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1

Atmospheric optical calibration system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

Hulstrom, Roland L. (Bloomfield, CO); Cannon, Theodore W. (Golden, CO)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Atmospheric optical calibration system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

1988-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

3

Time resolved magneto-optical studies of ferromagnetic InMnSb films  

SciTech Connect

We report time resolved magneto-optical measurements in InMnSb ferromagnetic films with 2% and 2.8% Mn contents grown by low temperature molecular beam epitaxy. In order to probe a possible interaction between the spins of photoexcited carriers and the Mn ions, we measured spin dynamics before and after aligning the Mn ions by applying an external magnetic field at temperatures above and below the samples' Curie temperatures. We observed no significant temperature or magnetic field dependence in the relaxation times and attribute the observed dynamics entirely to the relaxation of photoexcited electrons in the conduction band where the s-d coupling with the localized Mn ions is significantly weaker compared to the p-d exchange coupling. We observed several differences in the optical response of our InMnSb samples which could have been influenced mainly by the samples' growth conditions.

Frazier, M.; Kini, R. N.; Nontapot, K.; Khodaparast, G. A. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Wojtowicz, T. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Liu, X.; Furdyna, J. K. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

2008-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

4

Structural and optical studies of nitrogen incorporation into GaSb-based GaInSb quantum wells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate the incorporation of nitrogen into (Ga,In)Sb grown on GaSb and report room temperature photoluminescence from GaInSb(N) quantum wells. X-ray diffraction and channeling nuclear reaction analysis, together with Rutherford backscattering, were employed to identify the optimal molecular beam epitaxial growth conditions that minimized the incorporation of non-substitutional nitrogen into GaNSb. Consistent with this hypothesis, GaInSb(N) quantum wells grown under the conditions that minimized non-substitutional nitrogen exhibited room temperature photoluminescence, indicative of significantly improved radiative efficiency. Further development of this material system could enable type-I laser diodes emitting throughout the (3-5 {mu}m) wavelength range.

Nair, Hari P.; Crook, Adam M.; Bank, Seth R. [Microelectronics Research Center, Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 10100 Burnet Rd, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Yu, Kin M. [Electronic Materials Program, Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2012-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

5

Optical anisotropy of InAs/GaSb broken-gap quantum wells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate in detail the optical anisotropy of absorption of linearly polarized light in InAs/GaSb quantum wells grown on GaSb along the [001] direction, which can be used as an active region of different laser structures. The energy level positions, the wave functions, the optical matrix elements, and the absorption coefficients are calculated using the eight-band k {center_dot} p model and the Burt-Foreman envelope function theory. In these calculations, the Schroedinger and Poisson equations are solved self-consistently taking the lattice-mismatched strain into account. We find that a realistic Hamiltonian, which has the C{sub 2v} symmetry, results in considerable anisotropy of optical matrix elements for different directions of light polarization and different directions of the initial-state in-plane wave vector, including low-symmetry directions. We trace how the optical matrix elements and absorption are modified when spin-orbit interaction and important symmetry breaking mechanisms are taken into account (structural inversion asymmetry, bulk inversion asymmetry, and interface Hamiltonian). These mechanisms result in an almost 100% anisotropy of the absorption coefficients as the light polarization vector rotates in the plane of the structure and in a plane normal to the interfaces.

Zakharova, A. A., E-mail: anna.alex.zakharova@gmail.com; Semenikhin, I. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Chao, K. A. [Lund University, Department of Physics (Sweden)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

6

Coherent optical phonon spectroscopy studies of femtosecond-laser modified Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We performed time-resolved reflectivity measurements to monitor changes in optical phonon modes in Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films under femtosecond laser irradiation. We found that a phonon mode at 3.64 THz appears after high-fluence laser irradiation, in addition to the phonon modes of Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. We determined that the additional mode is due to Te segregation as a result of laser-induced decomposition of the Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} film. This experiment clearly illustrates the irreversible effects of femtosecond laser irradiation during the measurement of coherent optical phonon dynamics in Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}.

Li Yuwei; Wang Guoyu [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion, University of Michigan, Michigan 48109 (United States); Stoica, Vladimir A. [Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion, University of Michigan, Michigan 48109 (United States); Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Endicott, Lynn [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Uher, Ctirad; Clarke, Roy [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion, University of Michigan, Michigan 48109 (United States); Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

2010-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

7

Optical anisotropy of GaSb type-II nanorods on vicinal (111)B GaAs  

SciTech Connect

We form self-assembled GaSb type-II nanorods on a vicinal (111)B GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy and study their optical anisotropy. The GaSb nanorods are elongated and aligned along the [-1 0 1] direction, where the average length, width, and height are about 84, 30, and 2.5 nm. In polarized photoluminescence (PL) measurements, the peak of the GaSb nanorods is observed at about 1.1 eV, where the PL intensity is largest for the [-1 0 1] polarization and smallest for the polarization perpendicular to it. The degree of polarization is more than 20% and depends on the recombination energy. By comparing with a theoretical model based on 4 x 4 Luttinger-Kohn Hamiltonian, we find that the experimental results are explained by considering the Sb/As inter-diffusion and the nanorod height distribution.

Kawazu, Takuya; Noda, Takeshi; Mano, Takaaki; Sakuma, Yoshiki [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Akiyama, Yoshihiro [Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Sakaki, Hiroyuki [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya (Japan)

2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

8

Electronic and optical properties of TiCoSb under different pressures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electronic structure and optical properties of TiCoSb are studied by the first-principles calculation. It is found that the band gaps increase with the pressure increasing. It is noted that the increase of the band gap is due to the electrons of Ti 3d and Co 3d of the valence band (VB) shifting away from the Fermi level. Our calculation indicates that TiCoSb has the large density of state near the Fermi level; moreover, the changes of the density of states near the Fermi level mainly are caused by Ti 3d and Co 3d under the different pressures. It is noted that the absorption edge increases with an increase of pressure. As pressure increases, the static dielectric constants {epsilon}{sub 1}(0) decrease. All peaks of the imaginary part of the dielectric function {epsilon}{sub 2}({omega}) move towards higher energies within increasing pressure. - Graphical abstract: The first peak positions of the absorption spectrum increase and shift the high energy with an increase of pressure. The buleshift of the absorption edge could be observed. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is noted that the increase of the band gap is due to the electrons of Ti 3d and Co 3d of VB moving away from the Fermi level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is noted that the absorption edge increases with an increase of pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As pressure increases, the static dielectric constant {epsilon}{sub 1}(0) decreases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All peaks of the imaginary part of the dielectric function {epsilon}{sub 2}({omega}) move to wards higher energies within creasing pressure.

Xu Bin, E-mail: hnsqxb@163.com [Department of Mathematics and Information Sciences, North China Institute of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Power, Zhengzhou 450011 (China); Zhang Jing [Department of Mathematics and Information Sciences, North China Institute of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Power, Zhengzhou 450011 (China); Liang Jianchu [Department of electronic science, Huizhou University, Guangdong 516001 (China); Gao Guoying; Yi Lin [Department of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

9

METR 3223: Physical Meteorology II: Cloud Physics, Atmospheric Electricity and Optics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

METR 3223: Physical Meteorology II: Cloud Physics, Atmospheric Electricity and Optics CLASS: Monday as atmospheric electricity and optics. Specific topics that will be covered are as follows: Cloud physics: Review Observation studies Atmospheric electricity: Electrostatics Electromagnetic wave Thunderstorm charging

Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

10

Techniques to Mitigate the Effects of Atmospheric Turbulence on Free Space Optical Communication Links.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Free space optical communication links are an attractive technology for broadband communications when fiber optic links are unavailable or simply not feasible. Atmospheric turbulence, aerosols,… (more)

Wasiczko, Linda Marie

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

On the application of the MODTRAN4 atmospheric radiative transfer code to optical remote sensing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The quantification of atmospheric effects on the solar radiation measured by a spaceborne or airborne optical sensor is required for some key tasks in remote sensing, such as atmospheric correction, simulation of realistic scenarios or retrieval of atmospheric ...

Luis Guanter; Rudolf Richter; Hermann Kaufmann

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Structural studies and optical and electrical properties of novel Gd3+-doped Sb2Se3 nanorods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gd3+-doped Sb2Se3 nanorods were synthesized by coreduction method at 180°C and pH = 12 for 48 h. Powder XRD patterns indicate that the GdxSb2-xSe3 crystals (x ...

Abdolali Alemi; Younes Hanifehpour; Sang Woo Joo; Bong-Ki Min; Tae Hwan Oh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Relations between Optically Derived Aerosol Parameters, Humidity, and Air-Quality Data in an Urban Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper deals with diurnal and mensual correlations between ground-based atmospheric observations of columnar and surface optical parameters, standard surface humidity parameters, and surface air-quality data. The implications of a significant ...

N. T. O'Neill; A. Royer; P. Coté; L. J. B. McArthur

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Spatial Inhomogeneities and the Spectral Behavior of Atmospheric Aerosol Optical Depth over the Atlantic Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the results of investigations into atmospheric aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the Atlantic Ocean are discussed. The data were collected during five shipboard expeditions that took place between 1989 and 1996. Measurements were ...

Sergey M. Sakerin; Dmitry M. Kabanov

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Optical Properties of Atmospheric Aerosol in Maritime Environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Systematic characterization of aerosol over the oceans is needed to understand the aerosol effect on climate and on transport of pollutants between continents. Reported are the results of a comprehensive optical and physical characterization of ...

Alexander Smirnov; Brent N. Holben; Yoram J. Kaufman; Oleg Dubovik; Thomas F. Eck; Ilya Slutsker; Christophe Pietras; Rangasayi N. Halthore

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Performance improvement of Ge-Sb-Te material by GaSb doping for phase change memory  

SciTech Connect

Effects of GaSb doping on phase change characteristics of Ge-Sb-Te material are investigated by in situ resistance and x-ray diffraction measurement, optical spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The crystallization temperature and data retention of Ge-Sb-Te material increase significantly by the addition of GaSb, which results from the high thermal stability of amorphous GaSb. In addition, GaSb-doped Ge-Sb-Te material exhibits faster crystallization speed due to the change in electronic states as a result of the formation of chemical bonds with Ga element. Incorporation of GaSb is highly effective way to enhance the comprehensive performance of Ge-Sb-Te material for phase change memory.

Lu, Yegang [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Faculty of Information Science and Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Zhonghua; Song, Sannian; Cheng, Limin; Song, Zhitang [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shen, Xiang; Wang, Guoxiang; Dai, Shixun [Faculty of Information Science and Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China)] [Faculty of Information Science and Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China)

2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

17

Precision Determination of Atmospheric Extinction at Optical and Near IR Wavelengths  

SciTech Connect

The science goals for future ground-based all-sky surveys, such as the Dark Energy Survey, PanSTARRS, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, require calibration of broadband photometry that is stable in time and uniform over the sky to precisions of a per cent or better, and absolute calibration of color measurements that are similarly accurate. This performance will need to be achieved with measurements made from multiple images taken over the course of many years, and these surveys will observe in less than ideal conditions. This paper describes a technique to implement a new strategy to directly measure variations of atmospheric transmittance at optical wavelengths and application of these measurements to calibration of ground-based observations. This strategy makes use of measurements of the spectra of a small catalog of bright 'probe' stars as they progress across the sky and back-light the atmosphere. The signatures of optical absorption by different atmospheric constituents are recognized in these spectra by their characteristic dependences on wavelength and airmass. State-of-the-art models of atmospheric radiation transport and modern codes are used to accurately compute atmospheric extinction over a wide range of observing conditions. We present results of an observing campaign that demonstrate that correction for extinction due to molecular constituents and aerosols can be done with precisions of a few millimagnitudes with this technique.

Burke, David L.; /SLAC; Axelrod, T.; /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ.; Blondin, Stephane; /European Southern Observ. /Marseille, CPPM; Claver, Chuck; /NOAO, Tucson; Ivezic, Zeljko; Jones, Lynne; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Saha, Abhijit; /NOAO, Tucson; Smith, Allyn; /Austin Peay State U.; Smith, R.Chris; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.; Stubbs, Christopher W.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

2011-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

18

Aerosol optical depth of the atmosphere over the ocean in the wavelength range 0.37-4 µm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At least two problems, the climatic impact of aerosols and improvement in techniques for space-borne sensing, require investigation of the spatiotemporal variability of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the ocean. The marine atmosphere covers an area ...

S. M. Sakerin; D. M. Kabanov; A. V. Smirnov; B. N. Holben

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Lattice-matched epitaxial GaInAsSb/GaSb thermophotovoltaic devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The materials development of Ga{sub 1{minus}x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1{minus}y} alloys for lattice-matched thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices is reported. Epilayers with cutoff wavelength 2--2.4 {micro}m at room temperature and lattice-matched to GaSb substrates were grown by both low-pressure organometallic vapor phase epitaxy and molecular beam epitaxy. These layers exhibit high optical and structural quality. For demonstrating lattice-matched thermophotovoltaic devices, p- and n-type doping studies were performed. Several TPV device structures were investigated, with variations in the base/emitter thicknesses and the incorporation of a high bandgap GaSb or AlGaAsSb window layer. Significant improvement in the external quantum efficiency is observed for devices with an AlGaAsSb window layer compared to those without one.

Wang, C.A.; Choi, H.K.; Turner, G.W.; Spears, D.L.; Manfra, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Lexington, MA (United States). Lincoln Lab.; Charache, G.W. [Lockheed Martin, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Band gap tuning and optical absorption in type-II InAs/GaSb mid infrared short period superlattices: 14 bands K Dot-Operator p study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The MBE growth of short-period InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice structures, varied around 20.5 A InAs/24 A GaSb were [J. Applied physics, 96, 2580 (2004)] carried out by Haugan et al. These SLs were designed to produce devices with an optimum mid-infrared photoresponse and a sharpest photoresponse cutoff. We have used a realistic and reliable 14-band k.p formalism description of the superlattice electronic band structure to calculate the absorption coefficient in such short-period InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices. The parameters for this formalism are known from fitting to independent experiments for the bulk materials. The band-gap energies are obtained without any fitting parameters, and are in good agreement with experimental data.

AbuEl-Rub, Khaled M. [Department of Applied Physical Sciences, Jordan University of Science and Technology Irbid, 21141 (Jordan)

2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric optics sb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

An Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Value-Added Product to Retrieve Optically Thin Cloud Visible Optical Depth using Micropulse Lidar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of the Micropulse Lidar (MPL) Cloud Optical Depth (MPLCOD) Value-Added Product (VAP) is to retrieve the visible (short-wave) cloud optical depth for optically thin clouds using MPL. The advantage of using the MPL to derive optical depth is that lidar is able to detect optically thin cloud layers that may not be detected by millimeter cloud radar or radiometric techniques. The disadvantage of using lidar to derive optical depth is that the lidar signal becomes attenuation limited when ? approaches 3 (this value can vary depending on instrument specifications). As a result, the lidar will not detect optically thin clouds if an optically thick cloud obstructs the lidar beam.

Lo, C; Comstock, JM; Flynn, C

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Modeling of InGaSb thermophotovoltaic cells and materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A closed form computer program has been developed for the simulation and optimization of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}Sb thermophotovoltaic cells operating at room temperature. The program includes material parameter models of the energy bandgap, optical absorption constant, electron and hole mobility, intrinsic carrier concentration and index of refraction for any composition of GaInSb alloys.

Zierak, M.; Borrego, J.M.; Bhat, I.; Gutmann, R.J. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Charache, G. [Lockheed Martin, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

A FOURIER OPTICS METHOD FOR CALCULATING STELLAR OCCULTATION LIGHT CURVES BY OBJECTS WITH THIN ATMOSPHERES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A stellar occultation occurs when a solar system object passes in front of a distant star. The light curves resulting from stellar occultations can reveal many aspects of the obscuring object. For airless bodies, the diffraction light curve specifies the object's size, distance and, if several chords are observed, shape. Occultation light curves are especially sensitive to the presence of atmospheres; the refraction light curve is a function of the atmosphere's density, pressure, and temperature profiles. The goal of this paper is to develop a practical algorithm to model the simultaneous effects of diffraction and refraction for objects in which both phenomena are observable. The algorithm we present is flexible: it can be used to calculate light curves by objects with arbitrary shapes and arbitrary atmospheres (including the presence of opacity sources such as hazes), provided that the atmosphere can be represented by a thin screen with a phase delay and an opacity defined at each location in the screen. Because the algorithm is limited at present to thin atmospheres (in which rays from a star are bent but undergo virtually no translation as they pass through an atmosphere), the gas giants, Earth, Mars, and Venus are not treated. Examples of stellar occultations are presented for round or irregularly shaped objects having thin atmospheres of various column densities.

Young, E. F., E-mail: efy@boulder.swri.edu [Southwest Research Institute, Department of Space Studies, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

24

Evaluating the Potential for Retrieving Aerosol Optical Depth over Land from AVHRR Pathfinder Atmosphere Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In spite of numerous studies on the remote sensing of aerosols from satellites, the magnitude of aerosol climate forcing remains uncertain. However, data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Pathfinder-Atmosphere (PATMOS) ...

Kenneth R. Knapp; Larry L. Stowe

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Shannon capacities and error-correction codes for optical atmospheric turbulent channels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

beam is projected toward the receiver. At the receiver, an optical system collects the light) performance of the system. Very large coding gains--ranging from 5.5 to 14 dB, depending on the turbulence detection, the same technique that is used for state of the art fiber-optics communications

Djordjevic, Ivan B.

26

Optical and Physical Properties of Atmospheric Aerosols over the Bay of Bengal during ICARB  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simultaneous and collocated measurements of total and hemispherical backscattering coefficients (? and ?, respectively) at three wavelengths, mass size distributions, and columnar spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) were made onboard an ...

Vijayakumar S. Nair; K. Krishna Moorthy; S. Suresh Babu; S. K. Satheesh

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Long-Term, Autonomous Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Using an Ormosil Nanocomposite-Based Optical Sensor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to construct a prototype carbon dioxide sensor that can be commercialized to offer a low-cost, autonomous instrument for long-term, unattended measurements. Currently, a cost-effective CO2 sensor system is not available that can perform cross-platform measurements (ground-based or airborne platforms such as balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)) for understanding the carbon sequestration phenomenon. The CO2 sensor would support the research objectives of DOE-sponsored programs such as AmeriFlux and the North American Carbon Program (NACP). Global energy consumption is projected to rise 60% over the next 20 years and use of oil is projected to increase by approximately 40%. The combustion of coal, oil, and natural gas has increased carbon emissions globally from 1.6 billion tons in 1950 to 6.3 billion tons in 2000. This figure is expected to reach 10 billon tons by 2020. It is important to understand the fate of this excess CO2 in the global carbon cycle. The overall goal of the project is to develop an accurate and reliable optical sensor for monitoring carbon dioxide autonomously at least for one year at a point remote from the actual CO2 release site. In Phase I of this project, InnoSense LLC (ISL) demonstrated the feasibility of an ormosil-monolith based Autonomous Sensor for Atmospheric CO2 (ASAC) device. All of the Phase I objectives were successfully met.

Kisholoy Goswami

2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

28

Optics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optics A computer program to calculate the optical properties of glazing systems and laminates. The program can be used to construct new laminates from existing components and...

29

Atmospheric Laser Communication  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric laser communication, often referred to as free-space optics (FSO) or free-space laser (FSL) communication, is similar to fiber optic cable in terms of carrier wavelength and bandwidth capability, but data are transmitted directly ...

Kenneth W. Fischer*Michael R. Witiw; Jeffrey A. Baars+; T. R. Oke

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Relaxation of photoinduced spins and carriers in ferromagnetic InMnSb films  

SciTech Connect

The authors report time resolved measurements and control of photoinduced spin and carrier relaxations in InMnSb ferromagnetic films with 2% Mn content (grown by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy) using femtosecond laser pulses, and compare them to analogous measurements on InBeSb and InSb films. In this work, magneto-optical Kerr effect and standard pump-probe techniques provided a direct measure of the photoexcited spin and carrier lifetimes, respectively. They observe decrease in relaxations times in the high laser fluence regime and an absence of temperature dependence of the relaxation times.

Nontapot, K.; Kini, R. N.; Gifford, A.; Merritt, T. R.; Khodaparast, G. A.; Wojtowicz, T.; Liu, X.; Furdyna, J. K. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

2007-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

31

DWPF SB6 INITIAL CPC FLOWSHEET TESTING SB6-1 TO SB6-4L TESTS OF SB6-A AND SB6-B SIMULANTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will transition from Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing to Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) processing in late fiscal year 2010. Tests were conducted using non-radioactive simulants of the expected SB6 composition to determine the impact of varying the acid stoichiometry during the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) processes. The work was conducted to meet the Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW/DWPF/TTR-2008-0043, Rev.0 and followed the guidelines of a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT&QAP). The flowsheet studies are performed to evaluate the potential chemical processing issues, hydrogen generation rates, and process slurry rheological properties as a function of acid stoichiometry. These studies were conducted with the estimated SB6 composition at the time of the study. This composition assumed a blend of 101,085 kg of Tank 4 insoluble solids and 179,000 kg of Tank 12 insoluble solids. The current plans are to subject Tank 12 sludge to aluminum dissolution. Liquid Waste Operations assumed that 75% of the aluminum would be dissolved during this process. After dissolution and blending of Tank 4 sludge slurry, plans included washing the contents of Tank 51 to {approx}1M Na. After the completion of washing, the plan assumes that 40 inches on Tank 40 slurry would remain for blending with the qualified SB6 material. There are several parameters that are noteworthy concerning SB6 sludge: (1) This is the second batch DWPF will be processing that contains sludge that has had a significant fraction of aluminum removed through aluminum dissolution; (2) The sludge is high in mercury, but the projected concentration is lower than SB5; (3) The sludge is high in noble metals, but the projected concentrations are lower than SB5; and(4) The sludge is high in U and Pu - components that are not added in sludge simulants. Six DWPF process simulations were completed in 4-L laboratory-scale equipment using two projections of the SB6 blend simulant composition (Tank 40 simulant after Tank 51 transfer is complete). The more washed simulant (SB6-A) had a set of four SRAT and SME simulations at varying acid stoichiometry levels (90%, 100%, 120% and 150%) using the Koopman Acid Prediction Calculation. Two additional SRAT simulations were made using SB6-B blend simulant at 100% and 120% of acid stoichiometry. SME cycles were noted performed for the SB6B simulants to allow the SRAT products to be used for melt rate testing.

Lambert, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Best, D.

2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

32

Retrieval of Atmospheric Optical Depth Profiles from Downward-Looking High-Resolution O2 A-Band Measurements: Optically Thin Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A quasi-linear retrieval was developed to profile moderately thin atmospheres using a high-resolution O2 A-band spectrometer. The retrieval is explicitly linear with respect to single scattering; the multiple-scattering contribution is treated as ...

Qilong Min; Lee C. Harrison

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Lidar determination of altitude profile of the refraction index in electro-optical monitoring of the Earths atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

can be conta- minated by transport from other regions, for in- stance river deltas and adjacent parts crystal. The direction of the optical axis of the crystal is parallel to Ez. The refractive index

34

AlGaAsSb/GaSb Distributed Bragg Reflectors Grown by Organometallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy  

SciTech Connect

The first AlGaAsSb/GaSb quarter-wave distributed Bragg reflectors grown by metallic vapor phase epitaxy are reported. The peak reflectance is 96% for a 10-period structure.

C.A. Wang; C.J. Vineis; D.R. Calawa

2002-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

35

Optical  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optical Optical fiber-based single-shot picosecond transient absorption spectroscopy Andrew R. Cook aÍ’ and Yuzhen Shen Department of Chemistry, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA Í‘Received 27 January 2009; accepted 29 May 2009; published online 17 July 2009Í’ A new type of single-shot transient absorption apparatus is described based on a bundle of optical fibers. The bundle contains 100 fibers of different lengths, each successively giving Ďł15 ps longer optical delay. Data are collected by imaging light from the exit of the bundle into a sample where it is overlapped with an electron pulse or laser excitation pulse, followed by imaging onto a charge coupled device Í‘CCDÍ’ detector where the intensity of light from each fiber is measured simultaneously. Application to both ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy and pulse radiolysis is demonstrated. For pulse

36

ESH100.2.SB.2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Safety & Health Procedure Number ESH100.2.SB.2 Procedure Title Ensure Nuclear Criticality Safety Procedure Manager COFFING, STEPHEN A. Status Active Subject Matter Expert...

37

Efficient rendering of atmospheric phenomena  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rendering of atmospheric bodies involves modeling the complex interaction of light throughout the highly scattering medium of water and air particles. Scattering by these particles creates many well-known atmospheric optical phenomena including rainbows, ...

Kirk Riley; David S. Ebert; Martin Kraus; Jerry Tessendorf; Charles Hansen

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Method of making an InAsSb/InAsSbP diode lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

InAsSb/InAsSbP/InAs Double Heterostructures (DH) and Separate Confinement Heterostructure Multiple Quantum Well (SCH-MQW) structures are taught wherein the ability to tune to a specific wavelength within 3 .mu.m to 5 .mu.m is possible by varying the ratio of As:Sb in the active layer.

Razeghi, Manijeh (Wilmette, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Substrate misorientation effects on epitaxial GaInAsSb  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effect of substrate misorientation on the growth of GaInAsSb was studied for epilayers grown lattice-matched to GaSb substrates by low-pressure organometallic vapor phase epitaxy. The substrates were (100) misoriented 2 or 6{degree} toward (110), (111)A, or (111)B. The surface is mirror-like and featureless for layers grown with a 6{degree} toward (111)B misorientation, while, a slight texture was observed for layers grown on all other misorientations. The optical quality of layers, as determined by the full width at half-maximum of photoluminescence spectra measured at 4K, is significantly better for layers grown on substrates with a 6{degree} toward (111)B misorientation. The incorporation of Zn as a p-type dopant in GaInAsSb is about 1.5 times more efficient on substrates with 6{degree} toward (111)B misorientation compared to 2{degree} toward (110) misorientation. The external quantum efficiency of thermophotovoltaic devices is not, however, significantly affected by substrate misorientation.

Wang, C.A.; Choi, H.K.; Oakley, D.C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Lexington, MA (United States). Lincoln Lab.; Charache, G.W. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Sludge Batch 7 (SB7) Washing and Settling Demonstration  

Generate test slurry Wash per SB7 plan Quantify settling vs wash cycle and time Sampling and analysis. SB7 Washing and Settling Demonstration 5 ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric optics sb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Temperature dependence of the dielectric response of AlSb  

SciTech Connect

Spectroscopic ellipometry was used to determine the optical response of an intrinsic AlSb film as a function of temperature. The 1.5 {mu}m thick film was grown on a (001) GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. Measurements were done at temperatures from 300 K to the growth temperature of 800 K over a spectral range of 0.7 to 5.0 eV. To avoid oxidation artifacts, measurements were done with the film in situ. The data were analyzed using a parametric semiconductor model for its temperature dependence.

Jung, Y. W.; Kim, T. J.; Kim, Y. D. [Nano-Optical Property Laboratory and Department of Physics, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, S. H.; Kim, S. Y.; Song, J. D. [Center for Spintronics Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

42

Atmospheric Aerosols  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

measuring equipment Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric aerosol research at Berkeley Lab seeks to understand the air quality and climate impacts of particles in the atmosphere. On...

43

Semiconductor structures having electrically insulating and conducting portions formed from an AlSb-alloy layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor structure. The semiconductor structure comprises a plurality of semiconductor layers formed on a substrate including at least one layer of a III-V compound semiconductor alloy comprising aluminum (Al) and antimony (Sb), with at least a part of the AlSb-alloy layer being chemically converted by an oxidation process to form superposed electrically insulating and electrically conducting portions. The electrically insulating portion formed from the AlSb-alloy layer comprises an oxide of aluminum (e.g. Al.sub.2 O.sub.3), while the electrically conducting portion comprises Sb. A lateral oxidation process allows formation of the superposed insulating and conducting portions below monocrystalline semiconductor layers for forming many different types of semiconductor structures having particular utility for optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes, edge-emitting lasers, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, photodetectors and optical modulators (waveguide and surface normal), and for electronic devices such as heterojunction bipolar transistors, field-effect transistors and quantum-effect devices. The invention is expected to be particularly useful for forming light-emitting devices for use in the 1.3-1.6 .mu.m wavelength range, with the AlSb-alloy layer acting to define an active region of the device and to effectively channel an electrical current therein for efficient light generation.

Spahn, Olga B. (Albuquerque, NM); Lear, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

OPTICAL-TO-NEAR-INFRARED SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATIONS FOR THE HOT URANUS GJ3470b: A HINT OF A CLOUD-FREE ATMOSPHERE  

SciTech Connect

We present optical (g', R{sub c}, and I{sub c}) to near-infrared (J) simultaneous photometric observations for a primary transit of GJ3470b, a Uranus-mass transiting planet around a nearby M dwarf, by using the 50 cm MITSuME telescope and the 188 cm telescope, both at the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. From these data, we derive the planetary mass, radius, and density as 14.1 {+-} 1.3 M{sub Circled-Plus }, 4.32{sup +0.21}{sub -0.10} R{sub Circled-Plus }, and 0.94 {+-} 0.12 g cm{sup -3}, respectively, thus confirming the low density that was reported by Demory et al. based on the Spitzer/IRAC 4.5 {mu}m photometry (0.72{sup +0.13}{sub -0.12} g cm{sup -3}). Although the planetary radius is about 10% smaller than that reported by Demory et al., this difference does not alter their conclusion that the planet possesses a hydrogen-rich envelope whose mass is approximately 10% of the planetary total mass. On the other hand, we find that the planet-to-star radius ratio (R{sub p} /R{sub s} ) in the J band (0.07577{sup +0.00072}{sub -0.00075}) is smaller than that in the I{sub c} (0.0802 {+-} 0.0013) and 4.5 {mu}m (0.07806{sup +0.00052}{sub -0.00054}) bands by 5.8% {+-} 2.0% and 2.9% {+-} 1.1%, respectively. A plausible explanation for the differences is that the planetary atmospheric opacity varies with wavelength due to absorption and/or scattering by atmospheric molecules. Although the significance of the observed R{sub p} /R{sub s} variations is low, if confirmed, this fact would suggest that GJ3470b does not have a thick cloud layer in the atmosphere. This property would offer a wealth of opportunity for future transmission-spectroscopic observations of this planet to search for certain molecular features, such as H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and CO, without being prevented by clouds.

Fukui, Akihiko; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Kuroda, Daisuke; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Izumiura, Hideyuki [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Narita, Norio; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H.; Kawauchi, Kiyoe; Nagayama, Shogo [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kurosaki, Kenji; Ikoma, Masahiro [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ohnuki, Hiroshi [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Onitsuka, Masahiro; Suenaga, Takuya [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hirano, Teruyuki [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ohta, Kouji [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Yoshida, Michitoshi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University 1-3-1, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Kawai, Nobuyuki, E-mail: afukui@oao.nao.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

2013-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

45

DWPF simulant CPC studies for SB8  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) accepted a technical task request (TTR) from Waste Solidification Engineering to perform simulant tests to support the qualification of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) and to develop the flowsheet for SB8 in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). These efforts pertained to the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC). Separate studies were conducted for frit development and glass properties (including REDOX). The SRNL CPC effort had two primary phases divided by the decision to drop Tank 12 from the SB8 constituents. This report focuses on the second phase with SB8 compositions that do not contain the Tank 12 piece. A separate report will document the initial phase of SB8 testing that included Tank 12. The second phase of SB8 studies consisted of two sets of CPC studies. The first study involved CPC testing of an SB8 simulant for Tank 51 to support the CPC demonstration of the washed Tank 51 qualification sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells facility. SB8-Tank 51 was a high iron-low aluminum waste with fairly high mercury and moderate noble metal concentrations. Tank 51 was ultimately washed to about 1.5 M sodium which is the highest wash endpoint since SB3-Tank 51. This study included three simulations of the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle with the sludge-only flowsheet at nominal DWPF processing conditions and three different acid stoichiometries. These runs produced a set of recommendations that were used to guide the successful SRNL qualification SRAT/SME demonstration with actual Tank 51 washed waste. The second study involved five SRAT/SME runs with SB8-Tank 40 simulant. Four of the runs were designed to define the acid requirements for sludge-only processing in DWPF with respect to nitrite destruction and hydrogen generation. The fifth run was an intermediate acid stoichiometry demonstration of the coupled flowsheet for SB8. These runs produced a set of processing recommendations for DWPF along with some data related to Safety Class documentation at DWPF. Some significant observations regarding SB8 follow: Reduced washing in Tank 51 led to an increase in the wt.% soluble solids of the DWPF feed. If wt.% total solids for the SRAT and SME product weren’t adjusted upward to maintain insoluble solids levels similar to past sludge batches, then the rheological properties of the slurry went below the low end of the DWPF design bases for the SRAT and SME. Much higher levels of dissolved manganese were found in the SRAT and SME products than in recent sludge batches. Closed crucible melts were more reduced than expected. The working hypothesis is that the soluble Mn is less oxidizing than assumed in the REDOX calculations. A change in the coefficient for Mn in the REDOX equation was recommended in a separate report. The DWPF (Hsu) stoichiometric acid equation was examined in detail to better evaluate how to control acid in DWPF. The existing DWPF equation can likely be improved without changing the required sample analyses through a paper study using existing data. The recommended acid stoichiometry for initial SB8 SRAT batches is 115-120% stoichiometry until some processing experience is gained. The conservative range (based on feed properties) of stoichiometric factors derived in this study was from 110-147%, but SRNL recommends using only the lower half of this range, 110-126% even after initial batches provide processing experience. The stoichiometric range for sludge-only processing appears to be suitable for coupled operation based on results from the run in the middle of the range. Catalytic hydrogen was detectable (>0.005 vol%) in all SRAT and SME cycles. Hydrogen reached 30-35% of the SRAT and SME limits at the mid-point of the stoichiometry window (bounding noble metals and acid demand).

Koopman, D. C.; Zamecnik, J. R.

2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

46

Electronic and thermoelectric properties of CoSbS and FeSbS  

SciTech Connect

We present a combined theoretical and experimental study of the potential thermoelectric performance of three transition metal antimonide sulfides, CoSbS, FeSbS and NiSbS. From theory we find that NiSbS is metallic and hence of little interest regarding thermoelectric performance. CoSbS and FeSbS are both semiconductors with rather heavy valence and conduction bands, whose thermopower can exceed 200 $\\mu$V/K at temperatures of 900 K and carrier concentrations of 10$^{21}$cm$^{-3}$, which is similar to the $n$-type high performance thermoelectric filled skutterudites. The experimental results on several non-optimized $n$-type CoSbS samples confirm its semiconducting nature and indicate a potential for good high temperature thermoelectric performance, finding a ZT for two of the samples of 0.35 at 773 K. Substantially higher ZT values may be possible if the lattice thermal conductivity can be reduced by alloying and the effects of extrinsic scattering, which appear to be substantial in the experimental results, are reduced.

Parker, David S [ORNL; Singh, David J [ORNL; Sales, Brian C [ORNL; McGuire, Michael A [ORNL; May, Andrew F [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Atmospheric Turbidity in the Polar Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis is presented of 800 measurements of atmospheric monochromatic aerosol optical depth made poleward of 65° latitude. The atmosphere of the southern polar region appears to be uncontaminated but is charged with a background aerosol having ...

Glenn E. Shaw

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Atmospheric Aerosols  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tom Kirchstetter with aerosol measurement instrument Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric aerosol research at LBNL seeks to understand the air quality and climate impacts of particles...

49

Electrical and Optical Characterizations of the n-InAsSb/n-GaSb ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 41 (1986) [2] Y. Sharabani, et al. Proc. SPIE, 2008, vol. 6940, p. 69400D. Proceedings Inclusion? Definite: Publication Outside of TMS ...

50

Role of Sb Compositions on the Properties of InAs/GaAsSb Quantum Dots (QDs)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

QD size, uniformity and density in InAs/GaAsSb material system for increasing Sb content are studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). AFM results show that QD density and uniformity improve with Sb content increase. The improvement of QD uniformity is ensured by the narrowing of the analysis of AFM scans. To obtain minimum VBO, InAs/GaAsSb with various Sb compositions is investigated by PL and TRPL measurements. PL data shows a blue-shift as excitation power increases as evidence of a type II band structure. Since the PL peak of 8 and 13 % Sb samples did not shift while that of 15 % Sb sample is blue-shifted with increasing the excitation power it is concluded that InAs QDs/GaAs0.86Sb0.14 would have minimum valence band offset. This tendency is supported by the change of a carrier lifetime estimated from TRPL data.

Ban, K. Y.; Bremner, S. P.; Kuciauskas, D.; Dahal, S. N.; Honsberg, C. B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Donor behavior of Sb in ZnO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrical behavior of Sb in ZnO:Sb layers doped in a wide concentration range was studied using temperature dependent Hall effect measurements. The layers were grown by plasma-enhanced molecular beam epitaxy, and the Sb concentration was changed by varying the Sb flux, resulting in electron concentrations in the range of 10{sup 16} to nearly 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. Upon annealing, the electron concentration increased slightly and more notable was that the electron mobility significantly improved, reaching a room-temperature value of 110 cm{sup 2}/V s and a low-temperature value of 145 cm{sup 2}/V s, close to the maximum of {approx}155 cm{sup 2}/V s set by ionized impurity scattering. Hall data and structural data suggest that Sb predominantly occupies Zn sublattice positions and acts as a shallow donor in the whole concentration range studied. In the layers with high Sb content ({approx}1 at. %), acceptor-type compensating defects (possibly Sb on oxygen sites and/or point-defect complexes involving Sb{sub O}) are formed. The increase of electron concentration with increasing oxygen pressure and the increase in ZnO:Sb lattice parameter at high Sb concentrations suggest that acceptors involving Sb{sub O} rather than Sb{sub Zn}-2V{sub Zn} complexes are responsible for the compensation of the donors.

Liu, H. Y.; Izyumskaya, N.; Avrutin, V.; Oezguer, Ue.; Morkoc, H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Yankovich, A. B.; Kvit, A. V.; Voyles, P. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Type I Mid-Infrared MQW Lasers using AlInAsSb barriers and InAsSb wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Type I Mid-Infrared MQW Lasers using AlInAsSb barriers and InAsSb wells Leslie G. Vaughn*a , L and interband lasers, Shockley-Read-Hall losses increase. The simplest structure is Type-I multiple quantum well. One such system with InAsSb wells and AlInAsSb barriers has been unable to exceed 175K under CW

New Mexico, University of

53

Recent progress in InGaAsSb/GaSb TPV devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

AstroPower is developing InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices. This photovoltaic cell is a two-layer epitaxial InGaAsSb structure formed by liquid-phase epitaxy on a GaSb substrate. The (direct) bandgap of the In{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}As{sub 1{minus}y}Sb{sub y} alloy is 0.50 to 0.55 eV, depending on its exact alloy composition (x,y); and is closely lattice-matched to the GaSb substrate. The use of the quaternary alloy, as opposed to a ternary alloy--such as, for example InGaAs/InP--permits low bandgap devices optimized for 1,000 to 1,500 C thermal sources with, at the same time, near-exact lattice matching to the GaSb substrate. Lattice matching is important since even a small degree of lattice mismatch degrades device performance and reliability and increases processing complexity. Internal quantum efficiencies as high as 95% have been measured at a wavelength of 2 microns. At 1 micron wavelengths, internal quantum efficiencies of 55% have been observed. The open-circuit voltage at currents of 0.3 A/cm{sup 2} is 0.220 volts and 0.280 V for current densities of 2 A/cm{sup 2}. Fill factors of 56% have been measured at 60 mA/cm{sup 2}. However, as current density increases there is some decrease in fill factor. The results to date show that the GaSb-based quaternary compounds provide a viable and high performance energy conversion solution for thermophotovoltaic systems operating with 1,000 to 1,500 C source temperatures.

Shellenbarger, Z.A.; Mauk, M.G.; DiNetta, L.C. [AstroPower, Inc., Newark, DE (United States); Charache, G.W. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Development of InAsSb-based light emitting diodes for chemical sensing systems  

SciTech Connect

Mid-infrared (3--6 {micro}m) LED`s are being developed for use in chemical sensor systems. As rich, InAsSb heterostructures are particularly suited for optical emitters in the mid-infrared region. The authors are investigating both InAsSb-InAs multiple quantum well (MQW) and InAsSb-InAsP strained layer superlattice (SLS) structures for use as the active region for light emitting diodes (LED`s). The addition of phosphorus to the InAs barriers increases the light and heavy hole splitting and hence reduces non-radiative Auger recombination and provides for better electron and hole confinement in the InAsSb quantum well. Low temperature (< 20 K) photoluminescence (PL) emission from MQW structures is observed between 3.2 to 6.0 {micro}m for InAsSb wells between 70 to 100 {angstrom} and antimony mole fractions between 0.04 to 0.18. Room temperature PL has been observed to 6.4 {micro}m in MQW structures. The additional confinement by InAsP barriers results in low temperature PL being observed over a narrower range (3.2 to 5.0 {micro}m) for the similar well thicknesses with antimony mole fractions between 0.10 to 0.24. Room temperature photoluminescence was observed to 5.8 {micro}m in SLS structures. The addition of a p-AlAsSb layer between the n-type active region (MQW or SLS) and a p-GaAsSb contact layer improves electron confinement of the active region and increases output power by a factor of 4. Simple LED emitters have been fabricated which exhibit an average power at room temperature of > 100 {micro}W at 4.0 {micro}m for SLS active regions. These LED`s have been used to detect CO{sub 2} concentrations down to 24 ppm in a first generation, non-cryogenic sensor system. They will report on the development of novel LED device designs that are expected to lead to further improvements in output power.

Allerman, A.A.; Kurtz, S.R.; Biefeld, R.M.; Baucom, K.C.; Burkhatt, J.H.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Glass-like phonon scattering from a spontaneous nanostructure in AgSbTe2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Materials with very low thermal conductivity are of high interest for both thermoelectric and optical phase-change applications. Synthetic nanostructuring is most promising to suppress thermal conductivity by scattering phonons, but challenges remain in producing bulk samples. We show that in crystalline AgSbTe2, a spontaneously-forming nanostructure leads to a suppression of thermal conductivity to a glass-like level. Our mappings of phonon mean-free-paths provide a novel bottom- up microscopic account of thermal conductivity, and also reveal intrinsic anisotropies associated with the nanostructure. Ground-state degeneracy in AgSbTe2 leads to the natural formation of nanoscale domains with different orderings on the cation sublattice, and correlated atomic displacements, which efficiently scatter phonons. This mechanism is general and points to a new avenue in nano- scale engineering of materials, to achieve low thermal conductivities for efficient thermoelectric converters and phase-change memory devices.

Abernathy, Douglas L [ORNL; Ehlers, Georg [ORNL; Huq, Ashfia [ORNL; Ma, Jie [ORNL; May, Andrew F [ORNL; McGuire, Michael A [ORNL; Sales, Brian C [ORNL; Delaire, Olivier A [ORNL; Hong, Tao [ORNL; Tian, Wei [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

GaInSb and GaInAsSb thermophotovoltaic device fabrication and characterization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices have been fabricated using epitaxial ternary and quaternary layers grown on GaSb substrates. The GaInSb layers were grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) and the InGaAsSb lattice-matched layers were grown by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE). Device fabrication steps include unannealed p-type ohmic contacts, annealed Sn/Au n-type ohmic contacts, and a thick Ag top-surface contact using a lift-off process. Devices are characterized primarily by dark I-V, photo I-V, and quantum efficiency measurements, which are correlated to microscopic and macroscopic material properties. Particular emphasis has been on material enhancements to increase quantum efficiency and decrease dark saturation current density. TPV device performance is presently limited by the base diffusion length, typically 1 to 2 microns.

Hitchcock, C.; Gutmann, R.; Borrego, J.; Ehsani, H.; Bhat, I. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Freeman, M.; Charache, G. [Lockheed Martin, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

DWPF SIMULANT CPC STUDIES FOR SB8  

SciTech Connect

Prior to processing a Sludge Batch (SB) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), flowsheet studies using simulants are performed. Typically, the flowsheet studies are conducted based on projected composition(s). The results from the flowsheet testing are used to 1) guide decisions during sludge batch preparation, 2) serve as a preliminary evaluation of potential processing issues, and 3) provide a basis to support the Shielded Cells qualification runs performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). SB8 was initially projected to be a combination of the Tank 40 heel (Sludge Batch 7b), Tank 13, Tank 12, and the Tank 51 heel. In order to accelerate preparation of SB8, the decision was made to delay the oxalate-rich material from Tank 12 to a future sludge batch. SB8 simulant studies without Tank 12 were reported in a separate report.1 The data presented in this report will be useful when processing future sludge batches containing Tank 12. The wash endpoint target for SB8 was set at a significantly higher sodium concentration to allow acceptable glass compositions at the targeted waste loading. Four non-coupled tests were conducted using simulant representing Tank 40 at 110-146% of the Koopman Minimum Acid requirement. Hydrogen was generated during high acid stoichiometry (146% acid) SRAT testing up to 31% of the DWPF hydrogen limit. SME hydrogen generation reached 48% of of the DWPF limit for the high acid run. Two non-coupled tests were conducted using simulant representing Tank 51 at 110-146% of the Koopman Minimum Acid requirement. Hydrogen was generated during high acid stoichiometry SRAT testing up to 16% of the DWPF limit. SME hydrogen generation reached 49% of the DWPF limit for hydrogen in the SME for the high acid run. Simulant processing was successful using previously established antifoam addition strategy. Foaming during formic acid addition was not observed in any of the runs. Nitrite was destroyed in all runs and no N2O was detected during SME processing. Mercury behavior was consistent with that seen in previous SRAT runs. Mercury was stripped below the DWPF limit on 0.8 wt% for all runs. Rheology yield stress fell within or below the design basis of 1-5 Pa. The low acid Tank 40 run (106% acid stoichiometry) had the highest yield stress at 3.78 Pa.

Newell, J.

2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

58

On Rayleigh Optical Depth Calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many different techniques are used for the calculation of Rayleigh optical depth in the atmosphere. In some cases differences among these techniques can be important, especially in the UV region of the spectrum and under clean atmospheric ...

Barry A. Bodhaine; Norman B. Wood; Ellsworth G. Dutton; James R. Slusser

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

AlSb/InAs HIGH ELECTRON MOBILITY TRANSISTORS - Energy ...  

The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has developed materials growth and fabrication technology for the manufacture of high-speed, low power AlSb/InAs high electron ...

60

Bulk growth of GaSb and Ga{sub 1{minus}x}In{sub x}Sb  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

GaSb and InGaSb have been demonstrated to be suitable choices for high efficiency thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells. Synthesis and growth of bulk GaSb single crystals and GaInSb polycrystals have been carried out by the vertical Bridgman technique, with a baffle immersed in the melt and by complete encapsulation of the melt by low melting temperature alkali halides or oxides. The critical roles of the baffle and the encapsulation are discussed. Efforts in obtaining device grade GaSb with superior structural and electrical properties and compositionally homogeneous GaInSb are described, emphasizing the key steps in the growth cycle developed to obtain good crystalline quality.

Dutta, P.S.; Ostrogorsky, A.G.; Gutmann, R.J.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric optics sb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Effect of antimony nano-scale surface-structures on a GaSb/AlAsSb distributed Bragg reflector  

SciTech Connect

Effects of antimony crystallization on the surface of GaSb during low temperature molecular beam epitaxy growth are investigated. The geometry of these structures is studied via transmission electron and atomic force microscopies, which show the surface metal forms triangular-shaped, elongated nano-wires with a structured orientation composed entirely of crystalline antimony. By depositing antimony on a GaSb/AlAsSb distributed Bragg reflector, the field is localized within the antimony layer. Polarization dependent transmission measurements are carried out on these nano-structures deposited on a GaSb/AlAsSb distributed Bragg reflector. It is shown that the antimony-based structures at the surface favor transmission of light polarized perpendicular to the wires.

Husaini, S.; Shima, D.; Ahirwar, P.; Rotter, T. J.; Hains, C. P.; Dang, T.; Bedford, R. G.; Balakrishnan, G. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH 45433 (United States)] [Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH 45433 (United States)

2013-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

62

Dissociation of carbon dioxide in atmospheric pressure microchannel plasma devices.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Plasma discharge of carbon dioxide at atmospheric pressure was successfully demonstrated in microchannel plasma devices at breakdown voltages lower than 1 kVRMS. Optical emissions of… (more)

Oh, Taegon

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Studies of urban atmospheric aerosols using lidar and sky radiometer.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

???This thesis discusses the remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols, the corresponding instrumental technology and inversion algorithm. The urban aerosol optical properties in Hong Kong have… (more)

Yang, Xun (??)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

The growth of InAsSb/InAsP strained-layer superlattices for use in infrared emitters  

SciTech Connect

We describe the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth of InAsSb/InAsP strained-layer superlattice (SLS) active regions for use in mid-infrared emitters. These SLSs were grown at 500{degrees}C, and 200 torr in a horizontal quartz reactor using TMIn, TESb, AsH{sub 3},and PH{sub 3}. By changing the layer thickness and composition we have prepared structures with low temperature ({le}20K) photoluminescence wavelengths ranging from 3.2 to 4.4 {mu}m. Excellent performance was observed for an SLS LED and both optically pumped and electrically injected SLS lasers. An optically pumped, double heterostructure laser emitted at 3.86 {mu}m with a maximum operating temperature of 240 K and a characteristic temperature of 33 K. We have also made electrically injected lasers and LEDs utilizing a GaAsSb/InAs semi-metal injection scheme. The semi-metal injected, broadband LED emitted at 4 {mu}m with 80 {mu}W of power at 300K and 200 mA average current. The InAsSb/InAsP SLS injection laser emitted at 3.6 gm at 120 K.

Biefeld, R.M.; Allerman, A.A.; Kurtz, S.R. [and others

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

SB Electronics Breaks Ground on New Factory | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SB Electronics Breaks Ground on New Factory SB Electronics Breaks Ground on New Factory SB Electronics Breaks Ground on New Factory April 29, 2010 - 5:22pm Addthis U.S. Rep. Peter Welch (from left), Vermont Lt. Gov. Brian Dubie, SBE board member Win Hunter, SBE board chair Stan Fishkin, Assi U.S. Rep. Peter Welch (from left), Vermont Lt. Gov. Brian Dubie, SBE board member Win Hunter, SBE board chair Stan Fishkin, Assi Paul Lester Communications Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy A Vermont company broke ground on a new factory that will produce cutting-edge technology for electric and hybrid cars and create more than 100 jobs. The event ushering in SB Electronics' power ring capacitor facility in Barre was attended by Vermont Gov. Jim Douglas and federal, state and local

66

Theory, electro-optical design, testing, and calibration of a prototype atmospheric supersaturation, humidity, and temperature sensor. Final report Mar 81-Jul 82  

SciTech Connect

A new infrared differential absorption - passive thermal emission based instrument designed to make accurate in-cloud measurements of absolute humidity, air temperature, relative humidity, and ice and water supersaturations has been developed. Absolute humidity is measured by the differential infrared absorption of a broad-band light beam between 2.45 microns wavelength and the strongly absorbing water vapor band at 2.67 microns. Air temperature is sensed by a passive radiometric measurement of the Planck's law radiance emitted by carbon dioxide molecules in their very intense emission band at 4.25 microns. Significant operational advantages over previous 14-16 micron band radiometers are achieved. These non-contact optical measurements of absolute humidity and true air temperature can then be combined to yield relative humidity values with respect to both water and ice which remain valid in condensing supersaturated conditions and in spite of hydrometeors in the sample volume.

Nelson, L.D.

1982-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

67

Optical-to-Near-Infrared Simultaneous Observations for the Hot Uranus GJ3470b: A Hint for Cloud-free Atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present optical (g', R_c, and I_c) to near-infrared (J) simultaneous photometric observations for a primary transit of GJ3470b, the second lowest-mass planet among transiting planets around nearby M dwarfs, by using the 50-cm MITSuME telescope and the 188-cm telescope both at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. From these data, we derive the planetary mass, radius, and density as 14.1 \\pm 1.3 M_earth, 4.32^{+0.21}_{-0.10} R_earth, and 0.94 \\pm 0.12 g cm^{-3}, respectively, thus confirming the low density that was reported by Demory et al. based on the Spitzer/IRAC 4.5-micron photometry (0.72^{+0.13}_{-0.12} g cm^{-3}). Although the planetary radius is about 10% smaller than that reported by Demory et al., this difference does not alter their conclusion that the planet possesses a hydrogen-rich envelope whose mass is approximately 10% of the planetary total mass. On the other hand, we find that the planet-to-star radius ratio (R_p/R_s) in the J band (0.07577^{+0.00072}_{-0.00075}) is smaller than that in the...

Fukui, Akihiko; Kurosaki, Kenji; Ikoma, Masahiro; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Kuroda, Daisuke; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H; Ohnuki, Hiroshi; Onitsuka, Masahiro; Hirano, Teruyuki; Suenaga, Takuya; Kawauchi, Kiyoe; Nagayama, Shogo; Ohta, Kouji; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Izumiura, Hideyuki

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Phase equilibrium and intermediate phases in the Eu-Sb system  

SciTech Connect

Rapid heating rate thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, fluorescence spectrometry, and differential dissolution method were used to study the high-temperature phase equilibrium in the Eu-Sb system within the composition range between 37 and 96 at% Sb. The techniques were effective in determination of the vapor-solid-liquid equilibrium since intermediate phases except Eu{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} evaporated incongruently after melting. A thermal procedure was developed to determine the liquidus and solidus lines of the T-x diagram. Six stable phases were identified: two phases, EuSb{sub 2} and Eu{sub 4}Sb{sub 3}, melt congruently at 1045{+-}10 deg. C and 1600{+-}15 deg. C, the Eu{sub 2}Sb{sub 3}, Eu{sub 11}Sb{sub 10}, Eu{sub 5}Sb{sub 4}, and Eu{sub 5}Sb{sub 3} phases melt incongruently at 850{+-}8 deg. C, 950{+-}10 deg. C, 1350{+-}15 deg. C, and 1445{+-}15 deg. C, respectively. The exact composition shifting of Sb-rich decomposable phases towards Eu{sub 4}Sb{sub 3}, the most refractory compound, was determined. The topology of the Eu-Sb phase diagram was considered together with that of the Yb-Sb system. - Graphical abstract: The high-temperature range of the T-x phase diagram for the Eu-Sb system. Highlights: > The phase relations in the Eu-Sb system were studied over a large composition and temperature scale. > The liquidus and solidus lines of the T-x diagram were well established using effective techniques. > In the system, six binary phases are stable and they melt incongruently except EuSb{sub 2} and Eu{sub 4}Sb{sub 3}. > Incongruent evaporation was found to be typical of all the phases besides Eu{sub 4}Sb{sub 3}.

Abdusalyamova, M.N. [Institute of Chemistry of Tajik Academy of Sciences, Ajni Str. 299/2, 734063 Dushanbe (Tajikistan); Vasilyeva, I.G., E-mail: kamarz@niic.nsc.ru [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Lavrentiev Avenue, 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

69

SeZnSb alloy and its nano tubes, graphene composites properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Composite can alter the individual element physical property, could be useful to define the specific use of the material. Therefore, work demonstrates the synthesis of a new composition Se{sub 96}-Zn{sub 2}-Sb{sub 2} and its composites with 0.05% multi-walled carbon nano tubes and 0.05% bilayer graphene, in the glassy form. The diffused amorphous structure of the multi walled carbon nano tubes and bilayer gaphene in the Se{sub 96}-Zn{sub 2}-Sb{sub 2} alloy have been analyzed by using the Raman, X-ray photoluminescence spectroscopy, Furrier transmission infrared spectra, photoluminescence, UV/visible absorption spectroscopic measurements. The diffused prime Raman bands (G and D) have been appeared for the multi walled carbon nano tubes and graphene composites, while the X-ray photoluminescence core energy levels peak shifts have been observed for the composite materials. Subsequently the photoluminescence property at room temperature and a drastic enhancement (upto 80%) in infrared transmission percentage has been obtained for the bilayer graphene composite, along with optical energy band gaps for these materials have been evaluated 1.37, 1.39 and 1.41 eV.

Singh, Abhay Kumar [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Physics, Bangalore-560012 (India)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

Grain refinement and texture development of cast bi90sb10 alloy via severe plastic deformation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this work was to study learn about grain refinement mechanisms and texture development in cast n-type Bi90Sb10 alloy caused by severe plastic deformation. The practical objective is to produce a fine grained and textured microstructure in Bi90Sb10 alloy with enhanced thermoelectric performance and mechanical strength. In the study, twelve millimeter diameter cast bars of Bi90Sb10 alloy were encapsulated in square cross section aluminum 6061 alloy containers. The composite bars were equal channel angular (ECAE) extruded through a 90 degree angle die at high homologous temperature. Various extrusion conditions were studied including punch speed (0.1, 0.3 and 0.6 in/min), extrusion temperature (220, 235 and 250oC), number of extrusion passes (1, 2 and 4), route (A, BC and C), and exit channel area reduction ratio (half and quarter area of inlet channel). The affect of an intermediate long term heat treatment (for 100 hours at 250oC under 10-3 torr vacuum) was explored. Processed materials were characterized by optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, wavelength dispersive spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Texture was analyzed using the {006} reflection plane to identify the orientation of the basal poles in processed materials. The cast grains were irregularly shaped, had a grain size of hundreds-of-microns to millimeters, and showed inhomogeneous chemical composition. Severe plastic deformation refines the cast grains through dynamic recrystallization and causes the development of a bimodal microstructure consisting of fine grains (5-30 micron) and coarse grains (50-300 micron). ECAE processing of homogenizied Bi-Sb alloy causes grain refinement and produces a more uniform microstructure. Texture results show that ECAE route C processing gives a similar or slightly stronger texture than ECAE route A processing. In both cases, the basal-plane poles become aligned with the shear direction. Reduction area exit channel extrusion is more effective for both grain refinement and texture enhancement than simple ECAE processing.

Im, Jae-taek

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Effect of Sb on the Properties of GaInP Top Cells (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The summary of this report is that: (1) Sb can be used to increase V{sub oc} of a GaInP top cell; (2) the photovoltaic quality of GaInP is relatively unaffected by the presence of Sb; and (3) Sb-doped GaInP/GaAs tandem cells show promise for achieving efficiencies over 32%.

Olson, J. M.; McMahon, W. E.; Kurtz, S.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Thermochemical and kinetic aspects of the sulfurization of Cu-Sb and Cu-Bi thin films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CuSbS{sub 2} and Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3} are being investigated as part of a search for new absorber materials for photovoltaic devices. Thin films of these chalcogenides were produced by conversion of stacked and co-electroplated metal precursor layers in the presence of elemental sulfur vapour. Ex-situ XRD and SEM/EDS analyses of the processed samples were employed to study the reaction sequence with the aim of achieving compact layer morphologies. A new 'Time-Temperature-Reaction' (TTR) diagram and modified Pilling-Bedworth coefficients have been introduced for the description and interpretation of the reaction kinetics. For equal processing times, the minimum temperature required for CuSbS{sub 2} to appear is substantially lower than for Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3}, suggesting that interdiffusion across the interfaces between the binary sulfides is a key step in the formation of the ternary compounds. The effects of the heating rate and sulfur partial pressure on the phase evolution as well as the potential losses of Sb and Bi during the processes have been investigated experimentally and the results related to the equilibrium pressure diagrams obtained via thermochemical computation. - Graphical Abstract: Example of 3D plot showing the equilibrium pressure surfaces of species potentially escaping from chalcogenide films as a function of temperature and sulfur partial pressure. Bi{sub (g)}, Bi{sub 2(g)}, and BiS{sub (g)} are the gaseous species in equilibrium with solid Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3(s)} considered in this specific example. The pressure threshold plane corresponds to the pressure limit above which the elemental losses from 1 {mu}m thick films exceeds 10% of the original content per cm{sup 2} area of film and dm{sup 3} capacity of sulfurization furnace under static atmosphere conditions. The sulfurization temperature/sulfur partial pressure boundaries required to minimise the elemental losses below a given value can be easily read from the 2D projection of the intersection curves into the T-p{sub S2} plane. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Sulfurization of Sb-Cu and Bi-Cu metal precursors for thin film PV applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Kinetics shows the rate determining step to be the interdiffusion of binary sulfides. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Phase evolution is consistent with Pilling-Bedworth coefficients of Cu, Sb and Bi. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Elemental losses can be minimised via the use of equilibrium pressure diagrams.

Colombara, Diego, E-mail: dc326@bath.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Peter, Laurence M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Rogers, Keith D.; Hutchings, Kyle [Centre for Materials Science and Engineering, Cranfield University, Shrivenham, SN6 8LA (United Kingdom)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

73

Low cost high power GaSB photovoltaic cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High power density and high capacity factor are important attributes of a thermophotovoltaics (TPV) system and GaSb cells are enabling for TPV systems. A TPV cogeneration unit at an off grid site will compliment solar arrays producing heat and electricity on cloudy days with the solar arrays generating electricity on sunny days. Herein

Lewis M. Fraas; Han X. Huang; Shi-Zhong Ye; She Hui; James Avery; Russell Ballantyne

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Low cost high power GaSb thermophotovoltaic cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High power density and high capacity factor are important attributes of a TPV system and GaSb cells are enabling for TPV systems. A TPV cogeneration unit at an off grid site will compliment solar arrays producing heat and electricity on cloudy days with the solar arrays generating electricity on sunny days. Herein

Lewis M. Fraas; Han X. Huang; Shi-Zhong Ye; James Avery; Russell Ballantyne

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

TANK 40 FINAL SB7B CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

A sample of Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) was taken from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The SB7b WAPS sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals and fissile constituents, and these results are reported here. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) as SB7b. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB7b sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene bottle and solids were allowed to settle over the weekend. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 558 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon{reg_sign} vessels and four with NaOH/Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Two Analytical Reference Glass - 1 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA) for As and Se, and cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AA) for Hg. Equivalent dilutions of the alkali fusion digestions and blank were submitted to AD for ICP-AES analysis. Tank 40 SB7b supernate was collected from a mixed slurry sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells and submitted to AD for ICP-AES, ion chromatography (IC), total base/free OH{sup -}/other base, total inorganic carbon/total organic carbon (TIC/TOC) analyses, and Cs-137 gamma scan. Weighted dilutions of slurry were submitted for IC, TIC/TOC, and total base/free OH{sup -}/other base analyses. Activities for U-233, U-235, and Pu-239 were determined from the ICP-MS data for the aqua regia digestions of the Tank 40 WAPS slurry using the specific activity of each isotope. The Pu-241 value was determined from a Pu-238/-241 method developed by SRNL AD and previously described. The following conclusions were drawn from the analytical results reported here: (1) The ratios of the major elements for the SB7b WAPS sample are different from those measured for the SB7a WAPS sample. There is less Al and Mn relative to Fe than the previous sludge batch. (2) The elemental composition of this sample and the analyses conducted here are reasonable and consistent with DWPF batch data measurements in light of DWPF pre-sample concentration and SRAT product heel contributions to the DWPF SRAT receipt analyses. The element ratios for Al/Fe, Ca/Fe, Mn/Fe, and U/Fe agree within 10% between this work and the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipt analyses. (3) Sulfur in the SB7b WAPS sample is 82% soluble, slightly less than results reported for SB3, SB4, and SB6 samples but unlike the 50% insoluble sulfur observed in the SB5 WAPS sample. In addition, 23% of the soluble sulfur is not present as sulfate in SB7b. (4) The average activities of the fissile isotopes of interest in the SB7b WAPS sample are (in {mu}Ci/g of total dried solids): 4.22E-02 U-233, 6.12E-04 U-235, 1.08E+01 Pu-239, and 5.09E+01 Pu-241. The full radionuclide composition will be reported in a future document. (5) The fission product noble metal and Ag concentrations appear to have largely peaked in previous DWPF sludge batches, with the exception of Ru, which still shows a slight increase in SB7b.

Bannochie, C.

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

76

Magnetic properties of MnSb inclusions formed in GaSb matrix directly during molecular beam epitaxial growth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Despite of intensive search for the proper semiconductor base materials for spintronic devices working at room temperature no appropriate material based on ferromagnetic semiconductors has been found so far. We demonstrate that the phase segregated system with MnSb hexagonal inclusions inside the GaSb matrix, formed directly during the molecular beam epitaxial growth reveals the ferromagnetic properties at room temperature and is a good candidate for exploitation in spintronics. Furthermore, the MnSb inclusions with only one crystalline structure were identified in this GaMn:MnSb granular material. The SQUID magnetometry confirmed that this material exhibits ferromagnetic like behavior starting from helium up to room temperature. Moreover, the magnetic anisotropy was found which was present also at room temperature, and it was proved that by choosing a proper substrate it is possible to control the direction of easy axis of inclusions' magnetization moment between in-plane and out-of-plane; the latter is important in view of potential applications in spintronic devices.

Lawniczak-Jablonska, Krystyna; Wolska, Anna; Klepka, Marcin T.; Kret, Slawomir; Kurowska, Boguslawa; Kowalski, Bogdan J. [Institute of Physics PAS, al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Gosk, Jacek [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Twardowski, Andrzej; Wasik, Dariusz; Kwiatkowski, Adam [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Sadowski, Janusz [Institute of Physics PAS, al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); MAX-Lab, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Total atmospheric emissivities for a tropical climate  

SciTech Connect

The total atmospheric flux emissivities as a function of water vapor optical depth are reported for meteorological condtions in Thailand. The water vapor optical depth was first calculated as a function of height up to 12 km from the annual average upper air pressures, temperature, and dew points at Bangkok. The flux emissivity was then computed using tabulated data for the flux emissivities of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone at 20/sup 0/C. (SPH)

Exell, R.H.B.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Above room-temperature operation of InAs/AlGaSb superlattice quantum cascade lasers emitting at 12 {mu}m  

SciTech Connect

The authors report on above-room-temperature operation of InAs/AlGaSb quantum cascade lasers emitting at 12 {mu}m. The laser structures are grown on a n-InAs (100) substrate using solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. An InAs/AlGaSb superlattice is used as an active part and an InAs double plasmon waveguide is used for optical confinement. Results show that increased doping concentration in the injection part of the active region expands the current operation range of the devices, allowing laser operation at and above room temperature. The observed threshold current density is 4.0 kA/cm{sup 2} at 300 K; the maximum operation temperature is 340 K.

Ohtani, K.; Moriyasu, Y.; Ohnishi, H.; Ohno, H. [Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Semiconductor Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2007-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

79

Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resitance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation.

Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

80

GaSb substrates with extended IR wavelength for advanced space based applications  

SciTech Connect

GaSb substrates have advantages that make them attractive for implementation of a wide range of infrared (IR) detectors with higher operating temperatures for stealth and space based applications. A significant aspect that would enable widespread commercial application of GaSb wafers for very long wavelength IR (VLWIR) applications is the capability for transmissivity beyond 15 m. Due largely to the GaSb (antisite) defect and other point defects in undoped GaSb substrates, intrinsic GaSb is still slightly p-type and strongly absorbs in the VLWIR. This requires backside thinning of the GaSb substrate for IR transmissivity. An extremely low n-type GaSb substrate is preferred to eliminate thinning and provide a substrate solution for backside illuminated VLWIR devices. By providing a more homogeneous radial distribution of the melt solute to suppress GaSb formation and controlling the cooling rate, ultra low doped n:GaSb has been achieved. This study examines the surface properties and IR transmission spectra of ultra low doped GaSb substrates at both room and low temperatures. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), homoepitaxy by MBE, and infrared Fourier transform (FTIR) analysis was implemented to examine material quality. As compared with standard low doped GaSb, the ultra low doped substrates show over 50% transmission and consistent wavelength transparency past 23 m with improved %T at low temperature. Homoepitaxy and AFM results indicate the ultra low doped GaSb has a low thermal desorbtion character and qualified morphology. In summary, improvements in room temperature IR transmission and extended wavelength characteristics have been shown consistently for ultra low doped n:GaSb substrates.

Allen, Lisa P.; Flint, Patrick; Dallas, Gordon; Bakken, Daniel; Blanchat, Kevin; Brown, Gail J.; Vangala, Shivashankar R.; Goodhue, William D.; Krishnaswami, Kannan

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric optics sb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Method of making AlInSb by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing aluminum-indium-antimony materials by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). This invention provides a method of producing Al.sub.X In.sub.1-x Sb crystalline materials by MOCVD wherein an Al source material, an In source material and an Sb source material are supplied as a gas to a heated substrate in a chamber, said Al source material, In source material, and Sb source material decomposing at least partially below 525.degree. C. to produce Al.sub.x In.sub.1-x Sb crystalline materials wherein x is greater than 0.002 and less than one.

Biefeld, Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM); Baucom, Kevin C. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Effects of Cloud Optical Property Feedbacks on the Greenhouse Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cloud optical properties, in particular the optical thickness, affect the earth-atmosphere radiation budget, and their potential changes associated with climate changes may induce feedback effect. A one-dimensional radiative-forcing model was ...

Gyula Molnar; Wei-Chyung Wang

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Pierre Auger Atmosphere-Monitoring Lidar System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fluorescence-detection techniques of cosmic-ray air-shower experiments require precise knowledge of atmospheric properties to reconstruct air-shower energies. Up to now, the atmosphere in desert-like areas was assumed to be stable enough so that occasional calibration of atmospheric attenuation would suffice to reconstruct shower profiles. However, serious difficulties have been reported in recent fluorescence-detector experiments causing systematic errors in cosmic ray spectra at extreme energies. Therefore, a scanning backscatter lidar system has been constructed for the Pierre Auger Observatory in Malargue, Argentina, where on-line atmospheric monitoring will be performed. One lidar system is already deployed at the Los Leones fluorescence detector site and the second one is currently (April 2003) under construction at the Coihueco site. Next to the established ones, a novel analysis method with assumption on horizontal invariance, using multi-angle measurements is shown to unambiguously measure optical depth, as well as absorption and backscatter coefficient.

A. Filipcic; M. Horvat; D. Veberic; D. Zavrtanik; M. Zavrtanik; M. Chiosso; R. Mussa; G. Sequeiros; M. A. Mostafa; M. D. Roberts

2003-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

84

Tank 40 Final SB7b Chemical Characterization Results  

SciTech Connect

A sample of Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) was taken from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The SB7b WAPS sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals and fissile constituents. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB7b sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene bottle and solids were allowed to settle over the weekend. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 558 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon? vessels and four with NaOH/Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Two Analytical Reference Glass ? 1 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma ? atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma ? mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA) for As and Se, and cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AA) for Hg. Equivalent dilutions of the alkali fusion digestions and blank were submitted to AD for ICP-AES analysis. Tank 40 SB7b supernate was collected from a mixed slurry sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells and submitted to AD for ICP-AES, ion chromatography (IC), total base/free OH{sup -}/other base, total inorganic carbon/total organic carbon (TIC/TOC) analyses, and Cs-137 gamma scan. Weighted dilutions of slurry were submitted for IC, TIC/TOC, and total base/free OH-/other base analyses. Activities for U-233, U-235, and Pu-239 were determined from the ICP-MS data for the aqua regia digestions of the Tank 40 WAPS slurry using the specific activity of each isotope. The Pu-241 value was determined from a Pu-238/-241 method.

Bannochie, C. J.

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

85

Key results from SB8 simulant flowsheet studies  

SciTech Connect

Key technically reviewed results are presented here in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) acceptance of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). This report summarizes results from simulant flowsheet studies of the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC). Results include: Hydrogen generation rate for the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles of the CPC on a 6,000 gallon basis; Volume percent of nitrous oxide, N2O, produced during the SRAT cycle; Ammonium ion concentrations recovered from the SRAT and SME off-gas; and, Dried weight percent solids (insoluble, soluble, and total) measurements and density.

Koopman, D. C.

2013-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

86

Transmission Characteristics Evaluation Under Bad Weather Conditions in Optical Wireless Links with Different Optical Transmission Windows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optical wireless links offer gigabit per second data rates and low system complexity. For ground space and or terrestrial communication systems, these links suffer from atmospheric loss mainly due to fog, scintillation and precipitation. Optical Wireless ... Keywords: Bad weather effects, Empirical model, Rain Attenuation, Rain Scattering, Specific attenuation, Visibility, Wireless Optics (WOs)

Ahmed Nabih Rashed; Mohamed M. El-Halawany

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

AlGaAsSb buffer/barrier on GaAs substrate for InAs channel devices with high electron mobility and practical reliability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: AlGaAsSb, Hall elements, InAs, Sb, buffer/barriers, deep quantum well, field effect transistors, reliability

S. Miya; S. Muramatsu; N. Kuze; K. Nagase; T. Iwabuchi; A. Ichii; M. Ozaki; I. Shibasaki

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

The Boulder Atmospheric Observatory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) is a unique research facility for studying the planetary boundary layer and for testing and calibrating atmospheric sensors. The facility includes a 300 m tower instrumented with fast- and slow-response ...

J. C. Kaimal; J. E. Gaynor

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Observatory (UAO) Pilot Experiment at NYC" - Michael Reynolds, BNL 17:30 "EML Pilot Studies for the Urban Atmospheric Observatory" - Hsi-Na (Sam) Lee, EML 17:40 "A...

90

GaSb/GaP compliant interface for high electron mobility AlSb/InAs heterostructures on (001) GaP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on the epitaxial growth of an AlSb/InAs heterostructure on a (001) GaP substrate. We investigate the conditions for the most efficient relaxation of GaSb islands on GaP. In particular, we show that the GaP surface treatment and the growth temperature are crucial for the formation of a two-dimensional periodic array of 90 deg. misfit dislocations at the episubstrate interface. With this relaxation process, an AlSb/InAs heterostructure exhibiting a room temperature mobility of 25 500 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} on GaP is demonstrated. This result paves the way to the integration of Sb-based devices on Si substrates through the use of GaP/Si templates.

El Kazzi, S.; Desplanque, L.; Coinon, C.; Wallart, X. [Institut d'Electronique, de Microelectronique, et de Nanotechnologie, UMR-CNRS 8520, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex (France); Wang, Y.; Ruterana, P. [CIMAP UMR 6252 CNRS-ENSICAEN-CEA-UCBN, 6, Boulevard du Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France)

2010-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

91

Observation of Band Alignment Transition in InAs/GaAsSb Quantum Dots by Photoluminescence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The band alignment of InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in GaAsSb barriers with various Sb compositions is investigated by photoluminescence (PL) measurements. InAs/GaAsSb samples with 13% and 15% Sb compositions show distinct differences in emission spectra as the PL excitation power increases. Whilst no discernible shift is seen for the 13% sample, a blue-shift of PL spectra following a 1/3 exponent of the excitation power is observed for the 15% sample suggesting a transition from a type I to type II band alignment. Time-resolved PL data show a significant increase in carrier lifetime as the Sb composition increases between 13% and 15% implying that the transformation from a type I to type II band alignment occurs between 13% and 15% Sb compositions. These results taken together lead to the conclusion that a zero valence band offset (VBO) can be achieved for the InAs/GaAsSb system in the vicinity of 14% Sb composition.

Ban, K. Y.; Kuciauskas, D.; Bremner, S. P.; Honsberg, C. B.

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

92

SB 4 Interim Well Stimulation Treatment Regulations Notice of Proposed Emergency Rulemaking Action  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SB 4 Interim Well Stimulation Treatment Regulations Notice of Proposed Emergency Rulemaking Action Page 1 of 10 SB 4 INTERIM WELL STIMULATION TREATMENT REGULATIONS NOTICE OF PROPOSED EMERGENCY that the California Department of Conservation (Department) proposes to adopt emergency regulations necessary

93

GaInAsSb materials for thermophotovoltaics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ga{sub 1{minus}x}In{sub x}As{sub 1{minus}y}Sb{sub y} (0.06 < x < 0.2, 0.05 < y < 0.18) epilayers were grown lattice-matched to GaSb substrates by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). For lattice-matched alloys, mirror-like surface morphologies were obtained by both OMVPE and MBE. The 4K photoluminescence (PL) of all layers had a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of less than 10 meV for PL peak emission < 1.9 {micro}m. PL FWHM increased to 30 meV for peak emission {approximately}2.12 {micro}m for OMVPE-grown layers. Nominally undoped layers are p-type with typical 300 K hole concentration of {approximately}9 {times} 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}3} and hole mobility {approximately}450 to 580 cm{sup 2}/V-s for OMVPE-grown layers, p- and n-type doping is reported for layers grown with either technique. The ideality factor of diode structures is {approximately}2 for both techniques.

Wang, C.A.; Turner, G.W.; Manfra, M.J.; Choi, H.K.; Spears, D.L. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Lexington, MA (United States). Lincoln Lab.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Event:Sustainable Biomass for Electricity Conference (SB4E) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass for Electricity Conference (SB4E) Biomass for Electricity Conference (SB4E) Jump to: navigation, search Calendar.png Sustainable Biomass for Electricity Conference (SB4E): on 2012/05/02 The Conference on Sustainable Biomass for Electricity (SB4E), organized by UN-Energy in cooperation with the Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP) and other partners, will consider the role of biomass technologies in decarbonizing the global energy system. Acknowledging the readily available and cost effective potential for emission reductions that could be achieved through the large-scale deployment of sustainable biomass for electricity production, the SB4E Conference will provide an opportunity for governments, international organizations and the private sector to share knowledge, lessons, best practices and experiences and to join efforts

95

The quantum efficiency of InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Uncoated InGaAsSb/GaSb thermophotovoltaic (TPV) diodes with 0.56 eV (2.2 {micro}m) bandgaps exhibit external quantum efficiencies of 59% at 2 {micro}m, which corresponds to an internal quantum efficiency of 95%. The structures were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. The devices have electron diffusion lengths as long as 29 {micro}m in 8-{micro}m-wide p-InGaAsSb layers and hole diffusion lengths of 3 {micro}m in 6-{micro}m-wide n-InGaAsSb layers. The electron and hole diffusion lengths appear to increase with increasing p- and n-layer widths, respectively. These excellent minority carrier transport properties of InGaAsSb are well-suited to efficient TPV diode operation.

Martinelli, R.U.; Garbuzov, D.Z.; Lee, H.; Morris, N.; Odubanjo, T.; Taylor, G.C.; Connolly, J.C. [Sarnoff Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States)

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Evaluation of the carbon content of aerosols from the burn- ing of biomass in the Brazilian Amazon using thermal, op- tical and thermal-optical analysis methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Crutzen, P. : Atmospheric Aerosols: Biogeochemical sourcesof optically active aerosol particles over the Amazonproperties of Amazonian aerosol particles: Rev. Geophys. ,

Soto-Garcia, Lydia L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 ARM 2003 Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement WARNING! WARNING! Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Two Topics Two Topics * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ARM Status - Science ARM Status - Science * Steadily increasing productivity - Poster session - over 220 posters (may need to do something about submissions next year) - Peer-reviewed articles: 2.5 to 3 per year per

98

GaSb/GaAs quantum dot formation and demolition studied with cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy study of GaSb/GaAs quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Various nanostructures are observed as a function of the growth parameters. During growth, relaxation of the high local strain fields of the nanostructures plays an important role in their formation. Pyramidal dots with a high Sb content are often accompanied by threading dislocations above them. GaSb ring formation is favored by the use of a thin GaAs first cap layer and a high growth temperature of the second cap layer. At these capping conditions, strain-driven Sb diffusion combined with As/Sb exchange and Sb segregation remove the center of a nanostructure, creating a ring. Clusters of GaSb without a well defined morphology also appear regularly, often with a highly inhomogeneous structure which is sometimes divided up in fragments.

Smakman, E. P.; Garleff, J. K.; Rambabu, P.; Koenraad, P. M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven 5612 AZ (Netherlands); Young, R. J.; Hayne, M. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

99

DWPF SIMULANT CPC STUDIES FOR SB7B  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lab-scale DWPF simulations of Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) processing were performed. Testing was performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory - Aiken County Technology Laboratory (SRNL-ACTL). The primary goal of the simulations was to define a likely operating window for acid stoichiometry for the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). In addition, the testing established conditions for the SRNL Shielded Cells qualification simulation of SB7b-Tank 40 blend, supported validation of the current glass redox model, and validated the coupled process flowsheet at the nominal acid stoichiometry. An acid window of 105-140% by the Koopman minimum acid (KMA) equation (107-142% DWPF Hsu equation) worked for the sludge-only flowsheet. Nitrite was present in the SRAT product for the 105% KMA run at 366 mg/kg, while SME cycle hydrogen reached 94% of the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle limit in the 140% KMA run. The window was determined for sludge with added caustic (0.28M additional base, or roughly 12,000 gallons 50% NaOH to 820,000 gallons waste slurry). A suitable processing window appears to be 107-130% DWPF acid equation for sludge-only processing allowing some conservatism for the mapping of lab-scale simulant data to full-scale real waste processing including potentially non-conservative noble metal and mercury concentrations. This window should be usable with or without the addition of up to 7,000 gallons of caustic to the batch. The window could potentially be wider if caustic is not added to SB7b. It is recommended that DWPF begin processing SB7b at 115% stoichiometry using the current DWPF equation. The factor could be increased if necessary, but changes should be made with caution and in small increments. DWPF should not concentrate past 48 wt.% total solids in the SME cycle if moderate hydrogen generation is occurring simultaneously. The coupled flowsheet simulation made more hydrogen in the SRAT and SME cycles than the sludge-only run with the same acid stoichiometric factor. The slow acid addition in MCU seemed to alter the reactions that consumed the small excess acid present such that hydrogen generation was promoted relative to sludge-only processing. The coupled test reached higher wt.% total solids, and this likely contributed to the SME cycle hydrogen limit being exceeded at 110% KMA. It is clear from the trends in the SME processing GC data, however, that the frit slurry formic acid contributed to driving the hydrogen generation rate above the SME cycle limit. Hydrogen generation rates after the second frit addition generally exceeded those after the first frit addition. SRAT formate loss increased with increasing acid stoichiometry (15% to 35%). A substantial nitrate gain which was observed to have occurred after acid addition (and nitrite destruction) was reversed to a net nitrate loss in runs with higher acid stoichiometry (nitrate in SRAT product less than sum of sludge nitrate and added nitric acid). Increased ammonium ion formation was also indicated in the runs with nitrate loss. Oxalate loss on the order 20% was indicated in three of the four acid stoichiometry runs and in the coupled flowsheet run. The minimum acid stoichiometry run had no indicated loss. The losses were of the same order as the official analytical uncertainty of the oxalate concentration measurement, but were not randomly distributed about zero loss, so some actual loss was likely occurring. Based on the entire set of SB7b test data, it is recommended that DWPF avoid concentrating additional sludge solids in single SRAT batches to limit the concentrations of noble metals to SB7a processing levels (on a grams noble metal per SRAT batch basis). It is also recommended that DWPF drop the formic acid addition that accompanies the process frit 418 additions, since SME cycle data showed considerable catalytic activity for hydrogen generation from this additional acid (about 5% increase in stoichiometry occurred from the frit formic acid). Frit 418 also does not appear to need formic acid addition to prevent gel formation in

Koopman, D.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

DWPF SIMULANT CPC STUDIES FOR SB7B  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lab-scale DWPF simulations of Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) processing were performed. Testing was performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory - Aiken County Technology Laboratory (SRNL-ACTL). The primary goal of the simulations was to define a likely operating window for acid stoichiometry for the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). In addition, the testing established conditions for the SRNL Shielded Cells qualification simulation of SB7b-Tank 40 blend, supported validation of the current glass redox model, and validated the coupled process flowsheet at the nominal acid stoichiometry. An acid window of 105-140% by the Koopman minimum acid (KMA) equation (107-142% DWPF Hsu equation) worked for the sludge-only flowsheet. Nitrite was present in the SRAT product for the 105% KMA run at 366 mg/kg, while SME cycle hydrogen reached 94% of the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle limit in the 140% KMA run. The window was determined for sludge with added caustic (0.28M additional base, or roughly 12,000 gallons 50% NaOH to 820,000 gallons waste slurry). A suitable processing window appears to be 107-130% DWPF acid equation for sludge-only processing allowing some conservatism for the mapping of lab-scale simulant data to full-scale real waste processing including potentially non-conservative noble metal and mercury concentrations. This window should be usable with or without the addition of up to 7,000 gallons of caustic to the batch. The window could potentially be wider if caustic is not added to SB7b. It is recommended that DWPF begin processing SB7b at 115% stoichiometry using the current DWPF equation. The factor could be increased if necessary, but changes should be made with caution and in small increments. DWPF should not concentrate past 48 wt.% total solids in the SME cycle if moderate hydrogen generation is occurring simultaneously. The coupled flowsheet simulation made more hydrogen in the SRAT and SME cycles than the sludge-only run with the same acid stoichiometric factor. The slow acid addition in MCU seemed to alter the reactions that consumed the small excess acid present such that hydrogen generation was promoted relative to sludge-only processing. The coupled test reached higher wt.% total solids, and this likely contributed to the SME cycle hydrogen limit being exceeded at 110% KMA. It is clear from the trends in the SME processing GC data, however, that the frit slurry formic acid contributed to driving the hydrogen generation rate above the SME cycle limit. Hydrogen generation rates after the second frit addition generally exceeded those after the first frit addition. SRAT formate loss increased with increasing acid stoichiometry (15% to 35%). A substantial nitrate gain which was observed to have occurred after acid addition (and nitrite destruction) was reversed to a net nitrate loss in runs with higher acid stoichiometry (nitrate in SRAT product less than sum of sludge nitrate and added nitric acid). Increased ammonium ion formation was also indicated in the runs with nitrate loss. Oxalate loss on the order 20% was indicated in three of the four acid stoichiometry runs and in the coupled flowsheet run. The minimum acid stoichiometry run had no indicated loss. The losses were of the same order as the official analytical uncertainty of the oxalate concentration measurement, but were not randomly distributed about zero loss, so some actual loss was likely occurring. Based on the entire set of SB7b test data, it is recommended that DWPF avoid concentrating additional sludge solids in single SRAT batches to limit the concentrations of noble metals to SB7a processing levels (on a grams noble metal per SRAT batch basis). It is also recommended that DWPF drop the formic acid addition that accompanies the process frit 418 additions, since SME cycle data showed considerable catalytic activity for hydrogen generation from this additional acid (about 5% increase in stoichiometry occurred from the frit formic acid). Frit 418 also does not appear to need formic acid addition to prevent gel formation in

Koopman, D.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric optics sb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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101

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility | Argonne  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Argonne scientists study climate change 1 of 22 Argonne scientists study climate change The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science provided $60 million in ARRA funding for climate research to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, a DOE national user facility that has been operating climate observing sites around the world for nearly two decades. These sites help scientists study clouds and their influence on the sun's radiant energy, which heats our planet. Above is one of the purchases: the Vaisala Present Weather Detector. It optically measures visibility, present weather, precipitation intensity, and precipitation type. It provides a measure of current weather conditions by combining measurements from three

102

Optical Characterization of Chemically Deposited SbCuS Thin Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The maximum refractive index for both samples occurred at 2.29 at photon energy of 2.21eV before declining exponentially to almost an asymptotic value of 0.11 ...

103

Optical Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

*. Bookmark and Share. Optical Radiation Measurements. Fees for services are located directly below the technical contacts ...

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

104

OPTICS5  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optics5 (5.1.02) Knowledge Base Optics5 (5.1.02) Knowledge Base Last Updated: 09/11/13 Table of Contents INSTALLATION EXECUTION bullet ** Operating Systems -- Microsoft Windows 7 and Vista ** bullet ** Running Optics5 with Microsoft Windows 7 and Vista ** bullet ** Running Optics5 with Microsoft Windows 7 and Vista 64 bit ** Optics5 may not work correctly with regional/locale settings using "," as a decimal separator. bullet Which Windows operating systems can be used to run Optics? "Class Does Not Support Automation or Expected Interface" error message bullet How much hard disk space should be available to install Optics? Optics user manual bullet I receive a virus warning (nimda-virus) when installing Optics. What should I do? NFRC Procedure for Applied Films bullet I have installed Optics but I can't find the program or the icon.

105

Carrier heating in quantum wells under optical and current injection of electron-hole pairs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carrier heating in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells (QWs) under optical interband pumping in the spontaneous-emission mode has been studied. The electron temperature was determined as a function of the pumping intensity. The effect of the electric field on the photoluminescence spectrum was examined. The change in the carrier concentration with the drive current in the spontaneous- and stimulated-emission modes in InGaAsSb/InAlGaAsSb QWs was determined from electroluminescence spectra. The rise in the temperature of hot carriers, which results in the increase in the carrier concentration with the drive current, was roughly estimated.

Vorobjev, L. E., E-mail: LVor@rphf.spbstu.ru; Vinnichenko, M. Ya.; Firsov, D. A.; Zerova, V. L.; Panevin, V. Yu.; Sofronov, A. N.; Thumrongsilapa, P. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University (Russian Federation); Ustinov, V. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Zhukov, A. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University, Research and Education Center for Nanotechnology (Russian Federation); Vasiljev, A. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Shterengas, L.; Kipshidze, G.; Hosoda, T.; Belenky, G. [State University of New York at Stony Brook, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

106

Hydrothermal synthesis of Sb2S3nanorods using iodine via redox mechanism  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crystalline antimony sulfide (Sb2S3) with nanorods morphology was successfully prepared via hydrothermal method by the reaction of elemental sulfur, antimony, and iodine as starting materials with high yield at 180°C for 24 ...

Abdolali Alemi; Sang Woo Joo; Younes Hanifehpour; Aliakbar Khandar; Ali Morsali; Bong-Ki Min

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Glass-like thermal transport in AgSbTe2 | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Glass-like thermal transport in AgSbTe2: nano-scale insights to improve thermoelectric efficiency May 16, 2013 Inelastic neutron scattering data showing the phonon dispersions...

108

Structure and Magnetic Properties of the RScSb Compounds (R ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

They crystallize in the tetragonal CeScSi-type structure (tI12, I4/ mmm, an ordered variant of the La2Sb-type). The lattice ...

109

Intense terahertz emission from molecular beam epitaxy-grown GaAs/GaSb(001)  

SciTech Connect

Intense terahertz (THz) electromagnetic wave emission was observed in undoped GaAs thin films deposited on (100) n-GaSb substrates via molecular beam epitaxy. GaAs/n-GaSb heterostructures were found to be viable THz sources having signal amplitude 75% that of bulk p-InAs. The GaAs films were grown by interruption method during the growth initiation and using various metamorphic buffer layers. Reciprocal space maps revealed that the GaAs epilayers are tensile relaxed. Defects at the i-GaAs/n-GaSb interface were confirmed by scanning electron microscope images. Band calculations were performed to infer the depletion region and electric field at the i-GaAs/n-GaSb and the air-GaAs interfaces. However, the resulting band calculations were found to be insufficient to explain the THz emission. The enhanced THz emission is currently attributed to a piezoelectric field induced by incoherent strain and defects.

Sadia, Cyril P.; Laganapan, Aleena Maria; Agatha Tumanguil, Mae; Estacio, Elmer; Somintac, Armando; Salvador, Arnel [National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Que, Christopher T. [Physics Department, De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Avenue, Manila 1004 (Philippines); Yamamoto, Kohji; Tani, Masahiko [Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

110

An Instrumentation Complex for Atmospheric Radiation Measurements in Siberia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Instrumentation Complex for Atmospheric Radiation Instrumentation Complex for Atmospheric Radiation Measurements in Siberia S. M. Sakerin, F. V. Dorofeev, D. M. Kabanov, V. S. Kozlov, M. V. Panchenko, Yu. A. Pkhalagov, V. V. Polkin, V. P. Shmargunov, S. A. Terpugova, S. A. Turchinovich, and V. N. Uzhegov Institute of Atmospheric Optics Tomsk, Russia Introduction The instrumentation complex is described, which has been prepared for radiative experiments in the region of Tomsk (West Siberia). The complex consists of three groups of devices to measure (a) the characteristics of the total downward radiation; (b) the most variable components of the atmospheric transparency directly affecting the income of radiation (aerosol optical depth [AOD], total content of water vapor, ozone, etc.); and (c) aerosol and meteorological parameters of the near-ground layer of the

111

Implementation of the Daytime Cloud Optical and Microphysical Properties Algorithm (DCOMP) in PATMOS-x  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the daytime cloud optical and microphysical properties (DCOMP) retrieval for the Pathfinder Atmosphere’s Extended (PATMOS-x) climate dataset. Within PATMOS-x, DCOMP is applied to observations from the Advanced Very High ...

Andi Walther; Andrew K. Heidinger

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Cu2Sb thin film electrodes prepared by pulsed laser deposition f or lithium batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thin films of Cu2Sb, prepared on stainless steel and copper substrates with a pulsed laser deposition technique at room temperature, have been evaluated as electrodes in lithium cells. The electrodes operate by a lithium insertion/copper extrusion reaction mechanism, the reversibility of which is superior when copper substrates are used, particularly when electrochemical cycling is restricted to the voltage range 0.65-1.4 V vs. Li/Li+. The superior performance of Cu2Sb films on copper is attributed to the more active participation of the extruded copper in the functioning of the electrode. The continual and extensive extrusion of copper on cycling the cells leads to the isolation of Li3Sb particles and a consequent formation of Sb. Improved cycling stability of both types of electrodes was obtained when cells were cycled between 0.65 and 1.4 V. A low-capacity lithium-ion cell with Cu2Sb and LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 electrodes, laminated from powders, shows excellent cycling stability over the voltage range 3.15 - 2.2 V, the potential difference corresponding to approximately 0.65-1.4 V for the Cu2Sb electrode vs. Li/Li+. Chemical self-discharge of lithiated Cu2Sb electrodes by reaction with the electrolyte was severe when cells were allowed to relax on open circuit after reaching a lower voltage limit of 0.1 V. The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formed on Cu2Sb electrodes after cells had been cycled between 1.4 and 0.65 V vs. Li/Li+ was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy; the SEI layer contributes to the large irreversible capacity loss on the initial cycle of these cells. The data contribute to a better understanding of the electrochemical behavior of intermetallic electrodes in rechargeable lithium batteries.

Song, Seung-Wan; Reade, Ronald P.; Cairns, Elton J.; Vaughey, Jack T.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Striebel, Kathryn A.

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Ab-Initio Determination of Novel Crystal Structures of the Thermoelectric Material MgAgSb  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Materials with the half-Heusler structure possess interesting electrical and magnetic properties, including potential for thermoelectric applications. MgAgSb is compositionally and structurally related to many half-Heusler materials, but has not been extensively studied. This work presents the high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis of MgAgSb between 27 and 420 C, complemented with thermoelectric property measurements. MgAgSb is found to exist in three different structures in this temperature region, taking the half-Heusler structure at high temperatures, a Cu2Sb-related structure at intermediate temperatures, and a previously unreported tetragonal structure at room temperature. All three structures are related by a distorted Mg-Sb rocksalt-type sublattice, differing primarily in the Ag location among the available tetrahedral sites. Transition temperatures between the three phases correlate well with discontinuities in the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity; the best performance occurs with the novel room temperature phase. For application of MgAgSb as a thermoelectric material, it may be desirable to develop methods to stabilize the room temperature phase at higher temperatures.

Kirkham, Melanie J [ORNL; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F [ORNL; Rawn, Claudia J [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; Sharp, Jeff W. [Marlow Industries, Inc; Thompson, Alan [Marlow Industries, Inc

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Sb(III) and Sb(V) Sorption onto Al-Rich Phases: Hydrous Al Oxide and the Clay Minerals Kaolinite KGa-1b and Oxidized and Reduced Nontronite NAu-1  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the immobilization of Sb(III) and Sb(V) by Al-rich phases - hydrous Al oxide (HAO), kaolinite (KGa-1b), and oxidized and reduced nontronite (NAu-1) - using batch experiments to determine the uptake capacity and the kinetics of adsorption and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) Spectroscopy to characterize the molecular environment of adsorbed Sb. Both Sb(III) and Sb(V) are adsorbed in an inner-sphere mode on the surfaces of the studied substrates. The observed adsorption geometry is mostly bidentate corner-sharing, with some monodentate complexes. The kinetics of adsorption is relatively slow (on the order of days), and equilibrium adsorption isotherms are best fit using the Freundlich model. The oxidation state of the structural Fe within nontronite affects the adsorption capacity: if the clay is reduced, the adsorption capacity of Sb(III) is slightly decreased, while Sb(V) uptake is increased significantly. This may be a result of the presence of dissolved Fe(II) in the reduced nontronite suspensions or associated with the structural rearrangements in nontronite due to reduction. These research findings indicate that Sb can be effectively immobilized by Al-rich phases. The increase in Sb(V) uptake in response to reducing structural Fe in clay can be important in natural settings since Fe-rich clays commonly go through oxidation-reduction cycles in response to changing redox conditions.

Ilgen, Anastasia G.; Trainor, Thomas P. (Alaska Fairbanks)

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

115

Simulation of Atmospheric Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A spectral atmospheric circulation model is time-integrated for approximately 18 years. The model has a global computational domain and realistic geography and topography. The model undergoes an annual cycle as daily values of seasonally varying ...

Syukuro Manabe; Douglas G. Hahn

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Atmospheric Available Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The total potential energy of the atmosphere is the sum of its internal and gravitational energies. The portion of this total energy available to be converted into kinetic energy is determined relative to an isothermal, hydrostatic, equilibrium ...

Peter R. Bannon

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

An Aerosol Climatology at Kyoto: Observed Local Radiative Forcing and Columnar Optical Properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to evaluate the radiative effect of the atmospheric aerosol at Kyoto, Japan, surface solar irradiance and columnar aerosol optical properties were observed in the period between September 1998 and December 2001. The aerosol optical ...

Takahiro Yabe; Robert Höller; Susumu Tohno; Mikio Kasahara

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Optical keyboard  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optical keyboard includes an optical panel having optical waveguides stacked together. First ends of the waveguides define an inlet face, and opposite ends thereof define a screen. A projector transmits a light beam outbound through the waveguides for display on the screen as a keyboard image. A light sensor is optically aligned with the inlet face for sensing an inbound light beam channeled through the waveguides from the screen upon covering one key of the keyboard image.

Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY); Feichtner, John D. (Fiddletown, CA); Phillips, Thomas E. (San Diego, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Magnetic order near 270 K in mineral and synthetic Mn 2 FeSbO 6 ilmenite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The structural and magnetic properties of Mn 2 FeSbO 6 single-crystalline mineral and ceramic samples synthesized under thermobaric treatment have been investigated

R. Mathieu; S. A. Ivanov; G. V. Bazuev; M. Hudl; P. Lazor; I. V. Solovyev; P. Nordblad

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Structure and Magnetic Properties of Cu3Ni2SbO6 and Cu3Co2SbO6 Delafossites with Honeycomb Lattices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The crystal structures of two Delafossites, Cu3Ni2SbO6 and Cu3Co2SbO6, are determined by high resolution synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. The Ni and Co are ordered with respect to Sb in the layer of edge sharing octahedra, forming magnetic layers with honeycomb geometry. High-resolution electron microscopy confirms ordering, and selected-area electron diffraction patterns identify examples of the stacking polytypes. Low temperature synthetic treatments result in disordered stacking of the layers, but heating just below their melting points results in nearly fully ordered stacking variants. The major variant in both cases is a monoclinic distortion of a 6-layer Delafossite polytype, but a significant amount of a 2-layer polytype is also present for the Ni case. The antiferromagnetic ordering with transitions, at 22.3 and 18.5 K for Ni and Co variants, respectively, is investigated by temperature and field dependent magnetization, as well as specific heat. The sharp magnetic transitions support the presence of well developed 2:1 ordering of the Co:Sb or Ni:Sb ions in the honeycomb layers. Neutron diffraction measurements at 4 K are used to determine the magnetic structures. For both the Ni and Co phases, the propagation vector is k = [100], and can be described as alternating ferromagnetic chains in the metal-oxide plane giving an overall antiferromagntic zigzag alignment. While orientation of the magnetic moments of the Co is along the b-axis, the Ni moments are in the ac plane, approximately parallel to the stacking direction. Bulk magnetization properties are discussed in terms of their magnetic structures.

Roudebush, J. H. [Princeton University; Andersen, N. [Technical University of Denmark; Ramlau, R. [Max Planck Institute for the Chemical Physics of Solids; Garlea, Vasile O [ORNL; Toft-Petersen, R. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin; Norby, P. [Technical University of Denmark; Schneider, R. [Laboratory for Electron Microscopy, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology; Hay, J. N. [Princeton University; Cava, R J [Princeton University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric optics sb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Optical humidity sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optical dielectric humidity sensor is disclosed which includes a dielectric mirror having multiple alternating layers of two porous water-adsorbent dielectric materials with differing indices of refraction carried by a translucent substrate. A narrow-band polarized light source is positioned to direct light energy onto the mirror, and detectors are positioned to receive light energy transmitted through and reflected by the mirror. A ratiometer indicates humidity in the atmosphere which surrounds the dielectric mirror as a function of a ratio of light energies incident on the detectors. 2 figs.

Tarvin, J.A.

1987-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

122

Optical humidity sensor  

SciTech Connect

An optical dielectric humidity sensor which includes a dielectric mirror having multiple alternating layers of two porous water-adsorbent dielectric materials with differing indices of refraction carried by a translucent substrate. A narrow-band polarized light source is positioned to direct light energy onto the mirror, and detectors are positioned to receive light energy transmitted through and reflected by the mirror. A ratiometer indicates humidity in the atmosphere which surrounds the dielectric mirror as a function of a ratio of light energies incident on the detectors.

Tarvin, Jeffrey A. (Ann Arbor, MI)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Resistivity During Boiling in the SB-15-D Core from the Geysers Geothermal Field: The Effects of Capillarity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In a laboratory study of cores from borehole SB-15-D in The Geysers geothermal area, we measured the electrical resistivity of metashale with and without pore-pressure control, with confining pressures up to 100 bars and temperatures between 20 and 150 C, to determine how the pore-size distribution and capillarity affected boiling. We observed a gradual increase in resistivity when the downstream pore pressure or confining pressure decreased below the phase boundary of free water. For the conditions of this experiment, boiling, as indicated by an increase in resistivity, is initiated at pore pressures of approximately 0.5 to 1 bar (0.05 to 0.1 MPa) below the free-water boiling curve, and it continues to increase gradually as pressure is lowered to atmospheric. A simple model of the effects of capillarity suggests that at 145 C, less than 15% of the pore water can boil in these rocks. If subsequent experiments bear out these preliminary observations, then boiling within a geothermal reservoir is controlled not just by pressure and temperature but also by pore-size distribution. Thus, it may be possible to determine reservoir characteristics by monitoring changes in electrical resistivity as reservoir conditions change.

Roberts, J.; Duba, A.; Bonner, B.; Kasameyer, P.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Absorption of Visible Radiation by Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Fog and Cloud Water Residues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Light absorption by samples of atmospheric aerosol particles as a function of size was studied using the integrating sphere method. In addition, the optical properties of fog and cloud-water residues were determined. The samples were taken at two ...

Karl Andre; Ralph Dlugi; Gottfried Schnatz

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Radiative Effects of Airborne Dust on Regional Energy Budgets at the Top of the Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of dust on the radiative energy budget at the top of the atmosphere were investigated using model calculations and measurements from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). Estimates of the dust optical depth were made from ...

Steven A. Ackerman; Hyosang Chung

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Two-Dimensional Radiative Transfer in Cloudy Atmospheres: The Spherical Harmonic Spatial Grid Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new two-dimensional monochromatic method that computes the transfer of solar or thermal radiation through atmospheres with arbitrary optical properties is described. The model discretizes the radiative transfer equation by expanding the angular ...

K. Franklin Evans

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Element-specific study of the temperature dependent magnetization of Co-Mn-Sb thin films  

SciTech Connect

Magnetron sputtered thin Co-Mn-Sb films were investigated with respect to their element-specific magnetic properties. Stoichiometric Co{sub 1}Mn{sub 1}Sb{sub 1} crystallized in the C1{sub b} structure has been predicted to be half-metallic and is therefore of interest for spintronics applications. It should show a characteristic antiferromagnetic coupling of the Mn and Co magnetic moments and a transition temperature T{sub C} of about 480K. Although the observed transition temperature of our 20nm thick Co{sub 32.4}Mn{sub 33.7}Sb{sub 33.8}, Co{sub 37.7}Mn{sub 34.1}Sb{sub 28.2} and Co{sub 43.2}Mn{sub 32.6}Sb{sub 24.2} films is in quite good agreement with the expected value, we found a ferromagnetic coupling of the Mn and Co magnetic moments which indicates that the films do not crystallize in the C1{sub b} structure and are probably not fully spin-polarized. The ratio of the Co and Mn moments does not change up to the transition temperature and the temperature dependence of the magnetic moments can be well described by the mean field theory.

Schmalhorst, J.; Ebke, D.; Meinert, M.; Thomas, A.; Reiss, G.; Arenholz, E.

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

128

Performance Study of K2CsSb Photocathode Inside a DC High Voltage Gun  

SciTech Connect

In the past decade, there has been considerable interest in the generation of tens of mA average current in a photoinjector. Until recently, GaAs:Cs cathodes and K{sub 2}CsSb cathodes have been tested successfully in DC and RF injectors respectively for this application. Our goal is to test the K{sub 2}CsSb photocathode inside a DC gun. Since the multialkali cathode is a compound with constant characteristics over its entire thickness, we anticipate that the lifetime issues seen in GaAs:Cs due to surface damage by ion bombardment would be minimized. Hence successful operation of the K{sub 2}CsSb cathode in a DC gun could lead to a relatively robust electron source capable of delivering ampere level currents. In order to test the performance of a K{sub 2}CsSb cathode in a DC gun, we have designed and built a load lock system that allows the fabrication of the cathode at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) and its testing at Jefferson Lab (JLab). In this paper, we will present the performance of the K{sub 2}CsSb photocathode in the preparation chamber and in the DC gun.

McCarter J. L.; Rao T.; Smedley, J.; Grames, J.; Mammei, R.; Poelker, M.; Suleiman, R.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Lattice-registered growth of GaSb on Si (211) with molecular beam epitaxy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A GaSb film was grown on a Si(211) substrate using molecular beam epitaxy indicating full lattice relaxation as well as full lattice registration and dislocation-free growth in the plane perpendicular to the [01 - 1]-direction. Heteroepitaxy of GaSb on a Si(211) substrate is dominated by numerous first order and multiple higher order micro-twins. The atomic-resolved structural study of GaSb films by high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy reveals that slight tilt, along with twinning, favors the lattice registry to Si(211) substrates. Preferential bonding of impinging Ga and Sb atoms at the interface due to two distinctive bonding sites on the Si(211) surface enables growth that is sublattice-ordered and free of anti-phase boundaries. The role of the substrate orientation on the strain distribution of GaSb epilayers is further elucidated by investigating the local change in the lattice parameter using the geometric phase analysis method and hence effectiveness of the lattice tilting in reducing the interfacial strain was confirmed further.

Hosseini Vajargah, S.; Botton, G. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Ghanad-Tavakoli, S. [Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Preston, J. S.; Kleiman, R. N. [Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

THERMALLY DRIVEN ATMOSPHERIC ESCAPE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurately determining the escape rate from a planet's atmosphere is critical for determining its evolution. A large amount of Cassini data is now available for Titan's upper atmosphere and a wealth of data is expected within the next decade on escape from Pluto, Mars, and extra-solar planets. Escape can be driven by upward thermal conduction of energy deposited well below the exobase, as well as by nonthermal processes produced by energy deposited in the exobase region. Recent applications of a model for escape driven by upward thermal conduction, called the slow hydrodynamic escape model, have resulted in surprisingly large loss rates for the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. Based on a molecular kinetic simulation of the exobase region, these rates appear to be orders of magnitude too large. Therefore, the slow hydrodynamic model is evaluated here. It is shown that such a model cannot give a reliable description of the atmospheric temperature profile unless it is coupled to a molecular kinetic description of the exobase region. Therefore, the present escape rates for Titan and Pluto must be re-evaluated using the atmospheric model described here.

Johnson, Robert E., E-mail: rej@virginia.ed [Engineering Physics, Thornton Hall B102, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22902 (United States); Physics Department, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

2010-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

131

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric pressure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

pressure pressure ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric pressure The pressure exerted by the atmosphere as a consequence of gravitational attraction exerted upon the "column" of air lying directly above the point in question. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments SONDE : Balloon-Borne Sounding System CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System

132

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

temperature temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric temperature The temperature indicated by a thermometer exposed to the air in a place sheltered from direct solar radiation. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AERI : Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer SONDE : Balloon-Borne Sounding System CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System

133

Article Atmospheric Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

© The Author(s) 2012. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com csb.scichina.com www.springer.com/scp © The Author(s) 2012. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com csb.scichina.com www.springer.com/scp *Corresponding author (email: luchunsong110@gmail.com) Article Atmospheric Science February 2013 Vol.58 No.4-5: 545  551 doi: 10.1007/s11434-012-5556-6 A method for distinguishing and linking turbulent entrainment mixing and collision-coalescence in stratocumulus clouds LU ChunSong 1,2* , LIU YanGang 2 & NIU ShengJie 1 1 Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Physics and Environment of China Meteorological Administration, Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China; 2 Atmospheric Sciences Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York 11973, USA

134

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric moisture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

moisture moisture ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric moisture The moisture content of the air as indicated by several measurements including relative humidity, specific humidity, dewpoint, vapor pressure, water vapor mixing ratio, and water vapor density; note that precipitable water is a separate type. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AERI : Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer

135

BNL | Atmospheric Systems Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric System Research is a DOE observation-based research program Atmospheric System Research is a DOE observation-based research program created to advance process-level understanding of the key interactions among aerosols, clouds, precipitation, radiation, dynamics, and thermodynamics, with the ultimate goal of reducing the uncertainty in global and regional climate simulations and projections. General areas of research at BNL under this program include studies of aerosol and cloud lifecycles, and cloud-aerosol-precipitation interactions. Contact Robert McGraw, 631.344.3086 aerosols Aerosol Life Cycle The strategic focus of the Aerosol Life Cycle research is observation-based process science-examining the properties and evolution of atmospheric aerosols. Observations come from both long-term studies conducted by the

136

Structural Characterization of Doped GaSb Single Crystals by X-ray Topography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We characterized GaSb single crystals containing different dopants (Al, Cd and Te), grown by the Czochralski method, by x-ray topography and high angular resolution x-ray diffraction. Lang topography revealed dislocations parallel and perpendicular to the crystal's surface. Double-crystal GaSb 333 x-ray topography shows dislocations and vertical stripes than can be associated with circular growth bands. We compared our high-angular resolution x-ray diffraction measurements (rocking curves) with the findings predicted by the dynamical theory of x-ray diffraction. These measurements show that our GaSb single crystals have a relative variation in the lattice parameter ({Delta}d/d) on the order of 10{sup -5}. This means that they can be used as electronic devices (detectors, for example) and as x-ray monochromators.

Honnicke, M.G.; Mazzaro, I.; Manica, J.; Benine, E.; M da Costa, E.; Dedavid, B. A.; Cusatis, C.; Huang, X. R.

2009-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

137

Spiral growth of topological insulator Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanoplates  

SciTech Connect

Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanoplates synthesized by vapor phase deposition method have been systemically investigated employing atomic force microscopy, which exhibit regular spiral structures on the surface. The height of spiral steps is determined to be 1 nm corresponding to one quintuple layer, with an inter-step separation ranging from 500 nm to 1 {mu}m. Growth mechanism of spiral structures on the Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanoplate surface is elucidated, which can be applied to other layered materials with van der Waals epitaxy growth. The electrostatic properties of Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanoplates with spiral structures are also simultaneously characterized.

Hao Guolin; Qi Xiang; Fan Yinping; Xue Lin; Peng Xiangyang; Wei Xiaolin; Zhong Jianxin [Hunan Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China) and Laboratory for Quantum Engineering and Micro-Nano Energy Technology and Faculty of Materials and Optoelectronic Physics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)] [Hunan Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China) and Laboratory for Quantum Engineering and Micro-Nano Energy Technology and Faculty of Materials and Optoelectronic Physics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

2013-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

138

Thermoelectric performance of electron and hole doped PtSb2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate the thermoelectric properties of electron and hole doped PtSb2. Our results show that for doping of 0.04 holes per unit cell (1:5 1020 cm 3) PtSb2 shows a high Seebeck coefficient at room temperature, which can also be achieved at other temperatures by controlling the carrier concentration (both electron and hole). The electrical conductivity becomes temperature independent when the doping exceeds some 0.2 electrons/holes per unit cell. The figure of merit at 800 K in electron and hole doped PtSb2 is comparatively low at 0.13 and 0.21, respectively, but may increase significantly with As alloying due to the likely opening of a band gap and reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity

Saeed, Yasir [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Singh, Nirprenda [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Schwingenschlogl, Udo [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Parker, David S [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Electron Scattering in InSb Quantum Wells due to Micro-twin Defects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transport electron scattering due to micro-twin (MT) defects in InSb quantum wells (QWs) has been investigated at room temperature (RT). A linear-regression-based scattering analysis showed that Matthiessen's rule is applicable to the RT electron mobility in 20-nm-thick InSb QWs that contain MTs (whose density is 5.6x10{sup 2}-1.2x10{sup 4} /cm) and threading dislocations (8.7x10{sup 8}-3.2x10{sup 9} /cm{sup 2}) as dominant structural defects. For such an InSb QW whose local electron mobility in its non-MT regions is 2.8x10{sup 4}-4.5x10{sup 4} cm{sup 2}/(Vs), the MT-originated energy barrier against the electron transport is deduced to be 0.081-0.093 eV at RT.

Mishima, T. D.; Santos, M. B. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Center for Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructure University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

2011-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

140

Cu2Sb thin films as anode for Na-ion batteries  

SciTech Connect

Cu2Sb thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering are evaluated as an anode material for Na-ion batteries. The starting material is composed of nanocrystallites with the desired tetragonal P4/nmm structure. The study of the reaction mechanism reveals the formation of an amorphous/nanocrystalline phase of composition close to Na3Sb as the final reaction product. The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) material is mostly composed of carbonates (Na2CO3, NaCO3R). The Cu2Sb anode possesses moderate capacity retention with a reversible storage capacity (250 mAh/g) close to the theoretical value (323 mAh/g), an average reaction potential of around 0.55 V vs. Na/Na+, and a high rate performance (10 C-rate).

Baggetto, Loic [ORNL; Allcorn, Eric [University of Texas, Austin; Manthiram, Arumugam [University of Texas, Austin; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric optics sb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

OPTICS 5  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

OPTICS (Version 5.1.02) OPTICS (Version 5.1.02) Release notes NOTE: See the Optics Knowledge Base for how to run this version of Optics on the Microsoft Vista and Microsoft Windows 7 operating systems March 5, 2003: Release Maintenance Pack 2 New ! January 7, 2003: Release Maintenance Pack 1 October 23, 2002: Release Optics 5.1.01 September 27, 2002: Release Optics 5.1.00 (only released on CDs at NFRC Annual Fall Meeting) Release notes Maintenance Pack 2 Bug fixes: New features: bullet Applied films that were created could not be saved or exported. This has been fixed. bullet Exporting glazing systems generated a message that the operation failed because the glazing system type is unknown. Glazing systems can now be exported to file (e.g. to view the spectral data), but the structure information will be lost.

142

Adhesion effect of interface layers on pattern fabrication with GeSbTe as laser thermal lithography film  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Adhesion of pattern structures is a very important issue in laser thermal lithography. In this paper, Si"3N"4 and ZnS-SiO"2 were investigated as interface layers to improve patterns' adhesion to substrate on pattern fabrication with Ge"2Sb"2Te"5 as laser ... Keywords: Adhesion, GeSbTe, Interface layers, Thermal lithography, Thin films, Wet etching

Changmeng Deng; Yongyou Geng; Yiqun Wu; Yang Wang; Jinsong Wei

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

The Crystallization Behavior of Stochiometric and Off-stochiometric Ga-Sb-Te Materials for Phase-Change Memory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The stoichiometric Ga{sub 4}Sb{sub 6}Te{sub 3} and Ga-Sb materials were systematically studied. The alloy Ga{sub 4}Sb{sub 6}Te{sub 3} shows a fast crystallization speed, very high crystallization temperature, T{sub x}, and high electrical contrast. Although stoichiometric GaSb has similar performance and even faster crystallization speed, the electrical contrast is much lower. The other off-stoichiometric compounds we studied all have higher T{sub x} than Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} indicating a good amorphous stability. By raising the Sb/Te ratio with GaSb incorporation, T{sub x} and the recrystallization time of melt-quenched, amorphous samples can be effectively increased. The stoichiometric Ga{sub 4}Sb{sub 6}Te{sub 3} with less likelihood of phase-segregation compared to nonstoichiometric compounds is a promising candidate for phase-change memory.

H Cheng; S Raoux; J Jordan-Sweet

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

144

Optical engineering  

SciTech Connect

The Optical Engineering thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was created in the summer of 1996 with the following main objectives: (1) to foster and stimulate leading edge optical engineering research and efforts key to carrying out LLNL's mission and enabling major new programs; (2) to bring together LLNL's broad spectrum of high level optical engineering expertise to support its programs. Optical engineering has become a pervasive and key discipline, with applications across an extremely wide range of technologies, spanning the initial conception through the engineering refinements to enhance revolutionary application. It overlaps other technologies and LLNL engineering thrust areas.

Saito, T T

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Precomputed atmospheric scattering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a new and accurate method to render the atmosphere in real time from any viewpoint from ground level to outer space, while taking Rayleigh and Mie multiple scattering into account. Our method reproduces many effects of the scattering of light, ...

Eric Bruneton; Fabrice Neyret

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Great thermoelectric power factor enhancement of CoSb{sub 3} through the lightest metal element filling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lithium, the lightest metal element with a small ionic radius, is successfully filled into the voids of CoSb{sub 3} by utilizing the high pressure synthesis technique. The synthesized Li{sub 0.4}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} shows the largest thermoelectric power factor of 6000 {mu}W m{sup -1} K{sup -2} among all elemental filled CoSb{sub 3} materials. This significantly enhanced thermoelectric power factor is attributed to the large carrier mobility of Li{sub 0.4}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}, 61 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, featuring a good electron crystal property for the Li-filled CoSb{sub 3} samples.

Zhang Jianjun; Xu Bo; Wang Limin; Yu Dongli; Liu Zhongyuan; He Julong; Tian Yongjun [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004 (China)

2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

147

Microstructural stability in LPE Ga{sub x}In{sub (1{minus}x)}As{sub y}Sb{sub (1{minus}y)}/GaSb heterostructures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The morphological and structural characteristics associated with the growth of lattice matched In{sub x}Ga{sub (1{minus}x)}As{sub y}Sb{sub (1{minus}y)}/GaSb (100) heterostructures is presented. The experiments focused on studying the effect of growth on vicinal surfaces tilted from the exact (100) orientation as well as variations in epilayer chemistry. It was found that variations in these process parameters had very strong effects on both the nucleation characteristics of the epilayer and the atomistic scale homogeneity of the alloy. The <100> and <110> variants in compositional modulation/phase separation were detected, as well as the evolution of weak (110) ordering. These results are discussed in the context of other studies on phase stability in III-V epitaxial structures, especially in terms of surface reconstruction and kinetic effects near conditions of spinodal decomposition.

Chen, C.Y.; Bucklen, V.; Rajan, K. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Freeman, M.; Cardines, R.P. [Lockheed-Martin, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Integrated Column Description An Integrated Column Description of the Atmosphere An Integrated Column Description of the Atmosphere Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Pacific Northwest National Laboratory The "other" Washington ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Credits to Credits to * Ric Cederwall * Xiquan Dong * Chuck Long * Jay Mace * Mark Miller * Robin Perez * Dave Turner and the rest of the ARM science team * Ric Cederwall * Xiquan Dong * Chuck Long * Jay Mace * Mark Miller * Robin Perez * Dave Turner and the rest of the ARM science team ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Outline Outline * A little philosophy

149

Hydrostatic Adjustment in Nonisothermal Atmospheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The author examines hydrostatic adjustment due to heating in two nonisothermal atmospheres. In the first case both the temperature and lapse rate decrease with height; in the second case the atmosphere consists of a troposphere with constant ...

Dean G. Duffy

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

A novel approach for the improvement of open circuit voltage and fill factor of InGaAsSb/GaSb thermophotovoltaic cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Heterojunction n-Al{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}As{sub 0.02}Sb{sub 098}/p-In{sub 0.16}Ga{sub 0.84}As{sub 0.04}Sb{sub 0.96} thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on n-GaSb-substrates. In the spectral range from 1 {micro}m to 2.1 {micro}m these cells, as well as homojunction n-p-In{sub 0.16}Ga{sub 0.84}As{sub 0.04}Sb{sub 0.96} cells, have demonstrated internal quantum efficiencies exceeding 80%, despite about a 200 meV barrier in the conduction band at the heterointerface. Estimation shows that the thermal emission of the electrons photogenerated in p-region over this barrier can provide high efficiency for hetero-cells if the electron recombination time in p-In{sub 0.16}Ga{sub 0.84}As{sub 0.04}Sb{sub 0.96}is longer than 10 ns. Keeping the same internal efficiency as homojunction cells, hetero-cells provide a unique opportunity to decrease the dark forward current and thereby increase open circuit voltage (V{sub {proportional_to}}) and fill factor at a given illumination level. It is shown that the decrease of the forward current in hetero-cells is due to the lower recombination rate in n-type wider-bandgap space-charge region and to the suppression of the hole component of the forward current. The improvement in V{sub {proportional_to}} reaches 100% at illumination level equivalent to 1 mA/cm{sup 2} and it decreases to 5% at the highest illumination levels (2--3 A/cm{sup 2}), where the electron current component dominates in both the homo- and heterojunction cells. Values of V{sub {proportional_to}} as high as 310 meV have been obtained for a hetero-cell at illumination levels of 3 A/cm{sup 2}. Under this condition, the expected fill factor value is about 72% for a hetero-cell with improved series resistance. The heterojunction concept provides excellent prospects for further reduction of the dark forward current in TPV cells.

Garbuzov, D.Z.; Martinelli, R.U.; Khalfin, V.; Lee, H.; Morris, N.A.; Taylor, G.C.; Connolly, J.C. [Sarnoff Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States); Charache, G.W.; DePoy, D.M. [Lockheed-Martin, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric turbulence  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

turbulence turbulence ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric turbulence High frequency velocity fluctuations that lead to turbulent transport of momentum, heat, mositure, and passive scalars, and often expressed in terms of variances and covariances. Categories Atmospheric State, Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System

152

Differential atmospheric tritium sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The mixture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H.sub.2 or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

Griesbach, Otto A. (Langhorne, PA); Stencel, Joseph R. (Skillman, NJ)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability  

SciTech Connect

The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual atmospheric release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 Department of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years.

Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

UCOP Office of Research SB 13 Notice October 10, 2005 Page 1 FACT SHEET: Chaptered Legislation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

research proposals before state agencies are permitted to disclose personal information to researchers. I identifiable data from California state agencies; · UC officials who work with researchers on data security? · SB 13 places new restrictions on the circumstances under which state agencies are permitted

Russell, Lynn

155

Structural evolution and characterization of heteroepitaxial GaSb thin films on Si(111) substrates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the structural evolution and characterization of heteroepitaxial GaSb thin films on Si(111) substrates. The growth process used a combination of atomic sources which included the rf sputtering of Sb and the thermal effusion of Ga. The formation of crystalline GaSb thin films required that initially a monolayer thick Sb buffer layer be applied directly to a clean H-passivated Si(111) substrate surface. The resulting film was characterized by high resolution x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM images were taken from the material after several periods of growth to determine the evolution of crystal structure with thickness. Atomic force microscopy images of the film surface showed that the heteroepitaxial layers were formed via the Stranski-Krastanov growth mechanism. This result is consistent with the heteroepitaxial growth of systems representing large differences in lattice constant. The hole mobility and carrier concentration in the deposited material were determined by the Hall measurement, performed at room temperature and on a 140 nm thick sample, to be 66 cm{sup 2}/V sec and 3x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, respectively. The carrier mobility was relatively low as expected for measurements taken at room temperature.

Nguyen, Thang; Varhue, Walter; Cross, Michael; Pino, Robinson; Adams, Edward; Lavoie, Mark; Lee, Jaichan [School of Engineering, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405 (United States); IBM Corporation, Essex Junction, Vermont 05452 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sung Kyun Kwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Atmospheric Mercury Research Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is a summary and analysis of research findings on utility and environmental mercury from 1997 to 2003. The update categorizes and describes recent work on mercury in utility-burned coal and its route through power plants, the measures for its control, and its fate in the environment following emissions from utility stacks. This fate includes atmospheric chemistry and transport, deposition to land and water surfaces, aquatic cycling, the dynamics of mercury in freshwater fish food webs, and th...

2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

157

ATMOSPHERIC RETRIEVAL FOR SUPER-EARTHS: UNIQUELY CONSTRAINING THE ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION WITH TRANSMISSION SPECTROSCOPY  

SciTech Connect

We present a retrieval method based on Bayesian analysis to infer the atmospheric compositions and surface or cloud-top pressures from transmission spectra of exoplanets with general compositions. In this study, we identify what can unambiguously be determined about the atmospheres of exoplanets from their transmission spectra by applying the retrieval method to synthetic observations of the super-Earth GJ 1214b. Our approach to inferring constraints on atmospheric parameters is to compute their joint and marginal posterior probability distributions using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique in a parallel tempering scheme. A new atmospheric parameterization is introduced that is applicable to general atmospheres in which the main constituent is not known a priori and clouds may be present. Our main finding is that a unique constraint of the mixing ratios of the absorbers and two spectrally inactive gases (such as N{sub 2} and primordial H{sub 2}+ He) is possible if the observations are sufficient to quantify both (1) the broadband transit depths in at least one absorption feature for each absorber and (2) the slope and strength of the molecular Rayleigh scattering signature. A second finding is that the surface pressure or cloud-top pressure can be quantified if a surface or cloud deck is present at low optical depth. A third finding is that the mean molecular mass can be constrained by measuring either the Rayleigh scattering slope or the shapes of the absorption features, thus enabling one to distinguish between cloudy hydrogen-rich atmospheres and high mean molecular mass atmospheres. We conclude, however, that without the signature of molecular Rayleigh scattering-even with robustly detected infrared absorption features (>10{sigma})-there is no reliable way to tell from the transmission spectrum whether the absorber is a main constituent of the atmosphere or just a minor species with a mixing ratio of X{sub abs} < 0.1%. The retrieval method leads us to a conceptual picture of which details in transmission spectra are essential for unique characterizations of well-mixed exoplanet atmospheres.

Benneke, Bjoern; Seager, Sara, E-mail: bbenneke@mit.edu [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

158

Crystal structure and chemical bonding of the intermetallic Zintl phase Yb[subscript 11]AlSb[subscript 9  

SciTech Connect

High resolution single crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction data measured at 15(2) K were used to solve the structure of the complex intermetallic Zintl phase, Yb{sub 11}AlSb{sub 9} (space group Iba2), made up of Yb cations and polyanions along with isolated Sb anions. The 15(2) K cell parameters are a = 11.7383(4) {angstrom}, b = 12.3600(4) {angstrom}, c = 16.6796(6) {angstrom}. The temperature dependence of the structure was investigated through high resolution synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) data measured from 90 K to 1000 K. Rietveld refinements of the crystal structure revealed near linear thermal expansion of Yb{sub 11}AlSb{sub 9} with expansion coefficients of 1.49(2) x 10{sup -5} K{sup -1}, 1.71(3) x 10{sup -5} K{sup -1}, 1.13(1) x 10{sup -5} K{sup -1} for a, b and c, respectively. The chemical bonding in Yb{sub 11}AlSb{sub 9} was analyzed using atomic Hirshfeld surfaces, and the analysis supports the presence of the structural elements of Yb cations, [AlSb{sub 4}]{sup 9-} tetrahedra, [Sb{sub 2}]{sup 4-} dimers and isolated Sb{sup 3-} anions. However, indications of interatomic interactions between the Zintl anions and the Yb cations were also observed.

Kastbjerg, Sofie; Uvarov, Catherine A.; Kauzlarich, Susan M.; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Nishibori, Eiji; Spackman, Mark A.; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt (Aarhus); (UWA); (UCD); (UC); (Nagoya)

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

159

ARM - Measurement - Cloud optical depth  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

optical depth optical depth ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud optical depth Amount of light cloud droplets or ice particles prevent from passing through a column of atmosphere. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. External Instruments GOES : Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites Field Campaign Instruments EC-CONVAIR580-BULK : Environment Canada Convair 580 Bulk Parameters GOES : Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites

160

ORISE: Climate and Atmospheric Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Climate and Atmospheric Research Climate and Atmospheric Research Capabilities Overview U.S. Climate Reference Network U.S. Historical Climate Network Contact Us Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education Climate and Atmospheric Research The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) partners with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (ATDD) to conduct climate research focused on issues of national and global importance. Research is performed with personnel support from ORISE's Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification (IEAV) programs, as well as in collaboration with scientists and engineers from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and numerous other organizations, government agencies, universities and private research institutions.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric optics sb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Atmospheric attenuation of solar radiation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The attenuation of solar radiation by the atmosphere between the heliostat and receiver of a Central Receiver solar energy system has been computed for a number of atmospheric conditions and tower-heliostat distances. The most important atmospheric variable is found to be the atmospheric aerosol content. No dependence of atmospheric water vapor is found and only a weak dependence on solar zenith angle. For a 500 m heliostat-tower distance two to four percent reductions are expected under typical desert conditions (50 to 120 km visibility). The reduction is approximately linear with heliostat-tower distance. A representative value of the attenuation coefficient is 0.051 km/sup -1/.

Randall, C.M.

1977-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

162

NIST Optical Radiation Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optical Radiation Group. Welcome. The Optical Radiation Group maintains, improves, and disseminates the national scales ...

2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

163

Anthropogenic NO2 in the Atmosphere: Estimates of the Column Content and Radiative Forcing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Anthropogenic NO Anthropogenic NO 2 in the Atmosphere: Estimates of the Column Content and Radiative Forcing A. N. Rublev Institution of Molecular Physics Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute Moscow, Russia N Chubarova Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University Moscow, Russia G. Gorchakov Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow, Russia Introduction The work summarizes the different methodical aspects, firstly, the use of atmosphere optical depths presented in Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data for NO 2 column retrievals, and, secondly, its radiative forcing calculated as difference between integral solar fluxes absorbed in the atmosphere with and without NO 2 under given air mass or the sun zenith angle.

164

Hierardlicsl Diagnosis V. V. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the time dependencies of the 03 and CO2 concentrations measured with the use of the gas analyzer "Tral," Positive correlation is evident in the behavior of these greenhouse...

165

Optical detection of atmospheric 238U decay products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current and proposed programs involving aerial survey of uranium resources require remote sensing of 238U decay products with high sensitivity. In this paper

Jerry E. Solomon

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

PNNL: FCSD: Atmospheric Sciences & Global Change: Programs &...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Programs & Facilities Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and ARM Climate Research Facility ARM Aerial Facility Environmental...

167

Improved Normalization of the Size Distribution of Atmospheric Particles Retrieved from Aureole Measurements Using the Diffraction Approximation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes an improvement in the diffraction approximation used to retrieve the size distribution of atmospheric particles from solar aureole radiance measurements. Normalization using total optical thickness based on measurement of the ...

J. G. DeVore

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Practical Atmospheric Correction Algorithms for a Multi-Spectral Sensor From the Visible Through the Thermal Spectral Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deriving information about the Earth's surface requires atmospheric corrections of the measured top-of-the-atmosphere radiances. One possible path is to use atmospheric radiative transfer codes to predict how the radiance leaving the ground is affected by the scattering and attenuation. In practice the atmosphere is usually not well known and thus it is necessary to use more practical methods. The authors will describe how to find dark surfaces, estimate the atmospheric optical depth, estimate path radiance and identify thick clouds using thresholds on reflectance and NDVI and columnar water vapor. The authors describe a simple method to correct a visible channel contaminated by a thin cirrus clouds.

Borel, C.C.; Villeneuve, P.V.; Clodium, W.B.; Szymenski, J.J.; Davis, A.B.

1999-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

169

High pressure transport characteristics of Bi[subscript 2]Te[subscript 3], Sb[subscript 2]Te[subscript 3], and BiSbTe[subscript 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents ambient and high pressure measurements of transport properties of the Bi2Te3-Sb2Te3 series of materials. The electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient have been measured on both end compounds and the direct solid solution of the two at pressure up to 10 GPa. An additional discussion involving the high pressure structure will be presented. From this, it was determined that these materials undergo at least two structural phase transitions between 0 and 20 GPa and a discussion is presented regarding this and the changes in the transport properties.

Jacobsen, M.K.; Sinogeikin, S.V.; Kumar, R.S.; Cornelius, A.L. (UNLV); (CIW)

2012-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

170

AN ANALYTIC RADIATIVE-CONVECTIVE MODEL FOR PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an analytic one-dimensional radiative-convective model of the thermal structure of planetary atmospheres. Our model assumes that thermal radiative transfer is gray and can be represented by the two-stream approximation. Model atmospheres are assumed to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, with a power-law scaling between the atmospheric pressure and the gray thermal optical depth. The convective portions of our models are taken to follow adiabats that account for condensation of volatiles through a scaling parameter to the dry adiabat. By combining these assumptions, we produce simple, analytic expressions that allow calculations of the atmospheric-pressure-temperature profile, as well as expressions for the profiles of thermal radiative flux and convective flux. We explore the general behaviors of our model. These investigations encompass (1) worlds where atmospheric attenuation of sunlight is weak, which we show tend to have relatively high radiative-convective boundaries; (2) worlds with some attenuation of sunlight throughout the atmosphere, which we show can produce either shallow or deep radiative-convective boundaries, depending on the strength of sunlight attenuation; and (3) strongly irradiated giant planets (including hot Jupiters), where we explore the conditions under which these worlds acquire detached convective regions in their mid-tropospheres. Finally, we validate our model and demonstrate its utility through comparisons to the average observed thermal structure of Venus, Jupiter, and Titan, and by comparing computed flux profiles to more complex models.

Robinson, Tyler D. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Catling, David C., E-mail: robinson@astro.washington.edu [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Box 351310, Seattle, WA 98195-1310 (United States)

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

171

Molecular beam epitaxial growth of metamorphic AlInSb/GaInSb high-electron-mobility-transistor structures on GaAs substrates for low power and high frequency applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on molecular beam epitaxial growth of AlInSb/GaInSb metamorphic high-electron-mobility-transistor structures for low power, high frequency applications on 4 in. GaAs substrates. The structures consist of a Ga{sub 0.4}In{sub 0.6}Sb channel embedded in Al{sub 0.4}In{sub 0.6}Sb barrier layers which are grown on top of an insulating metamorphic buffer, which is based on the linear exchange of Ga versus In and a subsequent exchange of As versus Sb. Precise control of group V fluxes and substrate temperature in the Al{sub 0.4}In{sub 0.6}As{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} buffer is essential to achieve high quality device structures. Good morphological properties were achieved demonstrated by the appearance of crosshatching and root mean square roughness values of 2.0 nm. Buffer isolation is found to be >100 k{Omega}/{open_square} for optimized growth conditions. Hall measurements at room temperature reveal electron densities of 2.8x10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} in the channel at mobility values of 21.000 cm{sup 2}/V s for single-sided Te volume doping and 5.4x10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} and 17.000 cm{sup 2}/V s for double-sided Te {delta}-doping, respectively.

Loesch, R.; Aidam, R.; Kirste, L.; Leuther, A. [Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid-State Physics (IAF), Tullastrasse 72, 79108 Freiburg (Germany)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR): Instrument Technology  

SciTech Connect

The Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) combines airborne sun tracking and sky scanning with diffraction spectroscopy, to improve knowledge of atmospheric constituents and their links to air-pollution/climate. Direct beam hyper-spectral measurement of optical depth improves retrievals of gas constituents and determination of aerosol properties. Sky scanning enhances retrievals of aerosol type and size distribution. 4STAR measurements will tighten the closure between satellite and ground-based measurements. 4STAR incorporates a modular sun-tracking/ sky-scanning optical head with fiber optic signal transmission to rack mounted spectrometers, permitting miniaturization of the external optical head, and future detector evolution. Technical challenges include compact optical collector design, radiometric dynamic range and stability, and broad spectral coverage. Test results establishing the performance of the instrument against the full range of operational requirements are presented, along with calibration, engineering flight test, and scientific field campaign data and results.

Dunagan, Stephen; Johnson, Roy; Zavaleta, Jhony; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Flynn, Connor J.; Redemann, Jens; Shinozuka, Yohei; Livingston, J.; Segal Rozenhaimer, Michal

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

173

Optical memory  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

174

Mid-infrared InAs/AlGaSb superlattice quantum-cascade lasers  

SciTech Connect

We report on the demonstration of mid-infrared InAs/AlGaSb superlattice quantum-cascade lasers operating at 10 {mu}m. The laser structures are grown on n-InAs (100) substrate by solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy. An InAs/AlGaSb chirped superlattice structure providing a large oscillator strength and fast carrier depopulation is employed as the active part. The observed minimum threshold current density at 80 K is 0.7 kA/cm{sup 2}, and the maximum operation temperature in pulse mode is 270 K. The waveguide loss of an InAs plasmon waveguide is estimated, and the factors that determine the operation temperature are discussed.

Ohtani, K.; Fujita, K.; Ohno, H. [Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Semiconductor Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan)

2005-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

175

Relating x-ray attenuation measurements to water content and distribution in SB-15D core  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Making improved estimates of the water content of The Geysers reservoir is fundamental to efficient and economic long term production of steam power from the resource. A series of coordinated physical properties measurements form core recovered from the SB-15D, reported in this volume in a series of papers, have been made to better understand water storage and to relate water content and distribution to observable geophysical properties such as electrical conductivity and seismic velocities. A principal objective here is to report new interpretations of x-ray scans made within 72 hours of core recovery from SB-15D, which suggest, taking advantage of preliminary measurements of capillary suction for metagraywacke, that water content was low in much of the preserved core.

Bonner, B.P.; Roberts, J.J.; Schneberk, D.J

1996-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

176

Type-I superconductivity in YbSb2 single crystals  

SciTech Connect

We present evidence of type-I superconductivity in YbSb2 single crystals from dc and ac magnetization, heat capacity, and resistivity measurements. The critical temperature and critical field are determined to be Tc? 1.3 K and Hc? 55 Oe. A small Ginzburg-Landau parameter ?= 0.05, together with typical magnetization isotherms of type-I superconductors, small critical field values, a strong differential paramagnetic effect signal, and a field-induced change from second- to first-order phase transition, confirms the type-I nature of the superconductivity in YbSb2. A possible second superconducting state is observed in the radio-frequency susceptibility measurements, with Tc(2)? 0.41 K and Hc(2)? 430 Oe.

Zhao, Liang L.; Lausberg, Stefan; Kim, Hyunsoo; Tanatar, Makariy A.; Brando, Manuel; Prozorov, Ruslan; Morosan, E.

2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

177

Optical switch  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optical switching device (10) is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber (16) or a second glass fiber (14) may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber (18). Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system (26, 28, 30). In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber (16) is reflected by a planar mirror (36) into the third glass fiber (18). In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber (14) passes directly into the third glass fiber (18). The planar mirror (36) is attached to a rotatable table (32) which is rotated to provide the optical switching.

Reedy, Robert P. (Livermore, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Optical switch  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optical switching device is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber or a second glass fiber may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber. Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system. In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber is reflected by a planar mirror into the third glass fiber. In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber passes directly into the third glass fiber. The planar mirror is attached to a rotatable table which is rotated to provide the optical switching. 3 figs.

Reedy, R.P.

1987-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

179

EMSL: Science: Atmospheric Aerosol Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Atmospheric Aerosol Systems atmospheric logo Nighttime enhancement of nitrogen-containing organic compounds, or NOC Observed nighttime enhancement of nitrogen-containing organic compounds, or NOC, showed evidence of being formed by reactions that transform carbonyls into imines. The Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Science Theme focuses on understanding the chemistry, physics and molecular-scale dynamics of aerosols for model parameterization to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations and develop a predictive understanding of climate. By elucidating the role of natural and anthropogenic regional and global climate forcing mechanisms, EMSL can provide DOE and others with the ability to develop cost-effective strategies to monitor, control and mitigate them.

180

Time-course analysis of the Shewanella amazonensis SB2B proteome in response to sodium chloride shock  

SciTech Connect

Organisms in the genus Shewanella have become models for response to environmental stress. One of the most important environmental stresses is change in osmolarity. In this study, we experimentally determine the response mechanisms of Shewanella amazonensis SB2B during osmotic stress. Osmotic stress in SB2B was induced through exposure to NaCl, and the time-course proteomics response was measured using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Protein trends were qualitatively compared to gene expression trends and to phenotypic characterization. Osmotic stress affects motility, and has also been associated with a change in the membrane fatty acid composition (due to induction of branched chain amino acid degradation pathways); however, we show this is not the case for SB2B. Although proteins and genes involved with branched chain amino acid degradation are induced, fatty acid degradation pathways are not induced and no change in the fatty acid profile occurs in SB2B as a result of osmotic shock. The most extensive response of SB2B over the time course of acclimation to high salt involves an orchestrated sequence of events comprising increased expression of signal transduction associated with motility and restricted cell division and DNA replication. After SB2B has switched to increased branched chain amino acid degradation, motility, and cellular replication proteins return to pre-perturbed levels.

Parnell, John J.; Callister, Stephen J.; Rompato, Giovanni; Nicora, Carrie D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Williamson, Ashley; Pfrender, Michael E.

2011-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric optics sb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. A 3-D chemistry-transport model has been applied to the Mexico City metropolitan area to investigate the origin of elevated levels of non-fossil (NF) carbonaceous aerosols observed in this highly urbanized region. High time resolution measurements of the fine aerosol concentration and composition, and 12 or 24 h integrated 14 C measurements of aerosol modern carbon have been performed in and near Mexico City during the March 2006 MILAGRO field experiment. The non-fossil carbon fraction (fNF), which is lower than the measured modern fraction (fM) due to the elevated 14 C in the atmosphere caused by nuclear bomb testing, is estimated from the measured fM and the source-dependent information on modern carbon enrichment. The fNF contained in PM1 total carbon analyzed by a US team (f TC

unknown authors

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Atmospheric Corrosion Test Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 27   Some marine-atmospheric corrosion test sites around the world...Zealand Phia Marine 0.2 0.12 15.8 2.4 � � � � Greece Rafina Marine 0.2 0.12 13.6 1.0 � � � � Rhodes Marine 0.2 0.12 14.3 1.5 � � � � Netherlands Schagen Marine 2.4 1.5 17.0 2.0 � � � � Spain Almeria � 0.035 0.022 22.4 1.6 � � � � Cartagena � 0.050 0.031 5.2 1.9 � � � � La Coruña � 0.160 0.1 26.2 1.4...

183

Subpicosecond spin relaxation in GaAsSb multiple quantum wells K. C. Hall,a)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Subpicosecond spin relaxation in GaAsSb multiple quantum wells K. C. Hall,a) S. W. Leonard, and H quantum wells are measured at 295 K using time-resolved circular dichroism induced by 1.5 m, 100 fs pulses times shorter than those in InGaAs and InGaAsP wells with similar band gaps. The shorter relaxation

Van Driel, Henry M.

184

Elastic Properties of the Zintl Ferromagnet Yb14MnSb11  

SciTech Connect

We report measurements of the elastic moduli as a function of temperature (5-300) K and magnetic field (0-2 T) for the Zintl ferromagnet Yb{sub 14}MnSb{sub 11}, which is believed to be a rare example of an underscreened Kondo lattice. The elastic moduli measured below the Curie temperature in this complex ferromagnet exhibit unusual lattice stiffening that is independent of the magnetic field and can be adequately modeled using the Landau theory.

Bhattacharya, Sriparna [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Marinescu, D. C. [Clemson University; Morris, James R [ORNL; Sergienko, Ivan A [ORNL; Sales, Brian C [ORNL; Mandrus, D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Keppens, V. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 38 (1995) 207-235 ATMOSPHERIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 38 (1995) 207-235 ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH On the parameterization of ice and water substance mixing ratio fields were only strongly altered by turning off the ice phase of these schemes includes ice processes. But in mid- latitudes and also in tropics the ice phase is an important

Moelders, Nicole

186

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and Atmospheric  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science and Infrastructure Steering Committee CHARTER June 2012 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not

187

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol optical depth  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

depth depth ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol optical depth A measure of how much light aerosols prevent from passing through a column of atmosphere. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments HSRL : High Spectral Resolution Lidar MPL : Micropulse Lidar MFRSR : Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer NIMFR : Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer Field Campaign Instruments AOS-PMFOV : Acoustical Optical Spectrometer-Photometer with Multiple

188

Baiu rainband termination in atmospheric and atmosphere-ocean models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Baiu rainband is a summer rainband stretching from eastern China through Japan towards the Northwest Pacific. The climatological termination of the Baiu rainband is investigated using Japanese 25-year ReAnalysis (JRA25), a stand-alone atmospheric ...

Akira Kuwano-Yoshida; Bunmei Taguchi; Shang-Ping Xie

189

Krypton-85 in the atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurement results are presented on 85Kr content in the atmosphere over the European part of Russia in 1971-1995 based on the analysis of the commercial krypton, which is separated from air by industrial plants. Our results are by 15 per cent lower then 85Kr activites observed over West Europe. According our prediction by 2030 85Kr content in the atmosphere over Europe will amount to 1,5-3 Bq in m3 air. Average 85Kr release to the atmosphere from regeneration of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is estimated, some 180 TBq per a ton SNF. It is advisable to recommence monitoring of 85Kr content within Russia.

A. T. Korsakov; E. G. Tertyshnik

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

190

Krypton-85 in the atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurement results are presented on 85Kr content in the atmosphere over the European part of Russia in 1971-1995 based on the analysis of the commercial krypton, which is separated from air by industrial plants. Our results are by 15 per cent lower then 85Kr activites observed over West Europe. According our prediction by 2030 85Kr content in the atmosphere over Europe will amount to 1,5-3 Bq in m3 air. Average 85Kr release to the atmosphere from regeneration of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is estimated, some 180 TBq per a ton SNF. It is advisable to recommence monitoring of 85Kr content within Russia.

Korsakov, A T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Mountain Forces and the Atmospheric Energy Budget  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although mountains are generally thought to exert forces on the atmosphere, the related transfers of energy between earth and atmosphere are not represented in standard energy equations of the atmosphere. It is shown that the axial rotation of the ...

Joseph Egger

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

The Influence of Chemi-ionization and Recombination Processes on Spectral Line Shapes in Stellar Atmospheres  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, the chemi-ionization processes in atom- Rydberg atom collisions, as well as the corresponding chemi-recombination processes are considered as factors of influence on the atom exited-state populations in weakly ionized layers of stellar atmospheres. The presented results are related to the photospheres of the Sun and some M red dwarfs as well as weakly ionized layers of DB white dwarfs atmospheres. It has been found that the mentioned chemi ionization/recombination processes dominate over the relevant concurrent electron-atom and electron-ion ionization and recombination process in all parts of considered stellar atmospheres. The obtained results demonstrate the fact that the considered chemi ionization/recombination processes must have a very significant influence on the optical properties of the stellar atmospheres. Thus, it is shown that these processes and their importance for non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) modeling of the solar atmospheres should be investigated further.

Mihajlov, Anatolij A; Sreckovic, Vladimir A; Dimitrijevic, Milan S

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

About ÂŤEffectiveÂŽ Height of the Aerosol Atmosphere in Visible and IR Wavelength Range  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

"Effective" Height of the Aerosol Atmosphere in "Effective" Height of the Aerosol Atmosphere in Visible and IR Wavelength Range V. N. Uzhegov, D. M. Kabanov, M. V. Panchenko, Yu. A. Pkhalagov, and S. M. Sakerin Institute of Atmospheric Optics Tomsk, Russia Introduction Aerosol component of the atmosphere is one of the important factors affecting the radiation budget of the space - atmosphere - underlying surface system in visible and infrared (IR) wavelength ranges. It is extremely important to take into account the contribution of this component into the extinction of solar radiation under cloudless sky conditions. Sometimes it is important to know not only the total value of the aerosol component of extinction, but also to have the possibility to estimate the "effective" height of

194

Glossary Term - Composition of the Earth's Atmosphere  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Earth's Atmosphere Source: Definition of the U.S. Standard Atmosphere (1976) CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 77th Edition Gas Formula Abundance percent by volume...

195

A Computational Thermodynamic Analysis of Atmospheric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 1, 2001 ... The vacuum atmosphere is typically 0.1 atm. However, the vacuum atmosphere creates two major problems: air leakage and batch operation to ...

196

The Workshop in Atmospheric Predictability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A workshop on the subject of atmospheric predictability was held during 23-25 April 2001 at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. Of primary concern was the nature of forecast uncertainty due to initial conditionuncertainty of ...

Ronald M. Errico; Rolf Langland; David P. Baumhefner

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

(Chemistry of the global atmosphere)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the conference The Chemistry of the Global Atmosphere,'' and presented a paper on the anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to the atmosphere. The conference included meetings of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) programme, a core project of the International Geosphere/Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and the traveler participated in meetings on the IGAC project Development of Global Emissions Inventories'' and agreed to coordinate the working group on CO{sub 2}. Papers presented at the conference focused on the latest developments in analytical methods, modeling and understanding of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, NMHCs, CFCs, and aerosols.

Marland, G.

1990-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

198

Precursors to atmospheric blocking events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric blocking events disturb synoptic-scale features from their normal eastward progression, causing anomalous weather conditions for the duration of the blocking event. The essence of blocking can be captured by ...

Marino, Garrett P

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Automated Measurements of Atmospheric Visibility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The concept of using a solid-state, linear-array imaging device coupled with computerized scene analysis and display to measure daytime atmospheric visibility is described. Computer software is implemented for routine conversion of observed ...

W. Viezee; W. E. Evans

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

The Navy's Operational Atmospheric Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In January of 1988, significant upgrades were made to the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS). Among these improvements was the implementation of a multivariate optimum interpolation analysis scheme. Since that time, ...

James S. Goerss; Patricia A. Phoebus

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric optics sb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Stochastic Simulation of Atmospheric Trajectories  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods are presented for generating an ensemble of synthetic atmospheric trajectories. These include methods for a set of independent trajectories, and methods for a correlated set of sequential trajectories. The models incorporate first-order ...

Mitchell J. Small; Perry J. Samson

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Atmospheric Water Vapor over China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chinese radiosonde data from 1970 to 1990 are relatively homogeneous in time and are used to examine the climatology, trends, and variability of China’s atmospheric water vapor content. The climatological distribution of precipitable water (PW) ...

Panmao Zhai; Robert E. Eskridge

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Tool development and application: pressure, temperature, spectral gamma ray logging of the SB-15 well  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sandia`s involvement with downhole instrumentation dates from the mid 1970s when work was centered on the development of a high-temperature acoustic borehole televiewer, and the establishment of a list of high- temperature component parts such as resistors, integrated circuits, and sensors. This work evolved into the development of memory logging devices for the US Continental Scientific Drilling Program. These tools were of low cost and very easy to use. Their deployment resulted in scientific advancement in understanding geothermal formations, and a thrust of the current program is to move memory tools from the scientific realm to the commercial environment. The tools developed and utilized in the SB-15 well among other field tests are completely self- contained in that power is obtained from batteries and data are stored in an electronic memory system. Three memory tools form the backbone of the initial Sandia tool suite. Pressure/temperature measurements are necessary for the evaluation of geothermal reservoirs, and they are relatively simple to make. Thus, the initial Sandia program concentrated on such a tool, and it has been successfully used in SB-15. This tool will form the basis for future tools since many engineering principles were proven in its evolution. This pressure/temperature tool combination is very useful in characterizing the geothermal reservoir. Another tool in the Sandia suite measures the natural gamma rays from the formation. This spectral gamma ray tool is useful in defining lithology, paleoflows, and certain clays. SB-15 well logging history and a preliminary interpretation of the data is presented in this report.

Sattler, A.R.; Norman, R.; Henfling, J.A.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Pairing phenomenon in doubly odd neutron rich {sup 136}Sb nucleus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on p-n and n-n pairing gap energies giving by K. Kaneko et al. (2003), we make modifications on the kh5082 interaction. Calculations and study of some nuclear properties for {sup 136}Sb nucleus are developed in the framework of the nuclear shell model by means of OXBASH structure code. We get the same energetic sequence as the recent experimental values of single particle energies. The effective charge values e{sub p}=1.35e and e{sub n}=0.9e, and factors given by V. I. Isakov are used to evaluate multipole electromagnetic moments.

Laouet, N.; Benrachi, F. [Laboratoire de Physique Mathematique et Subatomique Mentouri University, Constantine (Algeria)

2012-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

205

Impact of Precipitation on Aerosol Spectral Optical Depth and Retrieved Size Distributions: A Case Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A case study is presented on the impact of two isolated, strong thundershowers during a prevailing dry, sunny season on the spectral optical depths and inferred columnar size characteristics of atmospheric aerosols at a tropical station. Results ...

Auromeet Saha; K. Krishna Moorthy

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

A Study of Global Aerosol Optical Climatology with Two-Channel AVHRR Remote Sensing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global distributions of the aerosol optical thickness and Ĺngström exponent are estimated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer channel-1 and -2 radiances for four months in 1990. Global ...

Akiko Higurashi; Teruyuki Nakajima; Brent N. Holben; Alexander Smirnov; Robert Frouin; Bernadette Chatenet

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Application of Sun/star photometry to derive the aerosol optical depth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric aerosols play a crucial role in the radiative transfer and chemical processes that control the Earth's climate. Aerosol optical depth and other related aerosol characteristics are widely known during daytime through Sun photometers, and so ...

D. Perez-Ramirez; B. Ruiz; J. Aceituno; F. J. Olmo; L. Alados-Arboledas

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Optical Depth of Overcast Cloud across Canada: Estimates Based on Surface Pyranometer and Satellite Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Overcast cloud optical depths ? are inferred from hourly, broadband surface pyranometer measurements of global irradiance for 21 Canadian stations. A radiative transfer model that treats the atmosphere as plane-parallel and horizontally ...

H. W. Barker; T. J. Curtis; E. Leontieva; K. Stamnes

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Growth of an {alpha}-Sn film on an InSb(111) A-(2x2) surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have investigated the initial growth process of {alpha}-Sn films on the In-terminated InSb(111)A-(2x2) surface using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and high-resolution core-level photoelectron spectroscopy. Taking the LEED observation and the Sn coverage-dependent integrated intensities of the In 4d, Sb 4d, and Sn 4d core-level spectra into account, we conclude that the {alpha}-Sn film grows epitaxially by a bilayer mode and that there is no interdiffusion of the substrate atoms as suggested in the literature. Furthermore, the coverage-dependent In 4d and Sn 4d core levels indicate that the In vacancy site of InSb(111)A-(2x2) surface is not the preferable Sn absorption site.

Kondo, Daiyu; Sakamoto, Kazuyuki; Shima, Masahide; Takeyama, Wakaba [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Nakamura, Kenya; Ono, Kanta; Oshima, Masaharu [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kasukabe, Yoshitaka [Department of Electronic Engineering/International Student Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

2004-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

210

Intersubband Transitions in Narrow InAs/AlSb Quantum Wells D. C. Larrabee, J. Tang, M. Liang, G. A. Khodaparast, J. Kono  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intersubband Transitions in Narrow InAs/AlSb Quantum Wells D. C. Larrabee, J. Tang, M. Liang, G. A investigated intersubband transitions (ISBTs) in InAs/AlSb multiple quantum wells with well widths from 2.1 to 10 nm. The ISBT energy increased with decreasing well width and temperature. To explain these well

Kono, Junichiro

211

Electrodeposition of Ni5Sb2 nanowires array and its application as a high-performance anode material for lithium ion batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single crystal Ni"5Sb"2 nanowires array is synthesized by direct-current electrodeposition technique. The initial specific discharge and charge capacity of the as-produced Ni"5Sb"2 nanowires array electrode as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries ... Keywords: Anode, Array structure, Charge/discharge capacity, Lithium-ion batteries, Nanowires

You-Wen Yang; Tian-Ying Li; Fei Liu; Wen-Bin Zhu; Xue-Liang Li; Yu-Cheng Wu; Ming-Guang Kong

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

GaSb-based Type-I QW LEDs and addressable arrays operated at wavelengths up to 3.66 m  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sb-based quantum wells (QW) light emitting diodes (LED) and LED arrays operating at room temperature at wavelengths. Kipshidze, D.Westerfeld, D. Snyder, M.Johnson, G. Belenky, "GaSb-Based Type I Quantum Well Light Emitting Diode Addressable Array Operated at Wavelengths up to 3.66 µm", IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 1087

213

Nanosecond in situ transmission electron microscope studies of the reversible Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} crystalline <==> amorphous phase transformation  

SciTech Connect

Chalcogenide-based phase-change materials have wide use in optical recording media and are growing in importance for use in non-volatile electronic memory. For both applications, rapid switching between the amorphous and crystalline phases is necessary, and understanding the changes during rapidly driven phase transitions is of scientific and technological significance. Laser-induced crystallization and amorphization occur rapidly and changes in atomic structure, microstructure, and temperature are difficult to observe experimentally and determine computationally. We have used nanosecond-scale time-resolved diffraction with intense electron pulses to study Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} during laser crystallization. Using a unique and unconventional specimen geometry, cycling between the amorphous and crystalline phases was achieved, enabling in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) study of both microstructural and crystallographic changes caused by repeated switching. Finite element analysis was used to simulate interactions of the laser with the nano-structured specimens and to model the rapidly changing specimen temperature. Such time-resolved experimental methods combined with simulation of experimentally inaccessible physical characteristics will be fundamental to advancing the understanding of rapidly driven phase transformations.

Santala, M. K.; Reed, B. W.; LaGrange, T.; Campbell, G. H.; Browning, N. D. [Condensed Matter and Materials Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Topuria, T. [IBM Research Division, Almaden Research Center, San Jose, California 95120 (United States); Raoux, S. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Meister, S. [Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States); Cui, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

214

Magnetic order near 270 K in mineral and synthetic Mn{sub 2}FeSbO{sub 6} ilmenite  

SciTech Connect

The structural and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 2}FeSbO{sub 6} single-crystalline mineral and ceramic samples synthesized under thermobaric treatment have been investigated, and compared to theoretical predictions based on first-principles electronic structure calculations. This ilmenite system displays a sharp magnetic transition just below the room temperature related to a ferrimagnetic ordering of the Mn{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} cations, which makes Mn{sub 2}FeSbO{sub 6} a promising candidate for designing functional magnetic materials.

Mathieu, R.; Hudl, M.; Nordblad, P. [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Ivanov, S. A. [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Inorganic Materials, Karpov' Institute of Physical Chemistry, Vorontsovo pole, 10 105064, Moscow K-64 (Russian Federation); Bazuev, G. V. [Institute of Solid-State Chemistry, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 620999, Ekaterinburg GSP-145 (Russian Federation); Lazor, P. [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villavaegen 16, SE-75236 Uppsala (Sweden); Solovyev, I. V. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

2011-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

215

Design and fabrication of 6.1-.ANG. family semiconductor devices using semi-insulating A1Sb substrate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

For the first time, an aluminum antimonide (AlSb) single crystal substrate is utilized to lattice-match to overlying semiconductor layers. The AlSb substrate establishes a new design and fabrication approach to construct high-speed, low-power electronic devices while establishing inter-device isolation. Such lattice matching between the substrate and overlying semiconductor layers minimizes the formation of defects, such as threaded dislocations, which can decrease the production yield and operational life-time of 6.1-.ANG. family heterostructure devices.

Sherohman, John W. (Livermore, CA); Coombs, III, Arthur W. (Patterson, CA); Yee, Jick Hong (Livermore, CA); Wu, Kuang Jen J. (Cupertino, CA)

2007-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

216

Liquid and Ice Cloud Microphysics in the CSU General Circulation Model. Part II: Impact on Cloudiness, the Earth's Radiation Budget, and the General Circulation of the Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A prognostic equation for the mass of condensate associated with large-scale cloudiness introduces a direct coupling between the atmospheric moisture budget and the radiation budget through interactive cloud amounts and cloud optical properties. ...

Laura D. Fowler; David A. Randall

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Radiative Forcing of Climate By Ice-Age Atmospheric Dust  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During glacial periods, dust deposition rates and inferred atmospheric concentrations were globally much higher than present. According to recent model results, the large enhancement of atmospheric dust content at the last glacial maximum (LGM) can be explained only if increases in the potential dust source areas are taken into account. Such increases are to be expected, due to e#ects of low precipitation and low atmospheric (CO 2 ) on plant growth. Here the modelled three-dimensional dust fields from Mahowald et al. and modelled seasonally varying surface-albedo fields derived in a parallel manner, are used to quantify the mean radiative forcing due to modern (non-anthropogenic) and LGM dust. The e#ect of mineralogical provenance on the radiative properties of the dust is taken into account, as is the range of optical properties associated with uncertainties about the mixing state of the dust particles. The high-latitude (poleward of 45#) mean change in forcing (LGM minus modern) is estimated to be small (--0.9 to +0.2 W m ), especially when compared to nearly --20 W m due to reflection from the extended ice sheets. Although the net e#ect of dust over ice sheets is a positive forcing (warming), much of the simulated high-latitude dust was not over the ice sheets, but over unglaciated regions close to the expanded dust source region in central Asia. In the tropics the change in forcing is estimated to be overall negative, and of similarly large magnitude (--2.2 to --3.2 W m ) to the radiative cooling e#ect of low atmospheric (CO 2 ). Thus, the largest long-term climatic e#ect of the LGM dust is likely to have been a cooling of the tropics. Low tropical sea-surface temperatures, low atmospheric (CO 2 ) and high atmospheric dust loading may be mutually reinforcin...

T. Claquin; C. Roelandt; K.E. Kohfeld; S.P. Harrison; I. Tegen; I.C. Prentice; Y. Balkanski; Prentice Ć Y. Balkanski; G. Bergametti; Ć N. Mahowald; Ć M. Schulz; M. Schulz; Ć K. E. Kohfeld; Ć K. E. Kohfeld; C. Roelandt; C. Roelandt; Ć S. P. Harrison; Ć S. P. Harrison; Ć S. P. Harrison; G. Bergametti; H. Rodhe; Ć H. Rodhe; M. Hansson; M. Hansson; N. Mahowald; N. Mahowald

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

In-situ Reflectance Monitoring of GaSb Substrate Oxide Desorption  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of specular reflectance to monitor GaSb substrate oxide desorption in-situ is reported. Substrates were loaded into the organometallic vapor phase epitaxy reactor either as-received (epi-ready) or after receiving a solvent degrease, acid etch and rinse. A variety of surface preparations and anneal conditions were investigated. HCL was used as the etchant, and in certain cases was followed by an additional etch in Br{sub 2}-HCl-HNO{sub 3}-CH{sub 3}COOH for comparison. Rinse comparisons included 2-propanol, methanol, and deionized water. Substrates were heated to either 525, 550, or 575 C. Features observed in the in-situ reflectance associated with the oxide desorption process were interpreted based on the starting oxide chemistry and thickness. Based on in-situ reflectance and ex-situ atomic force microscopy data, a recommendation on a reproducible GaSb substrate preparation technique suitable for high-quality epitaxial growth is suggested.

C.J. Vineis; C.A. Wang; K.F. Jensen

2000-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

219

Thermoelectric and thermodynamic properties of half-Heulser alloy YPdSb from first principles calculations  

SciTech Connect

The structural, electronic, thermoelectric and thermodynamic properties of ternary half-Heusler compound YPdSb are investigated using the first principle calculations. It is found that YPdSb is an indirect semiconductor. The calculated band gap is 0.161 eV with spin-orbital coupling including and 0.235 eV without spin-orbital coupling including, respectively. The electronic transport properties are obtained via Boltzman transport theory. The predicted Seebeck coefficient is 240 {mu}V/K and the thermoelectric performance can be optimized by n-type doping at room temperature. Moreover, the lattice dynamical results regarding the phonon dispersion curves, phonon density of states and thermodynamic properties are reported. Thermodynamics (heat capacity and Debye temperature) as well as mean phonon free path and the thermal conductivity in a temperature range of 0-300 K are determined. - Graphical Abstract: (a) The dependence of the Seebeck coefficient on chemical potential at 300 K. (b) The dependence of the thermopower factor on chemical potential at 300 K. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Seebeck coefficient and the thermopower factor are calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lattice dynamics and thermodynamic properties are obtained.

Kong, Fanjie, E-mail: fanjiekong@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China)] [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Hu, Yanfei [School of Science, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China)] [School of Science, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China); Hou, Haijun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Liu, Yanhua [School of information engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China)] [School of information engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Wang, Baolin [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China)] [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Wang, Lili [Computer Application Institute of CAEP, Academy of Engineering Physics of China, Mianyang 621900 (China)] [Computer Application Institute of CAEP, Academy of Engineering Physics of China, Mianyang 621900 (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

220

Ba{sub 5}Ti{sub 12}Sb{sub 19+x}, a polar intermetallic compound with a stuffed gamma-brass structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The polar intermetallic compound Ba{sub 5}Ti{sub 12}Sb{sub 19+x} (xbrass type with a primitive cell. A complex three-dimensional framework of Ti atoms, in the form of linked planar Ti{sub 9} clusters, is stuffed within the gamma-brass-type Ba-Sb substructure. Notwithstanding its relationship to the gamma-brass structure, the compound does not appear to conform to the Hume-Rothery electron concentration rules. Band structure calculations on an idealized Ba{sub 5}Ti{sub 12}Sb{sub 19} model suggest that the availability of bonding states above the Fermi level is responsible for the partial occupation, but only to a limited degree, of an additional Sb site within the structure. Magnetic measurements indicated Pauli paramagnetic behaviour. - A gamma-brass substructure built up of Ba-Sb clusters is stuffed with planar Ti{sub 9} clusters.

Bie Haiying [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G2 (Canada); Mar, Arthur, E-mail: arthur.mar@ualberta.c [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G2 (Canada)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric optics sb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on GaSb using in situ hydrogen plasma exposure  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we study the effectiveness of hydrogen plasma surface treatments for improving the electrical properties of GaSb/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interfaces. Prior to atomic layer deposition of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric, p-GaSb surfaces were exposed to hydrogen plasmas in situ, with varying plasma powers, exposure times, and substrate temperatures. Good electrical interfaces, as indicated by capacitance-voltage measurements, were obtained using higher plasma powers, longer exposure times, and increasing substrate temperatures up to 250 Degree-Sign C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the most effective treatments result in decreased SbO{sub x}, decreased Sb, and increased GaO{sub x} content at the interface. This in situ hydrogen plasma surface preparation improves the semiconductor/insulator electrical interface without the use of wet chemical pretreatments and is a promising approach for enhancing the performance of Sb-based devices.

Ruppalt, Laura B.; Cleveland, Erin R.; Champlain, James G.; Prokes, Sharka M.; Brad Boos, J.; Park, Doewon; Bennett, Brian R. [Electronics Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

222

Optical data latch  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optical data latch is formed on a substrate from a pair of optical logic gates in a cross-coupled arrangement in which optical waveguides are used to couple an output of each gate to an photodetector input of the other gate. This provides an optical bi-stability which can be used to store a bit of optical information in the latch. Each optical logic gate, which can be an optical NOT gate (i.e. an optical inverter) or an optical NOR gate, includes a waveguide photodetector electrically connected in series with a waveguide electroabsorption modulator. The optical data latch can be formed on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate (e.g. an InP or GaAs substrate) from III-V compound semiconductor layers. A number of optical data latches can be cascaded to form a clocked optical data shift register.

Vawter, G. Allen (Corrales, NM)

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

223

Perturbation Correction to the Two-Stream Model Applied to the Earth’s Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the interior of a clear, cloudless, and optically thin atmosphere (?0 ? 0.8) the predictions of even the most accurate two-stream models can significantly deviate from exact calculations. A perturbation correction to the differential form of a ...

N. T. O’Neill

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Optik-É AN-30 Aircraft Laboratory for Studies of the Atmospheric Composition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The scientific instrumental complex of the Optik-É AN-30 aircraft laboratory developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Optics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences is described in detail. Specifications of the main units of the ...

Pavel N. Antokhin; Michael Yu Arshinov; Boris D. Belan; Denis K. Davydov; Eugenii V. Zhidovkin; Georgii A. Ivlev; Artiom V. Kozlov; Valerii S. Kozlov; Michael V. Panchenko; Ioganes E. Penner; Dimitrii A. Pestunov; Denis V. Simonenkov; Gennadii N. Tolmachev; Alexander V. Fofonov; Vitalii S. Shamanaev; Vladimir P. Shmargunov

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Implementation of a lidar system and its usage in characterization of aerosols in the atmospheric column  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) is a recent remote sensing system which has been gradually expanding as a network among the countries actively concerned about the atmospheric contaminants, earth radiation budget, rain variations, clean air index, ... Keywords: AERONET station, Lidar system, aerosol optical depth, aerosol size distribution, air quality index, planetary boundary layer

Javier Mčndez-Rodríguez; Hamed Parsiani

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

New Model Atmospheres: Testing the Solar Spectrum in the UV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present preliminary results on the calculation of synthetic spectra obtained with the stellar model atmospheres developed by Cardona, Crivellari, and Simonneau. These new models have been used as input within the SYNTHE series of codes developed by Kurucz. As a first step we have tested if SYNTHE is able to handle these models which go down to log tau(Ross)= -13. We have successfully calculated a synthetic solar spectrum in the wavelength region 2000--4500 A at high resolution (R=522,000). Within this initial test we have found that layers at optical depths with log tau(Ross) spectrum computed from a solar model. We anticipate that these new extended models will be a valuable tool for the analysis of UV stellar light arising from the outermost layers of the atmospheres.

Rodríguez-Merino, L H; Bertone, E; Chavez, M; Buzzoni, A

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

New Model Atmospheres: Testing the Solar Spectrum in the UV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present preliminary results on the calculation of synthetic spectra obtained with the stellar model atmospheres developed by Cardona, Crivellari, and Simonneau. These new models have been used as input within the SYNTHE series of codes developed by Kurucz. As a first step we have tested if SYNTHE is able to handle these models which go down to log tau(Ross)= -13. We have successfully calculated a synthetic solar spectrum in the wavelength region 2000--4500 A at high resolution (R=522,000). Within this initial test we have found that layers at optical depths with log tau(Ross) spectrum computed from a solar model. We anticipate that these new extended models will be a valuable tool for the analysis of UV stellar light arising from the outermost layers of the atmospheres.

L. H. Rodriguez-Merino; O. Cardona; E. Bertone; M. Chavez; A. Buzzoni

2007-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

228

Optical absorption measurement system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The system of the present invention contemplates a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature.

Draggoo, V.G.; Morton, R.G.; Sawicki, R.H.; Bissinger, H.D.

1986-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

229

Optical absorption measurement system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The system of the present invention contemplates a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature.

Draggoo, Vaughn G. (Livermore, CA); Morton, Richard G. (San Diego, CA); Sawicki, Richard H. (Pleasanton, CA); Bissinger, Horst D. (Livermore, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

CDIAC Atmospheric Moisture Data Sets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Moisture Atmospheric Moisture CDIAC Climate Holdings Containing Atmospheric Moisture Data Global Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Extended Edited Synoptic Cloud Reports from Ships and Land Stations Over the Globe, 1952-2009 (CDIAC NDP-026C) C.J. Hahn, S.G. Warren, and R. Eastman Six-hourly synoptic observations of dew point depression (combined with air temperature) Land 1971-2009; Ocean 1952-2008 Regional Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Six- and Three-Hourly Meteorological Observations from 223 Former U.S.S.R. Stations (CDIAC NDP-048) V. Razuvaev et al. Surface stations; 6- and 3-hourly observations of relative humidity, vapor pressure, humidity deficit, and dew point temperature Varies by station; through 2000

231

CDIAC Atmospheric Pressure Data Sets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Pressure Atmospheric Pressure CDIAC Climate Holdings Containing Atmospheric Pressure Data Global Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN); Vs. 1 (CDIAC NDP-041) R.S. Vose et al. Surface stations; monthly mean sea-level pressure Varies by station; through 1990 Extended Edited Synoptic Cloud Reports from Ships and Land Stations Over the Globe, 1952-2009 (CDIAC NDP-026C) C.J. Hahn, S.G. Warren, and R. Eastman Six-hourly synoptic observations of sea-level pressure Land 1971-2009; Ocean 1952-2008 Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN); Vs. 2 (Note: the above link takes you to NOAA's National Climatic Data Center website.) R.S. Vose et al. Surface stations; monthly mean sea-level pressure Varies by station; some through most recent month

232

National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NARAC TOC NARAC TOC The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center, NARAC, provides tools and services to the Federal Government, that map the probable spread of hazardous material accidentally or intentionally released into the atmosphere. NARAC provides atmospheric plume predictions in time for an emergency manager to decide if taking protective action is necessary to protect the health and safety of people in affected areas. Located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, NARAC is a national support and resource center for planning, real-time assessment, emergency response, and detailed studies of incidents involving a wide variety of hazards, including nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological, and natural emissions. In an emergency situation (if lives are at risk), event-specific NARAC

233

atmospheric pressure | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

pressure pressure Dataset Summary Description (Abstract):Atmospheric Pressure (kPa)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Atmospheric Pressure (kPa)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; positive values are north and east. Boundaries of the -90/-180 region Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords atmospheric pressure climate NASA SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 46 MiB)

234

Fiber optic monitoring device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for the purpose of monitoring light transmissions in optical fibers comprises a fiber optic tap that optically diverts a fraction of a transmitted optical signal without disrupting the integrity of the signal. The diverted signal is carried, preferably by the fiber optic tap, to a lens or lens system that disperses the light over a solid angle that facilitates viewing. The dispersed light indicates whether or not the monitored optical fiber or system of optical fibers is currently transmitting optical information. 4 figures.

Samborsky, J.K.

1993-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

235

Fiber optic monitoring device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a device for the purpose of monitoring light transmissions in optical fibers comprises a fiber optic tap that optically diverts a fraction of a transmitted optical signal without disrupting the integrity of the signal. The diverted signal is carried, preferably by the fiber optic tap, to a lens or lens system that disperses the light over a solid angle that facilitates viewing. The dispersed light indicates whether or not the monitored optical fiber or system of optical fibers is currently transmitting optical information.

Samborsky, J.K.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

236

Electro-optical SLS devices for operating at new wavelength ranges  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An intrinsic semiconductor electro-optical device includes a p-n junction intrinsically responsive, when cooled, to electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of 8-12 um. The junction consists of a strained-layer superlattice of alternating layers of two different III-V semiconductors having mismatched lattice constants when in bulk form. A first set of layers is either InAs.sub.1-x Sb.sub.x (where x is aobut 0.5 to 0.7) or In.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x As.sub.1-y Sb.sub.y (where x and y are chosen such that the bulk bandgap of the resulting layer is about the same as the minimum bandgap in the In.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x As.sub.1-y Sb.sub.y family). The second set of layers has a lattice constant larger than the lattice constant of the layers in the first set.

Osbourn, Gordon C. (Albuquerque, NM)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Ultrafast optical manipulation of atomic arrangements in chalcogenide alloy memory materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A class of chalcogenide alloy materials that shows significant changes in optical properties upon an amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition has lead to development of large data capacities in modern optical data storage. Among chalcogenide phase-change materials, Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) is most widely used because of its reliability. We use a pair of femtosecond light pulses to demonstrate the ultrafast optical manipulation of atomic arrangements from tetrahedral (amorphous) to octahedral (crystalline) Ge-coordination in GST superlattices. Depending on the parameters of the second pump-pulse, ultrafast nonthermal phase-change occurred within only few-cycles (~ 1 ps) of the coherent motion corresponding to a GeTe4 local vibration. Using the ultrafast switch in chalcogenide alloy memory could lead to a major paradigm shift in memory devices beyond the current generation of silicon-based flash-memory.

Makino, Kotaro; Hase, Muneaki

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Optical NAND gate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optical NAND gate is formed from two pair of optical waveguide devices on a substrate, with each pair of the optical waveguide devices consisting of an electroabsorption modulator and a photodetector. One pair of the optical waveguide devices is electrically connected in parallel to operate as an optical AND gate; and the other pair of the optical waveguide devices is connected in series to operate as an optical NOT gate (i.e. an optical inverter). The optical NAND gate utilizes two digital optical inputs and a continuous light input to provide a NAND function output. The optical NAND gate can be formed from III-V compound semiconductor layers which are epitaxially deposited on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate, and operates at a wavelength in the range of 0.8-2.0 .mu.m.

Skogen, Erik J. (Albuquerque, NM); Raring, James (Goleta, CA); Tauke-Pedretti, Anna (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

239

Effects of filling in CoSb[subscript 3]: Local structure, band gap, and phonons from first principles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use ab initio computations to investigate the effect of filler ions on the properties of CoSb3 skutterudites. We analyze global and local structural effects of filling, using the Ba-filled system as an example. We show ...

Kozinsky, Boris

240

Hole mobility enhancement in In0.41 Ga0.59 Sb quantum-well field-effect transistors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The impact of ?110? uniaxial strain on the characteristics of p-channel In[subscript 0.41]Ga[subscript 0.59]Sb quantum-well field-effect transistors (QW-FETs) is studied through chip-bending experiments. Uniaxial strain ...

Xia, Ling

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241

High capacity, reversible alloying reactions in SnSb/C nanocomposites for Na-ion battery applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new SnSb/C nanocomposite based on Na alloying reactions is demonstrated as anode for Na-ion battery applications. The electrode can achieve an exceptionally high capacity (544 mA h g{sup -1}, almost double that of intercalation carbon materials), good rate capacity and cyclability (80% capacity retention over 50 cycles) for Na-ion storage.

Xiao, Lifen; Cao, Yuliang; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Wei; Kovarik, Libor; Nie, Zimin; Liu, Jun

2012-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

242

Optical extensometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optical extensometer is described using sequentially pulsed light beams for measuring the dimensions of objects by detecting two opposite edges of the object without contacting the object. The light beams may be of different distinguishable light characteristics, such as polarization or wave length, and are time modulated in an alternating manner at a reference frequency. The light characteristics are of substantially the same total light energy and are distributed symmetrically. In the preferred embodiment two light beam segments of one characteristic are on opposite sides of a middle segment of another characteristic. As a result, when the beam segments are scanned sequentially across two opposite edges of the object, they produce a readout signal at the output of a photoelectric detector that is compared with the reference signal by a phase comparator to produce a measurement signal with a binary level transition when the light beams cross an edge. The light beams may be of different cross sectional geometries, including two superimposed and concentric circular beam cross sections of different diameter, or two rectangular cross sections which intersect with each other substantially perpendicular so only their central portions are superimposed. Alternately, a row of three light beams can be used including two outer beams on opposite sides and separate from a middle beam. The three beams may all be of the same light characteristic. However it is preferable that the middle beam be of a different characteristic but of the same total energy as the two outer beams.

Walker, Ray A. (Kennewick, WA); Reich, Fred R. (Richland, WA); Russell, James T. (Richland, WA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

SLUDGE BATCH 7 ACCEPTANCE EVALUATION: RADIONUCLIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN TANK 51 SB7 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE PREPARED AT SRNL  

SciTech Connect

Presented in this report are radionuclide concentrations required as part of the program of qualifying Sludge Batch Seven (SB7) for processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The SB7 material is currently in Tank 51 being washed and prepared for transfer to Tank 40. The acceptance evaluation needs to be completed prior to the transfer of the material in Tank 51 to Tank 40. The sludge slurry in Tank 40 has already been qualified for DWPF and is currently being processed as SB6. The radionuclide concentrations were measured or estimated in the Tank 51 SB7 Qualification Sample prepared at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This sample was prepared from the three liter qualification sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry (HTF-51-10-125) received on September 18, 2010. The sample was delivered to SRNL where it was initially characterized in the Shielded Cells. With consultation from the Liquid Waste Organization, the qualification sample was then modified by several washes and decants, which included addition of Pu from H Canyon and sodium nitrite per the Tank Farm corrosion control program. This final slurry now has a composition expected to be similar to that of the slurry in Tank 51 after final preparations have been made for transfer of that slurry to Tank 40. Determining the radionuclide concentrations in this Tank 51 SB7 Qualification Sample is part of the work requested in Technical Task Request (TTR) No. HLW-DWPF-TTR-2010-0031. The radionuclides included in this report are needed for the DWPF Radiological Program Evaluation, the DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria (TSR/WAC) Evaluation, and the DWPF Solid Waste Characterization Program (TTR Task I.2). Radionuclides required to meet the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (TTR Task III.2.) will be measured at a later date after the slurry from Tank 51 has been transferred to Tank 40. Then a sample of the as-processed SB7 will be taken and transferred to SRNL for measurement of these radionuclides. The results presented in this report are those necessary for DWPF to assess if the Tank 51 SB7 sample prepared at SRNL meets the requirements for the DWPF Radiological Program Evaluation, the DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria evaluation, and the DWPF Solid Waste Characterization Program. Concentrations are given for thirty-four radionuclides along with total alpha and beta activity. Values for total gamma and total gamma plus beta activities are also calculated.

Pareizs, J.; Hay, M.

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

244

Quality Assurance in Atmospheric Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper summarizes a number of best practices associated with the use of numerical models of the atmosphere and is motivated by the rapid growth in the number of model users, who have a range of scientific and technical preparations. An underlying ...

Thomas T. Warner

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Geomagnetic Effects on Atmospheric Neutrinos  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Geomagnetic effects distort the zenith angle distribution of sub--GeV and few--GeV atmospheric neutrinos, breaking the up--down symmetry that would be present in the absence of neutrino oscillations and without a geomagnetic field. The geomagnetic effects also produce a characteristic azimuthal dependence of the $\

Paolo Lipari; T. K. Gaisser; Todor Stanev

1998-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

246

Capacity of coherent free-space optical links using diversity-combining techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Digital Communications, (Mc Graw-Hill, 2007). 3. A. Belmonte, and J. Khan, "Performance of synchronous. Djordjevic, B. Vasic, and M. A. Neifeld, "Multilevel coding in free-space optical MIMO transmission with q. A. Belmonte, and J. M. Kahn, "Capacity of coherent free-space optical links using atmospheric

Kahn, Joseph M.

247

A Fast Line-by-Line Method for Atmospheric Absorption Computations: The Automatized Atmospheric Absorption Atlas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A computationally fast line-by-line method for the determination of atmospheric absorption is described. This method is based on the creation of an Automatized Atmospheric Absorption Atlas (4A) covering all possible plausible atmospheric ...

N. A. Scott; A. Chedin

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

AlSb thin films as negative electrodes for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical reactions between Li and Na with amorphous/nanocrystalline AlSb thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering are reported for the first time. The films are composed of AlSb and Sb nanoparticles embedded into an amorphous matrix with an overall Sb/Al ratio of 1.13. The reaction with Li proceeds with an average reaction potential of 0.65 V, a reversible capacity of 750 mAh g-1, and very fast reaction kinetics. For instance, a storage capacity close to 500 mAh g-1, corresponding to 70% of the maximum capacity, is achieved at 125 C-rate. In addition, there is only a small increase in overpotentials with increasing current: ~0.15 V at 12 C and ~0.7 V at 125 C. In contrast, the reaction with Na results in average reaction potential of 0.5 V and a storage capacity of 500 mAh g-1 obtained at low currents. The capacity retention and reaction kinetics are presently not satisfactory with pronounced capacity losses upon cycling and large overpotentials with increasing current. The capacity retention can be improved by using fluoroethylene carbonate additive in the Na-ion electrolyte, which highlights that the Solid Electrolyte Interphase plays an important role for the electrode cycling stability. The reaction kinetics is relatively poor and an increase in overpotentials of about 0.9 V at 2 C is observed (retained capacity of about 350 mAh g-1 or 66% of the maximum). The study of the reaction mechanism on thick films (3-5 m) by X-ray diffraction reveals that the electrode material remains amorphous at all potentials. The presence of broad humps, located at the positions expected for Li-Al and Li-Sb line compounds, suggests that during the reaction with Li the atomic short range ordering is similar to the expected phases.

Baggetto, Loic [ORNL; Marszewski, Michal [Kent State University; Gorka, Joanna [ORNL; Jaroniec, Mietek [Kent State University; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Ab initio calculations and synthesis of the off-stoichiometric half-Heusler phase Ni{sub 1-x}Mn{sub 1+x}Sb  

SciTech Connect

We perform a combined theoretical and experimental study of the phase stability and magnetism of the off-stoichiometric Ni{sub 1-x}Mn{sub 1+x}Sb in the half-Heusler crystal phase. Our work is motivated by the need for strategies to engineer the magnetism of potentially half-metallic materials, such as NiMnSb, for improved performance at elevated temperatures. By means of ab initio calculations we investigate Ni{sub 1-x}Mn{sub 1+x}Sb over the whole composition range 0{<=}x{<=}1 of Ni replacing Mn and show that at relevant temperatures, the half-Heusler phase should be thermodynamically stable up to at least x=0.20 with respect to the competing C38 structure of Mn{sub 2}Sb. Furthermore we find that half-Heusler Ni{sub 1-x}Mn{sub 1+x}Sb retains half-metallic band structure over the whole concentration range and that the magnetic moments of substitutional Mn{sub Ni} atoms display magnetic exchange interactions an order of magnitude larger than the Ni-Mn interaction in NiMnSb. We also demonstrate experimentally that the alloys indeed can be created by synthesizing off-stoichiometric Ni{sub 1-x}Mn{sub 1+x}Sb films on MgO substrates by means of magnetron sputtering.

Ekholm, M.; Larsson, P.; Alling, B.; Helmersson, U.; Abrikosov, I. A. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linkoeping University, SE-58183 Linkoeping (Sweden)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

250

High-energy atmospheric neutrinos  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-energy neutrinos, arising from decays of mesons that were produced through the cosmic rays collisions with air nuclei, form unavoidable background noise in the astrophysical neutrino detection problem. The atmospheric neutrino flux above 1 PeV should be supposedly dominated by the contribution of charmed particle decays. These (prompt) neutrinos originated from decays of massive and shortlived particles, $D^\\pm$, $D^0$, $\\bar{D}{}^0$, $D_s^\\pm$, $\\Lambda^+_c$, form the most uncertain fraction of the high-energy atmospheric neutrino flux because of poor explored processes of the charm production. Besides, an ambiguity in high-energy behavior of pion and especially kaon production cross sections for nucleon-nucleus collisions may affect essentially the calculated neutrino flux. There is the energy region where above flux uncertainties superimpose. A new calculation presented here reveals sizable differences, up to the factor of 1.8 above 1 TeV, in muon neutrino flux predictions obtained with usage of known hadronic models, SIBYLL 2.1 and QGSJET-II. The atmospheric neutrino flux in the energy range $10-10^7$ GeV was computed within the 1D approach to solve nuclear cascade equations in the atmosphere, which takes into account non-scaling behavior of the inclusive cross-sections for the particle production, the rise of total inelastic hadron-nucleus cross-sections and nonpower-law character of the primary cosmic ray spectrum. This approach was recently tested in the atmospheric muon flux calculations [1]. The results of the neutrino flux calculations are compared with the Frejus, AMANDA-II and IceCube measurement data.

S. I. Sinegovsky; A. A. Kochanov; T. S. Sinegovskaya

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

251

Spectroscopy and capacitance measurements of tunneling resonances in an Sb-implanted point contact.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We fabricated a split-gate defined point contact in a double gate enhancement mode Si-MOS device, and implanted Sb donor atoms using a self-aligned process. E-beam lithography in combination with a timed implant gives us excellent control over the placement of dopant atoms, and acts as a stepping stone to focused ion beam implantation of single donors. Our approach allows us considerable latitude in experimental design in-situ. We have identified two resonance conditions in the point contact conductance as a function of split gate voltage. Using tunneling spectroscopy, we probed their electronic structure as a function of temperature and magnetic field. We also determine the capacitive coupling between the resonant feature and several gates. Comparison between experimental values and extensive quasi-classical simulations constrain the location and energy of the resonant level. We discuss our results and how they may apply to resonant tunneling through a single donor.

Wendt, Joel Robert; Rahman, Rajib; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Eng, Kevin; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Young, Ralph Watson; Lilly, Michael Patrick; Stalford, Harold Lenn; Bishop, Nathaniel; Bielejec, Edward Salvador

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Lattice dynamics and anomalous softening in the YbFe4Sb12 skutterudite  

SciTech Connect

The lattice dynamics of the filled skutterudite YbFe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} was studied by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and an anomalous softening in the temperature dependence of the elastic constants at {approx}50 K was observed. This anomaly can not be explained by the dynamics of the filler, in contrast to other filled skutterudites. We have further investigated the origin of this anomaly using macroscopic and microscopic measurements. A rearrangement of the spectral weight of the Yb phonon states was observed in the temperature dependence of the density of phonon states, obtained by inelastic neutron scattering. We suggest that the anomaly is due to a change of the Yb valence state and that the anomaly and the phonon spectral weight rearrangement have the same origin.

Mochel, A. [Julich Center for Neutron Science, Julich, Germany; Sergueev, I. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF); Wille, H. -C. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF); Voigt, J. [Julich Center for Neutron Science, Julich, Germany; Prager, M. [Julich Center for Neutron Science, Julich, Germany; Stone, Matthew B [ORNL; Sales, Brian C [ORNL; Guguchia, Z. [Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi, Georgia; Shengelaya, A. [Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi, Georgia; Keppens, V. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hermann, Raphael P. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

A Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Visible Optical Depth Derived from Lidar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Visible Optical Depth Derived from Lidar Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Visible Optical Depth Derived from Lidar Lo, Chaomei Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Comstock, Jennifer Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Flynn, Connor Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Category: Cloud Properties Optically thin clouds (e.g. optical depth < 3) can have a significant impact on radiative heating in the atmosphere, particularly in the cold upper troposphere. Currently, there is no value-added product (VAP) in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program archive that produces thin cloud optical depth, particularly at the Tropical Western Pacific and North Slope of Alaska sites. A VAP is under development to obtain the cirrus cloud visible optical depth from the MPLNOR (Micro Pulse Lidar Normalized

254

MBE growth of GaInAsSb p/n junction diodes for thermophotovoltaic applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper reports recent progress in the development of quaternary III-V thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices based on MBE grown Ga{sub x}In{sub 1{minus}x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1{minus}y}. TPV is of great interest for a variety of applications. The objective of this work is to develop a TPV cell which is tunable to the emission spectrum of a heated blackbody, at temperatures in the range of 1200--1473 K. One aspect of this tuning is to match the band gap, E{sub gap}, of the photovoltaic device to the peak output of the heat source., An advantage of the quarternary III-V semiconductor systems is that devices can be fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy on a suitable binary substrate, such as GaSb or InAs, and the band gap and lattice constant can be adjusted more or less independently, to match requirements. Quarternary cells, with band-gaps in the 0.5 to 0.72 eV range, have been fabricated and tested. For 0.54 eV devices the authors obtained V{sub oc} = 0.3 V and I{sub sc} = 1.5 amperes/cm{sup 2} under infrared illumination of a 1200 K blackbody. Under high illumination levels the V{sub oc} and I{sub sc} ranged from 0.5 V at 3 amperes/cm{sup 2} for 0.72 eV devices to 0.31 V at 1.2 amperes/cm{sup 2} for 0.5 eV devices, indicating good photovoltaic device characteristics over the range of bandgaps. The diode ideality factor for 0.54 eV devices ranged from 2.45 at low illumination indicating tunneling-dominated dark current, to 1.7 at high illumination intensity indicating recombination-generation dominated dark currents.

Uppal, P.N. [Lockheed Martin Labs., Baltimore, MD (United States); Charache, G.; Baldasaro, P.; Campbell, B. [Lockheed Martin, Schenectady, NY (United States); Loughin, S. [Lockheed Martin Astro Space, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Svensson, S. [ARL, Adelphi, MD (United States); Gill, D. [National Semiconductor, Annapolis Junction, MD (United States)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Generation of Turbulence by Atmospheric Gravity Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The standard current criterion for the generation of turbulence by atmospheric gravity waves and for the associated limitation on wave growth is based upon the standard criterion for static instability of the unperturbed atmosphere, namely, that ...

Colin O. Hines

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

AMIP: The Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) is an international effort to determine the systematic climate errors of atmospheric models under realistic conditions, and calls for the simulation of the climate of the decade 1979–1988 using ...

W. Lawrence Gates

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Retrieval of atmospheric properties of extrasolar planets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new method to retrieve molecular abundances and temperature profiles from exoplanet atmosphere photometry and spectroscopy. Our method allows us to run millions of 1-D atmosphere models in order to cover the ...

Nikku, Madhusudhan, 1980-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Interannual Variation of Global Atmospheric Angular Momentum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relative atmospheric angular momentum (RAM) integrated over the globe is an explicit variable representing the state of the atmospheric general circulation. After removing the annual, semiannual, and higher-frequency components, the filtered ...

Tsing-Chang Chen; Joseph J. Tribbia; Ming-Cheng Yen

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Statistics Education in the Atmospheric Sciences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analyses of atmospheric sciences data and models are heavily dependent upon statistical and probabilistic reasoning. Statistical methods have played an important role in establishing physical relationships of atmosphere-ocean-land interactions ...

Timothy J. Brown; L. Mark Berliner; Daniel S. Wilks; Michael B. Richman; Christopher K. Wilke

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Atmospheric Control on the Thermohaline Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In an attempt to elucidate the role of atmospheric and oceanic processes in setting a vigorous ocean overturning circulation in the North Atlantic but not in the North Pacific, a comparison of the observed atmospheric circulation and net surface ...

Arnaud Czaja

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric optics sb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

The Promise of GPS in Atmospheric Monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper provides an overview of applications of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for active measurement of the Earth's atmosphere. Microwave radio signals transmitted by GPS satellites are delayed (refracted) by the atmosphere as they ...

Steven Businger; Steven R. Chiswell; Michael Bevis; Jingping Duan; Richard A. Anthes; Christian Rocken; Randolph H. Ware; Michael Exner; T. VanHove; Fredrick S. Solheim

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Testing and Evaluating Atmospheric Climate Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Model validation is a crucial process that underpins model development and gives confidence to the results from running models. This article discusses a range of techniques for validating atmosphere models given that the atmosphere is chaotic and incompletely ...

Vicky Pope; Terry Davies

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Sulfuryl fluoride in the global atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The first calibrated high-frequency, high-precision, in situ atmospheric and archived air measurements of the fumigant sulfuryl fluoride (SO[subscript 2]F[subscript 2]) have been made as part of the Advanced Global Atmospheric ...

Muhle, J.

264

Dynamical Processes of Equatorial Atmospheric Angular Momentum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamical processes that drive intraseasonal equatorial atmospheric angular momentum (EAAM) fluctuations are examined with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis data. ...

Steven B. Feldstein

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

VALDRIFT—A Valley Atmospheric Dispersion Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

VALDRIFT (valley drift) is a valley atmospheric transport, diffusion, and deposition model. The model is phenomenological—that is, the dominant meteorological processes governing the behavior of the valley atmosphere are formulated explicitly in ...

K. Jerry Allwine; Xindi Bian; C. David Whiteman; Harold W. Thistle

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

A Spontaneously Generated Tropical Atmospheric General Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of idealized atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) experiments are presented. These experiments examine whether and how atmospheric deep moist convection, in the absence of meridional gradients in external forcing, interacts with ...

Ben P. Kirtman; Edwin K. Schneider

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Advanced Atmospheric Modeling for Emergency Response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric transport and diffusion models are an important part of emergency response systems for industrial facilities that have the potential to release significant quantities of toxic or radioactive material into the atmosphere. An advanced ...

Jerome D. Fast; B. Lance O'steen; Robert P. Addis

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Images reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A large fraction of submicron atmospheric particles contains both organic material and inorganic salts. As the relative humidity cycles in the atmosphere, these mixed particles can undergo a range of phase transitions, possibly including liquid-liquid phase separation. If liquid-liquid phase separation occurs, the gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric semi-volatile organic compounds, the scattering and absorption of solar radiation, and the uptake of reactive gas species on atmospheric particles will be affected, with important implications for climate predictions. The actual occurrence of these types of phase transitions within individual atmospheric particles has been considered uncertain, in large part because of the absence of observations for real-world samples. Here, using optical and fluorescence microscopy, we observe the coexistence of two non-crystalline phases in particles generated from real-world samples collected on multiple days in Atlanta, Georgia, and in particles generated in the laboratory using atmospheric conditions. These results reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations. Using a box model, we show that liquid-liquid phase separation can result in increased concentrations of gas-phase NO3 and N2O5 in the Atlanta region, due to decreased particle uptake of N2O5.

You, Yuan; Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Hanna, Sarah; Hiranuma, Naruki; Kamal, Saeid; Smith, Mackenzie L.; Zhang, Xiaolu; Weber, Rodney; Shilling, John E.; Dabdub, Donald; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

269

Dynamic pixel selection in free-space photon-counting optical communication systems for the exploitation of excess channel capacity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric turbulence in free-space optical communications turns signal demodulation and decoding into a multimode problem as wavefronts of the transmitting laser beams are warped spatially past the desired form of a ...

Chandrasekaran, Nivedita

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Quantitative determination of atmospheric hydroperoxyl radical  

SciTech Connect

A method for the quantitative determination of atmospheric hydroperoxyl radical comprising: (a) contacting a liquid phase atmospheric sample with a chemiluminescent compound which luminesces on contact with hydroperoxyl radical; (b) determining luminescence intensity from the liquid phase atmospheric sample; and (c) comparing said luminescence intensity from the liquid phase atmospheric sample to a standard luminescence intensity for hydroperoxyl radical. An apparatus for automating the method is also included.

Springston, Stephen R. (Upton, NY); Lloyd, Judith (Westbury, NY); Zheng, Jun (Stony Brook, NY)

2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

271

INHIBITION OF METHANE ATMOSPHERIC FLAMES BY ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... atmospheric pressure was studied. The burner temperature was maintained at 65 “C by using a thermostat. The volumetric velocity ...

2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

272

North Carolina Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

North Carolina Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Calendar Day)

273

Detecting atmospheric rivers in large climate datasets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extreme precipitation events on the western coast of North America are often traced to an unusual weather phenomenon known as atmospheric rivers. Although these storms may provide a significant fraction of the total water to the highly managed western ... Keywords: atmospheric rivers, automatic detection of atmospheric rivers, connected component labeling, extreme climate events

Surendra Byna; Prabhat; Michael F. Wehner; Kesheng John Wu

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Lattice constant grading in the Al.sub.y Ca.sub.1-y As.sub.1-x Sb.sub.x alloy system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Liquid phase epitaxy is employed to grow a lattice matched layer of GaAsSb on GaAs substrates through the compositional intermediary of the III-V alloy system AlGaAsSb which acts as a grading layer. The Al constituent reaches a peak atomic concentration of about 6% within the first 2.5.mu.m of the transition layer, then decreases smoothly to about 1% to obtain a lattice constant of 5.74 A. In the same interval the equilibrium concentration of Sb smoothly increases from 0 to about 9 atomic percent to form a surface on which a GaAsSb layer having the desired energy bandgap of 1.1 ev for one junction of an optimized dual junction photovoltaic device. The liquid phase epitaxy is accomplished with a step cooling procedure whereby dislocation defects are more uniformly distributed over the surface of the growing layer.

Moon, Ronald L. (Palo Alto, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Lattice constant grading in the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y As.sub.1-x Sb.sub.x alloy system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Liquid phase epitaxy is employed to grow a lattice matched layer of GaAsSb on GaAs substrates through the compositional intermediary of the III-V alloy system AlGaAsSb which acts as a grading layer. The Al constituent reaches a peak atomic concentration of about 6% within the first 2.5 .mu.m of the transition layer, then decreases smoothly to about 1% to obtain a lattice constant of 5.74 A. In the same interval the equilibrium concentration of Sb smoothly increases from 0 to about 9 atomic percent to form a surface on which a GaAsSb layer having the desired energy bandgap of 1.1 ev for one junction of an optimized dual junction photolvoltaic device. The liquid phase epitaxy is accomplished with a step cooling procedure whereby dislocation defects are more uniformly distributed over the surface of growing layer.

Moon, Ronald L. (Palo Alto, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Latching micro optical switch  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optical switch reliably maintains its on or off state even when subjected to environments where the switch is bumped or otherwise moved. In addition, the optical switch maintains its on or off state indefinitely without requiring external power. External power is used only to transition the switch from one state to the other. The optical switch is configured with a fixed optical fiber and a movable optical fiber. The movable optical fiber is guided by various actuators in conjunction with a latching mechanism that configure the switch in one position that corresponds to the on state and in another position that corresponds to the off state.

Garcia, Ernest J; Polosky, Marc A

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

277

Integrated optical tamper sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention consists of an monolithic optical tamper sensor, comprising an optical emitter and detector, connected by an optical waveguide and placed into the critical entry plane of an enclosed sensitive region, the tamper sensor having a myriad of scraps of a material optically absorbent at the wavelength of interest, such that when the absorbent material is in place on the waveguide, an unique optical signature can be recorded, but when entry is attempted into the enclosed sensitive region, the scraps of absorbent material will be displaced and the optical/electrical signature of the tamper sensor will change and that change can be recorded.

Carson, R.F.; Casalnuovo, S.A.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

278

Scanning Lidar Based Atmospheric Monitoring for Fluorescent Detectors of Cosmic Showers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurements of the cosmic-ray air-shower fluorescence at extreme energies require precise knowledge of atmospheric conditions. The absolute calibration of the cosmic-ray energy depends on the absorption of fluorescence light between its origin and point of its detection. To reconstruct basic atmospheric parameters we review a novel analysis method based on two- and multi-angle measurements performed by the scanning backscatter lidar system. Applied inversion methods, optical depth, absorption and backscatter coefficient, as well as other parameters that enter the lidar equation are discussed in connection to the attenuation of the light traveling from shower to fluorescence detector.

A. Filipcic; M. Horvat; D. Veberic; D. Zavrtanik; M. Zavrtanik

2002-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

279

CdSe/CdTe type-II superlattices grown on GaSb (001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy  

SciTech Connect

CdSe/CdTe superlattices are grown on GaSb substrates using molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction measurements and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images indicate high crystalline quality. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements show the effective bandgap varies with the superlattice layer thicknesses and confirm the CdSe/CdTe heterostructure has a type-II band edge alignment. The valence band offset between unstrained CdTe and CdSe is determined as 0.63 {+-} 0.06 eV by fitting the measured PL peak positions using the envelope function approximation and the Kronig-Penney model. These results suggest that CdSe/CdTe superlattices are promising candidates for multi-junction solar cells and other optoelectronic devices based on GaSb substrates.

Li Jingjing; Liu Shi; Wang Shumin; Ding Ding; Johnson, Shane R.; Zhang Yonghang [Center for Photonics Innovation, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Liu Xinyu; Furdyna, Jacek K. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Smith, David J. [Center for Photonics Innovation, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

2012-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

280

Methods for chemical recovery of non-carrier-added radioactive tin from irradiated intermetallic Ti-Sb targets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides a method of chemical recovery of no-carrier-added radioactive tin (NCA radiotin) from intermetallide TiSb irradiated with accelerated charged particles. An irradiated sample of TiSb can be dissolved in acidic solutions. Antimony can be removed from the solution by extraction with dibutyl ether. Titanium in the form of peroxide can be separated from tin using chromatography on strong anion-exchange resin. In another embodiment NCA radiotin can be separated from iodide solution containing titanium by extraction with benzene, toluene or chloroform. NCA radiotin can be finally purified from the remaining antimony and other impurities using chromatography on silica gel. NCA tin-117m can be obtained from this process. NCA tin-117m can be used for labeling organic compounds and biological objects to be applied in medicine for imaging and therapy of various diseases.

Lapshina, Elena V. (Troitsk, RU); Zhuikov, Boris L. (Troitsk, RU); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY); Ermolaev, Stanislav V. (Obninsk, RU); Togaeva, Natalia R. (Obninsk, RU)

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric optics sb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composition and Reactions of Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Wednesday, 29 June 2005 00:00 Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while changing organic composition by 13 to 24% per day, an oxidation rate significantly slower than is currently used in atmospheric models. Since oxidation has a strong effect on particle lifetime in the atmosphere, these results will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change.

282

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while changing organic composition by 13 to 24% per day, an oxidation rate significantly slower than is currently used in atmospheric models. Since oxidation has a strong effect on particle lifetime in the atmosphere, these results will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change.

283

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while changing organic composition by 13 to 24% per day, an oxidation rate significantly slower than is currently used in atmospheric models. Since oxidation has a strong effect on particle lifetime in the atmosphere, these results will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change.

284

Growth and characterization of In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}Sb device structures using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}Sb epitaxial layers and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) device structures have been grown on GaSb and GaAs substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Control of the n-type doping up to 1 {times} 10{sup 18} cm{sup {minus}3} was achieved using diethyltellurium (DETE) as the dopant source. A Hall mobility of greater than 8,000 cm{sup 2}/Vs at 77 K was obtained for a 3 {times} 10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}3} doped In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}Sb layer grown on high-resistivity GaSb substrate. The In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}Sb epilayers directly grown on GaSb substrates were tilted with respect to the substrates, with the amount of tilt increasing with the layer thickness. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of the layers showed the presence of dislocation networks across the epilayers parallel to the interface at different distances from the interface, but the layers above this dislocation network were virtually free of dislocations. A strong correlation between epilayer tilt and TPV device properties was found, with layers having more tilt providing better devices. The results suggest that the dislocations moving parallel to the interface cause lattice tilt, and control of this layer tilt may enable the fabrication of better quality device structures.

Ehsani, H.; Bhat, I.; Hitchcock, C.; Gutmann, R. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Charache, G.; Freeman, M. [Lockheed Martin Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Bioinspired Processing and Optics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Space vehicles entering a planetary atmosphere at high velocity can be ... which has attracted increasing attention from bio-manufacturers of Ti-based implants.

286

Acoustic Waves in the Turbulent Atmosphere: A Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The subject of atmospheric acoustics and its role in atmospheric research and in development of modern methods of ground-based remote sensing of the atmosphere are outlined. A historical overview of investigations of the effect of atmospheric ...

M. A. Kallistratova

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Optical voltage reference  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

288

Optical voltage reference  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.

Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

289

Atomic-resolution study of polarity reversal in GaSb grown on Si by scanning transmission electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The atomic-resolved reversal of the polarity across an antiphase boundary (APB) was observed in GaSb films grown on Si by high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). The investigation of the interface structure at the origin of the APB reveals that coalescence of two domains with Ga-prelayer and Sb-prelayer causes the sublattice reversal. The local strain and lattice rotation distributions of the APB, attributed to the discordant bonding length at the APB with the surrounding GaSb lattice, were further studied using the geometric phase analysis technique. The crystallographic characteristics of the APBs and their interaction with other planar defects were observed with HAADF-STEM. The quantitative agreement between experimental and simulated images confirms the observed polarities in the acquired HAADF-STEM data. The self-annihilation mechanism of the APBs is addressed based on the rotation induced by anti-site bonds and APBs' faceting.

Hosseini Vajargah, S.; Woo, S. Y.; Botton, G. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Brockhouse Institute for Material Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Ghanad-Tavakoli, S. [Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Kleiman, R. N.; Preston, J. S. [Brockhouse Institute for Material Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

DTIRC based optical collimators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Non-imaging optical concentrators have been used in the past to increase the power density of incoming radiation in applications such as photovoltaic (PV) solar and optical wireless communications. This paper explores the use of Dielectric Totally Internally ... Keywords: DTIRC, collimator, concentrator, non-imaging, optical

Roberto Ramirez-Iniguez; Ali Ahmadinia; Hernando Fernandez-Canque

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Regional Ecosystem-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange Via Atmospheric Budgets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inversions of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio measurements to determine CO2 sources and sinks are typically limited to coarse spatial and temporal resolution. This limits our ability to evaluate efforts to upscale chamber- and stand-level CO2 flux measurements to regional scales, where coherent climate and ecosystem mechanisms govern the carbon cycle. As a step towards the goal of implementing atmospheric budget or inversion methodology on a regional scale, a network of five relatively inexpensive CO2 mixing ratio measurement systems was deployed on towers in northern Wisconsin. Four systems were distributed on a circle of roughly 150-km radius, surrounding one centrally located system at the WLEF tower near Park Falls, WI. All measurements were taken at a height of 76 m AGL. The systems used single-cell infrared CO2 analyzers (Licor, model LI-820) rather than the siginificantly more costly two-cell models, and were calibrated every two hours using four samples known to within ± 0.2 ppm CO2. Tests prior to deployment in which the systems sampled the same air indicate the precision of the systems to be better than ± 0.3 ppm and the accuracy, based on the difference between the daily mean of one system and a co-located NOAA-ESRL system, is consistently better than ± 0.3 ppm. We demonstrate the utility of the network in two ways. We interpret regional CO2 differences using a Lagrangian parcel approach. The difference in the CO2 mixing ratios across the network is at least 2?3 ppm, which is large compared to the accuracy and precision of the systems. Fluxes estimated assuming Lagrangian parcel transport are of the same sign and magnitude as eddy-covariance flux measurements at the centrally-located WLEF tower. These results indicate that the network will be useful in a full inversion model. Second, we present a case study involving a frontal passage through the region. The progression of a front across the network is evident; changes as large as four ppm in one minute are captured. Influence functions, derived using a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion model driven by the CSU Regional Atmospheric Modeling System and nudged to NCEP reanalysis meteorological fields, are used to determine source regions for the towers. The influence functions are combined with satellite vegetation observations to interpret the observed trends in CO2 concentration. Full inversions will combine these elements in a more formal analytic framework.

Davis, K.J.; Richardson, S.J.; Miles, N.L.

2007-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

292

Activity of the kinesin spindle protein inhibitor ispinesib (SB-715992) in models of breast cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ispinesib (SB-715992) is a potent inhibitor of kinesin spindle protein (KSP), a kinesin motor protein essential for the formation of a bipolar mitotic spindle and cell cycle progression through mitosis. Clinical studies of ispinesib have demonstrated a 9% response rate in patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer, and a favorable safety profile without significant neurotoxicities, gastrointestinal toxicities or hair loss. To better understand the potential of ispinesib in the treatment of breast cancer we explored the activity of ispinesib alone and in combination several therapies approved for the treatment of breast cancer. We measured the ispinesib sensitivity and pharmacodynamic response of breast cancer cell lines representative of various subtypes in vitro and as xenografts in vivo, and tested the ability of ispinesib to enhance the anti-tumor activity of approved therapies. In vitro, ispinesib displayed broad anti-proliferative activity against a panel of 53 breast cell-lines. In vivo, ispinesib produced regressions in each of five breast cancer models, and tumor free survivors in three of these models. The effects of ispinesib treatment on pharmacodynamic markers of mitosis and apoptosis were examined in vitro and in vivo, revealing a greater increase in both mitotic and apoptotic markers in the MDA-MB-468 model than in the less sensitive BT-474 model. In vivo, ispinesib enhanced the anti-tumor activity of trastuzumab, lapatinib, doxorubicin, and capecitabine, and exhibited activity comparable to paclitaxel and ixabepilone. These findings support further clinical exploration of KSP inhibitors for the treatment of breast cancer.

Purcell, James W; Davis, Jefferson; Reddy, Mamatha; Martin, Shamra; Samayoa, Kimberly; Vo, Hung; Thomsen, Karen; Bean, Peter; Kuo, Wen Lin; Ziyad, Safiyyah; Billig, Jessica; Feiler, Heidi S; Gray, Joe W; Wood, Kenneth W; Cases, Sylvaine

2009-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

293

BETA-DECAY MATRIX ELEMENTS IN Sb$sup 12$$sup 2$  

SciTech Connect

An electronic computer has been used to investigate the six nuclear matrix elements which enter into the 2/sup -/ to 2/sup +/ 1.40-Mev beta transition in the decay of Sb/sup 122/. Data from beta-gamma angular correlation, beta-circularly polarized gamma angular correlation, nuclear orientation, and nuclear resonance experiments were used in this analysis. As a further aid, the Feenberg-Ahrens relations between certain of the nuclear matrix elements were employed to catalog the solutions and to simplify the search problem. In order to discover how the remaining ambiguity of these solutions could most easily be reduced, for each of the solutions calculations were made of the predicted results of all possible experiments on this beta transition. These calculations show how sufficient experimental data can be obtained to determine unambiguously all six nuclear matrix elements. In an appendix all the theoretical formulas which give the experimental observables for a first forbidden 2/sup -/ to S/sup +/ beta transition in terms of the nuclear matrix ele

Pipkin, F.M.; Sanderson, J.; Weyhmann, W.

1963-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

294

High-energy atmospheric neutrinos  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-energy neutrinos, arising from decays of mesons that were produced through the cosmic rays collisions with air nuclei, form unavoidable background noise in the astrophysical neutrino detection problem. The atmospheric neutrino flux above 1 PeV should be supposedly dominated by the contribution of charmed particle decays. These (prompt) neutrinos originated from decays of massive and shortlived particles, $D^\\pm$, $D^0$, $\\bar{D}{}^0$, $D_s^\\pm$, $\\Lambda^+_c$, form the most uncertain fraction of the high-energy atmospheric neutrino flux because of poor explored processes of the charm production. Besides, an ambiguity in high-energy behavior of pion and especially kaon production cross sections for nucleon-nucleus collisions may affect essentially the calculated neutrino flux. There is the energy region where above flux uncertainties superimpose. A new calculation presented here reveals sizable differences, up to the factor of 1.8 above 1 TeV, in muon neutrino flux predictions obtained with usage of known...

Sinegovsky, S I; Sinegovskaya, T S

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

NIST Optical Radiation Staff Directory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optical Radiation Staff Directory. Staff. Name, Position, Office Phone. ... Contact. Optical Radiation Group Eric Shirley, Group Leader. ...

2013-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

296

Defect assistant band alignment transition from staggered to broken gap in mixed As/Sb tunnel field effect transistor heterostructure  

SciTech Connect

The compositional dependence of effective tunneling barrier height (E{sub beff}) and defect assisted band alignment transition from staggered gap to broken gap in GaAsSb/InGaAs n-channel tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) structures were demonstrated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). High-resolution x-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the active layers are internally lattice matched. The evolution of defect properties was evaluated using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. The defect density at the source/channel heterointerface was controlled by changing the interface properties during growth. By increasing indium (In) and antimony (Sb) alloy compositions from 65% to 70% in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As and 60% to 65% in GaAs{sub 1-y}Sb{sub y} layers, the E{sub beff} was reduced from 0.30 eV to 0.21 eV, respectively, with the low defect density at the source/channel heterointerface. The transfer characteristics of the fabricated TFET device with an E{sub beff} of 0.21 eV show 2 Multiplication-Sign improvement in ON-state current compared to the device with E{sub beff} of 0.30 eV. On contrary, the value of E{sub beff} was decreased from 0.21 eV to -0.03 eV due to the presence of high defect density at the GaAs{sub 0.35}Sb{sub 0.65}/In{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As heterointerface. As a result, the band alignment was converted from staggered gap to broken gap, which leads to 4 orders of magnitude increase in OFF-state leakage current. Therefore, a high quality source/channel interface with a properly selected E{sub beff} and well maintained low defect density is necessary to obtain both high ON-state current and low OFF-state leakage in a mixed As/Sb TFET structure for high-performance and lower-power logic applications.

Zhu, Y.; Jain, N.; Vijayaraghavan, S.; Hudait, M. K. [Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Mohata, D. K.; Datta, S. [Electrical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania-16802 (United States); Lubyshev, D.; Fastenau, J. M.; Liu, Amy K. [IQE Inc., Bethlehem, Pennsylvania-18015 (United States); Monsegue, N. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Omnidirectional fiber optic tiltmeter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A tiltmeter is provided which is useful in detecting very small movements such as earth tides. The device comprises a single optical fiber, and an associated weight affixed thereto, suspended from a support to form a pendulum. A light source, e.g., a light emitting diode, mounted on the support transmits light through the optical fiber to a group of further optical fibers located adjacent to but spaced from the free end of the single optical fiber so that displacement of the single optical fiber with respect to the group will result in a change in the amount of light received by the individual optical fibers of the group. Photodetectors individually connectd to the fibers produce corresponding electrical outputs which are differentially compared and processed to produce a resultant continuous analog output representative of the amount and direction of displacement of the single optical fiber.

Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.

1983-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

298

SLUDGE BATCH 5 ACCEPTANCE EVALUATION RADIONUCLIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN TANK 51 SB5 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE PREPARED AT SRNL  

SciTech Connect

Presented in this report are radionuclide concentrations required as part of the program of qualifying Sludge Batch Five (SB5) for processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Part of this SB5 material is currently in Tank 51 being washed and prepared for transfer to Tank 40. The acceptance evaluation needs to be completed prior to the transfer of the material in Tank 51 to Tank 40 to complete the formation of SB5. The sludge slurry in Tank 40 has already been qualified for DWPF and is currently being processed as SB4. The radionuclide concentrations were measured or estimated in the Tank 51 SB5 Qualification Sample prepared at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This sample was prepared from the three liter sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry taken on March 21, 2008. The sample was delivered to SRNL where it was initially characterized in the Shielded Cells. Under direction of the Liquid Waste Organization it was then modified by five washes, six decants, an addition of Pu/Be from Canyon Tank 16.4, and an addition of NaNO2. This final slurry now has a composition expected to be similar to that of the slurry in Tank 51 after final preparations have been made for transfer of that slurry to Ta Determining the radionuclide concentrations in this Tank 51 SB5 Qualification Sample is part of the work requested in Technical Task Request (TTR) No. HLW-DWPF-TTR-2008-0010. The work with this qualification sample is covered by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan and an Analytical Study Plan. The radionuclides included in this report are needed for the DWPF Radiological Program Evaluation, the DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria (TSR/WAC) Evaluation, and the DWPF Solid Waste Characterization Program (TTR Task 2). Radionuclides required to meet the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (TTR Task 5) will be measured at a later date after the slurry from Tank 51 has been transferred to Tank 40. Then a sample of the as-processed SB5 will be taken and transferred to SRNL for measurement of these radionuclides. Data presented in this report represents the measured or estimated radionuclide concentrations obtained from several standard and special analytical methods performed by Analytical Development (AD) personnel within SRNL. The method for I-129 measurement in sludge is described in detail. Most of these methods were performed on solutions resulting from the dissolutions of the slurry samples. Concentrations are given for twenty-nine radionuclides along with total alpha and beta activity. Values for total gamma and total gamma plus beta activities are also calculated. Results also indicate that 98% of the Tc-99 and 92% of the I-129 that could have been in this sludge batch have been removed by chemical processing steps in the SRS Canyons or Tank Farm.

Bannochie, C; Ned Bibler, N; David Diprete, D

2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

299

A Discrete Ordinate, Multiple Scattering, Radiative Transfer Model of the Venus Atmosphere from 0.1 to 260 ?m  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors describe a new radiative transfer model of the Venus atmosphere (RTM) that includes optical properties from nine gases and four cloud modes between 0.1 and 260 ?m. A multiple-stream discrete ordinate flux solver is used to calculate ...

Christopher Lee; Mark Ian Richardson

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Posters Ship-Based Measurements of Cloud Optical Properties  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 7 Posters Ship-Based Measurements of Cloud Optical Properties During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment A. B. White Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado at Boulder National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado C. W. Fairall National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Research Laboratories Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Introduction The Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX), conducted in June 1992, was designed with the broad goal of improving the dynamical, radiative, and microphysical models of marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds. This goal was pursued by combining measurements from a number of different platforms including aircraft,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric optics sb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Atmospheric neutrino flux at INO site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To illustrate the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux, we briefly explain our calculation scheme and important components, such as primary cosmic ray spectra, interaction model, and geomagnetic model. Then, we calculate the atmospheric neutrino flux at INO site in our calculation scheme. We compare the calculated atmospheric neutrino fluxes predicted at INO with those at other major neutrino detector sites, especially that at SK site.

Honda, Morihiro [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

2011-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

302

Earth and Atmospheric Sciences | More Science | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nuclear Forensics Climate & Environment Sensors and Measurements Chemical & Engineering Materials Computational Earth Science Systems Modeling Geographic Information Science and Technology Materials Science and Engineering Mathematics Physics More Science Home | Science & Discovery | More Science | Earth and Atmospheric Sciences SHARE Earth and Atmospheric Sciences At ORNL, we combine our capabilities in atmospheric science, computational science, and biological and environmental systems science to focus in the cross-disciplinary field of climate change science. We use computer models to improve climate change predications and to measure the impact of global warming on the cycling of chemicals in earth systems. Our Climate Change Science Institute uses models to explore connections among atmosphere,

303

Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a non-technical review of the problems associated with atmospheric carbon dioxide and the resulting greenhouse effect. (TEM)

Firestine, M.W. (ed.)

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

NREL: Process Development and Integration Laboratory - Atmospheric  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Processing Platform Capabilities Atmospheric Processing Platform Capabilities The Atmospheric Processing platform in the Process Development and Integration Laboratory offers powerful capabilities with integrated tools for depositing, processing, and characterizing photovoltaic materials and devices. In particular, this platform focuses on different methods to deposit ("write") materials onto a variety of substrates and then further process into optoelectronic materials using rapid thermal processing. You can read more on the rationale for developing this platform and its capabilities. Contact Maikel van Hest for more details on these capabilities. The Atmospheric Processing platform will allow deposition in any sequence and is applicable to activities in all Technology Roadmaps, which include

305

Mesoscale Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

small-scale features in ocean winds. Science, 303, Chelton,of the regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model RCAO. Borealstress dependence on ocean surface velocity: implications

Seo, Hyodae

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Mesoscale coupled ocean-atmosphere interaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

small-scale features in ocean winds. Science, 303, Chelton,of the regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model RCAO. Borealstress dependence on ocean surface velocity: implications

Seo, Hyodae

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

FOAM:The Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Models Performance User Resources Publications History Developer's Page FOAM The Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model cup2.jpeg (48474 bytes) Image made by Johan Kellum with Vis5D...

308

12.815 Atmospheric Radiation, Fall 2005  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction to the physics of atmospheric radiation and remote sensing including use of computer codes. Radiative transfer equation including emission and scattering, spectroscopy, Mie theory, and numerical solutions. ...

Prinn, Ronald G.

309

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Convective and Orographically...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Induced Precipitation Study The U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is providing the ARM Mobile Facility...

310

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2010 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of...

311

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1-June 30, 2011 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work...

312

Jefferson Lab Science Series - Investigating Earth's Atmosphere  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Byron Meadows - NASALangley Research Center May 14, 1991 Demonstrations of weather forecasting tools and techniques for experiments in the atmosphere and of lasers used to...

313

Total Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity Former ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Former Corporation/Refiner Total Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (bbl/cd)a New Corporation/Refiner Date of Sale Table 14. Refinery Sales During 2005

314

Internal Versus SST-Forced Atmospheric Variability as Simulated by an Atmospheric General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The variability of atmospheric flow is analyzed by separating it into an internal part due to atmospheric dynamics only and an external (or forced) part due to the variability of sea surface temperature forcing. The two modes of variability are ...

Ali Harzallah; Robert Sadourny

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Transient Response of a Global Ocean-Atmosphere Model to a Doubling of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transient response of climate to an instantaneous increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide has been investigated by a general circulation model of the coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system with global geography and annual ...

Syukuro Manabe; Kirk Bryan; Michael J. Spelman

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Measurements of Atmospheric Methane and 13C/12C of Atmospheric...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methane and 13C12C, Flask Air Samples Measurements of Atmospheric Methane and 13C12C of Atmospheric Methane from Flask Air Samples (1999) data Data Investigators Paul Quay and...

317

Response of the Middle Atmosphere to CO2 Doubling: Results from the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM) has been used to examine the middle atmosphere response to CO2 doubling. The radiative-photochemical response induced by doubling CO2 alone and the response produced by changes in prescribed SSTs are ...

V. I. Fomichev; A. I. Jonsson; J. de Grandpré; S. R. Beagley; C. McLandress; K. Semeniuk; T. G. Shepherd

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Quantum optical waveform conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Currently proposed architectures for long-distance quantum communication rely on networks of quantum processors connected by optical communications channels [1,2]. The key resource for such networks is the entanglement of matter-based quantum systems with quantum optical fields for information transmission. The optical interaction bandwidth of these material systems is a tiny fraction of that available for optical communication, and the temporal shape of the quantum optical output pulse is often poorly suited for long-distance transmission. Here we demonstrate that nonlinear mixing of a quantum light pulse with a spectrally tailored classical field can compress the quantum pulse by more than a factor of 100 and flexibly reshape its temporal waveform, while preserving all quantum properties, including entanglement. Waveform conversion can be used with heralded arrays of quantum light emitters to enable quantum communication at the full data rate of optical telecommunications.

Kielpinski, D; Wiseman, HM

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Multichannel optical sensing device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multichannel optical sensing device is disclosed, for measuring the outr sky luminance or illuminance or the luminance or illuminance distribution in a room, comprising a plurality of light receptors, an optical shutter matrix including a plurality of liquid crystal optical shutter elements operable by electrical control signals between light transmitting and light stopping conditions, fiber optic elements connected between the receptors and the shutter elements, a microprocessor based programmable control unit for selectively supplying control signals to the optical shutter elements in a programmable sequence, a photodetector including an optical integrating spherical chamber having an input port for receiving the light from the shutter matrix and at least one detector element in the spherical chamber for producing output signals corresponding to the light, and output units for utilizing the output signals including a storage unit having a control connection to the microprocessor based programmable control unit for storing the output signals under the sequence control of the programmable control unit.

Selkowitz, Stephen E. (Piedmont, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Ground-Based Solar Absorption FTIR Spectroscopy: Characterization of Retrievals and First Results from a Novel Optical Design Instrument at a New NDACC Complementary Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors describe the optical design of a high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), which serves as the primary instrument at the University of Toronto Atmospheric Observatory (TAO). The FTS is dedicated to ground-based infrared ...

A. Wiacek; J. R. Taylor; K. Strong; R. Saari; T. E. Kerzenmacher; N. B. Jones; D. W. T. Griffith

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric optics sb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Human effects on the global atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

This review considers whether human activities can significantly change important functions of the global atmosphere by altering the amount or distribution of certain trace species. It deals with three specific topics: stratopheric ozone, the role of species other than carbon dioxide on the greenhouse effect, and certain recently recognized atmospheric consequences of a large scale nuclear war. 64 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

Johnston, H.S.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Overwater Atmospheric Diffusion: Measurements and Parameterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of ten atmospheric tracer experiments provided 62 hours of overwater atmospheric dispersion data. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was released as the tracer gas at a height of 13 m from a ship positioned about 7 km off the central California ...

Walter F. Dabberdt

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Measurements of Atmospheric Nanoparticles (1875–1980)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The atmosphere contains a large variety of particles, ranging in size from near molecular (~1 nm) to larger than 10,000 nm. The total number concentration N of particles is dominated by nanoparticles ? 100 nm in diameter. Discovery of atmospheric ...

Volker Mohnen; George M. Hidy

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Optically measuring interior cavities  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of measuring the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of an interior cavity includes the steps of collecting a first optical slice of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, collecting additional optical slices of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, and combining the first optical slice of data and the additional optical slices of data to calculate of the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity.

Stone, Gary Franklin (Livermore, CA)

2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

325

Optically measuring interior cavities  

SciTech Connect

A method of measuring the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of an interior cavity includes the steps of collecting a first optical slice of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, collecting additional optical slices of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, and combining the first optical slice of data and the additional optical slices of data to calculate of the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity.

Stone, Gary Franklin (Livermore, CA)

2008-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

326

Optical linear algebra  

SciTech Connect

Many of the linear algebra operations and algorithms possible on optical matrix-vector processors are reviewed. Emphasis is given to the use of direct solutions and their realization on systolic optical processors. As an example, implicit and explicit solutions to partial differential equations are considered. The matrix-decomposition required is found to be the major operation recommended for optical realization. The pipelining and flow of data and operations are noted to be key issues in the realization of any algorithm on an optical systolic array processor. A realization of the direct solution by householder qr decomposition is provided as a specific case study. 19 references.

Casasent, D.; Ghosh, A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Optical Technology News  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Could Speed Innovation in Solar Devices Release ... Device Measures Absolute Optical Power in Fiber at ... of Standards and Technology (NIST) have ...

2010-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

328

Latching Micro Optical Switch  

Sandia National Laboratories has developed a latching switch for optical fibers. One or more fibers are moved by an actuator between two positions, ...

329

Optical Technology Portal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Instruments. Primary optical watt radiometer (POWR) facility ... into the market and it is expected that many of the light sources currently used for ...

2013-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

330

Glass and Optical Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NMR Insight into Glass Formers and Modifiers · NMR Studies on Biomaterials and Bioactive Glasses · Non-Linear Optical Properties in Glasses.

331

Calibration of LSST Instrumental and Atmospheric Photometric Passbands  

SciTech Connect

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will continuously image the entire sky visible from Cerro Pachon in northern Chile every 3-4 nights throughout the year. The LSST will provide data for a broad range of science investigations that require better than 1% photometric precision across the sky (repeatability and uniformity) and a similar accuracy of measured broadband color. The fast and persistent cadence of the LSST survey will significantly improve the temporal sampling rate with which celestial events and motions are tracked. To achieve these goals, and to optimally utilize the observing calendar, it will be necessary to obtain excellent photometric calibration of data taken over a wide range of observing conditions - even those not normally considered 'photometric'. To achieve this it will be necessary to routinely and accurately measure the full optical passband that includes the atmosphere as well as the instrumental telescope and camera system. The LSST mountain facility will include a new monochromatic dome illumination projector system to measure the detailed wavelength dependence of the instrumental passband for each channel in the system. The facility will also include an auxiliary spectroscopic telescope dedicated to measurement of atmospheric transparency at all locations in the sky during LSST observing. In this paper, we describe these systems and present laboratory and observational data that illustrate their performance.

Burke, David L.; /SLAC; Axelrod, T.; /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ.; Barrau, Aurelien; Baumont, Sylvain; /LPSC, Grenoble; Blondin, Stephane; /Marseille, CPPM; Claver, Chuck; /NOAO, Tucson; Gorecki, Alexia; /LPSC, Grenoble; Ivezic, Zeljko; Jones, Lynne; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Krabbendam, Victor; Liang, Ming; Saha, Abhijit; /NOAO, Tucson; Smith, Allyn; /Austin Peay State U.; Smith, R.Chris; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.; Stubbs, Christopher W.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

332

Earth's early atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Ideas about atmospheric composition and climate on the early Earth have evolved considerably over the last 30 years, but many uncertainties still remain. It is generally agreed that the atmosphere contained little or no free oxygen initially and that oxygen concentrations increased markely near 2.0 billion years ago, but the precise timing of and reasons for its rise remain unexplained. Likewise, it is usually conceded that the atmospheric greenhouse effect must have been higher in the past to offset reduced solar luminosity, but the levels of atmospheric carbon cioxide and other greenhouse gases required remain speculative. A better understanding of past atmospheric evolution is important to understanding the evolution of life and to predicting whether Earth-like planets might exist elsewhere in the galaxy.

Kasting, J.F. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))

1993-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

333

Detection of THz radiation with devices made from wafers with HgTe and InSb quantum wells  

SciTech Connect

In this study we present measurements of the Terahertz (THz) photoconductivity of 2D electron system realized at HgTe/HgCdTe and AlInSb/InSb/AlInSb quantum wells (QWs) in Corbino geometry (inner and outer radius: 500 {mu}m and 1500 {mu}m) with different mobilities and electron densities. To characterize the devices, the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) effect up to magnetic fields B of 7T and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics at various magnetic fields were measured. The THz radiation is provided by a p-Ge laser which operates with a magnetic field and a high voltage for the electrical pumping. The stimulated emission is caused by transitions between Landau levels of light holes [1]. The laser is tunable in the range between 1.7 to 2.5 THz (corresponding to wavelengths between 120 to 180 {mu}m or energies of 7 to 12 meV). The laser is pulsed with a pulse rate of 1 Hz and pulse lengths of about 1 {mu}s with low switching times (about 20 ns). The monochromatic THz radiation is transferred to our samples via a 0.32m long brass waveguide immersed in liquid Helium. The detection of a change in the conductivity of the sample due to absorption of THz-radiation (photoresponse) requires a low-noise circuit. For the Corbino-shaped samples the photoresponse (PR) is measured via a resistor R{sub V} of 1 k{Omega}. The signal is transferred via in a high-frequency cable and detected with a digital oscilloscope.

Gouider, F.; Nachtwei, G. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Vasilyev, Yu. B.; Koenemann, J. [A. F. Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RU-194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Buckle, P. D. [QinetiQ Ltd, Malvern WR14 3PS (United Kingdom); Bruene, C.; Buhmann, H. [Julius-Maximilians-University Wuerzburg, D-97074 (Germany)

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

334

Magnetoresistance of Ce{sub 3}Cu{sub 3}Sb{sub 4}: Ferromagnetic semiconductor (abstract)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ferromagnetic semiconductors are an interesting class of materials. The first one, CrBr{sub 3} was discovered only in 1960. Magnetic semiconductors usually show a prominent peak in the resistivity and a very large negative magnetoresistance (MR) in the vicinity of T{sub c}, which is not well understood. Recently, we have reported Ce{sub 3}Cu{sub 3}Sb{sub 4} to be a ferromagnetic semiconductor with a T{sub c} of 10 K. To our knowledge, this is the first Ce system of this type and is a further addition to the rich varieties of ground states exhibited by Ce systems. Here, we report the MR studies on Ce{sub 3}Cu{sub 3}Sb{sub 4} in magnetic fields up to 8 T in the temperature range 4.2{endash}300 K. The resistivity of Ce{sub 3}Cu{sub 3}Sb{sub 4} shows a rise with decrease in temperature from 300 K exhibiting a peak at 19 K followed by a drastic fall at low temperatures. An activation type fit to the data gives a band-gap energy of 84 K. The resistivity peak is broadened considerably in a field of 8 T and the peak is found to shift to higher temperatures by about 10 K. The MR is small and negative ({lt}0.5{percent}) down to about 60 K and then gradually peaks to a large value of {minus}30{percent} at 12 K. The increased conduction in the vicinity of T{sub c} shows that the conduction band is influenced by the magnetic spins presumably due to s{endash}f interactions. The band-gap energy is found to remain constant even in a field as high as 8 T. This may rule out the magnetic polarons to be the cause of activation type of resistivity behavior. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Paulose, P.L.; Patil, S. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (Mumbai)-5 (India)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Particulate Contacts to Si and CdTe: Al, Ag, Hg-Cu-Te, and Sb-Te  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our team has been investigating the use of particle-based contacts in both Si and CdTe solar cell technologies. First, in the area of contacts to Si, powders of Al and Ag prepared by an electroexplosion process have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), TEM elemental determination X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDS), and TEM electron diffraction (TEM-ED). These Al and Ag particles were slurried and tested as contacts to p- and n-type silicon wafers, respectively. Linear current-voltage (I-V) was observed for Ag on n-type Si, indicative of an ohmic contact, whereas the Al on p-type Si sample was non-ideal. A wet-chemical surface treatment was performed on one Al sample and TEM-EDS indicated a substantial decrease in the O contaminant level. The treated Al on p-type Si films exhibited linear I-V after annealing. Second, in the area of contacts to CdTe, particles of Hg-Cu-Te and Sb-Te have been applied as contacts to CdTe/CdS/SnO2 heterostructures prepared by the standard NREL protocol. First, Hg-Cu-Te and Sb-Te were prepared by a metathesis reaction. After CdCl2 treatment and NP etch of the CdTe layer, particle contacts were applied. The Hg-Cu-Te contacted cells exhibited good electrical characteristics, with Voc > 810 mV and efficiencies > 11.5 % for most cells. Although Voc > 800 mV were observed for the Sb-Te contacted cells, efficiencies in these devices were limited to 9.1%, presumably by a large series resistance (>20 {Omega}) observed in all samples.

Schulz, D. L.; Ribelin, D.; Curtis, C. J.; Ginley, D. S.

1998-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

336

Microphysical and Dynamical Influences on Cirrus Cloud Optical Depth Distributions  

SciTech Connect

Cirrus cloud inhomogeneity occurs at scales greater than the cirrus radiative smoothing scale ({approx}100 m), but less than typical global climate model (GCM) resolutions ({approx}300 km). Therefore, calculating cirrus radiative impacts in GCMs requires an optical depth distribution parameterization. Radiative transfer calculations are sensitive to optical depth distribution assumptions (Fu et al. 2000; Carlin et al. 2002). Using raman lidar observations, we quantify cirrus timescales and optical depth distributions at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Lamont, OK (USA). We demonstrate the sensitivity of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) calculations to assumed optical depth distributions and to the temporal resolution of optical depth measurements. Recent work has highlighted the importance of dynamics and nucleation for cirrus evolution (Haag and Karcher 2004; Karcher and Strom 2003). We need to understand the main controls on cirrus optical depth distributions to incorporate cirrus variability into model radiative transfer calculations. With an explicit ice microphysics parcel model, we aim to understand the influence of ice nucleation mechanism and imposed dynamics on cirrus optical depth distributions.

Kay, J.; Baker, M.; Hegg, D.

2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

337

The microstructure network and thermoelectric properties of bulk (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3}  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report small-angle neutron scattering studies on the microstructure network in bulk (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} synthesized by the melt-spinning (MS) and the spark-plasma-sintering (SPS) process. We find that rough interfaces of multiscale microstructures generated by the MS are responsible for the large reduction of both lattice thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. Our study also finds that subsequent SPS forms a microstructure network of {approx}10 nm thick lamellae and smooth interfaces between them. This nanoscale microstructure network with smooth interfaces increases electrical conductivity while keeping a low thermal conductivity, making it an ideal microstructure for high thermoelectric efficiency.

Xie Wenjie [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Hitchcock, Dale A.; Kang, Hye J.; He Jian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Tang Xinfeng [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Laver, Mark [Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Nano-Science Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Kobenhavn (Denmark); Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Hammouda, Boualem [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

338

Flexible optical panel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A flexible optical panel includes laminated optical waveguides, each including a ribbon core laminated between cladding, with the core being resilient in the plane of the core for elastically accommodating differential movement thereof to permit winding of the panel in a coil.

Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Optical fuel pin scanner  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane at a cylindrical outside surface by use of an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image of an encircled cylindrical surface area to a stationary photodiode array.

Kirchner, Tommy L. (Richland, WA); Powers, Hurshal G. (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Optical scanning apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optical scanner employed in a radioactive environment for reading indicia imprinted about a cylindrical surface of an article by means of an optical system including metallic reflective and mirror surfaces resistant to degradation and discoloration otherwise imparted to glass surfaces exposed to radiation is described.

Villarreal, R.A.

1985-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric optics sb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Digital optical conversion module  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.

Kotter, Dale K. (North Shelley, ID); Rankin, Richard A. (Ammon, ID)

1991-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

342

Digital optical conversion module  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

343

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C4, supplLment au no 4, Tome 40, avril 1979, page C4-66 Magnetization behaviour and the valence of uranium in (U,Th,-,)Sb  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

behaviour and the valence of uranium in (U,Th,-,)Sb B. R. Cooper and 0. Vogt (*) Dept. of Physics, W for uranium in USb, and strongly points toward a 5f3ionic state (U3'). With this in mind, the results of our for interaction between uranium ions. Thus at high thorium concentration, (U,.,Th,.,)Sb is paramagnetic down to 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

344

The Upper Atmosphere of HD17156b  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HD17156b is a newly-found transiting extrasolar giant planet (EGP) that orbits its G-type host star in a highly eccentric orbit (e~0.67) with an orbital semi-major axis of 0.16 AU. Its period, 21.2 Earth days, is the longest among the known transiting planets. The atmosphere of the planet undergoes a 27-fold variation in stellar irradiation during each orbit, making it an interesting subject for atmospheric modelling. We have used a three-dimensional model of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere for extrasolar gas giants in order to simulate the progress of HD17156b along its eccentric orbit. Here we present the results of these simulations and discuss the stability, circulation, and composition in its upper atmosphere. Contrary to the well-known transiting planet HD209458b, we find that the atmosphere of HD17156b is unlikely to escape hydrodynamically at any point along the orbit, even if the upper atmosphere is almost entirely composed of atomic hydrogen and H+, and infrared cooling by H3+ ions is negligible. The nature of the upper atmosphere is sensitive to to the composition of the thermosphere, and in particular to the mixing ratio of H2, as the availability of H2 regulates radiative cooling. In light of different simulations we make specific predictions about the thermosphere-ionosphere system of HD17156b that can potentially be verified by observations.

T. T. Koskinen; A. D. Aylward; S. Miller

2008-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

345

International RADAGAST Experiment in Niamey, Niger: Changes and Drivers of Atmospheric Radiation Balance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Sahara desert is notorious as a source of massive dust storms. This dust dramatically influences the Earth-atmosphere energy budget through reflecting and absorbing the incoming sunlight. However, this budget is poorly understood, and in particular, we lack quantitative understanding of how the diurnal and seasonal variation of meteorological variables and aerosol properties influence the propagation of solar irradiance through the desert atmosphere. To improve our understanding of these influences, coincident and collocated observations of fluxes, measured from both space and the surface, are highly desirable. Recently, the unique capabilities of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) Experiment, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF), the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument, and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) were combined effectively as part of a large international project: the Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using AMF, GERB data and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST), which took place in Niamey, Niger, in 2006. The RADAGAST objectives, instrumentation, and scientific background are presented in [1]. Initial results from RADAGAST documented the strong radiative impact of a major Saharan dust storm on the Earth’s radiation budget [2]. A special issue of the Journal of Geophysical Research will include a collection of papers with the more complete results from RADAGAST (e.g., [1,3], and references therein). In particular, a year-long time series from RADAGAST are used to investigate (i) the factors that control the radiative fluxes and the divergence of radiation across the atmosphere [3-5], (ii) seasonal changes in the surface energy balance and associated variations in atmospheric constituents (water vapor, clouds, aerosols) [6], and (iii) sensitivity of microphysical, chemical and optical properties of aerosols to their sources and the atmospheric conditions [7]. Here we show retrievals of the aerosol properties from spectrally resolved solar measurements, the simulated and observed radiative fluxes at the surface, and outline factors that control the magnitude and variability of aerosol and radiative properties [8].

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Slingo, A.; Bharmal, N.; Robinson, G. J.; Turner, David D.; Miller, Mark; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Miller, R.

2009-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

346

First-principles calculation of the effect of atomic disorder on the electronic structure of the half-metallic ferromagnet NiMnSb  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electronic structure of the half-metallic ferromagnet NiMnSb with three different types of atomic disorder is calculated using the layer Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method in conjunction with the coherent potential approximation. Results indicate the presence of minority-spin states at the Fermi energy for degrees of disorder as low as a few percent. The resulting spin polarization below 100{percent} is discussed in the light of experimental difficulties confirming the half-metallic property of NiMnSb thin films directly. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

Orgassa, D.; Fujiwara, H. [Center for Materials for Information Technolgy (MINT), The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487-0209 (United States); Schulthess, T.C.; Butler, W.H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6114 (United States)

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Synoptic Reorganization of Atmospheric Flow during the Last Glacial Maximum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A coupled global atmosphere–ocean model of intermediate complexity is used to study the influence of glacial boundary conditions on the atmospheric circulation during the Last Glacial Maximum in a systematical manner. A web of atmospheric ...

Flávio Justino; Axel Timmermann; Ute Merkel; Enio P. Souza

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

The NCAR Atmosphere-Surface Turbulent Exchange Research (ASTER) Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Atmosphere-Surface Turbulent Exchange Research (ASTER) facility developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) will support observational research on the structure of the atmospheric surface layer. ASTER will provide state-...

J. A. Businger; W. F. Dabberdt; A. C. Delany; T. W. Horst; C. L. Martin; S. P. Oncley; S. R. Semmer

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Estimating the Meridional Energy Transports in the Atmosphere and Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The poleward energy transports in the atmosphere–ocean system are estimated for the annual mean and the four seasons based on satellite measurements of the net radiation balance at the top of the atmosphere, atmospheric transports of energy at ...

B. C. Carissimo; A. H. Oort; T. H. Vonder Haar

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Biogenic Hydrocarbons in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer: A Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nonmethane hydrocarbons are ubiquitous trace atmospheric constituents yet they control the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere. Both anthropogenic and biogenic processes contribute to the release of hydrocarbons to the atmosphere. In this ...

J. D. Fuentes; L. Gu; M. Lerdau; R. Atkinson; D. Baldocchi; J. W. Bottenheim; P. Ciccioli; B. Lamb; C. Geron; A. Guenther; T. D. Sharkey; W. Stockwell

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Vacillations in a Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are presented from a 35-year integration of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Both ocean and atmosphere are two-level, nonlinear primitive equations models. The global atmospheric model is forced by a steady, zonally symmetric Newtonian ...

Paul S. Schopf; Max J. Suarez

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Rainfall and Radiative Heating Rates from TOGA COARE Atmospheric Budgets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric heat and moisture budgets are used to determine rainfall and radiative heating rates over the western Pacific warm pool during the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE). Results are ...

Richard H. Johnson; Paul E. Ciesielski

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Including Atmospheric Layers in Vegetation and Urban Offline Surface Schemes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A formulation to include prognostic atmospheric layers in offline surface schemes is derived from atmospheric equations. Whereas multilayer schemes developed previously need a complex coupling between atmospheric-model levels and surface-scheme ...

Valéry Masson; Yann Seity

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Homoclinic Dynamics: A Scenario for Atmospheric Ultralow-Frequency Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a link will be established between atmospheric ultralow-frequency variability (ULFV) and the occurrence of homoclinic dynamics in models of large-scale atmospheric flow. It is known that uncoupled atmosphere models possess ...

Daan T. Crommelin

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Charge Lifetime Study of K2CsSb Photocathode Inside a JLAB DC High Voltage Gun  

SciTech Connect

Two photocathodes are frequently considered for generating high average current electron beams and/or beams with high brightness for current and future accelerator applications: GaAs:Cs and K2CsSb. Each photocathode has advantages and disadvantages, and need to demonstrate performance at 'production' accelerator facilities. To this end a K2CsSb photocathode was manufactured at Brookhaven National Lab and delivered to Jefferson Lab within a compact vacuum apparatus at pressure {approx} 5 x 10{sup -11} Torr. This photocathode was installed inside a dc high voltage photogun biased at voltages up to 200 kV, and illuminated with laser light at 440 or 532 nm, to generate beams up to 20 mA. Photocathode charge lifetime measurements indicate that under some conditions this cathode has exceptionally high charge lifetime, without measurable QE decay, even from the center of the photocathode where operation using GaAs photocathodes is precluded due to ion bombardment. These studies also suggest a complex QE decay mechanism likely related to chemistry and localized heating via the laser beam.

Mammei, R.; Rao, T.; Suleiman, R.; Poelker, M.; Smedley, J.; McCarter, J.L.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Oil and gas exploration system and method for detecting trace amounts of hydrocarbon gases in the atmosphere  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oil and gas exploration system and method for land and airborne operations, the system and method used for locating subsurface hydrocarbon deposits based upon a remote detection of trace amounts of gases in the atmosphere. The detection of one or more target gases in the atmosphere is used to indicate a possible subsurface oil and gas deposit. By mapping a plurality of gas targets over a selected survey area, the survey area can be analyzed for measurable concentration anomalies. The anomalies are interpreted along with other exploration data to evaluate the value of an underground deposit. The system includes a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system with a spectroscopic grade laser light and a light detector. The laser light is continuously tunable in a mid-infrared range, 2 to 5 micrometers, for choosing appropriate wavelengths to measure different gases and avoid absorption bands of interference gases. The laser light has sufficient optical energy to measure atmospheric concentrations of a gas over a path as long as a mile and greater. The detection of the gas is based on optical absorption measurements at specific wavelengths in the open atmosphere. Light that is detected using the light detector contains an absorption signature acquired as the light travels through the atmosphere from the laser source and back to the light detector. The absorption signature of each gas is processed and then analyzed to determine if a potential anomaly exists.

Wamsley, Paula R. (Littleton, CO); Weimer, Carl S. (Littleton, CO); Nelson, Loren D. (Evergreen, CO); O' Brien, Martin J. (Pine, CO)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon-13 in Methane Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and...

358

A U. S. Department of Energy User Facility Atmospheric Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

S. Department of Energy User Facility Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program DOESC-ARM...

359

ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH ANNUAL REPORT 1975-76  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

this room ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH -RECEIVED •I.AWSSKCEDIVISION ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH ANNUAL REPORTMass and Composition of Aerosol as a Function of Time,

Novakov, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH, ANNUAL REPORT 1976-77  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DIVISION ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH ANNUAL REPORTLow-Z Elements in Atmospheric Aerosol Particles by Nuclearof sulfur dioxide by aerosols of manganese sulfate," Ind.

Novakov, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric optics sb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Atmospheric Circulation Response to an Instantaneous Doubling of Carbon Dioxide. Part II: Atmospheric Transient Adjustment and Its Dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamical mechanisms underlying the transient circulation adjustment in the extratropical atmosphere after the instantaneous doubling of carbon dioxide are investigated using the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere ...

Yutian Wu; Richard Seager; Tiffany A. Shaw; Mingfang Ting; Naomi Naik

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Shortwave Transport in the Cloudy Atmosphere  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shortwave Transport in the Cloudy Atmosphere Shortwave Transport in the Cloudy Atmosphere by Anomalous/Lévy Diffusion: New Diagnostics Using FORTÉ Lightning Data A. B. Davis Los Alamos National Laboratory Space & Remote Sensing Sciences Group Los Alamos, New Mexico D. M. Suszcynsky Los Alamos National Laboratory Space & Atmospheric Sciences Group Los Alamos, New Mexico A. Marshak National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland Introduction Anomalous photon diffusion can be described as an ad hoc modification of the popular 2-stream approximation, specifically the δ-Eddington/diffusion version, for monochromatic radiative transfer in a scattering plane-parallel atmosphere. In the physical picture that describes the standard diffusion (hence

363

Atmospheric considerations for central receiver power plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the results of a study of the effects of atmospheric attenuation, turbulent scattering, and the use of cooling towers on the performance of solar thermal central receiver power plants.

Henderson, R.G.; Pitter, R.L.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Spectral Preconditioners for Nonhydrostatic Atmospheric Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The elliptic problems in semi-implicit nonhydrostatic atmospheric models are difficult. Typically, they are poorly conditioned, nonseparable, contain cross-derivative terms, and are often nonsymmetric. Here, the resulting linear system is solved ...

Stephen J. Thomas; Joshua P. Hacker; Piotr K. Smolarkiewicz; Roland B. Stull

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Toward a Fully Lagrangian Atmospheric Modeling System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved treatment of advection is essential for atmospheric transport and chemistry models. Eulerian treatments are generally plagued with instabilities, unrealistic negative constituent values, diffusion, and dispersion errors. A higher-...

Jahrul M. Alam; John C. Lin

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Filtering of Gravity Modes in Atmospheric Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of gravity modes in atmospheric model predictions is assessed quantitatively by comparing integrations with a normal mode initialized primitive equation model and its corresponding pseudogeostrophic form to document some generally ...

F. Baer; J. J. Tribbia

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Stochastic Dynamics of the Midlatitude Atmospheric Jet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The innate tendency of the background straining field of the midlatitude atmospheric jet to preferentially amplify a subset of disturbances produces a characteristic response to stochastic perturbation whether the perturbations are internally ...

Brian F. Farrell; Peteros J. Ioannou

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Removal of Atmospheric Effects prom AVHRR Albedos  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on numerical simulations, coefficients are determined to be used in a linear relationship between clear-sky planetary albedo and surface albedo. Thew coefficients are given as functions of solar zenith angle and atmospheric parameters for ...

Peter Koepke

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

HYPERsensarium : an archive of atmospheric conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HYPERsensarium proposes a tangible interface of atmospheres for public experience through an archive of historical and projected weathers. While architecture's purpose has long been to act as the technical boundary between ...

Shaw, Kelly E. (Kelly Evelyn)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Exploring Atmospheric Aerosols by Twilight Photometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The instrument twilight photometer was designed, developed, and installed at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune, India (18°43?N, 73°51?E), to monitor the vertical distribution of atmospheric aerosols. The instrument, based ...

B. Padma Kumari; S. H. Kulkarni; D. B. Jadhav; A. L. Londhe; H. K. Trimbake

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Carbon Dioxide Variability and Atmospheric Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hourly values of the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide at Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) formed the basis for an investigation of concentration fluctuations on daily to monthly time scales. In agreement with earlier studies we found no ...

James C. Sadler; Colin S. Ramage; Arnold M. Hori

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Potential Vorticity in a Moist Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential vorticity principle for a nonhydrostatic, moist, precipitating atmosphere is derived. An appropriate generalization of the well-known (dry) Ertel potential vorticity is found to be P = ??1(2? + × u)?·???, where ? is the total ...

Wayne H. Schubert; Scott A. Hausman; Matthew Garcia; Katsuyuki V. Ooyama; Hung-Chi Kuo

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Nonlinear Atmospheric Adjustment to Thermal Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A nonlinear, numerical model of a compressible atmosphere is used to simulate the hydrostatic and geostrophic adjustment to a localized prescribed heating applied over five minutes with a size characteristic of an isolated, deep, cumulus cloud. ...

Paul F. Fanelli; Peter R. Bannon

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Effect of Nonlinearity on Atmospheric Gravity Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The weakly nonlinear limit of two-dimensional gravity waves in an incompressible, inviscid and stably stratified atmosphere is studied. The three-wave resonant interaction theory indicates an energy cascade from a vertically propagating wave (...

Mostafa M. Ibrahim

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Shear Excitation of Atmospheric Gravity Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Unstable Velocity shears are a Common source of vertically propagating gravity waves in the atmosphere. However, the growth rates of unstable modes predicted by linear theory cannot always amount for their observed importance.

David C. Fritts

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Dynamic Stabilization of Atmospheric Single Column Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single column models (SCMs) provide an economical framework for assessing the sensitivity of atmospheric temperature and humidity to natural and imposed perturbations, and also for developing improved representations of diabatic processes in ...

John W. Bergman; Prashant D. Sardeshmukh

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Intraseasonal Variability in a Dry Atmospheric Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A long integration of a primitive equation dry atmospheric model with time-independent forcing under boreal winter conditions is analyzed. A variety of techniques such as time filtering, space–time spectral analysis, and lag regressions are used ...

Hai Lin; Gilbert Brunet; Jacques Derome

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

The Atmospheric Mesoscale Dispersion Modeling System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mesoscale dispersion modeling system (MDMS) described herein is under development as a simulation tool to investigate atmospheric flow and pollution dispersion over complex terrain for domains up to several hundred kilometers. The system ...

Marek Uliasz

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Atmospheric Entropy. Part I: Climate Dissipation Structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric entropy and its association with climate dissipation are investigated. The balance equation for entropy is derived through the mean and transient thermal and moisture equations. The entropy production contains the internal and external ...

Jiangnan Li; Petr Chylek

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Atmospheric Turbidity over Central North Carolina  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some 8500 observations of atmospheric turbidity, taken at Raleigh, North Carolina from July 1969 to July 1975 are analyzed for within-day and day-to-day variations and their dependence on meteorological parameters. The annual average turbidity of ...

James T. Peterson; Edwin C. Flowers; Guillermo J. Berri; Cheryl L. Reynolds; John H. Rudisill

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric optics sb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Meteorological Tracer Techniques for Parameterizing Atmospheric Dispersion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although tracer materials have been used in atmospheric dispersion studies for decades, basic information about meteorological tracer techniques is scattered among a number of different sources. This paper attempts to pull together this ...

Warren B. Johnson

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Linear Baroclinic Instability in the Martian Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The linear baroclinic instability of zonal-mean flows like those in the wintertime Martian atmosphere under both relatively nondusty and highly dusty conditions is examined using a spherical quasi-geostrophic model. The basic states are idealized,...

Jeffrey R. Barnes

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

State-Space Modeling for Atmospheric Pollution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two different aspect concerning the state-space modeling for atmospheric pollution are dealt with separately in this paper: (i) the treatment of the advection-diffusion equation and (ii) the use of time series analysis.

E. Hernández; F. Martín; F. Valero

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Resonant Planetary Waves in a Spherical Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A global model of planetary wave propagation in a spherical atmosphere is used to examine the spectrum of free or resonant planetary waves of the solstitial stratosphere. These free modes are located by forcing the model with a weak periodic ...

Mark R. Schoeberl; John H. E. Clark

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

The Flywheel Effect in the Middle Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of the requirement of geostrophic balance, mechanical inertia can affect the thermal response of the atmosphere to transient heating. We examine some very simple linear models of this “flywheel effect,” and discuss their possible ...

Roelof K. Snieder; Stephen B. Fels

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Atmosphere–Ocean Modeling Exploiting Fluid Isomorphisms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mathematical isomorphisms between the hydrostatic equations that govern the evolution of a compressible atmosphere and an incompressible ocean are described and exploited to guide the design of a hydrodynamical kernel for simulation of either ...

John Marshall; Alistair Adcroft; Jean-Michel Campin; Chris Hill; Andy White

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Basic Meteorological Observations for Schools: Atmospheric Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article addresses measurement of atmospheric surface pressure using economical instruments. It is intended to provide members of the Society with a ready reference to respond to inquiries from earth and physical science teachers at the ...

John T. Snow; Michelle E. Akridge; Shawn B. Harley

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

A Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development is described of a Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS)—the result of a cooperative project to collect global weather observations taken near the ocean's surface since 1854, primarily from merchant ships, into a compact and ...

Scott D. Woodruff; Ralph J. Slutz; Roy L. Jenne; Peter M. Steurer

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Effects of Atmospheric Turbulence on Ballistic Testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of atmospheric turbulence on munition target scatter are determined from numerical simulations of ballistic trajectories through many realizations of realistic simulated turbulent wind fields. A technique is evaluated for correcting ...

Rod Frehlich; Robert Sharman; Charles Clough; Michael Padovani; Kelly Fling; Ward Boughers; W. Scott Walton

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Mars Atmosphere Pressure Periodicities from Viking Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first martian year of pressure data taken by the Viking landers on Mars is subjected to power spectrum analysis. The analysis suggests that strong periodicities are present in the martian atmosphere, especially at the high-latitude (48°N) ...

R. D. Sharman; J. A. Ryan

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Profiling atmospheric aerosols | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a number of instruments that use low power lasers (the instrument is called Micropulse Lidar, MPL) to measure the turbidity of the atmosphere above the ground. For the first time,...

392

Reducing the atmospheric impact of wet slaking  

SciTech Connect

Means of reducing the atmospheric emissions due to the wet slaking of coke are considered. One option, investigated here, is to remove residual active silt and organic compounds from the biologically purified wastewater sent for slaking, by coagulation and flocculation.

B.D. Zubitskii; G.V. Ushakov; B.G. Tryasunov; A.G.Ushakov [Kuznetsk Basin State Technical University, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

393

Gregorian optical system with non-linear optical technology for protection against intense optical transients  

SciTech Connect

An optical system comprising a concave primary mirror reflects light through an intermediate focus to a secondary mirror. The secondary mirror re-focuses the image to a final image plane. Optical limiter material is placed near the intermediate focus to optically limit the intensity of light so that downstream components of the optical system are protected from intense optical transients. Additional lenses before and/or after the intermediate focus correct optical aberrations.

Ackermann, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Diels, Jean-Claude M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

394

Thin display optical projector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optical system (20) projects light into a planar optical display (10). The display includes laminated optical waveguides (12) defining an inlet face (14) at one end and an outlet screen (16) at an opposite end. A first mirror (26) collimates light from a light source (18) along a first axis, and distributes the light along a second axis. A second mirror (28) collimates the light from the first mirror along the second axis to illuminate the inlet face and produce an image on the screen.

Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Silicon fiber optic sensors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Fabry-Perot cavity is formed by a partially or wholly reflective surface on the free end of an integrated elongate channel or an integrated bounding wall of a chip of a wafer and a partially reflective surface on the end of the optical fiber. Such a constructed device can be utilized to detect one or more physical parameters, such as, for example, strain, through the optical fiber using an optical detection system to provide measuring accuracies of less than aboutb0.1%.

Pocha, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Wood, Billy E. (Livermore, CA)

2007-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

396

Fiber optic laser rod  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser rod is formed from a plurality of optical fibers, each forming an individual laser. Synchronization of the individual fiber lasers is obtained by evanescent wave coupling between adjacent optical fiber cores. The fiber cores are dye-doped and spaced at a distance appropriate for evanescent wave coupling at the wavelength of the selected dye. An interstitial material having an index of refraction lower than that of the fiber core provides the optical isolation for effective lasing action while maintaining the cores at the appropriate coupling distance. 2 figs.

Erickson, G.F.

1988-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

397

Quantum light in the turbulent atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nonclassical properties of light propagating through the turbulent atmosphere are studied. We demonstrate by numerical simulation that the probability distribution of the transmission coefficient, which characterizes the effects of the atmosphere on the quantum state of light, can be reconstructed by homodyne detection. Nonclassical photon-statistics and, more generally, nonclassical Glauber-Sudarshan functions appear to be more robust against turbulence for weak light fields rather than for bright ones.

A. A. Semenov; W. Vogel

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

398

Lookup tables to compute high energy cosmic ray induced atmospheric ionization and changes in atmospheric chemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A variety of events such as gamma-ray bursts and supernovae may expose the Earth to an increased flux of high-energy cosmic rays, with potentially important effects on the biosphere. Existing atmospheric chemistry software does not have the capability of incorporating the effects of substantial cosmic ray flux above 10 GeV . An atmospheric code, the NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center two-dimensional (latitude, altitude) time-dependent atmospheric model (NGSFC), is used to study atmospheric chemistry changes. Using CORSIKA, we have created tables that can be used to compute high energy cosmic ray (10 GeV - 1 PeV) induced atmospheric ionization and also, with the use of the NGSFC code, can be used to simulate the resulting atmospheric chemistry changes. We discuss the tables, their uses, weaknesses, and strengths.

Dimitra Atri; Adrian L. Melott; Brian C. Thomas

2008-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

399

Atmospheric Neutrinos in the MINOS Far Detector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The phenomenon of flavour oscillations of neutrinos created in the atmosphere was first reported by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration in 1998 and since then has been confirmed by Soudan 2 and MACRO. The MINOS Far Detector is the first magnetized neutrino detector able to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations. Although it was designed to detect neutrinos from the NuMI beam, it provides a unique opportunity to measure the oscillation parameters for neutrinos and anti-neutrinos independently. The MINOS Far Detector was completed in August 2003 and since then has collected 2.52 kton-years of atmospheric data. Atmospheric neutrino interactions contained within the volume of the detector are separated from the dominant background from cosmic ray muons. Thirty seven events are selected with an estimated background contamination of less than 10%. Using the detector's magnetic field, 17 neutrino events and 6 anti-neutrino events are identified, 14 events have ambiguous charge. The neutrino oscillation parameters for {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} are studied using a maximum likelihood analysis. The measurement does not place constraining limits on the neutrino oscillation parameters due to the limited statistics of the data set analysed. However, this thesis represents the first observation of charge separated atmospheric neutrino interactions. It also details the techniques developed to perform atmospheric neutrino analyses in the MINOS Far Detector.

Howcroft, Caius L.F.; /Cambridge U.

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

The Birth and Life of Our Atmosphere  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Birth and Life of Our Atmosphere Birth and Life of Our Atmosphere Nature Bulletin No. 554-A February 15, 1975 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation THE BIRTH AND LIFE OF OUR ATMOSPHERE In Bulletin No. 542-A we described the atmosphere that surrounds the earth, held there by the pull of gravity, including the canopy of air immediately above us. That canopy is responsible for our weather and climates, shields us from the killing rays of the sun, and furnishes substances necessary for all life: oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. Astronomers believe that none of the other planets -- excepting Mars, perhaps -- has an atmosphere anything like ours. The principal elements, free nitrogen (78 percent) and free oxygen (21 percent), apparently are rare in the universe. On the other hand, the earth's atmosphere contains only traces of free hydrogen and helium -- the two lightest gases -- whereas they are by far the most common elements elsewhere in the universe.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric optics sb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Distributed Optical Sensor for CO2 Leak Detection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optical Sensor for CO Optical Sensor for CO 2 Leak Detection Opportunity Research is active on the technology "Distributed Optical Sensor for CO 2 Leak Detection," for which a Patent Application has been filed. This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Overview The availability of fossil fuels to provide clean, affordable energy is essential for domestic and global prosperity and security well into the 21st century. However, there are concerns over the impacts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere-particularly carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Carbon capture and storage in geologic formations is a promising technology to reduce the impact of CO

402

Method of fabricating optical waveguides by ion implantation doping  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for fabricating high-quality optical waveguides in optical quality oxide crystals by ion implantation doping and controlled epitaxial recrystallization is provided. Masked LiNbO/sub 3/ crystals are implanted with high concentrations of Ti dopant at ion energies of about 360 keV while maintaining the crystal near liquid nitrogen temperature. Ion implantation doping produces an amorphous, Ti-rich nonequilibrium phase in the implanted region. Subsequent thermal annealing in a water-saturated oxygen atmosphere at up to 1000/degree/C produces solid-phase epitaxial regrowth onto the crystalline substrate. A high-quality crystalline layer results which incorporates the Ti into the crystal structure at much higher concentrations than is possible by standard diffusion techniques, and this implanted region has excellent optical waveguiding properties.

Appleton, B.R.; Ashley, P.R.; Buchal, C.J.

1987-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

403

Methods for globally treating silica optics to reduce optical damage  

SciTech Connect

A method for preventing damage caused by high intensity light sources to optical components includes annealing the optical component for a predetermined period. Another method includes etching the optical component in an etchant including fluoride and bi-fluoride ions. The method also includes ultrasonically agitating the etching solution during the process followed by rinsing of the optical component in a rinse bath.

Miller, Philip Edward; Suratwala, Tayyab Ishaq; Bude, Jeffrey Devin; Shen, Nan; Steele, William Augustus; Laurence, Ted Alfred; Feit, Michael Dennis; Wong, Lana Louie

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

404

Optical Nanomaterials for Photonics/Biophotonics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Applications of optical nanoparticles in telecommunications, photodetectors, LED , etc. - Fluorescent Imaging using optical nanolabels (including multiphoton ...

405

Fluorescent Optical Position Sensor  

Sandia National Laboratories has created a method and apparatus for measuring the position of an object.  It relies on the attenuation of fluorescence light carried inside a fluorescent optical fiber to determine the position of an object. 

406

Stereoscopic optical viewing system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved optical system which provides the operator with a stereoscopic viewing field and depth of vision, particularly suitable for use in various machines such as electron or laser beam welding and drilling machines. The system features two separate but independently controlled optical viewing assemblies from the eyepiece to a spot directly above the working surface. Each optical assembly comprises a combination of eye pieces, turning prisms, telephoto lenses for providing magnification, achromatic imaging relay lenses and final stage pentagonal turning prisms. Adjustment for variations in distance from the turning prisms to the workpiece, necessitated by varying part sizes and configurations and by the operator's visual accuity, is provided separately for each optical assembly by means of separate manual controls at the operator console or within easy reach of the operator.

Tallman, C.S.

1986-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

407

Integrated optical isolators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction: Optical isolators are important components in lasers. Their main function is to eliminate noise caused by back-reflections into these lasers. The need for integrated isolators comes from the continuing growth ...

Zaman, Tauhid R

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Optical fiber switch  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Optical fiber switches operated by electrical activation of at least one laser light modulator through which laser light is directed into at least one polarizer are used for the sequential transport of laser light from a single laser into a plurality of optical fibers. In one embodiment of the invention, laser light from a single excitation laser is sequentially transported to a plurality of optical fibers which in turn transport the laser light to separate individual remotely located laser fuel ignitors. The invention can be operated electro-optically with no need for any mechanical or moving parts, or, alternatively, can be operated electro-mechanically. The invention can be used to switch either pulsed or continuous wave laser light.

Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Lester, Charles S. (San Juan Pueblo, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Optical dynamic circuit services  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

IP service, leased-line service and POTS service have been the three long-standing communication service offerings of providers. Recently, both commercial and research-andeducation network providers have started offering optical dynamic circuit services. ...

Malathi Veeraraghavan; Mark Karol; George Clapp

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Electro-Optical Characterization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the Electro-Optical Characterization group, within the National Center for Photovoltaic's Measurements and Characterization Division, we use various electrical and optical experimental techniques to relate photovoltaic device performance to the methods and materials used to produce them. The types of information obtained by these techniques range from small-scale atomic-bonding information to large-scale macroscopic quantities such as optical constants and electron-transport properties. Accurate and timely measurement of the electro-optical properties as a function of device processing provides researchers and manufacturers with the knowledge needed to troubleshoot problems and develop the knowledge base necessary for reducing cost, maximizing efficiency, improving reliability, and enhancing manufacturability. We work collaboratively with you to solve materials- and device-related R&D problems. This sheet summarizes our primary techniques and capabilities.

Not Available

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Relaying an optical wavefront  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A wavefront rely devices samples an incoming optical wavefront at different locations, optically relays the samples while maintaining the relative position of the samples and the relative phase between the samples. The wavefront is reconstructed due to interference of the samples. Devices can be designed for many different wavelengths, including for example the ultraviolet, visible, infrared and even longer wavelengths such as millimeter waves. In one application, the device function as a telescope but with negligible length.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Vawter, G. Allen (Corrales, NM)

2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

412

Fiber optic detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

Partin, J.K.; Ward, T.E.; Grey, A.E.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

413

Flat Plate PV Module Eligibility Listing Procedure Updated 6/28/12 Senate Bill 1 (SB1) defines the solar incentive programs for California, and flat plate PV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the solar incentive programs for California, and flat plate PV modules1 must be listed on the SB1 compliant programs for investor owned utility (IOU) territories, the California Solar Initiative (CSI) and the New module list to be eligible for incentives in California. Senate Bill 1 encompasses two staterun

414

Electrochemical lithium insertion in the solid solution Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}-Sb{sub 2}WO{sub 6} with Aurivillius framework  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Following the structural evolution of the Aurivillius crystalline framework in the solid solution Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}-Sb{sub 2}WO{sub 6} we have carried out an electrochemical lithium insertion study in this system. A slight loss of the specific capacity of the electrochemical cell was observed as amount of Sb was increased. In general, the different compositions within solid solution Bi{sub 2-x}Sb{sub x}WO{sub 6} (0.25 {<=} x {<=} 0.75) exhibited a similar behaviour featured mainly by two semiconstant potential regions located at 1.7 and 0.8 V versus Li{sup +}/Li{sup o}. The oxide Sb{sub 2}WO{sub 6} with Autivillius structure but without Bi was tested as cathode too. The maximum amount of lithium inserted, 13.5 lithium atoms per formula, is the same amount inserted in its homologous bismuth oxide Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}.

Martinez-de la Cruz, A. [Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 66451, San Nicolas de los Garza, NL (Mexico)], E-mail: azmartin@gama.fime.uanl.mx; Longoria Rodriguez, F.E. [Departamento de Quimica, Campus Universitario Los Guaritos, Universidad de Oriente, Av. Universidad, CP 6203 Monagas (Venezuela)

2007-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

415

Confirmatory Survey Report for Area B1S/B2S at the Chevron Mining Washington Remediation Project, Washington, PA  

SciTech Connect

During the period of October 2 and 3, 2007, the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) performed confirmatory radiological survey activities which included gamma surface scans within Area B1S/B2S and the collection of soil samples from these areas.

W. C. Adams

2007-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

416

Optical pumping in a whispering-mode optical waveguide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device and method for optical pumping in a whispering mode optical waveguide are described. Both a helical ribbon and cylinder are disclosed which incorporate an additional curvature for confining the beam to increase intensity. An optical pumping medium is disposed in the optical path of the beam as it propagates along the waveguide. Optical pumping is enhanced by the high intensities of the beam and long interaction path lengths which are achieved in a small volume.

Kurnit, N.A.

1981-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

417

Optical access port  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A 0.025 m diameter optical access port system is provided for a high-pressure (20.4 bars) and high-temperature (538{degrees}C) fixed-bed coal gasification process stream. A pair of proximal channels lead into the pipe containing the process stream with the proximal channels disposed on opposite sides of the pipe and coaxial. A pair of ball valves are attached to respective ends of proximal channels for fluidly closing the respective channels in a closed position and for providing a fluid and optical aperture in an open position. A pair of distal channels are connected to respective ball valves. These distal channels are also coaxial with each other and with the proximal channels. Each distal channel includes an optical window disposed therein and associated sealing gaskets. A purge gas is introduced into each distal channel adjacent a respective optical window. The purge gas is heated by a heater before entry into the distal channels. Preferably the optical windows are made of fused silica and the seals are Grafoil gaskets which are pressed against the optical window. 3 figs.

Lutz, S.A.; Anderson, R.J.

1988-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

418

Fibre optics: Forty years later  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a brief overview of the state of the art in fibre optics and its main applications: optical fibre communications, fibre lasers and fibre sensors for various physical property measurements. The future of fibre optics and the status of this important area of the modern technology in Russia are discussed. (fiber optics)

Dianov, Evgenii M [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

419

Surface shortwave aerosol radiative forcing during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility deployment in Niamey, Niger  

SciTech Connect

This study presents ground-based remote sensing measurements of aerosol optical properties and corresponding shortwave surface radiative effect calculations for the deployment of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program’s Mobile Facility (AMF) to Niamey, Niger during 2006. Aerosol optical properties including aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), and asymmetry parameter (AP) were derived from multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) measurements during the two dry seasons (Jan-Apr and Oct-Dec) at Niamey. The vertical distribution of aerosol extinction was derived from the collocated micropulse lidar (MPL). The aerosol optical properties and vertical distribution of extinction varied significantly throughout the year, with higher AOD, lower SSA, and deeper aerosol layers during the Jan-Apr time period, when biomass burning aerosol layers were more frequent. Using the retrieved aerosol properties and vertical extinction profiles, broadband shortwave surface fluxes and atmospheric heating rate profiles were calculated. Corresponding calculations with no aerosol were used to estimate the aerosol direct radiative effect at the surface. Comparison of the calculated surface fluxes to observed fluxes for non-cloudy periods indicated that the remote sensing retrievals provided a reasonable estimation of the optical properties, with mean differences between calculated and observed fluxes of less than 5 W/m2 and RMS differences less than 25 W/m2. Sensitivity tests for a particular case study showed that the observed fluxes could be matched with variations of < 10% in the inputs to the radiative transfer model. We estimated the daily-averaged aerosol radiative effect at the surface by subtracting the clear calculations from the aerosol calculations. The average daily SW aerosol radiative effect over the study period was -27 W/m2, which is comparable to values estimated from satellite data and from climate models with sophisticated dust parameterizations.

McFarlane, Sally A.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Ackerman, Thomas P.

2009-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

420

Transparent electrode for optical switch  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates generally to optical switches and techniques for applying a voltage to an electro-optical crystal, and more particularly, to transparent electodes for an optical switch. System architectures for very large inertial confinement fusion (ICF) lasers require active optical elements with apertures on the order of one meter. Large aperture optical switches are needed for isolation of stages, switch-out from regenerative amplifier cavities and protection from target retroreflections.

Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

1984-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric optics sb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

3D atmospheric modeling based on MODTRAN4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

All the factors of atmospheric environment that influence the transmission of infrared radiation were analyzed in detail in the paper. Taking horizontally varying atmospheric property into consideration, a 3D model of atmospheric transmission of infrared ... Keywords: MODTRAN4, infrared radiation, model, path radiation, ratio of atmospheric transmission, simulation, single scatter solar radiation

Ge Li; Zhifeng Lu; Gang Guo; Kedi Huang

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

East Coast (PADD 1) Gross Inputs to Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

East Coast (PADD 1) Gross Inputs to Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Units (Thousand Barrels per Day)

423

Guam Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Guam Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Calendar Day)

424

Refining District New Mexico Gross Inputs to Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refining District New Mexico Gross Inputs to Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Units (Thousand Barrels per Day)

425

Measurement and modeling of infrared nonlinear absorption coefficients and laser-induced damage thresholds in Ge and GaSb  

SciTech Connect

Using a simultaneous fitting technique to extract nonlinear absorption coefficients from data at two pulse widths, we measure two-photon and free-carrier absorption coefficients for Ge and GaSb at 2.05 and 2.5 {mu}m for the first time, to our knowledge. Results agreed well with published theory. Single-shot damage thresholds were also measured at 2.5 {mu}m and agreed well with modeled thresholds using experimentally determined parameters including nonlinear absorption coefficients and temperature dependent linear absorption. The damage threshold for a single-layer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} anti-reflective coating on Ge was 55% or 35% lower than the uncoated threshold for picosecond or nanosecond pulses, respectively.

Wagner, T. J.; Bohn, M. J.; Coutu, R. A. Jr. [Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Gonzalez, L. P.; Murray, J. M.; Guha, S. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Schepler, K. L. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

426

Lattice dynamics and anomalous softening in the YbFe[subscript 4]Sb[subscript 12] skutterudite  

SciTech Connect

The lattice dynamics of the filled skutterudite YbFe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} was studied by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and an anomalous softening in the temperature dependence of the elastic constants at {approx} 50 K was observed. This anomaly can not be explained by the dynamics of the filler, in contrast to other filled skutterudites. We have further investigated the origin of this anomaly using macroscopic and microscopic measurements. A rearrangement of the spectral weight of the Yb phonon states was observed in the temperature dependence of the density of phonon states, obtained by inelastic neutron scattering. We suggest that the anomaly is due to a change of the Yb valence state and that the anomaly and the phonon spectral weight rearrangement have the same origin.

Möchel, A.; Sergueev, I.; Wille, H.-C.; Voigt, J.; Prager, M.; Stone, M.B.; Sales, B.C.; Guguchia, Z.; Shengelaya, A.; Keppens, V.; Hermann, R.P. (DESY); (Tennessee-K); (Julich); (ORNL); (Tbilisi); (ESRF)

2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

427

Electronic structure and magnetism in BaMn2As2 and BaMn2Sb2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the properties of ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} structure BaMn{sub 2}As{sub 2} and BaMn{sub 2}Sb{sub 2} using density functional calculations of the electronic and magnetic properties as well as experimental measurements on single crystal samples of BaMn{sub 2}As{sub 2}. These materials are local moment magnets with moderate band gap antiferromagnetic semiconducting ground states. The electronic structures show substantial Mn-pnictogen hybridization, which stabilizes an intermediate spin configuration for the nominally d{sup 5} Mn. The results are discussed in the context of possible thermoelectric applications and the relationship with the corresponding iron/cobalt/nickel compounds Ba(Fe,Co,Ni){sub 2}As{sub 2}.

An, Jiming [ORNL; Safa-Sefat, Athena [ORNL; Singh, David J [ORNL; Du, Mao-Hua [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

H{alpha} ABSORPTION IN TRANSITING EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERES  

SciTech Connect

Absorption of stellar H{alpha} by the upper atmosphere of the planet HD 189733b has recently been detected by Jensen et al. Motivated by this observation, we have developed a model for atomic hydrogen in the n = 2 state and compared the resulting H{alpha} line profile to the observations. The model atmosphere is in hydrostatic balance, as well as thermal and photoionization equilibrium. Collisional and radiative transitions are included in the determination of the n = 2 state level population. We find that H{alpha} absorption is dominated by an optical depth {tau} {approx} 1 shell, composed of hydrogen in the metastable 2s state that is located below the hydrogen ionization layer. The number density of the 2s state within the shell is found to vary slowly with radius, while that of the 1s state falls rapidly. Thus while the Ly{alpha} absorption, for a certain wavelength, occurs inside a relatively well defined impact parameter, the contribution to H{alpha} absorption is roughly uniform over the entire atomic hydrogen layer. The model can approximately reproduce the observed Ly{alpha} and H{alpha} integrated transit depths for HD 189733b by using an ionization rate enhanced over that expected for the star by an order of magnitude. For HD 209458b, we are unable to explain the asymmetric H{alpha} line profile observed by Jensen et al., as the model produces a symmetric line profile with transit depth comparable to that of HD 189733b. In an appendix, we study the effect of the stellar Ly{alpha} absorption on the net cooling rate.

Christie, Duncan; Arras, Phil; Li Zhiyun, E-mail: dac5zm@virginia.edu, E-mail: pla7y@virginia.edu, E-mail: zl4h@virginia.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

A method to correct IACT data for atmospheric absorption due to the Saharan Air Layer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using the atmosphere as a detector volume, Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) depend highly on the properties and the condition of the air mass above the telescope. On the Canary Island of La Palma, where the Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov telescope (MAGIC) is situated, the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) can cause strong atmospheric absorption affecting the data quality and resulting in a reduced gamma flux. To correlate IACT data with other measurements, e.g. long-term monitoring or Multi-Wavelength (MWL) studies, an accurate flux determination is mandatory. Therefore, a method to correct the data for the effect of the SAL is needed. Three different measurements of the atmospheric absorption are performed on La Palma. From the determined transmission, a correction factor is calculated and applied to the MAGIC data. The different transmission measurements from optical and IACT data provide comparable results. MAGIC data of PG 1553+113, taken during a MWL campaign in July 2006, have been analyzed using the presented method, providing a corrected flux measurement for the study of the spectral energy distribution of the source.

Daniela Dorner; Kari Nilsson; Thomas Bretz

2008-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

430

Method and apparatus for simulating atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to water vapor and CO{sub 2}  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth`s surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO{sub 2} and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO{sub 2} and moisture. 8 figs.

Sopori, B.L.

1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

431

TAU: A 1D radiative transfer code for transmission spectroscopy of extrasolar planet atmospheres  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The TAU code is a 1D line-by-line radiative transfer code, which is generally applicable for modelling transmission spectra of close-in extrasolar planets. The inputs are the assumed pressure-temperature profile of the planetary atmosphere, the continuum absorption coefficients and the absorption cross-sections for the trace molecular absorbers present in the model, as well as the fundamental system parameters taken from the published literature. The program then calculates the optical path through the planetary atmosphere of the radiation from the host star, and quantifies the absorption due to the modelled composition in a transmission spectrum of transit depth as a function of wavelength. The code is written in C++, parallelised using OpenMP, and is available for public download and use from http://www.ucl.ac.uk/exoplanets/.

Hollis, M D J; Tinetti, G

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Impact of Aerosols on Atmospheric Attenuation Loss in Central Receiver Systems: Preprint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric attenuation loss between the heliostat field and receiver has been recognized as a significant source of loss in Central Receiver Systems. In clear sky situations, extinction of Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) is primarily by aerosols in the atmosphere. When aerosol loading is high close to the surface the attenuation loss between heliostat and receivers is significantly influenced by the amount of aerosols present on a particular day. This study relates measured DNI to aerosol optical depths close to the surface of the earth. The model developed in the paper uses only measured DNI to estimate the attenuation between heliostat and receiver in a central receiver system. The requirement that only a DNI measurement is available potentially makes the model a candidate for widespread use.

Sengupta, M.; Wagner, M. J.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Optics Supply Planning System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to specify the design for an initial optics supply planning system for NIF, and to present quality assurance and test plans for the construction of the system as specified. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large laser facility that is just starting operations. Thousands of specialized optics are required to operate the laser, and must be exchanged over time based on the laser shot plan and predictions of damage. Careful planning and tracking of optic exchanges is necessary because of the tight inventory of spare optics, and the long lead times for optics procurements and production changes. Automated inventory forecasting and production planning tools are required to replace existing manual processes. The optics groups members who are expected to use the supply planning system are the stakeholders for this project, and are divided into three groups. Each of these groups participated in a requirements specification that was used to develop this design. (1) Optics Management--These are the top level stakeholdersk, and the final decision makers. This group is the interface to shot operations, is ultimately responsible for optics supply, and decides which exchanges will be made. (2) Work Center Managers--This group manages the on site optics processing work centers. They schedule the daily work center operations, and are responsible for developing long term processing, equipment, and staffing plans. (3) Component Engineers--This group manages the vendor contracts for the manufacture of new optics and the off site rework of existing optics. They are responsible for sourcing vendors, negotiating contracts, and managing vendor processes. The scope of this analysis is to describe the structure and design details of a system that will meet all requirements that were described by stakeholders and documented in the analysis model for this project. The design specifies the architecture, components, interfaces, and data stores of the system at a level of detail that can be used for construction and deployment. Test and quality assurance plans are also included to insure that the system delivers all requirements when it is built. The design is for an automated forecasting prototype that allocates inventory and processing resources in response to potentially daily changes in the forecasted optics exchanges required to operate NIF. It will automatically calculate future inventory levels and processing rates based on current inventory and projected exchanges, procurements, and capacities. It will include screens that allow users to readily assess the feasibility of the forecast, identify failures to meet the demand, revise input data, and re-run the automated forecast calculation. In addition, the system will automatically retrieve the current exchange demand from an external database. Approved forecasts from the system will automatically update work order plans and procurement plans in the existing inventory and production control database. The timing of optics exchanges affects the forecast of damage and future exchanges, so an approved exchange plan will be fed back to the demand database and be used to calculate the next demand projection. The system will read the demand data and update the forecast and output files daily. This specification has been divided into two parts. This document, Part 1 lays out the major design decisions and specifies the architectural, component, and data structure designs. Part 2 will add interface designs, quality assurance and testing plans, and deployment details.

Gaylord, J

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

434

Optical high acidity sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

1997-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

435

Optical high acidity sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Nekimken, Howard L. (Los Alamos, NM); Carey, W. Patrick (Lynnwood, WA); O' Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Optical key system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An optical key system comprises a battery-operated optical key and an isolated lock that derives both its operating power and unlock signals from the correct optical key. A light emitting diode or laser diode is included within the optical key and is connected to transmit a bit-serial password. The key user physically enters either the code-to-transmit directly, or an index to a pseudorandom number code, in the key. Such person identification numbers can be retained permanently, or ephemeral. When a send button is pressed, the key transmits a beam of light modulated with the password information. The modulated beam of light is received by a corresponding optical lock with a photovoltaic cell that produces enough power from the beam of light to operate a password-screen digital logic. In one application, an acceptable password allows a two watt power laser diode to pump ignition and timing information over a fiberoptic cable into a sealed engine compartment. The receipt of a good password allows the fuel pump, spark, and starter systems to each operate. Therefore, bypassing the lock mechanism as is now routine with automobile thieves is pointless because the engine is so thoroughly disabled.

Hagans, K.G.; Clough, R.E.

2000-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

437

Optical key system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optical key system comprises a battery-operated optical key and an isolated lock that derives both its operating power and unlock signals from the correct optical key. A light emitting diode or laser diode is included within the optical key and is connected to transmit a bit-serial password. The key user physically enters either the code-to-transmit directly, or an index to a pseudorandom number code, in the key. Such person identification numbers can be retained permanently, or ephemeral. When a send button is pressed, the key transmits a beam of light modulated with the password information. The modulated beam of light is received by a corresponding optical lock with a photovoltaic cell that produces enough power from the beam of light to operate a password-screen digital logic. In one application, an acceptable password allows a two watt power laser diode to pump ignition and timing information over a fiberoptic cable into a sealed engine compartment. The receipt of a good password allows the fuel pump, spark, and starter systems to each operate. Therefore, bypassing the lock mechanism as is now routine with automobile thieves is pointless because the engine is so thoroughly disabled.

Hagans, Karla G. (Livermore, CA); Clough, Robert E. (Danville, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Fiber optic hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading, by a single spectrophotometer.

Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Atmospheric and Climate Science | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric and Climate Science Atmospheric and Climate Science Argonne research in aerosols, micro-meteorology, remote sensing, and atmospheric chemistry combined with our scalable, portable, high-performance climate and weather applications offer a unique look at the complexities of a dynamic planet. Changes in climate can affect biodiversity, the cost of food, our health, and even whole economies. Argonne is developing computational models and tools designed to shed light on complex biological processes and their economic, social, and health effects. Research spans the molecular level to whole organisms and their interaction with climate, the ecosystem, and human activities. The goal is to improve our understanding of the world around us while increasing the accuracy of regional climate models to

440

Atmospheric Delta 14C Record from Wellington  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Isotopes » Carbon Isotopes » δ14C from Wellington Atmospheric δ14C Record from Wellington graphics Graphics data Data Investigators M.R. Manning, W.H. Melhuish National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Ltd., Climate Division, Gracefield Road, Gracefield, P.O. Box 31-311, Lower Hutt, New Zealand Period of Record 1954-93 Methods Trays containing ~2 L of 5 normal NaOH carbonate-free solution are typically exposed for intervals of 1-2 weeks, and the atmospheric CO2 absorbed during that time is recovered by acid evolution. Considerable fractionation occurs during absorption into the NaOH solution, and the standard fractionation correction (Stuiver and Polach 1977) is used to determine a δ 14C value corrected to δ 13C = -25 per mil. Some samples reported here were taken using BaOH solution or with extended

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric optics sb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

atmospheric water vapor | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

atmospheric water vapor atmospheric water vapor Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. Source NREL Date Released July 31st, 2006 (8 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords atmospheric water vapor Carribean Islands Central America DNI GIS Mexico NREL GEF solar SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 247.8 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 370.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review

442

Our Dusty Atmosphere | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Dusty Atmosphere Dusty Atmosphere Our Dusty Atmosphere September 6, 2011 - 4:26pm Addthis A heavy layer of air pollution, a mix of aerosol particles and vapors, obscures the view over Mexico City. Two studies by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory show the importance of including the small-scale effects of aerosols in climate modeling. | Image courtesy of PNNL A heavy layer of air pollution, a mix of aerosol particles and vapors, obscures the view over Mexico City. Two studies by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory show the importance of including the small-scale effects of aerosols in climate modeling. | Image courtesy of PNNL Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science What are the key facts? Researchers are developing a better understanding of the effects of

443

Our Dusty Atmosphere | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Our Dusty Atmosphere Our Dusty Atmosphere Our Dusty Atmosphere September 6, 2011 - 4:26pm Addthis A heavy layer of air pollution, a mix of aerosol particles and vapors, obscures the view over Mexico City. Two studies by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory show the importance of including the small-scale effects of aerosols in climate modeling. | Image courtesy of PNNL A heavy layer of air pollution, a mix of aerosol particles and vapors, obscures the view over Mexico City. Two studies by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory show the importance of including the small-scale effects of aerosols in climate modeling. | Image courtesy of PNNL Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science What are the key facts? Researchers are developing a better understanding of the effects of

444

Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

A Community Atmosphere Model with Superparameterized Clouds  

SciTech Connect

In 1999, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) scientists Wojciech Grabowski and Piotr Smolarkiewicz created a "multiscale" atmospheric model in which the physical processes associated with clouds were represented by running a simple high-resolution model within each grid column of a lowresolution global model. In idealized experiments, they found that the multiscale model produced promising simulations of organized tropical convection, which other models had struggled to produce. Inspired by their results, Colorado State University (CSU) scientists Marat Khairoutdinov and David Randall created a multiscale version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). They removed the cloud parameterizations of the CAM, and replaced them with Khairoutdinov's high-resolution cloud model. They dubbed the embedded cloud model a "super-parameterization," and the modified CAM is now called the "SP-CAM." Over the next several years, many scientists, from many institutions, have explored the ability of the SP-CAM to simulate tropical weather systems, the day-night changes of precipitation, the Asian and African monsoons, and a number of other climate processes. Cristiana Stan of the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions found that the SP-CAM gives improved results when coupled to an ocean model, and follow-on studies have explored the SP-CAM's utility when used as the atmospheric component of the Community Earth System Model. Much of this research has been performed under the auspices of the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes, a National Science Foundation (NSF) Science and Technology Center for which the lead institution is CSU.

Randall, David; Branson, Mark; Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.; Craig, Cheryl; Gettelman, A.; Edwards, Jim

2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

446

Atmospheric Correction Algorithm for Hyperspectral Imagery  

SciTech Connect

In December 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established a Center of Excellence (Hyperspectral-Multispectral Algorithm Research Center, HyMARC) for promoting the research and development of algorithms to exploit spectral imagery. This center is located at the DOE Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, and is operated for the DOE by Bechtel Nevada. This paper presents the results to date of a research project begun at the center during 1998 to investigate the correction of hyperspectral data for atmospheric aerosols. Results of a project conducted by the Rochester Institute of Technology to define, implement, and test procedures for absolute calibration and correction of hyperspectral data to absolute units of high spectral resolution imagery will be presented. Hybrid techniques for atmospheric correction using image or spectral scene data coupled through radiative propagation models will be specifically addressed. Results of this effort to analyze HYDICE sensor data will be included. Preliminary results based on studying the performance of standard routines, such as Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption and Nonlinear Least Squares Spectral Fit, in retrieving reflectance spectra show overall reflectance retrieval errors of approximately one to two reflectance units in the 0.4- to 2.5-micron-wavelength region (outside of the absorption features). These results are based on HYDICE sensor data collected from the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site during overflights conducted in July of 1997. Results of an upgrade made in the model-based atmospheric correction techniques, which take advantage of updates made to the moderate resolution atmospheric transmittance model (MODTRAN 4.0) software, will also be presented. Data will be shown to demonstrate how the reflectance retrieval in the shorter wavelengths of the blue-green region will be improved because of enhanced modeling of multiple scattering effects.

R. J. Pollina

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Single Scattering Properties of Atmospheric Ice Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulations of scattering and polarization properties for randomly oriented polyhedral ice crystals are presented based on the geometric optics and the far-field diffraction approximation. Particle shapes range from various hexagonal symmetric ...

Andreas Macke; Johannes Mueller; Ehrhard Raschke

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows TDM - Karma Sawyer Robert C. Tenent National Renewable Energy Laboratory robert.tenent@nrel.gov 303-384-6775 4/4/2013 Insulating Glass Unit (IGU) Glass Transparent Conductor (TC) Active Electrode Counter Electrode Ion Conductor 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose and Objectives * Expense - Current market price of $50-$100/ft 2 - Projections indicate under $20/ft 2 needed - A new production paradigm is required * Aesthetics - Architects hesitant to adopt "smurf glass"

449

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows TDM - Karma Sawyer Robert C. Tenent National Renewable Energy Laboratory robert.tenent@nrel.gov 303-384-6775 4/4/2013 Insulating Glass Unit (IGU) Glass Transparent Conductor (TC) Active Electrode Counter Electrode Ion Conductor 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose and Objectives * Expense - Current market price of $50-$100/ft 2 - Projections indicate under $20/ft 2 needed - A new production paradigm is required * Aesthetics - Architects hesitant to adopt "smurf glass"

450

Interactive optical panel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An interactive optical panel assembly 34 includes an optical panel 10 having a plurality of ribbon optical waveguides 12 stacked together with opposite ends thereof defining panel first and second faces 16, 18. A light source 20 provides an image beam 22 to the panel first face 16 for being channeled through the waveguides 12 and emitted from the panel second face 18 in the form of a viewable light image 24a. A remote device 38 produces a response beam 40 over a discrete selection area 36 of the panel second face 18 for being channeled through at least one of the waveguides 12 toward the panel first face 16. A light sensor 42,50 is disposed across a plurality of the waveguides 12 for detecting the response beam 40 therein for providing interactive capability.

Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

1995-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

451

Optical Learning Chip  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A novel type of an optical neurochip with learning capability and memory function is reported. The neurochip is a three dimensional optoelectronic integrated circuit consisting of a light emitting diode array and a variable sensitivity photodetector (VSPD) array. The principle of operation and the fundamental characteristics are described. By using the fabricated optical neurochip with 32 neurons and 32\\Theta32 synapses, experiments of on-chip learning based on the backpropagation and Boltzmann machine learning algorithms have successfully been demonstrated. INTRODUCTION Optoelectronics is expected to play an important role in hardware implementation of neural networks because of its innate parallelism, high-density interconnection, and direct image processing abilities [1]. This summary describes an optical learning chip with variable synaptic interconnections developed in our laboratory. This chip enables to perform on-chip learning by using an internal analog memory function. Firs...

Jun Ohta Yoshikazu; Jun Ohta; Yoshikazu Nitta; Kazuo Kyuma

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Full spectrum optical safeguard  

SciTech Connect

An optical safeguard device with two linear variable Fabry-Perot filters aligned relative to a light source with at least one of the filters having a nonlinear dielectric constant material such that, when a light source produces a sufficiently high intensity light, the light alters the characteristics of the nonlinear dielectric constant material to reduce the intensity of light impacting a connected optical sensor. The device can be incorporated into an imaging system on a moving platform, such as an aircraft or satellite.

Ackerman, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

453

Solid state optical microscope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal. 2 figs.

Young, I.T.

1983-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

454

Solid state optical microscope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

Young, Ian T. (Pleasanton, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Nonimaging optical illumination system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source a light reflecting surface, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line with the reflecting surface defined in terms of the reference lines a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line to the reflection surface along the desired edge ray through the point. 35 figs.

Winston, R.; Ries, H.

1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

456

Nonimaging optical illumination system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source, a light reflecting surface, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line with the reflecting surface defined in terms of the reference line as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line to the reflection surface along the desired edge ray through the point. 35 figs.

Winston, R.; Ries, H.

1996-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

457

Optical Characterization Laboratory (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Optical Characterization Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The Optical Characterization Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) conducts optical characterization of large solar concentration devices. Concentration solar power (CSP) mirror panels and concentrating solar systems are tested with an emphasis is on measurement of parabolic trough mirror panels. The Optical Characterization Laboratory provides state-of-the-art characterization and testing capabilities for assessing the optical surface quality and optical performance for various CSP technologies including parabolic troughs, linear Fresnel, dishes, and heliostats.

Not Available

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Helios model for the optical behavior of reflecting solar concentrators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Helios model simulates the optical behavior of reflecting concentrators. The model follows the incident solar radiation through the system (including the atmosphere) and includes all the factors that influence the optical performance of a collector. An important output is the flux-density pattern (W/cm/sup 2/) at a grid of points on a surface such as the absorbing surface of a receiver and its integral (power in watts) over the surface. The angular distribution of sunrays for the radiation incident on a concentrator is modified by convolution, using the fast Fourier transform, to incorporate the effects of other nondeterministic factors such as sun-tracking errors, surface slope errors, and reflectance properties. The analytical methods used for the statistics, the off-axis reflecting optics, the atmospheric effects, and the various coordinate systems are described and illustrated. This model forms a basis for the simulation code HELIOS as well as for other codes under development. Some of the HELIOS routines are described, a few of its capabilities are discussed and illustrated, and comparisons of data with calculations are presented. These capabilities have been used for performance predictions, safety studies, design trade-offs, data analysis problems, the specification and analysis of concentrator quality, and for the general understanding of solar-concentrator technology.

Biggs, F.; Vittitoe, C.N.

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Rattlesnake Mountain Observator (46.4{degrees}N, 119.6{degrees}W) multispectral optical depth measurements, 1979--1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Surface measurements of solar irradiance of the atmosphere were made by a multipurpose computer-controlled scanning photometer at the Rattlesnake Mountain Observatory. The observatory is located at 46.4{degrees}N, 119.6{degrees}W at an elevation of 1088 m above mean sea level. The photometer measures the attenuation of direct solar radiation for different wavelengths using 12 filters. Five of these filters (ie., at 428 nm, 486 nm, 535 nm, 785 nm, and 1010 nm, with respective half-power widths of 2, 2, 3, 18, and 28 nm) are suitable for monitoring variations in the total optical depth of the atmosphere. Total optical depths for the five wavelength bands were derived from solar irradiance measurements taken at the observatory from August 5, 1979, to September 2, 1994; these total optical depth data are distributed with this numeric data package (NDP). To determine the contribution of atmospheric aerosols to the total optical depths, the effects of Rayleigh scattering and ozone absorption were subtracted (other molecular scattering was minimal for the five filters) to obtain total column aerosol optical depths. The total aerosol optical depths were further decomposed into tropospheric and stratospheric components by calculating a robustly smoothed mean background optical depth (tropospheric component) for each wavelength using data obtained during periods of low stratospheric aerosol loading. By subtracting the smoothed background tropospheric aerosol optical depths from the total aerosol optical depths, residual aerosol optical depths were obtained. These residuals are good estimates of the stratospheric aerosol optical depth at each wavelength and may be used to monitor the long-term effects of volcanic eruptions on the atmosphere. These data are available as an NDP from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), and the NDP consists of this document and a set of computerized data files.

Daniels, R.C. [ed.] [ed.

1995-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

460

Improved Thermoelectric Performance of p-type Skutterudite YbxFe4-yPtySb12 (0.8 x 1, y = 1 and 0.5)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermoelectric performance of p-type skutterudites currently lags that of the corresponding n-type materials and improvement of this important class of materials have become the focus of considerable research effort world-wide. Recent calculations find promising band structural features in p-type skutterudite materials of the type AeFe3NiSb12 ( Ae = Ca, Sr, or Ba) which could potentially lead to excellent thermoelectric properties. Recent work on the Yb- filled analog of the these formulations (YbFe3NiSb12) however finds that the onset of intrinsic conduction at lower than expected temperatures deteriorates the performance above 500 K leading to poor performance in the temperature range of interest for automotive waste heat recovery applications. We therefore seek a way to increase the band gap in order to find a way to minimize the deleterious effects of intrinsic conduction. Here we present ab initio band structure calculations and the synthesis and thermoelectric properties of YbxFe4-yPtySb12 (0.8 x 1, y = 1 and 0.5). Ab initio calculations find that the band gap increases for YbFe3PtSb12 as compared to the Ni-containing analog, though no such increase in the band gap energy was found for as compared to YbFe3.5Ni0.5Sb12. The y = 1 samples shows a characteristic transition to intrinsic conduction with a decrease in the Seebeck coefficient at temperatures above 700 K. The increased carrier concentration in y = 0.5 virtually eliminates any evidence of intrinsic conduction and the Seebeck coefficients for these samples increase monotonically up to 750 K, resulting in power factors approaching 27 W/cm K2 at 750 K. These power factors combined with low thermal conductivity result in a ZT = 0.9 at 750 K for Yb0.95Fe3.5Pt0.5Sb12.

Cho, Jung Y [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Ye, Zuxin [GM Research and Development Center; Tessema, Misle [GM Research and Development Center; Salvador, James R. [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Waldo, Richard [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Yang, Jiong [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Zhang, Weiqing [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Yang, Jihui [University of Washington; Cai, Wei [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric optics sb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Atmospheric Gravity Waves and Aircraft Turbulence Encounters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe aircraft turbulence-atmospheric gravity wave events which occurred during a 2-day period over the Continental Divide. The waves are observed by two microbarograph networks an each side of the divide and last for several hours at a ...

A. J. Bedard Jr.; F. Canavero; F. Einaudi

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Heat Budget of Tropical Ocean and Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat budget estimates for the global tropics are derived from recent calculations of the oceanic heat budget and satellite measurements of net radiation at the top of the atmosphere. Annual mean heat export from the zone 30°N–30°S amounts to 101 ...

Stefan Hastenrath

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Temperature stratification of the atmosphere of Arcturus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A brief overview of the results of the investigations of the red giant star Arcturus is given. One-dimensional LTE modeling of the atmospheres of Arcturus and the Sun as a star is carried out on the basis of synthesis of the extended wings of the H and K Ca II lines. It is found that the local continuum in this spectral region is underestimated by an average of 12% in the atlases of Arcturus. The average deficit in UV absorption amounts to 43% for Arcturus whereas it is 9% for the Sun. For Arcturus the correction factor to the continuum opacity at the wavelengths of 390.0, 392.5, 395.0, 398.0, and 400.0 nm equals 2.20, 1.90, 1.70, 1.55, and 1.45. The model atmosphere of Arcturus obtained from the best-fit of the wings of the H and K Ca II lines corresponds to the model atmosphere with the fundamental parameters T_eff = 4286 K, log g = 1.66, and [Fe/H]=-0.52 derived by Ramirez and Allende Prieto (2011). The temperature stratification of Arcturus' atmosphere is presented in tabular form. To obtain more accurate...

Sheminova, V A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Atmospheric Heat Engines on Earth and Mars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The character of the Earth's atmospheric heat engine depends, inter alia, on the relatively tight linkage between surface fluxes of energy and of H20. On Mars, on the other hand, H2O-based latent heat fluxes are only a trivial fraction of total ...

J. R. Philip

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Analysis methods for Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescopes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three different analysis techniques for Atmospheric Imaging System are presented. The classical Hillas parameters based technique is shown to be robust and efficient, but more elaborate techniques can improve the sensitivity of the analysis. A comparison of the different analysis techniques shows that they use different information for gamma-hadron separation, and that it is possible to combine their qualities.

Mathieu de Naurois

2006-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

466

Profiling Atmospheric Water Vapor by Microwave Radiometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-altitude microwave radiometric observations at frequencies near 92 and 183.3 GHz were used to study the potential of retrieving atmospheric water vapor profiles over both land and water. An algorithm based on an extended Kaiman-Bucy filter ...

J. R. Wang; J. L. King; T. T. Wilheit; G. Szejwach; L. H. Gesell; R. A. Nieman; D. S. Niver; B. M. Krupp; J. A. Gagliano

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

467