National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for atmospheric nitrous oxide

  1. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4. Nitrous Oxide Emissions 4.1 Total emissions U.S. nitrous oxide emissions in 2009 were 4 MMTCO2e (1.7 percent) below their 2008 total (Table 22). Sources of U.S. nitrous oxide emissions include agriculture, energy use, industrial processes, and waste management (Figure 22). The largest source is agriculture (73 percent), and the majority of agricultural emissions result from nitrogen fertilization of agricultural soils (87 percent of the agriculture total) and management of animal waste (13

  2. Measuring and modeling the lifetime of nitrous oxide including...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Published Article: Measuring and modeling the lifetime of nitrous oxide including its variability: NITROUS OXIDE AND ITS CHANGING LIFETIME Prev Next Title: Measuring and ...

  3. Surface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide observations by shipboard automated gas chromatography: Results from expeditions between 1977 and 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, R.F.; Van Woy, F.A.; Salameh, P.K.; Sepanski, R.J.

    1992-12-01

    This document presents the results of surface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) measurements carried out by shipboard gas chromatography over the period 1977--1990. These data include results from 11 different oceanic surveys for a total of 41 expedition legs. Collectively, they represent a globally distributed sampling that includes locations in the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, and Southern Oceans, as well as the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The measurements were made by an automated high-precision shipboard gas chromatographic system developed during the late 1970s and used extensively over the intervening years. This instrument measures CO{sub 2} by flame ionization after quantitative reaction to methane in a stream of hydrogen. Nitrous oxide is measured by a separate electron capture detector. The chromatographic system measures 196 dry-gas samples a day, divided equally among the atmosphere, gas equilibrated with surface water, a low-range gas standard, and a high-range gas standard.

  4. Surface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide observations by shipboard automated gas chromatography: Results from expeditions between 1977 and 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, R.F.; Van Woy, F.A.; Salameh, P.K. ); Sepanski, R.J. . Energy, Environment and Resources Center)

    1992-12-01

    This document presents the results of surface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) and nitrous oxide (N[sub 2]O) measurements carried out by shipboard gas chromatography over the period 1977--1990. These data include results from 11 different oceanic surveys for a total of 41 expedition legs. Collectively, they represent a globally distributed sampling that includes locations in the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, and Southern Oceans, as well as the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The measurements were made by an automated high-precision shipboard gas chromatographic system developed during the late 1970s and used extensively over the intervening years. This instrument measures CO[sub 2] by flame ionization after quantitative reaction to methane in a stream of hydrogen. Nitrous oxide is measured by a separate electron capture detector. The chromatographic system measures 196 dry-gas samples a day, divided equally among the atmosphere, gas equilibrated with surface water, a low-range gas standard, and a high-range gas standard.

  5. Table 11.4 Nitrous Oxide Emissions, 1980-2009 (Thousand Metric Tons of Nitrous Oxide)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nitrous Oxide Emissions, 1980-2009 (Thousand Metric Tons of Nitrous Oxide) Year Energy Sources Waste Management Agricultural Sources Industrial Processes 3 Total Mobile Combustion 1 Stationary Combustion 2 Total Waste Combustion Human Sewage in Wastewater Total Nitrogen Fertilization of Soils Crop Residue Burning Solid Waste of Domesticated Animals Total 1980 60 44 104 1 10 11 364 1 75 440 88 642 1981 63 44 106 1 10 11 364 2 74 440 84 641 1982 67 42 108 1 10 11 339 2 74 414 80 614 1983 71 43 114

  6. On-Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laser Spectroscopy Combined with Amplified Resonance and Low Pressure Sampling On-Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback Absorption Laser ...

  7. Laboratory flammability studies of mixtures of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cashdollar, K L; Hertzberg, M; Zlochower, I A; Lucci, C E; Green, G M; Thomas, R A

    1992-06-26

    At the request of the Department of Energy and the Westinghouse Hanford Company, the Bureau of Mines has investigated the flammability of mixtures of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and air. This work is relevant to the possible hazards of flammable gas generation from nuclear waste tanks at Hanford, WA. The tests were performed in a 120-L spherical chamber under both quiescent and turbulent conditions using both electric spark and pyrotechnic ignition sources. The data reported here for binary mixtures of hydrogen in air generally confirm the data of previous investigators, but they are more comprehensive than those reported previously. The results clarify to a greater extent the complications associated with buoyancy, turbulence, and selective diffusion. The data reported here for ternary mixtures of hydrogen and nitrous oxide in air indicate that small additions of nitrous oxide (relative to the amount of air) have little effect, but that higher concentrations of nitrous oxide (relative to air) significantly increase the explosion hazard.

  8. On-Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback Absorption

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laser Spectroscopy Combined with Amplified Resonance and Low Pressure Sampling | Department of Energy Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback Absorption Laser Spectroscopy Combined with Amplified Resonance and Low Pressure Sampling On-Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback Absorption Laser Spectroscopy Combined with Amplified Resonance and Low Pressure Sampling A first set of results has found that LASAR and VLPS data in the laboratory closely

  9. Final Report for DOE grant no. DE-FG02-04ER63883: Can soil genomics predict the impact of precipitation on nitrous oxide flux from soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egbert Schwartz

    2008-12-15

    Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas that is released by microorganisms in soil. However, the production of nitrous oxide in soil is highly variable and difficult to predict. Future climate change may have large impacts on nitrous oxide release through alteration of precipitation patterns. We analyzed DNA extracted from soil in order to uncover relationships between microbial processes, abundance of particular DNA sequences and net nitrous oxide fluxes from soil. Denitrification, a microbial process in which nitrate is used as an electron acceptor, correlated with nitrous oxide flux from soil. The abundance of ammonia oxidizing archaea correlated positively, but weakly, with nitrous oxide production in soil. The abundance of bacterial genes in soil was negatively correlated with gross nitrogen mineralization rates and nitrous oxide release from soil. We suggest that the most important control over nitrous oxide production in soil is the growth and death of microorganisms. When organisms are growing nitrogen is incorporated into their biomass and nitrous oxide flux is low. In contrast, when microorganisms die, due to predation or infection by viruses, inorganic nitrogen is released into the soil resulting in nitrous oxide release. Higher rates of precipitation increase access to microorganisms by predators or viruses through filling large soil pores with water and therefore can lead to large releases of nitrous oxide from soil. We developed a new technique, stable isotope probing with 18O-water, to study growth and mortality of microorganisms in soil.

  10. Closing the Gaps in the Budgets of Methane and Nitrous Oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil, Aslam; Rice, Andrew; Rasmussen, Reinhold

    2013-11-22

    Together methane and nitrous oxide contribute almost 40% of the estimated increase in radiative forcing caused by the buildup of greenhouse gases during the last 250 years (IPCC, 2007). These increases are attributed to human activities. Since the emissions of these gases are from biogenic sources and closely associated with living things in the major terrestrial ecosystems of the world, climate change is expected to cause feedbacks that may further increase emissions even from systems normally classified as natural. Our results support the idea that while past increases of methane were driven by direct emissions from human activities, some of these have reached their limits and that the future of methane changes may be determined by feedbacks from warming temperatures. The greatly increased current focus on the arctic and the fate of the carbon frozen in its permafrost is an example of such a feedback that could exceed the direct increases caused by future human activities (Zimov et al. 2006). Our research was aimed at three broad areas to address open questions about the global budgets of methane and nitrous oxide. These areas of inquiry were: The processes by which methane and nitrous oxide are emitted, new sources such as trees and plants, and integration of results to refine the global budgets both at present and of the past decades. For the process studies the main research was to quantify the effect of changes in the ambient temperature on the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from rice agriculture. Additionally, the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide under present conditions were estimated using the experimental data on how fertilizer applications and water management affect emissions. Rice was chosen for detailed study because it is a prototype system of the wider terrestrial source, its role in methane emissions is well established, it is easy to cultivate and it represents a major anthropogenic source. Here we will discuss the highlights of the

  11. Nitrous oxide production and methane oxidation by different ammonia-oxidizing bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Q.Q.; Bakken, L.R.

    1999-06-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) are thought to contribute significantly to N{sub 2}O production and methane oxidation in soils. Most knowledge derives from experiments with Nitrosomonas europaea, which appears to be of minor importance in most soils compared to Nitrosospira spp. The authors have conducted a comparative study of levels of aerobic N{sub 2}O production in six phylogenetically different Nitrosospira strains newly isolated from soils and in two N. europaea and Nitrosospira multiformis type strains. The fraction of oxidized ammonium released as N{sub 2}O during aerobic growth was remarkably constant for all the Nitrosospira strains, irrespective of the substrate supply (urea versus ammonium), the pH, or substrate limitation. N. europaea and Nitrosospira multiformis released similar fractions of N{sub 2}O when they were supplied with ample amounts of substrates, but the fractions rose sharply when they were restricted by a low pH or substrate limitation. Phosphate buffer doubled the N{sub 2}O release for all types of AOB. No detectable oxidation of atmospheric methane was detected. Calculations based on detection limits as well as data in the literature on CH{sub 4} oxidation by AOB bacteria prove that none of the tested strains contribute significantly to the oxidation of atmospheric CH{sub 4} in soils.

  12. Nitrous oxide production from radiolysis of simulted high-level nuclear waste solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.D.; Hobbs, D.T.; Tiffany, J.B.; Bibler, N.E.; Meisel, D.

    1992-07-01

    Nitrous oxide gas (N{sub 2}O) is produced by the radiolysis of aqueous nitrate or nitrite solutions in the presence of organic compounds. When ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or N- (2-hydroxyethyl)-ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA) is present, the G-value for hydrogen increases and N{sub 2}O become the major gaseous product (G=0.54). A survey of organic compounds indicates the amount of N{sub 2}O formed depends on the structure of the organic. With highly oxidized organics (carbonate, formate, acetate and oxalate), little or no N{sub 2}O is formed. Aromatic and aliphatic organics (sodium tetraphenylborate, benzene, phenol, n-paraffin, and tributylphosphate) produce small amounts of N{sub 2}O. Water soluble, easily oxidized organics (methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, n-butanol, acetone, and ethylene glycol) produce large amounts of N{sub 2}O relative to the previous two categories. Nitrous oxide production is not greatly affected by pH between neutral and pH=13, but increases significantly in acid solution. The G-value for N{sub 2}O production in 10 wt% potassium tetraphenylborate slurries has been measured under process conditions important at the Savannah River Site.

  13. Nitrous oxide production from radiolysis of simulted high-level nuclear waste solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.D.; Hobbs, D.T.; Tiffany, J.B.; Bibler, N.E. ); Meisel, D. )

    1992-01-01

    Nitrous oxide gas (N{sub 2}O) is produced by the radiolysis of aqueous nitrate or nitrite solutions in the presence of organic compounds. When ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or N- (2-hydroxyethyl)-ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA) is present, the G-value for hydrogen increases and N{sub 2}O become the major gaseous product (G=0.54). A survey of organic compounds indicates the amount of N{sub 2}O formed depends on the structure of the organic. With highly oxidized organics (carbonate, formate, acetate and oxalate), little or no N{sub 2}O is formed. Aromatic and aliphatic organics (sodium tetraphenylborate, benzene, phenol, n-paraffin, and tributylphosphate) produce small amounts of N{sub 2}O. Water soluble, easily oxidized organics (methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, n-butanol, acetone, and ethylene glycol) produce large amounts of N{sub 2}O relative to the previous two categories. Nitrous oxide production is not greatly affected by pH between neutral and pH=13, but increases significantly in acid solution. The G-value for N{sub 2}O production in 10 wt% potassium tetraphenylborate slurries has been measured under process conditions important at the Savannah River Site.

  14. Design and Testing of a Liquid Nitrous Oxide and Ethanol Fueled Rocket Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youngblood, Stewart

    2015-08-01

    A small-scale, bi-propellant, liquid fueled rocket engine and supporting test infrastructure were designed and constructed at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC). This facility was used to evaluate liquid nitrous oxide and ethanol as potential rocket propellants. Thrust and pressure measurements along with high-speed digital imaging of the rocket exhaust plume were made. This experimental data was used for validation of a computational model developed of the rocket engine tested. The developed computational model was utilized to analyze rocket engine performance across a range of operating pressures, fuel-oxidizer mixture ratios, and outlet nozzle configurations. A comparative study of the modeling of a liquid rocket engine was performed using NASA CEA and Cantera, an opensource equilibrium code capable of being interfaced with MATLAB. One goal of this modeling was to demonstrate the ability of Cantera to accurately model the basic chemical equilibrium, thermodynamics, and transport properties for varied fuel and oxidizer operating conditions. Once validated for basic equilibrium, an expanded MATLAB code, referencing Cantera, was advanced beyond CEAs capabilities to predict rocket engine performance as a function of supplied propellant flow rate and rocket engine nozzle dimensions. Cantera was found to comparable favorably to CEA for making equilibrium calculations, supporting its use as an alternative to CEA. The developed rocket engine performs as predicted, demonstrating the developedMATLAB rocket engine model was successful in predicting real world rocket engine performance. Finally, nitrous oxide and ethanol were shown to perform well as rocket propellants, with specific impulses experimentally recorded in the range of 250 to 260 seconds.

  15. Silicon oxynitride films deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering using nitrous oxide as a single-source precursor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hänninen, Tuomas Schmidt, Susann; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars; Högberg, Hans

    2015-09-15

    Silicon oxynitride thin films were synthesized by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of silicon in argon/nitrous oxide plasmas. Nitrous oxide was employed as a single-source precursor supplying oxygen and nitrogen for the film growth. The films were characterized by elastic recoil detection analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, scanning electron microscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Results show that the films are silicon rich, amorphous, and exhibit a random chemical bonding structure. The optical properties with the refractive index and the extinction coefficient correlate with the film elemental composition, showing decreasing values with increasing film oxygen and nitrogen content. The total percentage of oxygen and nitrogen in the films is controlled by adjusting the gas flow ratio in the deposition processes. Furthermore, it is shown that the film oxygen-to-nitrogen ratio can be tailored by the high power impulse magnetron sputtering-specific parameters pulse frequency and energy per pulse.

  16. Thermal and combined thermal and radiolytic reactions involving nitrous oxide, hydrogen, nitrogen, and ammonia in contact with tank 241-SY-101 simulated waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.

    1996-02-01

    Work described in this report was conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Flammable Gas Safety Project, the purpose of which is to develop information needed to support Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in their efforts to ensure the safe interim storage of wastes at the Hanford Site. Described in this report are the results of tests to evaluate the rates of thermal and combined thermal and radiolytic reactions involving flammable gases in the presence of Tank 241-SY-101 simulated waste. Flammable gases generated by the radiolysis of water and by the thermal and radiolytic decomposition of organic waste constituents may themselves participate in further reactions. Examples include the decomposition of nitrous oxide to yield nitrogen and oxygen, the reaction of nitrous oxide and hydrogen to produce nitrogen and water, and the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia. The composition of the gases trapped in bubbles in the wastes might therefore change continuously as a function of the time that the gas bubbles are retained.

  17. Non-covalent interactions of nitrous oxide with aromatic compounds: Spectroscopic and computational evidence for the formation of 1:1 complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Qian; School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 ; Gor, Gennady Y.; Krogh-Jespersen, Karsten; Khriachtchev, Leonid

    2014-04-14

    We present the first study of intermolecular interactions between nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and three representative aromatic compounds (ACs): phenol, cresol, and toluene. The infrared spectroscopic experiments were performed in a Ne matrix and were supported by high-level quantum chemical calculations. Comparisons of the calculated and experimental vibrational spectra provide direct identification and characterization of the 1:1 N{sub 2}O-AC complexes. Our results show that N{sub 2}O is capable of forming non-covalently bonded complexes with ACs. Complex formation is dominated by dispersion forces, and the interaction energies are relatively low (about ?3 kcal mol{sup ?1}); however, the complexes are clearly detected by frequency shifts of the characteristic bands. These results suggest that N{sub 2}O can be bound to the amino-acid residues tyrosine or phenylalanine in the form of ? complexes.

  18. Nitrogen Oxides in the Nocturnal Boundary Layer: Chemistry of Nitrous Acid (HONO) and the Nitrate Radical (N03)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jochen Stutz

    2005-05-24

    Summary Chemical processes occurring at night in the lowest part of the urban atmosphere, the so called nocturnal boundary layer (NBL), can influence the composition of the atmosphere during the night as well as the following day. They may impact the budgets of some of the most important pollutants, such as ozone and nitrogen oxides, as well as influence size and composition of particular matter. Few studies have thus far concentrated on the nocturnal chemistry of the urban NBL, most likely due to the strong influence of vertical transport and mixing, which requires the measurement of trace gas profiles instead of simple point observations. Motivated by our lack of observations and understanding of nocturnal chemistry, the focus of this project was the study of the vertical distribution of trace gases and the altitude dependence of nocturnal chemistry under polluted conditions through field observations and modeling studies. The analysis of three field experiments (TEXAQS, Houston, 2000; Phoenix Sunrise Ozone Experiment, 2001; NAPOX, Boston, 2002), two of which were performed in this project, showed that ozone concentrations typically increase with height in the lowest 150m, while NO2 typically decreases. NO3, the dominant nocturnal radical species, showed much higher concentrations in the upper part of the NBL, and was often not present at the ground. With the help of a one-dimensional chemical transport model, developed in this project, we found that the interaction of ground emissions of NOx and hydrocarbons, together with their vertical transport, is responsible for the vertical profiles. The dominant chemical reactions influencing ozone, NO2 and NO3 are the reaction of ozone and NO3 with freshly emitted NO. Sensitivity studies with our model showed that the magnitude of the trace gas gradients depend both on the emission rates and the vertical stability of the NBL. Observations and model analysis clearly show that nocturnal chemistry in urban areas is altitude

  19. Spatial variability of nitrous oxide and methane emissions from an MBT landfill in operation: Strong N{sub 2}O hotspots at the working face

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harborth, Peter; Fu, Roland; Mnnich, Kai; Flessa, Heinz; Fricke, Klaus

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ? First measurements of N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions from an MBT landfill. ? High N{sub 2}O emissions from recently deposited material. ? N{sub 2}O emissions associated with aeration and the occurrence of nitrite and nitrate. ? Strong negative correlation between CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O production activity. - Abstract: Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) is an effective technique, which removes organic carbon from municipal solid waste (MSW) prior to deposition. Thereby, methane (CH{sub 4}) production in the landfill is strongly mitigated. However, direct measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from full-scale MBT landfills have not been conducted so far. Thus, CH{sub 4} and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from a German MBT landfill in operation as well as their concentrations in the landfill gas (LFG) were measured. High N{sub 2}O emissions of 20200 g CO{sub 2} eq. m{sup ?2} h{sup ?1} magnitude (up to 428 mg N m{sup ?2} h{sup ?1}) were observed within 20 m of the working face. CH{sub 4} emissions were highest at the landfill zone located at a distance of 3040 m from the working face, where they reached about 10 g CO{sub 2} eq. m{sup ?2} h{sup ?1}. The MBT material in this area has been deposited several weeks earlier. Maximum LFG concentration for N{sub 2}O was 24.000 ppmv in material below the emission hotspot. At a depth of 50 cm from the landfill surface a strong negative correlation between N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} concentrations was observed. From this and from the distribution pattern of extractable ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate it has been concluded that strong N{sub 2}O production is associated with nitrification activity and the occurrence of nitrite and nitrate, which is initiated by oxygen input during waste deposition. Therefore, CH{sub 4} mitigation measures, which often employ aeration, could result in a net increase of GHG emissions due to increased N{sub 2}O emissions, especially at MBT landfills.

  20. Pathways for the Oxidation of Sarin in Urban Atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald E. Streit; James E. Bossert; Jeffrey S. Gaffney; Jon Reisner; Laurie A. McNair; Michael Brown; Scott Elliott

    1998-11-01

    Terrorists have threatened and carried out chemicalhiological agent attacks on targets in major cities. The nerve agent sarin figured prominently in one well-publicized incident. Vapors disseminating from open containers in a Tokyo subway caused thousands of casualties. High-resolution tracer transport modeling of agent dispersion is at hand and will be enhanced by data on reactions with components of the urban atmosphere. As a sample of the level of complexity currently attainable, we elaborate the mechanisms by which sarin can decompose in polluted air. A release scenario is outlined involving the passage of a gas-phase agent through a city locale in the daytime. The atmospheric chemistry database on related organophosphorus pesticides is mined for rate and product information. The hydroxyl,radical and fine-mode particles are identified as major reactants. A review of urban air chernistry/rnicrophysics generates concentration tables for major oxidant and aerosol types in both clean and dirty environments. Organic structure-reactivity relationships yield an upper limit of 10-1' cm3 molecule-' S-* for hydrogen abstraction by hydroxyl. The associated midday loss time scale could be as little as one hour. Product distributions are difficult to define but may include nontoxic organic oxygenates, inorganic phosphorus acids, sarin-like aldehydes, and nitrates preserving cholinergic capabilities. Agent molecules will contact aerosol surfaces in on the order of minutes, with hydrolysis and side-chain oxidation as likely reaction channels.

  1. Carbon oxidation state as a metric for describing the chemistry of atmospheric organic aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Kroll, Jesse H.; Donahue, Neil M.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Kessler, Sean H.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Altieri, Katye E.; Mazzoleni, Lynn R.; Wozniak, Andrew S.; Bluhm, Hendrik; Mysak, Erin R.; Smith, Jared D.; Kolb, Charles E.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2010-11-05

    A detailed understanding of the sources, transformations, and fates of organic species in the environment is crucial because of the central roles that organics play in human health, biogeochemical cycles, and Earth's climate. However, such an understanding is hindered by the immense chemical complexity of environmental mixtures of organics; for example, atmospheric organic aerosol consists of at least thousands of individual compounds, all of which likely evolve chemically over their atmospheric lifetimes. Here we demonstrate the utility of describing organic aerosol (and other complex organic mixtures) in terms of average carbon oxidation state (OSC), a quantity that always increases with oxidation, and is readily measured using state-of-the-art analytical techniques. Field and laboratory measurements of OSC , using several such techniques, constrain the chemical properties of the organics and demonstrate that the formation and evolution of organic aerosol involves simultaneous changes to both carbon oxidation state and carbon number (nC).

  2. Fabrication of superconducting metal-oxide textiles by heating impregnated polymeric material in a weakly oxidizing atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van den Sype, J.S.

    1993-07-13

    A process is described for producing crystalline fibers, textiles or shapes comprised of YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus]x] where x varies from about 0 to about 0.4, said process comprising: (a) impregnating a preformed organic polymeric material with three metal compounds to provide metal elements in said material in substantially the atomic ratio occurring in said YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus]x]; (b) heating said impregnated material in a weakly oxidizing atmosphere containing from about 0.05% to about 2% oxygen by volume to a temperature sufficiently high to at least partially pyrolize and oxidize said organic material and at least partially oxidize said metal compounds substantially without ignition of said organic material and without formation of a molten phase or reaching a decomposition temperature of said YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus]x]; and (c) cooling the resulting material in at least a moderately oxidizing atmosphere to room temperature so as to obtain said fibers, textiles or shapes.

  3. The terrestrial biosphere as a net source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Ciais, Philippe; Michalak, Anna M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Saikawa, Eri; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Gurney, Kevin R; Sitch, Stephen; Zhang, Bowen; et al

    2016-03-09

    The terrestrial biosphere can release or absorb the greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and therefore has an important role in regulating atmospheric composition and climate1. Anthropogenic activities such as land-use change, agriculture and waste management have altered terrestrial biogenic greenhouse gas fluxes, and the resulting increases in methane and nitrous oxide emissions in particular can contribute to climate change2, 3. The terrestrial biogenic fluxes of individual greenhouse gases have been studied extensively4, 5, 6, but the net biogenic greenhouse gas balance resulting from anthropogenic activities and its effect on the climate system remains uncertain.more » Here we use bottom-up (inventory, statistical extrapolation of local flux measurements, and process-based modelling) and top-down (atmospheric inversions) approaches to quantify the global net biogenic greenhouse gas balance between 1981 and 2010 resulting from anthropogenic activities and its effect on the climate system. We find that the cumulative warming capacity of concurrent biogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions is a factor of about two larger than the cooling effect resulting from the global land carbon dioxide uptake from 2001 to 2010. This results in a net positive cumulative impact of the three greenhouse gases on the planetary energy budget, with a best estimate (in petagrams of CO2 equivalent per year) of 3.9 ± 3.8 (top down) and 5.4 ± 4.8 (bottom up) based on the GWP100 metric (global warming potential on a 100-year time horizon). Lastly, our findings suggest that a reduction in agricultural methane and nitrous oxide emissions, particularly in Southern Asia, may help mitigate climate change.« less

  4. On-line coating of glass with tin oxide by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Sopko, J.F. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); Houf, William G.; Chae, Yong Kee; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Li, M. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); McCamy, J.W.

    2006-11-01

    Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of tin oxide is a very important manufacturing technique used in the production of low-emissivity glass. It is also the primary method used to provide wear-resistant coatings on glass containers. The complexity of these systems, which involve chemical reactions in both the gas phase and on the deposition surface, as well as complex fluid dynamics, makes process optimization and design of new coating reactors a very difficult task. In 2001 the U.S. Dept. of Energy Industrial Technologies Program Glass Industry of the Future Team funded a project to address the need for more accurate data concerning the tin oxide APCVD process. This report presents a case study of on-line APCVD using organometallic precursors, which are the primary reactants used in industrial coating processes. Research staff at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA, and the PPG Industries Glass Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA collaborated to produce this work. In this report, we describe a detailed investigation of the factors controlling the growth of tin oxide films. The report begins with a discussion of the basic elements of the deposition chemistry, including gas-phase thermochemistry of tin species and mechanisms of chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of tin precursors. These results provide the basis for experimental investigations in which tin oxide growth rates were measured as a function of all major process variables. The experiments focused on growth from monobutyltintrichloride (MBTC) since this is one of the two primary precursors used industrially. There are almost no reliable growth-rate data available for this precursor. Robust models describing the growth rate as a function of these variables are derived from modeling of these data. Finally, the results are used to conduct computational fluid dynamic simulations of both pilot- and full-scale coating reactors. As a result, general conclusions are

  5. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions and nitrous oxide isotopic composition from waste incineration in Switzerland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, Eliza; Zeyer, Kerstin; Kegel, Rainer; Müller, Beat; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mohn, Joachim

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • N{sub 2}O emissions from waste incineration with SNCR NO{sub x} removal are 51.5 ± 10.6 g t{sup −1}. • This is significantly lower than the reported Swiss emission factor of 120 g t{sup −1} (FOEN, 2013). • N{sub 2}O contributes <0.3% and ≈2.5% of GHG emissions from SCR and SNCR plants. • Measured isotopic SP of 17.7‰ is likely characteristic for N{sub 2}O emissions from SNCR. • CH{sub 4} emitted by waste incineration is negligible, contributing <0.01% to total GHGs. - Abstract: Solid waste incineration accounts for a growing proportion of waste disposal in both developed and developing countries, therefore it is important to constrain emissions of greenhouse gases from these facilities. At five Swiss waste incineration facilities with grate firing, emission factors for N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} were determined based on measurements of representative flue gas samples, which were collected in Tedlar bags over a one year period (September 2010–August 2011) and analysed with FTIR spectroscopy. All five plants burn a mixture of household and industrial waste, and two of the plants employ NO{sub x} removal through selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) while three plants use selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NO{sub x} removal. N{sub 2}O emissions from incineration plants with NO{sub x} removal through selective catalytic reduction were 4.3 ± 4.0 g N{sub 2}O tonne{sup −1} waste (wet) (hereafter abbreviated as t{sup −1}) (0.4 ± 0.4 g N{sub 2}O GJ{sup −1}), ten times lower than from plants with selective non-catalytic reduction (51.5 ± 10.6 g N{sub 2}O t{sup −1}; 4.5 ± 0.9 g N{sub 2}O GJ{sup −1}). These emission factors, which are much lower than the value of 120 g N{sub 2}O t{sup −1} (10.4 g N{sub 2}O GJ{sup −1}) used in the 2013 Swiss national greenhouse gas emission inventory, have been implemented in the most recent Swiss emission inventory. In addition, the isotopic composition of N{sub 2}O emitted from the two plants with SNCR, which had considerable N{sub 2}O emissions, was measured using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy. The isotopic site preference of N{sub 2}O – the enrichment of {sup 14}N{sup 15}NO relative to {sup 15}N{sup 14}NO – was found to be 17.6 ± 0.8‰, with no significant difference between the two plants. Comparison to previous studies suggests SP of 17–19‰ may be characteristic for N{sub 2}O produced from SNCR. Methane emissions were found to be insignificant, with a maximum emission factor of 2.5 ± 5.6 g CH{sub 4} t{sup −1} (0.2 ± 0.5 g CH{sub 4} GJ{sup −1}), which is expected due to high incinerator temperatures and efficient combustion.

  6. Study of the effect of plasma-striking atmosphere on Fe-oxidation in thermal dc arc-plasma processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, I.; Khollam, Y. B.; Mahapatra, S. K.; Das, A. K.; Bhoraskar, S. V.

    2010-11-15

    The effect of plasma-striking atmosphere: air and air+Ar-gas on the crystallization of Fe-oxide phases was studied using dc thermal arc-plasma processing route. The powders were characterized by x-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometry, transmission electron microscopy, and Moessbauer spectroscopy techniques. At room temperature and O{sub 2} rich atmosphere, arc-evaporated Fe{sup 2+} ions oxidize into either {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} depending upon the combining ratio of Fe with molecular O{sub 2}. Fe/O ratio could be adjusted using proper flow rate of Ar gas to crystallize the pure {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  7. An evaluation of anti-oxidative protection for cells against atmospheric pressure cold plasma treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma Ruonan; Zhang Qian; Feng Hongqing; Liang Yongdong; Li Fangting; Zhu Weidong; Zhang Jue; Fang Jing; Becker, Kurt H.

    2012-03-19

    With the development of plasma medicine, safety issues are emerging as a serious concern. In this study, both intracellular (genetic engineering) and extracellular (scavengers) measures were tested in an effort to determine the best protection for cells against plasma-induced oxidative stress. All results of immediate reactive species detection, short term survival and long term proliferation, suggest that intracellular pathways are superior in reducing oxidative stress and cell death. This work provides a potential mechanism to enhance safety and identifies precautionary measures that should be taken in future clinical applications of plasmas.

  8. Multiple sample characterization of coals and other substances by controlled-atmosphere programmed temperature oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LaCount, Robert B.

    1993-01-01

    A furnace with two hot zones holds multiple analysis tubes. Each tube has a separable sample-packing section positioned in the first hot zone and a catalyst-packing section positioned in the second hot zone. A mass flow controller is connected to an inlet of each sample tube, and gas is supplied to the mass flow controller. Oxygen is supplied through a mass flow controller to each tube to either or both of an inlet of the first tube and an intermediate portion between the tube sections to intermingle with and oxidize the entrained gases evolved from the sample. Oxidation of those gases is completed in the catalyst in each second tube section. A thermocouple within a sample reduces furnace temperature when an exothermic condition is sensed within the sample. Oxidized gases flow from outlets of the tubes to individual gas cells. The cells are sequentially aligned with an infrared detector, which senses the composition and quantities of the gas components. Each elongated cell is tapered inward toward the center from cell windows at the ends. Volume is reduced from a conventional cell, while permitting maximum interaction of gas with the light beam. Reduced volume and angulation of the cell inlets provide rapid purgings of the cell, providing shorter cycles between detections. For coal and other high molecular weight samples, from 50% to 100% oxygen is introduced to the tubes.

  9. Laboratory Studies of Processing of Carbonaceous Aerosols by Atmospheric Oxidants/Hygroscopicity and CCN Activity of Secondary & Processed Primary Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziemann, P.J.; Arey, J.; Atkinson, R.; Kreidenweis, S.M.; Petters, M.D.

    2012-06-13

    The atmosphere is composed of a complex mixture of gases and suspended microscopic aerosol particles. The ability of these particles to take up water (hygroscopicity) and to act as nuclei for cloud droplet formation significantly impacts aerosol light scattering and absorption, and cloud formation, thereby influencing air quality, visibility, and climate in important ways. A substantial, yet poorly characterized component of the atmospheric aerosol is organic matter. Its major sources are direct emissions from combustion processes, which are referred to as primary organic aerosol (POA), or in situ processes in which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are oxidized in the atmosphere to low volatility reaction products that subsequent condense to form particles that are referred to as secondary organic aerosol (SOA). POA and VOCs are emitted to the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and natural (biogenic) sources. The overall goal of this experimental research project was to conduct laboratory studies under simulated atmospheric conditions to investigate the effects of the chemical composition of organic aerosol particles on their hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nucleation (CCN) activity, in order to develop quantitative relationships that could be used to more accurately incorporate aerosol-cloud interactions into regional and global atmospheric models. More specifically, the project aimed to determine the products, mechanisms, and rates of chemical reactions involved in the processing of organic aerosol particles by atmospheric oxidants and to investigate the relationships between the chemical composition of organic particles (as represented by molecule sizes and the specific functional groups that are present) and the hygroscopicity and CCN activity of oxidized POA and SOA formed from the oxidation of the major classes of anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs that are emitted to the atmosphere, as well as model hydrocarbons. The general approach for this project was

  10. Non-OH chemistry in oxidation flow reactors for the study of atmospheric chemistry systematically examined by modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peng, Z.; Day, D. A.; Ortega, A. M.; Palm, B. B.; Hu, W. W.; Stark, H.; Li, R.; Tsigaridis, K.; Brune, W. H.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) using low-pressure Hg lamp emission at 185 and 254 nm produce OH radicals efficiently and are widely used in atmospheric chemistry and other fields. However, knowledge of detailed OFR chemistry is limited, allowing speculation in the literature about whether some non-OH reactants, including several not relevant for tropospheric chemistry, may play an important role in these OFRs. These non-OH reactants are UV radiation, O(1D), O(3P), and O3. In this study, we investigate the relative importance of other reactants to OH for the fate of reactant species in OFR under a wide range of conditions via boxmoremodeling. The relative importance of non-OH species is less sensitive to UV light intensity than to relative humidity (RH) and external OH reactivity (OHRext), as both non-OH reactants and OH scale roughly proportional to UV intensity. We show that for field studies in forested regions and also the urban area of Los Angeles, reactants of atmospheric interest are predominantly consumed by OH. We find that O(1D), O(3P), and O3 have relative contributions to VOC consumption that are similar or lower than in the troposphere. The impact of O atoms can be neglected under most conditions in both OFR and troposphere. Under "pathological OFR conditions" of low RH and/or high OHRext, the importance of non-OH reactants is enhanced because OH is suppressed. Some biogenics can have substantial destructions by O3, and photolysis at non-tropospheric wavelengths (185 and 254 nm) may also play a significant role in the degradation of some aromatics under pathological conditions. Working under low O2 with the OFR185 mode allows OH to completely dominate over O3 reactions even for the biogenic species most reactive with O3. Non-tropospheric VOC photolysis may have been a problem in some laboratory and source studies, but can be avoided or lessened in future studies by diluting source emissions and working at lower precursor concentrations in lab studies

  11. Modeling global atmospheric CO2 with improved emission inventories and CO2 production from the oxidation of other carbon species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nassar, Ray; Jones, DBA; Suntharalingam, P; Chen, j.; Andres, Robert Joseph; Wecht, K. J.; Yantosca, R. M.; Kulawik, SS; Bowman, K; Worden, JR; Machida, T; Matsueda, H

    2010-01-01

    The use of global three-dimensional (3-D) models with satellite observations of CO2 in inverse modeling studies is an area of growing importance for understanding Earth s carbon cycle. Here we use the GEOS-Chem model (version 8-02-01) CO2 mode with multiple modifications in order to assess their impact on CO2 forward simulations. Modifications include CO2 surface emissions from shipping (0.19 PgC yr 1), 3-D spatially-distributed emissions from aviation (0.16 PgC yr 1), and 3-D chemical production of CO2 (1.05 PgC yr 1). Although CO2 chemical production from the oxidation of CO, CH4 and other carbon gases is recognized as an important contribution to global CO2, it is typically accounted for by conversion from its precursors at the surface rather than in the free troposphere. We base our model 3-D spatial distribution of CO2 chemical production on monthly-averaged loss rates of CO (a key precursor and intermediate in the oxidation of organic carbon) and apply an associated surface correction for inventories that have counted emissions of CO2 precursors as CO2. We also explore the benefit of assimilating satellite observations of CO into GEOS-Chem to obtain an observation-based estimate of the CO2 chemical source. The CO assimilation corrects for an underestimate of atmospheric CO abundances in the model, resulting in increases of as much as 24% in the chemical source during May June 2006, and increasing the global annual estimate of CO2 chemical production from 1.05 to 1.18 Pg C. Comparisons of model CO2 with measurements are carried out in order to investigate the spatial and temporal distributions that result when these new sources are added. Inclusion of CO2 emissions from shipping and aviation are shown to increase the global CO2 latitudinal gradient by just over 0.10 ppm (3%), while the inclusion of CO2 chemical production (and the surface correction) is shown to decrease the latitudinal gradient by about 0.40 ppm (10%) with a complex spatial structure

  12. Non-OH chemistry in oxidation flow reactors for the study of atmospheric chemistry systematically examined by modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peng, Zhe; Day, Douglas A.; Ortega, Amber M.; Palm, Brett B.; Hu, Weiwei; Stark, Harald; Li, Rui; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Brune, William H.; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2016-04-06

    Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) using low-pressure Hg lamp emission at 185 and 254 nm produce OH radicals efficiently and are widely used in atmospheric chemistry and other fields. However, knowledge of detailed OFR chemistry is limited, allowing speculation in the literature about whether some non-OH reactants, including several not relevant for tropospheric chemistry, may play an important role in these OFRs. These non-OH reactants are UV radiation, O(1D), O(3P), and O3. In this study, we investigate the relative importance of other reactants to OH for the fate of reactant species in OFR under a wide range of conditions via box modeling.more » The relative importance of non-OH species is less sensitive to UV light intensity than to water vapor mixing ratio (H2O) and external OH reactivity (OHRext), as both non-OH reactants and OH scale roughly proportionally to UV intensity. We show that for field studies in forested regions and also the urban area of Los Angeles, reactants of atmospheric interest are predominantly consumed by OH. We find that O(1D), O(3P), and O3 have relative contributions to volatile organic compound (VOC) consumption that are similar or lower than in the troposphere. The impact of O atoms can be neglected under most conditions in both OFR and troposphere. We define “riskier OFR conditions” as those with either low H2O (< 0.1%) or high OHRext (≥ 100s–1 in OFR185 and > 200s–1 in OFR254). We strongly suggest avoiding such conditions as the importance of non-OH reactants can be substantial for the most sensitive species, although OH may still dominate under some riskier conditions, depending on the species present. Photolysis at non-tropospheric wavelengths (185 and 254 nm) may play a significant (> 20%) role in the degradation of some aromatics, as well as some oxidation intermediates, under riskier reactor conditions, if the quantum yields are high. Under riskier conditions, some biogenics can have substantial destructions by O3

  13. Non-OH chemistry in oxidation flow reactors for the study of atmospheric chemistry systematically examined by modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peng, Zhe; Day, Douglas A.; Ortega, Amber M.; Palm, Brett B.; Hu, Weiwei; Stark, Harald; Li, Rui; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Brune, William H.; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2016-04-06

    Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) using low-pressure Hg lamp emission at 185 and 254 nm produce OH radicals efficiently and are widely used in atmospheric chemistry and other fields. However, knowledge of detailed OFR chemistry is limited, allowing speculation in the literature about whether some non-OH reactants, including several not relevant for tropospheric chemistry, may play an important role in these OFRs. These non-OH reactants are UV radiation, O(1D), O(3P), and O3. In this study, we investigate the relative importance of other reactants to OH for the fate of reactant species in OFR under a wide range of conditions via box modeling.more » The relative importance of non-OH species is less sensitive to UV light intensity than to water vapor mixing ratio (H2O) and external OH reactivity (OHRext), as both non-OH reactants and OH scale roughly proportionally to UV intensity. We show that for field studies in forested regions and also the urban area of Los Angeles, reactants of atmospheric interest are predominantly consumed by OH. We find that O(1D), O(3P), and O3 have relative contributions to volatile organic compound (VOC) consumption that are similar or lower than in the troposphere. The impact of O atoms can be neglected under most conditions in both OFR and troposphere. We define “riskier OFR conditions” as those with either low H2O (< 0.1 %) or high OHRext ( ≥  100 s−1 in OFR185 and > 200 s−1 in OFR254). We strongly suggest avoiding such conditions as the importance of non-OH reactants can be substantial for the most sensitive species, although OH may still dominate under some riskier conditions, depending on the species present. Photolysis at non-tropospheric wavelengths (185 and 254 nm) may play a significant (> 20 %) role in the degradation of some aromatics, as well as some oxidation intermediates, under riskier reactor conditions, if the quantum yields are high. Under riskier conditions, some biogenics can have

  14. Oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-07-15

    Oxide is a modular framework for feature extraction and analysis of executable files. Oxide is useful in a variety of reverse engineering and categorization tasks relating to executable content.

  15. Identification of products containing {single_bond}COOH, {single_bond}OH, and {single_bond}C{double_bond}O in atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, J.; Flagan, R.C.; Seinfeld, J.H.

    1998-08-15

    Atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons by hydroxyl radicals and ozone leads to products containing {single_bond}COOH, {single_bond}OH, and {single_bond}C{double_bond}O functional groups. The high polarity of such compounds precludes direct GC-MS analysis. In addition, many such compounds often exist in a single sample at trace levels. An analytical method has been developed to identify compounds containing one or more functional groups of carbonyl, carboxy, and hydroxy in atmospheric samples. In the method, {single_bond}C{double_bond}O groups are derivatized using O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxy amine(PFBHA), and {single_bond}COOH and {single_bond}OH groups are derivatized using a silylation reagent N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA). The derivatives are easily resolved by a GC column. The chemical ionization mass spectra of these derivatives exhibit several pseudomolecular ions, allowing unambiguous determination of molecular weights. Functional group identification is accomplished by monitoring the ions in the electron ionization mass spectra that are characteristic of each functional group derivative: m/z 181 for carbonyl and m/z 73 and 75 for carboxyl and hydroxy groups. The method is used to identify products in laboratory studies of ozone oxidation of {alpha}-pinene and {Delta}{sup 3}-carene.

  16. Morphology and structure evolution of tin-doped indium oxide thin films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering: The role of the sputtering atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nie, Man Mete, Tayfun; Ellmer, Klaus

    2014-04-21

    The microstructure and morphology evolution of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering in different sputtering atmospheres were investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectivity, and atomic force microscopy. The surface roughness w increases with increasing film thickness d{sub f}, and exhibits a power law behavior w ∼ d{sub f}{sup β}. The roughness decreases with increasing O{sub 2} flow, while it increases with increasing H{sub 2} flow. The growth exponent β is found to be 0.35, 0.75, and 0.98 for depositions in Ar/10%O{sub 2}, pure Ar, and Ar/10%H{sub 2} atmospheres, respectively. The correlation length ξ increases with film thickness also with a power law according to ξ ∼ d{sub f}{sup z} with exponents z = 0.36, 0.44, and 0.57 for these three different gas atmospheres, respectively. A combination of local and non-local growth modes in 2 + 1 dimensions is discussed for the ITO growth in this work.

  17. Mechanism of the hydroxy radical oxidation of methacryoyl peroxynitrate (MPAN) and its pathway toward secondary organic aerosol formation in the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Tran B.; Bates, Kelvin H.; Crounse, J. D.; Schwantes, Rebecca H.; Zhang, Xuan; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.; Surratt, Jason D.; Lin, Peng; Laskin, Alexander; Seinfeld, John H.; Wennberg, P. O.

    2015-01-01

    Methacryoyl peroxynitrate (MPAN), the acylperoxyl nitrate of methacrolein, has been suggested to be an important secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursor from isoprene oxidation. Yet, the mechanism by which MPAN produces SOA via reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH) is unclear. We systematically evaluate three proposed mechanisms in controlled chamber experiments and provide the first experimental support for the theoretically-predicted lactone formation pathway from the MPAN + OH reaction, producing hydroxymethyl-methyl-?-lactone (HMML). The decomposition of the MPAN-OH adduct yields HMML + NO3 (~ 75%) and hydroxyacetone + CO + NO3 (~ 25%), out-competing its reaction with atmospheric oxygen. The production of other proposed SOA precursors, e.g., methacrylic acid epoxide (MAE), from MPAN and methacrolein are negligible (< 2 %). Furthermore, we show that the beta-alkenyl moiety of MPAN is critical for lactone formation. Alkyl radicals formed via OH abstraction nstead of addition are thermalized; thus, even if they are structurally identical to the MPAN-OH adduct, they do not decompose to HMML. The SOA formation from HMML, via polyaddition of the lactone to organic compounds, is close to unity under dry conditions. However, the SOA yield is sensitive to particle liquid water and solvated ions. In hydrated sulfate-containing particles, HMML reacts primarily with H2O and aqueous sulfate, producing monomeric 2-methylglyceric acid (2MGA) and the associated organosulfate. 2MGA, a tracer for isoprene SOA, is semivolatile and its volatility increases with decreasing pH in the aerosol water. Conditions that enhance the production of neutral 2MGA will suppress SOA mass from the HMML channel. Considering the liquid water content and pH ranges of ambient particles, MGA may exist largely as a gaseous compound in some parts of the atmosphere.

  18. Atmospheric Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chemistry Atmospheric Chemistry Atmospheric Chemistry is the study of the composition of the atmosphere, the sources and fates of gases and particles in air, and changes induced by ...

  19. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH uptake ...

  20. Highly oxidized superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1994-09-20

    Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known synthesis in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed. 16 figs.

  1. Highly oxidized superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E.

    1994-01-01

    Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed.

  2. ARM - Oxides of Nitrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxides of Nitrogen Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Oxides of Nitrogen Oxides of nitrogen, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and ozone have a lesser effect on the atmosphere than carbon dioxide and methane, but as you will see they are important contributors to the greenhouse

  3. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozonemore » and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.« less

  4. Controlled atmosphere for fabrication of cermet electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, S.P.; Woods, R.W.

    1998-08-11

    A process is disclosed for making an inert electrode composite wherein a metal oxide and a metal are reacted in a gaseous atmosphere at an elevated temperature of at least about 750 C. The metal oxide is at least one of the nickel, iron, tin, zinc and zirconium oxides and the metal is copper, silver, a mixture of copper and silver or a copper-silver alloy. The gaseous atmosphere has an oxygen content that is controlled at about 5--3000 ppm in order to obtain a desired composition in the resulting composite. 2 figs.

  5. Controlled atmosphere for fabrication of cermet electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P.; Woods, Robert W.

    1998-01-01

    A process for making an inert electrode composite wherein a metal oxide and a metal are reacted in a gaseous atmosphere at an elevated temperature of at least about 750.degree. C. The metal oxide is at least one of the nickel, iron, tin, zinc and zirconium oxides and the metal is copper, silver, a mixture of copper and silver or a copper-silver alloy. The gaseous atmosphere has an oxygen content that is controlled at about 5-3000 ppm in order to obtain a desired composition in the resulting composite.

  6. Absorption spectrum and solar photodissociation of gaseous nitrous acid in the actinic wavelength region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasudev, R. )

    1990-11-01

    The absorption cross section of gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) in the actinic wavelength region ({lambda} {ge} 290 nm) of the solar radiation is mapped through laser photodissociation experiments, HONO is photodissociated by a tunable ultraviolet beam, and the OH product is monitored through fluorescence induced by a frequency-double dye laser. The absorption of HONO is mapped by scanning the photolysis wavelength. Since this technique yields relative cross-sections, the authors calibrate the measurements with previous measurements of absolute cross-section at 354 nm (because there is reasonable agreement among previous measurements at this wavelength). The present experimental approach is insensitive to the presence of NO{sub 2}, which apparently contributed to inaccuracies in some of the previous conventional measurements on HONO absorption.

  7. Assessing methane oxidation under landfill covers and its contribution to the above atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels: The added value of the isotope ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O CO{sub 2}; {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}D CH{sub 4}) approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widory, D.; Proust, E.; Bellenfant, G.; Bour, O.

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of the isotope and mass balance approaches to evaluate the level of methane oxidation within a landfill. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The level of methane oxidation is not homogenous under the landfill cover and is strongly correlated to the methane flux. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isotope tracking of the contribution of the methane oxidation to the CO{sub 2} concentrations in the ambient air. - Abstract: We are presenting here a multi-isotope approach ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O of CO{sub 2}; {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}D of CH{sub 4}) to assess (i) the level(s) of methane oxidation during waste biodegradation and its migration through a landfill cover in Sonzay (France), and (ii) its contribution to the atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels above the surface. The isotope approach is compared to the more conventional mass balance approach. Results from the two techniques are comparable and show that the CH{sub 4} oxidation under the landfill cover is heterogenous, with low oxidation percentages in samples showing high biogas fluxes, which was expected in clay covers presenting fissures, through which CH{sub 4} is rapidly transported. At shallow depth, more immobile biogas pockets show a higher level of CH{sub 4} oxidation by the methanotrophic bacteria. {delta}{sup 13}C of CO{sub 2} samples taken at different heights (from below the cover up to 8 m above the ground level) were also used to identify and assess the relative contributions of its main sources both under the landfill cover and in the surrounding atmosphere.

  8. Atmosphere purification of radon and radon daughter elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, L.

    1973-12-11

    A method for purifying an atmosphere of radon and radon daughter elements which may be contained therein by contacting the atmosphere with a fluorinating solution, whereby the radon and radon daughters are oxidized to their respective fluorides is discussed. The fluorides dissolve in the fluorinating solutlon and are removed from the atmosphere, which may then be recirculated. (Official Gazette)

  9. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gentile, Charles A. , Guttadora, Gregory L. , Parker, John J.

    2006-02-07

    The Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System, OTDS, provides a method and apparatus for reduction of tritium surface contamination on various items. The OTDS employs ozone gas as oxidizing agent to convert elemental tritium to tritium oxide. Tritium oxide vapor and excess ozone gas is purged from the OTDS, for discharge to atmosphere or transport to further process. An effluent stream is subjected to a catalytic process for the decomposition of excess ozone to diatomic oxygen. One of two configurations of the OTDS is employed: dynamic apparatus equipped with agitation mechanism and large volumetric capacity for decontamination of light items, or static apparatus equipped with pressurization and evacuation capability for decontamination of heavier, delicate, and/or valuable items.

  10. Atmosphere purification of radon and radon daughter elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, L.

    1974-01-01

    A method of removing radon and radon daughter elements from an atmosphere containing these elements by passing the atmosphere through a bed of fluorinating compound whereby the radon and radon daughters are oxidized to their respective fluorides is discussed. These fluorides adhere to the fluorinating compound and are thus removed from the atmosphere which may then be recirculated. A method for recovering radon and separating radon from its daughter elements is also described. (Official Gazette)

  11. ARM - Atmospheric Heat Budget

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Atmospheric Heat Budget shows where the atmospheric heat energy comes from and where it goes. Practically all this energy ultimately comes from the sun in the form of the ...

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 ARM 2003 Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement WARNING! WARNING! Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Two Topics Two Topics * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan -

  13. Community Atmosphere Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-10-18

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) is an atmospheric general circulation model that solves equations for atmospheric dynamics and physics. CAM is an outgrowth of the Community Climate Model at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and was developed as a joint collaborative effort between NCAR and several DOE laboratories, including LLNL. CAM contains several alternative approaches for advancing the atmospheric dynamics. One of these approaches uses a finite-volume method originally developed by personnel atmore » NASNGSFC, We have developed a scalable version of the finite-volume solver for massively parallel computing systems. FV-CAM is meant to be used in conjunction with the Community Atmosphere Model. It is not stand-alone.« less

  14. Atmosphere to Electrons

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Wind Forecast Improvement Project The Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP) is a public private partnership consortium including DOE, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric ...

  15. High surface area, electrically conductive nanocarbon-supported metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Han, Thomas Yong-Jin; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Cervantes, Octavio; Gash, Alexander E.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2015-07-14

    A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust.

  16. High surface area, electrically conductive nanocarbon-supported metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worsley, Marcus A; Han, Thomas Yong-Jin; Kuntz, Joshua D; Cervanted, Octavio; Gash, Alexander E; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr., Joe H

    2014-03-04

    A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust.

  17. Ensemble Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Addis, R.P.

    2002-06-24

    Prognostic atmospheric dispersion models are used to generate consequence assessments, which assist decision-makers in the event of a release from a nuclear facility. Differences in the forecast wind fields generated by various meteorological agencies, differences in the transport and diffusion models, as well as differences in the way these models treat the release source term, result in differences in the resulting plumes. Even dispersion models using the same wind fields may produce substantially different plumes. This talk will address how ensemble techniques may be used to enable atmospheric modelers to provide decision-makers with a more realistic understanding of how both the atmosphere and the models behave.

  18. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

    1988-10-25

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

  19. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, Roland L.; Cannon, Theodore W.

    1988-01-01

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

  20. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griesbach, Otto A.; Stencel, Joseph R.

    1990-01-01

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The mixture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H.sub.2 or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  1. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griesbach, O.A.; Stencel, J.R.

    1987-10-02

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The moisture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H/sub 2/ or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  2. Steam Oxidation of Advanced Steam Turbine Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2008-01-01

    Power generation from coal using ultra supercritical steam results in improved fuel efficiency and decreased greenhouse gas emissions. Results of ongoing research into the oxidation of candidate nickel-base alloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines are presented. Exposure conditions range from moist air at atmospheric pressure (650C to 800C) to steam at 34.5 MPa (650C to 760C). Parabolic scale growth coupled with internal oxidation and reactive evaporation of chromia are the primary corrosion mechanisms.

  3. Simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides from combustion gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clay, David T.; Lynn, Scott

    1976-10-19

    A process for the simultaneous removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from power plant stack gases comprising contacting the stack gases with a supported iron oxide catalyst/absorbent in the presence of sufficient reducing agent selected from the group consisting of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and mixtures thereof, to provide a net reducing atmosphere in the SO.sub.x /NO.sub.x removal zone. The sulfur oxides are removed by absorption substantially as iron sulfide, and nitrogen oxides are removed by catalytic reduction to nitrogen and ammonia. The spent iron oxide catalyst/absorbent is regenerated by oxidation and is recycled to the contacting zone. Sulfur dioxide is also produced during regeneration and can be utilized in the production of sulfuric acid and/or sulfur.

  4. Oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceyer, Sylvia T.; Lahr, David L.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  5. Analyzing Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Escamilla, J.; Ernst, D. J.; Latimer, D. C.

    2007-10-26

    We provide a pedagogic derivation of the formula needed to analyze atmospheric data and then derive, for the subset of the data that are fully-contained events, an analysis tool that is quantitative and numerically efficient. Results for the full set of neutrino oscillation data are then presented. We find the following preliminary results: 1.) the sub-dominant approximation provides reasonable values for the best fit parameters for {delta}{sub 32}, {theta}{sub 23}, and {theta}{sub 13} but does not quantitatively provide the errors for these three parameters; 2.) the size of the MSW effect is suppressed in the sub-dominant approximation; 3.) the MSW effect reduces somewhat the extracted error for {delta}{sub 32}, more so for {theta}{sub 23} and {theta}{sub 13}; 4.) atmospheric data alone constrains the allowed values of {theta}{sub 13} only in the sub-dominant approximation, the full three neutrino calculations requires CHOOZ to get a clean constraint; 5.) the linear in {theta}{sub 13} terms are not negligible; and 6.) the minimum value of {theta}{sub 13} is found to be negative, but at a statistically insignificant level.

  6. Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gero, Jonathan; Ermold, Brian; Gaustad, Krista; Koontz, Annette; Hackel, Denny; Garcia, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    The atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) is a ground-based instrument that measures the downwelling infrared radiance from the Earth’s atmosphere. The observations have broad spectral content and sufficient spectral resolution to discriminate among gaseous emitters (e.g., carbon dioxide and water vapor) and suspended matter (e.g., aerosols, water droplets, and ice crystals). These upward-looking surface observations can be used to obtain vertical profiles of tropospheric temperature and water vapor, as well as measurements of trace gases (e.g., ozone, carbon monoxide, and methane) and downwelling infrared spectral signatures of clouds and aerosols. The AERI is a passive remote sounding instrument, employing a Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the spectral range 3.3–19.2 μm (520–3020 cm-1) at an unapodized resolution of 0.5 cm-1 (max optical path difference of 1 cm). The extended-range AERI (ER-AERI) deployed in dry climates, like in Alaska, have a spectral range of 3.3–25.0 μm (400–3020 cm-1) that allow measurements in the far-infrared region. Typically, the AERI averages views of the sky over a 16-second interval and operates continuously.

  7. Oxidation of carbynes: Signatures in infrared spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cinquanta, E. E-mail: p.rudolf@rug.nl; Manini, N.; Caramella, L.; Onida, G.; Ravagnan, L.; Milani, P.; Rudolf, P. E-mail: p.rudolf@rug.nl

    2014-06-28

    We report and solidly interpret the infrared spectrum of both pristine and oxidized carbynes embedded in a pure-carbon matrix. The spectra probe separately the effects of oxidation on sp- and on sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon, and provide information on the stability of the different structures in an oxidizing atmosphere. The final products are mostly short end-oxidized carbynes anchored with a double bond to sp{sup 2} fragments, plus an oxidized sp{sup 2} amorphous matrix. Our results have important implications for the realization of carbyne-based nano-electronics devices and highlight the active participation of carbynes in astrochemical reactions where they act as carbon source for the promotion of more complex organic species.

  8. Electro-deposition of superconductor oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.

    2001-01-01

    Methods for preparing high quality superconducting oxide precursors which are well suited for further oxidation and annealing to form superconducting oxide films. The method comprises forming a multilayered superconducting precursor on a substrate by providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a substrate electrode, and providing to the bath a plurality of precursor metal salts which are capable of exhibiting superconducting properties upon subsequent treatment. The superconducting precursor is then formed by electrodepositing a first electrodeposited (ED) layer onto the substrate electrode, followed by depositing a layer of silver onto the first electrodeposited (ED) layer, and then electrodepositing a second electrodeposited (ED) layer onto the Ag layer. The multilayered superconducting precursor is suitable for oxidation at a sufficient annealing temperature in air or an oxygen-containing atmosphere to form a crystalline superconducting oxide film.

  9. PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERES. I. PHOTOCHEMISTRY MODEL AND BENCHMARK CASES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Renyu; Seager, Sara; Bains, William

    2012-12-20

    We present a comprehensive photochemistry model for exploration of the chemical composition of terrestrial exoplanet atmospheres. The photochemistry model is designed from the ground up to have the capacity to treat all types of terrestrial planet atmospheres, ranging from oxidizing through reducing, which makes the code suitable for applications for the wide range of anticipated terrestrial exoplanet compositions. The one-dimensional chemical transport model treats up to 800 chemical reactions, photochemical processes, dry and wet deposition, surface emission, and thermal escape of O, H, C, N, and S bearing species, as well as formation and deposition of elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid aerosols. We validate the model by computing the atmospheric composition of current Earth and Mars and find agreement with observations of major trace gases in Earth's and Mars' atmospheres. We simulate several plausible atmospheric scenarios of terrestrial exoplanets and choose three benchmark cases for atmospheres from reducing to oxidizing. The most interesting finding is that atomic hydrogen is always a more abundant reactive radical than the hydroxyl radical in anoxic atmospheres. Whether atomic hydrogen is the most important removal path for a molecule of interest also depends on the relevant reaction rates. We also find that volcanic carbon compounds (i.e., CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}) are chemically long-lived and tend to be well mixed in both reducing and oxidizing atmospheres, and their dry deposition velocities to the surface control the atmospheric oxidation states. Furthermore, we revisit whether photochemically produced oxygen can cause false positives for detecting oxygenic photosynthesis, and find that in 1 bar CO{sub 2}-rich atmospheres oxygen and ozone may build up to levels that have conventionally been accepted as signatures of life, if there is no surface emission of reducing gases. The atmospheric scenarios presented in this paper can serve as the benchmark

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly ... Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites ...

  11. ORISE: Climate and Atmospheric Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education Climate and Atmospheric Research Conducting climate research focused on issues of national and global importance is one of the primary objectives of the Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (ATDD)-a field division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. ORAU partners with ATDD-and in collaboration with scientists and engineers from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as well as government agencies, universities, and private

  12. ARM - Sources of Atmospheric Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sources of Atmospheric Carbon Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Sources of Atmospheric Carbon Atmospheric carbon represented a steady state system, where influx equaled outflow, before the Industrial Revolution. Currently, it is no longer a steady state system because the

  13. Cellular membrane collapse by atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Kangil; Sik Yang, Sang E-mail: ssyang@ajou.ac.kr; Jun Ahn, Hak; Lee, Jong-Soo E-mail: ssyang@ajou.ac.kr; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2014-01-06

    Cellular membrane dysfunction caused by air plasma in cancer cells has been studied to exploit atmospheric-pressure plasma jets for cancer therapy. Here, we report that plasma jet treatment of cervical cancer HeLa cells increased electrical conductivity across the cellular lipid membrane and caused simultaneous lipid oxidation and cellular membrane collapse. We made this finding by employing a self-manufactured microelectrode chip. Furthermore, increased roughness of the cellular lipid membrane and sequential collapse of the membrane were observed by atomic force microscopy following plasma jet treatment. These results suggest that the cellular membrane catastrophe occurs via coincident altered electrical conductivity, lipid oxidation, and membrane roughening caused by an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet, possibly resulting in cellular vulnerability to reactive species generated from the plasma as well as cytotoxicity to cancer cells.

  14. Polyport atmospheric gas sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guggenheim, S. Frederic

    1995-01-01

    An atmospheric gas sampler with a multi-port valve which allows for multi, sequential sampling of air through a plurality of gas sampling tubes mounted in corresponding gas inlet ports. The gas sampler comprises a flow-through housing which defines a sampling chamber and includes a gas outlet port to accommodate a flow of gases through the housing. An apertured sample support plate defining the inlet ports extends across and encloses the sampling chamber and supports gas sampling tubes which depend into the sampling chamber and are secured across each of the inlet ports of the sample support plate in a flow-through relation to the flow of gases through the housing during sampling operations. A normally closed stopper means mounted on the sample support plate and operatively associated with each of the inlet ports blocks the flow of gases through the respective gas sampling tubes. A camming mechanism mounted on the sample support plate is adapted to rotate under and selectively lift open the stopper spring to accommodate a predetermined flow of gas through the respective gas sampling tubes when air is drawn from the housing through the outlet port.

  15. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lau, Maggie C.Y.; Stackhouse, B.; Layton, Alice C.; Chauhan, Archana; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chourey, Karuna; Mykytczuk, N. C.S.; Bennett, Phil C.; Lamarche-Gagnon, G.; Burton, N.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The transition of Arctic carbon-rich cryosols into methane (CH₄)-emitting wetlands due to global warming is a rising concern. However, the spatially predominant mineral cryosols and their CH₄ emission potential are poorly understood. Fluxes measured in situ and estimated under laboratory conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH₄-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH⁺ uptake flux increases with ground temperature; and, as a result, (3) the atmospheric CH₄ sink strength will increase by a factor of 5-30 as the Arctic warms by 5-15 °C over a century. We demonstrated that acidic mineralmore » cryosols have previously unrecognized potential of negative CH₄ feedback.« less

  16. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, Maggie C.Y.; Stackhouse, B.; Layton, Alice C.; Chauhan, Archana; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chourey, Karuna; Mykytczuk, N. C.S.; Bennett, Phil C.; Lamarche-Gagnon, G.; Burton, N.; Renholm, J.; Hettich, R. L.; Pollard, W. H.; Omelon, C. R.; Medvigy, David M.; Pffifner, Susan M.; Whyte, L. G.; Onstott, T. C.

    2015-04-14

    The transition of Arctic carbon-rich cryosols into methane (CH₄)-emitting wetlands due to global warming is a rising concern. However, the spatially predominant mineral cryosols and their CH₄ emission potential are poorly understood. Fluxes measured in situ and estimated under laboratory conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH₄-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH⁺ uptake flux increases with ground temperature; and, as a result, (3) the atmospheric CH₄ sink strength will increase by a factor of 5-30 as the Arctic warms by 5-15 °C over a century. We demonstrated that acidic mineral cryosols have previously unrecognized potential of negative CH₄ feedback.

  17. Atmospheric pressure plasma analysis by modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aranda Gonzalvo, Y.; Whitmore, T.D.; Rees, J.A.; Seymour, D.L.; Stoffels, E.

    2006-05-15

    Fractional number density measurements for a rf plasma 'needle' operating at atmospheric pressure have been obtained using a molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) system designed for diagnostics of atmospheric plasmas. The MBMS system comprises three differentially pumped stages and a mass/energy analyzer and includes an automated beam-to-background measurement facility in the form of a software-controlled chopper mechanism. The automation of the beam modulation allows the neutral components in the plasma to be rapidly and accurately measured using the mass spectrometer by threshold ionization techniques. Data are reported for plasma generated by a needle plasma source operated using a helium/air mixture. In particular, data for the conversion of atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen into nitric oxide are discussed with reference to its significance for medical applications such as disinfecting wounds and dental cavities and for microsurgery.

  18. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, Maggie C.Y.; Stackhouse, B.; Layton, Alice C.; Chauhan, Archana; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chourey, Karuna; Mykytczuk, N. C.S.; Bennett, Phil C.; Lamarche-Gagnon, G.; Burton, N.; Renholm, J.; Hettich, R. L.; Pollard, W. H.; Omelon, C. R.; Medvigy, David M.; Pffifner, Susan M.; Whyte, L. G.; Onstott, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    The transition of Arctic carbon-rich cryosols into methane (CH₄)-emitting wetlands due to global warming is a rising concern. However, the spatially predominant mineral cryosols and their CH₄ emission potential are poorly understood. Fluxes measured in situ and estimated under laboratory conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH₄-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH⁺ uptake flux increases with ground temperature; and, as a result, (3) the atmospheric CH₄ sink strength will increase by a factor of 5-30 as the Arctic warms by 5-15 °C over a century. We demonstrated that acidic mineral cryosols have previously unrecognized potential of negative CH₄ feedback.

  19. Recuperated atmospheric SOFC/gas turbine hybrid cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lundberg, Wayne

    2010-05-04

    A method of operating an atmospheric-pressure solid oxide fuel cell generator (6) in combination with a gas turbine comprising a compressor (1) and expander (2) where an inlet oxidant (20) is passed through the compressor (1) and exits as a first stream (60) and a second stream (62) the first stream passing through a flow control valve (56) to control flow and then through a heat exchanger (54) followed by mixing with the second stream (62) where the mixed streams are passed through a combustor (8) and expander (2) and the first heat exchanger for temperature control before entry into the solid oxide fuel cell generator (6), which generator (6) is also supplied with fuel (40).

  20. Recuperated atmosphere SOFC/gas turbine hybrid cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lundberg, Wayne

    2010-08-24

    A method of operating an atmospheric-pressure solid oxide fuel cell generator (6) in combination with a gas turbine comprising a compressor (1) and expander (2) where an inlet oxidant (20) is passed through the compressor (1) and exits as a first stream (60) and a second stream (62) the first stream passing through a flow control valve (56) to control flow and then through a heat exchanger (54) followed by mixing with the second stream (62) where the mixed streams are passed through a combustor (8) and expander (2) and the first heat exchanger for temperature control before entry into the solid oxide fuel cell generator (6), which generator (6) is also supplied with fuel (40).

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using ARM Mobile

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using ARM Mobile Facility, GERB, and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST) Beginning in January 2006, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) began supporting RADAGAST to provide the first well-sampled direct esti- mates of the energy balance across the atmosphere. The experiment is part of an ongoing international study of the West African monsoon system and Saharan dust storms. Stationed outside the Niger Meteo- rological Office at the Niamey International Airport, the AMF is located

  2. Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin films Prev Next Title: Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin films Authors: Lee, Shinbuhm ...

  3. Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1991-11-20

    The Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code (TRAC) is a real-time emergency response modeling capability designed to advise Emergency Managers of the path, timing, and projected impacts from an atmospheric release. TRAC evaluates the effects of both radiological and non-radiological hazardous substances, gases and particulates. Using available surface and upper air meteorological information, TRAC realistically treats complex sources and atmospheric conditions, such as those found in mountainous terrain. TRAC calculates atmospheric concentration, deposition, and dose for more thanmore » 25,000 receptor locations within 80 km of the release point. Human-engineered output products support critical decisions on the type, location, and timing of protective actions for workers and the public during an emergency.« less

  4. (Chemistry of the global atmosphere)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marland, G.

    1990-09-27

    The traveler attended the conference The Chemistry of the Global Atmosphere,'' and presented a paper on the anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to the atmosphere. The conference included meetings of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) programme, a core project of the International Geosphere/Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and the traveler participated in meetings on the IGAC project Development of Global Emissions Inventories'' and agreed to coordinate the working group on CO{sub 2}. Papers presented at the conference focused on the latest developments in analytical methods, modeling and understanding of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, NMHCs, CFCs, and aerosols.

  5. Atmospheric science and power production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randerson, D.

    1984-07-01

    This is the third in a series of scientific publications sponsored by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the two later organizations, the US Energy Research and Development Adminstration, and the US Department of Energy. The first book, Meteorology and Atomic Energy, was published in 1955; the second, in 1968. The present volume is designed to update and to expand upon many of the important concepts presented previously. However, the present edition draws heavily on recent contributions made by atmospheric science to the analysis of air quality and on results originating from research conducted and completed in the 1970s. Special emphasis is placed on how atmospheric science can contribute to solving problems relating to the fate of combustion products released into the atmosphere. The framework of this book is built around the concept of air-quality modeling. Fundamentals are addressed first to equip the reader with basic background information and to focus on available meteorological instrumentation and to emphasize the importance of data management procedures. Atmospheric physics and field experiments are described in detail to provide an overview of atmospheric boundary layer processes, of how air flows around obstacles, and of the mechanism of plume rise. Atmospheric chemistry and removal processes are also detailed to provide fundamental knowledge on how gases and particulate matter can be transformed while in the atmosphere and how they can be removed from the atmosphere. The book closes with a review of how air-quality models are being applied to solve a wide variety of problems. Separate analytics have been prepared for each chapter.

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    27 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-16-027 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  7. AUDIT REPORT Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility OAI-M-16-10 May 2016 U.S. ... Audit Report on the "Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility" ...

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-16-037 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    01 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-16-001 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-15-069 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  11. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion...

  12. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Name: National Oceanic and...

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science and Infrastructure Steering Committee CHARTER June 2012 DISCLAIMER ...

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Annual...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2006 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research ...

  15. Search for: "atmospheric radiation measurement" | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Switch to Detail View for this search DOE Data Explorer Search Results Page 1 of 70 Search for: "atmospheric radiation measurement" 697 results for: "atmospheric radiation ...

  16. PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERES. II. H{sub 2}S AND SO{sub 2} PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN ANOXIC ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Renyu; Seager, Sara; Bains, William

    2013-05-20

    Sulfur gases are common components in the volcanic and biological emission on Earth, and are expected to be important input gases for atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets. We study the atmospheric composition and the spectra of terrestrial exoplanets with sulfur compounds (i.e., H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}) emitted from their surfaces. We use a comprehensive one-dimensional photochemistry model and radiative transfer model to investigate the sulfur chemistry in atmospheres ranging from reducing to oxidizing. The most important finding is that both H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} are chemically short-lived in virtually all types of atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets, based on models of H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} atmospheres. This implies that direct detection of surface sulfur emission is unlikely, as their surface emission rates need to be extremely high (>1000 times Earth's volcanic sulfur emission) for these gases to build up to a detectable level. We also find that sulfur compounds emitted from the surface lead to photochemical formation of elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid in the atmosphere, which would condense to form aerosols if saturated. For terrestrial exoplanets in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars or M stars, Earth-like sulfur emission rates result in optically thick haze composed of elemental sulfur in reducing H{sub 2}-dominated atmospheres for a wide range of particle diameters (0.1-1 {mu}m), which is assumed as a free parameter in our simulations. In oxidized atmospheres composed of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, optically thick haze, composed of elemental sulfur aerosols (S{sub 8}) or sulfuric acid aerosols (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), will form if the surface sulfur emission is two orders of magnitude more than the volcanic sulfur emission of Earth. Although direct detection of H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} by their spectral features is unlikely, their emission might be inferred by observing aerosol-related features in reflected light with future generation space

  17. lithium cobalt oxide cathode

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lithium cobalt oxide cathode - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations ... SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers lithium cobalt oxide cathode Home...

  18. Retention of elemental mercury in fly ashes in different atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Lopez-Anton; M. Diaz-Somoano; M.R. Martinez-Tarazona

    2007-01-15

    Mercury is an extremely volatile element, which is emitted from coal combustion to the environment mostly in the vapor phase. To avoid the environmental problems that the toxic species of this element may cause, control technologies for the removal of mercury are necessary. Recent research has shown that certain fly ash materials have an affinity for mercury. Moreover, it has been observed that fly ashes may catalyze the oxidation of elemental mercury and facilitate its capture. However, the exact nature of Hg-fly ash interactions is still unknown, and mercury oxidation through fly ash needs to be investigated more thoroughly. In this work, the influence of a gas atmosphere on the retention of elemental mercury on fly ashes of different characteristics was evaluated. The retention capacity was estimated comparatively in inert and two gas atmospheres containing species present in coal gasification and coal combustion. Fly ashes produced in two pulverized coal combustion (PCC) plants, produced from coals of different rank (CTA and CTSR), and a fly ash (CTP) produced in a fluidized bed combustion (FBC) plant were used as raw materials. The mercury retention capacity of these fly ashes was compared to the retention obtained in different activated carbons. Although the capture of mercury is very similar in the gasification atmosphere and N{sub 2}, it is much more efficient in a coal combustion retention, being greater in fly ashes from PCC than those from FBC plants. 22 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The containment vessel is enclosed within an aqueous atmosphere that is above the supercritical temperature and pressure of the solvent of the metal alkoxide solution.

  20. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J. Roland; Liu, Ping; Smith, R. Davis

    2009-07-14

    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  1. Method for fluorination of uranium oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petit, George S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1987-01-01

    Highly pure uranium hexafluoride is made from uranium oxide and fluorine. The uranium oxide, which includes UO.sub.3, UO.sub.2, U.sub.3 O.sub.8 and mixtures thereof, is introduced together with a small amount of a fluorine-reactive substance, selected from alkali chlorides, silicon dioxide, silicic acid, ferric oxide, and bromine, into a constant volume reaction zone. Sufficient fluorine is charged into the zone at a temperature below approximately 0.degree. C. to provide an initial pressure of at least approximately 600 lbs/sq. in. at the ambient atmospheric temperature. The temperature is then allowed to rise in the reaction zone until reaction occurs.

  2. Method of producing highly oxidized superconductors containing barium, copper, and a third metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1996-02-20

    Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed. 16 figs.

  3. Method of producing highly oxidized superconductors containing barium, copper, and a third metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E.

    1996-01-01

    Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed.

  4. Studies on supported metal oxide-oxide support interactions ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 66 PHYSICS; CERIUM OXIDES; SURFACE PROPERTIES; ALUMINIUM OXIDES; COPPER OXIDES; BINDING ENERGY; X-RAY DIFFRACTION; INFRARED SPECTRA; VALENCE; ZINC ...

  5. Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide Ultrathin Films Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron...

  6. Light extinction in the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laulainen, N.

    1992-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles originating from natural sources, such as volcanos and sulfur-bearing gas emissions from the oceans, and from human sources, such as sulfur emissions from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, strongly affect visual air quality and are suspected to significantly affect radiative climate forcing of the planet. During the daytime, aerosols obscure scenic vistas, while at night they diminish our ability to observe stellar objects. Scattering of light is the main means by which aerosols attenuate and redistribute light in the atmosphere and by which aerosols can alter and reduce visibility and potentially modify the energy balance of the planet. Trends and seasonal variability of atmospheric aerosol loading, such as column-integrated light extinction or optical depth, and how they may affect potential climate change have been difficult to quantify because there have been few observations made of important aerosol optical parameters, such as optical depth, over the globe and over time and often these are of uneven quality. To address questions related to possible climate change, there is a pressing need to acquire more high-quality aerosol optical depth data. Extensive deployment of improved solar radiometers over the next few years will provide higher-quality extinction data over a wider variety of locations worldwide. An often overlooked source of turbidity data, however, is available from astronomical observations, particularly stellar photoelectric photometry observations. With the exception of the Project ASTRA articles published almost 20 years ago, few of these data ever appear in the published literature. This paper will review the current status of atmospheric extinction observations, as highlighted by the ASTRA work and augmented by more recent solar radiometry measurements.

  7. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S.

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A .gamma.-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the annular region therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly shaping the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, no ions survive for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  8. DEFRA Global Atmosphere Dept | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kingdom Zip: SW1E 6DE Product: Atmosphere research department of the UK Department of Food and Rural Affairs. References: DEFRA - Global Atmosphere Dept.1 This article is a...

  9. Our Dusty Atmosphere | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Dusty Atmosphere Our Dusty Atmosphere September 6, 2011 - 4:26pm Addthis A heavy layer of air pollution, a mix of aerosol particles and vapors, obscures the view over Mexico City. ...

  10. Mixed Acid Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R.A.

    1999-10-26

    Several non-thermal processes have been developed to destroy organic waste compounds using chemicals with high oxidation potentials. These efforts have focused on developing technologies that work at low temperatures, relative to incineration, to overcome many of the regulatory issues associated with obtaining permits for waste incinerators. One such technique with great flexibility is mixed acid oxidation. Mixed acid oxidation, developed at the Savannah River Site, uses a mixture of an oxidant (nitric acid) and a carrier acid (phosphoric acid). The carrier acid acts as a non-volatile holding medium for the somewhat volatile oxidant. The combination of acids allows appreciable amounts of the concentrated oxidant to remain in the carrier acid well above the oxidant''s normal boiling point.

  11. Quantitative determination of atmospheric hydroperoxyl radical

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Springston, Stephen R.; Lloyd, Judith; Zheng, Jun

    2007-10-23

    A method for the quantitative determination of atmospheric hydroperoxyl radical comprising: (a) contacting a liquid phase atmospheric sample with a chemiluminescent compound which luminesces on contact with hydroperoxyl radical; (b) determining luminescence intensity from the liquid phase atmospheric sample; and (c) comparing said luminescence intensity from the liquid phase atmospheric sample to a standard luminescence intensity for hydroperoxyl radical. An apparatus for automating the method is also included.

  12. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused

  13. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused

  14. Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling in Safety Analyses; GENII

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Atmosphere to Electrons Enabling the Wind Plant of Tomorrow 2 Atmosphere to Electrons Enabling the Wind Plant of Tomorrow The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) research initiative is focused on improving the performance and reliability of wind plants by establishing an unprecedented under- standing of how the Earth's atmosphere interacts with the wind plants and developing innovative technologies to maximize energy extraction from the wind. The A2e initiative

  15. Radar range measurements in the atmosphere.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-02-01

    The earth's atmosphere affects the velocity of propagation of microwave signals. This imparts a range error to radar range measurements that assume the typical simplistic model for propagation velocity. This range error is a function of atmospheric constituents, such as water vapor, as well as the geometry of the radar data collection, notably altitude and range. Models are presented for calculating atmospheric effects on radar range measurements, and compared against more elaborate atmospheric models.

  16. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused

  17. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused

  18. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused

  19. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Wednesday, 29 June 2005 00:00 Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the

  20. Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin films ...

  1. Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide Ultrathin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Films | ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide Ultrathin Films Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide Ultrathin Films

  2. Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rashid Khan, M.

    1988-05-05

    A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere is described. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, M. Rashid

    1989-01-01

    A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis.

  4. Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) Data Archive () | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) Data Archive Title: Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) Data Archive The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) originally ...

  5. Partial oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, Michael; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Doshi, Rajiv

    2000-01-01

    A two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion. The dehydrogenation portion is a group VIII metal and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure. There is also disclosed a method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide.

  6. Regional Ecosystem-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange Via Atmospheric Budgets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, K.J.; Richardson, S.J.; Miles, N.L.

    2007-03-07

    Inversions of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio measurements to determine CO2 sources and sinks are typically limited to coarse spatial and temporal resolution. This limits our ability to evaluate efforts to upscale chamber- and stand-level CO2 flux measurements to regional scales, where coherent climate and ecosystem mechanisms govern the carbon cycle. As a step towards the goal of implementing atmospheric budget or inversion methodology on a regional scale, a network of five relatively inexpensive CO2 mixing ratio measurement systems was deployed on towers in northern Wisconsin. Four systems were distributed on a circle of roughly 150-km radius, surrounding one centrally located system at the WLEF tower near Park Falls, WI. All measurements were taken at a height of 76 m AGL. The systems used single-cell infrared CO2 analyzers (Licor, model LI-820) rather than the siginificantly more costly two-cell models, and were calibrated every two hours using four samples known to within 0.2 ppm CO2. Tests prior to deployment in which the systems sampled the same air indicate the precision of the systems to be better than 0.3 ppm and the accuracy, based on the difference between the daily mean of one system and a co-located NOAA-ESRL system, is consistently better than 0.3 ppm. We demonstrate the utility of the network in two ways. We interpret regional CO2 differences using a Lagrangian parcel approach. The difference in the CO2 mixing ratios across the network is at least 2?3 ppm, which is large compared to the accuracy and precision of the systems. Fluxes estimated assuming Lagrangian parcel transport are of the same sign and magnitude as eddy-covariance flux measurements at the centrally-located WLEF tower. These results indicate that the network will be useful in a full inversion model. Second, we present a case study involving a frontal passage through the region. The progression of a front across the network is evident; changes as large as four ppm in one minute are

  7. ZIRCONIUM OXIDE NANOSTRUCTURES PREPARED BY ANODIC OXIDATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dang, Y. Y.; Bhuiyan, M.S.; Paranthaman, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Zirconium oxide is an advanced ceramic material highly useful for structural and electrical applications because of its high strength, fracture toughness, chemical and thermal stability, and biocompatibility. If highly-ordered porous zirconium oxide membranes can be successfully formed, this will expand its real-world applications, such as further enhancing solid-oxide fuel cell technology. Recent studies have achieved various morphologies of porous zirconium oxide via anodization, but they have yet to create a porous layer where nanoholes are formed in a highly ordered array. In this study, electrochemical methods were used for zirconium oxide synthesis due to its advantages over other coating techniques, and because the thickness and morphology of the ceramic fi lms can be easily tuned by the electrochemical parameters, such as electrolyte solutions and processing conditions, such as pH, voltage, and duration. The effects of additional steps such as pre-annealing and post-annealing were also examined. Results demonstrate the formation of anodic porous zirconium oxide with diverse morphologies, such as sponge-like layers, porous arrays with nanoholes ranging from 40 to 75 nm, and nanotube layers. X-ray powder diffraction analysis indicates a cubic crystallographic structure in the zirconium oxide. It was noted that increased voltage improved the ability of the membrane to stay adhered to the zirconium substrate, whereas lower voltages caused a propensity for the oxide fi lm to fl ake off. Further studies are needed to defi ne the parameters windows that create these morphologies and to investigate other important characteristics such as ionic conductivity.

  8. Atmospheric corrosion of lithium electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1981-10-01

    Atmospheric corrosion of lithium during lithium-cell assembly and the dry storage of cells prior to electrolyte fill has been found to initiate lithium corrosion pits and to form corrosion products. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate lithium pitting and the white floccullent corrosion products. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) and Auger spectroscopy in combination with X-ray diffraction were used to characterize lithium surfaces. Lithium surfaces with corrosion products were found to be high in carbonate content indicating the presence of lithium carbonate. Lithium electrodes dry stored in unfilled batteries were found to contain high concentration of lithium flouride a possible corrosion product from gaseous materials from the carbon monofluoride cathode. Future investigations of the corrosion phenomena will emphasize the effect of the corrosion products on the electrolyte and ultimate battery performance. The need to protect lithium electrodes from atmospheric exposure is commonly recognized to minimize corrosion induced by reaction with water, oxygen, carbon dioxide or nitrogen (1). Manufacturing facilities customarily limit the relative humidity to less than two percent. Electrodes that have been manufactured for use in lithium cells are typically stored in dry-argon containers. In spite of these precautions, lithium has been found to corrode over a long time period due to residual gases or slow diffusion of the same into storage containers. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the nature of the lithium corrosion.

  9. Morphological development and oxidation mechanisms of aluminum nitride whiskers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou Xinmei; Yue Changsheng; Kumar Singh, Ankit; Zhang Mei; Chou Kuochih

    2010-04-15

    Hexagonal aluminum nitride (AlN) whiskers have been synthesized at 1873 K under a flowing nitrogen atmosphere. The synthesized whiskers are long straight filaments with diameters between 1 and 5 {mu}m and length in the cm range. In order to investigate its 'oxidation resistance', a series of experiments have been performed. The oxidation behavior was quite different in the experimental temperature range assigned, which can be attributed to the kinetic factor and the morphological development during oxidation process. It was chemical controlled at lower temperature while both chemical reaction and diffusion controlled at medium temperature. Further accelerating of temperature to 1473 K, AlN whiskers was peeled into smaller parts, which increased the oxidation rate and hence showed powder-like oxidation behavior. Our new kinetic theory has been applied to study the oxidation behavior of AlN whiskers. The comparison of the experimental data with the theoretical ones validates the applicability of the new model. - Hexagonal aluminum nitride (AlN) whiskers have been synthesized at 1873 K under a flowing nitrogen atmosphere. The synthesized whiskers are long straight filaments with diameters between 1 and 5 {mu}m and length in the cm range.

  10. Recent advances in biosynthetic modeling of nitric oxide reductases and insights gained from nuclear resonance vibrational and other spectroscopic studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, Saumen; Reed, Julian; Sage, Timothy; Branagan, Nicole C.; Petrik, Igor D.; Miner, Kyle D.; Hu, Michael Y.; Zhao, Jiyong; Alp, E. Ercan; Lu, Yi

    2015-08-14

    This Forum Article focuses on recent advances in structural and spectroscopic studies of biosynthetic models of nitric oxide reductases (NORs). NORs are complex metalloenzymes found in the denitrification pathway of Earth's nitrogen cycle where they catalyze the proton-dependent twoelectron reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrous oxide (N2O). While much progress has been made in biochemical and biophysical studies of native NORs and their variants, a. clear mechanistic understanding of this important metalloenzyme related to its function is still elusive. We report herein UV vis and nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) studies of mononitrosylated intermediates of the NOR reaction of a biosynthetic model. The ability to selectively substitute metals at either heme or nonheme metal sites allows the introduction of independent 57Fe probe atoms at either site, as well as allowing the preparation of analogues of stable reaction intermediates by replacing either metal with a redox inactive metal. Together with previous structural and spectroscopic results, we summarize insights gained from studying these biosynthetic models toward understanding structural features responsible for the NOR activity and its mechanism. As a result, the outlook on NOR modeling is also discussed, with an emphasis on the design of models capable of catalytic turnovers designed based on close mimics of the secondary coordination sphere of native NORs.

  11. Recent advances in biosynthetic modeling of nitric oxide reductases and insights gained from nuclear resonance vibrational and other spectroscopic studies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chakraborty, Saumen; Reed, Julian; Sage, Timothy; Branagan, Nicole C.; Petrik, Igor D.; Miner, Kyle D.; Hu, Michael Y.; Zhao, Jiyong; Alp, E. Ercan; Lu, Yi

    2015-08-14

    This Forum Article focuses on recent advances in structural and spectroscopic studies of biosynthetic models of nitric oxide reductases (NORs). NORs are complex metalloenzymes found in the denitrification pathway of Earth's nitrogen cycle where they catalyze the proton-dependent twoelectron reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrous oxide (N2O). While much progress has been made in biochemical and biophysical studies of native NORs and their variants, a. clear mechanistic understanding of this important metalloenzyme related to its function is still elusive. We report herein UV vis and nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) studies of mononitrosylated intermediates of the NOR reaction ofmore » a biosynthetic model. The ability to selectively substitute metals at either heme or nonheme metal sites allows the introduction of independent 57Fe probe atoms at either site, as well as allowing the preparation of analogues of stable reaction intermediates by replacing either metal with a redox inactive metal. Together with previous structural and spectroscopic results, we summarize insights gained from studying these biosynthetic models toward understanding structural features responsible for the NOR activity and its mechanism. As a result, the outlook on NOR modeling is also discussed, with an emphasis on the design of models capable of catalytic turnovers designed based on close mimics of the secondary coordination sphere of native NORs.« less

  12. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  13. Barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide free glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Peizhen Kathy; Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar

    2013-09-24

    A glass composition consisting essentially of about 10-45 mole percent of SrO; about 35-75 mole percent SiO.sub.2; one or more compounds from the group of compounds consisting of La.sub.2O.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, B.sub.2O.sub.3, and Ni; the La.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 20 mole percent; the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 25 mole percent; the B.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 15 mole percent; and the Ni less than about 5 mole percent. Preferably, the glass is substantially free of barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide. Preferably, the glass is used as a seal in a solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell (SOFC) stack. The SOFC stack comprises a plurality of SOFCs connected by one or more interconnect and manifold materials and sealed by the glass. Preferably, each SOFC comprises an anode, a cathode, and a solid electrolyte.

  14. Stress dependent oxidation of sputtered niobium and effects on superconductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Henry, M. Wolfley, Steve; Monson, Todd; Clark, Blythe G.; Shaner, Eric; Jarecki, Robert

    2014-02-28

    We report on the suppression of room temperature oxidation of DC sputtered niobium films and the effects upon the superconductive transition temperature, T{sub c}. Niobium was sputter-deposited on silicon dioxide coated 150?mm wafers and permitted to oxidize at room temperature and pressure for up to two years. Resistivity and stress measurements indicate that tensile films greater than 400?MPa resist bulk oxidation with measurements using transmission electron microscope, electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectric spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry confirming this result. Although a surface oxide, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, consumed the top 610?nm, we measure less than 1 at.% oxygen and nitrogen in the bulk of the films after the oxidation period. T{sub c} measurements using a SQUID magnetometer indicate that the tensile films maintained a T{sub c} approaching the dirty superconductive limit of 8.4?K after two years of oxidation while maintaining room temperature sheet resistance. This work demonstrates that control over niobium film stress during deposition can prevent bulk oxidation by limiting the vertical grain boundaries ability to oxidize, prolonging the superconductive properties of sputtered niobium when exposed to atmosphere.

  15. New and Improved Data Logging and Collection System for Atmospheric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility, Tropical Western ... for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility, Tropical Western ...

  16. ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    engineering data Title: ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): engineering data Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral ...

  17. METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2007-10-01

    This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

  18. Superconductive ceramic oxide combination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, D.K.; Mehrotra, A.K.; Mir, J.M.

    1991-03-05

    This patent describes the combination of a superconductive ceramic oxide which degrades in conductivity upon contact of ambient air with its surface and, interposed between the ceramic oxide surface and ambient air in the amount of at least 1 mg per square meter of surface area of the superconductive ceramic oxide, a passivant polymer selected from the group consisting of a polyester ionomer and an alkyl cellulose.

  19. OXIDATION OF TRANSURANIC ELEMENTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, R.L.

    1959-02-17

    A method is reported for oxidizing neptunium or plutonium in the presence of cerous values without also oxidizing the cerous values. The method consists in treating an aqueous 1N nitric acid solution, containing such cerous values together with the trivalent transuranic elements, with a quantity of hydrogen peroxide stoichiometrically sufficient to oxidize the transuranic values to the hexavalent state, and digesting the solution at room temperature.

  20. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magno, Scott; Wang, Ruiping; Derouane, Eric

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2012 (Program Document) | SciTech Connect Program Document: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2012 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2012 Individual datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility

  2. Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations Professor Takaaki Kajita

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmosphere to Electrons Atmosphere to Electrons Addthis Description Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) is a multi-year U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) research initiative targeting significant reductions in the cost of wind energy through an improved understanding of the complex physics governing electricity generation by wind plants. The goal of A2e is to ensure future wind plants are sited, built, and operated in a way that produces the most cost-effective, usable electric power. Text Version

  3. Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duerksen, Walter K.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

  4. STABILIZED RARE EARTH OXIDES FOR A CONTROL ROD AND METHOD OF PREPARATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNees, R.A.; Potter, R.A.

    1964-01-14

    A method is given for preparing mixed oxides of the formula MR/sub x/O/ sub 12/ wherein M is tungsten or molybdenum and R is a rare earth in the group consisting of samarium, europium, dysprosium, and gadolinium and x is 4 to 5. Oxides of this formula, and particularly the europiumcontaining species, are useful as control rod material for water-cooled nuclear reactors owing to their stability, favorable nuclear properties, and resistance to hydration. These oxides may be utilized as a dispersion in a stainlesssteel matrix. Preparation of these oxides is effected by blending tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide with a rare earth oxide, compressing the mixture, and firing at an elevated temperature in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. (AEC)

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Program Science Plan. Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science ...

  6. Atmospheric Ionization Mass Spectrometry Capabilities at Sandia...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mass Spectrometry Capabilities at Sandia National Labs. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Ionization Mass Spectrometry Capabilities at Sandia National Labs. ...

  7. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Atmospheric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Modes of Drizzling Stratus at the ARM SGP Site Kollias, Pavlos RSMASUniversity of Miami Albrecht, Bruce University of Miami The representation of boundary layer clouds ...

  8. PRECISION DETERMINATION OF ATMOSPHERIC EXTINCTION AT OPTICAL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    State-of-the-art models of atmospheric radiation transport and modern codes are used to ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 79 ASTROPHYSICS, ...

  9. Assessment of radionuclides (uranium and thorium) atmospheric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Assessment of radionuclides (uranium and thorium) atmospheric pollution around Manjung district, Perak using moss as bio-indicator Bio-monitoring method using mosses have ...

  10. Search for: "atmospheric radiation measurement" | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Shouxian, China for the Study of Aerosol Indirect Effects in China In a complex ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) deployment, monitoring ...

  11. Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) Science Plan Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems ...

  12. Retrieving 4-dimensional atmospheric boundary layer structure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (BER) (SC-23) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Atmospheric System Research Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview ...

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Radiation ...

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly ... are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest ...

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations ... are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest ...

  16. Correcting radar range measurements for atmospheric propagation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Correcting radar range measurements for atmospheric propagation effects. Abstract not provided. Authors: Doerry, Armin Walter Publication Date: 2013-12-01 OSTI Identifier: ...

  17. Search for: "atmospheric radiation measurement" | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    measurement" 50 results for: "atmospheric radiation measurement" Full Text and Citations Filters Filter Search Results Everything (Citations and Full Text) (50 results) ...

  18. Atmosphere to Electrons | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Atmosphere to Electrons Atmosphere to Electrons Atmosphere to Electrons Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) is a multi-year U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) research initiative targeting significant reductions in the cost of wind energy through an improved understanding of the complex physics governing electricity generation by wind plants. The goal of A2e is to ensure future wind plants are sited, built, and operated in a way that produces the most cost-effective, usable electric power. To achieve

  19. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while...

  20. Sea ice - atmosphere interaction: Application of multispectral...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Application of multispectral satellite data in polar surface energy flux estimates. ... Title: Sea ice - atmosphere interaction: Application of multispectral satellite data in ...

  1. Combustion process and nitrogen oxides emission of Shenmu coal added with sodium acetate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Weijuan; Zhou Junhu; Liu Maosheng; Zhou Zhijun; Liu Jianzhong; Cen Kefa

    2007-09-15

    Shenmu bituminous coal with 4% sodium acetate added was used to investigate the characteristics of combustion and nitrogen oxide (NOx) release in a fixed bed reactor heated by a tube furnace. The composition of the flue gas was analyzed to investigate the effects of sodium acetate on the combustion process and NOx emission. The experiments were carried out in a partial reductive atmosphere and a strong oxidative atmosphere. The O{sub 2} valley value in the partial reductive atmosphere was reduced by the added sodium acetate. Sodium acetate accelerated the combustion and shortened the combustion process. The experimental results showed that the emissions of NO, NO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O were affected by the reacting atmosphere and the combustion temperature. In the strong oxidative atmosphere, sodium acetate resulted in a slight NOx reduction. In the partial reductive atmosphere, sodium acetate reduced both the peak value of NO concentration and the total NO emission significantly. An over 30% NOx reduction efficiency was achieved at 900{sup o}C in the partial reductive atmosphere, which decreased with the increase in temperature. Sodium acetate was decomposed into hydrocarbon radicals and sodium hydroxide, which can both reduce NOx emissions due to their special reactions with the nitrogen component. 17 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Production of extremely low volatile organic compounds from biogenic emissions: Measured yields and atmospheric implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jokinen, Tuija; Berndt, Torsten; Makkonen, Risto; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Junninen, Heikki; Paasonen, Pauli; Stratmann, Frank; Herrmann, Hartmut; Guenther, Alex B.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Kulmala, M.; Ehn, Mikael K.; Sipila, Mikko

    2015-06-09

    Extremely low volatility organic compounds (ELVOC) are suggested to promote aerosol particle formation and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) production in the atmosphere. We show that the capability of biogenic VOC (BVOC) to produce ELVOC depends strongly on their chemical structure and relative oxidant levels. BVOC with an endocyclic double bond, representative emissions from, e.g., boreal forests, efficiently produce ELVOC from ozonolysis. Compounds with exocyclic double bonds or acyclic compounds including isoprene, emission representative of the tropics, produce minor quantities of ELVOC, and the role of OH radical oxidation is relatively larger. Implementing these findings into a global modeling framework shows that detailed assessment of ELVOC production pathways is crucial for understanding biogenic secondary organic aerosol and atmospheric CCN formation.

  3. Energy density dependence of hydrogen combustion efficiency in atmospheric pressure microwave plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshida, T.; Ezumi, N.; Sawada, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Nishimura, K.

    2015-03-15

    The recovery of tritium in nuclear fusion plants is a key issue for safety. So far, the oxidation procedure using an atmospheric pressure plasma is expected to be part of the recovery method. In this study, in order to clarify the mechanism of hydrogen oxidation by plasma chemistry, we have investigated the dependence of hydrogen combustion efficiency on gas flow rate and input power in the atmospheric pressure microwave plasma. It has been found that the combustion efficiency depends on energy density of absorbed microwave power. Hence, the energy density is considered as a key parameter for combustion processes. Also neutral gas temperatures inside and outside the plasma were measured by an optical emission spectroscopy method and thermocouple. The result shows that the neutral gas temperature in the plasma is much higher than the outside temperature of plasma. The high neutral gas temperature may affect the combustion reaction. (authors)

  4. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  5. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

    1986-08-04

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  6. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garwin, Edward L.; Nyaiesh, Ali R.

    1988-01-01

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  7. Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy: Applications in Atmospheric Aerosol Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moffet, Ryan C.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Gilles, Mary K.

    2011-01-20

    Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) combines x-ray microscopy and near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). This combination provides spatially resolved bonding and oxidation state information. While there are reviews relevant to STXM/NEXAFS applications in other environmental fields (and magnetic materials) this chapter focuses on atmospheric aerosols. It provides an introduction to this technique in a manner approachable to non-experts. It begins with relevant background information on synchrotron radiation sources and a description of NEXAFS spectroscopy. The bulk of the chapter provides a survey of STXM/NEXAFS aerosol studies and is organized according to the type of aerosol investigated. The purpose is to illustrate the current range and recent growth of scientific investigations employing STXM-NEXAFS to probe atmospheric aerosol morphology, surface coatings, mixing states, and atmospheric processing.

  8. NREL: Process Development and Integration Laboratory - Atmospheric

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Processing Platform Capabilities Research Process Development and Integration Laboratory Printable Version Atmospheric Processing Platform Capabilities The Atmospheric Processing platform in the Process Development and Integration Laboratory offers powerful capabilities with integrated tools for depositing, processing, and characterizing photovoltaic materials and devices. In particular, this platform focuses on different methods to deposit ("write") materials onto a variety of

  9. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L.

    1989-07-18

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above. 3 figs.

  10. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, Scott A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Glish, Gary L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above.

  11. Thermal oxidation of single crystal aluminum antimonide and materials having the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherohman, John William; Yee, Jick Hong; Coombs, III, Arthur William; Wu, Kuang Jen J.

    2012-12-25

    In one embodiment, a method for forming a non-conductive crystalline oxide layer on an AlSb crystal includes heat treating an AlSb crystal in a partial vacuum atmosphere at a temperature conducive for air adsorbed molecules to desorb, surface molecule groups to decompose, and elemental Sb to evaporate from a surface of the AlSb crystal and exposing the AlSb crystal to an atmosphere comprising oxygen to form a crystalline oxide layer on the surface of the AlSb crystal. In another embodiment, a method for forming a non-conductive crystalline oxide layer on an AlSb crystal includes heat treating an AlSb crystal in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a temperature conducive for decomposition of an amorphous oxidized surface layer and evaporation of elemental Sb from the AlSb crystal surface and forming stable oxides of Al and Sb from residual surface oxygen to form a crystalline oxide layer on the surface of the AlSb crystal.

  12. Magnetic interactions in manganese oxide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manganese oxide Magnetic interactions in manganese oxide Revealing the mechanism of 'superexchange' May 24, 2016 manganese oxide Manganese oxide Revealing the Nature of Magnetic Interactions in Manganese Oxide For nearly 60 years, scientists have been trying to determine how manganese oxide (MnO) achieves its long-range magnetic order of alternating up and down electron spins. Now, a team of scientists has used their recently developed mathematical approach to study the short-range magnetic

  13. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Cleaning of Contaminated Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert F. Hicks; Hans W. Herrmann

    2003-12-15

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate a practical, environmentally benigh technology for the surface decontamination and decommissioning of radioactive waste. A low temperature, atmospheric pressure plasma has been developed with initial support from the DOE, Environmental Management Sciences Program. This devise selectively etches radioactive metals from surfaces, rendering objects radiation free and suitable for decommissioning. The volatile reaction products are captured on filters, which yields a tremendous reduction in the volume of the waste. The technology shows a great potential for accelerating the clean-up effort for the equipment and structures contaminated with radioactive materials within the DOE complex. The viability of this technology has been demonstrated by selectively and rapidly stripping uranium from stainless steel surfaces at low temperature. Studies on uranium oxide have shown that etch rates of 4.0 microns per minute can be achieved at temperature below 473 K. Over the past three years, we have made numerous improvements in the design of the atmospheric pressure plasma source. We are now able to scale up the plasma source to treat large surface areas.

  14. The effects of atmosphere and additives on coal slag viscosity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurley, J.P.; Strobel, T.M.; Nowok, J.W.

    1996-10-01

    With the advent of advanced coal-fired power systems operating at higher working fluid temperatures, slag corrosion, erosion, and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces will become even more of a problem than in today`s systems. Laboratory experiments have shown excessive corrosion of candidate alloy and ceramic heat exchanger materials by both calcium-rich subbituminous and iron-rich bituminous coal slags. The viscosity of the slag greatly affects the corrosion rate since it determines the rate of transfer of corrosive species to the materials and corrosion product away from the materials. Slag viscosity is controlled by the composition of the slag and surrounding atmosphere as well as its temperature. In this paper we report the results of investigations of the viscosities and critical temperatures of three coal slags in three atmospheres: air, air plus water vapor, and reducing gas. In addition, the effects of additions of alumina, magnesia, and copper oxide on viscosity, crystallization, and critical temperature of the slags are reported. Conclusions are drawn about appropriate test conditions for determining slag corrosion rates and about ways of modifying slag viscosity to reduce corrosion rates.

  15. Quantitative infrared absorption cross sections of isoprene for atmospheric measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brauer, C. S.; Blake, T. A.; Guenther, A. B.; Sharpe, S. W.; Sams, R. L.; Johnson, T. J.

    2014-11-19

    Isoprene (C5H8, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) is a volatile organic compound (VOC) and is one of the primary contributors to annual global VOC emissions. Isoprene is produced primarily by vegetation as well as anthropogenic sources, and its OH- and O3-initiated oxidations are a major source of atmospheric oxygenated organics. Few quantitative infrared studies have been reported for isoprene, limiting the ability to quantify isoprene emissions via remote or in situ infrared detection. We thus report absorption cross sections and integrated band intensities for isoprene in the 600–6500 cm-1 region. The pressure-broadened (1 atmosphere N2) spectra were recorded at 278, 298, and 323 Kmore » in a 19.94 cm path-length cell at 0.112 cm-1 resolution, using a Bruker IFS 66v/S Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Composite spectra are derived from a minimum of seven isoprene sample pressures, each at one of three temperatures, and the number densities are normalized to 296 K and 1 atm.« less

  16. NUCLEAR POWERED CO2 CAPTURE FROM THE ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, S

    2008-09-22

    A process for capturing CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere was recently proposed. This process uses a closed cycle of sodium and calcium hydroxide, carbonate, and oxide transformations to capture dilute CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere and to generate a concentrated stream of CO{sub 2} that is amenable to sequestration or subsequent chemical transformations. In one of the process steps, a fossil-fueled lime kiln is needed, which reduces the net CO{sub 2} capture of the process. It is proposed to replace the fossil-fueled lime kiln with a modified kiln heated by a high-temperature nuclear reactor. This will have the effect of eliminating the use of fossil fuels for the process and increasing the net CO{sub 2} capture. Although the process is suitable to support sequestration, the use of a nuclear power source for the process provides additional capabilities, and the captured CO{sub 2} may be combined with nuclear-produced hydrogen to produce liquid fuels via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or other technologies. Conceivably, such plants would be carbon-neutral, and could be placed virtually anywhere without being tied to fossil fuel sources or geological sequestration sites.

  17. Study of the exposure of British mineworkers to nitrous fumes and the effects on their health. Final report August 77-January 80

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, A.; Collings, P.; Gormley, I.P.; Dodgeon, J.

    1981-06-01

    Shift-average exposures to nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide have been found to be well within the recommended safety limits in nine British collieries. Differences in the exposures of miners in different collieries and between different locations and occupations within collieries were observed, with diesel locomotive drivers having consistently higher shift-average exposures than other workers. Possible health effects of oxides of nitrogen were investigated by comparing the respiratory health of men with low past exposure against men with higher past exposure to these gases. No differences in forced expired volumes in one second or in the prevalences of cough, phlegm and breathlessness were found between the two population groups.

  18. NEPTUNIUM OXIDE PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, J; Watkins, R; Hensel, S

    2009-05-27

    The Savannah River Site's HB-Line Facility completed a campaign in which fifty nine cans of neptunium oxide were produced and shipped to the Idaho National Laboratory in the 9975 shipping container. The neptunium campaign was divided into two parts: Part 1 which consisted of oxide made from H-Canyon neptunium solution which did not require any processing prior to conversion into an oxide, and Part 2 which consisted of oxide made from additional H-Canyon neptunium solutions which required processing to purify the solution prior to conversion into an oxide. The neptunium was received as a nitrate solution and converted to oxide through ion-exchange column extraction, precipitation, and calcination. Numerous processing challenges were encountered in order make a final neptunium oxide product that could be shipped in a 9975 shipping container. Among the challenges overcome was the issue of scale: translating lab scale production into full facility production. The balance between processing efficiency and product quality assurance was addressed during this campaign. Lessons learned from these challenges are applicable to other processing projects.

  19. Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    0%2A en Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility http:nnsa.energy.govfieldofficessavannah-river-field-officemixed-oxide-mox-fuel-fabrication-facility

  20. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S.; Gupta, Sreenath Borra; Sekar, R. Raj; McConnell, Steven S.

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  1. Effect of nitrogen doping on wetting and photoactive properties of laser processed zinc oxide-graphene oxide nanocomposite layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    György, E.; Pérez del Pino, A.; Logofatu, C.; Duta, A.; Isac, L.

    2014-07-14

    Zinc oxide-graphene oxide nanocomposite layers were submitted to laser irradiation in air or controlled nitrogen atmosphere using a frequency quadrupled Nd:YAG (λ = 266 nm, τ{sub FWHM} ≅ 3 ns, ν = 10 Hz) laser source. The experiments were performed in air at atmospheric pressure or in nitrogen at a pressure of 2 × 10{sup 4} Pa. The effect of the irradiation conditions, incident laser fluence value, and number of subsequent laser pulses on the surface morphology of the composite material was systematically investigated. The obtained results reveal that nitrogen incorporation improves significantly the wetting and photoactive properties of the laser processed layers. The kinetics of water contact angle variation when the samples are submitted to laser irradiation in nitrogen are faster than that of the samples irradiated in air, the surfaces becoming super-hydrophilic under UV light irradiation.

  2. SWiFT site atmospheric characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, Christopher Lee; Ennis, Brandon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Historical meteorological tall tower data are analyzed from the Texas Tech University 200 m tower to characterize the atmospheric trends of the Scaled Wind Farm Technologies (SWiFT) site. In this report the data are analyzed to reveal bulk atmospheric trends, temporal trends and correlations of atmospheric variables. Through this analysis for the SWiFT turbines the site International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) classification is determined to be class III-C. Averages and distributions of atmospheric variables are shown, revealing large fluctuations and the importance of understanding the actual site trends as opposed to simply using averages. The site is significantly directional with the average wind speed from the south, and particularly so in summer and fall. Site temporal trends are analyzed from both seasonal (time of the year) to daily (hour of the day) perspectives. Atmospheric stability is seen to vary most with time of day and less with time of year. Turbulence intensity is highly correlated with stability, and typical daytime unstable conditions see double the level of turbulence intensity versus that experienced during the average stable night. Shear, veer and atmospheric stability correlations are shown, where shear and veer are both highest for stable atmospheric conditions. An analysis of the Texas Tech University tower anemometer measurements is performed which reveals the extent of the tower shadow effects and sonic tilt misalignment.

  3. Preparation of low oxygen-to-metal mixed oxide fuels for the advanced fast reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kato, Masato; Nakamichi, Shinya; Takano, Tatsuo

    2007-07-01

    The preparation process for homogeneous mixed oxide pellets with a precise O/M ratio was established. The process was used to prepare pellets for heat treatments in two stages which consisted of the sintering process at high oxygen potential and the annealing process done in the atmosphere of controlled oxygen partial pressure. In the annealing process, it was found that abnormal growth of pores and occurrence of cracks were caused inside the pellet, and it was necessary for prevention of the microstructure change to control the oxygen potential of the atmosphere. Mixed oxide pellets with minor actinides were fabricated by the process and were provided to irradiation tests. (authors)

  4. Project Profile: High Performance Reduction/Oxidation Metal Oxides for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermochemical Energy Storage | Department of Energy Project Profile: High Performance Reduction/Oxidation Metal Oxides for Thermochemical Energy Storage Project Profile: High Performance Reduction/Oxidation Metal Oxides for Thermochemical Energy Storage Sandia National Laboratory Logo Sandia National Lab (Sandia), through the Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage (CSP: ELEMENTS) funding program, is systematically

  5. Metal atom oxidation laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

    1975-10-28

    A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides. (auth)

  6. Metal atom oxidation laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

    1975-10-28

    A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides.

  7. Controlled CO preferential oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meltser, M.A.; Hoch, M.M.

    1997-06-10

    Method is described for controlling the supply of air to a PROX (PReferential OXidation for CO cleanup) reactor for the preferential oxidation in the presence of hydrogen wherein the concentration of the hydrogen entering and exiting the PROX reactor is monitored, the difference there between correlated to the amount of air needed to minimize such difference, and based thereon the air supply to the PROX reactor adjusted to provide such amount and minimize such difference. 2 figs.

  8. Operating Experience Level 3, Atmospheric Dispersion Parameter...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    5 OE-3 2015-02: Atmospheric Dispersion Parameter (xQ) for Calculation of Co-located Worker Dose This Operating Experience Level 3 (OE-3) document informs the complex of the...

  9. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A large portion of the microscopic particles floating in the air originate from incomplete combustion of coal and oil and from dust storms. Once in the atmosphere, they can have ...

  10. Reducing the atmospheric impact of wet slaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.D. Zubitskii; G.V. Ushakov; B.G. Tryasunov; A.G.Ushakov

    2009-05-15

    Means of reducing the atmospheric emissions due to the wet slaking of coke are considered. One option, investigated here, is to remove residual active silt and organic compounds from the biologically purified wastewater sent for slaking, by coagulation and flocculation.

  11. Free Floating Atmospheric Pressure Ball Plasmas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Free-Floating Atmospheric Pressure Ball Plasmas G. A. Wurden, Z. Wang, C. Ticos Los Alamos National Laboratory L Al NM 87545 USA Los Alamos, NM 87545 USA C. J. v. Wurden Los Alamos...

  12. Oxidation of ethane to ethanol by N2O in a metal-organic framework with coordinatively unsaturated iron(II) sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Dianne J.; Bloch, Eric D.; Mason, Jarad A.; Queen, Wendy L.; Hudson, Matthew R.; Planas, Nora; Borycz, Joshua; Dzubak, Allison L.; Verma, Pragya; Lee, Kyuho; Bonino, Francesca; Crocellà, Valentina; Yano, Junko; Bordiga, Silvia; Truhlar, Donald G.; Gagliardi, Laura; Brown, Craig M.; Long, Jeffrey R.

    2014-08-19

    Enzymatic haem and non-haem high-valent iron–oxo species are known to activate strong C–H bonds, yet duplicating this reactivity in a synthetic system remains a formidable challenge. Although instability of the terminal iron–oxo moiety is perhaps the foremost obstacle, steric and electronic factors also limit the activity of previously reported mononuclear iron(IV)–oxo compounds. In particular, although nature's non-haem iron(IV)–oxo compounds possess high-spin S = 2 ground states, this electronic configuration has proved difficult to achieve in a molecular species. These challenges may be mitigated within metal–organic frameworks that feature site-isolated iron centres in a constrained, weak-field ligand environment. Here, we show that the metal–organic framework Fe2(dobdc) (dobdc4- = 2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) and its magnesium-diluted analogue, Fe0.1Mg1.9(dobdc), are able to activate the C–H bonds of ethane and convert it into ethanol and acetaldehyde using nitrous oxide as the terminal oxidant. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the active oxidant is likely to be a high-spin S = 2 iron(IV)–oxo species.

  13. Technology evaluation for space station atmospheric leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemon, D.K.; Friesel, M.A.; Griffin, J.W.; Skorpik, J.R.; Shepard, C.L.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Kurtz, R.J.

    1990-02-01

    A concern in operation of a space station is leakage of atmosphere through seal points and through the walls as a result of damage from particle (space debris and micrometeoroid) impacts. This report describes a concept for a monitoring system to detect atmosphere leakage and locate the leak point. The concept is based on analysis and testing of two basic methods selected from an initial technology survey of potential approaches. 18 refs., 58 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Air Activation Following an Atmospheric Explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2013-03-13

    In addition to thermal radiation and fission products, nuclear explosions result in a very high flux of unfissioned neutrons. Within an atmospheric nuclear explosion, these neutrons can activate the various elemental components of natural air, potentially adding to the radioactive signature of the event as a whole. The goal of this work is to make an order-of-magnitude estimate of the total amount of air activation products that can result from an atmospheric nuclear explosion.

  15. Atmospheric and Climate Science | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric and Climate Science Argonne research in aerosols, micro-meteorology, remote sensing, and atmospheric chemistry combined with our scalable, portable, high-performance climate and weather applications offer a unique look at the complexities of a dynamic planet. Changes in climate can affect biodiversity, the cost of food, our health, and even whole economies. Argonne is developing computational models and tools designed to shed light on complex biological processes and their economic,

  16. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    2008-01-15

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Argonne scientists study climate change 1 of 22 Argonne scientists study climate change The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science provided $60 million in ARRA funding for climate research to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, a DOE national user facility that has been operating climate observing sites around the world for nearly two decades. These sites help scientists

  18. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  19. VOCALS: The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study () | Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    VOCALS: The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Title: VOCALS: The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study VOCALS (VAMOS* Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study) is an international ...

  20. Thermal and combined thermal and radiolytic reactions involving nitrous oxide, hydrogen, and nitrogen in the gas phase; comparison of gas generation rates in supernate and solid fractions of Tank 241-SY-101 simulated waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes progress made in evaluating me by which flammable gases are generated in Hanford double-shell tank wastes, based on the results of laboratory tests using simulated waste mixtures. Work described in this report. was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Flammable Gas Safety Project, the purpose of which is to develop information needed to support Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in their efforts to ensure the safe interim storage of wastes at the Hanford Site. This work is related to gas generation studies being performed at Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), under subcontract to PNL, using simulated wastes, and to studies being performed at VMC using actual wastes.

  1. Atmospheric Neutrinos in the MINOS Far Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howcroft, Caius L.F.

    2004-12-01

    The phenomenon of flavour oscillations of neutrinos created in the atmosphere was first reported by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration in 1998 and since then has been confirmed by Soudan 2 and MACRO. The MINOS Far Detector is the first magnetized neutrino detector able to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations. Although it was designed to detect neutrinos from the NuMI beam, it provides a unique opportunity to measure the oscillation parameters for neutrinos and anti-neutrinos independently. The MINOS Far Detector was completed in August 2003 and since then has collected 2.52 kton-years of atmospheric data. Atmospheric neutrino interactions contained within the volume of the detector are separated from the dominant background from cosmic ray muons. Thirty seven events are selected with an estimated background contamination of less than 10%. Using the detector's magnetic field, 17 neutrino events and 6 anti-neutrino events are identified, 14 events have ambiguous charge. The neutrino oscillation parameters for {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} are studied using a maximum likelihood analysis. The measurement does not place constraining limits on the neutrino oscillation parameters due to the limited statistics of the data set analysed. However, this thesis represents the first observation of charge separated atmospheric neutrino interactions. It also details the techniques developed to perform atmospheric neutrino analyses in the MINOS Far Detector.

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ARM) | U.S.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Barrels per Calendar Day) Data Series: Total Number of Operable Refineries Number of Operating Refineries Number of Idle Refineries Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/SD) Vacuum

  3. Catalytic production of metal carbonyls from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; Foran, Michael T.

    1984-01-01

    This invention relates to the formation of metal carbonyls from metal oxides and specially the formation of molybdenum carbonyl and iron carbonyl from their respective oxides. Copper is used here in admixed form or used in chemically combined form as copper molybdate. The copper/metal oxide combination or combined copper is utilized with a solvent, such as toluene and subjected to carbon monoxide pressure of 25 atmospheres or greater at about 150.degree.-260.degree. C. The reducing metal copper is employed in catalytic concentrations or combined concentrations as CuMoO.sub.4 and both hydrogen and water present serve as promoters. It has been found that the yields by this process have been salutary and that additionally the catalytic metal may be reused in the process to good effect.

  4. Catalytic production of metal carbonyls from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; Foran, M.T.

    1984-01-06

    This invention relates to the formation of metal carbonyls from metal oxides and specially the formation of molybdenum carbonyl and iron carbonyl from their respective oxides. Copper is used here in admixed form or used in chemically combined form as copper molybdate. The copper/metal oxide combination or combined copper is utilized with a solvent, such as toluene and subjected to carbon monoxide pressure of 25 atmospheres or greater at about 150 to 260/sup 0/C. The reducing metal copper is employed in catalytic concentrations or combined concentrations as CuMoO/sub 4/ and both hydrogen and water present serve as promoters. It has been found that the yields by this process have been salutary and that additionally the catalytic metal may be reused in the process to good effect. 3 tables.

  5. Search for: "atmospheric radiation measurement" | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    velocity (162) radar doppler (150) general circulation models (149) atmospheric chemistry (146) remote sensing (143) water vapor (134) earth atmosphere (133) radiometers (130) ...

  6. Aerosol specification in single-column Community Atmosphere Model...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aerosol specification in single-column Community Atmosphere Model version 5 Prev Next Title: Aerosol specification in single-column Community Atmosphere Model version 5 ...

  7. Global Atmospheric Pollution Forum Air Pollutant Emission Inventory...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Atmospheric Pollution Forum Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Global Atmospheric Pollution (GAP) Forum Air Pollutant...

  8. ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1 data Title: ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): channel 1 data Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology ...

  9. ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    summary data Title: ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): summary data Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology ...

  10. Simulated response of the atmosphere-ocean system to deforestation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the atmosphere-ocean system to deforestation in the Indonesian Archipelago Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulated response of the atmosphere-ocean system to ...

  11. A comparison between characteristics of atmospheric-pressure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A comparison between characteristics of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets sustained by ... Title: A comparison between characteristics of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets sustained ...

  12. Style Guide Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Style Guide Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility March 2013 Style Guide Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility March 2013 Work ...

  13. Validation of the ARchived CERES Surface and Atmosphere Radiation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Archived CERES Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget at SGP T. P. Charlock National ... System (CERES) Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget (SARB) product (Charlock et al. ...

  14. Radar range measurements in the atmosphere. (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Models are presented for calculating atmospheric effects on radar range measurements, and compared against more elaborate atmospheric models. Authors: Doerry, Armin Walter ...

  15. Model-Observation "Data Cubes" for the DOE Atmospheric Radiation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Model-Observation "Data Cubes" for the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Facility's ... Program through its Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Facility. 2. Data Cube ...

  16. DOE/SC-ARM-020 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    20 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-020 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  17. About Effective? Height of the Aerosol Atmosphere in Visible...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kabanov, M. V. Panchenko, Yu. A. Pkhalagov, and S. M. Sakerin Institute of Atmospheric Optics Tomsk, Russia Introduction Aerosol component of the atmosphere is one of the important...

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the ARM Aerial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the ARM Aerial Facility Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the ARM Aerial Facility The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global ...

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the North Slope...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    North Slope Alaska (NSA) Site Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the North Slope Alaska (NSA) Site The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the ...

  20. Simulation and Theory of Ions at Atmospherically Relevant Aqueous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simulation and Theory of Ions at Atmospherically Relevant Aqueous Liquid-Air Interfaces Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulation and Theory of Ions at Atmospherically...

  1. The Effects of Water Vapor and Hydrogen on the High-Temperature Oxidation of Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mu, N.; Jung, K.; Yanar, N. M.; Pettit, F. S; Holcomb, G. R.; Howard, B. H.; Meier, G. H.

    2013-06-01

    Essentially all alloys and coatings that are resistant to corrosion at high temperature require the formation of a protective (slowly-growing and adherent) oxide layer by a process known as selective oxidation. The fundamental understanding of this process has been developed over the years for exposure in pure oxygen or air. However, the atmospheres in most applications contain significant amounts of water vapor which can greatly modify the behavior of protective oxides. The development of oxy-fuel combustion systems in which fossil fuels are burned in a mixture of recirculated flue gas and oxygen, rather than in air, has caused renewed interest in the effects of water vapor and steam on alloy oxidation. The focus of this paper is on the ways the presence of water vapor can directly alter the selective oxidation process. The paper begins with a brief review of the fundamentals of selective oxidation followed by a description of recent experimental results regarding the effect of water vapor on the oxidation of a variety of chromia-forming alloys (Fe- and Ni-base) in the temperature range 600 to 700 °C. The atmospheres include air, air-H{sub 2}O, Ar-H{sub 2}O and Ar-H{sub 2}O-O{sub 2}. Then the behavior of alumina-forming alloys in H{sub 2}O-containing atmospheres is briefly described. As hydrogen is produced during oxidation of alloys in H{sub 2}O, it can be released back into the gas phase or injected into the metal (where it can diffuse through to the other side). Experiments in which hydrogen concentrations have been measured on both sides of thin specimens during oxidation by H{sub 2}O on only one side are described. Finally, it is attempted to catalogue the various experimental observations under a few general principles.

  2. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  3. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  4. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  5. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  6. Multi-scale Atmospheric Modeling of Green House Gas Dispersion in Complex Terrain. Atmospheric Methane at Four Corners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costigan, Keeley Rochelle; Dubey, Manvendra Krishna

    2015-07-10

    Atmospheric models are compared in collaboration with LANL and the University of Michigan to understand emissions and the condition of the atmosphere from a model perspective.

  7. Thermally Oxidized Silicon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Anneli Munkholm (Lumileds Lighting) and Sean Brennan (SSRL) Illustration of the silicon positions near the Si-SiO2 interface for a 4° miscut projected onto the ( ) plane. The silicon atoms in the substrate are blue and those in the oxide are red. The small black spots represent the translated silicon positions in the absence of static disorder. The silicon atoms in the oxide have been randomly assigned a magnitude and direction based on the static disorder value at that position in the

  8. Tetraalykylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Myers, Jr., Harry K. (Cochranville, PA); Shaikh, Shahid N. (Media, PA)

    1998-01-01

    Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H.sub.e-z (n-C.sub.4 H.sub.9).sub.4 N!.sub.z (XM.sub.11 M'O.sub.39).sup.-e The M' (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

  9. Tetraalklylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, P.E.; Lyons, J.E.; Myers, H.K. Jr.; Shaikh, S.N.

    1998-10-06

    Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H{sub e{minus}z}[(n-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N]{sub z}(XM{sub 11}M{prime}O{sub 39}){sup {minus}e}. The M{prime} (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

  10. Tetraalykylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Paul E.; Lyons, James E.; Myers, Jr., Harry K.; Shaikh, Shahid N.

    1998-01-01

    Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H.sub.e-z ›(n-C.sub.4 H.sub.9).sub.4 N!.sub.z (XM.sub.11 M'O.sub.39).sup.-e The M' (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

  11. Molecular water oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gratzel, Michael; Munavalli, Shekhar; Pern, Fu-Jann; Frank, Arthur J.

    1993-01-01

    A dimeric composition of the formula: ##STR1## wherein L', L", L'", and L"" are each a bidentate ligand having at least one functional substituent, the ligand selected from bipyridine, phenanthroline, 2-phenylpyridine, bipyrimidine, and bipyrazyl and the functional substituent selected from carboxylic acid, ester, amide, halogenide, anhydride, acyl ketone, alkyl ketone, acid chloride, sulfonic acid, phosphonic acid, and nitro and nitroso groups. An electrochemical oxidation process for the production of the above functionally substituted bidentate ligand diaqua oxo-bridged ruthenium dimers and their use as water oxidation catalysts is described.

  12. Magnetism of cuprate oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirane, G.

    1996-11-01

    A review is given of current neutron scattering experiments on cuprate oxides. We first discuss the extensive neutron measurements on high-Tc oxides: La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} and related (La{sub 1.6-x}Nd{sub 0.4})Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4}. The second topic is the spin- Peierls system Cu{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}GeO{sub 3}, where a new type of antiferromagnetic phase has been discovered. 17 refs, 8 figs.

  13. Aqueous Processing of Atmospheric Organic Particles in Cloud Water Collected via Aircraft Sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boone, Eric J.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Wirth, Christopher; Shepson, Paul B.; Stirm, Brian H.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2015-07-21

    Cloud water and below-cloud atmospheric particle samples were collected onboard a research aircraft during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) over a forested region of Alabama in June 2013. The organic molecular composition of the samples was studied to gain insights into the aqueous-phase processing of organic compounds within cloud droplets. High resolution mass spectrometry with nanospray desorption electrospray ionization and direct infusion electrospray ionization were utilized to compare the organic composition of the particle and cloud water samples, respectively. Isoprene and monoterpene-derived organosulfates and oligomers were identified in both the particles and cloud water, showing the significant influence of biogenic volatile organic compound oxidation above the forested region. While the average O:C ratios of the organic compounds were similar between the atmospheric particle and cloud water samples, the chemical composition of these samples was quite different. Specifically, hydrolysis of organosulfates and formation of nitrogen-containing compounds were observed for the cloud water when compared to the atmospheric particle samples, demonstrating that cloud processing changes the composition of organic aerosol.

  14. Fluxes of methane between landfills and the atmosphere: Natural and engineered controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogner, J.; Meadows, M.; Czepiel, P.

    1997-08-01

    Field measurement of landfill methane emissions indicates natural variability spanning more than 2 seven orders of magnitude, from approximately 0.0004 to more than 4000 g m{sub -2} day{sup -1}. This wide range reflects net emissions resulting from production (methanogenesis), consumption (methanotrophic oxidation), and gaseous transport processes. The determination of an {open_quotes}average{close_quotes} emission rate for a given field site requires sampling designs and statistical techniques which consider spatial and temporal variability. Moreover, particularly at sites with pumped gas recovery systems, it is possible for methanotrophic microorganisms in aerated cover soils to oxidize all of the methane from landfill sources below and, additionally, to oxidize methane diffusing into cover soils from atmospheric sources above. In such cases, a reversed soil gas concentration gradient is observed in shallow cover soils, indicating bidirectional diffusional transport to the depth of optimum methane oxidation. Rates of landfill methane oxidation from field and laboratory incubation studies range up to 166 g m{sup -2} day{sup -1} among the highest for any natural setting, providing an effective natural control on net emissions. Estimates of worldwide landfill methane emissions to the atmosphere have ranged from 9 to 70 Tg yr{sup -1}, differing mainly in assumed methane yields from estimated quantities of landfilled refuse. At highly controlled landfill sites in developed countries, landfill methane is often collected via vertical wells or horizontal collectors. Recovery of landfill methane through engineered systems can provide both environmental and energy benefits by mitigating subsurface migration, reducing surface emissions, and providing an alternative energy resource for industrial boiler use, on-site electrical generation, or upgrading to a substitute natural gas.

  15. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

    2012-03-13

    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  16. Method for producing metal oxide aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, T.M.; Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Thomas, I.M.

    1995-04-25

    A two-step hydrolysis-condensation method was developed to form metal oxide aerogels of any density, including densities of less than 0.003g/cm{sup 3} and greater than 0.27g/cm{sup 3}. High purity metal alkoxide is reacted with water, alcohol solvent, and an additive to form a partially condensed metal intermediate. All solvent and reaction-generated alcohol is removed, and the intermediate is diluted with a nonalcoholic solvent. The intermediate can be stored for future use to make aerogels of any density. The aerogels are formed by reacting the intermediate with water, nonalcoholic solvent, and a catalyst, and extracting the nonalcoholic solvent directly. The resulting monolithic aerogels are hydrophobic and stable under atmospheric conditions, and exhibit good optical transparency, high clarity, and homogeneity. The aerogels have high thermal insulation capacity, high porosity, mechanical strength and stability, and require shorter gelation times than aerogels formed by conventional methods. 8 figs.

  17. Method for producing metal oxide aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, Thomas M.; Poco, John F.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Thomas, Ian M.

    1995-01-01

    A two-step hydrolysis-condensation method was developed to form metal oxide aerogels of any density, including densities of less than 0.003g/cm.sup.3 and greater than 0.27g/cm.sup.3. High purity metal alkoxide is reacted with water, alcohol solvent, and an additive to form a partially condensed metal intermediate. All solvent and reaction-generated alcohol is removed, and the intermediate is diluted with a nonalcoholic solvent. The intermediate can be stored for future use to make aerogels of any density. The aerogels are formed by reacting the intermediate with water, nonalcoholic solvent, and a catalyst, and extracting the nonalcoholic solvent directly. The resulting monolithic aerogels are hydrophobic and stable under atmospheric conditions, and exhibit good optical transparency, high clarity, and homogeneity. The aerogels have high thermal insulation capacity, high porosity, mechanical strength and stability, and require shorter gelation times than aerogels formed by conventional methods.

  18. The effects of water vapor on the oxidation behavior of alumina forming austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanar, N. M.; Lutz, B. S.; Garcia-Fresnillo, L.; Brady, Michael P.; Meier, G. H.

    2015-08-19

    The isothermal oxidation behavior of three alumina forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steels with varying composition was studied at 650 and 800 °C in dry air and gases which contained water vapor. The AFA alloys exhibited better oxidation resistance than a “good chromia former” at 650 °C, particularly in H2O-containing atmospheres by virtue of alumina-scale formation. Although the AFA alloys were more resistant than chromia formers, their oxidation resistance was degraded at 650 °C in the presence of water vapor. In dry air the AFA alloys formed, thin continuous alumina scales, whereas in Ar–4%H2–3%H2O the areas of continuous alumina were reduced and Fe oxide-rich nodules and regions of Cr, Mn-rich oxides formed. In some regions internal oxidation of the aluminum occurred in the H2O-containing gas. The alloy OC8 had slightly better resistance than OC4 or OC5 in this atmosphere. The alumina-forming capability of the AFA alloys decreases with increasing temperature and, at 800 °C, they are borderline alumina formers, even in dry air. The oxidation resistance of all three alloys was degraded at 800 °C in atmospheres, which contained water vapor (Air–10%H2O, Ar–3%H2O and Ar–4%H2–3%H2O). The areas, which formed continuous alumina, were reduced in these atmospheres and areas of internal oxidation occurred. However, as a result of the borderline alumina-forming capability of the AFA alloys it was not possible to determine which of the H2O-containing atmospheres was more severe or to rank the alloys in terms of their performance. The experimental results indicate that the initial microstructure of the AFA alloys also plays a role in their oxidation performance. Less protective oxides formed at 800 °C when alloy OC8 was equilibrated before exposure rather than being exposed in the as-processed condition. As a result, the reason for this is the presence of different

  19. The effects of water vapor on the oxidation behavior of alumina forming austenitic stainless steels

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yanar, N. M.; Lutz, B. S.; Garcia-Fresnillo, L.; Brady, Michael P.; Meier, G. H.

    2015-08-19

    The isothermal oxidation behavior of three alumina forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steels with varying composition was studied at 650 and 800 °C in dry air and gases which contained water vapor. The AFA alloys exhibited better oxidation resistance than a “good chromia former” at 650 °C, particularly in H2O-containing atmospheres by virtue of alumina-scale formation. Although the AFA alloys were more resistant than chromia formers, their oxidation resistance was degraded at 650 °C in the presence of water vapor. In dry air the AFA alloys formed, thin continuous alumina scales, whereas in Ar–4%H2–3%H2O the areas of continuous alumina were reducedmore » and Fe oxide-rich nodules and regions of Cr, Mn-rich oxides formed. In some regions internal oxidation of the aluminum occurred in the H2O-containing gas. The alloy OC8 had slightly better resistance than OC4 or OC5 in this atmosphere. The alumina-forming capability of the AFA alloys decreases with increasing temperature and, at 800 °C, they are borderline alumina formers, even in dry air. The oxidation resistance of all three alloys was degraded at 800 °C in atmospheres, which contained water vapor (Air–10%H2O, Ar–3%H2O and Ar–4%H2–3%H2O). The areas, which formed continuous alumina, were reduced in these atmospheres and areas of internal oxidation occurred. However, as a result of the borderline alumina-forming capability of the AFA alloys it was not possible to determine which of the H2O-containing atmospheres was more severe or to rank the alloys in terms of their performance. The experimental results indicate that the initial microstructure of the AFA alloys also plays a role in their oxidation performance. Less protective oxides formed at 800 °C when alloy OC8 was equilibrated before exposure rather than being exposed in the as-processed condition. As a result, the reason for this is the presence of different phases in the bulk of the two specimens.« less

  20. A Porphyrin-Stabilized Iridium Oxide Water Oxidation Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Authors: Sherman, B. D., Pillai, S., Kodis, G., Bergkamp, J., Mallouk, T. E., Gust, D., Moore, T. A., and Moore, A. L. Title: A Porphyrin-Stabilized Iridium Oxide Water Oxidation...

  1. Effect of superficial oxides on corrosion of steel reinforcement embedded in concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avila-Mendoza, J. . Programa de Corrosion del Golfo de Mexico); Flores, J.M. ); Castillo, U.C.

    1994-11-01

    The effect of superficial coverage with different iron oxides on the general corrosion resistance of steel embedded in concrete was investigated. Electrochemical corrosion rate and potential measurements were made of rebars that had a bare surface (polished), an atmospherically rusted (hematite [Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3

  2. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

    2006-09-01

    This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

  3. Conformations of organophosphine oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Silva, Nuwan; Zahariev, Federico; Hay, Benjamin P.; Gordon, Mark S.; Windus, Theresa L.

    2015-07-17

    The conformations of a series of organophosphine oxides, OP(CH3)2R, where R = methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, tert-butyl, vinyl, and phenyl, are predicted using the MP2/cc-pVTZ level of theory. Comparison of potential energy surfaces for rotation about P–C bonds with crystal structure data reveals a strong correlation between predicted location and energetics of minima and histograms of dihedral angle distributions observed in the solid state. In addition, the most stable conformers are those that minimize the extent of steric repulsion between adjacent rotor substituents, and the torsional barriers tend to increase with the steric bulk of the rotating alkyl group. MM3 force field parameters were adjusted to fit the MP2 results, providing a fast and accurate model for predicting organophosphine oxides shapes—an essential part of understanding the chemistry of these compounds. As a result, the predictive power of the modified MM3 model was tested against MP2/cc-pVTZ conformations for triethylphosphine oxide, OP(CH2CH3)3, and triphenylphosphine oxide, OP(Ph)3.

  4. Conformations of organophosphine oxides

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    De Silva, Nuwan; Zahariev, Federico; Hay, Benjamin P.; Gordon, Mark S.; Windus, Theresa L.

    2015-07-17

    The conformations of a series of organophosphine oxides, OP(CH3)2R, where R = methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, tert-butyl, vinyl, and phenyl, are predicted using the MP2/cc-pVTZ level of theory. Comparison of potential energy surfaces for rotation about P–C bonds with crystal structure data reveals a strong correlation between predicted location and energetics of minima and histograms of dihedral angle distributions observed in the solid state. In addition, the most stable conformers are those that minimize the extent of steric repulsion between adjacent rotor substituents, and the torsional barriers tend to increase with the steric bulk of the rotating alkyl group. MM3 forcemore » field parameters were adjusted to fit the MP2 results, providing a fast and accurate model for predicting organophosphine oxides shapes—an essential part of understanding the chemistry of these compounds. As a result, the predictive power of the modified MM3 model was tested against MP2/cc-pVTZ conformations for triethylphosphine oxide, OP(CH2CH3)3, and triphenylphosphine oxide, OP(Ph)3.« less

  5. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.; Bond, Walter D.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

  6. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-12-14

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

  7. Working with SRNL - Our Facilities - Atmospheric Technologies Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Technologies Center Working with SRNL Our Facilities - Atmospheric Technologies Center The SRNL Atmospheric Technologies Center has extensive capabilities for world-wide meteorological forecasts and real-time atmospheric transport modeling and assessment. Meteorological monitoring through this facility includes the collection, archival, and application of SRS meteorological data, and the technology to predict the transport and consequence of accidental hazardous material release to

  8. Nanostructured transition metal oxides useful for water oxidation catalysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz M; Jiao, Feng

    2013-12-24

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a nanostructured transition metal oxide capable of oxidizing two H.sub.2O molecules to obtain four protons. In some embodiments of the invention, the composition further comprises a porous matrix wherein the nanocluster of the transition metal oxide is embedded on and/or in the porous matrix.

  9. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  10. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2013-04-16

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.