

A possible picture is outlined for the evolution of the primitive atmosphere and hydrosphere of the earth: the surface temperature would have been below 0/sup 0/C initially (since the solar constant was lower than today), and the injection of CO/sub 2/ into the atmosphere would not have been balanced by Urey equilibrium processes because of the lack of contact with liquid water. The greenhouse effect in the primitive atmosphere would have melted the ice in the equatorial zone after a time interval of order 10/sup 8/ yr, when the CO/sub 2/ pressure had risen to 1 atm.

Mukhin, L.M.; Moroz, V.I.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Fundamentals of high pressure adsorption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-pressure adsorption attracts research interests following the world's attention to alternative fuels, and it exerts essential effect on the study of hydrogen/methane storage and the development of novel materials addressing to the storage. However, theoretical puzzles in high-pressure adsorption hindered the progress of application studies. Therefore, the present paper addresses the major theoretical problems that challenged researchers: i.e., how to model the isotherms with maximum observed in high-pressure adsorption; what is the adsorption mechanism at high pressures; how do we determine the quantity of absolute adsorption based on experimental data. Ideology and methods to tackle these problems are elucidated, which lead to new insights into the nature of high-pressure adsorption and progress in application studies, for example, in modeling multicomponent adsorption, hydrogen storage, natural gas storage, and coalbed methane enrichment, was achieved.

Zhou, Y.P.; Zhou, L. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). High Pressure Adsorption Laboratory

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

240

Non-linear Evolution of Rayleigh-Taylor Instability in a Radiation Supported Atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The non-linear regime of Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) in a radiation supported atmosphere, consisting of two uniform fluids with different densities, is studied numerically. We perform simulations using our recently developed numerical algorithm for multi-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics based on a variable Eddington tensor as implemented in Athena, focusing on the regime where scattering opacity greatly exceeds absorption opacity. We find that the radiation field can reduce the growth and mixing rate of RTI, but this reduction is only significant when radiation pressure significantly exceeds gas pressure. Small scale structures are also suppressed in this case. In the non-linear regime, dense fingers sink faster than rarefied bubbles can rise, leading to asymmetric structures about the interface. By comparing the calculations that use a variable Eddington tensor (VET) versus the Eddington approximation, we demonstrate that anisotropy in the radiation field can affect the non-linear development of RTI...

Jiang, Yan-Fei; Stone, James

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric pressure base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Surface texturing of superconductors by controlled oxygen pressure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of manufacture of a textured layer of a high temperature superconductor on a substrate is disclosed. The method involves providing an untextured high temperature superconductor material having a characteristic ambient pressure peritectic melting point, heating the superconductor to a temperature below the peritectic temperature, establishing a reduced pO{sub 2} atmosphere below ambient pressure causing reduction of the peritectic melting point to a reduced temperature which causes melting from an exposed surface of the superconductor and raising pressure of the reduced pO{sub 2} atmosphere to cause solidification of the molten superconductor in a textured surface layer. 8 figs.

Chen, N.; Goretta, K.C.; Dorris, S.E.

1999-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

242

Surface texturing of superconductors by controlled oxygen pressure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of manufacture of a textured layer of a high temperature superconductor on a substrate. The method involves providing an untextured high temperature superconductor material having a characteristic ambient pressure peritectic melting point, heating the superconductor to a temperature below the peritectic temperature, establishing a reduced pO.sub.2 atmosphere below ambient pressure causing reduction of the peritectic melting point to a reduced temperature which causes melting from an exposed surface of the superconductor and raising pressure of the reduced pO.sub.2 atmosphere to cause solidification of the molten superconductor in a textured surface layer.

Chen, Nan (Downers Grove, IL); Goretta, Kenneth C. (Downers Grove, IL); Dorris, Stephen E. (La Grange Park, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

temperature temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric temperature The temperature indicated by a thermometer exposed to the air in a place sheltered from direct solar radiation. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AERI : Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer SONDE : Balloon-Borne Sounding System CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System

244

Article Atmospheric Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

© The Author(s) 2012. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com csb.scichina.com www.springer.com/scp © The Author(s) 2012. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com csb.scichina.com www.springer.com/scp *Corresponding author (email: luchunsong110@gmail.com) Article Atmospheric Science February 2013 Vol.58 No.4-5: 545  551 doi: 10.1007/s11434-012-5556-6 A method for distinguishing and linking turbulent entrainment mixing and collision-coalescence in stratocumulus clouds LU ChunSong 1,2* , LIU YanGang 2 & NIU ShengJie 1 1 Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Physics and Environment of China Meteorological Administration, Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China; 2 Atmospheric Sciences Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York 11973, USA

245

Fast track article: Disaggregated water sensing from a single, pressure-based sensor: An extended analysis of HydroSense using staged experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an extended analysis of our previous work on the HydroSense technology, which is a low-cost and easily installed single-point sensor of pressure for automatically disaggregating water usage activities in the home (Froehlich et al., 2009 [53]). ... Keywords: Activity sensing, H1.2, H5.2, Infrastructure-mediated sensing, Sensors, Water usage

Eric Larson; Jon Froehlich; Tim Campbell; Conor Haggerty; Les Atlas; James Fogarty; Shwetak N. Patel

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact high pressure hydraulic pump having no moving mechanical parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force. The electrokinetic pump, which can generate hydraulic pressures greater than 2500 psi, can be employed to compress a fluid, either liquid or gas, and manipulate fluid flow. The pump is particularly useful for capillary-base systems. By combining the electrokinetic pump with a housing having chambers separated by a flexible member, fluid flow, including high pressure fluids, is controlled by the application of an electric potential, that can vary with time.

Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

P Pressure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is an electro-chemical energy conversion technology that runs on natural gas and employs a molten salt electrolyte. In order to keep the electrolyte in this state, the cell must be kept at a temperature above 500 ? C, eliminating the need for precious metals as the catalyst. There has been only a limited amount of research on modelling the transport processes inside this device, mainly due to its restricted applicability for mobile applications. In this work, three one-dimensional models of a MCFC cathode are presented based on different types of diffusion and convection. Comparisons between models are performed so as to assess their validity. Regarding ion transport, it is shown that there exists a limiting case for ion migration across the cathode that depends on the conductivity for the liquid potential. Finally, an optimization of the diffusivity across the cathode is carried out in an attempt to increase the cell performance and its longevity.

Peter Berg; Justin Findlay; T Temperature

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Mercury Vapor Pressure Correlation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An apparent difference between the historical mercury vapor concentration equations used by the mercury atmospheric measurement community ...

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

249

Precomputed atmospheric scattering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a new and accurate method to render the atmosphere in real time from any viewpoint from ground level to outer space, while taking Rayleigh and Mie multiple scattering into account. Our method reproduces many effects of the scattering of light, ...

Eric Bruneton; Fabrice Neyret

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

The Mean Meridional Circulation of the Atmosphere Using the Mass above Isentropes as the Vertical Coordinate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mean meridional circulation of the atmosphere is presented using the mass (more specifically, the pressure corresponding to the mass) above the isentrope of interest as the vertical coordinate. In this vertical coordinate, the mass-weighted ...

Gang Chen

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

A Characterization of the Present-Day Arctic Atmosphere in CCSM4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulation of key features of the Arctic atmosphere in the Community Climate System Model, version 4 (CCSM4) is evaluated against observational and reanalysis datasets for the present-day (1981–2005). Surface air temperature, sea level pressure, ...

Gijs de Boer; William Chapman; Jennifer E. Kay; Brian Medeiros; Matthew D. Shupe; Steve Vavrus; John Walsh

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Jeffreys' Drag Instability Applied to Waves in the Lower Atmosphere: Linear and Nonlinear Growth Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a geostrophically balanced region of the atmosphere the horizontal pressure gradients do no work since they are aligned at right angles to the winds, but near the earth's surface where friction destroys geostrophic balance these large-scale ...

George Chimonas

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

pressure | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

pressure pressure Dataset Summary Description This raw data reflects readings from instruments mounted on or near a 82 meter meteorological tower located at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), approximately 5 miles south of Boulder, CO (specifically: 39.9107 N, 105.2348 W, datum WGS84). The base elevation at the site is 1,855 meters AMSL. Source NREL Date Released Unknown Date Updated March 10th, 2011 (3 years ago) Keywords DOE humidity irrandiance NREL NWTC pressure temperature turbulence wind wind direction wind speed Data text/plain icon Raw data (8/24/2001 - 3/10/2011) (txt, 681 KiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon Field IDs for above .txt file (xls, 69.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Scientists and Technicians are notified real-time via email of instruments outside the above min/max or delta comparisons (http://www.nrel.gov/midc/nwtc_m2/) Data have not been reviewed for accuracy or completeness; disclaimer available (http://www.nrel.gov/disclaimer.html).

254

Pressure Induced Phase Transformation of Pb(Zr(0.95)Ti(0.05))O(3) Based Ceramics: Grain Size Dependence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A substantial decrease in hydrostatic ferroelectric (FE) to antiferroelectric (AFE) transformation pressure was measured for Pb(Zr{sub 0.949}Ti{sub 0.051}){sub 0.989}Nb{sub 0.0182}O{sub 3} ceramics with decreasing grain size. The 150 MPa decrease in hydrostatic FE to AFE transformation pressure over the grain size range of 8.5 {micro}m to 0.7{micro}m was shown to be consistent with enhanced internal stress with decreasing grain size. Further, the Curie Point decreased and the dielectric constant measured at 25 C increased with decreasing grain size. All three properties: dielectric constant magnitude, Curie point shift and FE to AFE phase transformation pressure were shown to be semi-quantitatively consistent with internal stress differences on the order of 100 MPa. Calculations of Curie point shifts from the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, using internal stress levels derived from the hydrostatic depoling characteristics, were consistent with measured values.

TUTTLE,BRUCE A.; VOIGT,JAMES A.; SCOFIELD,TIMOTHY W.; ASELAGE,TERRENCE L.; RODRIGUEZ,MARK A.; YANG,PIN; ZEUCH,DAVID H.; OLSON,WALTER R.; SIPOLA,DIANA L.

1999-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

255

ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Integrated Column Description An Integrated Column Description of the Atmosphere An Integrated Column Description of the Atmosphere Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Pacific Northwest National Laboratory The "other" Washington ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Credits to Credits to * Ric Cederwall * Xiquan Dong * Chuck Long * Jay Mace * Mark Miller * Robin Perez * Dave Turner and the rest of the ARM science team * Ric Cederwall * Xiquan Dong * Chuck Long * Jay Mace * Mark Miller * Robin Perez * Dave Turner and the rest of the ARM science team ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Outline Outline * A little philosophy

256

pressure_measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... piston gauges, ball gages, pressure transducers, pressure gauges, non-mercurial barometers, and manometers in both gas and oil media using ...

2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

257

Gas pressure reduction circuits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This note describes passive pressure reduction devices for use with sensitive instruments. Two gas circuits are developed which not only provide a pressure reduction under flow demand

D. W. Guillaume; D. DeVries

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

AN ANALYTIC RADIATIVE-CONVECTIVE MODEL FOR PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an analytic one-dimensional radiative-convective model of the thermal structure of planetary atmospheres. Our model assumes that thermal radiative transfer is gray and can be represented by the two-stream approximation. Model atmospheres are assumed to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, with a power-law scaling between the atmospheric pressure and the gray thermal optical depth. The convective portions of our models are taken to follow adiabats that account for condensation of volatiles through a scaling parameter to the dry adiabat. By combining these assumptions, we produce simple, analytic expressions that allow calculations of the atmospheric-pressure-temperature profile, as well as expressions for the profiles of thermal radiative flux and convective flux. We explore the general behaviors of our model. These investigations encompass (1) worlds where atmospheric attenuation of sunlight is weak, which we show tend to have relatively high radiative-convective boundaries; (2) worlds with some attenuation of sunlight throughout the atmosphere, which we show can produce either shallow or deep radiative-convective boundaries, depending on the strength of sunlight attenuation; and (3) strongly irradiated giant planets (including hot Jupiters), where we explore the conditions under which these worlds acquire detached convective regions in their mid-tropospheres. Finally, we validate our model and demonstrate its utility through comparisons to the average observed thermal structure of Venus, Jupiter, and Titan, and by comparing computed flux profiles to more complex models.

Robinson, Tyler D. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Catling, David C., E-mail: robinson@astro.washington.edu [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Box 351310, Seattle, WA 98195-1310 (United States)

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

259

Atmospheric Heat Engines on Earth and Mars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The character of the Earth's atmospheric heat engine depends, inter alia, on the relatively tight linkage between surface fluxes of energy and of H20. On Mars, on the other hand, H2O-based latent heat fluxes are only a trivial fraction of total ...

J. R. Philip

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Analysis methods for Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescopes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three different analysis techniques for Atmospheric Imaging System are presented. The classical Hillas parameters based technique is shown to be robust and efficient, but more elaborate techniques can improve the sensitivity of the analysis. A comparison of the different analysis techniques shows that they use different information for gamma-hadron separation, and that it is possible to combine their qualities.

Mathieu de Naurois

2006-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric pressure base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Profiling Atmospheric Water Vapor by Microwave Radiometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-altitude microwave radiometric observations at frequencies near 92 and 183.3 GHz were used to study the potential of retrieving atmospheric water vapor profiles over both land and water. An algorithm based on an extended Kaiman-Bucy filter ...

J. R. Wang; J. L. King; T. T. Wilheit; G. Szejwach; L. H. Gesell; R. A. Nieman; D. S. Niver; B. M. Krupp; J. A. Gagliano

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

(Barrels per Calendar Day) (Barrels per Calendar Day) Data Series: Total Number of Operable Refineries Number of Operating Refineries Number of Idle Refineries Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/SD) Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Total Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Delayed Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD Thermal Cracking Fluid Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Visbreaking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Other/Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Cracking Fresh Feed Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Cracking Recycle Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Residual Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Low Pressure Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming High Pressure Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating/Desulfurization Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Naphtha/Reformer Feed Charge Cap (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Gasoline Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Heavy Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Kerosene/Jet Fuel Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Diesel Fuel Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Other Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Residual/Other Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Residual Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Other Oils Charge Capacity (B/SD) Fuels Solvent Deasphalting Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Total Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Catalytic Cracking Fresh Feed Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Period:

263

Atmospheric Correction Algorithm for Hyperspectral Imagery  

SciTech Connect

In December 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established a Center of Excellence (Hyperspectral-Multispectral Algorithm Research Center, HyMARC) for promoting the research and development of algorithms to exploit spectral imagery. This center is located at the DOE Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, and is operated for the DOE by Bechtel Nevada. This paper presents the results to date of a research project begun at the center during 1998 to investigate the correction of hyperspectral data for atmospheric aerosols. Results of a project conducted by the Rochester Institute of Technology to define, implement, and test procedures for absolute calibration and correction of hyperspectral data to absolute units of high spectral resolution imagery will be presented. Hybrid techniques for atmospheric correction using image or spectral scene data coupled through radiative propagation models will be specifically addressed. Results of this effort to analyze HYDICE sensor data will be included. Preliminary results based on studying the performance of standard routines, such as Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption and Nonlinear Least Squares Spectral Fit, in retrieving reflectance spectra show overall reflectance retrieval errors of approximately one to two reflectance units in the 0.4- to 2.5-micron-wavelength region (outside of the absorption features). These results are based on HYDICE sensor data collected from the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site during overflights conducted in July of 1997. Results of an upgrade made in the model-based atmospheric correction techniques, which take advantage of updates made to the moderate resolution atmospheric transmittance model (MODTRAN 4.0) software, will also be presented. Data will be shown to demonstrate how the reflectance retrieval in the shorter wavelengths of the blue-green region will be improved because of enhanced modeling of multiple scattering effects.

R. J. Pollina

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Entropy in Climate Models. Part II: Horizontal Structure of Atmospheric Entropy Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The global horizontal structure of atmospheric entropy has been investigated. In energy balance models, the horizontal distribution of the atmospheric internal entropy production rate has been obtained. Based on the entropy balance relation, this ...

J. Li; Petr Chylek

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Observational Evidence for Oceanic Forcing of Atmospheric Variability in the Nordic Seas Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Substantial predictability of the wintertime atmospheric variability in the Nordic (Greenland–Iceland–Norwegian and Barents) seas region is reported based on oceanic observations and atmospheric reanalysis data. In particular, about 60% of the ...

Pawel Schlichtholz

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Hydrostatic Adjustment in Nonisothermal Atmospheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The author examines hydrostatic adjustment due to heating in two nonisothermal atmospheres. In the first case both the temperature and lapse rate decrease with height; in the second case the atmosphere consists of a troposphere with constant ...

Dean G. Duffy

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Efficient rendering of atmospheric phenomena  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rendering of atmospheric bodies involves modeling the complex interaction of light throughout the highly scattering medium of water and air particles. Scattering by these particles creates many well-known atmospheric optical phenomena including rainbows, ...

Kirk Riley; David S. Ebert; Martin Kraus; Jerry Tessendorf; Charles Hansen

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric turbulence  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

turbulence turbulence ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric turbulence High frequency velocity fluctuations that lead to turbulent transport of momentum, heat, mositure, and passive scalars, and often expressed in terms of variances and covariances. Categories Atmospheric State, Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System

269

Differential atmospheric tritium sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The mixture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H.sub.2 or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

Griesbach, Otto A. (Langhorne, PA); Stencel, Joseph R. (Skillman, NJ)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability  

SciTech Connect

The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual atmospheric release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 Department of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years.

Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Atmospheric Mercury Research Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is a summary and analysis of research findings on utility and environmental mercury from 1997 to 2003. The update categorizes and describes recent work on mercury in utility-burned coal and its route through power plants, the measures for its control, and its fate in the environment following emissions from utility stacks. This fate includes atmospheric chemistry and transport, deposition to land and water surfaces, aquatic cycling, the dynamics of mercury in freshwater fish food webs, and th...

2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

272

Pressure transient method for front tracking  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A pressure transient technique for tracking the advance of cold water fronts during water flooding and goethermal injection operations has been developed. The technique is based on the concept that the steady state pressure buildup in the reservoir region inside the front can be calculated by a fluid skin factor. By analyzing successive pressure falloff tests, the advance of the front in the reservoir can be monitored. The validity of the methods is demonstrated by application to three numerically simulated data sets, a nonisothermal step-rate injection test, a series of pressure falloffs in a multilayered reservoir, and a series of pressure falloff tests in a water flooded oil reservoir.

Benson, S.M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

High pressure xenon ionization detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0.degree. to 30.degree. C.

Markey, John K. (New Haven, CT)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

High pressure xenon ionization detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0 to 30 C. 2 figs.

Markey, J.K.

1989-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

275

Influence of gas feed composition and pressure on the catalytic conversion of CO{sub 2} to hydrocarbons using a traditional cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch catalyst  

SciTech Connect

The hydrogenation of CO{sub 2} using a traditional Fischer-Tropsch Co-Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst for the production of valuable hydrocarbon materials is investigated. The ability to direct product distribution was measured as a function of different feed gas ratios of H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} (3:1, 2:1, and 1:1) as well as operating pressures (ranging from 450 to 150 psig). As the feed gas ratio was changed from 3:1 to 2:1 and 1:1, the production distribution shifted from methane toward higher chain hydrocarbons. This change in feed gas ratio is believed to lower the methanation ability of Co in favor of chain growth, with possibly two different active sites for methane and C2-C4 products. Furthermore, with decreasing pressure, the methane conversion drops slightly in favor of C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} paraffins. Even though under certain reaction conditions product distribution can be shifted slightly away from the formation of methane, the catalyst studied behaves like a methanation catalyst in the hydrogenation of CO{sub 2}. 36 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Robert W. Dorner; Dennis R. Hardy; Frederick W. Williams; Burtron H. Davis; Heather D. Willauer [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States). Navy Technology Center for Safety and Survivability Branch

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

276

Development of a pressure gain combustor for improved cycle efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results from an experimental research program attempting to improve the thermodynamic efficiencies of gas-turbine combustors. An elementary thermodynamic analysis shows that the thermodynamic cycle efficiencies of gas turbines can be significantly improved by using unsteady combustion that achieves quasi-constant-volume combustion. The ability to produce the so-called pressure gain via this process has already been demonstrated by others for pressures less than 3 atmospheres. This paper presents experimental results for pressures up to 11 atmospheres, compares certain process parameters to a numerical simulation, and briefly examines the problem of scale-up. Results of pollutant measurements over the 2--11 atmospheric range of operation are also included.

Gemmen, R.S.; Richards, G.A.; Janus, M.C.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Scaling of pressurized fluidized beds. First quarterly progress report, October 1, 1992--January 15, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some preliminary work has been done to develop potential cold scale model designs to simulate the bed hydrodynamics of the American Electric Power Tidd pressurized bubbling fluidized bed combustor. The first design is based on the full set of scaling parameters presented in Equation (1), the second design was developed using the simplified set of scaling parameters given in Equation (2). The first design is roughly a 1:1 representation of a section of the core of the Tidd bed combustor. The additional flexibility provided by the simplified set of scaling parameters is particularly useful for developing experimental models of pressurized fluidized bed combustors where the full set of scaling relationships does not provide any reduction in the size of the models. Both the full and the simplified set of scaling relationships have been verified for applications to circulating fluidized bed combustors operating at atmospheric pressure. Currently there is a interest in fluidized bed combustors which operate at elevated pressures ({approximately}12 atm) for combined-cycle applications. One of the primary goals of this stud r is to verify both the till set and the simplified set of scaling relationships for applications to pressurized bubbling fluidized bed combustors.

Glicksman, L.; Farrell, P.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

ORISE: Climate and Atmospheric Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Climate and Atmospheric Research Climate and Atmospheric Research Capabilities Overview U.S. Climate Reference Network U.S. Historical Climate Network Contact Us Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education Climate and Atmospheric Research The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) partners with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (ATDD) to conduct climate research focused on issues of national and global importance. Research is performed with personnel support from ORISE's Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification (IEAV) programs, as well as in collaboration with scientists and engineers from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and numerous other organizations, government agencies, universities and private research institutions.

279

Atmospheric attenuation of solar radiation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The attenuation of solar radiation by the atmosphere between the heliostat and receiver of a Central Receiver solar energy system has been computed for a number of atmospheric conditions and tower-heliostat distances. The most important atmospheric variable is found to be the atmospheric aerosol content. No dependence of atmospheric water vapor is found and only a weak dependence on solar zenith angle. For a 500 m heliostat-tower distance two to four percent reductions are expected under typical desert conditions (50 to 120 km visibility). The reduction is approximately linear with heliostat-tower distance. A representative value of the attenuation coefficient is 0.051 km/sup -1/.

Randall, C.M.

1977-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

280

PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · CoalTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL · Indiana Coal Forecasting · Under-Ground Coal Gasification · Benefits of Oxyfuel Combustion · Economic

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric pressure base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Regional Ecosystem-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange Via Atmospheric Budgets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inversions of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio measurements to determine CO2 sources and sinks are typically limited to coarse spatial and temporal resolution. This limits our ability to evaluate efforts to upscale chamber- and stand-level CO2 flux measurements to regional scales, where coherent climate and ecosystem mechanisms govern the carbon cycle. As a step towards the goal of implementing atmospheric budget or inversion methodology on a regional scale, a network of five relatively inexpensive CO2 mixing ratio measurement systems was deployed on towers in northern Wisconsin. Four systems were distributed on a circle of roughly 150-km radius, surrounding one centrally located system at the WLEF tower near Park Falls, WI. All measurements were taken at a height of 76 m AGL. The systems used single-cell infrared CO2 analyzers (Licor, model LI-820) rather than the siginificantly more costly two-cell models, and were calibrated every two hours using four samples known to within ± 0.2 ppm CO2. Tests prior to deployment in which the systems sampled the same air indicate the precision of the systems to be better than ± 0.3 ppm and the accuracy, based on the difference between the daily mean of one system and a co-located NOAA-ESRL system, is consistently better than ± 0.3 ppm. We demonstrate the utility of the network in two ways. We interpret regional CO2 differences using a Lagrangian parcel approach. The difference in the CO2 mixing ratios across the network is at least 2?3 ppm, which is large compared to the accuracy and precision of the systems. Fluxes estimated assuming Lagrangian parcel transport are of the same sign and magnitude as eddy-covariance flux measurements at the centrally-located WLEF tower. These results indicate that the network will be useful in a full inversion model. Second, we present a case study involving a frontal passage through the region. The progression of a front across the network is evident; changes as large as four ppm in one minute are captured. Influence functions, derived using a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion model driven by the CSU Regional Atmospheric Modeling System and nudged to NCEP reanalysis meteorological fields, are used to determine source regions for the towers. The influence functions are combined with satellite vegetation observations to interpret the observed trends in CO2 concentration. Full inversions will combine these elements in a more formal analytic framework.

Davis, K.J.; Richardson, S.J.; Miles, N.L.

2007-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

282

PNNL: FCSD: Atmospheric Sciences & Global Change: Programs &...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Programs & Facilities Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and ARM Climate Research Facility ARM Aerial Facility Environmental...

283

Comparison of Aerosol at Four Baseline Atmospheric Monitoring Stations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Particles were captured by electrostatic precipitators or impactors at atmospheric monitoring bases in Alaska, Hawaii, Tasmania and Antarctica, and examined by electron microscopy. Particle number and mass distributions for radii 0.06 ?m were ...

E. K. Bigg

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Observations of Seven Atmospheric Density Current Fronts in Dixon, California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Seven atmospheric density current fronts are identified in sequences of ground-based, scanning aerosol backscatter lidar images and in situ micrometeorological time series data that were collected simultaneously and nearly continuously between 15 ...

Shane D. Mayor

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Ocean–Atmosphere Interaction over Agulhas Extension Meanders  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many years of high-resolution measurements by a number of space-based sensors and from Lagrangian drifters became available recently and are used to examine the persistent atmospheric imprints of the semipermanent meanders of the Agulhas ...

W. Timothy Liu; Xiaosu Xie; Pearn P. Niiler

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Nitrogen trifluoride global emissions estimated from updated atmospheric measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nitrogen trifluoride (NF[subscript 3]) has potential to make a growing contribution to the Earth’s radiative budget; however, our understanding of its atmospheric burden and emission rates has been limited. Based on a ...

Ivy, Diane J.

287

The Choice of Variable for Atmospheric Moisture Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The implications of using different control variables for the analysis of moisture observations in a global atmospheric data assimilation system are investigated. A moisture analysis based on either mixing ratio or specific humidity is prone to ...

Dick P. Dee; Arlindo M. da Silva

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Estimation of Atmospheric Motion Vectors from Kalpana-1 Imagers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The estimation of atmospheric motion vectors from infrared and water vapor channels on the geostationary operational Indian National Satellite System Kalpana-1 has been attempted here. An empirical height assignment technique based on a genetic ...

C. M. Kishtawal; S. K. Deb; P. K. Pal; P. C. Joshi

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

An Eulerian Limited-Area Atmospheric Transport Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A limited-area, offline, Eulerian atmospheric transport model has been developed. The model is based on a terrain-following vertical coordinate and a mass-conserving, positive definite advection scheme with small phase and amplitude errors. The ...

Lennart Robertson; Joakim Langner; Magnuz Engardt

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Optimizing Parameters in an Atmospheric General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An efficient method to optimize the parameter values of the subgrid parameterizations of an atmospheric general circulation model is described. The method is based on the downhill simplex minimization of a cost function computed from the ...

C. A. Severijns; W. Hazeleger

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Nonhydrostatic Atmospheric Modeling Using a Combined Cartesian Grid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method for representing topography on a Cartesian grid is applied to a two-dimensional nonhydrostatic atmospheric model to achieve highly precise simulations over steep terrain. The shaved cell method based on finite-volume discretization ...

Hiroe Yamazaki; Takehiko Satomura

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Lidar Observation of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer in Jerusalem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The temporal variation of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) over Jerusalem is accurately measured by means of a lidar system. The findings are explained and discussed based on the specific synoptic situation of typical summer days in the ...

Ram Hashmonay; Ariel Cohen; Uri Dayan

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Two wavelength Lidar instrument for atmospheric aerosol study.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A two-color lidar instrument and inversion algorithms have been developed for the study of atmospheric aerosols. The two-color lidar laser transmitter is based on the… (more)

Hoffman, David Swick.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Airborne Instrumentation Needs for Climate and Atmospheric Research  

SciTech Connect

Observational data are of fundamental importance for advances in climate and atmospheric research. Advances in atmospheric science are being made not only through the use of ground-based and space-based observations, but also through the use of in-situ and remote sensing observations acquired on instrumented aircraft. In order for us to enhance our knowledge of atmospheric processes, it is imperative that efforts be made to improve our understanding of the operating characteristics of current instrumentation and of the caveats and uncertainties in data acquired by current probes, as well as to develop improved observing methodologies for acquisition of airborne data.

McFarquhar, Greg; Schmid, Beat; Korolev, Alexei; Ogren, John A.; Russell, P. B.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Turner, David D.; Wiscombe, Warren J.

2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

295

Implementation, Characterization, and Evaluation of an Inexpensive Low-Power Low-Noise Infrasound Sensor Based on a Micromachined Differential Pressure Transducer and a Mechanical Filter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The implementation, characterization, and evaluation of a low-cost infrasound sensor developed at the Infrasound Laboratory at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (Infra-NMT) are described. This sensor is based on a commercial ...

Omar Marcillo; Jeffrey B. Johnson; Darren Hart

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Extraction of Freshwater and Energy from Atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Author offers and researches a new, cheap method for the extraction of freshwater from the Earth atmosphere. The suggected method is fundamentally dictinct from all existing methods that extract freshwater from air. All other industrial methods extract water from a saline water source (in most cases from seawater). This new method may be used at any point in the Earth except Polar Zones. It does not require long-distance freshwater transportation. If seawater is not utilized for increasing its productivity, this inexpensive new method is very environment-friendly. The author method has two working versions: (1) the first variant the warm (hot) atmospheric air is lifted by the inflatable tube in a high altitude and atmospheric steam is condenced into freswater: (2) in the second version, the warm air is pumped 20-30 meters under the sea-surface. In the first version, wind and solar heating of air are used for causing air flow. In version (2) wind and propeller are used for causing air movment. The first method does not need energy, the second needs a small amount. Moreover, in variant (1) the freshwater has a high pressure (>30 or more atm.) and can be used for production of energy such as electricity and in that way the freshwater cost is lower. For increasing the productivity the seawater is injected into air and solar air heater may be used. The solar air heater produces a huge amount of electricity as a very powerful electricity generation plant. The offered electricity installation in 100 - 200 times cheaper than any common electric plant of equivalent output. Key words: Extraction freshwater, method of getting freshwater, receiving energy from atmosphere, powerful renewal electric plant.

Alexander Bolonkin

2007-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

297

Atmospheric Plasma Deposition of Diamond-like Carbon Coatings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

DLC coatings in a low-pressure environment. For example, ion beam processes are widely utilized since the ion bombardment is thought to promote denser sp3-bonded carbon networks. Other processes, such as sputtering, are better suited for coating large parts [29,30,44]. However, the deposition of DLC in a vacuum system has several disadvantages, including high equipment cost and restrictions on the size and shape of material that may be treated. The deposition of DLC at atmospheric pressure has been demonstrated by several researchers. Izake, et al [53] and Novikov and Dymont [54] have demonstrated an electrochemical process that is carried out with organic compounds such as methanol and acetylene dissolved in ammonia. This process requires that the substrates be immersed in the liquid [53-54]. The atmospheric pressure deposition of DLC was also demonstrated by Kulik, et al. utilizing a plasma torch. However, this process requires operating temperatures in excess of 800 oC [55]. In this report, we investigate the deposition of diamond-like carbon films using a low temperature, atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. The films were characterized by solid-state carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) and found to have a ratio of sp2 to sp3 carbon of 43 to 57%. The films were also tested for adhesion, coefficient of friction, and dielectric strength.

Ladwig, Angela

2008-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

298

Development of an Experimental Data Base and Theories for Prediction of Thermodynamic Properties of Aqueous Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes of Geochemical Significance at Supercritical Temperatures and Pressures.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research was to combine new experimental measurements on heat capacities, volumes, and association constants of key compounds with theoretical equations of state and with first principles quantum mechanical calculations to generate predictions of thermodynamic data. The resulting thermodynamic data allow quantitative models of geochemical processes at high temperatures and pressures. Research funded by a DOE grant to Prof. Robert Wood at the University of Delaware involved the development of new theoretical equations of state for aqueous solutions of electrolytes and non-electrolytes, methods to estimate thermodynamic data not available from experiments, collection of data on model compounds through experiments and predictions of properties using ab initio quantum mechanics. During the last three and a half years, with support from our DOE grant, 16 papers have been accepted or published, and 3 more are in preparation. Results of this research have been reported in numerous invited and contributed presentations at national and international meetings. For this report, we will briefly comment on the highlights of the last 3 and a half years and give a complete list of papers published, accepted, or submitted during these years.

Wood, Robert H.

2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

299

PRESSURE WELDING--BIBLIOGRAPHY  

SciTech Connect

A bibliography containing 117 references from the years 1944 to 1961 on pressure welding is presented. (N.W.R.)

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

EMSL: Science: Atmospheric Aerosol Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Atmospheric Aerosol Systems atmospheric logo Nighttime enhancement of nitrogen-containing organic compounds, or NOC Observed nighttime enhancement of nitrogen-containing organic compounds, or NOC, showed evidence of being formed by reactions that transform carbonyls into imines. The Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Science Theme focuses on understanding the chemistry, physics and molecular-scale dynamics of aerosols for model parameterization to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations and develop a predictive understanding of climate. By elucidating the role of natural and anthropogenic regional and global climate forcing mechanisms, EMSL can provide DOE and others with the ability to develop cost-effective strategies to monitor, control and mitigate them.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric pressure base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Surface Pressure Response to Elevated Tidal Heating Sources: Comparison of Earth and Mars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modern atmospheric tidal theory has shown that the dominance of the terrestrial semidiurnal surface pressure oscillation, relative to its diurnal counterpart, is the result of the elevated heating source generated by solar heating of ...

Richard W. Zurek

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Pressure Measurements Using an Airborne Differential Absorption Lidar. Part I: Analysis of the Systematic Error Sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Systematic error sources that require correction when making remote airborne measurements of the atmospheric pressure field in the lower troposphere, using an oxygen differential absorption lidar, are analyzed. A detailed analysis of this ...

Cyrille N. Flamant; Geary K. Schwemmer; C. Laurence Korb; Keith D. Evans; Stephen P. Palm

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

The Kinematic Structure of a Hurricane with Sea Level Pressure Less Than 900 mb  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration aircraft recorded the first Doppler radar data in a tropical cyclone with a minimum sea level pressure (MSLP) <900 mb during a reconnaissance mission in Hurricane Gilbert on 14 September 1988, ...

Peter Dodge; Robert W. Burpee; Frank D. Marks Jr.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Further Comparison of Two Synoptic Surface Wind and Pressure Analysis Methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The geostrophic stream and potential functions of Sangster and the derived flat pressure field of Pielke and Cram are further compared. A simple numerical experiment with an idealized mountain-atmosphere system compares the two methods and their ...

Jennifer M. Cram; Roger A. Pielke

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Effects of Stratification on the Large-Scale Ocean Response to Barometric Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single-layer (barotropic) models have been commonly used in studies of the inverted barometer effect and the oceanic response to atmospheric pressure loading. The potential effects of stratification on this response are explored here using a ...

Rui M. Ponte; Sergey V. Vinogradov

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

The Relationships among Wind, Horizontal Pressure Gradient, and Turbulent Momentum Transport during CASES-99  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Relationships among the horizontal pressure gradient, the Coriolis force, and the vertical momentum transport by turbulent fluxes are investigated using data collected from the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study in 1999 (CASES99). Wind ...

Jielun Sun; Donald H. Lenschow; Larry Mahrt; Carmen Nappo

307

Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. A 3-D chemistry-transport model has been applied to the Mexico City metropolitan area to investigate the origin of elevated levels of non-fossil (NF) carbonaceous aerosols observed in this highly urbanized region. High time resolution measurements of the fine aerosol concentration and composition, and 12 or 24 h integrated 14 C measurements of aerosol modern carbon have been performed in and near Mexico City during the March 2006 MILAGRO field experiment. The non-fossil carbon fraction (fNF), which is lower than the measured modern fraction (fM) due to the elevated 14 C in the atmosphere caused by nuclear bomb testing, is estimated from the measured fM and the source-dependent information on modern carbon enrichment. The fNF contained in PM1 total carbon analyzed by a US team (f TC

unknown authors

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Atmospheric Corrosion Test Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 27   Some marine-atmospheric corrosion test sites around the world...Zealand Phia Marine 0.2 0.12 15.8 2.4 � � � � Greece Rafina Marine 0.2 0.12 13.6 1.0 � � � � Rhodes Marine 0.2 0.12 14.3 1.5 � � � � Netherlands Schagen Marine 2.4 1.5 17.0 2.0 � � � � Spain Almeria � 0.035 0.022 22.4 1.6 � � � � Cartagena � 0.050 0.031 5.2 1.9 � � � � La Coruña � 0.160 0.1 26.2 1.4...

309

ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 38 (1995) 207-235 ATMOSPHERIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 38 (1995) 207-235 ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH On the parameterization of ice and water substance mixing ratio fields were only strongly altered by turning off the ice phase of these schemes includes ice processes. But in mid- latitudes and also in tropics the ice phase is an important

Moelders, Nicole

310

Halocarbon and Other Atmospheric Trace Species (HATS) | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Halocarbon and Other Atmospheric Trace Species (HATS) Halocarbon and Other Atmospheric Trace Species (HATS) Agriculture Community Menu DATA APPS EVENTS DEVELOPER STATISTICS COLLABORATE ABOUT Agriculture You are here Data.gov » Communities » Agriculture » Data Halocarbon and Other Atmospheric Trace Species (HATS) Dataset Summary Description The general mission of the Halocarbons and other Atmospheric Trace Species group is to quantify the distributions and magnitudes of sources and sinks for atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) and halogen containing compounds. HATS utilizes numerous types of platforms, including ground-based stations, towers, ocean vessels, aircraft, and balloons, to accomplish its mission. For a detailed mission statement, consult our FAQ. Tags {"nitrous oxide","sulfur hexaflouride",CFC-11,CFC-12,CFC-113,CCl4,CH3CCl3,CH3Cl,halon-1211,HCFC-22,HCFC-142b,halocarbons,chromatograph,aircraft,balloons,vessels,ships,towers,"natural resources",environment,air,"GHG "}

311

INO as atmospheric and magic baseline detector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a status report on the proposed India?based Neutrino Observatory (INO). We focus on the physics studies possible with an iron calorimeter detector (ICAL) at INO. Such a detector would make precision measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters with atmospheric neutrinos in the first phase with the possibility of acting as a far?end detector of a future neutrino factory or beta beam. This talk was given at the 12th International Workshop on Neutrino Factories

D. Indumathi; The INO Collaboration

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Pressure reducing regulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure is disclosed. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes. 10 figs.

Whitehead, J.C.; Dilgard, L.W.

1995-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

313

Syngas Production from Propane Using Atmospheric Non-thermal Plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Propane steam reforming using a sliding discharge reactor was investigated under atmospheric pressure and low temperature (420 K). Non-thermal plasma steam reforming proceeded efficiently and hydrogen was formed as a main product (H2 concentration up to 50%). By-products (C2-hydrocarbons, methane, carbon dioxide) were measured with concentrations lower than 6%. The mean electrical power injected in the discharge is less than 2 kW. The process efficiency is described in terms of propane conversion rate, steam reforming and cracking selectivity, as well as by-products production. Chemical processes modelling based on classical thermodynamic equilibrium reactor is also proposed. Calculated data fit quiet well experimental results and indicate that the improvement of C3H8 conversion and then H2 production can be achieved by increasing the gas fraction through the discharge. By improving the reactor design, the non-thermal plasma has a potential for being an effective way for supplying hydrogen or synthesis gas.

Ouni, Fakhreddine; Cormier, Jean Marie; 10.1007/s11090-009-9166-2

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Course Objectives | Physical Geography addresses the dynamics of major Earth systems--Atmosphere (weather, climate and climate change), Biosphere (plant communities), Lithosphere (geology, soils, and landforms), Hydrosphere (oceans, lakes, and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Achievement and Access Center coordinates accommodations and services for all students who are eligible. 3 Insolation & Global Radiation Chp. 4 Global Temperature Patterns Chp. 5 Atmospheric Pressure, Wind

Peterson, Blake R.

315

A GRID OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL STELLAR ATMOSPHERE MODELS OF SOLAR METALLICITY. I. GENERAL PROPERTIES, GRANULATION, AND ATMOSPHERIC EXPANSION  

SciTech Connect

Present grids of stellar atmosphere models are the workhorses in interpreting stellar observations and determining their fundamental parameters. These models rely on greatly simplified models of convection, however, lending less predictive power to such models of late-type stars. We present a grid of improved and more reliable stellar atmosphere models of late-type stars, based on deep, three-dimensional (3D), convective, stellar atmosphere simulations. This grid is to be used in general for interpreting observations and improving stellar and asteroseismic modeling. We solve the Navier Stokes equations in 3D and concurrent with the radiative transfer equation, for a range of atmospheric parameters, covering most of stellar evolution with convection at the surface. We emphasize the use of the best available atomic physics for quantitative predictions and comparisons with observations. We present granulation size, convective expansion of the acoustic cavity, and asymptotic adiabat as functions of atmospheric parameters.

Trampedach, Regner [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Asplund, Martin; Collet, Remo [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mt. Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston ACT 2611 (Australia); Nordlund, Ake [Astronomical Observatory/Niels Bohr Institute, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Stein, Robert F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

316

Statistics of the Global Tropopause Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Statistics of the global tropopause pressure are evaluated for the period between 1979 and 1993. The analysis is based on gridded data as provided by the ECMWF reanalysis project. The thermal and dynamical definitions of the tropopause are ...

Klaus P. Hoinka

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Observational Studies of Atmospheric Aerosols over Bozeman, Montana, Using a Two-Color Lidar, a Water Vapor DIAL, a Solar Radiometer, and a Ground-Based Nephelometer over a 24-h Period  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coordinated observational data of atmospheric aerosols were collected over a 24-h period between 2300 mountain daylight time (MDT) on 27 August 2009 and 2300 MDT on 28 August 2009 at Bozeman, Montana (45.66°N, 111.04°W, elevation 1530 m) using a ...

Kevin S. Repasky; John A. Reagan; Amin R. Nehrir; David S. Hoffman; Michael J. Thomas; John L. Carlsten; Joseph A. Shaw; Glenn E. Shaw

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

On the Pressure Gradient Force Error in ?-Coordinate Spectral Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The pressure gradient force error of the spectral technique used in combination with the ? vertical coordinate was examined in an idealized case of an atmosphere at rest and in hydrostatic equilibrium. Small-scale (one-point and three-point) ...

Zavis?a I. Janji?

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and Atmospheric  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science and Infrastructure Steering Committee CHARTER June 2012 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not

320

Achieve Continuous Injection of Solid Fuels into Advanced Combustion System Pressures  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is the development of a mechanical rotary-disk feeder, known as the Stamet Posimetric High Pressure Solids Feeder System, to demonstrate feeding of dry granular coal continuously and controllably into pressurized environments of up to 70 kg/cm2 (1,000 psi). This is the Phase III of the ongoing program. Earlier Phases 1 and II successfully demonstrated feeding into pressures up to 35 kg/cm{sup 2} (500 psi). The final report for those phases was submitted in April 2005. Based on the previous work done in Phases I & II using Powder River Basin coal provided by the PSDF facility in Wilsonville, AL, a Phase III feeder system was designed and built to accomplish the target of feeding the coal into a pressure of 70 kg/cm2 (1,000 psi) and to be capable of feed rates of up to 550 kilograms (1,200lbs) per hour. The drive motor system from Phase II was retained for use on Phase III since projected performance calculations indicated it should be capable of driving the Phase III pump to the target levels. The pump & motor system was installed in a custom built test rig comprising an inlet vessel containing an active live-wall hopper mounted on weigh cells in a support frame, transition into the pump inlet, transition from pump outlet and a receiver vessel containing a receiver drum supported on weigh cells. All pressure containment on the rig was rated to105 kg/cm{sup 2} (1,500psi) to accommodate the final pressure requirement of a proposed Phase IV of the program. A screw conveyor and batch hopper were added to transfer coal at atmospheric pressure from the shop floor up into the test rig to enable continuous feeding up to the capacity of the receiving vessel. Control & monitoring systems were up-rated from the Phase II system to cover the additional features incorporated in the Phase III rig, and provide closer control and expanded monitoring of the entire system. A program of testing and modification was carried out in Stamet's facility in CA, culminating in the first successful feeding of coal into the Phase III target of 70 kg/cm{sup 2} (1,000 psi) gas pressure in March 2007. Subsequently, repeated runs at pressure were achieved, and comparison of the data with Phase II results when adjusted for scale differences showed further power reductions of 40% had been achieved from the final Phase II pressure runs. The general design layout of a commercial-scale unit was conducted, and preliminary cost estimates made.

Derek L. Aldred; Timothy Saunders

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric pressure base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Pressurized fluidized bed reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

Isaksson, Juhani (Karhula, FI)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Pressurized fluidized bed reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

Isaksson, J.

1996-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

323

Hydrostatic Pressure Retainment.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??There is a great deal of attention being concentrated on reducing the weight of pressure vessels and fuel/oxidizer tanks (tankage) by 10% to 20%. Most… (more)

Setlock, Robert J., Jr.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Multiyear Observations of the Tropical Atlantic Atmosphere: Multidisciplinary Applications of the NOAA Aerosols and Ocean Science Expeditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper gives an overview of a unique set of ship-based atmospheric data acquired over the tropical Atlantic Ocean during boreal spring and summer as part of ongoing National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Aerosols and Ocean Science ...

Nicholas R. Nalli; Everette Joseph; Vernon R. Morris; Christopher D. Barnet; Walter W. Wolf; Daniel Wolfe; Peter J. Minnett; Malgorzata Szczodrak; Miguel A. Izaguirre; Rick Lumpkin; Hua Xie; Alexander Smirnov; Thomas S. King; Jennifer Wei

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

High Metallicity and Non-Equilibrium Chemistry in the Dayside Atmosphere of Hot-Neptune Gj 436b  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a detailed analysis of the dayside atmosphere of the hot-Neptune GJ 436b, based on recent Spitzer observations. We report statistical constraints on the thermal and chemical properties of the planetary atmosphere, ...

Madhusudhan, Nikku

326

Role of the Tibetan Plateau on the Annual Variation of Mean Atmospheric Circulation and Storm-Track Activity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study reexamines how the Tibetan Plateau (TP) modulates the annual variation of atmospheric circulation and storm-track activity based on the Meteorological Research Institute's atmosphere–ocean coupled model experiments with a progressive TP ...

Sun-Seon Lee; June-Yi Lee; Kyung-Ja Ha; Bin Wang; Akio Kitoh; Yoshiyuki Kajikawa; Manabu Abe

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Baiu rainband termination in atmospheric and atmosphere-ocean models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Baiu rainband is a summer rainband stretching from eastern China through Japan towards the Northwest Pacific. The climatological termination of the Baiu rainband is investigated using Japanese 25-year ReAnalysis (JRA25), a stand-alone atmospheric ...

Akira Kuwano-Yoshida; Bunmei Taguchi; Shang-Ping Xie

328

Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under super atmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a filtrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO{sub x} reducing agent (like ammonia)--is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1--20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at super atmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel, the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2--100 bar, and introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine). 8 figs.

Isaksson, J.; Koskinen, J.

1995-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

329

Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sponsored by the DOE Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge program, our research team at the Georgia Institute of Technology conducted laboratory studies and confirmed the concept of making wood pulp using a dry pulping technology. This technology is a new process different from any prior pulping technology used in Kraft and CTMP pulping. Three different kinds of dry pulping methods were investigated. (a) Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure: The first one is to dry and bake the pretreated woodchips in a conventional oven at atmospheric pressure without the use of a catalyst. (b) Dry Pulping at Reduced Pressure: The second method is to dry the pretreated woodchips first in a vacuum oven in the presence of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst, followed by baking at elevated temperature. (c) Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP. The third method is to first remove the free water of pretreated woodchips, followed by dry pulping using a conventional Kraft pulping digester with AQ and triton as additives. Method one: Experimental results indicated that Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure could produce pulp with higher brightness and lower bulk than conventional Kraft pulp. However, tensile strength of the acquired pulp is much lower than traditional Kraft pulp, and their Kappa number and energy consumption are higher than conventional Kraft pulp. By fully analyzing the results, we concluded that wood fibers might be damaged during the drying process at elevated temperature. The main reason for wood fiber damage is that a long drying time was used during evaporation of water from the woodchips. This resulted in an un-uniform reaction condition on the woodchips: the outside layer of the woodchips was over reacted while inside the woodchips did not reacted at all. To solve this problem, dry pulping at reduced pressure was investigated. Method two: To achieve uniform reaction throughout the entire reaction system, the water inside the pretreated woodchips was evaporated first under vacuum condition at low temperature. Then, the dry woodchips were baked at high temperature (120-130 C) at atmospheric pressure. The qualities of the pulp made with this method were improved compared to that made with method one. The pulp shows higher brightness and lower bulk than Kraft pulping. The tensile strength is significantly higher than the pulp made from the first method. Although the pulp is stronger than that of TMP pulp, it is still lower than conventional Kraft fiber. Method Three: The third dry method was done in a Kraft pulping digester at elevated pressure but without free liquid in the digester. With this method, pulp that has almost the same qualities as conventional Kraft pulp could be produced. The screen yield, Kappa number, fiber brightness, pulp strength and pulp bulk are almost identical to the conventional Kraft pulp. The key advantages of this dry pulping method include ca. 55 % of cooking energy saved during the pulping process, as high as 50 wt% of NaOH saving as well as 3 wt% of Na2S saving comparing to Kraft one. By analyzing fiber properties, yields, chemical and energy consumptions, we concluded that the dry pulping method based on Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP, could be very attractive for the pulp and paper industry. More fundamental studies and scale up trials are needed to fully commercialize the technology. We expect to conduct pilot trials between 12 to 24 months of period if the DOE or industry can provide continual research funding. Based on the technology we demonstrated in this report, several pilot trial facilities in the United States will be available after small modifications. For example, the Herty Foundation in Savannah, Georgia is one of these potential locations. DOE funding for continuous study and final lead to commercialization of the technique is important.

Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

330

Mountain Forces and the Atmospheric Energy Budget  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although mountains are generally thought to exert forces on the atmosphere, the related transfers of energy between earth and atmosphere are not represented in standard energy equations of the atmosphere. It is shown that the axial rotation of the ...

Joseph Egger

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Atmospheric Methane at Cape Meares, Oregon, U.S.A.: A High-Resolution Data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Trace Gases » Methane » Atmospheric Trace Gases » Methane » Atmospheric Methane, Cape Meares Atmospheric Methane at Cape Meares, Oregon, U.S.A.: A High-Resolution Data Base for the Period 1979-1992 DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.db1007 data Data (DB1007) Investigators M. A. K. Khalil and R. A. Rasmussen Description This data base presents continuous automated atmospheric methane (CH4) measurements taken at the atmospheric monitoring facility in Cape Meares, Oregon, by the Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology. The Cape Meares data represent some 119,000 individual atmospheric methane measurements carried out during 1979-1992. Analysis of ambient air (collected 12 to 72 times daily) was carried out by means of an automated sampling and measurement system, using the method of gas chromatography and

332

Discovery of carbon monoxide in the upper atmosphere of Pluto  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pluto's icy surface has changed colour and its atmosphere has swelled since its last closest approach to the Sun in 1989. The thin atmosphere is produced by evaporating ices, and so can also change rapidly, and in particular carbon monoxide should be present as an active thermostat. Here we report the discovery of gaseous CO via the 1.3mm wavelength J=2-1 rotational transition, and find that the line-centre signal is more than twice as bright as a tentative result obtained by Bockelee-Morvan et al. in 2000. Greater surface-ice evaporation over the last decade could explain this, or increased pressure could have caused the atmosphere to expand. The gas must be cold, with a narrow line-width consistent with temperatures around 50 K, as predicted for the very high atmosphere, and the line brightness implies that CO molecules extend up to approximately 3 Pluto radii above the surface. The upper atmosphere must have changed markedly over only a decade since the prior search, and more alterations could occur by the...

Greaves, J S; Friberg, P

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

On the possible noble gas deficiency of Pluto's atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use a statistical-thermodynamic model to investigate the formation and composition of noble-gas-rich clathrates on Pluto's surface. By considering an atmospheric composition close to that of today's Pluto and a broad range of surface pressures, we find that Ar, Kr and Xe can be efficiently trapped in clathrates if they formed at the surface, in a way similar to what has been proposed for Titan. The formation on Pluto of clathrates rich in noble gases could then induce a strong decrease in their atmospheric abundances relative to their initial values. A clathrate thickness of order of a few centimeters globally averaged on the planet is enough to trap all Ar, Kr and Xe if these noble gases were in protosolar proportions in Pluto's early atmosphere. Because atmospheric escape over an extended period of time (millions of years) should lead to a noble gas abundance that either remains constant or increases with time, we find that a potential depletion of Ar, Kr and Xe in the atmosphere would best be explained ...

Mousis, Olivier; Mandt, Kathleen E; Schindhelm, Eric; Weaver, Harold A; Stern, S Alan; Waite, J Hunter; Gladstone, Randy; Moudens, Audrey

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

THE FACILITY 350 HELIUM-ATMOSPHERE SYSTEM. Final Report, Metallurgy Division Program 1.5.5  

SciTech Connect

The He atmosphere system in Argonne's Facility 350 is described in detail. The system is straightforward, employing drying and carbon towers for the removal of moisture, oxygen, and other impurities. The bulk of the 15,000 ft/ sup 3/ of He atmosphere is continuously recirculated at nearly atmospheric pressure. Purification is accomplished at 140 psig on a portion of the gas that is passed through the drying tower at room temperature and the carbon towers at -- 46 deg C (--50 deg F). The operation is continuous, requiring a minimum of maintenance and operational manpower. The He atmosphere is supplied to the glove- boxes with impurity levels below 3,000 ppm nitrogen, 1,000 ppm oxygen, and 50 ppm moisture. Such purity levels prevent oxidation and combustion of the Pu materials being processed. Experimental data concerning the adsorption of oxygen from He by activated carbon over a range of temperature and pressure conditions are reported. (auth)

Mayfield, R.M.; Tope, W.G.; Shuck, A.B.

1962-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Simple solar spectral model for direct and diffuse irradiance on horizontal and tilted planes at the earth's surface for cloudless atmospheres  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new, simple model for calculating clear-sky direct and diffuse spectral irradiance on horizontal and tilted surfaces is presented. The model is based on previously reported simple algorithms and on comparisons with rigorous radiative transfer calculations and limited outdoor measurements. Equations for direct normal irradiance are outlined; and include: Raleigh scattering; aerosol scattering and absorption; water vapor absorption; and ozone and uniformly mixed gas absorption. Inputs to the model include solar zenith angle, collector tilt angle, atmospheric turbidity, amount of ozone and precipitable water vapor, surface pressure, and ground albedo. The model calculates terrestrial spectra from 0.3 to 4.0 ..mu..m with approximately 10 nm resolution. A major goal of this work is to provide researchers with the capability to calculate spectral irradiance for different atmospheric conditions and different collector geometries using microcomputers. A listing of the computer program is provided.

Bird, R.; Riordan, C.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Miniaturized pressurization system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to pressurization systems and liquid rocket propulsion systems, and particularly to those used to attitude control or maneuvering of small space vehicles or airborne vehicles where the requirement for thrust is intermittent rather than continuous, and must be available rapidly upon demand. This invention also relates to increasing performance of such propulsion systems, by way of eliminating inert mass from the propulsion system. The invention uses a fluid stored at a low pressure and provides the fluid at a high pressure. The invention allows the low pressure fluid to flow to a fluid bore of a differential pump and from the pump to a fluid pressure regulator. After flowing through the regulator the fluid is converted to a gas which is directed to a gas bore of the differential pump. By controlling the flow of gas entering and being exhausted from the gas bore, the invention provides pressure to the fluid. By setting the regulator, the high pressure fluid can be set at predetermined values. Because the invention only needs a low pressure fluid, the inventive apparatus has a low mass, and therefore would be useful in rocket propulsion systems.

Whitehead, J.C.; Swink, D.G.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

337

Pressurized Oxidative Recovery of Energy from Biomass Final Technical Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study was conducted to evaluate the technical feasibility of using pressurized oxyfuel, the ThermoEnergy Integrated Power System (TIPS), to recover energy from biomass. The study was focused on two fronts—computer simulation of the TIPS plant and corrosion testing to determine the best materials of construction for the critical heat exchanger components of the process. The goals were to demonstrate that a successful strategy of applying the TIPS process to wood waste could be achieved. To fully investigate the technical and economic benefits of using TIPS, it was necessary to model a conventional air-fired biomass power plant for comparison purposes. The TIPS process recovers and utilizes the latent heat of vaporization of water entrained in the fuel or produced during combustion. This latent heat energy is unavailable in the ambient processes. An average composition of wood waste based on data from the Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, and the South was used for the study. The high moisture content of wood waste is a major advantage of the TIPS process. The process can utilize the higher heating value of the fuel by condensing most of the water vapor in the flue gas and making the flue gas a useful source of heat. This is a considerable thermal efficiency gain over conventional power plants which use the lower heating value of the fuel. The elevated pressure also allows TIPS the option of recovering CO2 at near ambient temperatures with high purity oxygen used in combustion. Unlike ambient pressure processes which need high energy multi-stage CO2 compression to supply pipeline quality product, TIPS is able to simply pump the CO2 liquid using very little auxiliary power. In this study, a 15.0 MWe net biomass power plant was modeled, and when a CO2 pump was included it only used 0.1 MWe auxiliary power. The need for refrigeration is eliminated at such pressures resulting in significant energy, capital, and operating and maintenance savings. Since wood waste is a fuel with a high moisture and hydrogen content, it is one of the best applications for TIPS. The only way to fully utilize the latent heat is by using a pressurized system and the oxy-fuel approach allows for carbon capture and easier emission control. Pressurized operation also allows for easier emission control than atmospheric oxyfuel because presence of infiltration air in the atmospheric case. For the case of wood waste as the fuel however, the ability of TIPS to fully utilize the heat of condensation is the most valuable advantage of the process. The project research showed that titanium alloys were the best materials of construction for the heat exchangers. All other materials tested failed to withstand even brief periods in the harsh environment (high temperature, acidic, and oxidizing conditions). Titanium was able to survive due to the formation of a stable TiO2 passivation layer.

M. Misra

2007-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

338

PRESSURE ACTIVATED SEALANT TECHNOLOGY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop new, efficient, cost effective methods of internally sealing natural gas pipeline leaks through the application of differential pressure activated sealants. In researching the current state of the art for gas pipeline sealing technologies we concluded that if the project was successful, it appeared that pressure activated sealant technology would provide a cost effective alternative to existing pipeline repair technology. From our analysis of current field data for a 13 year period from 1985 to 1997 we were able to identify 205 leaks that were candidates for pressure activated sealant technology, affirming that pressure activated sealant technology is a viable option to traditional external leak repairs. The data collected included types of defects, areas of defects, pipe sizes and materials, incident and operating pressures, ability of pipeline to be pigged and corrosion states. This data, and subsequent analysis, was utilized as a basis for constructing applicable sealant test modeling.

Michael A. Romano

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Glossary Term - Composition of the Earth's Atmosphere  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Earth's Atmosphere Source: Definition of the U.S. Standard Atmosphere (1976) CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 77th Edition Gas Formula Abundance percent by volume...

340

A Computational Thermodynamic Analysis of Atmospheric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 1, 2001 ... The vacuum atmosphere is typically 0.1 atm. However, the vacuum atmosphere creates two major problems: air leakage and batch operation to ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric pressure base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

The Workshop in Atmospheric Predictability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A workshop on the subject of atmospheric predictability was held during 23-25 April 2001 at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. Of primary concern was the nature of forecast uncertainty due to initial conditionuncertainty of ...

Ronald M. Errico; Rolf Langland; David P. Baumhefner

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

(Chemistry of the global atmosphere)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the conference The Chemistry of the Global Atmosphere,'' and presented a paper on the anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to the atmosphere. The conference included meetings of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) programme, a core project of the International Geosphere/Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and the traveler participated in meetings on the IGAC project Development of Global Emissions Inventories'' and agreed to coordinate the working group on CO{sub 2}. Papers presented at the conference focused on the latest developments in analytical methods, modeling and understanding of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, NMHCs, CFCs, and aerosols.

Marland, G.

1990-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

343

Precursors to atmospheric blocking events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric blocking events disturb synoptic-scale features from their normal eastward progression, causing anomalous weather conditions for the duration of the blocking event. The essence of blocking can be captured by ...

Marino, Garrett P

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Automated Measurements of Atmospheric Visibility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The concept of using a solid-state, linear-array imaging device coupled with computerized scene analysis and display to measure daytime atmospheric visibility is described. Computer software is implemented for routine conversion of observed ...

W. Viezee; W. E. Evans

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

The Navy's Operational Atmospheric Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In January of 1988, significant upgrades were made to the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS). Among these improvements was the implementation of a multivariate optimum interpolation analysis scheme. Since that time, ...

James S. Goerss; Patricia A. Phoebus

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Stochastic Simulation of Atmospheric Trajectories  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods are presented for generating an ensemble of synthetic atmospheric trajectories. These include methods for a set of independent trajectories, and methods for a correlated set of sequential trajectories. The models incorporate first-order ...

Mitchell J. Small; Perry J. Samson

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Atmospheric Water Vapor over China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chinese radiosonde data from 1970 to 1990 are relatively homogeneous in time and are used to examine the climatology, trends, and variability of China’s atmospheric water vapor content. The climatological distribution of precipitable water (PW) ...

Panmao Zhai; Robert E. Eskridge

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Influence of Cooling Circulating Water Flow on Back Pressure Variation of Thermal Power Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under certain conditions, condenser pressure can be considered as back pressure of the steam turbine, which has great influence on the unit power. Based on the back pressure calculation model, influence on back pressure variation by adjusting circulating ... Keywords: Cold-end system, back pressure, cooling water flow, unit power

Nian Zhonghua, Liu Jizhen, Liu Guangjian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Program Operations Plan. Atmospheric Chemistry Program  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP) was initiated in 1991 to coordinate DOE`s university and federal-laboratory atmospheric-chemistry research, and to focus these efforts on national and international information requirements in the atmospheric-chemistry field. This Program Operations Plan describes the structure and vision of the effort designed to fulfill these needs, and is divided into two major components. The first of these is a Strategic Plan, which outlines the ACP`s rationale, objectives, and vision, and describes its products that are anticipated over a future ten-year period. Although based on realistic appraisals of goals that are attainable given the financial, material, and intellectual resources of the ACP community, this Strategic Plan does not describe these resources themselves. The second component of the Program Operations Plan, the Implementation Plan, deals directly with these resource considerations. As such it focuses on practical implementation of Strategic-Plan elements at the individual research institutions, the anticipated scientific contributions of these groups, and their coordination within the ACP. In contrast to the Strategic Plan, this Implementation Plan extends only five years into the future.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Pressurizer tank upper support  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90[degree] intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure. 10 figures.

Baker, T.H.; Ott, H.L.

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

351

Pressurizer tank upper support  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90.degree. intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure.

Baker, Tod H. (O' Hara Township, Allegheny County, PA); Ott, Howard L. (Kiski Township, Armstrong County, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Influence of Powder Particle Size Distribution and Pressure on the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

during HIP were determined as a function of applied pressure, temperature and initial powder particle size distribution for the nickel base superalloy. RENE 95.

353

Top-of-atmosphere radiative cooling with white roofs: experimental  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Top-of-atmosphere radiative cooling with white roofs: experimental Top-of-atmosphere radiative cooling with white roofs: experimental verification and model-based evaluation Title Top-of-atmosphere radiative cooling with white roofs: experimental verification and model-based evaluation Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Salamanca, Francisco, Shaheen R. Tonse, Surabi Menon, Vishal Garg, Krishna P. Singh, Manish Naja, and Marc L. Fischer Journal Environmental Research Letters Volume 7 Issue 4 Abstract We evaluate differences in clear-sky upwelling shortwave radiation reaching the top of the atmosphere in response to increasing the albedo of roof surfaces in an area of India with moderately high aerosol loading. Treated (painted white) and untreated (unpainted) roofs on two buildings in northeast India were analyzed on five cloudless days using radiometric imagery from the IKONOS satellite. Comparison of a radiative transfer model (RRTMG) and radiometric satellite observations shows good agreement (R2 = 0.927). Results show a mean increase of ~50 W m-2 outgoing at the top of the atmosphere for each 0.1 increase of the albedo at the time of the observations and a strong dependence on atmospheric transmissivity.

354

The ARM Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI): Status and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The ARM Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI): Status and The ARM Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI): Status and Preliminary Assessments of Instrument Deployments in 2006 Dedecker, Ralph University of Wisconsin Demirgian, Jack Argonne National Laboratory Knuteson, Robert University Of Wisconsin Revercomb, Henry University of Wisconsin-Madison Tobin, David University of Wisconsin-Madison Turner, David University of Wisconsin-Madison Category: Instruments One of the key operational instruments at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) is the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). This instrument provides the ARM program with surface-based observations of infrared spectrally resolved radiance from a vertically directed cone with better than 1% accuracy. The data from

355

Description of Atmospheric Conditions at the Pierre Auger Observatory using the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric conditions at the site of a cosmic ray observatory must be known for reconstructing observed extensive air showers. The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) is a global atmospheric model predicated on meteorological measurements and numerical weather predictions. GDAS provides altitude-dependent profiles of the main state variables of the atmosphere like temperature, pressure, and humidity. The original data and their application to the air shower reconstruction of the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. By comparisons with radiosonde and weather station measurements obtained on-site in Malargue and averaged monthly models, the utility of the GDAS data is shown.

Abreu, P.; /Lisbon, IST; Aglietta, M.; /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Ahlers, M.; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Ahn, E.J.; /Fermilab; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; /Sao Paulo U.; Allard, D.; /APC, Paris; Allekotte, I.; /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Allen, J.; /New York U.; Allison, P.; /Ohio State U.; Almela, A.; /Natl. Tech. U., San Nicolas /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Alvarez Castillo, J.; /Mexico U., ICN /Santiago de Compostela U.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Fluorescence emission induced by extensive air showers in dependence on atmospheric conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Charged particles of extensive air showers (EAS), mainly electrons and positrons, initiate the emission of fluorescence light in the Earth's atmosphere. This light provides a calorimetric measurement of the energy of cosmic rays. For reconstructing the primary energy from an observed light track of an EAS, the fluorescence yield in air has to be known in dependence on atmospheric conditions, like air temperature, pressure, and humidity. Several experiments on fluorescence emission have published various sets of data covering different parts of the dependence of the fluorescence yield on atmospheric conditions. Using a compilation of published measurements, a calculation of the fluorescence yield in dependence on altitude is presented. The fluorescence calculation is applied to simulated air showers and different atmospheric profiles to estimate the influence of the atmospheric conditions on the reconstructed shower parameters.

Keilhauer, Bianca

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Demonstration Development Project: Assessment of Pressurized Oxy-Coal Technology for Steam-Electric Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of pressurized oxy-combustion technology to support steam–electric power production has been proposed by several organizations as a potential low-cost way to enable a dramatic reduction in CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants. The pressurized oxy-coal technology realizes most of the benefits of atmospheric pressure oxy-coal technology and offers the prospect of additional efficiency and cost benefits. The technology is, however, in the early stages of development.

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

358

Balanced pressure techniques applied to geothermal drilling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the study is to evaluate balanced pressure drilling techniques for use in combating lost circulation in geothermal drilling. Drilling techniques evaluated are: aerated drilling mud, parasite tubing, concentric drill pipe, jet sub, and low density fluids. Based on the present state of the art of balanced pressure drilling techniques, drilling with aerated water has the best overall balance of performance, risk, availability, and cost. Aerated water with a 19:1 free air/water ratio reduce maximum pressure unbalance between wellbore and formation pressures from 1000 psi to 50 psi. This pressure unbalance is within acceptable operating limits; however, air pockets could form and cause pressure surges in the mud system due to high percent of air. Low density fluids used with parasite tubing has the greatest potential for combating lost circulation in geothermal drilling, when performance only is considered. The top portion of the hole would be aerated through the parasite tube at a 10:1 free air/mud ratio and the low density mud could be designed so that its pressure gradient exactly matches the formation pore pressure gradient. The main problem with this system at present is the high cost of ceramic beads needed to produce low density muds.

Dareing, D.W.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Giraffe blood pressure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

thing that happens to you when you raise or lower your head. The arteries serving your heart (carotids) constrict when you lower your head, and that lowers the blood pressure...

360

Capacitance pressure sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microelectromechanical (MEM) capacitance pressure sensor integrated with electronic circuitry on a common substrate and a method for forming such a device are disclosed. The MEM capacitance pressure sensor includes a capacitance pressure sensor formed at least partially in a cavity etched below the surface of a silicon substrate and adjacent circuitry (CMOS, BiCMOS, or bipolar circuitry) formed on the substrate. By forming the capacitance pressure sensor in the cavity, the substrate can be planarized (e.g. by chemical-mechanical polishing) so that a standard set of integrated circuit processing steps can be used to form the electronic circuitry (e.g. using an aluminum or aluminum-alloy interconnect metallization).

Eaton, William P. (Tijeras, NM); Staple, Bevan D. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, James H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric pressure base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Critical CRBR core pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The conditions are detailed under which gas pressure will cause or initiate failure in the structural containment of the fuel core. The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant is the prototype structure. Two general classes of problems have been studied, representing two entirely distinct configurations of containment failure. The first model determines the minimum pressure to lift a portion or the entire core from its containment. The second model estimates the critical pressure above which the fuel rods interior to the hexagonal fuel can warp, leading to blockage of the gas passages. Such blockage might cause further buildup of the gas pressure to a level causing the failure of the fuel rod containment in the hexagonal fuel container.

Ju, F.D.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Effects of Pressure on Collision, Coalescence, and Breakup of Raindrops. Part I: Experiments at 50 kPa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous breakup experiments have been carried out at laboratory pressures (100 kPa). However, raindrop interactions mainly take place higher up in the atmosphere, even in the supercooled part of a cloud where drops can be initiated by shedding ...

Roland List; C. Fung; R. Nissen

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Low-Cost High-Pressure Hydrogen Generator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electrolysis of water, particularly in conjunction with renewable energy sources, is potentially a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method of producing hydrogen at dispersed forecourt sites, such as automotive fueling stations. The primary feedstock for an electrolyzer is electricity, which could be produced by renewable sources such as wind or solar that do not produce carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gas emissions. However, state-of-the-art electrolyzer systems are not economically competitive for forecourt hydrogen production due to their high capital and operating costs, particularly the cost of the electricity used by the electrolyzer stack. In this project, Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC (GES) developed a low cost, high efficiency proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis system for hydrogen production at moderate pressure (300 to 400 psig). The electrolyzer stack operates at differential pressure, with hydrogen produced at moderate pressure while oxygen is evolved at near-atmospheric pressure, reducing the cost of the water feed and oxygen handling subsystems. The project included basic research on catalysts and membranes to improve the efficiency of the electrolysis reaction as well as development of advanced materials and component fabrication methods to reduce the capital cost of the electrolyzer stack and system. The project culminated in delivery of a prototype electrolyzer module to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for testing at the National Wind Technology Center. Electrolysis cell efficiency of 72% (based on the lower heating value of hydrogen) was demonstrated using an advanced high-strength membrane developed in this project. This membrane would enable the electrolyzer system to exceed the DOE 2012 efficiency target of 69%. GES significantly reduced the capital cost of a PEM electrolyzer stack through development of low cost components and fabrication methods, including a 60% reduction in stack parts count. Economic analysis indicates that hydrogen could be produced for $3.79 per gge at an electricity cost of $0.05/kWh by the lower-cost PEM electrolyzer developed in this project, assuming high-volume production of large-scale electrolyzer systems.

Cropley, Cecelia C.; Norman, Timothy J.

2008-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

364

National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NARAC TOC NARAC TOC The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center, NARAC, provides tools and services to the Federal Government, that map the probable spread of hazardous material accidentally or intentionally released into the atmosphere. NARAC provides atmospheric plume predictions in time for an emergency manager to decide if taking protective action is necessary to protect the health and safety of people in affected areas. Located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, NARAC is a national support and resource center for planning, real-time assessment, emergency response, and detailed studies of incidents involving a wide variety of hazards, including nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological, and natural emissions. In an emergency situation (if lives are at risk), event-specific NARAC

365

Long Range Weather Prediction III: Miniaturized Distributed Sensors for Global Atmospheric Measurements  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

We continue consideration of ways-and-means for creating, in an evolutionary, ever-more-powerful manner, a continually-updated data-base of salient atmospheric properties sufficient for finite differenced integration-based, high-fidelity weather prediction over intervals of 2-3 weeks, leveraging the 10{sup 14} FLOPS digital computing systems now coming into existence. A constellation comprised of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 9} small atmospheric sampling systems--high-tech superpressure balloons carrying early 21st century semiconductor devices, drifting with the local winds over the meteorological spectrum of pressure-altitudes--that assays all portions of the troposphere and lower stratosphere remains the central feature of the proposed system. We suggest that these devices should be active-signaling, rather than passive-transponding, as we had previously proposed only for the ground- and aquatic-situated sensors of this system. Instead of periodic interrogation of the intra-atmospheric transponder population by a constellation of sophisticated small satellites in low Earth orbit, we now propose to retrieve information from the instrumented balloon constellation by existing satellite telephony systems, acting as cellular tower-nodes in a global cellular telephony system whose ''user-set'' is the atmospheric-sampling and surface-level monitoring constellations. We thereby leverage the huge investment in cellular (satellite) telephony and GPS technologies, with large technical and economic gains. This proposal minimizes sponsor forward commitment along its entire programmatic trajectory, and moreover may return data of weather-predictive value soon after field activities commence. We emphasize its high near-term value for making better mesoscale, relatively short-term weather predictions with computing-intensive means, and its great long-term utility in enhancing the meteorological basis for global change predictive studies. We again note that adverse impacts of weather involve continuing costs of the order of 1% of GDP, a large fraction of which could be retrieved if high-fidelity predictions of two weeks forward applicability were available. These{approx}$10{sup 2} B annual savings dwarf the<$1 B costs of operating a rational, long-range weather prediction system of the type proposed.

Teller, E.; Leith, C.; Canavan, G.; Wood, L.

2001-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

366

Electokinetic high pressure hydraulic system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact high pressure hydraulic system having no moving parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force and for manipulating fluids. Electro-osmotic flow is used to provide a valve and means to compress a fluid or gas in a capillary-based system. By electro-osmotically moving an electrolyte between a first position opening communication between a fluid inlet and outlet and a second position closing communication between the fluid inlet and outlet the system can be configured as a valve. The system can also be used to generate forces as large as 2500 psi that can be used to compress a fluid, either a liquid or a gas.

Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

New Way To Realize Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Ever since then, civilization has used the toxic liquid metal to measure pressure. ... The pressure and temperature of a gas are directly related to its ...

2013-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

368

Pressurized reactor system and a method of operating the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are provided for operating a pressurized reactor system in order to precisely control the temperature within a pressure vessel in order to minimize condensation of corrosive materials from gases on the surfaces of the pressure vessel or contained circulating fluidized bed reactor, and to prevent the temperature of the components from reaching a detrimentally high level, while at the same time allowing quick heating of the pressure vessel interior volume during start-up. Super-atmospheric pressure gas is introduced from the first conduit into the fluidized bed reactor and heat derived reactions such as combustion and gasification are maintained in the reactor. Gas is exhausted from the reactor and pressure vessel through a second conduit. Gas is circulated from one part of the inside volume to another to control the temperature of the inside volume, such as by passing the gas through an exterior conduit which has a heat exchanger, control valve, blower and compressor associated therewith, or by causing natural convection flow of circulating gas within one or more generally vertically extending gas passages entirely within the pressure vessel (and containing heat exchangers, flow rate control valves, or the like therein). Preferably, inert gas is provided as a circulating gas, and the inert gas may also be used in emergency shut-down situations. In emergency shut-down reaction gas being supplied to the reactor is cut off, while inert gas from the interior gas volume of the pressure vessel is introduced into the reactor. 2 figs.

Isaksson, J.M.

1996-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

369

Passive blast pressure sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

370

High pressure rotary piston coal feeder for coal gasification applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The subject development is directed to an apparatus for feeding pulverized coal into a coal gasifier operating at relatively high pressures and elevated temperatures. This apparatus is a rotary piston feeder which comprises a circular casing having a coal loading opening therein diametrically opposed from a coal discharge and contains a rotatable discoid rotor having a cylinder in which a reciprocateable piston is disposed. The reciprocation of the piston within the cylinder is provided by a stationary conjugate cam arrangement whereby the pulverized coal from a coal hopper at atmospheric pressure can be introduced into the cylinder cavity and then discharged therefrom into the high-pressure gasifier without the loss of high pressure gases from within the latter.

Gencsoy, Hasan T. (Morgantown, WV)

1977-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

371

Method for pressure modulation of turbine sidewall cavities  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for controlling cooling air flow for pressure modulation of turbine components, such as the turbine outer sidewall cavities. The pressure at which cooling and purge air is supplied to the turbine outer side wall cavities is modulated, based on compressor discharge pressure (Pcd), thereby to generally maintain the back flow margin (BFM) so as to minimize excessive leakage and the consequent performance deterioration. In an exemplary embodiment, the air pressure within the third stage outer side wall cavity and the air pressure within the fourth stage outer side wall cavity are each controlled to a respective value that is a respective prescribed percentage of the concurrent compressor discharge pressure. The prescribed percentage may be determined from a ratio of the respective outer side wall pressure to compressor discharge pressure at Cold Day Turn Down (CDTD) required to provide a prescribed back flow margin.

Leone, Sal Albert (Scotia, NY); Book, Matthew David (Altamont, NY); Banares, Christopher R. (Schenectady, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

System for pressure modulation of turbine sidewall cavities  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method are provided for controlling cooling air flow for pressure modulation of turbine components, such as the turbine outer sidewall cavities. The pressure at which cooling and purge air is supplied to the turbine outer side wall cavities is modulated, based on compressor discharge pressure (Pcd), thereby to generally maintain the back flow margin (BFM) so as to minimize excessive leakage and the consequent performance deterioration. In an exemplary embodiment, the air pressure within the third stage outer side wall cavity and the air pressure within the fourth stage outer side wall cavity are each controlled to a respective value that is a respective prescribed percentage of the concurrent compressor discharge pressure. The prescribed percentage may be determined from a ratio of the respective outer side wall pressure to compressor discharge pressure at Cold Day Turn Down (CDTD) required to provide a prescribed back flow margin.

Leone, Sal Albert (Scotia, NY); Book, Matthew David (Altamont, NY); Banares, Christopher R. (Schenectady, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

PRESSURE SENSING DEVICE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This device is primarily useful as a switch which is selectively operable to actuate in response to either absolute or differential predetermined pressures. The device generally comprises a pressure-tight housing divided by a movable impermeable diaphragm into two chambers, a reference pressure chamber and a bulb chamber containing the switching means and otherwise filled with an incompressible non-conducting fluid. The switch means comprises a normally collapsed bulb having an electrically conductive outer surface and a vent tube leading to the housing exterior. The normally collapsed bulb is disposed such that upon its inflation, respensive to air inflow from the vent, two contacts fixed within the bulb chamber are adapted to be electrically shorted by the conducting outer surface of the bulb.

Pope, K.E.

1959-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

374

Pressure suppression containment system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto.

Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Townsend, Harold E. (San Jose, CA)

1994-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

Pressure suppression containment system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto. 6 figures.

Gluntz, D.M.; Townsend, H.E.

1994-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

376

Quality Assurance in Atmospheric Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper summarizes a number of best practices associated with the use of numerical models of the atmosphere and is motivated by the rapid growth in the number of model users, who have a range of scientific and technical preparations. An underlying ...

Thomas T. Warner

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Geomagnetic Effects on Atmospheric Neutrinos  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Geomagnetic effects distort the zenith angle distribution of sub--GeV and few--GeV atmospheric neutrinos, breaking the up--down symmetry that would be present in the absence of neutrino oscillations and without a geomagnetic field. The geomagnetic effects also produce a characteristic azimuthal dependence of the $\

Paolo Lipari; T. K. Gaisser; Todor Stanev

1998-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

378

Jet engine's speed controller with constant pressure chamber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper deals with an automatic system meant to control a jet engine's rotation speed, through the fuel injection's control, based on a constant pressure chamber controller. One has established the non-linear mathematical model (based on the motion ... Keywords: actuator, control, fuel injection, fuel pump, jet-engine, pressure chamber

Alexandru Nicolae Tudosie

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Self-consistent Method for Determining Vertical Profiles of Aerosol and Atmospheric Properties Using a High Spectral Resolution Rayleigh-Mie Lidar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A self-consistent method of inverting high spectral resolution, Rayleigh-Mie lidar signals to obtain profiles of atmospheric state variables, as well as aerosol properties, is presented. Assumed are a known air pressure at a reference height, ...

D. A. Krueger; L. M. Caldwell; C. Y. She; R. J. Alvarez II

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Extreme Anomalous Atmospheric Circulation in the West Antarctic Peninsula Region in Austral Spring and Summer 2001/02, and Its Profound Impact on Sea Ice and Biota  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Exceptional sea ice conditions occurred in the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region from September 2001 to February 2002, resulting from a strongly positive atmospheric pressure anomaly in the South Atlantic coupled with strong negative ...

Robert A. Massom; Sharon E. Stammerjohn; Raymond C. Smith; Michael J. Pook; Richard A. Iannuzzi; Neil Adams; Douglas G. Martinson; Maria Vernet; William R. Fraser; Langdon B. Quetin; Robin M. Ross; Yuko Massom; H. Roy Krouse

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric pressure base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Einstein's Gravity Under Pressure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The mysterious `dark energy' needed to explain the current observations, poses a serious confrontation between fundamental physics and cosmology. The present crisis may be an outcome of the (so far untested) prediction of the general theory of relativity that the pressure of the matter source also gravitates. In this view, a theoretical analysis reveals some surprising inconsistencies and paradoxes faced by the energy-stress tensor (in the presence of pressure) which is used to model the matter content of the universe, including dark energy.

Ram Gopal Vishwakarma

2007-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

382

Wellbore pressure transducer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Subterranean earth formations containing energy values are subjected to hydraulic fracturing procedures to enhance the recovery of the energy values. These fractures are induced in the earth formation by pumping liquid into the wellbore penetrating the earth formation until the pressure of the liquid is sufficient to fracture the earth formation adjacent to the wellbore. The present invention is directed to a transducer which is positionable within the wellbore to generate a signal indicative of the fracture initiation useful for providing a timing signal to equipment for seismic mapping of the fracture as it occurs and for providing a measurement of the pressure at which the fracture is initiated.

Shuck, Lowell Z. (Morgantown, WV)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

High-energy atmospheric neutrinos  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-energy neutrinos, arising from decays of mesons that were produced through the cosmic rays collisions with air nuclei, form unavoidable background noise in the astrophysical neutrino detection problem. The atmospheric neutrino flux above 1 PeV should be supposedly dominated by the contribution of charmed particle decays. These (prompt) neutrinos originated from decays of massive and shortlived particles, $D^\\pm$, $D^0$, $\\bar{D}{}^0$, $D_s^\\pm$, $\\Lambda^+_c$, form the most uncertain fraction of the high-energy atmospheric neutrino flux because of poor explored processes of the charm production. Besides, an ambiguity in high-energy behavior of pion and especially kaon production cross sections for nucleon-nucleus collisions may affect essentially the calculated neutrino flux. There is the energy region where above flux uncertainties superimpose. A new calculation presented here reveals sizable differences, up to the factor of 1.8 above 1 TeV, in muon neutrino flux predictions obtained with usage of known hadronic models, SIBYLL 2.1 and QGSJET-II. The atmospheric neutrino flux in the energy range $10-10^7$ GeV was computed within the 1D approach to solve nuclear cascade equations in the atmosphere, which takes into account non-scaling behavior of the inclusive cross-sections for the particle production, the rise of total inelastic hadron-nucleus cross-sections and nonpower-law character of the primary cosmic ray spectrum. This approach was recently tested in the atmospheric muon flux calculations [1]. The results of the neutrino flux calculations are compared with the Frejus, AMANDA-II and IceCube measurement data.

S. I. Sinegovsky; A. A. Kochanov; T. S. Sinegovskaya

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

384

SALTSTONE OSMOTIC PRESSURE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent research into the moisture retention properties of saltstone suggest that osmotic pressure may play a potentially significant role in contaminant transport (Dixon et al., 2009 and Dixon, 2011). The Savannah River Remediation Closure and Disposal Assessments Group requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct a literature search on osmotic potential as it relates to contaminant transport and to develop a conceptual model of saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. This report presents the findings of the literature review and presents a conceptual model for saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. The task was requested through Task Technical Request HLW-SSF-TTR- 2013-0004. Simulated saltstone typically has very low permeability (Dixon et al. 2008) and pore water that contains a large concentration of dissolved salts (Flach and Smith 2013). Pore water in simulated saltstone has a high salt concentration relative to pore water in concrete and groundwater. This contrast in salt concentration can generate high osmotic pressures if simulated saltstone has the properties of a semipermeable membrane. Estimates of osmotic pressure using results from the analysis of pore water collected from simulated saltstone show that an osmotic pressure up to 2790 psig could be generated within the saltstone. Most semi-permeable materials are non-ideal and have an osmotic efficiency <1 and as a result actual osmotic pressures are less than theoretical pressures. Observations from laboratory tests of simulated saltstone indicate that it may exhibit the behavior of a semi-permeable membrane. After several weeks of back pressure saturation in a flexible wall permeameter (FWP) the membrane containing a simulated saltstone sample appeared to have bubbles underneath it. Upon removal from the FWP the specimen was examined and it was determined that the bubbles were due to liquid that had accumulated between the membrane and the sample. One possible explanation for the accumulation of solution between the membrane and sample is the development of osmotic pressure within the sample. Osmotic pressure will affect fluid flow and contaminant transport and may result in the changes to the internal structure of the semi-permeable material. B?nard et al. 2008 reported swelling of wet cured Portland cement mortars containing salts of NaNO{sub 3}, KNO{sub 3}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}x12H{sub 2}O, and K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} when exposed to a dilute solution. Typically hydraulic head is considered the only driving force for groundwater in groundwater models. If a low permeability material containing a concentrated salt solution is present in the hydrogeologic sequence large osmotic pressures may develop and lead to misinterpretation of groundwater flow and solute transport. The osmotic pressure in the semi-permeable material can significantly impact groundwater flow in the vicinity of the semi-permeable material. One possible outcome is that groundwater will flow into the semi-permeable material resulting in hydrologic containment within the membrane. Additionally, hyperfiltration can occur within semi-permeable materials when water moves through a membrane into the more concentrated solution and dissolved constituents are retained in the lower concentration solution. Groundwater flow and transport equations that incorporate chemical gradients (osmosis) have been developed. These equations are referred to as coupled flow equations. Currently groundwater modeling to assess the performance of saltstone waste forms is conducted using the PORFLOW groundwater flow and transport model. PORFLOW does not include coupled flow from chemico-osmotic gradients and therefore numerical simulation of the effect of coupled flow on contaminant transport in and around saltstone cannot be assessed. Most natural semi-permeable membranes are non-ideal membranes and do not restrict all movement of solutes and as a result theoretical osmotic potential is not realized. Osmotic efficiency is a parameter in the coupled flow equation that accounts for the

Nichols, R.

2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

385

SALTSTONE OSMOTIC PRESSURE  

SciTech Connect

Recent research into the moisture retention properties of saltstone suggest that osmotic pressure may play a potentially significant role in contaminant transport (Dixon et al., 2009 and Dixon, 2011). The Savannah River Remediation Closure and Disposal Assessments Group requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct a literature search on osmotic potential as it relates to contaminant transport and to develop a conceptual model of saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. This report presents the findings of the literature review and presents a conceptual model for saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. The task was requested through Task Technical Request HLW-SSF-TTR- 2013-0004. Simulated saltstone typically has very low permeability (Dixon et al. 2008) and pore water that contains a large concentration of dissolved salts (Flach and Smith 2013). Pore water in simulated saltstone has a high salt concentration relative to pore water in concrete and groundwater. This contrast in salt concentration can generate high osmotic pressures if simulated saltstone has the properties of a semipermeable membrane. Estimates of osmotic pressure using results from the analysis of pore water collected from simulated saltstone show that an osmotic pressure up to 2790 psig could be generated within the saltstone. Most semi-permeable materials are non-ideal and have an osmotic efficiency <1 and as a result actual osmotic pressures are less than theoretical pressures. Observations from laboratory tests of simulated saltstone indicate that it may exhibit the behavior of a semi-permeable membrane. After several weeks of back pressure saturation in a flexible wall permeameter (FWP) the membrane containing a simulated saltstone sample appeared to have bubbles underneath it. Upon removal from the FWP the specimen was examined and it was determined that the bubbles were due to liquid that had accumulated between the membrane and the sample. One possible explanation for the accumulation of solution between the membrane and sample is the development of osmotic pressure within the sample. Osmotic pressure will affect fluid flow and contaminant transport and may result in the changes to the internal structure of the semi-permeable material. B?nard et al. 2008 reported swelling of wet cured Portland cement mortars containing salts of NaNO{sub 3}, KNO{sub 3}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}x12H{sub 2}O, and K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} when exposed to a dilute solution. Typically hydraulic head is considered the only driving force for groundwater in groundwater models. If a low permeability material containing a concentrated salt solution is present in the hydrogeologic sequence large osmotic pressures may develop and lead to misinterpretation of groundwater flow and solute transport. The osmotic pressure in the semi-permeable material can significantly impact groundwater flow in the vicinity of the semi-permeable material. One possible outcome is that groundwater will flow into the semi-permeable material resulting in hydrologic containment within the membrane. Additionally, hyperfiltration can occur within semi-permeable materials when water moves through a membrane into the more concentrated solution and dissolved constituents are retained in the lower concentration solution. Groundwater flow and transport equations that incorporate chemical gradients (osmosis) have been developed. These equations are referred to as coupled flow equations. Currently groundwater modeling to assess the performance of saltstone waste forms is conducted using the PORFLOW groundwater flow and transport model. PORFLOW does not include coupled flow from chemico-osmotic gradients and therefore numerical simulation of the effect of coupled flow on contaminant transport in and around saltstone cannot be assessed. Most natural semi-permeable membranes are non-ideal membranes and do not restrict all movement of solutes and as a result theoretical osmotic potential is not realized. Osmotic efficiency is a parameter in the coupled flow equation that accounts for the

Nichols, R.

2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

386

Zonal Winds and the Angular Momentum Balance of Venus’ Atmosphere within and above the Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Temperatures and pressures inferred from radio occultation data acquired by the Pioneer Venus orbiter between September 1982 and November 1983 are used to derive cyclostrophic zonal winds in the middle atmosphere of Venus (1350 to 2.1 mb, 10° to ...

R. L. Walterscheid; G. Schubert; M. Newman; A. J. Kliore

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Observed Propagation and Structure of the 33-h Atmospheric Kelvin Wave  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The structure of the 33-h Kelvin wave, a normal mode of the atmosphere, is examined in 6-hourly station and NCEP–NCAR reanalysis data. Cross-spectral analysis of 6 yr (1993–98) of tropical station pressure data shows a peak in coherence in a ...

Adrian J. Matthews; Roland A. Madden

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Compressed Air Sample Technology for Isotopic Analysis of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A methodology for the collection of large (1000 L) air samples for isotopic analysis of atmospheric carbon monoxide is presented. A low-background, high-pressure, high-flow sampling system with a residual background of less than 2 ppbv CO has ...

John E. Mak; Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Experience with atmospheric fluidized bed gasification of switchgrass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Switchgrass was gasified in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor rated at 800 kW (2.75 MMBtu/hr) thermal input and operating at atmospheric pressure. A combustible gas with higher heating value varying between 4.2--5.9 MJ/Nm{sup 3} (114--160 Btu/scf) was produced. Carbon conversion was approximately 85%. Difficulties in feeding high moisture switchgrass inhibited smooth reactor operation. Several feed systems for switchgrass were tried with varying degrees of success. The results of gasification trials using switchgrass as fuel are described.

Smeenk, J.; Brown, R.C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Center for Coal and the Environment

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

390

Reactor pressure vessel nozzle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough. 2 figs.

Challberg, R.C.; Upton, H.A.

1994-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

391

Pressure swing adsorption process  

SciTech Connect

An adiabatic pressure swing adsorption process is described for the separation of gas mixtures by adsorbing at least one gas component in each of at least 8 phase staggered operated adsorbent beds, which can continue to be operated without any stoppage of installation even if one adsorbent bed is removed from operation due to a defective valve. 6 claims.

De Meyer, H.; Doclo, R.; Seynaeve, J.

1980-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

392

Estimating the Correlation Dimension of Atmospheric Time Series  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The correlation dimension D is commonly used to quantify the chaotic structure of atmospheric time series. The standard algorithm for estimating the value of D is based on finding the slope of the curve obtained by plotting ln C(r) versus ln r, ...

Hampton N. Shirer; Christian J. Fosmire; Robert Wells; Laurentia Suciu

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

A Global Nonhydrostatic Semi-Lagrangian Atmospheric Model with Orography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A global nonhydrostatic semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian (SISL) atmospheric model with orography has been developed. The height-based terrain-following ?z coordinate of Gal-Chen and Somerville is used to incorporate the orography. A 3D vector form ...

Jian-Hua Qian; Fredrick H. M. Semazzi; Jeffrey S. Scroggs

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Planetary-Scale Waves in the Venus Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A numerical model of planetary-scale waves in Venus’ atmosphere is used to simulate observed wave-like cloud features such as the dark horizontal Y. The model is based on the linearized primitive equations. Observed variations of static stability ...

Curt Covey; Gerald Schubert

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

TeV Dark Matter detection by Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescopes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ground based Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescopes have recently unveiled a TeV gamma-ray signal from the direction of the Galactic Centre. We examine whether these gamma-rays, observed by the VERITAS, CANGAROO-II and HESS collaborations, may arise from annihilations of dark matter particles. Emission from nearby dwarf spheroidals, such as Sagittarius, could provide a test of this scenario.

Francesc Ferrer

2005-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

396

OH-Planar Fluorescence Measurements of Pressurized, Hydrogen Premixed Flames in the SimVal Combustor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the hydroxyl radical in lean, premixed natural gas flames augmented with hydrogen are presented. The experiments were conducted in the Simulation Validation combustor at the National Energy Technology Laboratory at operating pressures from 1 to 8 atmospheres. The data, which were collected in a combustor with well-controlled boundary conditions, are intended to be used for validating computational fluid dynamics models under conditions directly relevant to land-based gas turbine engines. The images, which show significant effects of hydrogen on local flame quenching, are discussed in terms of a turbulent premixed combustion regime and nondimensional parameters such as Karlovitz number. Pressure was found to thin the OH region, but only had a secondary effect on overall flame shape compared with the effects of hydrogen addition, which was found to decrease local quenching and shorten the turbulent flame brush. A method to process the individual images based on local gradients of fluorescence intensity is proposed, and results are presented. Finally, the results of several large eddy simulations are presented and compared with the experimental data in an effort to understand the issues related to model validation, especially for simulations that do not include OH as an intermediate species.

Strakey, P.A.; Woodruff, S.D.; Williams, T.C. (Sandia); Schefer, R.W. (Sandia)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction is a technical paper that addresses the operating and economic advantages associated with the program to lower the steam operating pressure. Evaluation of a testing program will be discussed. The paper will address the following. 1. Factors that determine the feasibility of reducing the plant steam operating pressure. 2. The operating advantages and disadvantages associated with the decreased steam pressure. 3. The economics of steam pressure reduction. Appropriate visual aids will be utilized as part of the discussion.

Sylva, D. M.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

AMIP: The Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) is an international effort to determine the systematic climate errors of atmospheric models under realistic conditions, and calls for the simulation of the climate of the decade 1979–1988 using ...

W. Lawrence Gates

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Retrieval of atmospheric properties of extrasolar planets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new method to retrieve molecular abundances and temperature profiles from exoplanet atmosphere photometry and spectroscopy. Our method allows us to run millions of 1-D atmosphere models in order to cover the ...

Nikku, Madhusudhan, 1980-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Interannual Variation of Global Atmospheric Angular Momentum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relative atmospheric angular momentum (RAM) integrated over the globe is an explicit variable representing the state of the atmospheric general circulation. After removing the annual, semiannual, and higher-frequency components, the filtered ...

Tsing-Chang Chen; Joseph J. Tribbia; Ming-Cheng Yen

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric pressure base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Statistics Education in the Atmospheric Sciences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analyses of atmospheric sciences data and models are heavily dependent upon statistical and probabilistic reasoning. Statistical methods have played an important role in establishing physical relationships of atmosphere-ocean-land interactions ...

Timothy J. Brown; L. Mark Berliner; Daniel S. Wilks; Michael B. Richman; Christopher K. Wilke

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Atmospheric Control on the Thermohaline Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In an attempt to elucidate the role of atmospheric and oceanic processes in setting a vigorous ocean overturning circulation in the North Atlantic but not in the North Pacific, a comparison of the observed atmospheric circulation and net surface ...

Arnaud Czaja

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

The Promise of GPS in Atmospheric Monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper provides an overview of applications of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for active measurement of the Earth's atmosphere. Microwave radio signals transmitted by GPS satellites are delayed (refracted) by the atmosphere as they ...

Steven Businger; Steven R. Chiswell; Michael Bevis; Jingping Duan; Richard A. Anthes; Christian Rocken; Randolph H. Ware; Michael Exner; T. VanHove; Fredrick S. Solheim

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Testing and Evaluating Atmospheric Climate Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Model validation is a crucial process that underpins model development and gives confidence to the results from running models. This article discusses a range of techniques for validating atmosphere models given that the atmosphere is chaotic and incompletely ...

Vicky Pope; Terry Davies

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Sulfuryl fluoride in the global atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The first calibrated high-frequency, high-precision, in situ atmospheric and archived air measurements of the fumigant sulfuryl fluoride (SO[subscript 2]F[subscript 2]) have been made as part of the Advanced Global Atmospheric ...

Muhle, J.

406

Dynamical Processes of Equatorial Atmospheric Angular Momentum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamical processes that drive intraseasonal equatorial atmospheric angular momentum (EAAM) fluctuations are examined with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis data. ...

Steven B. Feldstein

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

VALDRIFT—A Valley Atmospheric Dispersion Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

VALDRIFT (valley drift) is a valley atmospheric transport, diffusion, and deposition model. The model is phenomenological—that is, the dominant meteorological processes governing the behavior of the valley atmosphere are formulated explicitly in ...

K. Jerry Allwine; Xindi Bian; C. David Whiteman; Harold W. Thistle

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

A Spontaneously Generated Tropical Atmospheric General Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of idealized atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) experiments are presented. These experiments examine whether and how atmospheric deep moist convection, in the absence of meridional gradients in external forcing, interacts with ...

Ben P. Kirtman; Edwin K. Schneider

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Atmospheric Turbidity in the Polar Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis is presented of 800 measurements of atmospheric monochromatic aerosol optical depth made poleward of 65° latitude. The atmosphere of the southern polar region appears to be uncontaminated but is charged with a background aerosol having ...

Glenn E. Shaw

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Advanced Atmospheric Modeling for Emergency Response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric transport and diffusion models are an important part of emergency response systems for industrial facilities that have the potential to release significant quantities of toxic or radioactive material into the atmosphere. An advanced ...

Jerome D. Fast; B. Lance O'steen; Robert P. Addis

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Infrared Cooling in Cloudy Atmospheres: Precision of Grid Point Selection for Numerical Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The infrared layer temperature change in a cloudy atmosphere normally shows warming at the base of the cloud and intense cooling at the top of the cloud. In a model that uses broad-band radiative transfer to calculate atmospheric temperature ...

L. P. Stearns

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Observed Land–Atmosphere Coupling from Satellite Remote Sensing and Reanalysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The lack of observational data for use in evaluating the realism of model-based land–atmosphere feedback signal and strength has been deemed a major obstacle to future improvements to seasonal weather prediction by the Global Land–Atmosphere ...

Craig R. Ferguson; Eric F. Wood

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Quantitative determination of atmospheric hydroperoxyl radical  

SciTech Connect

A method for the quantitative determination of atmospheric hydroperoxyl radical comprising: (a) contacting a liquid phase atmospheric sample with a chemiluminescent compound which luminesces on contact with hydroperoxyl radical; (b) determining luminescence intensity from the liquid phase atmospheric sample; and (c) comparing said luminescence intensity from the liquid phase atmospheric sample to a standard luminescence intensity for hydroperoxyl radical. An apparatus for automating the method is also included.

Springston, Stephen R. (Upton, NY); Lloyd, Judith (Westbury, NY); Zheng, Jun (Stony Brook, NY)

2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

414

North Carolina Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

North Carolina Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Calendar Day)

415

Discovery of oxygen in atmosphere could mean life for Saturn's moon Dione  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Discovery of oxygen in atmosphere could mean life for Saturn's Discovery of oxygen in atmosphere could mean life for Saturn's moon Dione Discovery of oxygen in atmosphere could mean life for Saturn's moon Dione Discovery could mean ingredients for life are abundant on icy space bodies. March 5, 2012 Curiosity rover bears three LANL technologies Inside Titan: This artist's concept shows a possible scenario for the internal structure of Titan, as suggested by data from NASA's Cassini spacecraft. Scientists have been trying to determine what is under Titan's organic-rich atmosphere and icy crust. Data from the radio science experiment make the strongest case yet for a global subsurface ocean, sitting above a subsurface layer of high-pressure ice and a water-infused silicate core. Image credit: A. Tavani Get Expertise

416

Measurements of the Infrared SpectraLines of Water Vapor at Atmospheric Temperatures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurements of the Infrared Spectral Lines Measurements of the Infrared Spectral Lines of Water Vapor at Atmospheric Temperatures P. Varanasi and Q. Zou Institute for Terrestrial and Planetary Atmospheres State University of New York at Stony Brook Stony Brook, New York Introduction Water vapor is undoubtedly the most dominant greenhouse gas in the terrestrial atmosphere. In the two facets of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program research, atmospheric remote sensing (air-borne as well as Cloud and Radiation Testbed [CART] site-based) and modeling of atmospheric radiation, the spectrum of water vapor, ranging from the microwave to the visible wavelengths, plays a significant role. Its spectrum has been the subject of many studies throughout the last century. Therefore, it is natural to presume it should be fairly well established by now. However, the need for a

417

Detecting atmospheric rivers in large climate datasets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extreme precipitation events on the western coast of North America are often traced to an unusual weather phenomenon known as atmospheric rivers. Although these storms may provide a significant fraction of the total water to the highly managed western ... Keywords: atmospheric rivers, automatic detection of atmospheric rivers, connected component labeling, extreme climate events

Surendra Byna; Prabhat; Michael F. Wehner; Kesheng John Wu

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Steam Pressure Reduction, Opportunities, and Issues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Steam pressure reduction has the potential to reduce fuel consumption for a minimum capital investment. When the pressure at the boiler is reduced, fuel and steam are saved as a result of changes in the high-pressure side of the steam system from the boiler through the condensate return system. In the boiler plant, losses from combustion, boiler blowdown, radiation, and steam venting from condensate receivers would be reduced by reducing steam pressure. Similarly, in the steam distribution system, losses from radiation, flash steam vented from condensate receivers, and component and steam trap leakage would also be reduced. There are potential problems associated with steam pressure reduction, however. These may include increased boiler carryover, boiler water circulation problems in watertube boilers, increased steam velocity in piping, loss of power in steam turbines, and issues with pressure reducing valves. This paper is based a Steam Technical Brief sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Enbridge Gas Distribution, Inc. (5). An example illustrates the use of DOE BestPractices Steam System Assessment Tool to model changes in steam, fuel, electricity generation, and makeup water and to estimate resulting economic benefits.

Berry, Jan [ORNL; Griffin, Mr. Bob [Enbridge Gas Distribution, Inc.; Wright, Anthony L [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Dynamic surge/swab pressure predictions  

SciTech Connect

It is generally accepted that the pulling and running of pipe causes pressure surges. The prediction of pressure surges is of economic importance in wells where the pressure must be examined within narrow limits to prevent lost circulation and formation-fluid influx. For these wells, the drilling engineer needs the best possible method of calculating surge pressures to drill wells with a minimum of trouble. This paper presents a dynamic surge/swab model that extends existing technology with the following features: (1) pipe and annulus pressures are coupled through the pipe elasticity; (2) longitudinal pipe elasticity and fluid viscous forces determine pipe displacement; (3) fluid properties vary as a function of temperature and pressure; and (4) formation elasticity; pipe elasticity, and cement elasticity are all used to determine the composite elastic response of the wellbore. Comparisons between the model and field data demonstrate good agreement. Data matches have been made for both water- and oil-based muds in both shallow and deep wells. Furthermore, the model matches data that had not been previously matched by other models.

Mitchell, R.F. (Enertech Engineering and Research (US))

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Fluctuating pressure correlations in wall turbulence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of the present paper is to study the influence of wall-echo on pressure fluctuations $p'$, and on statistical correlations containing $p'$, {\\em viz} redistribution $\\phi_{ij}$ and pressure diffusion $d_{ij}^{(p)}$. We extend the usual analysis of turbulent correlations containing pressure fluctuations in wall-bounded \\tsc{dns} computations [Kim J.: {\\em J. Fluid Mech.} {\\bf 205} (1989) 421--451], separating $p'$ not only into rapid $p_{(\\mathrm{r})}'$ and slow $p_{(\\mathrm{s})}'$ parts [Chou P.Y.: {\\em Quart. Appl. Math.} {\\bf 3} (1945) 38--54], but further into volume (weakly inhomogeneous; $p'_{(\\mathrm{r};\\mathfrak{V})}$ and $p'_{(\\mathrm{s};\\mathfrak{V})}$) and surface (strongly inhomogeneous wall-echo; $p'_{(\\mathrm{r};w)}$ and $p'_{(\\mathrm{s};w)}$) terms. An algorithm, based on a Green's function approach, is developed to compute the above splittings for various correlations containing pressure fluctuations (redistribution, pressure diffusion, velocity/pressure-gradient), in fully develope...

Gerolymos, G A; Senechal, D; Vallet, I

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric pressure base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Pressure suppression system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure suppression system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and an enclosed gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The GDCS pool includes a plenum for receiving through an inlet the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A condenser is disposed in the GDCS plenum for condensing the steam channeled therein and to trap the non-condensable gas therein. A method of operation includes draining the GDCS pool following the LOCA and channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the GDCS plenum for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith for trapping the gas therein.

Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

High pressure furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

424

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

High pressure furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

Morris, D.E.

1993-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

426

Atmospheric Precorrected Differential Absorption technique to retrieve columnar water vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Differential absorption techniques are suitable to retrieve the total column water vapor contents from imaging spectroscopy data. A technique called Atmospheric Precorrected Differential Absorption (APDA) is derived directly from simplified radiative transfer equations. It combines a partial atmospheric correction with a differential absorption technique. The atmospheric path radiance term is iteratively corrected during the retrieval of water vapor. This improves the results especially over low background albedos. The error of the method for various ground reflectance spectra is below 7% for most of the spectra. The channel combinations for two test cases are then defined, using a quantitative procedure, which is based on MODTRAN simulations and the image itself. An error analysis indicates that the influence of aerosols and channel calibration is minimal. The APDA technique is then applied to two AVIRIS images acquired in 1991 and 1995. The accuracy of the measured water vapor columns is within a range of {+-}5% compared to ground truth radiosonde data.

Schlaepfer, D.; Itten, K.I. [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland). Dept. of Geography] [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland). Dept. of Geography; Borel, C.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Keller, J. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)] [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

High pressure storage vessel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed herein is a composite pressure vessel with a liner having a polar boss and a blind boss a shell is formed around the liner via one or more filament wrappings continuously disposed around at least a substantial portion of the liner assembly combined the liner and filament wrapping have a support profile. To reduce susceptible to rupture a locally disposed filament fiber is added.

Liu, Qiang

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

428

EOR: the revealing curves of transient pressure tests  

SciTech Connect

To better understand a well and the reservoir it drains, it is not unusual to rely heavily on transient testing, a technology based on the pressure changes that result when production or injection rates are changed. Transient tests may involve a change in production or injection rates in one well and measurement of resulting pressure changes in the same well. They may involve a rate change in one well and pressure measurements in one or more other wells. They may involve pressure buildups or they may involve pressure declines. The objective is to record and analyze the pressure response produced by a known rate change during a measured period of time. A recorded pressure response may indicate some detrimental or beneficial condition associated with the drilling or equipping of the borehole.

Fredrick, R.O.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

A FOURIER OPTICS METHOD FOR CALCULATING STELLAR OCCULTATION LIGHT CURVES BY OBJECTS WITH THIN ATMOSPHERES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A stellar occultation occurs when a solar system object passes in front of a distant star. The light curves resulting from stellar occultations can reveal many aspects of the obscuring object. For airless bodies, the diffraction light curve specifies the object's size, distance and, if several chords are observed, shape. Occultation light curves are especially sensitive to the presence of atmospheres; the refraction light curve is a function of the atmosphere's density, pressure, and temperature profiles. The goal of this paper is to develop a practical algorithm to model the simultaneous effects of diffraction and refraction for objects in which both phenomena are observable. The algorithm we present is flexible: it can be used to calculate light curves by objects with arbitrary shapes and arbitrary atmospheres (including the presence of opacity sources such as hazes), provided that the atmosphere can be represented by a thin screen with a phase delay and an opacity defined at each location in the screen. Because the algorithm is limited at present to thin atmospheres (in which rays from a star are bent but undergo virtually no translation as they pass through an atmosphere), the gas giants, Earth, Mars, and Venus are not treated. Examples of stellar occultations are presented for round or irregularly shaped objects having thin atmospheres of various column densities.

Young, E. F., E-mail: efy@boulder.swri.edu [Southwest Research Institute, Department of Space Studies, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

430

Thermodynamics of atmospheric circulation on hot Jupiters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric circulation on tidally-locked exoplanets is driven by the absorption and reradiation of heat from the host star. They are natural heat engines, converting heat into mechanical energy. A steady state is possible only if there is a mechanism to dissipate mechanical energy, or if the redistribution of heat is so effective that the Carnot efficiency is driven to zero. Simulations based on primitive, equivalent-barotropic, or shallow-water equations without explicit provision for dissipation of kinetic energy and for recovery of that energy as heat, violate energy conservation. More seriously perhaps, neglect of physical sources of drag may overestimate wind speeds and rates of advection of heat from the day to the night side.

J. Goodman

2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

431

Pressure equalizing photovoltaic assembly and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Each PV assembly of an array of PV assemblies comprises a base, a PV module and a support assembly securing the PV module to a position overlying the upper surface of the base. Vents are formed through the base. A pressure equalization path extends from the outer surface of the PV module, past the peripheral edge of the PV module, to and through at least one of the vents, and to the lower surface of the base to help reduce wind uplift forces on the PV assembly. The PV assemblies may be interengaged, such as by interengaging the bases of adjacent PV assemblies. The base may include a main portion and a cover and the bases of adjacent PV assemblies may be interengaged by securing the covers of adjacent bases together.

Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Piedmont, CA)

2003-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

432

Hydrogen at high pressure and temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen at high pressures and temperatures is challenging scientifically and has many real and potential applications. Minimum metallic conductivity of fluid hydrogen is observed at 140 GPa and 2600 K, based on electrical conductivity measurements to 180 GPa (1.8 Mbar), tenfold compression, and 3000 K obtained dynamically with a two-stage light-gas gun. Conditions up to 300 GPa, sixfold compression, and 30,000 K have been achieved in laser-driven Hugoniot experiments. Implications of these results for the interior of Jupiter, inertial confinement fusion, and possible uses of metastable solid hydrogen, if the metallic fluid could be quenched from high pressure, are discussed.

Nellis, W J

1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

433

Managed Pressure Drilling Candidate Selection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Managed Pressure Drilling now at the pinnacle of the 'Oil Well Drilling' evolution tree, has itself been coined in 2003. It is an umbrella term for a few new drilling techniques and some preexisting drilling techniques, all of them aiming to solve several drilling problems, including non-productive time and/or drilling flat time issues. These techniques, now sub-classifications of Managed Pressure Drilling, are referred to as 'Variations' and 'Methods' of Managed Pressure Drilling. Although using Managed Pressure Drilling for drilling wells has several benefits, not all wells that seem a potential candidate for Managed Pressure Drilling, need Managed Pressure Drilling. The drilling industry has numerous simulators and software models to perform drilling hydraulics calculations and simulations. Most of them are designed for conventional well hydraulics, while some can perform Underbalanced Drilling calculations, and a select few can perform Managed Pressure Drilling calculations. Most of the few available Managed Pressure Drilling models are modified Underbalanced Drilling versions that fit Managed Pressure Drilling needs. However, none of them focus on Managed Pressure Drilling and its candidate selection alone. An 'Managed Pressure Drilling Candidate Selection Model and software' that can act as a preliminary screen to determine the utility of Managed Pressure Drilling for potential candidate wells are developed as a part of this research dissertation. The model and a flow diagram identify the key steps in candidate selection. The software performs the basic hydraulic calculations and provides useful results in the form of tables, plots and graphs that would help in making better engineering decisions. An additional Managed Pressure Drilling worldwide wells database with basic information on a few Managed Pressure Drilling projects has also been compiled that can act as a basic guide on the Managed Pressure Drilling variation and project frequencies and aid in Managed Pressure Drilling candidate selection.

Nauduri, Anantha S.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Pressure Data Within BOP- ODS  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This file describes the components within the BOP and the pressure readings taken during diagnostic operations on May 25.

435

Pressure Data Within BOP- XLS  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This file describes the components within the BOP and the pressure readings taken during diagnostic operations on May 25.

436

Low pressure turbine installation  

SciTech Connect

Low-pressure turbine installation is described comprising a casing, at least two groups of turbine stages mounted in said casing, each turbine stage having blades so arranged that a flow of steam passes through the respective turbine stages in contraflow manner, partition means in said casing for separating the opposed final stages of said turbine stages from each other, and steam exhausting means opened in the side walls of said casing in a direction substantially perpendicular to the axis of said turbine, said steam exhausting means being connected to condensers.

Iizuka, N.; Hisano, K.; Ninomiya, S.; Otawara, Y.

1976-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

437

Fiber-optic pressure sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure wave sensor utilizing fiber optic interferometry techniques to determine pressure in a bar. Light from a fiber optic coil around the bar is mixed with light from a reference optical fiber to produce interference fringes as a function of time. These fringes over time are related to the pressure versus time existing in the bar. 2 figs.

Dingus, R.S.

1989-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

438

Conditional Sampling of Coherent Structures in Atmospheric Turbulence Using the Wavelet Transform  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development and evaluation of a technique to detect and retrieve coherent structures embedded in a record of atmospheric surface-layer temperature fluctuations is described. This new detection scheme, based on a local wavelet transform, is ...

B. J. Turner; M. Y. Leclerc

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Atmospheric Processes Associated with Summer Floods and Droughts in the Central United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Persistent wet and dry events over the central United States are examined during summer. Composites based on selected persistent wet and dry events reveal common atmospheric processes and circulation features. During summer, heavy precipitation ...

Kingtse C. Mo; J. Nogues Paegle; R. Wayne Higgins

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Active spectral nephelometry as a method for the study of submicron atmospheric aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The approach to the investigation of submicron atmospheric aerosol properties, developed over many years and conventionally called 'the method of active spectral nephelometry', is described in this paper. This approach is based on the principle of the ...

M. V. Panchenko; M. A. Sviridenkov; S. A. Terpugova; V. S. Kozlov

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric pressure base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

The Nonlinear Response of the Atmosphere to Large-Scale Mechanical and Thermal Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The subject of large-scale mountain waves is reviewed briefly. Existing mountain wave theory based on a linear system is shown to give an inadequate description of the balance of angular momentum. The response of the atmosphere to mechanical ...

Guo-Xiong Wu

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Empirical parameterization of Tropical Ocean–Atmosphere Coupling: The “Inverse Gill Problem”  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A number of linear models of the steady-state response of the tropical atmosphere to sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies have been proposed, all based on the shallow-water equations. Despite their formal similarity, the various models have ...

Myles R. Allen; Michael K. Davey

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Combined effects of anthropogenic emissions and resultant climatic changes on atmospheric OH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using a coupled global atmospheric chemistry and climate model we have predicted the evolution of tropospheric concentrations of chemical species along with climate parameters, based on a set of economic model predictions ...

Wang, Chien.; Prinn, Ronald G.

444

Three-Dimensional Linear Instability Modeling of the Cloud Level Venus Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on the success of several 2-D (latitude, longitude) linear barotropic instability models at matching some of the observed characteristics of the cloud level, polar region of the Venus atmosphere, a more realistic, linear, 3-D (height, ...

Lee S. Elson

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Combining Microwave Radiometer and Wind Profiler Radar Measurements for High-Resolution Atmospheric Humidity Profiling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A self-consistent remote sensing physical method to retrieve atmospheric humidity high-resolution profiles by synergetic use of a microwave radiometer profiler (MWRP) and wind profiler radar (WPR) is illustrated. The proposed technique is based ...

Laura Bianco; Domenico Cimini; Frank S. Marzano; Randolph Ware

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Retrieval of Atmospheric Temperature Profiles from AMSU-A Measurement Using a Neural Network Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Backpropagation neural networks are applied to retrieve atmospheric temperature profiles and tropopause variables from the NOAA-15 Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) measurement based on two different data sources. The first case uses ...

Lei Shi

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Development of a Data Management System for the Kuwait Oil Fire Atmospheric Measurement Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Following the onset of the Kuwait oil fires in early 1991, numerous efforts to monitor and estimate the environmental effects of the fires were initiated. These efforts produced a diverse set of atmospheric data from airborne, surface-based, and ...

Julie A. Haggerty; Stephen P. Carley; David B. Johnson; Amy D. Michaelis

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

A Scalable Spectral Element Eulerian Atmospheric Model (SEE-AM) for NWP: Dynamical Core Tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new dynamical core for numerical weather prediction (NWP) based on the spectral element method is presented. This paper represents a departure from previously published work on solving the atmospheric primitive equations in that the horizontal ...

Francis X. Giraldo; Thomas E. Rosmond

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

The Antarctic Atmospheric Energy Budget. Part I: Climatology and Intraseasonal-to-Interannual Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors present a new, observationally based estimate of the atmospheric energy budget for the Antarctic polar cap (the region poleward of 70°S). This energy budget is constructed using state-of-the-art reanalysis products from ECMWF [the ...

Michael Previdi; Karen L. Smith; Lorenzo M. Polvani

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Does the Madden–Julian Oscillation Influence Wintertime Atmospheric Rivers and Snowpack in the Sierra Nevada?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationships between the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), activities of atmospheric rivers (ARs), and the resulting snowpack accumulation in the California Sierra Nevada, are analyzed based on 13 yr of observations for water years 1998–2010 ...

Bin Guan; Duane E. Waliser; Noah P. Molotch; Eric J. Fetzer; Paul J. Neiman

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Fast Two-Stream Method for Computing Diurnal-Mean Actinic Flux in Vertically Inhomogeneous Atmospheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on a derivation of the two-stream daytime-mean equations of radiative flux transfer, a method for computing the daytime-mean actinic fluxes in the absorbing and scattering vertically inhomogeneous atmosphere is suggested. The method applies ...

V. V. Filyushkin; S. Madronich; G. P. Brasseur; I. V. Petropavlovskikh

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

The Layered Structure of the Winter Atmospheric Boundary Layer in the Interior of Alaska  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The high-latitude winter atmospheric boundary layer of interior Alaska continually exhibits a complex layered structure as a result of extreme meteorological conditions. In this paper the occurrence of elevated inversions (EI), surface-based ...

John A. Mayfield; Gilberto J. Fochesatto

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

A Total Turbulent Energy Closure Model for Neutrally and Stably Stratified Atmospheric Boundary Layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a turbulence closure for neutral and stratified atmospheric conditions. The closure is based on the concept of the total turbulent energy. The total turbulent energy is the sum of the turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent ...

Thorsten Mauritsen; Gunilla Svensson; Sergej S. Zilitinkevich; Igor Esau; Leif Enger; Branko Grisogono

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Empirical Orthogonal Function Analysis of the Weakly Convective Atmospheric Boundary Layer. Part I: Eddy Structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three-dimensional empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs), representing atmospheric turbulence structures, are determined from a large-eddy simulation of a weakly convective, planetary boundary layer. The method of analysis is based on Lumley's ...

D. Keith Wilson

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Turbulent Mixing Processes in Atmospheric Bores and Solitary Waves Deduced from Profiling Systems and Numerical Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Families of solitary waves (“solitons”) associated with two atmospheric bores on the same day were observed by an unprecedented number of ground-based and airborne profiling systems during the International H2O Project (IHOP). In addition, a very ...

Steven E. Koch; Wayne Feltz; Frédéric Fabry; Mariusz Pagowski; Bart Geerts; Kristopher M. Bedka; David O. Miller; James W. Wilson

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Implied Ocean Heat Transports in the Standard and Superparameterized Community Atmospheric Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Implied ocean heat transport (To) based on net surface energy budgets is computed for two versions of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM, version 3.0) general circulation model (GCM). The first version is the standard CAM with parameterized ...

Charlotte A. DeMott; David A. Randall; Marat Khairoutdinov

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Dynamical Core of an Atmospheric General Circulation Model on a Yin–Yang Grid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The three-dimensional dynamical core of an atmospheric general circulation model employing Yin–Yang grid is developed and examined. Benchmark test cases based on the shallow-water model configuration are first performed to examine the validity of ...

Yuya Baba; Keiko Takahashi; Takeshi Sugimura; Koji Goto

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Relations between Optically Derived Aerosol Parameters, Humidity, and Air-Quality Data in an Urban Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper deals with diurnal and mensual correlations between ground-based atmospheric observations of columnar and surface optical parameters, standard surface humidity parameters, and surface air-quality data. The implications of a significant ...

N. T. O'Neill; A. Royer; P. Coté; L. J. B. McArthur

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Historical Research in the Atmospheric Sciences: The Value of Literature Reviews, Libraries, and Librarians  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on a talk given at the sixth annual meeting of the Atmospheric Science Librarians International, this paper explores the author's experiences performing reviews of the scientific literature as a tool to advancing meteorology and studying ...

David M. Schultz

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

A Coupled Atmosphere–Ocean Radiative Transfer System Using the Analytic Four-Stream Approximation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A coupled atmosphere–ocean radiative transfer model based on the analytic four-stream approximation has been developed. It is shown that this radiation model is computationally efficient and at the same time can achieve acceptable accuracy for ...

Wei-Liang Lee; K. N. Liou

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

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461

Fast Time Response Tunable Diode Laser Measurements of Atmospheric Trace Gases for Eddy Correlation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fast-response, atmospheric trace gas monitor, based on the principle of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, has been developed for making eddy correlation measurements of dry deposition fluxes. This system, which is capable of ...

G. L. Ogram; F. J. Northrup; G. C. Edwards

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

A Coupled Atmosphere?Fire Model: Convective Feedback on Fire-Line Dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The object of this paper is to describe and demonstrate the necessity and utility of a coupled atmosphere-fire model: a three-dimensional, time-dependent wildfire simulation model, based on the primitive equations of motion and thermodynamics, ...

Terry L. Clark; Mary Ann Jenkins; Janice Coen; David Packham

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

An Idealized Prototype for Large-Scale Land–Atmosphere Coupling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process-based, semianalytic prototype model for understanding large-scale land–atmosphere coupling is developed here. The metric for quantifying the coupling is the sensitivity of precipitation P to soil moisture W, . For a range of prototype ...

Benjamin R. Lintner; Pierre Gentine; Kirsten L. Findell; Fabio D’Andrea; Adam H. Sobel; Guido D. Salvucci

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Fluid-structure interaction for a pressure driven flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article we discuss the application of a Lagrange multiplier based fictitious domain method for the simulation of the motion of two rigid flaps in an unsteady flow generated by pressure gradients. The distributed Lagrange multiplier technique ... Keywords: Distributed Lagrange multiplier method, Fluid-structure interaction, Marchuk-Yanenko splitting scheme, Pulse pressure

Arati Nanda Pati

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Combustor oscillation pressure stabilizer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In accordance with the objective of the present invention, the active control of unsteady combustion induced oscillations in a combustion chamber fired by a suitable fuel and oxidizer mixture, such as a hydrocarbon fuel and air mixture, is provided by restructuring and moving the position of the main flame front and thereby increasing the transport time and displacing the pressure wave further away from the in-phase relationship with the periodic heat release. The restructuring and repositioning of the main flame are achieved by utilizing a pilot flame which is pulsed at a predetermined frequency corresponding to less than about one-half the frequency of the combustion oscillation frequency with the duration of each pulse being sufficient to produce adequate secondary thermal energy to restructure the main flame and thereby decouple the heat release from the acoustic coupling so as to lead to a reduction in the dynamic pressure amplitude. The pulsating pilot flame produces a relatively small and intermittently existing flame front in the combustion zone that is separate from the oscillating main flame front but which provides the thermal energy necessary to effectively reposition the location of the oscillating main flame front out of the region in the combustion zone where the acoustic coupling can occur with the main flame and thereby effectively altering the oscillation-causing phase relationship with the heat of combustion.

Gemmen, R.S.; Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.T.J.; Robey, E.; Cully, S.R.; Addis, R.E.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

466

Force interaction of high pressure glow discharge with fluid flow for active separation control  

SciTech Connect

Radio frequency based discharges at atmospheric pressures are the focus of increased interest in aerodynamics because of the wide range of potential applications including, specifically, actuation in flows at moderate speeds. Recent literature describing promising experimental observations, especially on separation control, has spurred efforts in the development of parallel theoretical modeling to lift limitations in the current understanding of the actuation mechanism. The present effort demonstrates higher fidelity first-principle models in a multidimensional finite-element framewo