Sample records for atmospheric mesoscale model

  1. Soil moisture in complex terrain: quantifying effects on atmospheric boundary layer flow and providing improved surface boundary conditions for mesoscale models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniels, Megan Hanako

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    groundwater, land-surface, and mesoscale atmospheric model-and modification of mesoscale circulations. , Mon. Wea.J. Davis, The effects of mesoscale surface heterogeneity on

  2. Intercomparison of oceanic and atmospheric forced and coupled mesoscale simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Intercomparison of oceanic and atmospheric forced and coupled mesoscale simulations Part I: Surface Abstract. A mesoscale non-hydrostatic atmospheric model has been coupled with a mesoscale oceanic model current. In order to analyze the eect of mesoscale coupling, three simulations are compared: the ®rst one

  3. 4, 54555514, 2004 Mesoscale modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 4, 5455­5514, 2004 Mesoscale modeling of combined aerosol and photo-oxidant processes M Union 2004 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Mesoscale modeling of combined aerosol­5514, 2004 Mesoscale modeling of combined aerosol and photo-oxidant processes M. Lazaridis et al. Title Page

  4. Mesoscale coupled ocean-atmosphere interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Hyodae

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2000: A Coupled Air-Sea Mesoscale Model: Experiments inWind Stress Curl from a Mesoscale Model. Mon. Wea. Rev. ,2006: Effect of Ocean Mesoscale Variability on the Mean

  5. Mesoscale Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Hyodae

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2000: A Coupled Air-Sea Mesoscale Model: Experiments inWind Stress Curl from a Mesoscale Model. Mon. Wea. Rev. ,2006: Effect of Ocean Mesoscale Variability on the Mean

  6. Forecast of surface layer meteorological parameters at Cerro Paranal with a mesoscale atmospherical model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lascaux, Franck; Fini, Luca

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article aims at proving the feasibility of the forecast of all the most relevant classical atmospherical parameters for astronomical applications (wind speed and direction, temperature) above the ESO ground-base site of Cerro Paranal with a mesoscale atmospherical model called Meso-Nh. In a precedent paper we have preliminarily treated the model performances obtained in reconstructing some key atmospherical parameters in the surface layer 0-30~m studying the bias and the RMSE on a statistical sample of 20 nights. Results were very encouraging and it appeared therefore mandatory to confirm such a good result on a much richer statistical sample. In this paper, the study was extended to a total sample of 129 nights between 2007 and 2011 distributed in different parts of the solar year. This large sample made our analysis more robust and definitive in terms of the model performances and permitted us to confirm the excellent performances of the model. Besides, we present an independent analysis of the model p...

  7. Mesoscale coupled ocean-atmosphere feedbacks in boundary current systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Putrasahan, Dian Ariyani

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isolating Mesoscale Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere in the KuroshioSST coupler . . . . Chapter 3 Mesoscale Ocean-Atmosphere4.2 Impact of Mesoscale SST on Precipitation Chapter 4 vi

  8. Mesoscale Modeling Spring Semester 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ATS730 Mesoscale Modeling Spring Semester 2014 Meeting Times: T/TH: 9-10:15am Room: ATS 101 is to present the development of the basic equations used in mesoscale models, as well as the various methods than on actual simulations of mesoscale phenomena or the evaluation of specific mesoscale models

  9. Chromatin Ionic Atmosphere Analyzed by a Mesoscale Electrostatic Hin Hark Gan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlick, Tamar

    Chromatin Ionic Atmosphere Analyzed by a Mesoscale Electrostatic Approach Hin Hark Gan and Tamar an electrostatic model to handle multivalent ions and compute the ionic distribution around a mesoscale chromatin

  10. ATMOSPHERIC DUST AND MESOSCALE/MICROSCALE METEOROLOGY. A. Spiga1 , S.R. Lewis1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spiga, Aymeric

    ATMOSPHERIC DUST AND MESOSCALE/MICROSCALE METEOROLOGY. A. Spiga1 , S.R. Lewis1 , and F. For- get2 to advances in computational resources and modeling techniques. Note also that mesoscale modeling and Large: general circulation models, mesoscale models, microscale models [Large-Eddy Simulations]. Figure 1

  11. AN URBAN SURFACE EXCHANGE PARAMETERISATION FOR MESOSCALE MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AN URBAN SURFACE EXCHANGE PARAMETERISATION FOR MESOSCALE MODELS ALBERTO MARTILLI1, , ALAIN CLAPPIER. A scheme to represent the impact of urban buildings on airflow in mesoscale atmospheric models is presented the presence of the buildings. The parameterisation is introduced into a mesoscale model and tested

  12. Using Mesoscale Weather Model Output as Boundary Conditions for Atmospheric Large-Eddy Simulations and Wind-Plant Aerodynamic Simulations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churchfield, M. J.; Michalakes, J.; Vanderwende, B.; Lee, S.; Sprague, M. A.; Lundquist, J. K.; Moriarty, P. J.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wind plant aerodynamics are directly affected by the microscale weather, which is directly influenced by the mesoscale weather. Microscale weather refers to processes that occur within the atmospheric boundary layer with the largest scales being a few hundred meters to a few kilometers depending on the atmospheric stability of the boundary layer. Mesoscale weather refers to large weather patterns, such as weather fronts, with the largest scales being hundreds of kilometers wide. Sometimes microscale simulations that capture mesoscale-driven variations (changes in wind speed and direction over time or across the spatial extent of a wind plant) are important in wind plant analysis. In this paper, we present our preliminary work in coupling a mesoscale weather model with a microscale atmospheric large-eddy simulation model. The coupling is one-way beginning with the weather model and ending with a computational fluid dynamics solver using the weather model in coarse large-eddy simulation mode as an intermediary. We simulate one hour of daytime moderately convective microscale development driven by the mesoscale data, which are applied as initial and boundary conditions to the microscale domain, at a site in Iowa. We analyze the time and distance necessary for the smallest resolvable microscales to develop.

  13. Mesoscale ocean dynamics modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    mHolm, D.; Alber, M.; Bayly, B.; Camassa, R.; Choi, W.; Cockburn, B.; Jones, D.; Lifschitz, A.; Margolin, L.; Marsden, L.; Nadiga, B.; Poje, A.; Smolarkiewicz, P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Levermore, D. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The ocean is a very complex nonlinear system that exhibits turbulence on essentially all scales, multiple equilibria, and significant intrinsic variability. Modeling the ocean`s dynamics at mesoscales is of fundamental importance for long-time-scale climate predictions. A major goal of this project has been to coordinate, strengthen, and focus the efforts of applied mathematicians, computer scientists, computational physicists and engineers (at LANL and a consortium of Universities) in a joint effort addressing the issues in mesoscale ocean dynamics. The project combines expertise in the core competencies of high performance computing and theory of complex systems in a new way that has great potential for improving ocean models now running on the Connection Machines CM-200 and CM-5 and on the Cray T3D.

  14. THE SIMULATION OF FINE SCALE NOCTURNAL BOUNDARY LAYER MOTIONS WITH A MESO-SCALE ATMOSPHERIC MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werth, D.; Kurzeja, R.; Parker, M.

    2009-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A field project over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement-Clouds and Radiation Testbed (ARM-CART) site during a period of several nights in September, 2007 was conducted to explore the evolution of the low-level jet (LLJ). Data was collected from a tower and a sodar and analyzed for turbulent behavior. To study the full range of nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) behavior, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) was used to simulate the ARM-CART NBL field experiment and validated against the data collected from the site. This model was run at high resolution, and is ideal for calculating the interactions among the various motions within the boundary layer and their influence on the surface. The model reproduces adequately the synoptic situation and the formation and dissolution cycles of the low-level jet, although it suffers from insufficient cloud production and excessive nocturnal cooling. The authors suggest that observed heat flux data may further improve the realism of the simulations both in the cloud formation and in the jet characteristics. In a higher resolution simulation, the NBL experiences motion on a range of timescales as revealed by a wavelet analysis, and these are affected by the presence of the LLJ. The model can therefore be used to provide information on activity throughout the depth of the NBL.

  15. Modeling of passive microwave responses in convective situations using output from mesoscale models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pardo-Carrión, Juan R.

    Modeling of passive microwave responses in convective situations using output from mesoscale models using output from nonhydrostatic mesoscale atmospheric model, Meso-NH, simulations. The radiative for a systematic evaluation of the mesoscale cloud models. An overall good agreement is obtained for both

  16. LMD Martian Mesoscale Model User Manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spiga, Aymeric

    LMD Martian Mesoscale Model [LMD-MMM] User Manual A. Spiga aymeric.spiga@upmc.fr Laboratoire de;#12;Contents 1 What is the LMD Martian Mesoscale Model? 3 1.1 Dynamical core on mesoscale levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 iii #12;iv User Manual for the LMD Martian Mesoscale Model

  17. Sleep Dynamics and Seizure Control in a Mesoscale Cortical Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopour, Beth Ann

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contributions . . . . . . . . . 2 Mesoscale Cortical Modelstates in h e from the mesoscale cortical model, here- afterand Seizure Control in a Mesoscale Cortical Model by Beth

  18. Mesoscale Model Development and the Meteorological Community

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mass, Clifford F.

    Mesoscale Model Development and the Meteorological Community Cliff Mass University of Washington: Although the U.S. remains a leader in mesoscale model development and application, the community is not fulfilling its potential. The resources of the U.S. mesoscale forecasting community are considerable

  19. MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, Martin

    MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS MARTIN BURGER , VINCENZO CAPASSO , AND LIVIO-Kolmogorov relations for the degree of crystallinity. By relating the computation of expected values to mesoscale averaging, we obtain a suitable description of the process at the mesoscale. We show how the variance

  20. Modelling and numerical approximation of a 2.5D set of equations for mesoscale atmospheric processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalise, Dante

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The set of 3D inviscid primitive equations for the atmosphere is dimensionally reduced by a Discontinuous Galerkin discretization in one horizontal direction. The resulting model is a 2D system of balance laws where with a source term depending on the layering procedure and the choice of coupling fluxes, which is established in terms of upwind considerations. The "2.5D" system is discretized via a WENO-TVD scheme based in a flux limiter centered approach. We study four tests cases related to atmospheric phenomena to analyze the physical validity of the model.

  1. Ocean color and atmospheric dimethyl sulfide: On their mesoscale variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matrai, Patricia A; Balch, William M; Cooper, David J; Saltzman, Eric S

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    periods of' time, covering mesoscale Campbell, J. W. and W.Dimethyl Sulfide' On Their Mesoscale Variability PATRICIA A.Miami, Miami, Florida The mesoscale variability of dimethyl

  2. Analytical mesoscale modeling of aeolian sand transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc Lämmel; Anne Meiwald; Klaus Kroy

    2014-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the mesoscale structure of aeolian sand transport, based on a recently developed two-species continuum model. The calculated sand flux and important average characteristics of the grain trajectories are found to be in remarkable agreement with field and wind-tunnel data. We conclude that the essential mesoscale physics is insensitive to unresolved details on smaller scales and well captured by the coarse-grained analytical model, thus providing a sound basis for precise and numerically efficient mesoscale modeling of aeolian structure formation.

  3. Satellite observations of mesoscale ocean features and copropagating atmospheric surface fields in the tropical belt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Shang-Ping

    Satellite observations of mesoscale ocean features and copropagating atmospheric surface fields speed and sea surface temperature (SST) over mesoscale ocean features in certain frontal regions. The aim of this study is to determine to what extent mesoscale ocean dynamics modifies the surface wind

  4. Heat transport and weakening of atmospheric stability induced by mesoscale flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pielke, Roger A.

    Heat transport and weakening of atmospheric stability induced by mesoscale flows G. A. Dalu boundary layer (CBL) is transported upward into the midtroposphere by mesoscale flows, and how the air, and diffusion, associated with the mesoscale flow, is more clearly shown when the forcing is periodic in time

  5. MPMM: A Massively Parallel Mesoscale Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, I.; Michalakes, J.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Static domain decomposition is a technique that provides a quick path to porting atmospheric models on distributed memory parallel computers. However, parallel inefficiencies in the form of load imbalances and ill-tuned communication are difficult to correct without complicated and explicit recoding. Reconfiguring the code to run on larger or smaller numbers of processors may require recompiling. Modularity and machine independence may also suffer. If full advantage is to be taken of Massively Parallel Processing (MPP) technology, tools and techniques that allow for dynamic performance tuning and reconfiguration are required. Program Composition Notation (PCN) is a language and run-time system for expressing parallel programs developed at Argonne and at the California Institute of Technology. It provides an intermediate layer between the application program and the physical processors of a computer. It allows the model to be statically decomposed over a virtual machine, but this virtual machine can be mapped and remapped dynamically over the physical computer. Programs are portable to as many machines as PCN itself, modularity is easily preserved, and communication tuning for a particular computer is encapsulated within the PCN run-time system. In this paper we report on a project at Argonne National Laboratory to parallelize the Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model version 5 using a fine grain decomposition dynamically mapped and managed under PCN.

  6. A Mesoscale Diffusion Model in Population Genetics with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Leary, Michael

    ' & $ % A Mesoscale Diffusion Model in Population Genetics with Dynamic Fitness Mike O'Leary Towson University Judith R. Miller Georgetown University 1 #12;A mesoscale diffusion model in population genetics that dominance and epistasis are absent. April 28, 2005 Mike O'Leary and Judith Miller Slide 2 #12;A mesoscale

  7. Identification of a mesoscale model with multiscale experimental observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Identification of a mesoscale model with multiscale experimental observations M.T. Nguyen, C and at mesoscale within the framework of a heterogeneous microstruc- ture which is modeled by a random elastic measurements of the displacement fields at macroscale and at mesoscale performed with only a single specimen

  8. atmospheric models final: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperature received 25 October 2013, in final form 24 July 2014) ABSTRACT The wind speed response to mesoscale SST (COAMPS) atmospheric models. The SST- induced wind response...

  9. Mesoscale Atmospheric Dispersion, 2001, Ed. Z. Boybeyi, WIT Publications, Southampton, UK, Advances in Air Pollution, Vol 9, p. 424.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raman, Sethu

    Mesoscale Atmospheric Dispersion, 2001, Ed. Z. Boybeyi, WIT Publications, Southampton, UK, Advances surface­atmosphere exchanges in mesoscale air pollution systems Devdutta S. Niyogi & Sethu Raman North-physiological leaf scaling approach. Finally, of particular relevance to mesoscale applications is the area averaging

  10. Nighttime atmospheric stability changes and their effects on the temporal intensity of a mesoscale convective complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hovis, Jeffrey Scott

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NIGHTTIME ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY CHANGES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE TEMPORAL INTENSITY OF A MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE COMPLEX A Thesis JEFFREY SCOTT HOVIS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1988 Major Subject: Meteorology NIGHTTIME ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY CHANGES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE TEMPORAL INTENSITY OF A MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE COMPLEX A Thesis JEFFREY SCOTT HOVIS Approved as to style...

  11. A study of mesoscale gravity waves over the North Atlantic with satellite observations and a mesoscale model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A study of mesoscale gravity waves over the North Atlantic with satellite observations and a mesoscale model Dong L. Wu Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena and compare AMSU-A observations to simulations from a mesoscale model (MM5). The simulated gravity waves

  12. Impact of Agricultural Practice on Regional Climate in a Coupled Land Surface Mesoscale Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooley, H.S.; Riley, W.J.; Torn, M.S.; He, Y.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    winter wheat belt on the mesoscale environment, Monthlygeneration Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5), NCAR,in a Coupled Land Surface Mesoscale Model H.S. Cooley Energy

  13. Rotational and divergent kinetic energy in the mesoscale model ALADIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zagar, Nedjeljka

    energy, divergent energy, ALADIN, limited-area modelling 1. Introduction Horizontal divergenceRotational and divergent kinetic energy in the mesoscale model ALADIN By V. BLAZ ICA1 *, N. Z AGAR1 received 7 June 2012; in final form 7 March 2013) ABSTRACT Kinetic energy spectra from the mesoscale

  14. Mesoscale modelling of polyelectrolyte electrophoresis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kai Grass; Christian Holm

    2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrophoretic behaviour of flexible polyelectrolyte chains ranging from single monomers up to long fragments of hundred repeat units is studied by a mesoscopic simulation approach. Abstracting from the atomistic details of the polyelectrolyte and the fluid, a coarse-grained molecular dynamics model connected to a mesoscopic fluid described by the Lattice Boltzmann approach is used to investigate free-solution electrophoresis. Our study demonstrates the importance of hydrodynamic interactions for the electrophoretic motion of polyelectrolytes and quantifies the influence of surrounding ions. The length-dependence of the electrophoretic mobility can be understood by evaluating the scaling behavior of the effective charge and the effective friction. The perfect agreement of our results with experimental measurements shows that all chemical details and fluid structure can be safely neglected, and a suitable coarse-grained approach can yield an accurate description of the physics of the problem, provided that electrostatic and hydrodynamic interactions between all entities in the system, i.e., the polyelectrolyte, dissociated counterions, additional salt and the solvent, are properly accounted for. Our model is able to bridge the single molecule regime of a few nm up to macromolecules with contour lengths of more than 100 nm, a length scale that is currently not accessible to atomistic simulations.

  15. Constructing Irregular Surfaces to Enclose Macromolecular Complexes for Mesoscale Modeling Using the Discrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlick, Tamar

    Constructing Irregular Surfaces to Enclose Macromolecular Complexes for Mesoscale Modeling Using proteins. DiSCO is generally applicable to other interesting macromolecular systems for which mesoscale

  16. Microscale and mesoscale discrete models for dynamic fracture of structures built of brittle material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Microscale and mesoscale discrete models for dynamic fracture of structures built of brittle are derived either at microscale with random distribution of material properties or at a mesoscale

  17. Coupling a Mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction Model with Large-Eddy Simulation for Realistic Wind Plant Aerodynamics Simulations (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Draxl, C.; Churchfield, M.; Mirocha, J.; Lee, S.; Lundquist, J.; Michalakes, J.; Moriarty, P.; Purkayastha, A.; Sprague, M.; Vanderwende, B.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wind plant aerodynamics are influenced by a combination of microscale and mesoscale phenomena. Incorporating mesoscale atmospheric forcing (e.g., diurnal cycles and frontal passages) into wind plant simulations can lead to a more accurate representation of microscale flows, aerodynamics, and wind turbine/plant performance. Our goal is to couple a numerical weather prediction model that can represent mesoscale flow [specifically the Weather Research and Forecasting model] with a microscale LES model (OpenFOAM) that can predict microscale turbulence and wake losses.

  18. Intercomparison of mesoscale meteorological models for precipitation forecasting Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(6), 799811 (2003) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intercomparison of mesoscale meteorological models for precipitation forecasting 799 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(6), 799811 (2003) © EGU Intercomparison of mesoscale meteorological models

  19. THE APPLICATION OF AN EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHM TO THE OPTIMIZATION OF A MESOSCALE METEOROLOGICAL MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werth, D.; O'Steen, L.

    2008-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that a simple evolutionary algorithm can optimize a set of mesoscale atmospheric model parameters with respect to agreement between the mesoscale simulation and a limited set of synthetic observations. This is illustrated using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). A set of 23 RAMS parameters is optimized by minimizing a cost function based on the root mean square (rms) error between the RAMS simulation and synthetic data (observations derived from a separate RAMS simulation). We find that the optimization can be efficient with relatively modest computer resources, thus operational implementation is possible. The optimization efficiency, however, is found to depend strongly on the procedure used to perturb the 'child' parameters relative to their 'parents' within the evolutionary algorithm. In addition, the meteorological variables included in the rms error and their weighting are found to be an important factor with respect to finding the global optimum.

  20. Author's personal copy Mesoscale modeling of electric double layer capacitors with three-dimensional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    Author's personal copy Mesoscale modeling of electric double layer capacitors with three Mesoscale modeling Mesoporous electrodes a b s t r a c t This paper presents general mathematical

  1. Segmentation and Tracking of Mesoscale Eddies in Numeric Ocean Models Vishal Sood, Bin John, Ramprasad Balasubramanian and Amit Tandon*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tandon, Amit

    Segmentation and Tracking of Mesoscale Eddies in Numeric Ocean Models Vishal Sood, Bin John suggested that the mesoscale eddies and mesoscale features play a strong role in carrying heat poleward oceanographers an invaluable tool to assess mesoscale eddies and the Lagrangian characteristics of this mesoscale

  2. Determining Greenland Ice Sheet sensitivity to regional climate change: one-way coupling of a 3-D thermo-mechanical ice sheet model with a mesoscale climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, Nicole-Jeanne

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ice sheet model with a mesoscale climate model By Nicole-ice sheet model with a mesoscale climate model Copyrightice sheet model with a mesoscale climate model by Nicole-

  3. Modeled biogeochemical responses to mesoscale eddies in the South China Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maine, University of

    Modeled biogeochemical responses to mesoscale eddies in the South China Sea Peng Xiu1 and Fei Chai1] Mesoscale eddies are observed each year in the South China Sea (SCS); however, their contributions physicalbiogeochemical model to evaluate the eddy impact. We first track the modeled mesoscale eddies in the SCS

  4. Development of the Flux-Adjusting Surface Data Assimilation System for Mesoscale Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niyogi, Dev

    Development of the Flux-Adjusting Surface Data Assimilation System for Mesoscale Models KIRAN and temperature and for surface air temperature and water vapor mixing ratio for mesoscale models. In the FASDAS-field variables. The FASDAS is coupled to a land surface submodel in a three-dimensional mesoscale model and tests

  5. Mesoscale Modeling of a Li-Ion Polymer Cell Chia-Wei Wanga,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sastry, Ann Marie

    Mesoscale Modeling of a Li-Ion Polymer Cell Chia-Wei Wanga, * and Ann Marie Sastrya,b,c, *,z, the study reported critical data required for mesoscale numerical simulation, including ionic con- ductivity

  6. Mesoscale modeling of electrical percolation in fiber-filled systems Sameer S. Rahatekar and Marc Hamm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, James

    Mesoscale modeling of electrical percolation in fiber-filled systems Sameer S. Rahatekar and Marc online 4 October 2005 The research described in this paper primarily involves mesoscale simulations

  7. A Diagnostic Suite of Models for the Evaluation of Oceanic Mesoscale Eddy Parameterizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox-Kemper, Baylor

    A Diagnostic Suite of Models for the Evaluation of Oceanic Mesoscale Eddy Parameterizations by S. D of Oceanic Mesoscale Eddy Parameterizations written by S. D. Bachman has been approved for the Department and Oceanic Sciences) A Diagnostic Suite of Models for the Evaluation of Oceanic Mesoscale Eddy

  8. MESOSCALE MODELLING OF WIND ENERGY OVER NON-HOMOGENEOUS TERRAIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pielke, Roger A.

    MESOSCALE MODELLING OF WIND ENERGY OVER NON-HOMOGENEOUS TERRAIN (ReviewArticle) Y. MAHRER.1. OBSERVATIONALAPPROACHES Evaluations of wind energy based on wind observations (usually surface winds) at well, the resolution of the wind energy pattern throughout an extended area by this methodology requires a large number

  9. Wind resource assessment with a mesoscale non-hydrostatic model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Wind resource assessment with a mesoscale non- hydrostatic model Vincent Guénard, Center for Energy is developed for assessing the wind resource and its uncertainty. The work focuses on an existing wind farm mast measurements. The wind speed and turbulence fields are discussed. It is shown that the k

  10. WIND ATLAS FOR EGYPT: MEASUREMENTS, MICRO-AND MESOSCALE MODELLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricity-producing wind turbine and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityWIND ATLAS FOR EGYPT: MEASUREMENTS, MICRO- AND MESOSCALE MODELLING Niels G. Mortensen1 , Jens

  11. Atomistic and Mesoscale Modeling of Dislocation B.S., Huazhong University of Science and Technology (1995)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Wei

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomistic and Mesoscale Modeling of Dislocation Mobility by Wei Cai B.S., Huazhong University by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sow-Hsin Chen Chairman, Department Committee on Graduate Students #12;2 #12;Atomistic and Mesoscale theories and simulations of dislocations in Si and BCC transition metals, with emphasis on the atomistic-mesoscale

  12. DETECTING AND TRACKING OF MESOSCALE OCEANIC FEATURES IN THE MIAMI ISOPYCNIC CIRCULATION OCEAN MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tandon, Amit

    DETECTING AND TRACKING OF MESOSCALE OCEANIC FEATURES IN THE MIAMI ISOPYCNIC CIRCULATION OCEAN MODEL developed to automatically detect, locate and track mesoscale eddies spatially and temporally. Using an invaluable tool to assess mesoscale oceanic features. Key Words ­ Scientific Visualization, Eddy Detection

  13. Urban morphological analysis for mesoscale meteorological and dispersion modeling applications : current issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burian, S. J. (Steven J.); Brown, M. J. (Michael J.); Ching, J. (Jason); Cheuk, M. L. (Mang Lung); Yuan, M. (May); McKinnon, A. T. (Andrew T.); Han, W. S. (Woo Suk)

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate predictions of air quality and atmospheric dispersion at high spatial resolution rely on high fidelity predictions of mesoscale meteorological fields that govern transport and turbulence in urban areas. However, mesoscale meteorological models do not have the spatial resolution to directly simulate the fluid dynamics and thermodynamics in and around buildings and other urban structures that have been shown to modify micro- and mesoscale flow fields (e.g., see review by Bornstein 1987). Mesoscale models therefore have been adapted using numerous approaches to incorporate urban effects into the simulations (e.g., see reviews by Brown 2000 and Bornstein and Craig 2002). One approach is to introduce urban canopy parameterizations to approximate the drag, turbulence production, heating, and radiation attenuation induced by sub-grid scale buildings and urban surface covers (Brown 2000). Preliminary results of mesoscale meteorological and air quality simulations for Houston (Dupont et al. 2004) demonstrated the importance of introducing urban canopy parameterizations to produce results with high spatial resolution that accentuates variability, highlights important differences, and identifies critical areas. Although urban canopy parameterizations may not be applicable to all meteorological and dispersion models, they have been successfully introduced and demonstrated in many of the current operational and research mode mesoscale models, e.g., COAMPS (Holt et al. 2002), HOTMAC (Brown and Williams 1998), MM5 (e.g., Otte and Lacser 2001; Lacser and Otte 2002; Dupont et al. 2004), and RAMS (Rozoff et al. 2003). The primary consequence of implementing an urban parameterization in a mesoscale meteorological model is the need to characterize the urban terrain in greater detail. In general, urban terrain characterization for mesoscale modeling may be described as the process of collecting datasets of urban surface cover physical properties (e.g., albedo, emissivity) and morphology (i.e., ground elevation, building and tree height and geometry characteristics) and then processing the data to compute physical cover and morphological parameters. Many of the surface cover and morphological parameters required for mesoscale meteorological models are also needed by atmospheric dispersion models. Thus, most of the discussion below is relevant to both types of modeling. In this paper, the term urban morphological analysis will be used to define the component of urban terrain characterization concerned with the morphological parameters. Furthermore, the focus will be building morphological parameters; therefore, the term urban morphological analysis will refer exclusively to the task of inventorying, computing or estimating building morphological parameters. Several approaches to perform urban morphological analysis exist; however, all have in common three types of practice issues related to the uncertainty of (1) data, (2) parameter definitions and calculation methods, and (3) extrapolation techniques. The objective of this paper is to describe the state-of-the-practice of urban morphological analysis by reviewing the primary approaches presented in the literature and outlining and commenting on key aspects of the three types of practice issues listed above.

  14. Mesoscale Modeling of LX-17 Under Isentropic Compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, H K; Willey, T M; Friedman, G; Fried, L E; Vandersall, K S; Baer, M R

    2010-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Mesoscale simulations of LX-17 incorporating different equilibrium mixture models were used to investigate the unreacted equation-of-state (UEOS) of TATB. Candidate TATB UEOS were calculated using the equilibrium mixture models and benchmarked with mesoscale simulations of isentropic compression experiments (ICE). X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) data provided the basis for initializing the simulations with realistic microstructural details. Three equilibrium mixture models were used in this study. The single constituent with conservation equations (SCCE) model was based on a mass-fraction weighted specific volume and the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. The single constituent equation-of-state (SCEOS) model was based on a mass-fraction weighted specific volume and the equation-of-state of the constituents. The kinetic energy averaging (KEA) model was based on a mass-fraction weighted particle velocity mixture rule and the conservation equations. The SCEOS model yielded the stiffest TATB EOS (0.121{micro} + 0.4958{micro}{sup 2} + 2.0473{micro}{sup 3}) and, when incorporated in mesoscale simulations of the ICE, demonstrated the best agreement with VISAR velocity data for both specimen thicknesses. The SCCE model yielded a relatively more compliant EOS (0.1999{micro}-0.6967{micro}{sup 2} + 4.9546{micro}{sup 3}) and the KEA model yielded the most compliant EOS (0.1999{micro}-0.6967{micro}{sup 2}+4.9546{micro}{sup 3}) of all the equilibrium mixture models. Mesoscale simulations with the lower density TATB adiabatic EOS data demonstrated the least agreement with VISAR velocity data.

  15. Massively parallel implementation of the Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, I.; Michalakes, J.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Parallel computing promises significant improvements in both the raw speed and cost performance of mesoscale atmospheric models. On distributed-memory massively parallel computers available today, the performance of a mesoscale model will exceed that of conventional supercomputers; on the teraflops machines expected within the next five years, performance will increase by several orders of magnitude. As a result, scientists will be able to consider larger problems, more complex model processes, and finer resolutions. In this paper. we report on a project at Argonne National Laboratory that will allow scientists to take advantage of parallel computing technology. This Massively Parallel Mesoscale Model (MPMM) will be functionally equivalent to the Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM). In a prototype study, we produced a parallel version of MM4 using a static (compile-time) coarse-grained ``patch`` decomposition. This code achieves one-third the performance of a one-processor CRAY Y-MP on twelve Intel 1860 microprocessors. The current version of MPMM is based on all MM5 and uses a more fine-grained approach, decomposing the grid as finely as the mesh itself allows so that each horizontal grid cell is a parallel process. This will allow the code to utilize many hundreds of processors. A high-level language for expressing parallel programs is used to implement communication strearns between the processes in a way that permits dynamic remapping to the physical processors of a particular parallel computer. This facilitates load balancing, grid nesting, and coupling with graphical systems and other models.

  16. Massively parallel implementation of the Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, I.; Michalakes, J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Parallel computing promises significant improvements in both the raw speed and cost performance of mesoscale atmospheric models. On distributed-memory massively parallel computers available today, the performance of a mesoscale model will exceed that of conventional supercomputers; on the teraflops machines expected within the next five years, performance will increase by several orders of magnitude. As a result, scientists will be able to consider larger problems, more complex model processes, and finer resolutions. In this paper. we report on a project at Argonne National Laboratory that will allow scientists to take advantage of parallel computing technology. This Massively Parallel Mesoscale Model (MPMM) will be functionally equivalent to the Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM). In a prototype study, we produced a parallel version of MM4 using a static (compile-time) coarse-grained patch'' decomposition. This code achieves one-third the performance of a one-processor CRAY Y-MP on twelve Intel 1860 microprocessors. The current version of MPMM is based on all MM5 and uses a more fine-grained approach, decomposing the grid as finely as the mesh itself allows so that each horizontal grid cell is a parallel process. This will allow the code to utilize many hundreds of processors. A high-level language for expressing parallel programs is used to implement communication strearns between the processes in a way that permits dynamic remapping to the physical processors of a particular parallel computer. This facilitates load balancing, grid nesting, and coupling with graphical systems and other models.

  17. Mesoscale modeling of metal-loaded high explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bdzil, John Bohdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lieberthal, Brandon [UNIV OF ILLINOIS; Srewart, Donald S [UNIV OF ILLINOIS

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a 3D approach to modeling multi-phase blast explosive, which is primarily condensed explosive by volume with inert embedded particles. These embedded particles are uniform in size and placed on the array of a regular lattice. The asymptotic theory of detonation shock dynamics governs the detonation shock propagation in the explosive. Mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations are used to show how the particles are compressed, deformed, and accelerated by the high-speed detonation products flow.

  18. New Efficient Sparse SpaceTime Algorithms for Superparameterization on Mesoscales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xing, Yulong

    New Efficient Sparse Space­Time Algorithms for Superparameterization on Mesoscales YULONG XING-scale and mesoscale processes provided by a cloud-resolving model (CRM) embedded in each column of a large-scale model for limited-area mesoscale ensemble forecasting. 1. Introduction Atmospheric processes of weather and climate

  19. Modeling of Alpine Atmospheric Dynamics II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gohm, Alexander

    : mesoscale convective system 17-18 April 2004: Sierra hydraulic jump case 21 January 2005: the "Universiade) Results and discussion (synoptic scale overview, mesoscale structure, comparison of model and measurements

  20. The Retrieval of Ice Water Content from Radar Reflectivity Factor and Temperature and Its Use in Evaluating a Mesoscale Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    in Evaluating a Mesoscale Model ROBIN J. HOGAN, MARION P. MITTERMAIER,* AND ANTHONY J. ILLINGWORTH Department-GHz radar with the values held in the Met Office mesoscale forecast model, for eight precipitating

  1. Coupled Mesoscale-Large-Eddy Modeling of Realistic Stable Boundary Layer Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yao; Manuel, Lance

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Site-specific flow and turbulence information are needed for various practical applications, ranging from aerodynamic/aeroelastic modeling for wind turbine design to optical diffraction calculations. Even though highly desirable, collecting on-site meteorological measurements can be an expensive, time-consuming, and sometimes a challenging task. In this work, we propose a coupled mesoscale-large-eddy modeling framework to synthetically generate site-specific flow and turbulence data. The workhorses behind our framework are a state-of-the-art, open-source atmospheric model called the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and a tuning-free large-eddy simulation (LES) model. Using this coupled framework, we simulate a nighttime stable boundary layer (SBL) case from the well-known CASES-99 field campaign. One of the unique aspects of this work is the usage of a diverse range of observations for characterization and validation. The coupled models reproduce certain characteristics of observed low-level jets....

  2. An implicit finite-element model for 3D non-hydrostatic mesoscale ocean M.A. Maidana1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    An implicit finite-element model for 3D non-hydrostatic mesoscale ocean flows M.A. Maidana1 , J-dimensional, non-hydrostatic mesoscale ocean flows. The model considered here incorporates surface wind stress and the idea of using unstructured grids for modelling mesoscale ocean dynamics sounds very attractive given

  3. Development and Evaluation of a Coupled Photosynthesis-Based Gas Exchange Evapotranspiration Model (GEM) for Mesoscale Weather Forecasting Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niyogi, Dev

    (GEM) for Mesoscale Weather Forecasting Applications DEV NIYOGI Department of Agronomy, and Department form 13 May 2008) ABSTRACT Current land surface schemes used for mesoscale weather forecast models use model (GEM) as a land surface scheme for mesoscale weather forecasting model applications. The GEM

  4. Mesoscale modeling of colloidal suspensions with adsorbing solutes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rei Tatsumi; Osamu Koike; Yukio Yamaguchi

    2015-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct a mesoscale model of colloidal suspensions that contain solutes reversibly adsorbing onto the colloidal particle surfaces. The present model describes the coupled dynamics of the colloidal particles, the host fluid, and the solutes through the Newton-Euler equations of motion, the hydrodynamic equations, and the advection-diffusion equation, respectively. The solute adsorption is modeled through a square-well potential, which represents a short-range attractive interaction between a particle and a solute molecule. The present model is formulated to be solved through direct numerical simulations. Some numerical results are presented to validate the simulations. The present model enables investigations of solute adsorption effects in the presence of a fluid flow and an inhomogeneous solute concentration distribution.

  5. Strain in the mesoscale kinetic Monte Carlo model for sintering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bjørk, R; Tikare, V; Olevsky, E; Pryds, N

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Shrinkage strains measured from microstructural simulations using the mesoscale kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model for solid state sintering are discussed. This model represents the microstructure using digitized discrete sites that are either grain or pore sites. The algorithm used to simulate densification by vacancy annihilation removes an isolated pore site at a grain boundary and collapses a column of sites extending from the vacancy to the surface of sintering compact, through the center of mass of the nearest grain. Using this algorithm, the existing published kMC models are shown to produce anisotropic strains for homogeneous powder compacts with aspect ratios different from unity. It is shown that the line direction biases shrinkage strains in proportion the compact dimension aspect ratios. A new algorithm that corrects this bias in strains is proposed; the direction for collapsing the column is determined by choosing a random sample face and subsequently a random point on that face as the end point for...

  6. The impact of agricultural intensification and irrigation on landatmosphere interactions and Indian monsoon precipitation --A mesoscale modeling perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niyogi, Dev

    and Indian monsoon precipitation -- A mesoscale modeling perspective E.M. Douglas a, , A. Beltrán-Przekurat b convergence, mesoscale convection, and precipitation patterns over the Indian monsoon region. Four experiments pattern and changes in mesoscale precipitation. These agricultural changes, including irrigation modify

  7. Mesoscale Eddy Energy Locality in an Idealized Ocean Model IAN GROOMS, LOUIS-PHILIPPE NADEAU, AND K. SHAFER SMITH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, K. Shafer

    Mesoscale Eddy Energy Locality in an Idealized Ocean Model IAN GROOMS, LOUIS-PHILIPPE NADEAU, AND K investigates the energy budget of mesoscale eddies in wind-driven two-layer quasigeostrophic simulations of eddy energy are ``nonlocal.'' Many mesoscale parameterizations assume that statistics of the unresolved

  8. Isolating the role of mesoscale eddies in mixing of a passive tracer in an eddy resolving model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Isolating the role of mesoscale eddies in mixing of a passive tracer in an eddy resolving model February 2008; published 16 May 2008. [1] This study examines the role of mesoscale eddies in distribution was replaced by a down-gradient diffusive parameterization. Our results demonstrate that advection by mesoscale

  9. Numerical modeling of roll structures in mesoscale vortexes over the Black Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iarova, D A

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a case study of horizontal atmospheric rolls that formed over the Black Sea on 16 August 2007. The rolls were discovered in WRF modeling results for a mesoscale cyclone that originated over the sea on 15 August 2007. The roll formation mechanisms, such as Rayleigh-Benard convective instability, dynamic instability, advection and stretching of vertical velocity field inhomogeneities, are considered. It is shown that indeed convective instability played an important role in the roll formation but dynamic instability did not occur. In order to distinguish other possible mechanisms of the roll formation numerical experiments were performed. In these experiments sea surface temperature in the initial conditions was decreased in order to prevent convective instability. Even though convective instability was suppressed roll-like structures still appeared in the modeling results, although their height and circulation velocity were smaller than in the control run. It was found that these structures were ...

  10. Multiphase Modeling of Flow, Transport, and Biodegradation in a Mesoscale Landfill Bioreactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    boundary conditions for the mesoscale landfill bioreactor. (and Biodegradation in a Mesoscale Landfill Bioreactor Curtisapplied it to our own mesoscale laboratory aerobic landfill

  11. Meso-scale eects of tropical deforestation in Amazonia: preparatory LBA modelling studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Meso-scale eects of tropical deforestation in Amazonia: preparatory LBA modelling studies A. J forest is good, above deforested areas (pasture) poor. The models' underestimate of the temperature Modelling studies with general circulation models have shown that large-scale deforestation of the Amazon

  12. Mesoscale Modeling During Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avramov, A.; Harringston, J.Y.; Verlinde, J.

    2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixed-phase arctic stratus clouds are the predominant cloud type in the Arctic (Curry et al. 2000) and through various feedback mechanisms exert a strong influence on the Arctic climate. Perhaps one of the most intriguing of their features is that they tend to have liquid tops that precipitate ice. Despite the fact that this situation is colloidally unstable, these cloud systems are quite long lived - from a few days to over a couple of weeks. It has been hypothesized that mixed-phase clouds are maintained through a balance between liquid water condensation resulting from the cloud-top radiative cooling and ice removal by precipitation (Pinto 1998; Harrington et al. 1999). In their modeling study Harrington et al. (1999) found that the maintenance of this balance depends strongly on the ambient concentration of ice forming nucleus (IFN). In a follow-up study, Jiang et al. (2002), using only 30% of IFN concentration predicted by Meyers et al. (1992) IFN parameterization were able to obtain results similar to the observations reported by Pinto (1998). The IFN concentration measurements collected during the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), conducted in October 2004 over the North Slope of Alaska and the Beaufort Sea (Verlinde et al. 2005), also showed much lower values then those predicted (Prenne, pers. comm.) by currently accepted ice nucleation parameterizations (e.g. Meyers et al. 1992). The goal of this study is to use the extensive IFN data taken during M-PACE to examine what effects low IFN concentrations have on mesoscale cloud structure and coastal dynamics.

  13. Atmospheric Dispersion at Spatial Resolutions Below Mesoscale for university of Tennessee SimCenter at Chattanooga: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. David Whitfield; Dr. Daniel Hyams

    2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In Year 1 of this project, items 1.1 and 1.2 were addressed, as well as item 2.2. The baseline parallel computational simulation tool has been refined significantly over the timeline of this project for the purpose of atmospheric dispersion and transport problems; some of these refinements are documented in Chapter 3. The addition of a concentration transport capability (item 1.2) was completed, along with validation and usage in a highly complex urban environment. Multigrid capability (item 2.2) was a primary focus of Year 1 as well, regardless of the fact that it was scheduled for Year 2. It was determined by the authors that due to the very large nature of the meshes required for atmospheric simulations at mesoscale, multigrid was a key enabling technology for the rest of the project to be successful. Therefore, it was addressed early according to the schedule laid out in the original proposal. The technology behind the multigrid capability is discussed in detail in Chapter 5. Also in Year 1, the issue of ground topography specification is addressed. For simulations of pollutant transport in a given region, a key prerequisite is the specification of the detailed ground topography. The local topography must be placed into a form suitable for generating an unstructured grid both on the topography itself and the atmospheric volume above it; this effort is documented in Chapter 6. In Year 2 of this project, items 1.3 and 2.1 were addressed. Weather data in the form of wind speeds, relative humidity, and baseline pollution levels may be input into the code in order to improve the real-world fidelity of the solutions. Of course, the computational atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) boundary condition developed in Year 1 may still be used when necessary. Cloud cover may be simulated via the levels of actinic flux allowed in photochemical reactions in the atmospheric chemistry model. The primary focus of Year 2 was the formulation of a multispecies capability with included chemical reactions (item 2.1). This proved to be a very arduous task, taking the vast majority of the time and personnel allocation for Year Two. The addition of this capability and related verification is documented in Chapter 7. A discussion of available tropospheric chemistry models is located in Chapter 8; and, a technology demonstrator for the full multispecies capability is detailed in Chapter 9. Item 2.3 has been partially addressed, in that the computation of sensitivity derivatives have been incorporated in the Tenasi code [7]. However, it has not been utilized in this project in order to compute probability distribution functions for pollutant deposition. In order to completely address the integration of weather and sensor data into the code (item 1.3) and integrate with existing sensor networks (item 3.1), a customizable interface was established. Weather data is most commonly available via a real database, and as such, support for accessing these databases is present in the solver source code. For integration functionality, a method of dynamic code customization was developed in Year 3, which is documented in Chapter 11.

  14. The Impacts of Indirect Soil Moisture Assimilation and Direct Surface Temperature and Humidity Assimilation on a Mesoscale Model Simulation of an Indian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niyogi, Dev

    Assimilation on a Mesoscale Model Simulation of an Indian Monsoon Depression VINODKUMAR AND A. CHANDRASEKAR-generation Pennsylvania State University­NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) simulation utilized the humidity and temperature

  15. Bull. Disas. Prey. Res. Inst., Kyoto Univ., Vol. 45, Part 2,3 No. 391, February, 1996 61 A Simple Water Balance Model for a Mesoscale Catchment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takada, Shoji

    A Simple Water Balance Model for a Mesoscale Catchment Based on Heterogeneous Soil Water Storage Capacity, for the mesoscale catchments of Japan and Thailand. Sensitivity analysis of the model parameters has been conducted

  16. Buoyancy Effects on the Scaling Characteristics of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Fields in the Mesoscale Range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliyanpilakkil, V P; Ruiz-Columbié, A; Araya, G; Castillo, L; Hirth, B; Burgett, W

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have analyzed long-term wind speed time-series from five field sites up to a height of 300 m from the ground. Structure function-based scaling analysis has revealed that the scaling exponents in the mesoscale regime systematically depend on height. This anomalous behavior is shown to be caused by the buoyancy effects. In the framework of the extended self-similarity, the relative scaling exponents portray quasi-universal behavior.

  17. Steering in computational science: mesoscale modelling and J. CHIN{, J. HARTING{, S. JHA{, P. V. COVENEY{, A. R. PORTER{ and S. M. PICKLES{{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harting, Jens

    Steering in computational science: mesoscale modelling and simulation J. CHIN{, J. HARTING{, S. JHA steering for high performance computing applications. Lattice-Boltzmann mesoscale fluid simulations, there is currently considerable interest in mesoscale models. These models coarse grain most of the atomic

  18. Mesoscale & Microscale Meteorological Division / NCAR WRF Nature Run

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalakes, John

    Mesoscale & Microscale Meteorological Division / NCAR WRF Nature Run John Michalakes Josh Hacker overview and petascale issues Nature run methodology Results and conclusion #12;Mesoscale & Microscale's atmosphere #12;Mesoscale & Microscale Meteorological Division / NCAR Description of Science · Kinetic energy

  19. Tests of an Ensemble Kalman Filter for Mesoscale and Regional-Scale Data Assimilation. Part II: Imperfect Model Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Zhiyong

    Tests of an Ensemble Kalman Filter for Mesoscale and Regional-Scale Data Assimilation. Part II In Part I of this two-part work, the feasibility of using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for mesoscale that using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the context of a perfect model (i.e., both the truth

  20. Mesoscale model cloud scheme assessment using satellite observations Jean-Pierre Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre Cammas, Patrick J. Mascart, and Jean-Pierre Pinty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre

    Mesoscale model cloud scheme assessment using satellite observations Jean-Pierre Chaboureau, Jean of the mesoscale nonhydrostatic (Meso-NH) model has been conducted by comparing synthetic METEOSAT brightness combines the output from a bulk explicit cloud scheme routinely used in mesoscale simulations

  1. Mesoscale modelling for an offshore wind farm Jake Badger*, Rebecca Barthelmie, Sten Frandsen, Merete Bruun Christiansen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mesoscale modelling for an offshore wind farm Jake Badger*, Rebecca Barthelmie, Sten Frandsen for an offshore wind farm in a coastal location. Spatial gradients and vertical profiles between 25 m and 70 m offshore wind farms tend to be placed within the coastal zone, the region within around 50km from

  2. A STUDY OF ICE ACCUMULATION AND STABILITY IN MARTIAN CRATERS UNDER PAST ORBITAL CONDITIONS USING THE LMD MESOSCALE MODEL. J.-B. Madeleine1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste

    THE LMD MESOSCALE MODEL. J.-B. Madeleine1 , J. W. Head1 , A. Spiga2 , J. L. Dickson1 and F. Forget2 , 1 formed, using geolog- ical observations [e.g., 1-4] and mesoscale climate simulations [5 provide essential constraints on the mesoscale climate which prevailed during their formation

  3. Development and validation of a vertically two-dimensional mesoscale numerical model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walters, Michael Kent

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    values of model variables for static test and kinetic energy calculations . . . . . . . . . 25 2 Results of kinetic energy budget calculations . . 29 ? 1 -5 Surface heating rate (K s x 10 ) . . . . . . . 32 4 Initial values of variables for nonlinear.... These tests provide an important means of debugging the numerical scheme. The validation tests performed on the mesoscale model consisted of a simple static test, calculation of the mass continuity and the kinet. ic energy budget, and performing non...

  4. MESO-SCALE MODELING OF THE INFLUENCE OF INTERGRANULAR GAS BUBBLES ON EFFECTIVE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul C. Millett; Michael Tonks

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a mesoscale modeling approach, we have investigated how intergranular fission gas bubbles, as observed in high-burnup nuclear fuel, modify the effective thermal conductivity in a polycrystalline material. The calculations reveal that intergranular porosity has a significantly higher resistance to heat transfer compared to randomly-distributed porosity. A model is developed to describe this conductivity reduction that considers an effective grain boundary Kapitza resistance as a function of the fractional coverage of grain boundaries by bubbles.

  5. A wildland fire modeling and visualization environment , Jonathan D. Beezley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    : · The wildland fire simulation code SFIRE coupled with a mesoscale atmospheric simulation code, the Weather by the coupling of a mesoscale weather model with a simple 2D fire spread model (Clark et al. 1996a,b, 2004; Coen

  6. Use of the 1991 ASCOT field study data in a mesoscale model employing a four-dimensional data assimilation technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast, J.D.; O'Steen, B.L.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, a four-dimensional data assimilation technique based on Newtonian relaxation is incorporated into Colorado State University (CSU) Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) and evaluated using data taken from one experiment of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) 1991 Atmospheric Studies in COmplex Terrain (ASCOT) field study along the front range of the Rockies in Colorado. The main objective of this study is to determine the ability of the model to predict small-scale circulations influenced by terrain, such as drainage flows, and assess the impact of data assimilation on the numerical results. In contrast to previous studies in which the smallest horizontal grid spacing was 10 km (Stauffer and Seaman, 1991) and 8 km (Yamada and Hermi, 1991), data assimilation is applied in this study to domains with a horizontal grid spacing as small as 1 km. The prognostic forecasts made by RAMS are evaluated by comparing simulations that employ static initial conditions, with simulations that incorporate continuous data assimilation and data assimilation for fixed period of time (dynamic initialization). This paper will also elaborate on the application and limitation of the Newtonian relaxation technique in limited-area mesoscale models with a relatively small grid spacing.

  7. Use of the 1991 ASCOT field study data in a mesoscale model employing a four-dimensional data assimilation technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast, J.D.; O`Steen, B.L.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, a four-dimensional data assimilation technique based on Newtonian relaxation is incorporated into Colorado State University (CSU) Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) and evaluated using data taken from one experiment of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) 1991 Atmospheric Studies in COmplex Terrain (ASCOT) field study along the front range of the Rockies in Colorado. The main objective of this study is to determine the ability of the model to predict small-scale circulations influenced by terrain, such as drainage flows, and assess the impact of data assimilation on the numerical results. In contrast to previous studies in which the smallest horizontal grid spacing was 10 km (Stauffer and Seaman, 1991) and 8 km (Yamada and Hermi, 1991), data assimilation is applied in this study to domains with a horizontal grid spacing as small as 1 km. The prognostic forecasts made by RAMS are evaluated by comparing simulations that employ static initial conditions, with simulations that incorporate continuous data assimilation and data assimilation for fixed period of time (dynamic initialization). This paper will also elaborate on the application and limitation of the Newtonian relaxation technique in limited-area mesoscale models with a relatively small grid spacing.

  8. MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE SYSTEMS Robert A. Houze Jr.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houze Jr., Robert A.

    MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE SYSTEMS Robert A. Houze Jr. Department of Atmospheric Sciences University; published 31 December 2004. [1] Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) have regions of both convective and stratiform precipitation, and they develop mesoscale circulations as they mature. The upward motion takes

  9. Coupling the high-complexity land surface model ACASA to the mesoscale model WRF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pyles, R. D.

    In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is coupled with the Advanced Canopy–Atmosphere–Soil Algorithm (ACASA), a high-complexity land surface model. Although WRF is a state-of-the-art regional ...

  10. Coupling the High Complexity Land Surface Model ACASA to the Mesoscale Model WRF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, L.

    In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) is coupled with the Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm (ACASA), a high complexity land surface model. Although WRF is a state-of-the-art regional ...

  11. Screening properties of four mesoscale smoothed charge models, with application to dissipative particle dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick B. Warren; Andrey Vlasov

    2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We extend our previous study [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 204907 (2013)] to quantify the screening properties of four mesoscale smoothed charge models used in dissipative particle dynamics. Using a combination of the hypernetted chain integral equation closure and the random phase approximation, we identify regions where the models exhibit a real-valued screening length, and the extent to which this agrees with the Debye length in the physical system. We find that the second moment of the smoothed charge distribution is a good predictor of this behaviour. We are thus able to recommend a consistent set of parameters for the models.

  12. Moist processes and the quasi-hydrostatic approximation in a mesoscale numerical model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Charles Joseph

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Committee) James P. McGuirk (Member) J'ohn M. Klinck (Member) James R. Sco ns (Head of Department) December 1987 ABSTRACT Moist Processes and the Ouasi-Hydrostatic Approximation in a Mesoscale Numerical Model. (December 1987) Charles Joseph...HV)ds' ? gHp s + gHps a dg 1 gt = (gt), s 1 1 (19) the pressure tendency at the model top equation: g f V ~ (pHV)ds' ? VS Vp Q ( el 1 + 0 Yp CpT ? V (H0) ds' )' ? ) (20) Richardson's equation for vertical motion: s f , , f Id d'D &DDVdd ' ? 0 D, 0...

  13. The Importance of Mesoscale Circulations Generated by SubgridScale Landscape Heterogeneities in General Circulations Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridlind, Ann

    jcl92c.tex The Importance of Mesoscale Circulations Generated by Subgrid­Scale Landscape Oceanography, Cook Campus, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903, USA. #12; Abstract A mesoscale. These results emphasize the need to parameterize mesoscale processes induced by landscape discontinuities

  14. Calibrated Probabilistic Mesoscale Weather Field Forecasting: The Geostatistical Output Perturbation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    Calibrated Probabilistic Mesoscale Weather Field Forecasting: The Geostatistical Output. This is typically not feasible for mesoscale weather prediction carried out locally by organizations without by simulating realizations of the geostatistical model. The method is applied to 48-hour mesoscale forecasts

  15. Mesoscale Eddies in the Gulf of Alaska: Observations and Implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rovegno, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chao, Y. 2012. Modeling the mesoscale eddy field in the GulfShriver, J. F. 2001. Mesoscale variability in the boundaryof the Gulf of Alaska mesoscale circulation. Progress in

  16. The lipid bilayer at the mesoscale: a physical continuum model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillip L. Wilson; Huaxiong Huang; Shu Takagi

    2008-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a continuum model of the lipid bilayer based on minimizing the free energy of a mixture of water and lipid molecules. This paper extends previous work by Blom & Peletier (2004) in the following ways. (a) It formulates a more physical model of the hydrophobic effect to facilitate connections with microscale simulations. (b) It clarifies the meaning of the model parameters. (c) It outlines a method for determining parameter values so that physically-realistic bilayer density profiles can be obtained, for example for use in macroscale simulations. Points (a)-(c) suggest that the model has potential to robustly connect some micro- and macroscale levels of multiscale blood flow simulations. The mathematical modelling in point (a) is based upon a consideration of the underlying physics of inter-molecular forces. The governing equations thus obtained are minimized by gradient flows via a novel numerical approach; this enables point (b). The numerical results are shown to behave physically in terms of the effect of background concentration, in contrast to the earlier model which is shown here to not display the expected behaviour. A "short-tail" approximation of the lipid molecules also gives an analytical tool which yields critical values of some parameters under certain conditions. Point (c) involves the first quantitative comparison of the numerical data with physical experimental results.

  17. Mesoscale modeling of phase transition dynamics of thermoresponsive polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhen; Li, Xuejin; Karniadakis, George Em

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a non-isothermal mesoscopic model for investigation of the phase transition dynamics of thermoresponsive polymers. Since this model conserves energy in the simulations, it is able to correctly capture not only the transient behavior of polymer precipitation from solvent, but also the energy variation associated with the phase transition process. Simulations provide dynamic details of the thermally induced phase transition and confirm two different mechanisms dominating the phase transition dynamics. A shift of endothermic peak with concentration is observed and the underlying mechanism is explored.

  18. Dynamic mesoscale model of dipolar fluids via fluctuating hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Persson, Rasmus A. X.; Chu, Jhih-Wei, E-mail: jwchu@nctu.edu.tw [Institute of Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30068, Taiwan (China); Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30068, Taiwan (China); Voulgarakis, Nikolaos K. [Department of Mathematics, Washington State University, Richland, Washington 99372 (United States)

    2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluctuating hydrodynamics (FHD) is a general framework of mesoscopic modeling and simulation based on conservational laws and constitutive equations of linear and nonlinear responses. However, explicit representation of electrical forces in FHD has yet to appear. In this work, we devised an Ansatz for the dynamics of dipole moment densities that is linked with the Poisson equation of the electrical potential ? in coupling to the other equations of FHD. The resulting ?-FHD equations then serve as a platform for integrating the essential forces, including electrostatics in addition to hydrodynamics, pressure-volume equation of state, surface tension, and solvent-particle interactions that govern the emergent behaviors of molecular systems at an intermediate scale. This unique merit of ?-FHD is illustrated by showing that the water dielectric function and ion hydration free energies in homogeneous and heterogenous systems can be captured accurately via the mesoscopic simulation. Furthermore, we show that the field variables of ?-FHD can be mapped from the trajectory of an all-atom molecular dynamics simulation such that model development and parametrization can be based on the information obtained at a finer-grained scale. With the aforementioned multiscale capabilities and a spatial resolution as high as 5 Å, the ?-FHD equations represent a useful semi-explicit solvent model for the modeling and simulation of complex systems, such as biomolecular machines and nanofluidics.

  19. MODIS-Derived Boundary Conditions for a Mesoscale Climate Model: Application to Irrigated Agriculture in the Euphrates Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Jason

    -level water consumption were more than doubled relative to simulations that did not incorporate MODIS data to improve the realism of a regional climate model (the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University­NCAR Mesoscale Model) with respect to irrigated agriculture. MODIS data were used to estimate spatially

  20. Mesoscale modeling of the rheology of pressure sensitive adhesives through inclusion of transient forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padding, J T; Auhl, D; Briels, W J; Bailly, C

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For optimal application, pressure-sensitive adhesives must have rheological properties in between those of a viscoplastic solid and those of a viscoelastic liquid. Such adhesives can be produced by emulsion polymerisation, resulting in latex particles which are dispersed in water and contain long-chain acrylic polymers. When the emulsion is dried, the latex particles coalesce and an adhesive film is formed. The rheological properties of the dried samples are believed to be dominated by the interface regions between the original latex particles, but the relation between rheology and latex particle properties is poorly understood. In this paper we show that it is possible to describe the bulk rheology of a pressure-sensitive adhesive by means of a mesoscale simulation model. To reach experimental time and length scales, each latex particle is represented by just one simulated particle. The model is subjected to oscillatory shear flow and extensional flow. Simple order of magnitude estimates of the model paramet...

  1. Development of advanced cloud parameterizations to examine air quality, cloud properties, and cloud-radiation feedback in mesoscale models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, In Young

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The distribution of atmospheric pollutants is governed by dynamic processes that create the general conditions for transport and mixing, by microphysical processes that control the evolution of aerosol and cloud particles, and by chemical processes that transform chemical species and form aerosols. Pollutants emitted into the air can undergo homogeneous gas reactions to create a suitable environment for the production by heterogeneous nucleation of embryos composed of a few molecules. The physicochemical properties of preexisting aerosols interact with newly produced embryos to evolve by heteromolecular diffusion and coagulation. Hygroscopic particles wig serve as effective cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), while hydrophobic particles will serve as effective ice-forming nuclei. Clouds form initially by condensation of water vapor on CCN and evolve in a vapor-liquid-solid system by deposition, sublimation, freezing, melting, coagulation, and breakup. Gases and aerosols that enter the clouds undergo aqueous chemical processes and may acidity hydrometer particles. Calculations for solar and longwave radiation fluxes depend on how the respective spectra are modified by absorbers such as H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, chlorofruorocarbons, and aerosols. However, the flux calculations are more complicated for cloudy skies, because the cloud optical properties are not well defined. In this paper, key processes such as tropospheric chemistry, cloud microphysics parameterizations, and radiation schemes are reviewed in terms of physicochemical processes occurring, and recommendations are made for the development of advanced modules applicable to mesoscale models.

  2. Experiences with the Application of the Non-Hydrostatic Mesoscale Model GESIMA for assessing Wind Potential in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    the wind energy potential are re- quired. While the European Wind Atlas [3] has been proven to be suitableExperiences with the Application of the Non-Hydrostatic Mesoscale Model GESIMA for assessing Wind.physik.uni-oldenburg.de/ehf *GKSS Research Center Geesthacht, Max-Planck-StraÃ?e 1, D-21494 Geesthacht, Germany To asses wind

  3. Modeling Atmospheric Aerosols V. Rao Kotamarthi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling Atmospheric Aerosols V. Rao Kotamarthi and Yan Feng Climate Research Section Environmental Science Division Argonne National Laboratory #12;Outline Atmospheric Aerosols and gas phase heterogeneous reactions Regional Scales and Atmospheric Aerosols Regional Scale Aerosols: Ganges Valley Aerosol

  4. TENURE-TRACK FACULTY POSITION Mesoscale Meteorology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birner, Thomas

    TENURE-TRACK FACULTY POSITION ­ Mesoscale Meteorology Colorado State University The Department or associate level faculty position specializing in mesoscale meteorology. Exceptionally qualified candidates in linking models and/or theory with observations for the study of mesoscale processes. The successful

  5. Implementation and assessment of turbine wake models in the Weather Research and Forecasting model for both mesoscale and large-eddy simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, M; Mirocha, J; Lundquist, J; Cleve, J

    2010-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Flow dynamics in large wind projects are influenced by the turbines located within. The turbine wakes, regions characterized by lower wind speeds and higher levels of turbulence than the surrounding free stream flow, can extend several rotor diameters downstream, and may meander and widen with increasing distance from the turbine. Turbine wakes can also reduce the power generated by downstream turbines and accelerate fatigue and damage to turbine components. An improved understanding of wake formation and transport within wind parks is essential for maximizing power output and increasing turbine lifespan. Moreover, the influence of wakes from large wind projects on neighboring wind farms, agricultural activities, and local climate are all areas of concern that can likewise be addressed by wake modeling. This work describes the formulation and application of an actuator disk model for studying flow dynamics of both individual turbines and arrays of turbines within wind projects. The actuator disk model is implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, which is an open-source atmospheric simulation code applicable to a wide range of scales, from mesoscale to large-eddy simulation. Preliminary results demonstrate the applicability of the actuator disk model within WRF to a moderately high-resolution large-eddy simulation study of a small array of turbines.

  6. MOSE: a feasibility study for optical turbulence forecasts with the Meso-Nh mesoscale model to support AO facilities at ESO sites (Paranal and Armazones)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masciadri, E; 10.1117/12.925924

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present very encouraging preliminary results obtained in the context of the MOSE project, an on-going study aiming at investigating the feasibility of the forecast of the optical turbulence and meteorological parameters (in the free atmosphere as well as in the boundary and surface layer) at Cerro Paranal (site of the Very Large Telescope - VLT) and Cerro Armazones (site of the European Extremely Large Telescope - E-ELT), both in Chile. The study employs the Meso-Nh atmospheric mesoscale model and aims at supplying a tool for optical turbulence forecasts to support the scheduling of the scientific programs and the use of AO facilities at the VLT and the E-ELT. In this study we take advantage of the huge amount of measurements performed so far at Paranal and Armazones by ESO and the TMT consortium in the context of the site selection for the E-ELT and the TMT to constraint/validate the model. A detailed analysis of the model performances in reproducing the atmospheric parameters (T, V, p, H, ...) near the g...

  7. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS): Development for Parallel Processing Computer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirne, Walfredo

    on the mesoscale (horizontal scales from 2 km to 2000 km) for purposes ranging from operational weather forecasting and simulating convective clouds, mesoscale convective systems, cirrus clouds, and precipitating weather systems models that had a great deal of overlap, the CSU cloud/mesoscale mode (Tripoli and Cotton, 1982

  8. Hyperparameter estimation for uncertainty quantification in mesoscale carbon dioxide inversions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Hyperparameter estimation for uncertainty quantification in mesoscale carbon dioxide inversions-validation (GCV) and x2 test are compared for the first time under a realistic setting in a mesoscale CO2 estimation, uncertainty quantification, mesoscale carbon dioxide inversions 1. Introduction The atmosphere

  9. The reduction of plankton biomass induced by mesoscale stirring: a modeling study in the Benguela upwelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismael Hernández-Carrasco; Vincent Rossi; Emilio Hernández-García; Veronique Garçon; Cristóbal López

    2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies, both based on remote sensed data and coupled models, showed a reduction of biological productivity due to vigorous horizontal stirring in upwelling areas. In order to better understand this phenomenon, we consider a system of oceanic flow from the Benguela area coupled with a simple biogeochemical model of Nutrient-Phyto-Zooplankton (NPZ) type. For the flow three different surface velocity fields are considered: one derived from satellite altimetry data, and the other two from a regional numerical model at two different spatial resolutions. We compute horizontal particle dispersion in terms of Lyapunov Exponents, and analyzed their correlations with phytoplankton concentrations. Our modelling approach confirms that in the south Benguela there is a reduction of biological activity when stirring is increased. Two-dimensional offshore advection and latitudinal difference in Primary Production, also mediated by the flow, seem to be the dominant processes involved. We estimate that mesoscale processes are responsible for 30 to 50% of the offshore fluxes of biological tracers. In the northern area, other factors not taken into account in our simulation are influencing the ecosystem. We suggest explanations for these results in the context of studies performed in other eastern boundary upwelling areas.

  10. The effect of urban canopy parameterizations on mesoscale meteorological model simulations in the Paso del Norte area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, M.J.; Williams, M.D.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since mesoscale numerical models do not have the spatial resolution to directly simulate the fluid dynamics and thermodynamics in and around urban structures, urban canopy parameterizations are sometimes used to approximate the drag, heating, and enhanced turbulent kinetic energy (tke) produced by the sub-grid scale urban elements. In this paper, we investigate the effect of the urban canopy parameterizations used in the HOTMAC mesoscale meteorological model by turning the parameterizations on and off. The model simulations were performed in the Paso del Norte region, which includes the cities of El Paso and Ciudad Juarez, the Franklin and Sierra Juarez mountains, and the Rio Grande. The metropolitan area is surrounded by relatively barren scrubland and is intersected by strips of vegetation along the Rio Grande. Results indicate that the urban canopy parameterizations do affect the mesoscale flow field, reducing the magnitude of wind speed and changing the magnitude of the sensible heat flux and tke in the metropolitan area. A nighttime heat island and a daytime cool island exist when urban canopy parameters are turned on, but associated recirculation flows are not readily apparent. Model-computed solar, net, and longwave radiation values look reasonable, agreeing for the most part with published measurements.

  11. RSL: A parallel Runtime System Library for regional atmospheric models with nesting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michalakes, J.G.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RSL is a parallel runtime system library developed at Argonne National Laboratory that is tailored to regular-grid atmospheric models with mesh refinement in the form of two-way interacting nested grids. RSL provides high-level stencil and interdomain communication, irregular domain decomposition, automatic local/global index translation, distributed I/O, and dynamic load balancing. RSL was used with Fortran90 to parallelize a well-known and widely used regional weather model, the Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale model.

  12. The Power of Mesoscale Modeling... Mul$physics mesoscale simula$on provides a powerful tool for designing materials to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Long-Qing

    , neutronics, geomechanics, reac+ve transport, microstructure modeling, computa+onal fluid in verba+m from Schwen, D., E. Mar/nez, and A. Caro, J. Nuclear Mater (cv) in UO2 fuel. Also shown are the switching func+on h, the order

  13. Mesoscale simulation of polymer reaction equilibrium: Combining dissipative particle dynamics with reaction ensemble Monte Carlo.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisal, Martin

    Mesoscale simulation of polymer reaction equilibrium: Combining dissipative particle dynamics a mesoscale simulation technique, called the reaction ensemble dissipative particle dynamics RxDPD method. Coarse-grained, particle- based mesoscale models that retain only the most essential features

  14. Meso-Scale Modeling of Spall in a Heterogeneous Two-Phase Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, H K

    2008-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of the heterogeneous second-phase particle structure and applied loading conditions on the ductile spall response of a model two-phase material was investigated. Quantitative metallography, three-dimensional (3D) meso-scale simulations (MSS), and small-scale spall experiments provided the foundation for this study. Nodular ductile iron (NDI) was selected as the model two-phase material for this study because it contains a large and readily identifiable second- phase particle population. Second-phase particles serve as the primary void nucleation sites in NDI and are, therefore, central to its ductile spall response. A mathematical model was developed for the NDI second-phase volume fraction that accounted for the non-uniform particle size and spacing distributions within the framework of a length-scale dependent Gaussian probability distribution function (PDF). This model was based on novel multiscale sampling measurements. A methodology was also developed for the computer generation of representative particle structures based on their mathematical description, enabling 3D MSS. MSS were used to investigate the effects of second-phase particle volume fraction and particle size, loading conditions, and physical domain size of simulation on the ductile spall response of a model two-phase material. MSS results reinforce existing model predictions, where the spall strength metric (SSM) logarithmically decreases with increasing particle volume fraction. While SSM predictions are nearly independent of applied load conditions at lower loading rates, which is consistent with previous studies, loading dependencies are observed at higher loading rates. There is also a logarithmic decrease in SSM for increasing (initial) void size, as well. A model was developed to account for the effects of loading rate, particle size, matrix sound-speed, and, in the NDI-specific case, the probabilistic particle volume fraction model. Small-scale spall experiments were designed and executed for the purpose of validating closely-coupled 3D MSS. While the spall strength is nearly independent of specimen thickness, the fragment morphology varies widely. Detailed MSS demonstrate that the interactions between the tensile release waves are altered by specimen thickness and that these interactions are primarily responsible for fragment formation. MSS also provided insights on the regional amplification of damage, which enables the development of predictive void evolution models.

  15. Materials at the Mesoscale

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials at the Mesoscale 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:January 2015 All Issues submit Materials at the Mesoscale Los Alamos's bold proposal to...

  16. Modeling of mesoscale coupled oceanatmosphere interaction and its feedback to ocean in the western Arabian Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jochum, Markus

    -term in situ measurements. Given the shallow mixed layer, this additional surface heat flux warms the cold of the ocean. The observed relationship between the near-surface winds and mesoscale SSTs generate Ekman pump- ing velocities at the scale of the cold filaments, whose magnitude is the order of 1 m/day in both

  17. A SCALABLE FULLY IMPLICIT COMPRESSIBLE EULER SOLVER FOR MESOSCALE NONHYDROSTATIC SIMULATION OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Xiao-Chuan

    A SCALABLE FULLY IMPLICIT COMPRESSIBLE EULER SOLVER FOR MESOSCALE NONHYDROSTATIC SIMULATION for the mesoscale nonhydrostatic simulation of atmospheric flows governed by the compressible Euler equations is of interest as in mesoscale and cloud-resolving atmospheric simulations, fast and efficient solution

  18. Effect of mesoscale topography over the Tibetan Plateau on summer precipitation in China: A regional model study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuqing

    Effect of mesoscale topography over the Tibetan Plateau on summer precipitation in China 2008; accepted 27 August 2008; published 8 October 2008. [1] The effect of mesoscale topography over and topography. In the sensitivity simulation, the mesoscale feature in topography over the TP was smoothed out

  19. atmospheric layers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Response to Mesoscale Sea Surface Temperature The wind speed response to mesoscale SST variability is investigated over the Agulhas Return Current...

  20. atmosphere boundary layer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Response to Mesoscale Sea Surface Temperature The wind speed response to mesoscale SST variability is investigated over the Agulhas Return Current...

  1. atmospheric superficial layer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Response to Mesoscale Sea Surface Temperature The wind speed response to mesoscale SST variability is investigated over the Agulhas Return Current...

  2. atmospheric boundary layer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Response to Mesoscale Sea Surface Temperature The wind speed response to mesoscale SST variability is investigated over the Agulhas Return Current...

  3. atmospheric boundary layers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Response to Mesoscale Sea Surface Temperature The wind speed response to mesoscale SST variability is investigated over the Agulhas Return Current...

  4. Simulation and characterization of the Adriatic Sea mesoscale variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cushman-Roisin, Benoit

    Simulation and characterization of the Adriatic Sea mesoscale variability Benoit Cushman-Roisin,1 resolve the mesoscale variability because the grid size falls below the first baroclinic deformation in two larger-scale models. The present simulations demonstrate that the DieCAST model allows mesoscale

  5. Report on the use of stability parameters and mesoscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Report on the use of stability parameters and mesoscale modelling in short-term prediction Jake Nielsen, Henrik Madsen, John Tøfting Title: Report on the use of stability parameters and mesoscale. Mesoscale modelling has been carried out using KAMM at this location. The characteristics of the measured

  6. Penetrative turbulence associated with mesoscale surface heat flux variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alam, Jahrul M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article investigates penetrative turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer. Using a large eddy simulation approach, we study characteristics of the mixed layer with respect to surface heat flux variations in the range from 231.48 W/m$^2$ to 925.92 W/m$^2$, and observe that the surface heterogeneity on a spatial scale of $20$ km leads to downscale turbulent kinetic energy cascade. Coherent fluctuations of mesoscale horizontal wind is observed at 100m above the ground. Such a surface induced temporal oscillations in the horizontal wind suggest a rapid jump in mesocale wind forecasts, which is difficult to parameterize using traditional one-dimensional ensemble-mean models. Although the present work is idealized at a typical scale (20km) of surface heterogeneity, the results help develop effective subgrid scale parameterization schemes for classical weather forecasting mesoscale models.

  7. Visualizing Storms from NCAR's Atmosphere Model at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmosphere Model Visualizing Storms from NCAR's Atmosphere Model CCSM-sprabhat.png Global warming will likely change the statistics of tropical cyclones and hurricanes. In this...

  8. Closing the Mesoscale Gap

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Closing the Mesoscale Gap Los Alamos proposes to fill in the gaps in our fundamental understanding of materials with MaRIE, a facility designed to gain access to the mesoscale....

  9. Initial Development and Genesis of Hurricane Dolly (2008) Key Laboratory of Mesoscale Severe Weather (MOE), Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Severe Weather (MOE), Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China FUQING ZHANG-resolving simulation with the Weather Research and Forecasting Model, this study examines key processes that led- tudinal stretching deformation) alters the characteristics of equatorial waves to form regions of energy

  10. A Community Atmosphere Model with Superparameterized Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall, David; Branson, Mark; Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.; Craig, Cheryl; Gettelman, A.; Edwards, Jim

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1999, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) scientists Wojciech Grabowski and Piotr Smolarkiewicz created a "multiscale" atmospheric model in which the physical processes associated with clouds were represented by running a simple high-resolution model within each grid column of a lowresolution global model. In idealized experiments, they found that the multiscale model produced promising simulations of organized tropical convection, which other models had struggled to produce. Inspired by their results, Colorado State University (CSU) scientists Marat Khairoutdinov and David Randall created a multiscale version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). They removed the cloud parameterizations of the CAM, and replaced them with Khairoutdinov's high-resolution cloud model. They dubbed the embedded cloud model a "super-parameterization," and the modified CAM is now called the "SP-CAM." Over the next several years, many scientists, from many institutions, have explored the ability of the SP-CAM to simulate tropical weather systems, the day-night changes of precipitation, the Asian and African monsoons, and a number of other climate processes. Cristiana Stan of the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions found that the SP-CAM gives improved results when coupled to an ocean model, and follow-on studies have explored the SP-CAM's utility when used as the atmospheric component of the Community Earth System Model. Much of this research has been performed under the auspices of the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes, a National Science Foundation (NSF) Science and Technology Center for which the lead institution is CSU.

  11. Tests of an Ensemble Kalman Filter for Mesoscale and Regional-Scale Data Assimilation. Part I: Perfect Model Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Zhiyong

    Tests of an Ensemble Kalman Filter for Mesoscale and Regional-Scale Data Assimilation. Part I the potential of using the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for mesoscale and regional-scale data assimilation are assimilated. 1. Introduction The ensemble-based data assimilation method [en- semble Kalman filter (En

  12. Impact of Agricultural Practice on Regional Climate in a CoupledLand Surface Mesoscale Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooley, H.S.; Riley, W.J.; Torn, M.S.; He, Y.

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The land surface has been shown to form strong feedbacks with climate due to linkages between atmospheric conditions and terrestrial ecosystem exchanges of energy, momentum, water, and trace gases. Although often ignored in modeling studies, land management itself may form significant feedbacks. Because crops are harvested earlier under drier conditions, regional air temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture, for example, affect harvest timing, particularly of rain-fed crops. This removal of vegetation alters the land surface characteristics and may, in turn, affect regional climate. We applied a coupled climate(MM5) and land-surface (LSM1) model to examine the effects of early and late winter wheat harvest on regional climate in the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility in the Southern Great Plains, where winter wheat accounts for 20 percent of the land area. Within the winter wheat region, simulated 2 m air temperature was 1.3 C warmer in the Early Harvest scenario at mid-day averaged over the two weeks following harvest. Soils in the harvested area were drier and warmer in the top 10 cm and wetter in the 10-20 cm layer. Midday soils were 2.5 C warmer in the harvested area at mid-day averaged over the two weeks following harvest. Harvest also dramatically altered latent and sensible heat fluxes. Although differences between scenarios diminished once both scenarios were harvested, the short-term impacts of land management on climate were comparable to those from land cover change demonstrated in other studies.

  13. MESOSCALE ANALYSIS OF A CAROLINA COASTAL FRONT SETHU RAMAN, NEERAJA C. REDDY and DEVDUTTA S. NIYOGI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niyogi, Dev

    MESOSCALE ANALYSIS OF A CAROLINA COASTAL FRONT SETHU RAMAN, NEERAJA C. REDDY and DEVDUTTA S. NIYOGI the shore. Key words: GALE, Coastal front, Atmospheric boundary layer, Gulf Stream, Mesoscale analysis turbulent heat fluxes. These strong gradients in heat fluxes enhance mesoscale circulation

  14. CORIOLIS EFFECTS IN MESOSCALE SHALLOW LAYER FLOWS J. C. R. Hunt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Julian

    CORIOLIS EFFECTS IN MESOSCALE SHALLOW LAYER FLOWS J. C. R. Hunt ¢¡ £ ,A. Orr , D. Cresswell layer or inversion layer, is developed for idealised and steady, but typical, mesoscale atmospheric estimates for a wide range of perturbed mesoscale flows, especially where the surface conditions change

  15. Elements of comparison between Martian and terrestrial mesoscale meteorological phenomena: Katabatic winds and boundary layer convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spiga, Aymeric

    Elements of comparison between Martian and terrestrial mesoscale meteorological phenomena Keywords: Mesoscale meteorology Katabatic winds Boundary layer convection Comparative planetology a b s t r a c t Terrestrial and Martian atmospheres are both characterised by a large variety of mesoscale

  16. Immersed Boundary Methods for High-Resolution Simulation of Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Flow Over Complex Terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lundquist, Katherine Ann

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    large-eddy simulations within mesoscale simulations for windEddy Simulation of a Mesoscale Convective Internal Boundary185, 1957. Pielke, R. , Mesoscale Meteorological Modeling,

  17. Multiphase Modeling of Flow, Transport, and Biodegradation in a Mesoscale Landfill Bioreactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    biodegradation, landfill, gas generation, simulationPower, H. Landfill emission of gases into the atmosphere:a new approach to landfill operations that controls gas and

  18. atmospheric modeling system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 Causes and implications of persistent atmospheric carbon dioxide biases in Earth System Models University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: Atmosphere and Ocean...

  19. Atmospheric neutrino flux calculation using the NRLMSISE00 atmospheric model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honda, M; Kajita, T; Kasahara, K; Midorikawa, S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we extend the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux~\\cite{hkkm2004,hkkms2006,hkkm2011} to the sites in polar and tropical regions. In our earliest full 3D-calculation~\\cite{hkkm2004}, we used DPMJET-III~\\cite{dpm} for the hadronic interaction model above 5~GeV, and NUCRIN~\\cite{nucrin} below 5~GeV. We modified DPMJET-III as in Ref.~\\cite{hkkms2006} to reproduce the experimental muon spectra better, mainly using the data observed by BESS group~\\cite{BESSTeVpHemu}. In a recent work~\\cite{hkkm2011}, we introduced JAM interaction model for the low energy hadronic interactions. JAM is a nuclear interaction model developed with PHITS (Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System)~\\cite{phits}. In Ref.~\\cite{hkkm2011}, we could reproduce the observed muon flux at the low energies at balloon altitude with DPMJET-III above 32 GeV and JAM below that better than the combination of DPMJET-III above 5~GeV and NUCRIN below that. Besides the interaction model, we have also improved the calculation sche...

  20. From deterministic to stochastic, from mesoscale to macroscopic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Title: From deterministic to stochastic, from mesoscale to macroscopic: multiscale modeling of grain growth Abstract: Many problems in science and engineering ...

  1. Mixed Layer Mesoscales for OGCMs: Model development and assessment with T/P, WOCE and Drifter data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canuto, V M; Leboissetier, A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a model for mixed layer (ML) mesoscale (M) fluxes of an arbitrary tracer in terms of the resolved fields (mean tracer and mean velocity). The treatment of an arbitrary tracer, rather than only buoyancy, is necessary since OGCMs time step T, S, CO2, etc and not buoyancy. The particular case of buoyancy is used to assess the model results. The paper contains three parts: derivation of the results, discussion of the results and assessment of the latter using, among others, WOCE, T/P and Drifter data. Derivation. To construct the M fluxes, we first solve the ML M dynamic equations for the velocity and tracer M fields. The goal of the derivation is to emphasize the different treatments of the non-linear terms in the adiabatic vs. diabatic ocean (deep ocean vs. mixed layer). Results. We derive analytic expressions for the following variables: a) vertical and horizontal M fluxes of an arbitrary tracer, b) M diffusivity in terms of the EKE, c) surface value of the EKE in terms of the vertical M buoyancy fl...

  2. MOSE: zooming on the Meso-NH mesoscale model performances at the surface layer at ESO sites (Paranal and Armazones)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lascaux, Franck; di Arcetri, INAF / Osservatorio Astrofisico; 10.1117/12.925934

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the context of the MOSE project, in this contribution we present a detailed analysis of the Meso-NH mesoscale model performances and their dependency on the model and orography horizontal resolutions in proximity of the ground. The investigated sites are Cerro Paranal (site of the ESO Very Large Telescope - VLT) and Cerro Armazones (site of the ESO European Extremely Large Telescope - E-ELT), in Chile. At both sites, data from a rich statistical sample of different nights are available - from AWS (Automated Weather Stations) and masts - giving access to wind speed, wind direction and temperature at different levels near the ground (from 2 m to 30 m above the ground). In this study we discuss the use of a very high horizontal resolution (dX=0.1 km) numerical configuration that overcomes some specific limitations put in evidence with a standard configuration with dX=0.5 km. In both sites results are very promising. The study is co-funded by ESO and INAF.

  3. Search for: mesoscale | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    mesoscale Find + Advanced Search Advanced Search All Fields: mesoscale Title: Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator Author: Name Name ORCID Search Authors Type: All Accepted...

  4. Transformed shoreline-following horizontal coordinates in a mesoscale model: A sea-land-breeze case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berri, G.J.; Nunez, M.N. (Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina) Pabellon II Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires (Argentina))

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrostatic and incompressible mesoscale model with transformed horizontal coordinates is presented. The model is applied to study the sea-land-breeze circulation over Rio de La Plata. One of the new coordinates is shoreline-following and the other one is locally quasi-perpendicular to the first one. The original set of equations in the Cartesian coordinates is rewritten in the curvilinear coordinates. This transformation is useful provided that the curvilinear coordinates are close to being orthogonal. The horizontal domain covers 250 km [times] 250 km, and the vertical domain is 2 km deep. To predict the sea-land-breeze circulation the model is integrated over 12 h. The forcing of the model is a cyclic perturbation of the surface temperature. The changes in the wind direction during the day are in good agreement with the observations from six weather stations in the region. The same program code is applied to uniform domains of different resolutions in order to test the coordinate transformation. Results show that the predictions based upon the variable-resolution version resemble ones obtained using high uniform resolution but consume only one-fourth the computer time needed by the latter. Comparison of the vertical velocity patterns predicted by the model to the cumulus clouds distribution observed from satellite images show a very good agreement too. The authors believe that all these results justify the use of the coordinate transformation in this type of model, although further verifications are needed in order to draw more definitive conclusions. 28 refs., 11 figs.

  5. Urban and land surface effects on the 30 July 2003 mesoscale convective system event observed in the southern Great Plains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niyogi, Dev

    Urban and land surface effects on the 30 July 2003 mesoscale convective system event observed/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS 1 ) to investigate the impact of urban and land vegetation processes on the prediction of the mesoscale convective system (MCS) observed on 30 July 2003 in the vicinity of Oklahoma City

  6. Heavy Duty Diesel Particulate Matter and Fuel Consumption Modeling for Transportation Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scora, George Alexander

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    measured second-by-second fuel use. Mesoscale Modeling DataSet and Mesoscale ModelCalibration Mesoscale model calibration and validation

  7. Impacts of Large-scale Surface Modifications on Meteorological Conditions and Energy Use: A 10-Region Modeling Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taha, H.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    104. Pielke, R, 1984: Mesoscale Meteorological Modeling . •the CSUMM, as any other mesoscale model, is typically runApplications International Mesoscale Model. SYSAPP- 921069,

  8. Self-Assembly of Mesoscale Isomers: The Role of Pathways and Degrees of Freedom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menon, Govind

    Self-Assembly of Mesoscale Isomers: The Role of Pathways and Degrees of Freedom Shivendra Pandey1 geometric path sampling and a mesoscale experimental model to investigate the self-assembly of a model. Citation: Pandey S, Johnson D, Kaplan R, Klobusicky J, Menon G, et al. (2014) Self-Assembly of Mesoscale

  9. Multiphase Modeling of Flow, Transport, and Biodegradation in a Mesoscale Landfill Bioreactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Version 1.0: Landfill bioreactor model for TOUGH2, LawrenceFigures Biodegradation Bioreactor Aerobic CO2 + H2O + heat1. Schematic of bioreactor and T2LBM conceptualizations.

  10. Multiphase Modeling of Flow, Transport, and Biodegradation in a Mesoscale Landfill Bioreactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1179. Popov, V. ; Power, H. Landfill emission of gases intoC.M. T2LBM Version 1.0: Landfill bioreactor model forand recovery from landfills, Ann Arbor Science Publishers,

  11. The reduction of biological production induced by mesoscale mixing: a modelling study in the Benguela upwelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernández-Carrasco, Ismael; Hernández-García, Emilio; Garçon, Veronique; López, Cristóbal

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies, both based on remote sensed data and coupled models, showed a reduction of biological productivity due to vigorous horizontal mixing in upwelling systems. In order to better understand this phenomenon, we have considered a system of oceanic flow in the Benguela area coupled with a simple biogeochemical model of Nutrient-Phyto-Zooplankton (NPZ) type. For the flow three different surface velocity fields are considered: one derived from satellite altimetry data, and the other two from a regional numerical model at two different spatial resolutions. We computed horizontal particle dispersion in terms of Lyapunov Exponents, and analyzed their correlations with phytoplankton concentrations. Our modelling approach confirms that in the south Benguela, there is a reduction of biological activity when stirring is increased. Two-dimensional offshore advection seems to be the dominant process involved. In the northern area, other factors not taken into account in our simulation are influencing the ecosyst...

  12. Mesoscale Phase-Field Modeling of Charge Transport in Nanocomposite Electrodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Shenyang Y.; Li, Yulan; Rosso, Kevin M.; Sushko, Maria L.

    2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A phase-field model is developed to investigate the influence of microstructure, thermodynamic and kinetic properties, and charging conditions on charged particle transport in nanocomposite electrodes. Two sets of field variables are used to describe the microstructure. One is comprised of the order parameters describing size, orientation and spatial distributions of nanoparticles, and the other is comprised of the concentrations of mobile species. A porous nanoparticle microstructure filled with electrolyte is taken as a model system to test the phase-field model. Inhomogeneous and anisotropic dielectric constants and mobilities of charged particles, and stresses associated with lattice deformation due to Li-ion insertion/extraction are considered in the model. Iteration methods are used to find the elastic and electric fields in an elastically and electrically inhomogeneous medium. The results demonstrate that the model is capable of predicting charge separation associated with the formation of a double layer at the electrochemical interface between solid and electrolyte, and the effect of microstructure, inhomogeneous and anisotropic thermodynamic and kinetic properties, charge rates, and stresses on voltage versus current density and capacity during charging and discharging.

  13. Silicon Micromachined Dimensional Calibration Artifact for Mesoscale...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Micromachined Dimensional Calibration Artifact for Mesoscale Measurement Machines 1 Silicon Micromachined Dimensional Calibration Artifact for Mesoscale Measurement Machines 2...

  14. Distribution and Habitat Associations of Billfish and Swordfish Larvae across Mesoscale Features in the Gulf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rooker, Jay R.

    Distribution and Habitat Associations of Billfish and Swordfish Larvae across Mesoscale Features additive models (GAMs). Mesoscale features in the NGoM affected the distribution and abundance of billfish and Swordfish Larvae across Mesoscale Features in the Gulf of Mexico. PLoS ONE 7(4): e34180. doi:10.1371/journal

  15. Mesoscale-resolving simulations of summer and winter bora events in the Adriatic Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cushman-Roisin, Benoit

    Mesoscale-resolving simulations of summer and winter bora events in the Adriatic Sea Benoit CushmanCAST model on a 1.2-min grid (about 2-km resolution) and resolve the mesoscale variability because the grid-Roisin, B., and K. A. Korotenko (2007), Mesoscale-resolving simulations of summer and winter bora events

  16. Large-Scale Errors and Mesoscale Predictability in Pacific Northwest Snowstorms DALE R. DURRAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Large-Scale Errors and Mesoscale Predictability in Pacific Northwest Snowstorms DALE R. DURRAN The development of mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) models over the last two decades has made- search communities. Nevertheless, the predictability of the mesoscale features captured in such forecasts

  17. CONVERGENCE AND STABILITY IN UPSCALING OF FLOW WITH INERTIA FROM PORESCALE TO MESOSCALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peszynska, Malgorzata

    CONVERGENCE AND STABILITY IN UPSCALING OF FLOW WITH INERTIA FROM PORESCALE TO MESOSCALE MAl with inertia from porescale (microscale) to Darcy scale (lab scale, mesoscale). In particular, we solve Navier-Darcy model with inertia at mesoscale. 1. Introduction. In [1] we presented a proof-of-concept algorithm

  18. MESOSCALE MODELING OF DEFLAGRATION-INDUCED DECONSOLIDATION IN POLYMER-BONDED EXPLOSIVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, H K; Glascoe, E A; Reaugh, J E; Kercher, J R; Maienschein, J L

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Initially undamaged polymer-bonded explosives can transition from conductive burning to more violent convective burning via rapid deconsolidation at higher pressures. The pressure-dependent infiltration of cracks and pores, i.e., damage, by product gases at the burn-front is a key step in the transition to convective burning. However, the relative influence of pre-existing damage and the evolution of deflagration-induced damage during the transition to convective burning is not well understood. The objective of this study is to investigate the role of microstructure and initial pressurization on deconsolidation. We performed simulations using the multi-physics hydrocode, ALE3D. HMX-Viton A served as our model explosive. A Prout-Tompkins chemical kinetic model, Vielle's Law pressure-dependent burning, Gruneisen equation-of-state, and simplified strength model were used for the HMX. The propensity for deconsolidation increased with increasing defect size and decreasing initial pressurization, as measured by the increase in burning surface area. These studies are important because they enable the development of continuum-scale damage models and the design of inherently safer explosives.

  19. Nesting large-eddy simulations within mesoscale simulations for wind energy applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundquist, J K; Mirocha, J D; Chow, F K; Kosovic, B; Lundquist, K A

    2008-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    With increasing demand for more accurate atmospheric simulations for wind turbine micrositing, for operational wind power forecasting, and for more reliable turbine design, simulations of atmospheric flow with resolution of tens of meters or higher are required. These time-dependent large-eddy simulations (LES), which resolve individual atmospheric eddies on length scales smaller than turbine blades and account for complex terrain, are possible with a range of commercial and open-source software, including the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. In addition to 'local' sources of turbulence within an LES domain, changing weather conditions outside the domain can also affect flow, suggesting that a mesoscale model provide boundary conditions to the large-eddy simulations. Nesting a large-eddy simulation within a mesoscale model requires nuanced representations of turbulence. Our group has improved the Weather and Research Forecasting model's (WRF) LES capability by implementing the Nonlinear Backscatter and Anisotropy (NBA) subfilter stress model following Kosovic (1997) and an explicit filtering and reconstruction technique to compute the Resolvable Subfilter-Scale (RSFS) stresses (following Chow et al, 2005). We have also implemented an immersed boundary method (IBM) in WRF to accommodate complex terrain. These new models improve WRF's LES capabilities over complex terrain and in stable atmospheric conditions. We demonstrate approaches to nesting LES within a mesoscale simulation for farms of wind turbines in hilly regions. Results are sensitive to the nesting method, indicating that care must be taken to provide appropriate boundary conditions, and to allow adequate spin-up of turbulence in the LES domain.

  20. Meso-Scale Model for Simulations of Concrete Subjected to Cryogenic Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masad, Noor Ahmad

    2013-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    temperatures (Marshall, 1982). The air-entrained concrete has the ability to resist freezing-thawing cycles; therefore, it is recommended to be used in applications that need frost resistance. Air entrained concrete has air pores that can handle... and relief the pressure due to ice 13 formulation, however, the ice growth in non-air entrained concrete causes expand in cracks which lead to deterioration of concrete after many freeze-thaw cycles. 2.3 Concrete Plasticity Damage Models Concrete...

  1. Fluid-particle flow modelling and validation using two-way-coupled mesoscale SPH-DEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, Martin; Ramaioli, Marco

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a meshless simulation method for multiphase fluid-particle flows coupling Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) and the Discrete Element Method (DEM). Rather than fully resolving the interstitial fluid, which is often infeasible, the unresolved fluid model is based on the locally averaged Navier Stokes equations, which are coupled with a DEM model for the solid phase. In contrast to similar mesh-based Discrete Particle Methods (DPMs), this is a purely particle-based method and enjoys the flexibility that comes from the lack of a prescribed mesh. It is suitable for problems such as free surface flow or flow around complex, moving and/or intermeshed geometries. It can be used for both one and two-way coupling and is applicable to both dilute and dense particle flows. A comprehensive validation procedure for fluid-particle simulations is presented and applied to the SPH-DEM method, using simulations of single and multiple particle sedimentation in a 3D fluid column and comparison with analytical model...

  2. Atmospheric chemistry results from the ANTCI 2005 Antarctic plateau airborne study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    L. (1994), The new NMC mesoscale ETA?model—Description andand J. E. Box (2001), Mesoscale modeling of katabatic windsa polar version of the Mesoscale Model version 5 (MM5) [

  3. Lipid-Based Nanodiscs as Models for Studying Mesoscale Coalescence A Transport Limited Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Andrew [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Fan, Tai-Hsi [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Katsaras, John [ORNL; Xia, Yan [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Li, Ming [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Nieh, Mu-Ping [University of Connecticut, Storrs

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lipid-based nanodiscs (bicelles) are able to form in mixtures of long- and short-chain lipids. Initially, they are of uniform size but grow upon dilution. Previously, nanodisc growth kinetics have been studied using time-resolved small angle neutron scattering (SANS), a technique which is not well suited for probing their change in size immediately after dilution. To address this, we have used dynamic light scattering (DLS), a technique which permits the collection of useful data in a short span of time after dilution of the system. The DLS data indicate that the negatively charged lipids in nanodiscs play a significant role in disc stability and growth. Specifically, the charged lipids are most likely drawn out from the nanodiscs into solution, thereby reducing interparticle repulsion and enabling the discs to grow. We describe a population balance model, which takes into account Coulombic interactions and adequately predicts the initial growth of nanodiscs with a single parameter i.e., surface potential. The results presented here strongly support the notion that the disc coalescence rate strongly depends on nanoparticle charge density. The present system containing low-polydispersity lipid nanodiscs serves as a good model for understanding how charged discoidal micelles coalesce.

  4. Mesoscale Dynamics Spring Semester 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birner, Thomas

    ATS 735 Mesoscale Dynamics (3 cr) Spring Semester 2012 Instructor: Richard H. Johnson, Room ATS 305: There are no required texts. The recent book Mesoscale Meteorology in Midlatitudes by Markowski and Richardson covers with mesoscale-related research. A set of notes will be made available for the course, although we will not cover

  5. MESOSCALE DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTED MATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vinals, Jorge

    MESOSCALE DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTED MATERIALS Jorge Vi~nals School of Physics and Astronomy. Laughlin) Small but finite wavenumber and finite frequency ("mesoscale") response functions and transport;MESOSCALE DESCRIPTION B B B B B B B A B A B A A B B A A A A BB A B Microscopic Mesoscopic Macroscopic vn

  6. Mesoscale Dynamics Spring Semester 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ATS 735 Mesoscale Dynamics (3 cr) Spring Semester 2014 Instructor: Richard H. Johnson, Room ATS 305: There are no required texts. The recent book Mesoscale Meteorology in Midlatitudes by Markowski and Richardson covers with mesoscale-related research. A set of notes will be made available for the course, although we will not cover

  7. 7, 1043910465, 2007 Mesoscale inversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 7, 10439­10465, 2007 Mesoscale inversion T. Lauvaux et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Discussions Mesoscale inversion: first results from the CERES campaign with synthetic data T. Lauvaux 1,2 , M.lauvaux@lsce.ipsl.fr) 10439 #12;ACPD 7, 10439­10465, 2007 Mesoscale inversion T. Lauvaux et al. Title Page Abstract

  8. Generated using version 3.2 of the official AMS LATEX template Mesoscale Predictability and Initial-Condition Error Growth in1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Generated using version 3.2 of the official AMS LATEX template Mesoscale Predictability and Initial;ABSTRACT5 Early investigations suggested that mesoscale atmospheric motions would have very limited6 cascade. In contrast, subsequent studies proposed that many mesoscale cir-8 culations inherit

  9. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (2006), 132, pp. 709736 doi: 10.1256/qj.04.141 Momentum transport processes in the stratiform regions of mesoscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houze Jr., Robert A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    processes in the stratiform regions of mesoscale convective systems over the western Pacific warm pool By DAVID B. MECHEM1, SHUYI S. CHEN2 and ROBERT A. HOUZE, Jr.3 1Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) during the Tropical Ocean­Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean

  10. atmospheric test models: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric test models First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 New Model Atmospheres: Testing...

  11. Calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux using the interaction model calibrated with atmospheric muon data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honda, M.; Kajita, T.; Kasahara, K.; Midorikawa, S.; Sanuki, T

    2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the 'modified DPMJET-III' model explained in the previous paper [T. Sanuki et al., preceding Article, Phys. Rev. D 75, 043005 (2007).], we calculate the atmospheric neutrino flux. The calculation scheme is almost the same as HKKM04 [M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, and S. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. D 70, 043008 (2004).], but the usage of the 'virtual detector' is improved to reduce the error due to it. Then we study the uncertainty of the calculated atmospheric neutrino flux summarizing the uncertainties of individual components of the simulation. The uncertainty of K-production in the interaction model is estimated using other interaction models: FLUKA'97 and FRITIOF 7.02, and modifying them so that they also reproduce the atmospheric muon flux data correctly. The uncertainties of the flux ratio and zenith angle dependence of the atmospheric neutrino flux are also studied.

  12. Use of ARM observations and numerical models to determine radiative and latent heating profiles of mesoscale convective systems for general circulation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houze, Jr., Robert A. [University of Washington Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences

    2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We examined cloud radar data in monsoon climates, using cloud radars at Darwin in the Australian monsoon, on a ship in the Bay of Bengal in the South Asian monsoon, and at Niamey in the West African monsoon. We followed on with a more in-depth study of the continental MCSs over West Africa. We investigated whether the West African anvil clouds connected with squall line MCSs passing over the Niamey ARM site could be simulated in a numerical model by comparing the observed anvil clouds to anvil structures generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model at high resolution using six different ice-phase microphysical schemes. We carried out further simulations with a cloud-resolving model forced by sounding network budgets over the Niamey region and over the northern Australian region. We have devoted some of the effort of this project to examining how well satellite data can determine the global breadth of the anvil cloud measurements obtained at the ARM ground sites. We next considered whether satellite data could be objectively analyzed to so that their large global measurement sets can be systematically related to the ARM measurements. Further differences were detailed between the land and ocean MCS anvil clouds by examining the interior structure of the anvils with the satellite-detected the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR). The satellite survey of anvil clouds in the Indo-Pacific region was continued to determine the role of MCSs in producing the cloud pattern associated with the MJO.

  13. Hydrostatic Hamiltonian particle-mesh (HPM) methods for atmospheric modeling.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich, Sebastian

    Hydrostatic Hamiltonian particle-mesh (HPM) methods for atmospheric modeling. Seoleun Shin Sebastian Reich Jason Frank August 19, 2011 Abstract We develop a hydrostatic Hamiltonian particle-mesh (HPM) method for efficient long-term numerical integration of the atmosphere. In the HPM method, the hydro

  14. Hydrostatic Hamiltonian particle mesh (HPM) methods for atmospheric modeling.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank, Jason

    Hydrostatic Hamiltonian particle mesh (HPM) methods for atmospheric modeling. Seoleun Shin Sebastian Reich Jason Frank March 17, 2011 Abstract We develop a hydrostatic Hamiltonian particle mesh (HPM) method for efficient long-term numerical integration of the atmosphere. In the HPM method, the hydro

  15. Model atmospheres and SEDs of chemically peculiar stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yakiv V. Pavlenko

    2002-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Procedure and results of computations of stellar model atmospheres and spectral energy distributions are discussed. Model atmospheres of some chemically peculiar stars are computed taking into account detailed information about their abundances: -- R CrB-like stars of Teff $\\sim$ 7000 K, -- Sakurai's object (V4334 Sgr) of 4000 $<$ \\Tef $<$ 7000 K -- Przybylski's star of Teff $\\sim$ 6500 K. We show that our self-consistent approach provides a unique possibility to investigate the temporal changes of physical parameters of chemically peculiar stars. Some problems of computation of model atmospheres of M and C-giants are also considered.

  16. On Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Atmospheric Pollution Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandu, Adrian

    On Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Atmospheric Pollution Models Emil M. Constantinescu and Adrian res- olution system for modeling regional air pollution based on the chemical transport model STEM. Keywords: Air Pollution Modeling, Adaptive Mesh Refinement. 1 Introduction Inadequate grid resolution can

  17. Spatial Intermittency of Surface Layer Wind Fluctuations at Mesoscale Range Rachel Baile* and Jean-Francois Muzy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Spatial Intermittency of Surface Layer Wind Fluctuations at Mesoscale Range Rachel Bai¨le* and Jean and to confirm an intermittent nature of mesoscale fluctuations similar to the one observed in fully developed involving a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. The modeling of wind speed behavior in the mesoscale range

  18. Sensitivity of Mesoscale Gravity Waves to the Baroclinicity of Jet-Front Systems SHUGUANG WANG AND FUQING ZHANG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sensitivity of Mesoscale Gravity Waves to the Baroclinicity of Jet-Front Systems SHUGUANG WANG of mesoscale gravity waves to the baroclinicity of the background jet-front systems by simulating different life cycles of baroclinic waves with a high-resolution mesoscale model. Four simulations are made

  19. Mesoscale variability in time series data: Satellite-based estimates for the U.S. JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mesoscale variability in time series data: Satellite-based estimates for the U.S. JGOFS Bermuda TOPEX/Poseidon­ERS-1/2) are used to characterize, statistically, the mesoscale variability about the U to better understand the contribution of mesoscale eddies to the time series record and the model- data

  20. Atmospheric Tides in the Latest Generation of Climate Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Covey, Curt

    For atmospheric tides driven by solar heating, the database of climate model output used in the most recent assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) confirms and extends the authors’ earlier ...

  1. Computer support to run models of the atmosphere. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fung, I.

    1996-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This research is focused on a better quantification of the variations in CO{sub 2} exchanges between the atmosphere and biosphere and the factors responsible for these exchangers. The principal approach is to infer the variations in the exchanges from variations in the atmospheric CO{sub 2} distribution. The principal tool involves using a global three-dimensional tracer transport model to advect and convect CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. The tracer model the authors used was developed at the Goddard institute for Space Studies (GISS) and is derived from the GISS atmospheric general circulation model. A special run of the GCM is made to save high-frequency winds and mixing statistics for the tracer model.

  2. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, Hy D. (Albuquerque, NM); Claudet, Andre A. (Albuquerque, NM); Oliver, Andrew D. (Waltham, MA)

    2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  3. MESOSCALE SIMULATIONS OF POWDER COMPACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomov, Ilya; Fujino, Don; Antoun, Tarabay; Liu, Benjamin [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P. O. Box 808, Livermore CA 94551 (United States)

    2009-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Mesoscale 3D simulations of shock compaction of metal and ceramic powders have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating a well-characterized shock compaction experiment of a porous ductile metal. Simulation results using the Steinberg material model and handbook values for solid 2024 aluminum showed good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not as well studied as metals, so a simple material model for solid ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powders have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. The numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as that measured experimentally using VISAR. The numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line as observed in experiments. We found that for good quantitative agreement with experiments 3D simulations are essential.

  4. The sensitivity of the PSU-NCAR model (MM5) to cumulus parameterization in simulating the mesoscale environment associated with 2 June 1995 West Texas tornado outbreak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Sang-Ok

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On 2 June 1995, many supercede thunderstorms were graphics. observed in West Texas between Lubbock and Amarillo under the synoptic and mesoscale environment which was increasingly more supportive of severe convection. Of the storms, those which...

  5. Mesoscale and Large-Eddy Simulations for Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marjanovic, N

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Operational wind power forecasting, turbine micrositing, and turbine design require high-resolution simulations of atmospheric flow over complex terrain. The use of both Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) and large-eddy (LES) simulations is explored for wind energy applications using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. To adequately resolve terrain and turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer, grid nesting is used to refine the grid from mesoscale to finer scales. This paper examines the performance of the grid nesting configuration, turbulence closures, and resolution (up to as fine as 100 m horizontal spacing) for simulations of synoptically and locally driven wind ramping events at a West Coast North American wind farm. Interestingly, little improvement is found when using higher resolution simulations or better resolved turbulence closures in comparison to observation data available for this particular site. This is true for week-long simulations as well, where finer resolution runs show only small changes in the distribution of wind speeds or turbulence intensities. It appears that the relatively simple topography of this site is adequately resolved by all model grids (even as coarse as 2.7 km) so that all resolutions are able to model the physics at similar accuracy. The accuracy of the results is shown in this paper to be more dependent on the parameterization of the land-surface characteristics such as soil moisture rather than on grid resolution.

  6. Ambient Atmosphere Ion Thruster (AAIT) Proof-of-Concept Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Mitchell

    makeup High-Power Electric Propulsion Lab · Design an alternative propulsion system which utilizes in orbit parameters High-Power Electric Propulsion Lab3 #12;Electrostatic Thruster Model · Created, ni (from atmospheric model) D = 1 2 v2 SCD D = Ds/ c + DAAIT High-Power Electric Propulsion Lab8 #12

  7. METR 4433, Mesoscale Meteorology Spring 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

    METR 4433, Mesoscale Meteorology Spring 2011 Instructor Dr. Kelvin K. Droegemeier Office: Three, 1:00 ­ 2:30 pm Required Text Markowski, P. and Y. Richardson: Mesoscale Meteorology in Midlatitudes and physical analysis techniques to mesoscale phenomena. Topics include definition of the term "mesoscale

  8. ATS 641: Mesoscale Meteorology Spring 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ATS 641: Mesoscale Meteorology Spring 2014 TR, 1:00-2:50 PM, ATS Room 101 Course Description and Prerequisites This course will cover the theory and application of mesoscale meteorology, and how mesoscale, students will be able to: · Describe the basic theories describing mesoscale weather phenomena · Understand

  9. METR 4433, Mesoscale Meteorology Spring 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

    METR 4433, Mesoscale Meteorology Spring 2013 Instructor Dr. Kelvin K. Droegemeier (kkd Text Markowski, P. and Y. Richardson: Mesoscale Meteorology in Midlatitudes. Wiley-Blackwell, 430pp to mesoscale phenomena. Topics include definition of the term "mesoscale," radar principles and interpretation

  10. The role of land surface processes on the mesoscale simulation of the July 26, 2005 heavy rain event over Mumbai, India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niyogi, Dev

    The role of land surface processes on the mesoscale simulation of the July 26, 2005 heavy rain Mesoscale convection Weather research and forecast model Indian summer monsoon Land surface processes

  11. Microphysical/mesoscale aspects of nuclear winter and new directions in assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knox, J.B.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent results of model studies and sensitivity tests have shown the degree to which the intensity and duration of ''nuclear winter'' depends on the mass of soot and dust suspended, its optical properties, its vertical distribution in the atmosphere, and the residence time. The soot from urban fires is viewed as evolving during its dispersion from the early fire induced plumes, to cloud scale systems, to the mesoscale and larger systems. Micro-physical processes are perceived as operating within these systems in a manner to enhance removal from the troposphere, and to alter the verical distribution of the soot or its subsequent, aging or evolving aerosol. Relevant observations and studies of these processes are presented and discussed. Critical inputs to the climate simulation models may well be altered significantly by these process effects, many of which are in need of better definition. Appropriate research needs to be initiated to address and better define these microphysical/mesoscale processes of potential importance in the altered atmospheric system after a major nuclear exchange. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Mesoscale coupled ocean-atmosphere interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Hyodae

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    surface currents on wind stress, heat flux, and wind powerflux components (wind stress, heat flux and fresh-waterWest Coast Surface Heat Fluxes, Wind Stress, and Wind Stress

  13. Mesoscale Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Hyodae

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    surface currents on wind stress, heat flux, and wind powerflux components (wind stress, heat flux and fresh-waterWest Coast Surface Heat Fluxes, Wind Stress, and Wind Stress

  14. Coupling Terrestrial and Atmospheric Water Dynamics to Improve Prediction in a Changing Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyon, Steve W.; Dominguez, Francina; Gochis, David J.; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.; Castro, Christopher; Chow, Fotini K.; Fan, Ying; Fuka, Daniel; Hong, Yang; Kucera, Paul A.; Nesbitt, Stephen W.; Salzmann, Nadine; Schmidli, Juerg; Snyder, Peter K.; Teuling, Adriaam J.; Twine, Tracy E.; Levis, Samuel; Lundquist, Jessica D.; Salvucci, Guido D.; Sealy, Andrea M.; Walter, M. Todd

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    considered. This scale specificity complicates and often precludes “fully generalized” approaches to Earth-systems models and may alias observation strategies. There is an obvious trade-off between simple and complex modeling approaches for representing... research subfields, but it is their coupling that has the potential to dramatically change our modeling capabilities. Efforts such as the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) or the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale atmospheric model...

  15. Bull. Disas. Prey. Res. Inst., Kyoto Univ., Vol. 45, Part 2,3 No 390, February, 1996 39 Mesoscale Numerical Study over the HEIFE Area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takada, Shoji

    Mesoscale Numerical Study over the HEIFE Area Part 1: Three Dimensional Wind Field By Zhong CHEN1),Jiayi, 1996) Abstract In this study the three dimensional mesoscale model, which is based on the Peking University Mesoscale Model, was used to simulate the wind field in the HEIFE experimental region. Simulations

  16. A Vertical Grid Module for Baroclinic Models of the Atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drake, John B [ORNL

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The vertical grid of an atmospheric model assigns dynamic and thermo- dynamic variables to grid locations. The vertical coordinate is typically not height but one of a class of meteorological variables that vary with atmo- spheric conditions. The grid system is chosen to further numerical approx- imations of the boundary conditions so that the system is terrain following at the surface. Lagrangian vertical coordinates are useful in reducing the numerical errors from advection processes. That the choices will effect the numercial properties and accuracy is explored in this report. A MATLAB class for Lorentz vertical grids is described and applied to the vertical struc- ture equation and baroclinic atmospheric circulation. A generalized meteo- rolgoical coordinate system is developed which can support ?, isentropic ? vertical coordinate, or Lagrangian vertical coordinates. The vertical atmo- spheric column is a MATLAB class that includes the kinematic and ther- modynamic variables along with methods for computing geopoentials and terms relevant to a 3D baroclinc atmospheric model.

  17. A Grid of 3D Stellar Atmosphere Models of Solar Metallicity: I. General Properties, Granulation and Atmospheric Expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trampedach, Regner; Collet, Remo; Nordlund, Åke; Stein, Robert F

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Present grids of stellar atmosphere models are the workhorses in interpreting stellar observations, and determining their fundamental parameters. These models rely on greatly simplified models of convection, however, lending less predictive power to such models of late type stars. We present a grid of improved and more reliable stellar atmosphere models of late type stars, based on deep, 3D, convective, stellar atmosphere simulations. This grid is to be used in general for interpreting observations, and improve stellar and asteroseismic modeling. We solve the Navier Stokes equations in 3D and concurrent with the radiative transfer equation, for a range of atmospheric parameters, covering most of stellar evolution with convection at the surface. We emphasize use of the best available atomic physics for quantitative predictions and comparisons with observations. We present granulation size, convective expansion of the acoustic cavity, asymptotic adiabat, as function of atmospheric parameters. These and other re...

  18. Modeled atmospheric radon concentrations from uranium mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Droppo, J.G.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium mining and milling operations result in the release of radon from numerous sources of various types and strengths. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Air Act, is assessing the health impact of air emissions of radon from underground uranium mines. In this case, the radon emissions may impact workers and residents in the mine vicinity. To aid in this assessment, the EPA needs to know how mine releases can affect the radon concentrations at populated locations. To obtain this type of information, Pacific Northwest Laboratory used the radon emissions, release characteristics and local meterological conditions for a number of mines to model incremental radon concentrations. Long-term, average, incremental radon concentrations were computed based on the best available information on release rates, plume rise parameters, number and locations of vents, and local dispersion climatology. Calculations are made for a model mine, individual mines, and multiple mines. Our approach was to start with a general case and then consider specific cases for comparison. A model underground uranium mine was used to provide definition of the order of magnitude of typical impacts. Then computations were made for specific mines using the best mine-specific information available for each mine. These case study results are expressed as predicted incremental radon concentration contours plotted on maps with local population data from a previous study. Finally, the effect of possible overlap of radon releases from nearby mines was studied by calculating cumulative radon concentrations for multiple mines in a region with many mines. The dispersion model, modeling assumptions, data sources, computational procedures, and results are documented in this report. 7 refs., 27 figs., 18 tabs.

  19. Atmospheric Climate Model Experiments Performed at Multiple Horizontal Resolutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, T; Bala, G; Gleckler, P; Lobell, D; Mirin, A; Maxwell, R; Rotman, D

    2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents salient features of version 3.3 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3.3) and of three climate simulations in which the resolution of its latitude-longitude grid was systematically increased. For all these simulations of global atmospheric climate during the period 1980-1999, observed monthly ocean surface temperatures and sea ice extents were prescribed according to standard Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) values. These CAM3.3 resolution experiments served as control runs for subsequent simulations of the climatic effects of agricultural irrigation, the focus of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project. The CAM3.3 model was able to replicate basic features of the historical climate, although biases in a number of atmospheric variables were evident. Increasing horizontal resolution also generally failed to ameliorate the large-scale errors in most of the climate variables that could be compared with observations. A notable exception was the simulation of precipitation, which incrementally improved with increasing resolution, especially in regions where orography plays a central role in determining the local hydroclimate.

  20. Modeling the atmospheric inputs of MTBE to groundwater systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pankow, J.F.; Johnson, R.L. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering; Thomson, N.R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical transport model was used to calculate the movement of methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE) and several other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the atmosphere downward through the unsaturated zone and into shallow groundwater. Simulations were carried out for periods as long as 10 years to investigate whether a gaseous atmospheric MTBE source at typical ambient concentrations could account for the presence of MTBE in shallow groundwater at the types of low ug/L levels that have been found during the National Water Quality Assessment Program currently being conducted by the US Geological Survey. The simulations indicate that downward movement of MTBE to shallow groundwater will be very slow when there is no net downward movement of water through the vadose zone. For example, for a vadose zone composed of fine sand, and assuming tens of cm of infiltration, then only a few years will be required for water at a water table that is 5.0 m below ground surface to attain MTBE levels that correspond to saturation with respect to the atmospheric source gaseous concentration. An on/off atmospheric source, as might occur in the seasonal use of MTBE, will lead to concentrations in shallow groundwater that correspond to saturation with the time-averaging atmospheric source concentration.

  1. Soft X-ray techniques to study mesoscale magnetism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kortright, Jeffrey B.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-Ray Techniques to Study Mesoscale Magnetism Jeffrey B.X-Ray Techniques to Study Mesoscale Magnetism Jeffrey B.

  2. Mesoscale Predictability of an Extreme Warm-Season Precipitation Event FUQING ZHANG, ANDREW M. ODINS, AND JOHN W. NIELSEN-GAMMON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mesoscale Predictability of an Extreme Warm-Season Precipitation Event FUQING ZHANG, ANDREW M Station, Texas (Manuscript received 22 November 2004, in final form 28 August 2005) ABSTRACT A mesoscale model is used to investigate the mesoscale predictability of an extreme precipitation event over central

  3. Sensitivity of mesoscale gravity waves to the baroclinicity of jet-front systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Shuguang

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    To investigate the generation of mesoscale gravity waves from upper-tropospheric jet-front systems, five different life cycles of baroclinic waves are simulated with a high-resolution mesoscale model (MM5 with 10-km grid spacing). The baroclinicity...

  4. Sensitivity of mesoscale gravity waves to the baroclinicity of jet-front systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Shuguang

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    To investigate the generation of mesoscale gravity waves from upper-tropospheric jet-front systems, five different life cycles of baroclinic waves are simulated with a high-resolution mesoscale model (MM5 with 10-km grid spacing). The baroclinicity...

  5. Mesoscale Simulations of Power Compaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomov, I; Fujino, D; Antoun, T; Liu, B

    2009-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Mesoscale 3D simulations of metal and ceramic powder compaction in shock waves have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating shock compaction of porous well-characterized ductile metal using Steinberg material model. Results of the simulations with handbook values for parameters of solid 2024 aluminum have good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not so well studied as metals, so material model for ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been fitted to shock compression experiments of non-porous samples and further calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powder have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. Numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as measured with VISAR. Numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line also observed in experiments. They found that to receive good quantitative agreement with experiment it is essential to perform 3D simulations.

  6. Modeling Space-Time Dynamics of Aerosols Using Satellite Data and Atmospheric Transport Model Output

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Tao

    Modeling Space-Time Dynamics of Aerosols Using Satellite Data and Atmospheric Transport Model of aerosol optical depth across mainland Southeast Asia. We include a cross validation study to assess

  7. space/time and modeling formalisms; extensions: Multilevel modeling in CA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    expectation (attractors, mesoscale patterns) · Exploration what happens if we assume.... emergent behaviour MESOSCALE ENTITIES: - discovery and description - modeling these entities -'beyond' dynamical systems (IBM models) PREDEFINED MULTIPLE LEVEL - e.g. predefined cells as mesoscale - multiple timescales

  8. Mesoscale Metallic Pyramids with Nanoscale Tips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odom, Teri W.

    Mesoscale Metallic Pyramids with Nanoscale Tips Joel Henzie, Eun-Soo Kwak, and Teri W. Odom generate free-standing mesoscale metallic pyramids composed of one or more materials and having nanoscale tips (radii of curvature of less than 2 nm). Mesoscale holes (100-300 nm) in a chromium film are used

  9. Engineering mesoscale structures with distinct dynamical implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineering mesoscale structures with distinct dynamical implications Anne-Ly Do1 , Johannes H that there are certain mesoscale subgraphs that have precise and distinct consequences for the system-level dynamics. In particular, if mesoscale symmetries are present then eigenvectors of the Jacobian localise on the symmetric

  10. Tests of an Ensemble Kalman Filter for Mesoscale and Regional-Scale Data Assimilation. Part III: Comparison with 3DVAR in a Real-Data Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tests of an Ensemble Kalman Filter for Mesoscale and Regional-Scale Data Assimilation. Part III 8 May 2007) ABSTRACT The feasibility of using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for mesoscale application of an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF; Evensen 1994) in the atmospheric sci- ences field (Houtekamer

  11. Acoustic Characterization of Mesoscale Objects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chinn, D; Huber, R; Chambers, D; Cole, G; Balogun, O; Spicer, J; Murray, T

    2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the science and engineering performed to provide state-of-the-art acoustic capabilities for nondestructively characterizing mesoscale (millimeter-sized) objects--allowing micrometer resolution over the objects entire volume. Materials and structures used in mesoscale objects necessitate the use of (1) GHz acoustic frequencies and (2) non-contacting laser generation and detection of acoustic waves. This effort demonstrated that acoustic methods at gigahertz frequencies have the necessary penetration depth and spatial resolution to effectively detect density discontinuities, gaps, and delaminations. A prototype laser-based ultrasonic system was designed and built. The system uses a micro-chip laser for excitation of broadband ultrasonic waves with frequency components reaching 1.0 GHz, and a path-stabilized Michelson interferometer for detection. The proof-of-concept for mesoscale characterization is demonstrated by imaging a micro-fabricated etched pattern in a 70 {micro}m thick silicon wafer.

  12. Mesoscale Modeling and Validation of Texture Evolution during Asymmetric Rooling and Static Recrystallization of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam [ORNL; Gorti, Sarma B [ORNL; Stoica, Grigoreta M [ORNL; Muralidharan, Govindarajan [ORNL; Stoica, Alexandru Dan [ORNL; Wang, Xun-Li [ORNL; Specht, Eliot D [ORNL; Kenik, Edward A [ORNL; Muth, Thomas R [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of the present research is to develop an integrated deformation and recrystallization model for magnesium alloys at the microstructural length scale. It is known that in magnesium alloys nucleation of recrystallized grains occurs at various microstructural inhomogeneities such as twins and localized deformation bands. However, there is a need to develop models that can predict the evolution of the grain structure and texture developed during recrystallization and grain growth, especially when the deformation process follows a complicated deformation path such as in asymmetric rolling. The deformation model is based on a crystal plasticity approach implemented at the length scale of the microstructure that includes deformation mechanisms based on dislocation slip and twinning. The recrystallization simulation is based on a Monte Carlo technique that operates on the output of the deformation simulations. The nucleation criterion during recrystallization is based on the local stored energy and the Monte Carlo technique is used to simulate the growth of the nuclei due to local stored energy differences and curvature. The model predictions are compared with experimental data obtained through electron backscatter analysis and neutron diffraction.

  13. ''Nuclear Winter'': A diagnosis of atmospheric general circulation model simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Covey, C.; Thompson, S.L.; Schneider, S.H.

    1985-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the adiabatic and diabatic thermal balance of an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) under two conditions: the control case, representing today's atmosphere, and a ''nuclear winter'' scenario in which virtually all sunlight in northern hemisphere and mid-latitudes is absorbed in the upper troposphere by prescribed dense smoke clouds hypothesized to result from the burning of many cities in a nuclear war. We also examine the changes in moisture and cloudiness simulated by the model. Our object is to examine the reliability of existing simulations of the climatic response to assumed dense, widespread, high-altitude smoke and to identify improvements needed in model parameterizations. We find that in the smoke-perturbed case our model simulation of land surface temperature is particularly influenced (i.e., warmed) by parameterized diffusion of heat downward from the lower troposphere. In turn the lower troposphere over land is supplied with heat transported from the relatively warm oceans. Thermal balance in the perturbed atmosphere as a whole is dominated by intense solar heating of the upper troposphere smoke layer in mid-latitudes balanced by parameterized dry convection and large-scale dynamical heat transport. Clouds largely disappear in the mid to upper troposphere in smoke-affected regions as a consequence of a decrease in local relative humidity that results from temperature increases and, to a smaller extent, from a reduction of vertical moisture transport. The computation of substantial downward vertical heat diffusion into the lowest model layer is almost certainly an overestimate for the smoke-perturbed conditions of high vertical stability.

  14. Review of structure representation and reconstruction on mesoscale and microscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Dongsheng

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Structure representation and reconstruction on mesoscale and microscale is critical in material design, advanced manufacturing and multiscale modeling. Microstructure reconstruction has been applied in different areas of materials science and technology, structural materials, energy materials, geology, hydrology, etc. This review summarizes the microstructure descriptors and formulations used to represent and algorithms to reconstruct structures at microscale and mesoscale. In the stochastic methods using correlation function, different optimization approaches have been adapted for objective function minimization. A variety of reconstruction approaches are compared in efficiency and accuracy.

  15. atmospheric climate model: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Curry & Webster Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ch1 Composition Ch2 Laws Ch3 Transfers Ch12 Energy Russell, Lynn 10 Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Environmental...

  16. atmosphere box model: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GloveBoxes Glove boxes allow the user to perform operations in an atmosphere 8 University Corporation for Atmospheric Research PO Box 3000 Boulder, Colorado 80307 Geosciences...

  17. Comparison of model estimates of the effects of aviation emissions on atmospheric ozone and methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Mark

    Comparison of model estimates of the effects of aviation emissions on atmospheric ozone and methane is the effects of aviation emissions on ozone and atmospheric chemistry. In this study the effects of aviation emissions on atmospheric ozone for 2006 and two projections for 2050 are compared among seven models

  18. Mesoscale predictability of an extreme warm-season precipitation event

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odins, Andrew Michael

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    . The Penn State University/NCAR Mesoscale Model version 5 (MM5) was used to conduct predictability experiments, which follow closely to the research conducted by Zhang et al. A control simulation initialized at 00Z 1 July is established over a 30-km grid...

  19. Fingering convection and cloudless models for cool brown dwarf atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tremblin, P; Mourier, P; Baraffe, I; Chabrier, G; Drummond, B; Homeier, D; Venot, O

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work aims to improve the current understanding of the atmospheres of brown dwarfs, especially cold ones with spectral type T and Y, whose modeling is a current challenge. Silicate and iron clouds are believed to disappear at the photosphere at the L/T transition, but cloudless models fail to reproduce correctly the spectra of T dwarfs, advocating for the addition of more physics, e.g. other types of clouds or internal energy transport mechanisms. We use a one-dimensional (1D) radiative/convective equilibrium code ATMO to investigate this issue. This code includes both equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium chemistry and solves consistently the PT structure. Included opacity sources are H2-H2, H2-He, H2O, CO, CO2, CH4, NH3, K, Na, and TiO, VO if they are present in the atmosphere. We show that the spectra of Y dwarfs can be accurately reproduced with a cloudless model if vertical mixing and NH3 quenching are taken into account. T dwarf spectra still have some reddening in e.g. J - H compared to cloudless mode...

  20. Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling: Challenges of the Fukushima Daiichi Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugiyama, Gayle [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Nasstrom, John [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Pobanz, Brenda [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Foster, Kevin [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Simpson, Matthew [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Vogt, Phil [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Aluzzi, Fernando [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Homann, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) provided a wide range of predictions and analyses as part of the response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This work encompassed: weather forecasts and atmospheric transport predictions, estimates of possible dose in Japan based on hypothetical U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission scenarios of potential radionuclide releases, predictions of possible plume arrival times and dose levels at U.S. locations, and source estimation and plume model refinement. An overview of NARAC response activities is provided, along with a more in-depth discussion of some of NARAC’s preliminary source reconstruction analyses. NARAC optimized the overall agreement of model predictions to dose rate measurements using statistical comparisons of data and model values paired in space and time. Estimated emission rates varied depending on the choice of release assumptions (e.g., time-varying vs. constant release rates), the radionuclide mix, meteorology, and/or the radiological data used in the analysis. Results were found to be consistent with other studies within expected uncertainties, despite the application of different source estimation methodologies and the use of significantly different radiological measurement data. A discussion of some of the operational and scientific challenges encountered during the response, along with recommendations for future work, is provided.

  1. Model formalisms, continued; CA, ODE, Boolean networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    ­ Mesoscale patterns ­ Zoo QUESTIONS? TODAY · CA as modeling tool: common generalisations · alternative

  2. Atmospheric component of the MPI-M Earth System Model: Bjorn Stevens,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reichler, Thomas

    Atmospheric component of the MPI-M Earth System Model: ECHAM6 Bjorn Stevens,1 Marco Giorgetta,1: Stevens, B., et al. (2013), Atmospheric component of the MPI-M Earth System Model: ECHAM6, J. Adv. Model System Model (or MPI-ESM) is described in an accompanying paper (M. Giorgetta et al., Climate change from

  3. Modeling the Exchanges of Energy, Water, and Carbon Between Continents and the Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    , for example, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. Until the early 1980s, global atmospheric generalModeling the Exchanges of Energy, Water, and Carbon Between Continents and the Atmosphere P. J varying data of land surface properties were assembled from ecological and geo- graphical surveys

  4. Dynamic Filtering and Mining Triggers in Mesoscale Meteorology Forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plale, Beth

    Dynamic Filtering and Mining Triggers in Mesoscale Meteorology Forecasting Nithya N. Vijayakumar {rramachandran, xli}@itsc.uah.edu Abstract-- Mesoscale meteorology forecasting as a data driven application Triggers, Data Mining, Stream Processing, Meteorology Forecasting I. INTRODUCTION Mesoscale meteorologists

  5. MESOSCALE THEORY OF GRAINS AND CELLS: POLYCRYSTALS & PLASTICITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sethna, James P.

    MESOSCALE THEORY OF GRAINS AND CELLS: POLYCRYSTALS & PLASTICITY A Dissertation Presented RIGHTS RESERVED #12;MESOSCALE THEORY OF GRAINS AND CELLS: POLYCRYSTALS & PLASTICITY Surachate Limkumnerd, continuum explanation for the evolution of dislocations into sharp walls. We present here a mesoscale theory

  6. Mesoscale convective complex vs. non-mesoscale convective complex thunderstorms: a comparison of selected meteorological variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoofard, Michael Eugene

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE CCMPLLX VS. NON-MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE COMPLEX THUNDERSTORMS: A COMPARISON OF SELECTED METEOROLOGICAL VARIABLES A Thesis MICHAkL EUGENE JJOOFARD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AJkM University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1986 Major Subj ect: Meteorology MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE COMPLEX VS. NON-MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE COMPLEX THUNDERSTORMS: A COMPARISON OF SELECTED METEOROLOGICAL VARIABLES A Thesis...

  7. P h y s i c a l O c e a n o g r a p h y D i v i s i o n Role of Mesoscale Eddies on Decadal Variability of the South

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P h y s i c a l O c e a n o g r a p h y D i v i s i o n Role of Mesoscale Eddies on Decadal representation of mesoscale eddies in the ocean. Therefore, the impact of mesoscale eddies on climate variability the mesoscale eddies are properly parameterized in CMIP5 models. Our overall goal is to explore the impact

  8. Quality of the Target Area for Metrics with Different Nonlinearities in a Mesoscale Convective System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Zhiyong

    , on the forecast error of strongly nonlinear rainfall and weakly nonlinear total energy around the initial vortex of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, China (Manuscript received 31 area for forecast metrics with different nonlinearities in a mesoscale convective vortex

  9. A Grid of FASTWIND NLTE Model Atmospheres of Massive Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Lefever; J. Puls; C. Aerts

    2006-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In the last few years our knowledge of the physics of massive stars has improved tremendously. However, further investigations are still needed, especially regarding accurate calibrations of their fundamental parameters. To this end, we have constructed a comprehensive grid of NLTE model atmospheres and corresponding synthetic spectra in the massive star domain. The grid covers the complete B type spectral range, extended to late O on the hot side and early A on the cool side, from supergiants to dwarfs and from weak stellar winds to very strong ones. It has been calculated with the latest version of the FASTWIND code. The analysis of an extensive sample of OB stars in the framework of the COROT space mission will lead to accurate calibrations of effective temperatures, gravities, mass loss rates etc. This paper contains a detailed description of the grid, which has been baptised as BSTAR06 and which will be available for further research in the near future.

  10. Model Wind over the Central and Southern California Coastal Ocean HSIAO-MING HSU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Model Wind over the Central and Southern California Coastal Ocean HSIAO-MING HSU National Center of high-resolution wind in coastal ocean modeling. This paper tests the Coupled Ocean­Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) at the 9-, 27-, and 81-km grid resolutions in simulating wind off the central

  11. atmosphere-sea hydro-ecological model: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Oscillation (ENSO) or the greenhouse gases global warming effect. The models can possibly run on variousOASIS 2.0 Ocean Atmosphere...

  12. Ecospace: Prediction of Mesoscale Spatial Patterns in Trophic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pauly, Daniel

    Ecospace: Prediction of Mesoscale Spatial Patterns in Trophic Relationships of Exploited Ecosystems Springer-Verlag 539 Walters, C., D. Pauly and V. Christensen. 1999. Ecospace: Prediction of mesoscale

  13. New Mesoscale Multimodal Imaging of Cellular Communication Between...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    New Mesoscale Multimodal Imaging Bioimaging Technology Bioimaging Technology Home About Research Small Worlds New Mesoscale Multimodal Imaging Adaptive Biosystems Imaging Systems...

  14. Mesoscale Benchmark Demonstration Problem 1: Mesoscale Simulations of Intra-granular Fission Gas Bubbles in UO2 under Post-irradiation Thermal Annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Montgomery, Robert; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin; Tonks, Michael; Biner, Bullent; Millet, Paul; Tikare, Veena; Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; Andersson , David

    2012-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was conducted to evaluate the capabilities of different numerical methods used to represent microstructure behavior at the mesoscale for irradiated material using an idealized benchmark problem. The purpose of the mesoscale benchmark problem was to provide a common basis to assess several mesoscale methods with the objective of identifying the strengths and areas of improvement in the predictive modeling of microstructure evolution. In this work, mesoscale models (phase-field, Potts, and kinetic Monte Carlo) developed by PNNL, INL, SNL, and ORNL were used to calculate the evolution kinetics of intra-granular fission gas bubbles in UO2 fuel under post-irradiation thermal annealing conditions. The benchmark problem was constructed to include important microstructural evolution mechanisms on the kinetics of intra-granular fission gas bubble behavior such as the atomic diffusion of Xe atoms, U vacancies, and O vacancies, the effect of vacancy capture and emission from defects, and the elastic interaction of non-equilibrium gas bubbles. An idealized set of assumptions was imposed on the benchmark problem to simplify the mechanisms considered. The capability and numerical efficiency of different models are compared against selected experimental and simulation results. These comparisons find that the phase-field methods, by the nature of the free energy formulation, are able to represent a larger subset of the mechanisms influencing the intra-granular bubble growth and coarsening mechanisms in the idealized benchmark problem as compared to the Potts and kinetic Monte Carlo methods. It is recognized that the mesoscale benchmark problem as formulated does not specifically highlight the strengths of the discrete particle modeling used in the Potts and kinetic Monte Carlo methods. Future efforts are recommended to construct increasingly more complex mesoscale benchmark problems to further verify and validate the predictive capabilities of the mesoscale modeling methods used in this study.

  15. Mesoscale Characterization of Coupled Hydromechanical Behavior of a Fractured Porous Slope in Response to Free Water-Surface Movement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guglielmi, Y.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mesoscale Characterization of Coupled Hydromechanicalinstrumented for mesoscale hydraulic and mechanicalwords: Fracture; Rock slope; Mesoscale; In situ poroelastic

  16. Mesoscale flows in large aspect ratio simulations of turbulent compressible convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Rincon; F. Lignieres; M. Rieutord

    2006-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of a very large aspect ratio (42.6) numerical simulation of fully compressible turbulent convection in a polytropic atmosphere, and focus on the properties of large-scale flows. Mesoscale patterns dominate the turbulent energy spectrum. We show that these structures, which had already been observed in Boussinesq simulations by Cattaneo et al. (2001), have a genuine convective origin and do not result directly from collective interactions of the smaller scales of the flow, even though their growth is strongly affected by nonlinear transfers. If this result is relevant to the solar photosphere, it suggests that the dominant convective mode below the Sun's surface may be at mesoscales.

  17. atmosphere model validation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    predictability over eastern Australia in JJASON This research aims to improve intra Marshall, Andrew 3 Early validation analyses of atmospheric profiles from CiteSeer...

  18. atmospheric modeling based: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar activity. The upward- and downward-moving component of the atmospheric neutron flux are considered separately. The energy spectra calculated using these equations were...

  19. Development and testing of parameterizations for continental and tropical ice cloud microphysical and radiative properties in GCM and mesoscale models. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heymsfield, A.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall purpose of this research was to exploit measurements in clouds sampled during several field programs, especially from experiments in tropical regions, in a four-component study to develop and validate cloud parameterizations for general circulation models, emphasizing ice clouds. The components were: (1) parameterization of basic properties of mid- and upper-tropospheric clouds, such as condensed water content, primarily with respect to cirrus from tropical areas; (2) the second component was to develop parameterizations which express cloud radiative properties in terms of basic cloud microphysical properties, dealing primarily with tropical oceanic cirrus clouds and continental thunderstorm anvils, but also including altocumulus clouds; (3) the third component was to validate the parameterizations through use of ground-based measurements calibrated using existing and planned in-situ measurements of cloud microphysical properties and bulk radiative properties, as well as time-resolved data collected over extended periods of time; (4) the fourth component was to implement the parameterizations in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) community climate model (CCM) II or in the NOAA-GFDL model (by L. Donner GFDL) and to perform sensitivity studies.

  20. Models of neutron star atmospheres enriched with nuclear burning ashes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nättilä, Joonas; Kajava, Jari J E; Poutanen, Juri

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-mass X-ray binaries hosting neutron stars (NS) exhibit thermonuclear (type-I) X-ray bursts, which are powered by unstable nuclear burning of helium and/or hydrogen into heavier elements deep in the NS "ocean". In some cases the burning ashes may rise from the burning depths up to the NS photosphere by convection, leading to the appearance of the metal absorption edges in the spectra, which then force the emergent X-ray burst spectra to shift toward lower energies. These effects may have a substantial impact on the color correction factor $f_c$ and the dilution factor $w$, the parameters of the diluted blackbody model $F_E \\approx w B_E(f_c T_{eff})$ that is commonly used to describe the emergent spectra from NSs. The aim of this paper is to quantify how much the metal enrichment can change these factors. We have developed a new NS atmosphere modeling code, which has a few important improvements compared to our previous code required by inclusion of the metals. The opacities and the internal partition func...

  1. Three Dimensional Adaptive Mesh Refinement on a Spherical Shell for Atmospheric Models with Lagrangian Coordinates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jablonowski, Christiane

    Three Dimensional Adaptive Mesh Refinement on a Spherical Shell for Atmospheric Models for Atmospheric Research 1. Introduction One of the most important advances needed in global climate models of this project is a parallel adaptive grid library, which is currently under development at the University

  2. Super-Kamiokande Atmospheric Neutrino Analysis of Matter-Dependent Neutrino Oscillation Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokyo, University of

    Super-Kamiokande Atmospheric Neutrino Analysis of Matter-Dependent Neutrino Oscillation Models microform." Signature Date #12;University of Washington Abstract Super-Kamiokande Atmospheric Neutrino of the matter a neutrino passes through. Using the data from Super-Kamiokande-I, µ - oscillation models whose

  3. Overturning and wind driven circulation in a low-order ocean-atmosphere model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Veen, Lennaert

    july 2002 Abstract A low-order ocean-atmosphere model is presented which combines coupling through heat exchange at the interface and wind stress forcing. The coupling terms are derived from the boundary conditions and the forcing terms of the constituents. Both the ocean and the atmosphere model are based

  4. Atmospheric Feedbacks over the Tropical Pacific in Observations and Atmospheric General Circulation Models: An Extended

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Dezheng

    that the bias is likely linked to a weaker relationship between the short-wave cloud forcing is a long-standing tropical bias in the CGCMs. The early hypotheses attribute this problem to the errors;4 errors may induce excessive equatorial upwelling upon coupling. The surface heating from the atmospheric

  5. A MODEL ATMOSPHERE ANALYSIS OF ALPHA AURIGAE A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuhrmann, Klaus [Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetsstrasse 150, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2011-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This work presents the first quantitative composite model atmosphere analysis of Capella, the brightest near-equal-mass spectroscopic binary and principal star of the constellation Auriga. Its high-resolution spectrum leads to a slightly metal-rich object at [Fe/H] = +0.05 {+-} 0.08 dex. In line with its young age and its kinematics, this consistently associates Capella with the Hyades moving group. The measured projected rotational velocities, vsin i{sub Aa} = 3.5 {+-} 0.8 km s{sup -1} and vsin i{sub Ab} = 35.4 {+-} 3.2 km s{sup -1}, both agree with rotational and orbital coplanarity and synchronous orbital rotation for the Aa component. At an orbital period P = 104 d the primary's bound rotation together with the almost zero orbital eccentricity are both key characteristics of this binary and clearly imply that the Aa component must have passed the tip of the giant branch. Whether in that phase Capella also became a mass transfer system remains inconclusive at present, though the high rotational velocity of the less evolved Hertzsprung gap secondary and the very diverse lithium abundances of both its components render this a plausible case.

  6. Annular mode-like responses to external forcings in a simple atmospheric general circulation model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ring, Michael J., 1979-

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I investigate the response of a simple atmospheric general circulation model to applied forcings to learn whether the annular mode patterns are a preferred model response to the forcings. The thesis is ...

  7. A scalable high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for global atmospheric modeling Hae-Won Choia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Ramachandran D.

    system model will require a highly scalable and accurate flux-form formulation of atmospheric dynamics supercomputers. 1. INTRODUCTION The future evolution of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) into an Earth

  8. PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERES. I. PHOTOCHEMISTRY MODEL AND BENCHMARK CASES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Renyu

    We present a comprehensive photochemistry model for exploration of the chemical composition of terrestrial exoplanet atmospheres. The photochemistry model is designed from the ground up to have the capacity to treat all ...

  9. Molecule-Mimetic Chemistry and Mesoscale Self-Assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prentiss, Mara

    Molecule-Mimetic Chemistry and Mesoscale Self-Assembly NED B. BOWDEN, MARCUS WECK, INSUNG S. CHOI, and possible uses for these processes and assemblies.6-22 Mesoscale Self-Assembly (MESA) Mesoscale Self technically, and especially in physics, a mesoscale object is one whose dimensions are comparable to the scale

  10. Determining Greenland Ice Sheet sensitivity to regional climate change: one-way coupling of a 3-D thermo-mechanical ice sheet model with a mesoscale climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, Nicole-Jeanne

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in running RCM’s over Greenland to produce high-qualityoutlet glaciers. For Greenland, this detail is specificallyCurrently, no coupled Greenland Ice Sheet model experiment

  11. Mapping mesoscale heterogeneity in the plastic deformation of a copper single crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magid, K. R.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    619. page 18 Mapping mesoscale heterogeneity in a deformedthese planes. page 36 Mapping mesoscale heterogeneity in aJanuary 2009, 77–107 Mapping mesoscale heterogeneity in the

  12. Effect of ocean mesoscale variability on the mean state of tropical Atlantic climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, H; Jochum, M; Murtugudde, R; Miller, A J

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effect of Ocean Mesoscale Variability on the Mean State ofthe effect of oceanic mesoscale features on the mean climatemodel, resolving oceanic mesoscale variability leads to a

  13. Laboratory measurements and modeling of trace atmospheric species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheehy, Philip M. (Philip Michael)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Trace species play a major role in many physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere. Improving our understanding of the impact of each species requires a combination of laboratory exper- imentation, field measurements, ...

  14. Linking atomistic and mesoscale simulations of nanocrystalline materials : quantitative validation for the case of grain growth.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moldovan, D.; Wolf, D.; Phillpot, S. R.; Materials Science Division; Louisiana State Univ.

    2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using grain growth in nanocrystalline palladium as a simple case study, we demonstrate how a novel mesoscale approach for simulating microstructural evolution in polycrystalline materials can be validated directly against atomic-level simulations of the same system. We first describe molecular dynamics simulations of grain growth in a columnar model microstructure. The atomic-level insights into the grain-growth mechanism gained from these simulations, particularly in the role of grain rotations, are captured theoretically for incorporation into the mesoscale approach, in which the objects evolving in space and time are the grain boundaries and grain junctions rather than the atoms. With all the input parameters to the mesoscale being physically well defined and obtained directly from the atomic-level simulations, the mesoscale simulations are fully prescribed. We find that the morphology of the mesoscale system evolves in an almost identical manner with that of the molecular dynamics simulation, demonstrating that the length- and time-scale linking has been performed correctly. When applied to systems containing large numbers of grains, the now validated mesoscale simulation approach allows the growth topology and long-time growth kinetics to be determined. As an outlook, we describe how the effects of applied stress can be incorporated.

  15. Impact of emissions, chemistry, and climate on atmospheric carbon monoxide : 100-year predictions from a global chemistry-climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chien.; Prinn, Ronald G.

    The possible trends for atmospheric carbon monoxide in the next 100 yr have been illustrated using a coupled atmospheric chemistry and climate model driven by emissions predicted by a global economic development model. ...

  16. Summary of the March 25--26, 1991 atmospheric model working meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric transport and diffusion calculations for the initial phase of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project were made using the MESOILT2 computer code (Ramsdell and Burk 1991). This code implemented a Lagrangian trajectory, puff dispersion model using components from other models designed primarily for regulatory applications. Uncertainty in the dispersion calculations was estimated following model calculations. The results of the atmospheric dispersion calculations were summarized in frequency distributions by location for use in preliminary dose calculations.

  17. A new model of cosmogenic production of radiocarbon 14 C in the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    A new model of cosmogenic production of radiocarbon 14 C in the atmosphere Gennady A. Kovaltsov the results of full new calculation of radiocarbon 14 C production in the Earth atmosphere, using a numerical of cosmic ray heavier nuclei. The mean contribution of solar energetic particles to the global 14 C

  18. A Simple Atmospheric Model of the Local and Teleconnection Responses to Tropical Heating Anomalies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunzai

    the local and remote stationary responses of the atmosphere to tropical heating anomalies is describedA Simple Atmospheric Model of the Local and Teleconnection Responses to Tropical Heating Anomalies and forced with a localized heating for illustration. In the tropics, the baroclinic responses are familiar

  19. SPHERICALLY SYMMETRIC NLTE MODEL ATMOSPHERES OF HOT HYDROGEN-HELIUM FIRST STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubat, Jiri [Astronomicky ustav, Akademie ved Ceske Republiky, CZ-251 65 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results of our calculations of NLTE model stellar atmospheres for hot Population III stars composed of hydrogen and helium. We use our own computer code for the calculation of spherically symmetric NLTE model atmospheres in hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium. The model atmospheres are then used for the calculation of emergent fluxes. These fluxes serve to evaluate the flow of high-energy photons for energies higher than ionization energies of hydrogen and helium, the so-called ionizing photon fluxes. We also present the time evolution of the ionizing photon fluxes.

  20. Atmospheric transport and dispersion modeling for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation doses that may have resulted from operations at the Hanford Site are being estimated in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. One of the project subtasks, atmospheric transport, is responsible for estimating the transport, diffusion and deposition of radionuclides released to the atmosphere. This report discusses modeling transport and diffusion in the atmospheric pathway. It is divided into three major sections. The first section of the report presents the atmospheric modeling approach selected following discussion with the Technical Steering Panel that directs the HEDR Project. In addition, the section discusses the selection of the MESOI/MESORAD suite of atmospheric dispersion models that form the basis for initial calculations and future model development. The second section of the report describes alternative modeling approaches that were considered. Emphasis is placed on the family of plume and puff models that are based on Gaussian solution to the diffusion equations. The final portion of the section describes the performance of various models. The third section of the report discusses factors that bear on the selection of an atmospheric transport modeling approach for HEDR. These factors, which include the physical setting of the Hanford Site and the available meteorological data, serve as constraints on model selection. Five appendices are included in the report. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Predicting Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Modes with a Climate Modeling Hierarchy -- Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Ghil, UCLA; Andrew W. Robertson, IRI, Columbia Univ.; Sergey Kravtsov, U. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee; Padhraic Smyth, UC Irvine

    2006-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the project was to determine midlatitude climate predictability associated with tropical-extratropical interactions on interannual-to-interdecadal time scales. Our strategy was to develop and test a hierarchy of climate models, bringing together large GCM-based climate models with simple fluid-dynamical coupled ocean-ice-atmosphere models, through the use of advanced probabilistic network (PN) models. PN models were used to develop a new diagnostic methodology for analyzing coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions in large climate simulations made with the NCAR Parallel Climate Model (PCM), and to make these tools user-friendly and available to other researchers. We focused on interactions between the tropics and extratropics through atmospheric teleconnections (the Hadley cell, Rossby waves and nonlinear circulation regimes) over both the North Atlantic and North Pacific, and the ocean’s thermohaline circulation (THC) in the Atlantic. We tested the hypothesis that variations in the strength of the THC alter sea surface temperatures in the tropical Atlantic, and that the latter influence the atmosphere in high latitudes through an atmospheric teleconnection, feeding back onto the THC. The PN model framework was used to mediate between the understanding gained with simplified primitive equations models and multi-century simulations made with the PCM. The project team is interdisciplinary and built on an existing synergy between atmospheric and ocean scientists at UCLA, computer scientists at UCI, and climate researchers at the IRI.

  2. Postulated Mesoscale Quantum of Internal Friction Hysteresis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Randall D. Peters

    2004-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Evidence is provided, from yet another experiment, for the existence of a mesoscale quantum of internal friction hysteresis, having the value of the electron rest energy divided by the fine structure constant.

  3. Modelling of Stellar Atmospheres IAU Symposium, Vol. xxx, xxxx

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abstract. We discuss the dynamics in the outer atmospheres of AGB giants. 1. Motivation Hinkle et al. (1982 with an excitation temperature of about 800-1000 K and an almost zero velocity relative to the stellar systemic molecular envelope", should be common not only in Miras but in evolved red giants in general. 2. Project

  4. ATMOSPHERIC TURBULENCE MODELING AND IMPLICATIONS FOR WIND ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Fotini Katopodes

    turbines off too early in high winds, or may risk severe damage to the rotors and blades by operating under Introduction Wind turbines sit at the very bottom of the at- mospheric boundary layer, where winds are highly turbulent, shear events are intermittent, and land- atmosphere interactions may be strong. Turbine hub

  5. Lesson Summary Students will use models of Earth's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    to learn about the causes and effects of global warming, the better prepared we may be to deal of human actions. Global warming refers to the rise in temperatures at Earth's surface and lower atmosphere are contributing to global warming. The danger in this warming is that it could disrupt Earth's climate patterns

  6. A PHYSICALLY-BASED SCHEME FOR THE URBAN ENERGY BUDGET IN ATMOSPHERIC MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribes, Aurélien

    of local canyon geometry is defined instead of the usual bare soil formulation currently used to represent cities in atmospheric models. This allows refinement of the radiative budgets as well as momentum

  7. FORWARD MODELING AND ATMOSPHERIC COMPENSATION IN HYPERSPECTRAL DATA: EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS FROM A TARGET DETECTION PERSPECTIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerekes, John

    a Department of Information Engineering, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy b Center for Imaging Science-based approaches to atmospheric radiative transfer modeling are considered here: Atmosphe- ric Compensation (AC

  8. Meso-scale turbulence in living fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henricus H. Wensink; Jörn Dunkel; Sebastian Heidenreich; Knut Drescher; Raymond E. Goldstein; Hartmut Löwen; Julia M. Yeomans

    2012-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Turbulence is ubiquitous, from oceanic currents to small-scale biological and quantum systems. Self-sustained turbulent motion in microbial suspensions presents an intriguing example of collective dynamical behavior amongst the simplest forms of life, and is important for fluid mixing and molecular transport on the microscale. The mathematical characterization of turbulence phenomena in active non-equilibrium fluids proves even more difficult than for conventional liquids or gases. It is not known which features of turbulent phases in living matter are universal or system-specific, or which generalizations of the Navier-Stokes equations are able to describe them adequately. Here, we combine experiments, particle simulations, and continuum theory to identify the statistical properties of self-sustained meso-scale turbulence in active systems. To study how dimensionality and boundary conditions affect collective bacterial dynamics, we measured energy spectra and structure functions in dense Bacillus subtilis suspensions in quasi-2D and 3D geometries. Our experimental results for the bacterial flow statistics agree well with predictions from a minimal model for self-propelled rods, suggesting that at high concentrations the collective motion of the bacteria is dominated by short-range interactions. To provide a basis for future theoretical studies, we propose a minimal continuum model for incompressible bacterial flow. A detailed numerical analysis of the 2D case shows that this theory can reproduce many of the experimentally observed features of self-sustained active turbulence.

  9. Sandia Energy - Atmosphere Component in Community Earth System Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection245C Unlimited ReleaseWelcome ton6Andy Armstrong HomeAtmosphere

  10. atmospheric model intercomparison: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    into the next generation of production climate models, now often referred to as Earth System Models (ESMs). While a number of terrestrial and ocean carbon models have been coupled...

  11. Glider Path-Planning for Optimal Sampling of Mesoscale Eddies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Ryan N.

    Glider Path-Planning for Optimal Sampling of Mesoscale Eddies Daniel Hernandez1 , Ryan Smith2 these, mesoscale eddies are of particular interest due to the relevance they have in many oceano

  12. Soil moisture in complex terrain: quantifying effects on atmospheric boundary layer flow and providing improved surface boundary conditions for mesoscale models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniels, Megan Hanako

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    74 ii Soil Moisture Sensors: Decagon ECH2O Capacitance133 A.10 Soil types corresponding to each75 Soil Moisture and Temperature Probe

  13. Soil moisture in complex terrain: quantifying effects on atmospheric boundary layer flow and providing improved surface boundary conditions for mesoscale models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniels, Megan Hanako

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    red indicates “water towers” generated by kinematic wavethe kinematic wave equation will begin to collect water onred indicates “water towers” generated by kinematic wave

  14. Soil moisture in complex terrain: quantifying effects on atmospheric boundary layer flow and providing improved surface boundary conditions for mesoscale models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniels, Megan Hanako

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    direction, (b) wind speed, (c) potential temperature, and (Airport of potential temperature, wind speed, winderrors (bias) for potential temperature, wind speed, wind

  15. Modeling of the optical properties of nonspherical particles in the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Guang

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    , Richard Orville August 2007 Major Subject: Atmospheric Sciences iii ABSTRACT Modeling of the Optical Properties of Nonspherical Particles in the Atmosphere. (August 2007) Guang Chen, B.S., Jilin University; M.S., University of Southern..., the computation demand also goes up with 8 the increase of the spatial resolution. Alternatively, the pseudo-spectral time-domain (PSTD) method pioneered by Liu [63, 67] in 1997 and 1998 to solve Maxwell?s equations and study propagations of acoustic waves...

  16. A Coupling Methodology for Mesoscale-informed Nuclear Fuel Performance Codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Tonks; Derek Gaston; Cody Permann; Paul Millett; Glen Hansen; Dieter Wolf

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study proposes an approach for capturing the effect of microstructural evolution on reactor fuel performance by coupling a mesoscale irradiated microstructure model with a finite element fuel performance code. To achieve this, the macroscale system is solved in a parallel, fully coupled, fully-implicit manner using the preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton Krylov (JFNK) method. Within the JFNK solution algorithm, microstructure-influenced material parameters are calculated by the mesoscale model and passed back to the macroscale calculation. Due to the stochastic nature of the mesoscale model, a dynamic fitting technique is implemented to smooth roughness in the calculated material parameters. The proposed methodology is demonstrated on a simple model of a reactor fuel pellet. In the model, INL’s BISON fuel performance code calculates the steady-state temperature profile in a fuel pellet and the microstructure-influenced thermal conductivity is determined with a phase field model of irradiated microstructures. This simple multiscale model demonstrates good nonlinear convergence and near ideal parallel scalability. By capturing the formation of large mesoscale voids in the pellet interior, the multiscale model predicted the irradiation-induced reduction in the thermal conductivity commonly observed in reactors.

  17. Accessing biology's toolbox for the mesoscale biofabrication of soft matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raghavan, Srinivasa

    Accessing biology's toolbox for the mesoscale biofabrication of soft matter Gregory F. Payne,bf James N. Culverag and William E. Bentley*ab Biology is a master of mesoscale science, possessing will provide a biocompatible approach to mesoscale science and yield products that are safe, sustainable

  18. MPO 663 -Convective and Mesoscale Meteorology Brian Mapes, Spring 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    MPO 663 - Convective and Mesoscale Meteorology Brian Mapes, Spring 2008 I intend for students and mesoscale phenomena. 2. Working understanding of several of these tools, cultivated via homework, including. A sense of how convective and mesoscale phenomena fit into larger scales, gained via short current

  19. MESOSCALE EDDIES Peter B. Rhines, University of Washington,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MESOSCALE EDDIES Peter B. Rhines, University of Washington, School of Oceanography, Box 357940, Seattle, WA 98195 7940, USA Copyright ^ 2001 Academic Press doi:10.1006/rwos.2001.0143 Mesoscale eddies that strongly feel viscosity, to `mesoscale eddies' that strongly feel the Earth's rota- tion, to great `gyres

  20. GLOBAL PATTERN OF MESOSCALE VARIABILITY IN SEA SURFACE HEIGHT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaplan, Alexey

    GLOBAL PATTERN OF MESOSCALE VARIABILITY IN SEA SURFACE HEIGHT AND ITS DYNAMICAL CAUSES Alexey separate the mesoscale variability of sea surface heights into its spatial and temporal components of mesoscale variability in different areas to dynamical causes. Major portion of it can be explained

  1. Remotely sensed mesoscale oceanography and the distribution of Illex argentinus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Graham

    Remotely sensed mesoscale oceanography and the distribution of Illex argentinus in the South consider the in¯uence of mesoscale oceanographic processes around the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas remotely sensed satellite images were used as an indicator of mesoscale oceanographic activity and compared

  2. Mesoscale analysis of segmental dynamics in microphase-segregated polyurea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    Mesoscale analysis of segmental dynamics in microphase- segregated polyurea M. Grujicic · B-atom molecular dynamics techniques. To overcome this problem, mesoscale coarse-grain simulation methods of constituent atom-size particles. Within the mesoscale methods, on the other hand, this atomistic description

  3. Numerical Simulation in Applied Geophysics. From the Mesoscale to the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    Numerical Simulation in Applied Geophysics. From the Mesoscale to the Macroscale Juan E. Santos Numerical Simulation in Applied Geophysics. From the Mesoscale to the Macroscale ­ p. #12;Introduction. I layering, fractures and craks at the mesoscale (on the order of centimeters) are common in the earth

  4. HYBRID DECADE-MEAN GLOBAL SEA LEVEL WITH MESOSCALE RESOLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HYBRID DECADE-MEAN GLOBAL SEA LEVEL WITH MESOSCALE RESOLUTION Nikolai A. Maximenko1 and Pearn P of twin-satellite mission GRACE and mesoscale sea level tilt derived from the momentum balance as seen 55 #12;sea level exhibits excellent accuracy on mesoscale, but may contain significant systematic

  5. Computational upscaling of inertia effects from porescale to mesoscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peszynska, Malgorzata

    Computational upscaling of inertia effects from porescale to mesoscale Malgorzata Peszy´nska1 for computational upscaling of flow from porescale (microscale) to lab scale (mesoscale). In particular, we solve laboratory for porous me- dia which delivers data needed for mesoscale simulations by performing microscale

  6. Mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan, M.; Darling, S. B. (Center for Nanoscale Materials)

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the midst of an exciting era of polymer nanoscience, where the development of materials and understanding of properties at the nanoscale remain a major R&D endeavor, there are several exciting phenomena that have been reported at the mesoscale (approximately an order of magnitude larger than the nanoscale). In this review article, we focus on mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films from the viewpoint of origination of structure formation, structure development and the interaction forces that govern these morphologies. Mesoscale morphologies, including dendrites, holes, spherulites, fractals and honeycomb structures have been observed in thin films of homopolymer, copolymer, blends and composites. Following a largely phenomenological level of description, we review the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of mesostructure formation outlining some of the key mechanisms at play. We also discuss various strategies to direct, limit, or inhibit the appearance of mesostructures in polymer thin films as well as an outlook toward potential areas of growth in this field of research.

  7. Sensitivity of an Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled Model to the Coupling Method : Study of Tropical Cyclone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recanati, Catherine

    Sensitivity of an Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled Model to the Coupling Method : Study of Tropical Cyclone) in a realistic configuration aiming at simulating the genesis and propagation of tropical cyclone Erica and Oceanic Coupled Models (AOCMs) which account for important air-sea feedbacks. Separate integrations

  8. Interpretation of AIRS Data in Thin Cirrus Atmospheres Based on a Fast Radiative Transfer Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    Interpretation of AIRS Data in Thin Cirrus Atmospheres Based on a Fast Radiative Transfer Model of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California B. H. KAHN Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute radiative transfer model has been developed for application to cloudy satellite data assimilation

  9. Modeling the barotropic response of the global ocean to atmospheric wind and pressure forcing -comparisons with observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling the barotropic response of the global ocean to atmospheric wind and pressure forcing] A global simulation of the ocean response to atmospheric wind and pressure forcing has been run during the barotropic response of the global ocean to atmospheric wind and pressure forcing - comparisons

  10. Particle-Based Mesoscale Hydrodynamic Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiroshi Noguchi; Norio Kikuchi; Gerhard Gompper

    2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) and multi-particle collision (MPC) dynamics are powerful tools to study mesoscale hydrodynamic phenomena accompanied by thermal fluctuations. To understand the advantages of these types of mesoscale simulation techniques in more detail, we propose new two methods, which are intermediate between DPD and MPC -- DPD with a multibody thermostat (DPD-MT), and MPC-Langevin dynamics (MPC-LD). The key features are applying a Langevin thermostat to the relative velocities of pairs of particles or multi-particle collisions, and whether or not to employ collision cells. The viscosity of MPC-LD is derived analytically, in very good agreement with the results of numerical simulations.

  11. Air pollution forecasting by coupled atmosphere-fire model WRF and SFIRE with WRF-Chem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kochanski, Adam K; Mandel, Jan; Clements, Craig B

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric pollution regulations have emerged as a dominant obstacle to prescribed burns. Thus, forecasting the pollution caused by wildland fires has acquired high importance. WRF and SFIRE model wildland fire spread in a two-way interaction with the atmosphere. The surface heat flux from the fire causes strong updrafts, which in turn change the winds and affect the fire spread. Fire emissions, estimated from the burning organic matter, are inserted in every time step into WRF-Chem tracers at the lowest atmospheric layer. The buoyancy caused by the fire then naturally simulates plume dynamics, and the chemical transport in WRF-Chem provides a forecast of the pollution spread. We discuss the choice of wood burning models and compatible chemical transport models in WRF-Chem, and demonstrate the results on case studies.

  12. Sparse optimization for inverse problems in atmospheric modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Apr 13, 2015 ... In S.-E. Gryning and F. Schiermeier, editors, Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application. XI, volume 21 of NATO Challenges of Modern Society, ...

  13. atmospheric emissions modeling: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pollution credits. Our model captures most of the features of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme Carmona, Rene 107 Combined effects of anthropogenic emissions and...

  14. A grid of synthetic ionizing spectra for very hot compact stars from NLTE model atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Rauch

    2003-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The precise analysis of properties of planetary nebulae is strongly dependent on good models for the stellar ionizing spectrum. Observations in the UV - X-ray wavelength range as well as NLTE model atmosphere calculations of spectra of their exciting stars have shown that neither blackbody fluxes nor "standard" NLTE atmosphere models which are composed out of hydrogen and helium only are good approximations. Strong differences between synthetic spectra from these compared to observed spectra at energies higher than 54 eV (He II ground state) can be ascribed to the neglect of metal-line blanketing. Realistic modeling of the emergent fluxes of hot stars in the UV - X-ray wavelength range requires metal-line blanketed NLTE model atmospheres which include all elements from hydrogen up to the iron-group. For this purpose, we present a grid (solar and halo abundance ratios) of metal-line blanketed NLTE model atmosphere fluxes which covers the parameter range of central stars of planetary nebulae.

  15. Study of cosmic ray interaction model based on atmospheric muons for the neutrino flux calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanuki, T.; Honda, M.; Kajita, T.; Kasahara, K.; Midorikawa, S. [International Center for Elementary Particle Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Shibaura Institute of Technology, 307 Fukasaku, Minuma-ku, Saitama 337-8570 (Japan); Faculty of Software and Information Technology, Aomori University, 2-3-1 Kobata, Aomori, Aomori 030-0943 (Japan)

    2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the hadronic interaction for the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux by summarizing the accurately measured atmospheric muon flux data and comparing with simulations. We find the atmospheric muon and neutrino fluxes respond to errors in the {pi}-production of the hadronic interaction similarly, and compare the atmospheric muon flux calculated using the HKKM04 [M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, and S. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. D 70, 043008 (2004).] code with experimental measurements. The {mu}{sup +}+{mu}{sup -} data show good agreement in the 1{approx}30 GeV/c range, but a large disagreement above 30 GeV/c. The {mu}{sup +}/{mu}{sup -} ratio shows sizable differences at lower and higher momenta for opposite directions. As the disagreements are considered to be due to assumptions in the hadronic interaction model, we try to improve it phenomenologically based on the quark parton model. The improved interaction model reproduces the observed muon flux data well. The calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux will be reported in the following paper [M. Honda et al., Phys. Rev. D 75, 043006 (2007).].

  16. Long-Range Atmospheric Transport of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: A Global 3-D Model Analysis Including Evaluation of Arctic Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Carey

    We use the global 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem to simulate long-range atmospheric transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To evaluate the model’s ability to simulate PAHs with different volatilities, ...

  17. Improvement of low energy atmospheric neutrino flux calculation using the JAM nuclear interaction model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honda, M.; Kajita, T.; Kasahara, K.; Midorikawa, S. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, and Institute for the Physics and Mathematical of the Universe, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 169-8555 (Japan); Faculty of Software and Information Technology, Aomori University, Aomori, 030-0943 Japan (Japan)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes with an interaction model named JAM, which is used in PHITS (Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System) [K. Niita et al., Radiation Measurements 41, 1080 (2006).]. The JAM interaction model agrees with the HARP experiment [H. Collaboration, Astropart. Phys. 30, 124 (2008).] a little better than DPMJET-III[S. Roesler, R. Engel, and J. Ranft, arXiv:hep-ph/0012252.]. After some modifications, it reproduces the muon flux below 1 GeV/c at balloon altitudes better than the modified DPMJET-III, which we used for the calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux in previous works [T. Sanuki, M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, and S. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. D 75, 043005 (2007).][M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, S. Midorikawa, and T. Sanuki, Phys. Rev. D 75, 043006 (2007).]. Some improvements in the calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux are also reported.

  18. Found: The missing blue opacity in atmosphere models of cool hydrogen white dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. M. Kowalski; D. Saumon

    2006-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the importance of the far red wing of the Lyman $ \\alpha$ line of hydrogen in the atmospheres of cool white dwarfs of pure hydrogen composition. We find that this absorption process dominates all important sources of opacity in the blue part of the optical spectrum of these stars. Our successful fits to the spectra of cool DA/DC white dwarfs indicate that the far red wing of the $\\rm Ly \\alpha$ line is the source of opacity that had been missing in the models. The observed sequence of cool white dwarfs in color-color diagrams is very well reproduced by our new pure hydrogen atmosphere models, suggesting that the atmospheric composition of the coolest DC white dwarfs must be revisited.

  19. MODELING ATMOSPHERIC RELEASES OF TRITIUM FROM NUCLEAR INSTALLATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okula, K

    2007-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Tritium source term analysis and the subsequent dispersion and consequence analyses supporting the safety documentation of Department of Energy nuclear facilities are especially sensitive to the applied software analysis methodology, input data and user assumptions. Three sequential areas in tritium accident analysis are examined in this study to illustrate where the analyst should exercise caution. Included are: (1) the development of a tritium oxide source term; (2) use of a full tritium dispersion model based on site-specific information to determine an appropriate deposition scaling factor for use in more simplified, broader modeling, and (3) derivation of a special tritium compound (STC) dose conversion factor for consequence analysis, consistent with the nature of the originating source material. It is recommended that unless supporting, defensible evidence is available to the contrary, the tritium release analyses should assume tritium oxide as the species released (or chemically transformed under accident's environment). Important exceptions include STC situations and laboratory-scale releases of hydrogen gas. In the modeling of the environmental transport, a full phenomenology model suggests that a deposition velocity of 0.5 cm/s is an appropriate value for environmental features of the Savannah River Site. This value is bounding for certain situations but non-conservative compared to the full model in others. Care should be exercised in choosing other factors such as the exposure time and the resuspension factor.

  20. Causes and Implications of Persistent Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Biases in Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL] [ORNL; Randerson, James T. [University of California, Irvine] [University of California, Irvine; Arora, Vivek K. [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Meteorological Service of Canada] [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Meteorological Service of Canada; Bao, Qing [State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics] [State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics; Cadule, Patricia [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environment] [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environment; Ji, Duoying [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing] [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing; Jones, Chris D. [Hadley Centre, U.K. Met Office] [Hadley Centre, U.K. Met Office; Kawamiya, Michio [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC)] [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC); Khatiwala, Samar [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY] [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY; Lindsay, Keith [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)] [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Obata, Atsushi [Meteorological Research Institute, Japan] [Meteorological Research Institute, Japan; Shevliakova, Elena [Princeton University] [Princeton University; Six, Katharina D. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany] [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany; Tjiputra, Jerry F. [Uni Climate, Uni Research] [Uni Climate, Uni Research; Volodin, Evgeny M. [Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow] [Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow; Wu, Tongwen [China Meteorological Administration (CMA), Beijing] [China Meteorological Administration (CMA), Beijing

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The strength of feedbacks between a changing climate and future CO2 concentrations are uncertain and difficult to predict using Earth System Models (ESMs). We analyzed emission-driven simulations--in which atmospheric CO2 levels were computed prognostically--for historical (1850-2005) and future periods (RCP 8.5 for 2006-2100) produced by 15 ESMs for the Fifth Phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Comparison of ESM prognostic atmospheric CO2 over the historical period with observations indicated that ESMs, on average, had a small positive bias in predictions of contemporary atmospheric CO2. Weak ocean carbon uptake in many ESMs contributed to this bias, based on comparisons with observations of ocean and atmospheric anthropogenic carbon inventories. We found a significant linear relationship between contemporary atmospheric CO2 biases and future CO2 levels for the multi-model ensemble. We used this relationship to create a contemporary CO2 tuned model (CCTM) estimate of the atmospheric CO2 trajectory for the 21st century. The CCTM yielded CO2 estimates of 600 {plus minus} 14 ppm at 2060 and 947 {plus minus} 35 ppm at 2100, which were 21 ppm and 32 ppm below the multi-model mean during these two time periods. Using this emergent constraint approach, the likely ranges of future atmospheric CO2, CO2-induced radiative forcing, and CO2-induced temperature increases for the RCP 8.5 scenario were considerably narrowed compared to estimates from the full ESM ensemble. Our analysis provided evidence that much of the model-to-model variation in projected CO2 during the 21st century was tied to biases that existed during the observational era, and that model differences in the representation of concentration-carbon feedbacks and other slowly changing carbon cycle processes appear to be the primary driver of this variability. By improving models to more closely match the long-term time series of CO2 from Mauna Loa, our analysis suggests uncertainties in future climate projections can be reduced.

  1. A Flexible Atmospheric Modeling Framework for the CESM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall, David [Colorado State University; Heikes, Ross [Colorado State University; Konor, Celal [Colorado State University

    2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We have created two global dynamical cores based on the unified system of equations and Z-grid staggering on an icosahedral grid, which are collectively called UZIM (Unified Z-grid Icosahedral Model). The z-coordinate version (UZIM-height) can be run in hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic modes. The sigma-coordinate version (UZIM-sigma) runs in only hydrostatic mode. The super-parameterization has been included as a physics option in both models. The UZIM versions with the super-parameterization are called SUZI. With SUZI-height, we have completed aquaplanet runs. With SUZI-sigma, we are making aquaplanet runs and realistic climate simulations. SUZI-sigma includes realistic topography and a SiB3 model to parameterize the land-surface processes.

  2. Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 12751298, 2013 www.geosci-model-dev.net/6/1275/2013/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    for the 3-D cloud-resolving mesoscale model Meso-NH with application to idealized cases M. Leriche, J-dimensional cloud resolv- ing mesoscale model. This module includes gaseous- and aqueous-phase chemical reactions

  3. Atmospheric Horizontal Resolution Affects Tropical Climate Variability in Coupled Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guilyardi, Eric

    di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna, Italy S. BEHERA, J.-J. LUO, AND S. MASSON Frontier Research model, SINTEX-Frontier (SINTEX-F), developed jointly at Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia that the Corresponding author address: A. Navarra, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Via Donato Creti 12

  4. Modeling Activities in the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Sciences Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast, Jerome D.; Ghan, Steven J.; Schwartz, Stephen E.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) conducts research pertinent to radiative forcing of climate change by atmospheric aerosols. The program consists of approximately 40 highly interactive peer-reviewed research projects that examine aerosol properties and processes and the evolution of aerosols in the atmosphere. Principal components of the program are instrument development, laboratory experiments, field studies, theoretical investigations, and modeling. The objectives of the Program are to 1) improve the understanding of aerosol processes associated with light scattering and absorption properties and interactions with clouds that affect Earth's radiative balance and to 2) develop model-based representations of these processes that enable the effects of aerosols on Earth's climate system to be properly represented in global-scale numerical climate models. Although only a few of the research projects within ASP are explicitly identified as primarily modeling activities, modeling actually comprises a substantial component of a large fraction of ASP research projects. This document describes the modeling activities within the Program as a whole, the objectives and intended outcomes of these activities, and the linkages among the several modeling components and with global-scale modeling activities conducted under the support of the Department of Energy's Climate Sciences Program and other aerosol and climate research programs.

  5. Sensitivity of Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled Models to the Coupling Method : Example of Tropical Cyclone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sensitivity of Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled Models to the Coupling Method : Example of Tropical Cyclone and propagation of tropical cyclone Erica. Sensitiv- ity tests to the coupling method are carried out-sea feedbacks. Separate integrations of the Corresponding author. Phone: +33 (0)4 76 51 48 60 Fax: +33 (0)4 76

  6. Idealized test cases for the dynamical cores of Atmospheric General Circulation Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jablonowski, Christiane

    Idealized test cases for the dynamical cores of Atmospheric General Circulation Models: A proposal) Ram Nair (NCAR) Mark Taylor (Sandia National Laboratory) May/29/2008 1 Idealized test cases for 3D dynamical cores This document describes the idealized dynamical core test cases that are proposed

  7. Radio frequency induced ionized collisional flow model for application at atmospheric pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Subrata

    Radio frequency induced ionized collisional flow model for application at atmospheric pressures and radio frequency (rf) induced plasma-sheath dynamics, using multifluid equations. For the former, argon inherent in nonequilibrium discharges such as obtained through radio frequency (rf) or microwave excitation

  8. Modeling impacts of geomagnetic field variations on middle atmospheric ozone responses to solar proton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    events (SPEs) the flux of high-energy protons from the Sun is markedly increased. In order to investigateModeling impacts of geomagnetic field variations on middle atmospheric ozone responses to solar charged particles of solar and cosmic origin. Therefore variations of the geomagnetic field occurring

  9. MODELLING MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING FOR FRUITS AND VEGETABLES USING MEMBRANE SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinze, Thomas

    of polymeric film in or- der to modify the O2 and CO2 concentrations inside the package, reducing metabolic are not fully under- stood. As examples we can refer to the little knowl- edge about the effect of CO2MODELLING MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING FOR FRUITS AND VEGETABLES USING MEMBRANE SYSTEMS Gabi

  10. The Hamiltonian Particle-Mesh (HPM) method for numerical modeling of atmospheric flows.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Guebuem

    The Hamiltonian Particle-Mesh (HPM) method for numerical modeling of atmospheric flows. Seoleun Shin 15. Feb. 2011 Abstract The Hamiltonian Particle-Mesh (HPM) method is an interesting alternative have developed schemes based on the HPM method for the shallow-water equations on the sphere, nonhydro

  11. How atmospheric ice forms | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric ice forms How atmospheric ice forms Released: September 08, 2014 New insights into atmospheric ice formation could improve climate models This study advances our...

  12. Effects of urban land cover modifications in a mesoscale meteorological model on surface temperature and heat fluxes in the Phoenix metropolitan area.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    in the modeling domain was calculated as part of the energy balance equation according to: E = a C CuM[qs(Tg) -qs MM5. The single urban category in the existing 25-category United States Geological Survey (USGS surface energy fluxes and ground temperature. Planetary boundary layer processes were included via the MRF

  13. Atmospheric Modelling for Neptune's Methane D/H Ratio - Preliminary Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cotton, Daniel V; Bott, Kimberly; Bailey, Jeremy

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ratio of deuterium to hydrogen (D/H ratio) of Solar System bodies is an important clue to their formation histories. Here we fit a Neptunian atmospheric model to Gemini Near Infrared Spectrograph (GNIRS) high spectral resolution observations and determine the D/H ratio in methane absorption in the infrared H-band ($\\sim$ 1.6 {\\mu}m). The model was derived using our radiative transfer software VSTAR (Versatile Software for the Transfer of Atmospheric Radiation) and atmospheric fitting software ATMOF (ATMOspheric Fitting). The methane line list used for this work has only become available in the last few years, enabling a refinement of earlier estimates. We identify a bright region on the planetary disc and find it to correspond to an optically thick lower cloud. Our preliminary determination of CH$_{\\rm 3}$D/CH$_{\\rm 4}$ is 3.0$\\times10^{-4}$, which is in line with the recent determination of Irwin et al. (2014) of 3.0$^{+1.0}_{-0.9}\\sim\\times10^{-4}$, made using the same model parameters and line list but...

  14. Aerosol Effects on Cirrus through Ice Nucleation in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5 with a Statistical Cirrus Scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Minghuai; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Kai; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A statistical cirrus cloud scheme that tracks ice saturation ratio in the clear-sky and cloudy portion of a grid box separately has been implemented into NCAR CAM5 to provide a consistent treatment of ice nucleation and cloud formation. Simulated ice supersaturation and ice crystal number concentrations strongly depend on the number concentrations of heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN), subgrid temperature formulas and the number concentration of sulfate particles participating in homogeneous freezing, while simulated ice water content is insensitive to these perturbations. 1% to 10% dust particles serving as heterogeneous IN is 20 found to produce ice supersaturaiton in better agreement with observations. Introducing a subgrid temperature perturbation based on long-term aircraft observations of meso-scale motion produces a better hemispheric contrast in ice supersaturation compared to observations. Heterogeneous IN from dust particles significantly alter the net radiative fluxes at the top of atmosphere (TOA) (-0.24 to -1.59 W m-2) with a significant clear-sky longwave component (0.01 to -0.55 W m-2). Different cirrus treatments significantly perturb the net TOA anthropogenic aerosol forcing from -1.21 W m-2 to -1.54 W m-2, with a standard deviation of 0.10 W m-2. Aerosol effects on cirrus clouds exert an even larger impact on the atmospheric component of the radiative fluxes (two or three times the changes in the TOA radiative fluxes) and therefore on the hydrology cycle through the fast atmosphere response. This points to the urgent need to quantify aerosol effects on cirrus clouds through ice nucleation and how these further affect the hydrological cycle.

  15. Precipitation Hydrometeor Type Relative to the Mesoscale Airflow in Oceanic Deep Convection of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houze Jr., Robert A.

    1 Precipitation Hydrometeor Type Relative to the Mesoscale Airflow in Oceanic Deep located relative to mesoscale air motions Heavy rain and riming occur downstream of mesoscale Abstract Composite analysis of near-equatorial oceanic mesoscale convective systems (MCSs

  16. A mesoscale analysis of the Rayleigh-Plateau instability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pao, Wenxiao (BU); Soteriou, Marios (UTRC); Li, Xiaoyi (UTRC); Karniadakis, George (BU); Arienti, Marco

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Capillary pinch-off results carried out with the Many-Body Dissipative Particle Dynamics (MDPD) method are compared with the two-phase continuum discretization of hydrodynamics. The MDPD method provides a mesoscale description of the liquid-gas interface -- molecules can be thought of as grouped in particles with modeled Brownian and dissipative effects. No liquid-gas interface is explicitly defined; surface properties, such as surface tension, result from the MDPD interaction parameters. In side-to-side comparisons, the behavior of the MDPD liquid is demonstrated to replicate the macroscale behavior (thin interface assumption) calculated by the Combined Level Set-Volume of Fluid (CLSVOF) method. For instance, in both the continuum and mesoscale discretizations the most unstable wavelength perturbation leads to pinch-off, whereas a smaller wavelength-to-diameter ratio, as expected, does not. The behavior of the virial pressure in MDPD will be discussed in relation to the hydrodynamic capillary pressure that results from the thin interface assumption.

  17. Simulation of polar stratospheric clouds in the specified dynamics version of the whole atmosphere community climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wegner, T.

    We evaluate the simulation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in the Specified Dynamics version of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model for the Antarctic winter 2005. In this model, PSCs are assumed to form ...

  18. Detecting and characterizing mesoscale and submesoscale structures of Mediterranean water from joint seismic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Click Here for Full Article Detecting and characterizing mesoscale and submesoscale structures mesoscale and submesoscale structures of Mediterranean water from joint seismic and hydrographic the imaged structures in terms of mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, of homogeneous layers and of lateral

  19. MESOSCALE OCEANOGRAPHY Instructors: Igor Kamenkovich, Arthur Mariano and Donald B. Olson, with other contributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    MESOSCALE OCEANOGRAPHY Instructors: Igor Kamenkovich, Arthur Mariano and Donald B. Olson of ocean mesoscale variability, including its properties in different oceanic regimes, the dynamics will learn basic concepts on ocean mesoscale processes and perspectives on current research topics from

  20. Observational Analysis of the Predictability of Mesoscale Convective Systems ISRAEL L. JIRAK AND WILLIAM R. COTTON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Observational Analysis of the Predictability of Mesoscale Convective Systems ISRAEL L. JIRAK (Manuscript received 30 December 2005, in final form 4 October 2006) ABSTRACT Mesoscale convective systems of usefulness in operational forecasting. 1. Introduction Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) frequently de

  1. Description and validation of ERAD: An atmospheric dispersion model for high explosive detonations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boughton, B.A.; DeLaurentis, J.M.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion (ERAD) model is a three-dimensional numerical simulation of turbulent atmospheric transport and diffusion. An integral plume rise technique is used to provide a description of the physical and thermodynamic properties of the cloud of warm gases formed when the explosive detonates. Particle dispersion is treated as a stochastic process which is simulated using a discrete time Lagrangian Monte Carlo method. The stochastic process approach permits a more fundamental treatment of buoyancy effects, calm winds and spatial variations in meteorological conditions. Computational requirements of the three-dimensional simulation are substantially reduced by using a conceptualization in which each Monte Carlo particle represents a small puff that spreads according to a Gaussian law in the horizontal directions. ERAD was evaluated against dosage and deposition measurements obtained during Operation Roller Coaster. The predicted contour areas average within about 50% of the observations. The validation results confirm the model`s representation of the physical processes.

  2. THE GREAT OXIDATION OF EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE: CONTESTING THE YOYO MODEL VIA TRANSITION STABILITY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuntz, M.; Roy, D.; Musielak, Z. E., E-mail: cuntz@uta.ed, E-mail: dipanjan.roy@etumel.univmed.f, E-mail: zmusielak@uta.ed [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2009-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A significant controversy regarding the climate history of the Earth and its relationship to the development of complex life forms concerns the rise of oxygen in the early Earth's atmosphere. Geological records show that this rise occurred about 2.4 Gyr ago, when the atmospheric oxygen increased from less than 10{sup -5} present atmospheric level (PAL) to more than 0.01 PAL and possibly above 0.1 PAL. However, there is a debate whether this rise happened relatively smoothly or with well-pronounced ups and downs (the Yoyo model). In our study, we explore a simplified atmospheric chemical system consisting of oxygen, methane, and carbon that is driven by the sudden decline of the net input of reductants to the surface as previously considered by Goldblatt et al. Based on the transition stability analysis for the system equations, constituting a set of non-autonomous and non-linear differential equations, as well as the inspection of the Lyapunov exponents, it is found that the equations do not exhibit chaotic behavior. In addition, the rise of oxygen occurs relative smoothly, possibly with minor bumps (within a factor of 1.2), but without major jumps. This result clearly argues against the Yoyo model in agreement with recent geological findings.

  3. Lagrangian study of transport and mixing in a mesoscale eddy street

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. V. Prants; M. V. Budyansky; V. I. Ponomarev; M. Yu. Uleysky

    2012-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We use dynamical systems approach and Lagrangian tools to study surface transport and mixing of water masses in a selected coastal region of the Japan Sea with moving mesoscale eddies associated with the Primorskoye Current. Lagrangian trajectories are computed for a large number of particles in an interpolated velocity field generated by a numerical regional multi-layer eddy-resolving circulation model. We compute finite-time Lyapunov exponents for a comparatively long period of time by the method developed and plot the Lyapunov synoptic map quantifying surface transport and mixing in that region. This map uncovers the striking flow structures along the coast with a mesoscale eddy street and repelling material lines. We propose new Lagrangian diagnostic tools --- the time of exit of particles off a selected box, the number of changes of the sign of zonal and meridional velocities --- to study transport and mixing by a pair of strongly interacting eddies often visible at sea-surface temperature satellite images in that region. We develop a technique to track evolution of clusters of particles, streaklines and material lines. The Lagrangian tools used allow us to reveal mesoscale eddies and their structure, to track different phases of the coastal flow, to find inhomogeneous character of transport and mixing on mesoscales and submesoscales and to quantify mixing by the values of exit times and the number of times particles wind around the eddy's center.

  4. Study Of The Fundamental Physical Principles in Atmospheric Modeling Based On Identification Of Atmosphere - Climate Control Factors: Bromine Explosion At The Polar Arctic Sunrise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Iudin

    2010-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We attempt is to provide accumulated evidence and qualitative understanding of the associated atmospheric phenomena of the Arctic bromine explosion and their role in the functioning of the biotic Earth. We rationalize the empirical expression of the bromine influx into atmospheric boundary layer and calculate total amounts of the tropospheric BrO and Bry of the Arctic origin. Based on the quantities and partitioning of the reactive bromine species, we estimate the biogeochemical parametric constraint on the surface ozone field of the springtime NH. The constraint expresses strong relationship between atmosphere-climate control factors of the Earth's life and of external energy source. Physical atmosphere can be seen as a complex network of maximum complexity. Henceforth, we analyze the network context of the Arctic bromine pollution. We suggest that demonstrated attitudinal approach to the distributed surface flux would be successfully used in the innovative atmospheric modeling. The analysis is illustrated by GEM model results which stay in a good agreement with the observational data and support the original idea of the global NH effect of bromine chemistry.

  5. Mesoscale harmonic analysis of homogenous dislocation nucleation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asad Hasan; Craig E. Maloney

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform atomistic computer simulations to study the mechanism of homogeneous dislocation nucleation in two dimensional (2D) hexagonal crystalline films during indentation with a circular nanoindenter. The nucleation process is governed by the vanishing of the energy associated with a single normal mode. This critical mode is largely confined to a single plane of adjacent atoms. For fixed film thickness, L, the spatial extent, \\xi, of the critical mode grows with indenter radius, R. For fixed R/L, the spatial extent \\xi, grows roughly as \\xi ~ L^0.4. We, furthermore, perform a mesoscale analysis to determine the lowest energy normal mode for mesoscale regions of varying radius, r_{meso}, centered on the critical mode's core. The energy, \\lambda_{meso}, of the lowest normal mode in the meso-region decays very rapidly with r_{meso} and \\lambda_{meso} ~= 0 for r_{meso} >~ \\xi. The lowest normal mode shows a spatial extent, \\xi_{meso}, which has a sublinear power-law increase with r_{meso} for r_{meso} mesoscale analysis gives good estimates for the energy and spatial extent of the critical mode \\emph{only} for r_{meso} >~ 1.5 \\xi. In this sense homogeneous dislocation nucleation should be understood as a quasi-local phenomenon.

  6. NASA-TM-III642 Design of Inielligent Mesoscale Periodic Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asher, Sanford A.

    i" /} , NASA-TM-III642 Design of Inielligent Mesoscale Periodic Array Structures Utilizing Smart *National Research Council hitrodoetion Mesoscale Periodic Arlay Structures (MPAS, also known as crystalline

  7. Mesoscale regulation comes from the bottom-up: intertidal interactions between consumers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Karina J.

    REPORT Mesoscale regulation comes from the bottom-up: intertidal interactions between consumers variation in nutrient supply to shift community structure over mesoscales. Keywords Macroalgae, upwelling

  8. Mesoscale Theory of Grains and Cells: Crystal Plasticity and Coarsening Surachate Limkumnerd* and James P. Sethna

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sethna, James P.

    Mesoscale Theory of Grains and Cells: Crystal Plasticity and Coarsening Surachate Limkumnerd a mesoscale theory of dislocation motion. It provides a quantitative description of deformation and rotation

  9. Mesoscale simulation of polymer reaction equilibrium: Combining dissipative particle dynamics with reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisal, Martin

    Mesoscale simulation of polymer reaction equilibrium: Combining dissipative particle dynamics. R. Smith, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 16490 2006 , a mesoscale simulation technique for studying polymer

  10. A unified morphological description of Nafion membranes from SAXS and mesoscale simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, James

    A unified morphological description of Nafion membranes from SAXS and mesoscale simulations James A with mesoscale simulations of the morphology of Nafion using Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) parameterized

  11. Mesoscale polycrystal calculations of damage in spallation in metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonks, Davis L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bingert, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Livescu, Veronica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bronkhorst, C A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to produce a damage model for spallation in metals informed by the polycrystalline grain structure at the mesoscale. Earlier damage models addressed the continuwn macroscale in which these effects were averaged out. In this work we focus on cross sections from recovered samples examined with EBSD (electron backscattered diffraction), which reveal crystal grain orientations and voids. We seek to understand the loading histories of specific sample regions by meshing up the crystal grain structure of these regions and simulating the stress, strain, and damage histories in our hydro code, FLAG. The stresses and strain histories are the fundamental drivers of damage and must be calculated. The calculated final damage structures are compared with those from the recovered samples to validate the simulations.

  12. INTRODUCTIONTOTHE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ? #12;WHAT ISTHE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE? #12;#12;1-D MODEL ATMOSPHERE · Averaged over space and time · GoodINTRODUCTIONTOTHE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE D. Shaun Bloomfield Trinity College Dublin #12;OUTLINE · What is the solar atmosphere? · How is the solar atmosphere observed? · What structures exist and how do they evolve

  13. Atmosphere Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational ManagementDemand Module ThisAt NREL,TheDust as

  14. PROBING NEAR-SURFACE ATMOSPHERIC TURBULENCE WITH LIDAR MEASUREMENTS AND HIGH-RESOLUTION HYDRODYNAMIC MODELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. KAO; D. COOPER; ET AL

    2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As lidar technology is able to provide fast data collection at a resolution of meters in an atmospheric volume, it is imperative to promote a modeling counterpart of the lidar capability. This paper describes an integrated capability based on data from a scanning water vapor lidar and a high-resolution hydrodynamic model (HIGRAD) equipped with a visualization routine (VIEWER) that simulates the lidar scanning. The purpose is to better understand the spatial and temporal representativeness of the lidar measurements and, in turn, to extend their utility in studying turbulence fields in the atmospheric boundary layer. Raman lidar water vapor data collected over the Pacific warm pool and the simulations with the HIGRAD code are used for identifying the underlying physics and potential aliasing effects of spatially resolved lidar measurements. This capability also helps improve the trade-off between spatial-temporal resolution and coverage of the lidar measurements.

  15. Data Assimilation by Artificial Neural Networks for an Atmospheric General Circulation Model: Conventional Observation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cintra, Rosangela S

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an approach for employing artificial neural networks (NN) to emulate an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) as a method of data assimilation. The assimilation methods are tested in the Simplified Parameterizations PrimitivE-Equation Dynamics (SPEEDY) model, an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), using synthetic observational data simulating localization of balloon soundings. For the data assimilation scheme, the supervised NN, the multilayer perceptrons (MLP-NN), is applied. The MLP-NN are able to emulate the analysis from the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF). After the training process, the method using the MLP-NN is seen as a function of data assimilation. The NN were trained with data from first three months of 1982, 1983, and 1984. A hind-casting experiment for the 1985 data assimilation cycle using MLP-NN were performed with synthetic observations for January 1985. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the NN technique for atmospheric data assimilati...

  16. Atmospheric transmission model for a solar beam propagating between a heliostat and a receiver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitman, C.L.; Vant-Hull, L.L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Formulae are presented that provide estimates of the transmittance for a solar beam propagating between a heliostat and a central receiver. These formulae are wavelength independent, functional fits to the tabulated data of Vittitoe and Biggs, which in turn are from numerical integrations of spectral transmittance data calculated with the aid of the computer code LOWTRAN 3. The formulae allow for interpolation and extrapolation, and they have a form characteristic of atmospheric transmission models. The transmittance model contains five explicit physical variables (the site elevation H, the atmospheric water vapor density rho, the scattering coefficient ..beta.., the tower height h, and the slant range R) and three implicit variables (the season of the year, the climatic region, and the site elevation H) because rho and ..beta.. are dependent on these three variables.

  17. Single-Column Modeling, GCM Parameterizations and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somerville, R.C.J.; Iacobellis, S.F.

    2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Our overall goal is identical to that of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: the development of new and improved parameterizations of cloud-radiation effects and related processes, using ARM data at all three ARM sites, and the implementation and testing of these parameterizations in global and regional models. To test recently developed prognostic parameterizations based on detailed cloud microphysics, we have first compared single-column model (SCM) output with ARM observations at the Southern Great Plains (SGP), North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Topical Western Pacific (TWP) sites. We focus on the predicted cloud amounts and on a suite of radiative quantities strongly dependent on clouds, such as downwelling surface shortwave radiation. Our results demonstrate the superiority of parameterizations based on comprehensive treatments of cloud microphysics and cloud-radiative interactions. At the SGP and NSA sites, the SCM results simulate the ARM measurements well and are demonstrably more realistic than typical parameterizations found in conventional operational forecasting models. At the TWP site, the model performance depends strongly on details of the scheme, and the results of our diagnostic tests suggest ways to develop improved parameterizations better suited to simulating cloud-radiation interactions in the tropics generally. These advances have made it possible to take the next step and build on this progress, by incorporating our parameterization schemes in state-of-the-art 3D atmospheric models, and diagnosing and evaluating the results using independent data. Because the improved cloud-radiation results have been obtained largely via implementing detailed and physically comprehensive cloud microphysics, we anticipate that improved predictions of hydrologic cycle components, and hence of precipitation, may also be achievable. We are currently testing the performance of our ARM-based parameterizations in state-of-the--art global and regional models. One fruitful strategy for evaluating advances in parameterizations has turned out to be using short-range numerical weather prediction as a test-bed within which to implement and improve parameterizations for modeling and predicting climate variability. The global models we have used to date are the CAM atmospheric component of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) CCSM climate model as well as the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) numerical weather prediction model, thus allowing testing in both climate simulation and numerical weather prediction modes. We present detailed results of these tests, demonstrating the sensitivity of model performance to changes in parameterizations.

  18. A Model of Intra-seasonal Oscillations in the Earth atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elena Kartashova; Victor S. L'vov

    2007-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We suggest a way of rationalizing an intra-seasonal oscillations (IOs) of the Earth atmospheric flow as four meteorological relevant triads of interacting planetary waves, isolated from the system of all the rest planetary waves. Our model is independent of the topography (mountains, etc.) and gives a natural explanation of IOs both in the North and South Hemispheres. Spherical planetary waves are an example of a wave mesoscopic system obeying discrete resonances that also appears in other areas of physics.

  19. Summary of the March 25--26, 1991 atmospheric model working meeting. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric transport and diffusion calculations for the initial phase of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project were made using the MESOILT2 computer code (Ramsdell and Burk 1991). This code implemented a Lagrangian trajectory, puff dispersion model using components from other models designed primarily for regulatory applications. Uncertainty in the dispersion calculations was estimated following model calculations. The results of the atmospheric dispersion calculations were summarized in frequency distributions by location for use in preliminary dose calculations.

  20. Development of NEXRAD Wind Retrievals as Input to Atmospheric Dispersion Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast, Jerome D.; Newsom, Rob K.; Allwine, K Jerry; Xu, Qin; Zhang, Pengfei; Copeland, Jeffrey H.; Sun, Jenny

    2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to determine the feasibility that routinely collected data from the Doppler radars can appropriately be used in Atmospheric Dispersion Models (ADMs) for emergency response. We have evaluated the computational efficiency and accuracy of two variational mathematical techniques that derive the u- and v-components of the wind from radial velocities obtained from Doppler radars. A review of the scientific literature indicated that the techniques employ significantly different approaches in applying the variational techniques: 2-D Variational (2DVar), developed by NOAA¹s (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's) National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) and Variational Doppler Radar Analysis System (VDRAS), developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). We designed a series of numerical experiments in which both models employed the same horizontal domain and resolution encompassing Oklahoma City for a two-week period during the summer of 2003 so that the computed wind retrievals could be fairly compared. Both models ran faster than real-time on a typical single dual-processor computer, indicating that they could be used to generate wind retrievals in near real-time. 2DVar executed ~2.5 times faster than VDRAS because of its simpler approach.

  1. Impact of rainstorm and runoff modeling on predicted consequences of atmospheric releases from nuclear reactor accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritchie, L.T.; Brown, W.D.; Wayland, J.R.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A general temperate latitude cyclonic rainstorm model is presented which describes the effects of washout and runoff on consequences of atmospheric releases of radioactive material from potential nuclear reactor accidents. The model treats the temporal and spatial variability of precipitation processes. Predicted air and ground concentrations of radioactive material and resultant health consequences for the new model are compared to those of the original WASH-1400 model under invariant meteorological conditions and for realistic weather events using observed meteorological sequences. For a specific accident under a particular set of meteorological conditions, the new model can give significantly different results from those predicted by the WASH-1400 model, but the aggregate consequences produced for a large number of meteorological conditions are similar.

  2. Atomistic and mesoscale modeling of dislocation mobility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Wei, 1977-

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dislocation is a line defect in crystalline materials, and a microscopic carrier of plastic deformation. Because dislocation has both a localized core and a long-range stress field, linking atomistic and meso scales is ...

  3. Nano- and mesoscale modeling of cement matrix

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Zechuan

    Atomistic simulations of cementitious material can enrich our understanding of its structural and mechanical properties, whereas current computational capacities restrict the investigation length scale within 10 nm. In ...

  4. Inferring catchment precipitation by doing hydrology backward: A test in 24 small and mesoscale catchments in Luxembourg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchner, James W.

    Inferring catchment precipitation by doing hydrology backward: A test in 24 small and mesoscale September 2012; published 10 October 2012. [1] The complexity of hydrological systems and the necessary simplification of models describing these systems remain major challenges in hydrological modeling. Kirchner

  5. Generation of mesoscale convective structures in tokamak edge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Smolyakov, A. I. [University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada)

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the interplay of the interchange drive and nonlinear effects of Reynolds stress and inverse cascade of drift wave turbulence select a range of plasma parameters (plasma pressure), for which mesoscale perturbations of a certain transverse length scale become unstable. It is suggested that the blob formation is a result of these mesoscale instabilities.

  6. A Three-Dimensional Ocean-Seaice-Carbon Cycle Model and its Coupling to a Two-Dimensional Atmospheric Model: Uses in Climate Change Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutkiewicz, Stephanie.

    We describe the coupling of a three-dimensional ocean circulation model, with explicit thermodynamic seaice and ocean carbon cycle representations, to a two-dimensional atmospheric/land model. This coupled system has been ...

  7. Atmospheric effects of nuclar war aerosols in general circulation model simulations: Influence of smoke optical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, S.L.; Ramaswamy, V.; Covey, C.

    1987-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A global atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) is modified to include radiative transfer parameterizations for the absorption and scattering of solar radiation and the absorption of thermal infrared (IR) radiation by smoke aerosols. The solar scattering modifications include a parameterization for diagnosing smoke optical properties as a function of the time- and space-dependent smoke particle radii. The aerosol IR modifications allow for both the ''grey'' absorber approximation and a broadband approximation that resolves the aerosol absorption in four spectral intervals. We examine the sensitivity of some GCM-simulated atmospheric and climatic effects to the optical properties and radiative transfer parameterizations used in studies of massive injections of smoke. Specifically, we test the model response to solar scattering versus nonscattering smoke, variations in prescribed smoke single scattering albedo and IR specific absorption, and interactive versus fixed smoke optical properties. Hypothetical nuclear war created smoke scenarios assume the July injection of 60 or 180 Tg of smoke over portions of the mid-latitude land areas of the northern hemisphere. Atmospheric transport and scavenging of the smoke are included. Nonscattering smoke cases produce roughly 40 Wm/sup -2/ more Earth-atmosphere solar irradiance absorption over the northern hemisphere, when compared to scattering smoke cases having equivalent specific absorption efficiencies. Varying the elemental carbon content of smoke over a plausible range produces a 4/sup 0/--6 /sup 0/C change in average mid-latitude land surface temperature, and a variation of about 0.1 in zonally averaged planetary albedo in the northern hemisphere.

  8. A probabilistic model for bounded elasticity tensor random fields with application to polycrystalline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    -bounded positive-definite matrix-valued random fields in the context of mesoscale modeling of heterogeneous elastic; Heterogeneous materials; Apparent elasticity tensor; Mesoscale modeling; Random field; Non-Gaussian. $ J

  9. Modeling dust as component minerals in the Community Atmosphere Model: development of framework and impact on radiative forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scanza, Rachel; Mahowald, N.; Ghan, Steven J.; Zender, C. S.; Kok, J. F.; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Y.; Albani, Samuel

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mineralogy of desert dust is important due to its effect on radiation, clouds and biogeochemical cycling of trace nutrients. This study presents the simulation of dust radiative forcing as a function of both mineral composition and size at the global scale using mineral soil maps for estimating emissions. Externally mixed mineral aerosols in the bulk aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4) and internally mixed mineral aerosols in the modal aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5) embedded in the Community Earth System Model version 1.0.5 (CESM) are speciated into common mineral components in place of total dust. The simulations with mineralogy are compared to available observations of mineral atmospheric distribution and deposition along with observations of clear-sky radiative forcing efficiency. Based on these simulations, we estimate the all-sky direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere as +0.05Wm?2 for both CAM4 and CAM5 simulations with mineralogy and compare this both with simulations of dust in release versions of CAM4 and CAM5 (+0.08 and +0.17Wm?2) and of dust with optimized optical properties, wet scavenging and particle size distribution in CAM4 and CAM5, ?0.05 and ?0.17Wm?2, respectively. The ability to correctly include the mineralogy of dust in climate models is hindered by its spatial and temporal variability as well as insufficient global in-situ observations, incomplete and uncertain source mineralogies and the uncertainties associated with data retrieved from remote sensing methods.

  10. ISO-SWS calibration and the accurate modelling of cool-star atmospheres: I. Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Decin; C. Waelkens; K. Eriksson; B. Gustafsson; B. Plez; A. J. Sauval; W. Van Assche; B. Vandenbussche

    2000-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed spectroscopic study of the ISO-SWS data of the red giant Alpha Tau is presented, which enables not only the accurate determination of the stellar parameters of Alpha Tau, but also serves as a critical review of the ISO-SWS calibration. This study is situated in a broader context of an iterative process in which both accurate observations of stellar templates and cool star atmosphere models are involved to improve the ISO-SWS calibration process as well as the theoretical modelling of stellar atmospheres. Therefore a sample of cool stars, covering the whole A0 -- M8 spectral classification, has been observed in order to disentangle calibration problems and problems in generating the theoretical models and corresponding synthetic spectrum. By using stellar parameters found in the literature large discrepancies were seen between the ISO-SWS data and the generated synthetic spectrum of Alpha Tau. A study of the influence of various stellar parameters on the theoretical models and synthetic spectra, in conjunction with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to evaluate objectively the goodness-of-fit, enables us to pin down the stellar parameters with a high accuracy: Teff = 3850 +/- 70 K, log g = 1.50 +/- 0.15, M = 2.3 +/- 0.8 Msun, z = -0.15 +/- 0.20 dex, microturbulence = 1.7 +/- 0.3 km/s, 12C/13C= 10 +/- 1, abundance of C = 8.35 +/- 0.20 dex, abundance of N= 8.35 +/- 0.25 dex, abundance of O = 8.83 +/- 0.15 dex and the angular diameter is 20.77 +/- 0.83 mas. These atmospheric parameters were then compared with the results provided by other authors using other methods and/or spectra.

  11. Testing the atmospheric dispersion model of CSA N288.1 with site-specific data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chouhan, S L

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The atmospheric dispersion component of CSA Standard N288. 1, which provides guidelines for calculating derived release limits, has been tested. Long-term average concentrations of tritium in air were predicted using site-specific release rates and meteorological data and compared with measured concentrations at 43 monitoring sites at all CANDU stations in Canada. The predictions correlate well with the observations but were found to be conservative, overestimating by about 50% on average. The model overpredicted 84% of the time, with the highest prediction lying a factor of 5.5 above the corresponding observation. The model underpredicted the remaining 16% of the time, with the lowest prediction about one-half of the corresponding measurement. Possible explanations for this bias are discussed but no single reason appears capable of accounting for the discrepancy. Rather, the tendency to overprediction seems to result from the cumulative effects of a number of small conservatisms in the model. The model predi...

  12. VALDRIFT 1.0: A valley atmospheric dispersion model with deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allwine, K.J.; Bian, X.; Whiteman, C.D.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VALDRIFT version 1.0 is an atmospheric transport and diffusion model for use in well-defined mountain valleys. It is designed to determine the extent of ddft from aedal pesticide spraying activities, but can also be applied to estimate the transport and diffusion of various air pollutants in valleys. The model is phenomenological -- that is, the dominant meteorological processes goveming the behavior of the valley atmosphere are formulated explicitly in the model, albeit in a highly parameterized fashion. The key meteorological processes treated are: (1) nonsteady and nonhomogeneous along-valley winds and turbulent diffusivities, (2) convective boundary layer growth, (3) inversion descent, (4) noctumal temperature inversion breakup, and (5) subsidence. The model is applicable under relatively cloud-free, undisturbed synoptic conditions and is configured to operate through one diumal cycle for a single valley. The inputs required are the valley topographical characteristics, pesticide release rate as a function of time and space, along-valley wind speed as a function of time and space, temperature inversion characteristics at sunrise, and sensible heat flux as a function of time following sunrise. Default values are provided for certain inputs in the absence of detailed observations. The outputs are three-dimensional air concentration and ground-level deposition fields as a function of time.

  13. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: CONTINUOUS DYNAMIC GRID ADAPTATION IN A GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC MODEL: APPLICATION AND REFINEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prusa, Joseph

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This project had goals of advancing the performance capabilities of the numerical general circulation model EULAG and using it to produce a fully operational atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) that can employ either static or dynamic grid stretching for targeted phenomena. The resulting AGCM combined EULAG�s advanced dynamics core with the �physics� of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). Effort discussed below shows how we improved model performance and tested both EULAG and the coupled CAM-EULAG in several ways to demonstrate the grid stretching and ability to simulate very well a wide range of scales, that is, multi-scale capability. We leveraged our effort through interaction with an international EULAG community that has collectively developed new features and applications of EULAG, which we exploited for our own work summarized here. Overall, the work contributed to over 40 peer- reviewed publications and over 70 conference/workshop/seminar presentations, many of them invited.

  14. The solar photospheric abundance of europium. Results from CO5BOLD 3-D hydrodynamical model atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Mucciarelli; E. Caffau; B. Freytag; H. -G. Ludwig; P. Bonifacio

    2008-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Context. Europium is an almost pure r-process element, which may be useful as a reference in nucleocosmochronology. Aims. To determine the photospheric solar abundance using CO5BOLD 3-D hydrodynamical model atmospheres. Methods. Disc-centre and integrated-flux observed solar spectra are used. The europium abundance is derived from the equivalent width measurements. As a reference 1D model atmospheres have been used, in addition. Results. The europium photospheric solar abundance is 0.52 +- 0.02 in agreement with previous determinations. We also determine the photospheric isotopic fraction of Eu(151) to be 49 % +- 2.3 % from the intensity spectra and 50% +-2.3 from the flux spectra. This compares well to the the meteoritic isotopic fraction 47.8%. We explore the 3D corrections also for dwarfs and sub-giants in the temperature range ~5000 K to ~6500 K and solar and 1/10--solar metallicities and find them to be negligible for all the models investigated. Conclusions. Our photospheric Eu abundance is in good agreement with previous determinations based on 1D models. This is in line with our conclusion that 3D effects for this element are negligible in the case of the Sun.

  15. Coastal zone wind energy. Part I. Synoptic and mesoscale controls and distributions of coastal wind energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garstang, M.; Nnaji, S.; Pielke, R.A.; Gusdorf, J.; Lindsey, C.; Snow, J.W.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a method of determining coastal wind energy resources. Climatological data and a mesoscale numerical model are used to delineate the available wind energy along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. It is found that the spatial distribution of this energy is dependent on the locations of the observing sites in relation to the major synoptic weather features as well as the particular orientation of the coastline with respect to the large-scale wind.

  16. Atmospheric transmittance model for a solar beam propagating between a heliostat and a receiver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitman, C.L.; Vant-Hull, L.L.

    1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents formulae that provide reliable estimates of the percent energy loss P/sub L/ (or, equivalently, the transmittance tau) of a solar beam propagating between a heliostat and a receiver. These formulae are wavelength-independent, functional fits to the tabulated results of Vittitoe and Biggs, which in turn are the results of numerical integrations of spectral transmittance data calculated with the aid of the computer code LOWTRAN 3. The formulae allow for interpolation and extrapolation and have a form characteristic of atmospheric transmittance models.

  17. The solar photospheric abundance of europium. Results from CO5BOLD 3-D hydrodynamical model atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mucciarelli, A; Freytag, B; Ludwig, H -G; Bonifacio, P

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Context. Europium is an almost pure r-process element, which may be useful as a reference in nucleocosmochronology. Aims. To determine the photospheric solar abundance using CO5BOLD 3-D hydrodynamical model atmospheres. Methods. Disc-centre and integrated-flux observed solar spectra are used. The europium abundance is derived from the equivalent width measurements. As a reference 1D model atmospheres have been used, in addition. Results. The europium photospheric solar abundance is 0.52 +- 0.02 in agreement with previous determinations. We also determine the photospheric isotopic fraction of Eu(151) to be 49 % +- 2.3 % from the intensity spectra and 50% +-2.3 from the flux spectra. This compares well to the the meteoritic isotopic fraction 47.8%. We explore the 3D corrections also for dwarfs and sub-giants in the temperature range ~5000 K to ~6500 K and solar and 1/10--solar metallicities and find them to be negligible for all the models investigated. Conclusions. Our photospheric Eu abundance is in good agre...

  18. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: CONTINUOUS DYNAMIC GRID ADAPTATION IN A GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC MODEL: APPLICATION AND REFINEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutowski, William J.; Prusa, Joseph M.; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This project had goals of advancing the performance capabilities of the numerical general circulation model EULAG and using it to produce a fully operational atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) that can employ either static or dynamic grid stretching for targeted phenomena. The resulting AGCM combined EULAG's advanced dynamics core with the "physics" of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). Effort discussed below shows how we improved model performance and tested both EULAG and the coupled CAM-EULAG in several ways to demonstrate the grid stretching and ability to simulate very well a wide range of scales, that is, multi-scale capability. We leveraged our effort through interaction with an international EULAG community that has collectively developed new features and applications of EULAG, which we exploited for our own work summarized here. Overall, the work contributed to over 40 peer-reviewed publications and over 70 conference/workshop/seminar presentations, many of them invited. 3a. EULAG Advances EULAG is a non-hydrostatic, parallel computational model for all-scale geophysical flows. EULAG's name derives from its two computational options: EULerian (flux form) or semi-LAGrangian (advective form). The model combines nonoscillatory forward-in-time (NFT) numerical algorithms with a robust elliptic Krylov solver. A signature feature of EULAG is that it is formulated in generalized time-dependent curvilinear coordinates. In particular, this enables grid adaptivity. In total, these features give EULAG novel advantages over many existing dynamical cores. For EULAG itself, numerical advances included refining boundary conditions and filters for optimizing model performance in polar regions. We also added flexibility to the model's underlying formulation, allowing it to work with the pseudo-compressible equation set of Durran in addition to EULAG's standard anelastic formulation. Work in collaboration with others also extended the demonstrated range of validity of soundproof models, showing that they are more broadly applicable than some had previously thought. Substantial testing of EULAG included application and extension of the Jablonowski-Williamson baroclinic wave test - an archetype of planetary weather - and further analysis of multi-scale interactions arising from collapse of temperature fronts in both the baroclinic wave test and simulations of the Held-Suarez idealized climate. These analyses revealed properties of atmospheric gravity waves not seen in previous work and further demonstrated the ability of EULAG to simulate realistic behavior over several orders of magnitude of length scales. Additional collaborative work enhanced capability for modeling atmospheric flows with adaptive moving meshes and demonstrated the ability of EULAG to move into petascale computing. 3b. CAM-EULAG Advances We have developed CAM-EULAG in collaboration with former project postdoc, now University of Cape Town Assistant Professor, Babatunde Abiodun. Initial study documented good model performance in aqua-planet simulations. In particular, we showed that the grid adaptivity (stretching) implemented in CAM-EULAG allows higher resolution in selected regions without causing anomalous behavior such as spurious wave reflection. We then used the stretched-grid version to analyze simulated extreme precipitation events in West Africa, comparing the precipitation and event environment with observed behavior. The model simulates fairly well the spatial scale and the interannual and intraseasonal variability of the extreme events, although its extreme precipitation intensity is weaker than observed. In addition, both observations and the simulations show possible forcing of extreme events by African easterly waves. 3c. Other Contributions Through our collaborations, we have made contributions to a wide range of outcomes. For research focused on terrestrial behavior, these have included (1) upwind schemes for gas dynamics, (2) a nonlinear perspective on the dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation, (3) numerical realism of thermal co

  19. Junhong Wei and Fuqing Zhang, Pennsylvania State University Mesoscale Gravity Waves in Moist Baroclinic Jet-Front Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Anne

    with small amount of moisture, dry dynamic gravity wave modes continue to dominate. However, convective-permitting simulations with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model are performed to study mesoscale gravity waves/negative), and 7-km dynamic tropopause (turquoise lines). Wave Identification Figure 3. Comparison of WP5 at 132 h

  20. Lagrangian study of transport and mixing in a mesoscale eddy street

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prants, S V; Ponomarev, V I; Uleysky, M Yu; 10.1016/j.ocemod.2011.02.008

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use dynamical systems approach and Lagrangian tools to study surface transport and mixing of water masses in a selected coastal region of the Japan Sea with moving mesoscale eddies associated with the Primorskoye Current. Lagrangian trajectories are computed for a large number of particles in an interpolated velocity field generated by a numerical regional multi-layer eddy-resolving circulation model. We compute finite-time Lyapunov exponents for a comparatively long period of time by the method developed and plot the Lyapunov synoptic map quantifying surface transport and mixing in that region. This map uncovers the striking flow structures along the coast with a mesoscale eddy street and repelling material lines. We propose new Lagrangian diagnostic tools --- the time of exit of particles off a selected box, the number of changes of the sign of zonal and meridional velocities --- to study transport and mixing by a pair of strongly interacting eddies often visible at sea-surface temperature satellite imag...

  1. Engineering mesoscale structures with distinct dynamical implications in networks of delay-coupled delay oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anne-Ly Do; Johannes Höfener; Thilo Gross

    2012-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of networks of interacting systems depends intricately on the interaction topology. When the dynamics is explored, generally the whole topology has to be considered. However, we show that there are certain mesoscale subgraphs that have precise and distinct consequences for the system-level dynamics. In particular, if meso-scale symmetries are present then eigenvectors of the Jacobian localise on the symmetric subgraph and the corresponding eigenvalues become insensitive to the topology outside the subgraph. Hence, dynamical instabilities associated with these eigenvalues can be analyzed without considering the topology outside the subgraph. While such instabilities are thus generated entirely in small network subgraphs, they generally do not remain confined to the subgraph once the instability sets in and thus have system-level consequences. Here we illustrate the analytical investigation of such instabilities in an ecological meta-population model consisting of a network of delay-coupled delay oscillators.

  2. Non-LTE model atmosphere analysis of the early ultraviolet spectra of nova OS Andromedae 1986

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greg Schwarz; Peter H. Hauschildt; Sumner Starrfield; Eddie Baron; France Allard; Steve Shore; George Sonneborn

    1996-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We have analyzed the early optically thick ultraviolet spectra of Nova OS And 1986 using a grid of spherically symmetric, non-LTE, line-blanketed, expanding model atmospheres and synthetic spectra with the following set of parameters: $5,000\\le$ T$_{model}$ $\\le 60,000$K, solar abundances, $\\rho \\propto r^{-3}$, $\\v_{max} = 2000\\kms$, $L=6 \\times 10^{4}\\Lsun$, and a statistical or microturbulent velocity of 50 $\\kms$. We used the synthetic spectra to estimate the model parameters corresponding to the observed {\\it IUE} spectra. The fits to the observations were then iteratively improved by changing the parameters of the model atmospheres, in particular T$_{model}$ and the abundances, to arrive at the best fits to the optically thick pseudo-continuum and the features found in the {\\it IUE} spectra. The {\\it IUE} spectra show two different optically thick subphases. The earliest spectra, taken a few days after maximum optical light, show a pseudo-continuum created by overlapping absorption lines. The later observations, taken approximately 3 weeks after maximum light, show the simultaneous presence of allowed, semi-forbidden, and forbidden lines in the observed spectra. Analysis of these phases indicate that OS And 86 had solar metallicities except for Mg which showed evidence of being underabundant by as much as a factor of 10. We determine a distance of 5.1 kpc to OS And 86 and derive a peak bolometric luminosity of $\\sim$ 5 $\\times$ 10$^4$ L$_{\\odot}$. The computed nova parameters provide insights into the physics of the early outburst and explain the spectra seen by {\\it IUE}. Lastly, we find evidence in the later observations for large non-LTE effects of Fe{\\sc ii} which, when included, lead to much better agreement with the observations.

  3. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of smoke injection from large fires in the early post-nuclear-exchange environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, M.M.; Peterson, K.R.; Rodriguez, D.J.

    1988-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    During the hours immediately following a nuclear exchange, large fires could inject enormous quantities of smoke into the atmosphere. This smoke, together with dust from surface bursts, would severely restrict visibilities and darken the skies over large areas for days. This, in turn, could impact surface and air operations and systems. These effects could be mitigated by various scavenging mechanisms within the convective clouds that form above the fires. In order to evaluate impacts of post-nuclear-exchange smoke injection, we are developing a three-dimensional numerical smoke plume model (OCTET) to simulate the dynamics and microphysical processes within smoke plumes and convective clouds above large fires. This model is based on the dynamic framework of the Klemp-Wilhelmson (1978) convective storm model and includes parameterizations of scavenging processes. In addition, we are combining results of laboratory research, field experiments, and detailed numerical modeling of cloud microphysical processes in order to better understand smoke scavenging mechanisms. In this brief demonstration of capabilities, we present results from the OCTET model and from a three-dimensional mesoscale model. The smoke plume and fire-induced cloud simulations demonstrate the effects of nucleation scavenging, seasonal variation of atmospheric stability, and various fuel sources. The mesoscale simulations (that use the plume model output as input) demonstrate the mesoscale transport and diffusion of smoke and predict optical depths over the hypothetical target area. No dust effects have been included in these simulations. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Efficiency and Sensitivity Analysis of Observation Networks for Atmospheric Inverse Modelling with Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Xueran; Jacob, Birgit

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The controllability of advection-diffusion systems, subject to uncertain initial values and emission rates, is estimated, given sparse and error affected observations of prognostic state variables. In predictive geophysical model systems, like atmospheric chemistry simulations, different parameter families influence the temporal evolution of the system.This renders initial-value-only optimisation by traditional data assimilation methods as insufficient. In this paper, a quantitative assessment method on validation of measurement configurations to optimize initial values and emission rates, and how to balance them, is introduced. In this theoretical approach, Kalman filter and smoother and their ensemble based versions are combined with a singular value decomposition, to evaluate the potential improvement associated with specific observational network configurations. Further, with the same singular vector analysis for the efficiency of observations, their sensitivity to model control can be identified by deter...

  5. ISO-SWS calibration and the accurate modelling of cool-star atmospheres - II. General results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Decin; B. Vandenbussche; C. Waelkens; K. Eriksson; B. Gustafsson; B. Plez; A. J. Sauval; K. Hinkle

    2002-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The fine calibration of the ISO-SWS detectors (Infrared Space Observatory - Short Wavelength Spectrometer) has proven to be a delicate problem. We therefore present a detailed spectroscopic study in the 2.38 -- 12 micron wavelength range of a sample of 16 A0 -- M2 stars used for the calibration of ISO-SWS. By investigating the discrepancies between the ISO-SWS data of these sources, the theoretical predictions of their spectra, the high-resolution FTS-KP (Kitt Peak) spectrum of Alpha Boo and the solar FTS-ATMOS (Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy) spectrum, both calibration problems and problems in computing the theoretical models and the synthetic spectra are revealed. The underlying reasons for these problems are sought for and the impact on the further calibration of ISO-SWS and on the theoretical modelling is discussed extensively.

  6. The Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART-WRF VERSION 3.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brioude, J.; Arnold, D.; Stohl, A.; Cassiani, M.; Morton, Don; Seibert, P.; Angevine, W. M.; Evan, S.; Dingwell, A.; Fast, Jerome D.; Easter, Richard C.; Pisso, I.; Bukhart, J.; Wotawa, G.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART was originally designed for cal- culating long-range and mesoscale dispersion of air pollutants from point sources, such as after an accident in a nuclear power plant. In the meantime FLEXPART has evolved into a comprehensive tool for atmospheric transport modeling and analysis at different scales. This multiscale need from the modeler community has encouraged new developments in FLEXPART. In this document, we present a version that works with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale meteoro- logical model. Simple procedures on how to run FLEXPART-WRF are presented along with special options and features that differ from its predecessor versions. In addition, test case data, the source code and visualization tools are provided to the reader as supplementary material.

  7. Development of an Atmospheric Climate Model with Self-Adapting Grid and Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penner, Joyce E. [University of Michigan] University of Michigan

    2013-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was targeting the development of a computational approach that would allow resolving cloud processes on small-scales within the framework of the most recent version of the NASA/NCAR Finite-Volume Community Atmospheric Model (FVCAM). The FVCAM is based on the multidimensional Flux-Form Semi-Lagrangian (FFSL) dynamical core and uses a ?vertically Lagrangian? finite-volume (FV) representation of the model equations with a mass-conserving re-mapping algorithm. The Lagrangian coordinate requires a remapping of the Lagrangian volume back to Eulerian coordinates to restore the original resolution and keep the mesh from developing distortions such as layers with overlapping interfaces. The main objectives of the project were, first, to develop the 3D library which allows refinement and coarsening of the model domain in spherical coordinates, and second, to develop a non-hydrostatic code for calculation of the model variables within the refined areas that could be seamlessly incorporated with the hydrostatic finite volume dynamical core when higher resolution is wanted. We also updated the aerosol simulation model in CAM in order to ready the model for the treatment of aerosol/cloud interactions.

  8. A New Ensemble of Perturbed-Input-Parameter Simulations by the Community Atmosphere Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Covey, C; Brandon, S; Bremer, P T; Domyancis, D; Garaizar, X; Johannesson, G; Klein, R; Klein, S A; Lucas, D D; Tannahill, J; Zhang, Y

    2011-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Uncertainty quantification (UQ) is a fundamental challenge in the numerical simulation of Earth's weather and climate, and other complex systems. It entails much more than attaching defensible error bars to predictions: in particular it includes assessing low-probability but high-consequence events. To achieve these goals with models containing a large number of uncertain input parameters, structural uncertainties, etc., raw computational power is needed. An automated, self-adapting search of the possible model configurations is also useful. Our UQ initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has produced the most extensive set to date of simulations from the US Community Atmosphere Model. We are examining output from about 3,000 twelve-year climate simulations generated with a specialized UQ software framework, and assessing the model's accuracy as a function of 21 to 28 uncertain input parameter values. Most of the input parameters we vary are related to the boundary layer, clouds, and other sub-grid scale processes. Our simulations prescribe surface boundary conditions (sea surface temperatures and sea ice amounts) to match recent observations. Fully searching this 21+ dimensional space is impossible, but sensitivity and ranking algorithms can identify input parameters having relatively little effect on a variety of output fields, either individually or in nonlinear combination. Bayesian statistical constraints, employing a variety of climate observations as metrics, also seem promising. Observational constraints will be important in the next step of our project, which will compute sea surface temperatures and sea ice interactively, and will study climate change due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  9. C H A P T E R E I G H T E E N Modeling of Growth Factor-Receptor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popel, Aleksander S.

    -specific receptor binding 472 3. Mesoscale Single-Tissue 3D Models: Simulation of In Vivo Tissue Regions 474 3­receptor interactions at and near the endothelial cell surface; mesoscale single-tissue 3D models can simulate

  10. Final Report: The Santa Barbara Channel - Santa Maria Basin Circulation Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winant, Clinton D; Dever, Edward P; Dorman, Clive E; Hendershott, Myrl C

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dimensional meteorological mesoscale model of the MABL. II.and summer. Atmosphere mesoscale modeling of the wind stressUniversity-NCAR Research Mesoscale Model MM5 was run at 9 km

  11. Mesoscale Quantization and Self-Organized Stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Randall D. Peters

    2005-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In the world of technology, one of the most important forms of friction is that of rolling friction. Yet it is one of the least studied of all the known forms of energy dissipation. In the present experiments we investigate the oscillatory free-decay of a rigid cube, whose side-length is less than the diameter of the rigid cylinder on which it rests. The resulting free-decay is one of harmonic motion with damping. The non-dissipative character of the oscillation yields to a linear differential equation; however, the damping is found to involve more than a deterministic nonlinearity. Dominated by rolling friction, the damping is sensitive to the material properties of the contact surfaces. For `clean' surfaces of glass on glass, the decay shows features of mesoscale quantization and self-organized stability.

  12. Phase Effects on Mesoscale Object X-ray Absorption Images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martz, Jr., H E; Aufderheide, M B; Barty, A; Lehman, S K; Kozioziemski, B J; Schneberk, D J

    2004-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory particular emphasis is being placed on the nondestructive characterization (NDC) of 'mesoscale' objects.[Martz and Albrecht 2003] We define mesoscale objects as objects that have mm extent with {micro}m features. Here we confine our discussions to x-ray imaging methods applicable to mesoscale object characterization. The goal is object recovery algorithms including phase to enable emerging high-spatial resolution x-ray imaging methods to ''see'' inside or image mesoscale-size materials and objects. To be successful our imaging characterization effort must be able to recover the object function to one micrometer or better spatial resolution over a few millimeters field-of-view with very high contrast.

  13. Climate Sensitivity of the Community Climate System Model, Version 4 Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, Rafael

    Climate Sensitivity of the Community Climate System Model, Version 4 C. M. BITZ Atmospheric climate sensitivity of the Community Climate System Model, version 4 (CCSM4) is 3.208C for 18 horizontal). The transient climate sensitivity of CCSM4 at 18 resolution is 1.728C, which is about 0.28C higher than in CCSM3

  14. Fully-coupled engineering and mesoscale simulations of thermal conductivity in UO2 fuel using an implicit multiscale approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Tonks; Derek Gaston; Cody Permann; Paul Millett; Glen Hansen; Chris Newman

    2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactor fuel performance is sensitive to microstructure changes during irradiation (such as fission gas and pore formation). This study proposes an approach to capture microstructural changes in the fuel by a two-way coupling of a mesoscale phase field irradiation model to an engineering scale, finite element calculation. This work solves the multiphysics equation system at the engineering-scale in a parallel, fully-coupled, fully-implicit manner using a preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton Krylov method (JFNK). A sampling of the temperature at the Gauss points of the coarse scale is passed to a parallel sequence of mesoscale calculations within the JFNK function evaluation phase of the calculation. The mesoscale thermal conductivity is calculated in parallel, and the result is passed back to the engineering-scale calculation. As this algorithm is fully contained within the JFNK function evaluation, the mesoscale calculation is nonlinearly consistent with the engineering-scale calculation. Further, the action of the Jacobian is also consistent, so the composite algorithm provides the strong nonlinear convergence properties of Newton's method. The coupled model using INL's \\bison\\ code demonstrates quadratic nonlinear convergence and good parallel scalability. Initial results predict the formation of large pores in the hotter center of the pellet, but few pores on the outer circumference. Thus, the thermal conductivity is is reduced in the center of the pellet, leading to a higher internal temperature than that in an unirradiated pellet.

  15. HGSYSTEMUF6. Model for Simulating Dispersion due to Atmospheric Release of UF6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanna, G [George Mason University, (United States); Chang, J.C. [Earthtech, Inc., (United States); Zhang, J.X. [BlazeTech Corporation, (United States); Bloom, S.G. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goode, W.D. Jr [Bechtel Jacobs Company, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lombardi, D.A. [JBF Associates, (United States); Yambert, M.W. [LMERC, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HGSYSTEMUF6 is a suite of models designed for use in estimating consequences associated with accidental, atmospheric release of Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6) and its reaction products, namely Hydrogen Fluoride (HF), and other non-reactive contaminants which are either negatively, neutrally, or positively buoyant. It is based on HGSYSTEM Version 3.0 of Shell Research LTD., and contains specific algorithms for the treatment of UF6 chemistry and thermodynamics. HGSYSTEMUF6 contains algorithms for the treatment of dense gases, dry and wet deposition, effects due to the presence of buildings (canyon and wake), plume lift-off, and the effects of complex terrain. The models components of the suite include (1) AEROPLUME/RK, used to model near-field dispersion from pressurized two-phase jet releases of UF6 and its reaction products, (2) HEGADAS/UF6 for simulating dense, ground based release of UF6, (3) PGPLUME for simulation of passive, neutrally buoyant plumes (4) UF6Mixer for modeling warm, potentially reactive, ground-level releases of UF6 from buildings, and (5) WAKE, used to model elevated and ground-level releases into building wake cavities of non-reactive plumes that are either neutrally or positively buoyant.

  16. A hydrodynamic model for asymmetric explosions of rapidly rotating collapsing supernovae with a toroidal atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. S. Imshennik; K. V. Manukovskii

    2004-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We numerically solved the two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic problem of the explosion of a low-mass neutron star in a circular orbit. In the initial conditions, we assumed a nonuniform density distribution in the space surrounding the collapsed iron core in the form of a stationary toroidal atmosphere that was previously predicted analytically and computed numerically. The con?guration of the exploded neutron star itself was modeled by a torus with a circular cross section whose central line almost coincided with its circular orbit. Using an equation of state for the stellar matter and the toroidal atmosphere in which the nuclear statistical equilibrium conditions were satisfied, we performed a series of numerical calculations that showed the propagation of a strong divergent shock wave with a total energy of 0.2x10^51 erg at initial explosion energy release of 1.0x10^51 erg. In our calculations, we rigorously took into account the gravitational interaction, including the attraction from a higher-mass (1.9M_solar) neutron star located at the coordinate origin, in accordance with the rotational explosion mechanism for collapsing supernovae.W e compared in detail our results with previous similar results of asymmetric supernova explosion simulations and concluded that we found a lower limit for the total explosion energy.

  17. Evolution of moisture convergence in a mesoscale convective complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bercherer, John Phillip

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Committee: Dr. Keuneth C. Brundidge Two separate Mesoscale Convective Complexes (MCCs) were investigated to determine if a characteristic surface moisture convergence (MC) signature existed on the mesoscale during their lifecycle. The first storm (Case 1... convergence, a bandpass filtering technique was utilized. It was found that MC could identify the general area of initial thunderstorm activity 2 h prior to its development for both cases. During the initial development stage of Case 1, advection...

  18. Analysis of azimuthal mode dynamics of mesoscale eddies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalpin, John David

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ANALYSIS OF AZIMUTHAL MODE DYNAMICS OF MESOSCALE EDDIES A Thesis by UOHN DAVID MCCALPIN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1984... Major Subject: Oceanography ANALYSIS OF AZIMUTHAL MODE DYNAMICS OF MESOSCALE EDDIES A Thesis by JOHN DAVID MCCALPIN Approved as to style and content by: rew . as ano (Chairman of Committee) o ert . ei (Member) uy . rancesc &ni (Member) Robert...

  19. 3D Atmospheric Radiative Transfer for Cloud System-Resolving Models: Forward Modelling and Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard Barker; Jason Cole

    2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilization of cloud-resolving models and multi-dimensional radiative transfer models to investigate the importance of 3D radiation effects on the numerical simulation of cloud fields and their properties.

  20. Boundaries of the Peruvian Oxygen Minimum Zone shaped by coherent mesoscale dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bettencourt, João H; García, Emilio Hernández; Montes, Ivonne; Sudre, Joël; Dewitte, Boris; Paulmier, Aurélien; Garçon, Véronique

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dissolved oxygen in sea water is a major factor affecting marine habitats and biogeochemical cycles. Oceanic zones with oxygen deficits represent significant portions of the area and volume of the oceans and are thought to be expanding. The Peruvian oxygen minimum zone is one of the most pronounced and lies in a region of strong mesoscale activity in the form of vortices and frontal regions, whose effect in the dynamics of the oxygen minimum zone is largely unknown. Here, we study this issue from a modeling approach and a Lagrangian point of view, using a coupled physical-biogeochemical simulation of the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone and finite-size Lyapunov exponent fields to understand the link between mesoscale dynamics and oxygen variations. Our results show that, at depths between 380 and 600 meters, mesoscale structures have a relevant dual role. First, their mean positions and paths delimit and maintain the oxygen minimum zone boundaries. Second, their high frequency fluctuations entrain oxygen across t...

  1. Mesoscale phenomena in solutions of 3-methylpyridine, heavy water, and an antagonistic salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Leys; Deepa Subramanian; Eva Rodezno; Boualem Hammouda; Mikhail A. Anisimov

    2013-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated controversial issues regarding the mesoscale behavior of 3-methylpyridine (3MP), heavy water, and sodium tetraphenylborate (NaBPh4) solutions by combining results obtained from dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). We have addressed three questions: (i) what is the origin of the mesoscale inhomogeneities (order of 100 nm in size) manifested by the "slow mode" in DLS? (ii) Is the periodic structure observed from SANS an inherent property of this system? (iii) What is the universality class of critical behavior in this system? Our results confirm that the "slow mode" observed from DLS experiments corresponds to long-lived, highly stable mesoscale droplets (order of 100 nm in size), which occur only when the solute (3MP) is contaminated by hydrophobic impurities. SANS data confirm the presence of a periodic structure with a periodicity of about 10 nm. This periodic structure cannot be eliminated by nanopore filtration and thus is indeed an inherent solution property. The critical behavior of this system, in the range of concentration and temperatures investigated by DLS experiments, indicates that the criticality belongs to the universality class of the 3-dimensional Ising model.

  2. Final Report - From Measurements to Models: Cross-Comparison of Measured and Simulated Behavioral States of the Atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Genio, Anthony D; Hoffman, Forrest M; Hargrove, Jr, William W

    2007-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The ARM sites and the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) were constructed to make measurements of the atmosphere and radiation system in order to quantify deficiencies in the simulation of clouds within models and to make improvements in those models. While the measurement infrastructure of ARM is well-developed and a model parameterization testbed capability has been established, additional effort is needed to develop statistical techniques which permit the comparison of simulation output from atmospheric models with actual measurements. Our project establishes a new methodology for objectively comparing ARM measurements to the outputs of leading global climate models and reanalysis data. The quantitative basis for this comparison is provided by a statistical procedure which establishes an exhaustive set of mutually-exclusive, recurring states of the atmosphere from sets of multivariate atmospheric and cloud conditions, and then classifies multivariate measurements or simulation outputs into those states. Whether measurements and models classify the atmosphere into the same states at specific locations through time provides an unequivocal comparison result. Times and locations in both geographic and state space of model-measurement agreement and disagreement will suggest directions for the collection of additional measurements at existing sites, provide insight into the global representativeness of the current ARM sites (suggesting locations and times for use of the AMF), and provide a basis for improvement of models. Two different analyses were conducted: One, using the Parallel Climate Model, focused on an IPCC climate change scenario and clusters that characterize long-term changes in the hydrologic cycle. The other, using the GISS Model E GCM and the ARM Active Remotely Sensed Cloud Layers product, explored current climate cloud regimes in the Tropical West Pacific.

  3. Mesoscale Systems: weather associated with circulation systems of horizontal scales of 5 to 1,000 km

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Rodney

    Mesoscale Systems: weather associated with circulation systems of horizontal scales of 5 to 1 faster at night #12;Dispersion in Mesoscale Systems Mesoscale systems can have large effects on pollution

  4. Mg line formation in late-type stellar atmospheres: I. The model atom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osorio, Y; Lind, K; Belyaev, A K; Spielfiedel, A; Guitou, M; Feautrier, N

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mg is often traced in late-type stars using lines of neutral magnesium, which is expected to be subject to departures from LTE. The astrophysical importance of Mg as well as its relative simplicity from an atomic physics point of view, makes it a prime target and test bed for detailed ab initio non-LTE modelling in stellar atmospheres. For the low-lying states of Mg i, electron collision data were calculated using the R-matrix method. Calculations for collisional broadening by neutral hydrogen were also performed where data were missing. These calculations, together with data from the literature, were used to build a model atom. First, the modelling was tested by comparisons with observed spectra of benchmark stars with well-known parameters. Second, the spectral line behaviour and uncertainties were explored by extensive experiments in which sets of collisional data were changed or removed. The modelled spectra agree well with observed spectra. The line-to-line scatter in the derived abundances shows improve...

  5. A Grid of NLTE Line-Blanketed Model Atmospheres of Early B-type Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thierry Lanz; Ivan Hubeny

    2006-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We have constructed a comprehensive grid of 1540 metal line-blanketed, NLTE, plane-parallel, hydrostatic model atmospheres for the basic parameters appropriate to early B-type stars. The BSTAR2006 grid considers 16 values of effective temperatures, 15,000 K grid complements our earlier OSTAR2002 grid of O-type stars (Lanz & Hubeny, 2003, ApJS, 146, 417). The paper contains a description of the BSTAR2006 grid and some illustrative examples and comparisons. NLTE ionization fractions, bolometric corrections, radiative accelerations, and effective gravities are obtained over the parameter range covered by the grid. By extrapolating radiative accelerations, we have determined an improved estimate of the Eddington limit in absence of rotation between 55,000 and 15,000 K. The complete BSTAR2006 grid is available at the TLUSTY website (http://nova.astro.umd.edu).

  6. Global energy and water balance: Characteristics from finite-volume atmospheric model of the IAP/LASG (FAMIL1)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Linjiong; Bao, Qing; Liu, Yimin; Wu, Guoxiong; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Wang, Xiaocong; He, Bian; Yu, Haiyang; Li, Jiandong

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper documents version 1 of the Finite-volume Atmospheric Model of the IAP/LASG (FAMIL1), which has a flexible horizontal resolution up to a quarter of 1°. The model, currently running on the ‘‘Tianhe 1A’’ supercomputer, is the atmospheric component of the third-generation Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land climate System model (FGOALS3) which will participate in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). In addition to describing the dynamical core and physical parameterizations of FAMIL1, this paper describes the simulated characteristics of energy and water balances and compares them with observational/reanalysis data. The comparisons indicate that the model simulates well the seasonalmore »and geographical distributions of radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface, as well as the surface latent and sensible heat fluxes. A major weakness in the energy balance is identified in the regions where extensive and persistent marine stratocumulus is present. Analysis of the global water balance also indicates realistic seasonal and geographical distributions with the global annual mean of evaporation minus precipitation being approximately 10?? mm d?¹. We also examine the connections between the global energy and water balance and discuss the possible link between the two within the context of the findings from the reanalysis data. Finally, the model biases as well as possible solutions are discussed.« less

  7. Disaggregation of spatial rainfall fields for hydroloigcal modelling Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 5(2), 165173 (2001) EGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to investigate the evolution of the climate (DOE, 1996) while at the regional scale, mesoscale models are weather. In the case of rainfall forecasting, some combination of the mesoscale forecast and a finer scale advection

  8. A spectral transform dynamical core option within the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Katherine J [ORNL; Mahajan, Salil [ORNL; Branstetter, Marcia L [ORNL; McClean, Julie L. [Scripps Institute of Oceanography; Caron, Julie M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Maltrud, Matthew E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hack, James J [ORNL; Bader, David C [ORNL; Neale, Rich [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A spectral transform dynamical core with an 85 spectral truncation resolution (T85) within the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), version 4, is evaluated within the recently released Community Earth System Model, version 1.0 (CESM) global climate model. The spectral dynamical core option provides a well-known base within the climate model community from which to assess climate behavior and statistics, and its relative computational efficiency for smaller computing platforms allows it to be extended to perform climate length simulations using high-resolution configurations in the near term. To establish the characteristics of the CAM4 T85, an ensemble of simulations covering the present day observational period using forced sea surface temperatures and prescribed sea-ice extent are evaluated. Overall, the T85 ensemble attributes and biases are similar to a companion ensemble of simulations using the one degree finite volume (FV1) dynamical core, relative to observed and model derived datasets. Notable improvements with T85 compared to FV1 include the representation of wintertime Arctic sea level pressure and summer precipitation over the Western Indian subcontinent. The mean and spatial patterns of the land surface temperature trends over the AMIP period are generally well simulated with the T85 ensemble relative to observations, however the model is not able to capture the extent nor magnitude of changes in temperature extremes over the boreal summer, where the changes are most dramatic. Biases in the wintertime Arctic surface temperature and annual mean surface stress fields persist with T85 as with the CAM3 version of T85.

  9. The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP): A Model-Data Comparison System for Evaluation of Coupled Biosphere-Atmosphere Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Randerson, Jim [University of California, Irvine; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Mahowald, Natalie [Cornell University; Bonan, Gordon [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Running, Steven [University of Montana, Missoula; Fung, Inez [University of California, Berkeley

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need to capture important climate feebacks in general circulation models (GCMs) has resulted in new efforts to include atmospheric chemistry and land and ocean biogeochemistry into the next generation of production climate models, now often referred to as Earth System Models (ESMs). While many terrestrial and ocean carbon models have been coupled to GCMs, recent work has shown that such models can yield a wide range of results, suggesting that a more rigorous set of offline and partially coupled experiments, along with detailed analyses of processes and comparisons with measurements, are warranted. The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP) provides a simulation protocol and model performance metrics based upon comparisons against best-available satellite- and ground-based measurements (Hoffman et al., 2007). C-LAMP provides feedback to the modeling community regarding model improvements and to the measurement community by suggesting new observational campaigns. C-LAMP Experiment 1 consists of a set of uncoupled simulations of terrestrial carbon models specifically designed to examine the ability of the models to reproduce surface carbon and energy fluxes at multiple sites and to exhibit the influence of climate variability, prescribed atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrogen (N) deposition, and land cover change on projections of terrestrial carbon fluxes during the 20th century. Experiment 2 consists of partially coupled simulations of the terrestrial carbon model with an active atmosphere model exchanging energy and moisture fluxes. In all experiments, atmospheric CO{sub 2} follows the prescribed historical trajectory from C{sup 4}MIP. In Experiment 2, the atmosphere model is forced with prescribed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and corresponding sea ice concentrations from the Hadley Centre; prescribed CO{sub 2} is radiatively active; and land, fossil fuel, and ocean CO{sub 2} fluxes are advected by the model. Both sets of experiments have been performed using two different terrestrial biogeochemistry modules coupled to the Community Land Model version 3 (CLM3) in the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3): The CASA model of Fung, et al., and the carbon-nitrogen (CN) model of Thornton. Comparisons against Ameriflus site measurements, MODIS satellite observations, NOAA flask records, TRANSCOM inversions, and Free Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) site measurements, and other datasets have been performed and are described in Randerson et al. (2009). The C-LAMP diagnostics package was used to validate improvements to CASA and CN for use in the next generation model, CLM4. It is hoped that this effort will serve as a prototype for an international carbon-cycle model benchmarking activity for models being used for the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report. More information about C-LAMP, the experimental protocol, performance metrics, output standards, and model-data comparisons from the CLM3-CASA and CLM3-CN models are available at http://www.climatemodeling.org/c-lamp.

  10. Low-frequency variability and heat transport in a low-order nonlinear coupled ocean-atmosphere model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stéphane Vannitsem; Jonathan Demaeyer; Lesley De Cruz; Michael Ghil

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We formulate and study a low-order nonlinear coupled ocean-atmosphere model with an emphasis on the impact of radiative and heat fluxes and of the frictional coupling between the two components. This model version extends a previous 24-variable version by adding a dynamical equation for the passive advection of temperature in the ocean, together with an energy balance model. The bifurcation analysis and the numerical integration of the model reveal the presence of low-frequency variability (LFV) concentrated on and near a long-periodic, attracting orbit. This orbit combines atmospheric and oceanic modes, and it arises for large values of the meridional gradient of radiative input and of frictional coupling. Chaotic behavior develops around this orbit as it loses its stability; this behavior is still dominated by the LFV on decadal and multi-decadal time scales that is typical of oceanic processes. Atmospheric diagnostics also reveals the presence of predominant low- and high-pressure zones, as well as of a subtropical jet; these features recall realistic climatological properties of the oceanic atmosphere. Finally, a predictability analysis is performed. Once the decadal-scale periodic orbits develop, the coupled system's short-term instabilities --- as measured by its Lyapunov exponents --- are drastically reduced, indicating the ocean's stabilizing role on the atmospheric dynamics. On decadal time scales, the recurrence of the solution in a certain region of the invariant subspace associated with slow modes displays some extended predictability, as reflected by the oscillatory behavior of the error for the atmospheric variables at long lead times.

  11. Model atmospheres and X-ray spectra of iron-rich bursting neutron stars. II. Iron rich Comptonized Spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Majczyna; J. Madej; P. C. Joss; A. Rozanska

    2004-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the set of plane-parallel model atmosphere equations for a very hot neutron star (X-ray burst source). The model equations assume both hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium, and the equation of state of an ideal gas in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The equation of radiative transfer includes terms describing Compton scattering of photons on free electrons in fully relativistic thermal motion, for photon energies approaching m_e *c^2. Model equations take into account many bound-free and free-free energy-dependent opacities of hydrogen, helium, and the iron ions, and also a dozen bound-bound opacities for the highest ions of iron. We solve model equations by partial linearisation and the technique of variable Eddington factors. Large grid of H-He-Fe model atmospheres of X-ray burst sources has been computed for 10^7 neutron stars from observational data.

  12. SUPERBURST MODELS FOR NEUTRON STARS WITH HYDROGEN- AND HELIUM-RICH ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keek, L. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Heger, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); In 't Zand, J. J. M., E-mail: keek@nscl.msu.edu [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Superbursts are rare day-long type I X-ray bursts due to carbon flashes on accreting neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries. They heat the neutron star envelope such that the burning of accreted hydrogen and helium becomes stable, and the common shorter X-ray bursts are quenched. Short bursts reappear only after the envelope cools down. We study multi-zone one-dimensional models of the neutron star envelope, in which we follow carbon burning during the superburst, and we include hydrogen and helium burning in the atmosphere above. We investigate the cases of both a solar-composition and a helium-rich atmosphere. This allows us to study for the first time a wide variety of thermonuclear burning behavior as well as the transitions between the different regimes in a self-consistent manner. For solar composition, burst quenching ends much sooner than previously expected. This is because of the complex interplay between the 3{alpha}, hot CNO, and CNO breakout reactions. Stable burning of hydrogen and helium transitions via marginally stable burning (mHz quasi-periodic oscillations) to less energetic bursts with short recurrence times. We find a short-lived bursting mode where weaker and stronger bursts alternate. Eventually the bursting behavior changes back to that of the pre-superburst bursts. Because of the scarcity of observations, this transition has not been directly detected after a superburst. Using the MINBAR burst catalog we identify the shortest upper limit on the quenching time for 4U 1636-536, and derive further constraints on the timescale on which bursts return.

  13. Predicting reptile distributions at the mesoscale: relation to climate and topography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    Predicting reptile distributions at the mesoscale: relation to climate and topography Antoine at a mesoscale level. A more detailed knowledge of these relationships, in combination with maps of the potential

  14. DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601882 Spontaneous Formation of Mesoscale Polymer Patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601882 Spontaneous Formation of Mesoscale Polymer Patterns in an Evaporating of intriguing, ordered structures. Herein, we report on the spontaneous formation of well-or- ganized mesoscale

  15. Course MA59800: Numerical Simulation in Applied Geophysics. From the Mesoscale to the Macroscale.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    Course MA59800: Numerical Simulation in Applied Geophysics. From the Mesoscale to the Macroscale matrix properties, fine layering, frac- tures and craks at the mesoscale (on the order of centimeters

  16. Course: Numerical Simulation in Applied Geophysics. From the Mesoscale to the Macroscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    Course: Numerical Simulation in Applied Geophysics. From the Mesoscale to the Macroscale Professor variations in the fluid and solid matrix properties, fine layering, frac- tures and craks at the mesoscale

  17. Mesoscale Origin of the Enhanced Cycling-Stability of the Si...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mesoscale Origin of the Enhanced Cycling-Stability of the Si-Conductive Polymer Anode for Li-ion Batteries. Mesoscale Origin of the Enhanced Cycling-Stability of the Si-Conductive...

  18. Structure of polyamidoamide dendrimers up to limiting generations: A mesoscale description

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Structure of polyamidoamide dendrimers up to limiting generations: A mesoscale description Prabal K, while reducing the degrees of freedom by tenfold. This mesoscale description has allowed us to study

  19. Atomic Force Microscopy of Photosystem II and Its Unit Cell Clustering Quantitatively Delineate the Mesoscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geissler, Phillip

    the Mesoscale Variability in Arabidopsis Thylakoids Bibiana Onoa1 , Anna R. Schneider2 , Matthew D. Brooks3 Quantitatively Delineate the Mesoscale Variability in Arabidopsis Thylakoids. PLoS ONE 9(7): e101470. doi:10

  20. A distributional approach to the geometry of 2D dislocations at the mesoscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisbon, University of

    A distributional approach to the geometry of 2D dislocations at the mesoscale Part A: General introduce the meso-scale as defined by some average distance between the dislocations. The laws governing

  1. NON-LTE MODEL ATMOSPHERE ANALYSIS OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD SUPERSOFT X-RAY SOURCE CAL 83

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Audard, Marc

    NON-LTE MODEL ATMOSPHERE ANALYSIS OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD SUPERSOFT X-RAY SOURCE CAL 83 Magellanic Cloud. Taken with a 16 month in- terval, the Chandra and XMM-Newton spectra are very similar. They reveal a very rich absorption-line spectrum from the hot white dwarf photosphere but no spectral

  2. The new GFDL global atmosphere and land model AM2/LM2: Evaluation with prescribed SST simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bretherton, Chris

    _____________________________________________________________________________ 1 The members of the GFDL Global Atmospheric Model Development Team include Jeffrey L. Anderson+ , V@ , P. C. D. Milly# , Mary J. Nath+ , Jeffrey J. Ploshay+ , V. Ramaswamy+ , M. Daniel Schwarzkopf sensible and latent heat storage, groundwater storage, and stomatal resistance. The performance

  3. Evaluation of Clouds and Their Radiative Effects Simulated by the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model CAM2 Against Satellite Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bretherton, Chris

    Evaluation of Clouds and Their Radiative Effects Simulated by the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model-4738 (Accepted) #12;1 ABSTRACT Cloud climatology and the cloud radiative forcing at the top cloud radiative forcing at the TOA at different latitudes. The differences of cloud vertical structures

  4. Intercomparison study of atmospheric mercury models: 1. Comparison of models with short-term measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the Irish west coast. The modelled concentrations of total particulate mercury (TPM) were generally 358, Roskilde, Denmark d NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, 1315 East West Highway, Silver Spring MD 20910 Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Tzarigradsko chaussee 66, 1785 Sofia, Bulgaria h Swedish

  5. Scientific Final Report: COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: CONTINUOUS DYNAMIC GRID ADAPTATION IN A GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC MODEL: APPLICATION AND REFINEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William J. Gutowski; Joseph M. Prusa, Piotr K. Smolarkiewicz

    2012-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This project had goals of advancing the performance capabilities of the numerical general circulation model EULAG and using it to produce a fully operational atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) that can employ either static or dynamic grid stretching for targeted phenomena. The resulting AGCM combined EULAG's advanced dynamics core with the 'physics' of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). Effort discussed below shows how we improved model performance and tested both EULAG and the coupled CAM-EULAG in several ways to demonstrate the grid stretching and ability to simulate very well a wide range of scales, that is, multi-scale capability. We leveraged our effort through interaction with an international EULAG community that has collectively developed new features and applications of EULAG, which we exploited for our own work summarized here. Overall, the work contributed to over 40 peer-reviewed publications and over 70 conference/workshop/seminar presentations, many of them invited.

  6. A Sensitivity Study of Radiative Fluxes at the Top of Atmosphere to Cloud-Microphysics and Aerosol Parameters in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Qian, Yun; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Hou, Zhangshuan; Lin, Guang; McFarlane, Sally A.; Wang, Hailong; Yang, Ben; Ma, Po-Lun; Yan, Huiping; Bao, Jie

    2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of net radiative fluxes (FNET) at the top of atmosphere (TOA) to 16 selected uncertain parameters mainly related to the cloud microphysics and aerosol schemes in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). We adopted a quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) sampling approach to effectively explore the high dimensional parameter space. The output response variables (e.g., FNET) were simulated using CAM5 for each parameter set, and then evaluated using generalized linear model analysis. In response to the perturbations of these 16 parameters, the CAM5-simulated global annual mean FNET ranges from -9.8 to 3.5 W m-2 compared to the CAM5-simulated FNET of 1.9 W m-2 with the default parameter values. Variance-based sensitivity analysis was conducted to show the relative contributions of individual parameter perturbation to the global FNET variance. The results indicate that the changes in the global mean FNET are dominated by those of cloud forcing (CF) within the parameter ranges being investigated. The size threshold parameter related to auto-conversion of cloud ice to snow is confirmed as one of the most influential parameters for FNET in the CAM5 simulation. The strong heterogeneous geographic distribution of FNET variation shows parameters have a clear localized effect over regions where they are acting. However, some parameters also have non-local impacts on FNET variance. Although external factors, such as perturbations of anthropogenic and natural emissions, largely affect FNET variations at the regional scale, their impact is weaker than that of model internal parameters in terms of simulating global mean FNET in this study. The interactions among the 16 selected parameters contribute a relatively small portion of the total FNET variations over most regions of the globe. This study helps us better understand the CAM5 model behavior associated with parameter uncertainties, which will aid the next step of reducing model uncertainty via calibration of uncertain model parameters with the largest sensitivity.

  7. Wind ringing of the ocean in presence of mesoscale eddies P. Klein and G. Lapeyre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lapeyre, Guillaume

    Wind ringing of the ocean in presence of mesoscale eddies P. Klein and G. Lapeyre Laboratoire de scales related to oceanic mesoscale eddies. Results show that a turbulent eddy field does not affect Oceanography: Physical: Eddies and mesoscale processes; 4572 Oceanography: Physical: Upper ocean processes

  8. THE ROLE OF CLOUD MICROPHYSICS PARAMETERIZATION IN THE SIMULATION OF MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE SYSTEMS AND ANVIL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE ROLE OF CLOUD MICROPHYSICS PARAMETERIZATION IN THE SIMULATION OF MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE SYSTEMS in the Simulation of Mesoscale Convective Systems and Anvil Clouds in the Tropical Western Pacific K. Van Weverberg1 cloud microphysics in the simulation of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) in the tropical western

  9. Practical and Intrinsic Predictability of Severe and Convective Weather at the Mesoscales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Practical and Intrinsic Predictability of Severe and Convective Weather at the Mesoscales at the mesoscales using convection-permitting ensemble simulations of a squall line and bow echo event during the Bow Echo and Mesoscale Convective Vortex (MCV) Experiment (BAMEX) on 9­10 June 2003. Although most

  10. Charge rearrangement by sprites over a north Texas mesoscale convective system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummer, Steven A.

    Charge rearrangement by sprites over a north Texas mesoscale convective system William W. Hager,1 is analyzed for a mesoscale convective system (MCS) situated in north Texas and east New Mexico on 15 July. Lapierre (2012), Charge rearrangement by sprites over a north Texas mesoscale convective system, J. Geophys

  11. Near-Inertial Wave Wake of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita over Mesoscale Oceanic Eddies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Near-Inertial Wave Wake of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita over Mesoscale Oceanic Eddies BENJAMIN; Jaimes and Shay 2009, hereafter JS09). These robust mesoscale oceanic features are present at any time (Jaimes 2009). This mesoscale ocean variability imposed important dynamical constraints on the OML

  12. Mixed Layer Cooling in Mesoscale Oceanic Eddies during Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Mixed Layer Cooling in Mesoscale Oceanic Eddies during Hurricanes Katrina and Rita BENJAMIN JAIMES. Introduction Isotherm topography and energetic geostrophic flow in mesoscale oceanic features in the Gulf. 2000; Shay et al. 2000). The dependence of hurricane-induced OML cooling on the presence of mesoscale

  13. A Climatology of Midlatitude Mesoscale Convective Vortices in the Rapid Update Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Richard H.

    A Climatology of Midlatitude Mesoscale Convective Vortices in the Rapid Update Cycle ERIC P. JAMES of mesoscale convective vortices (MCVs) occurring in the state of Oklahoma during the late spring and summer, true MCVs represent only about 20% of the mesoscale relative vorticity maxima detected by the algorithm

  14. ach year across the US, mesoscale weather events--flash floods, tornadoes, hail,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plale, Beth

    E ach year across the US, mesoscale weather events--flash floods, tornadoes, hail, strong winds of mesoscale weather research; its disparate, high-volume data sets and streams; or the tremendous urgent need for a comprehensive national cyberinfrastructure in mesoscale meteorology--particularly one

  15. Numerical Simulation of Mesoscale Circulations in a Region of Contrasting Soil Types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raman, Sethu

    Numerical Simulation of Mesoscale Circulations in a Region of Contrasting Soil Types SETHU RAMAN,1 AARON SIMS,1,2 ROBB ELLIS,1 and RYAN BOYLES 1 Abstract--Mesoscale processes that form due to changes on mesoscale processes are examined. Climatological analyses indicate increased convective precipitation

  16. Patterns of Precipitation and Mesolow Evolution in Midlatitude Mesoscale Convective Vortices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Richard H.

    Patterns of Precipitation and Mesolow Evolution in Midlatitude Mesoscale Convective Vortices ERIC P manifestations of mesoscale convective vortices (MCVs) that traversed Oklahoma during the periods May­August 2002 Profiler Network data. Forty-five MCVs that developed from mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) have been

  17. Author , Short title EFFECTS OF MESOSCALE TEXTURE ON APPARENT SURFACE GLOSS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferwerda, James A.

    Author , Short title 1 EFFECTS OF MESOSCALE TEXTURE ON APPARENT SURFACE GLOSS James A. Ferwerda to it. We first measure both the microscale reflectance properties and mesoscale texture of flat, latex these images as stimuli in perceptual experiments to systematically study how surface mesoscale properties

  18. Persistence of iron limitation in the western subarctic Pacific SEEDS II mesoscale fertilization experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cochlan, William P.

    Persistence of iron limitation in the western subarctic Pacific SEEDS II mesoscale fertilization t The cumulative evidence from more than a dozen mesoscale iron-enrichment studies in high nitrate low chlorophyll diatoms, vary greatly among these mesoscale experiments even though similar amounts of iron were added

  19. Spatio-temporal segmentation of mesoscale ocean surface dynamics using satellite data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Spatio-temporal segmentation of mesoscale ocean surface dynamics using satellite data Pierre Tandeo Temperature (SST) provide a wealth of information about ocean circulation, espe- cially mesoscale ocean an observation-driven framework, we investigate the extent to which mesoscale ocean dynamics may be decomposed

  20. Development of a Piezoelectrically-Actuated Mesoscale Robot Quadruped Michael Goldfarb, Michael Gogola, Gregory Fischer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Development of a Piezoelectrically-Actuated Mesoscale Robot Quadruped Michael Goldfarb, Michael approach that offers a high locomotive efficiency, and is therefore well suited to mesoscale robot design actuated mesoscale robot quadruped. The design described utilizes a lightly damped skeletal structure

  1. Real-Time Forecasting for the Antarctic: An Evaluation of the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS)*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    Real-Time Forecasting for the Antarctic: An Evaluation of the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System. MANNING AND JORDAN G. POWERS Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology Division, National Center.S. Antarctic Program's field operations, the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS) was implemented in Oc

  2. PROBCAST: A Web-Based Portal to Mesoscale Probabilistic Forecasts Clifford Mass1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mass, Clifford F.

    1 PROBCAST: A Web-Based Portal to Mesoscale Probabilistic Forecasts Clifford Mass1 , Susan Joslyn over the Pacific Northwest. PROBCAST products are derived from the output of a mesoscale ensemble-processing of mesoscale, short-range ensembles. The NAS report also noted current deficiencies in the communication

  3. Sensitivity of Mesoscale Surface Dynamics to Surface Soil and Vegetation Contrasts over the Carolina Sandhills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raman, Sethu

    Sensitivity of Mesoscale Surface Dynamics to Surface Soil and Vegetation Contrasts over in mesoscale summertime precipitation over this region. Numerical simulations are analyzed to investigate the relationships between mesoscale surface dynamics and the transition from clay to sandy soils over this region

  4. Studies on non-premixed flame streets in a mesoscale channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ju, Yiguang

    Studies on non-premixed flame streets in a mesoscale channel Bo Xu *, Yiguang Ju Department of channel width, wall temperature, and flow rate on the dynamics of non-premix flames in a mesoscale The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Mesoscale combustion; Non

  5. ATM678, Mesoscale Dynamics, Spring 2014 Class time: TR 11:30am to 1pm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moelders, Nicole

    ATM678, Mesoscale Dynamics, Spring 2014 Class time: TR 11:30am to 1pm Classroom: Elvy auditorium, Akasofu 319 Course Description: The class provides a comprehensive explanation of mesoscale air motions ­ their phenology, basic physics and mechanisms, why they build and how mesoscale motions interact with the micro

  6. Mesoscale Self-Assembly of Hexagonal Plates Using Lateral Capillary Forces: Synthesis Using the "Capillary Bond"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prentiss, Mara

    Mesoscale Self-Assembly of Hexagonal Plates Using Lateral Capillary Forces: Synthesis Using examines self-assembly in a quasi-two-dimensional, mesoscale system. The system studied here involves-assembly from the molecular to the mesoscale, (ii) the demonstration of a system in which small objects can

  7. Mesoscale eddies northeast of the Hawaiian archipelago from satellite altimeter observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Bo

    Mesoscale eddies northeast of the Hawaiian archipelago from satellite altimeter observations; published 16 March 2010. [1] Enhanced mesoscale eddy activity northeast of the Hawaiian archipelago by 5° longitude subregions revealed the dominant mesoscale periods ranging from 90 days near 18°N

  8. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 83, 043827 (2011) Quantum fluctuations and saturable absorption in mesoscale lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Anthony F. J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 83, 043827 (2011) Quantum fluctuations and saturable absorption in mesoscale in mesoscale lasers. The time evolution of the density matrix is obtained from numerical integration and field behavior of mesoscale lasers. Using only semiclassical master equations and specific device parameters

  9. Analysis of a mesoscale infiltration and water seepage test in unsaturated fractured rock: Spatial variabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Quanlin

    Analysis of a mesoscale infiltration and water seepage test in unsaturated fractured rock: Spatial 2006 Abstract A mesoscale (21 m in flow distance) infiltration and seepage test was recently conducted flow in fractured rock at mesoscale or a larger scale is not necessarily conditional explicitly

  10. Mesoscale distribution of zooplankton biomass in the northeast Atlantic Ocean determined with an Optical Plankton Counter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mesoscale distribution of zooplankton biomass in the northeast Atlantic Ocean determined Available online 2 June 2009 Keywords: Zooplankton Biomass Size distribution Mesoscale eddies Optical plankton counter Pelagic environment Northeast Atlantic Ocean a b s t r a c t We examined the mesoscale

  11. Draft Chapter from Mesoscale Dynamic Meteorology By Prof. Yu-lang Lin, North Carolina State University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

    1 Draft Chapter from Mesoscale Dynamic Meteorology By Prof. Yu-lang Lin, North Carolina State University Chapter 1 Overview 1.1 Introduction The so-called mesometeorology or mesoscale meteorology as mesoscale phenomena by others (e.g. Orlanski 1975; Thunis and Bornstein 1996). Therefore, a more precise

  12. Mesoscale Simulation of Grain David Kinderlehrer, Jeehyun Lee, Irene Livshits and Shlomo Ta'asan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mesoscale Simulation of Grain Growth David Kinderlehrer, Jeehyun Lee, Irene Livshits and Shlomo Ta'asan WILEY-VCH Verlag Berlin GmbH September 4, 2003 #12;2 0.1 Introduction The mesoscale simulation of grain of the statistics it provides, we are led to the companion issue of coarse graining in mesoscale simulations. We

  13. Mesoscale transport properties induced by near critical resistive pressure-gradient-driven turbulence in toroidal geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martín-Solís, José Ramón

    Mesoscale transport properties induced by near critical resistive pressure diffusive equation for mesoscale tracer-particle transport. The indices of the fractional derivates a mesoscale regime. That is, for time scales above the fluctuation scales reaching to the trans- port scales

  14. Mesoscale energetics and ows induced by sea-land and mountain-valley contrasts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Mesoscale energetics and ¯ows induced by sea-land and mountain-valley contrasts S. Federico1 , G. A in determining the development of thermally forced mesoscale circula- tions (TFMCs) over a mountainous peninsula dynamics (climatology; mesoscale meteorology) 1 Introduction In the early hours of the morning the sun

  15. On the role of mesoscale eddies in the ventilation of Antarctic intermediate water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    On the role of mesoscale eddies in the ventilation of Antarctic intermediate water Zouhair Lachkar Mesoscale eddies CFC-11 Ventilation Southern Ocean a b s t r a c t The spatial distribution of Antarctic and ventilation are substantially affected by mesoscale eddies. To diagnose the role of eddies, we made global CFC

  16. Mesoscale Simulation of Tropical Cyclones in the South Pacific: Climatology and Interannual Variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mesoscale Simulation of Tropical Cyclones in the South Pacific: Climatology and Interannual is shown to reproduce a wide range of mesoscale convective systems. Tropical cyclones grow from the most related to mesoscale in- teractions, which also affect TC tracks and the resulting occurrence. 1

  17. Asymmetric Catalysis at the Mesoscale: Gold Nanoclusters Embedded in Chiral Self-Assembled Monolayer as Heterogeneous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asymmetric Catalysis at the Mesoscale: Gold Nanoclusters Embedded in Chiral Self of the catalytically active metallic sites and the surrounding chiral SAM for the formation of a mesoscale the catalytically active site from the nanoscale to the mesoscale, which implies a principle of operating systems

  18. Deriving Mesoscale Surface Current Fields from Multi-Sensor Satellite Data , B. Seppke b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamburg,.Universität

    Deriving Mesoscale Surface Current Fields from Multi-Sensor Satellite Data M. Gade a , B. Seppke b of mesoscale surface currents in the southestern Baltic Sea (Southern Baltic Proper). Marine surface films of the two-dimensional data sets may therefore allow for the calculation of mesoscale ocean current fields

  19. Segmentation of mesoscale ocean surface dynamics using satellite SST and SSH observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Segmentation of mesoscale ocean surface dynamics using satellite SST and SSH observations Pierre about ocean circulation, espe- cially mesoscale ocean dynamics which may involve strong spatio- temporal to which mesoscale ocean dynamics may be decomposed into a mixture of dynamical modes, characterized

  20. Generation of strong mesoscale eddies by weak ocean gyres by Michael A. Spall1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Generation of strong mesoscale eddies by weak ocean gyres by Michael A. Spall1 ABSTRACT The generation of strong mesoscale variability through instability of the large-scale circulation in the interior with the scaling theory. 1. Introduction It is now well recognized that the kinetic energy of the mesoscale

  1. Mesoscale eddies in the northeastern Pacific tropical-subtropical transition zone: Statistical characterization from satellite altimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mesoscale eddies in the northeastern Pacific tropical-subtropical transition zone: Statistical February 2012; revised 24 August 2012; accepted 6 September 2012; published 24 October 2012. [1] Mesoscale cycle. Although mesoscale eddies in these areas have been previously reported, this study provides

  2. Mesoscale and clusters of synchrony in networks of bursting neurons Igor Belykh1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belykh, Igor

    Mesoscale and clusters of synchrony in networks of bursting neurons Igor Belykh1 and Martin Hasler2 with relatively large clusters, leading potentially to cluster synchronization at the mesoscale network level. We represent the microscale level, cooperative rhythms of neuronal subpopulations define the mesoscale level

  3. Small and mesoscale properties of a substorm onset auroral arc H. U. Frey,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergen, Universitetet i

    Small and mesoscale properties of a substorm onset auroral arc H. U. Frey,1 O. Amm,2 C. C. Chaston; revised 22 June 2010; accepted 28 June 2010; published 7 October 2010. [1] We present small and mesoscale. Good agreement could be reached for the mesoscale arc properties. A qualitative analysis

  4. Seasonal Mesoscale and Submesoscale Eddy Variability along the North Pacific Subtropical Countercurrent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Bo

    Seasonal Mesoscale and Submesoscale Eddy Variability along the North Pacific Subtropical abundant in mesoscale eddies, but also exhibits prominent submesoscale eddy features. Output from a 1 the seasonal STCC variability in the mesoscale versus submesoscale ranges. Resolving the eddy scales of .150 km

  5. he Impact of Primary Marine Aerosol on Atmospheric Chemistry, Radiation and Climate: A CCSM Model Development Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keene, William C. [University of Virginia] [University of Virginia; Long, Michael S. [University of Virginia] [University of Virginia

    2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This project examined the potential large-scale influence of marine aerosol cycling on atmospheric chemistry, physics and radiative transfer. Measurements indicate that the size-dependent generation of marine aerosols by wind waves at the ocean surface and the subsequent production and cycling of halogen-radicals are important but poorly constrained processes that influence climate regionally and globally. A reliable capacity to examine the role of marine aerosol in the global-scale atmospheric system requires that the important size-resolved chemical processes be treated explicitly. But the treatment of multiphase chemistry across the breadth of chemical scenarios encountered throughout the atmosphere is sensitive to the initial conditions and the precision of the solution method. This study examined this sensitivity, constrained it using high-resolution laboratory and field measurements, and deployed it in a coupled chemical-microphysical 3-D atmosphere model. First, laboratory measurements of fresh, unreacted marine aerosol were used to formulate a sea-state based marine aerosol source parameterization that captured the initial organic, inorganic, and physical conditions of the aerosol population. Second, a multiphase chemical mechanism, solved using the Max Planck Institute for Chemistryâ??s MECCA (Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) system, was benchmarked across a broad set of observed chemical and physical conditions in the marine atmosphere. Using these results, the mechanism was systematically reduced to maximize computational speed. Finally, the mechanism was coupled to the 3-mode modal aerosol version of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM v3.6.33). Decadal-scale simulations with CAM v.3.6.33, were run both with and without reactive-halogen chemistry and with and without explicit treatment of particulate organic carbon in the marine aerosol source function. Simulated results were interpreted (1) to evaluate influences of marine aerosol production on the microphysical properties of aerosol populations and clouds over the ocean and the corresponding direct and indirect effects on radiative transfer; (2) atmospheric burdens of reactive halogen species and their impacts on O3, NOx, OH, DMS, and particulate non-sea-salt SO42-; and (3) the global production and influences of marine-derived particulate organic carbon. The model reproduced major characteristics of the marine aerosol system and demonstrated the potential sensitivity of global, decadal-scale climate metrics to multiphase marine-derived components of Earthâ??s troposphere. Due to the combined computational burden of the coupled system, the currently available computational resources were the limiting factor preventing the adequate statistical analysis of the overall impact that multiphase chemistry might have on climate-scale radiative transfer and climate.

  6. Mesoscale symmetries explain dynamical equivalence of food webs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aufderheide, Helge; Gross, Thilo

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A present challenge in complex systems is to identify mesoscale structures that have distinct dynamical implications. In this paper we present a detailed investigation of a previously observed dynamical equivalence of certian ecological food webs. We show that this equivalence is rooted in mesoscale symmetries that exist in these webs. Certain eigenvectors of the Jacobian describing dynamical modes of the system, such as specific instabilities or responses to perturbations, localize on these symmetric motifs. On the one hand this means that by removing a symmetry from the network one obtains a system which has identical dynamics except for the removal of the localized mode. This explains the previously observed equivalence. On the other hand it means that we can identify dynamical modes that only depend on the symmetric motif. Symmetric structures thus provide an example for mesoscale network motifs having distinct and exact implications for the dynamics.

  7. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Variability in the Community Earth System Model: Evaluation and Transient Dynamics during the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Forrest M.

    Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Variability in the Community Earth System Model: Evaluation pathways (RCPs 4.5 and 8.5) using the Community Earth System Model­Biogeochemistry (CESM1- BGC). CO2

  8. Eddy heat fluxes at Drake Passage due to mesoscale motions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rojas Recabal, Ricardo Luis

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EDDY HEAT FLUKES AT DRAKE PASSAGE DUE TO MESOSCALE MOTIONS A Thesis by RICARDO LUIS ROJAS RECABAL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1982 Major Subject: Oceanography EDDY HEAT FLUXES AT DRAKE PASSAGE DUE TO MESOSCALE NOTIONS A Thesis by RICARDO LUIS ROJAS RECABAL Approved as to style and content by: was )W-~ Member em er May 1982 ABSTRACT Eddy Heat Fluxes at Drake Passage...

  9. 3D modelling of the early Martian Climate under a denser CO2 atmosphere: Temperatures and CO2 ice clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forget, Francois; Millour, Ehouarn; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Kerber, Laura; Leconte, Jeremy; Marcq, Emmanuel; Haberle, Robert M

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On the basis of geological evidence, it is often stated that the early martian climate was warm enough for liquid water to flow on the surface thanks to the greenhouse effect of a thick atmosphere. We present 3D global climate simulations of the early martian climate performed assuming a faint young sun and a CO2 atmosphere with pressure between 0.1 and 7 bars. The model includes a detailed radiative transfer model using revised CO2 gas collision induced absorption properties, and a parameterisation of the CO2 ice cloud microphysical and radiative properties. A wide range of possible climates is explored by using various values of obliquities, orbital parameters, cloud microphysic parameters, atmospheric dust loading, and surface properties. Unlike on present day Mars, for pressures higher than a fraction of a bar, surface temperatures vary with altitude because of the adiabatic cooling and warming of the atmosphere when it moves vertically. In most simulations, CO2 ice clouds cover a major part of the planet...

  10. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Calibrated Probabilistic Mesoscale Weather Field Forecasting: The Geostatist...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    permission. Calibrated Probabilistic Mesoscale Weather Field Forecasting: The Geostatist... Yulia Gel; Adrian

  11. October 1986 R. H. Johnson 721 Lower-Tropospheric Warming and Drying in Tropical Mesoscale Convective Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Richard H.

    October 1986 R. H. Johnson 721 Lower-Tropospheric Warming and Drying in Tropical Mesoscale components of tropical mesoscale convective systems. It is found that while the apparent heat source Q1 of mesoscale downdrafts within the mesoscale convective systems. The warming and drying at low levels

  12. EMSL - Atmospheric Aerosol Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scienceatmospheric The Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Science Theme focuses on understanding the chemistry, physics and molecular-scale dynamics of aerosols for model...

  13. HARMONIZATION OF PRACTICES FOR ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION MODELLING WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF RISK ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to compute hazardous consequences of dangerous phenomena such as fire, explosion or atmospheric gas in France On September 21, 2001, a huge explosion occurred in Toulouse (at the AZF factory) causing 31

  14. The solar photospheric abundance of hafnium and thorium. Results from CO5BOLD 3D hydrodynamic model atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elisabetta Caffau; L. Sbordone; H. -G. Ludwig; P. Bonifacio; M. Steffen; N. T. Behara

    2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Context: The stable element hafnium (Hf) and the radioactive element thorium (Th) were recently suggested as a suitable pair for radioactive dating of stars. The applicability of this elemental pair needs to be established for stellar spectroscopy. Aims: We aim at a spectroscopic determination of the abundance of Hf and Th in the solar photosphere based on a \\cobold 3D hydrodynamical model atmosphere. We put this into a wider context by investigating 3D abundance corrections for a set of G- and F-type dwarfs. Method: High-resolution, high signal-to-noise solar spectra were compared to line synthesis calculations performed on a solar CO5BOLD model. For the other atmospheres, we compared synthetic spectra of CO5BOLD 3D and associated 1D models. Results: For Hf we find a photospheric abundance A(Hf)=0.87+-0.04, in good agreement with a previous analysis, based on 1D model atmospheres. The weak Th ii 401.9 nm line constitutes the only Th abundance indicator available in the solar spectrum. It lies in the red wing of an Ni-Fe blend exhibiting a non-negligible convective asymmetry. Accounting for the asymmetry-related additional absorption, we obtain A(Th)=0.09+-0.03, consistent with the meteoritic abundance, and about 0.1 dex lower than obtained in previous photospheric abundance determinations. Conclusions: Only for the second time, to our knowledge, has am non-negligible effect of convective line asymmetries on an abundance derivation been highlighted. Three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations should be employed to measure Th abundances in dwarfs if similar blending is present, as in the solar case. In contrast, 3D effects on Hf abundances are small in G- to mid F-type dwarfs and sub-giants, and 1D model atmospheres can be conveniently used.

  15. Carbon-nitrogen interactions regulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks: results from an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thornton, P. E.; Doney, S. C.; Lindsay, Keith; Moore, J. K.; Mahowald, N. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Fung, I.; Lamarque, J. F.; Feddema, Johannes J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biogeosciences, 6, 2099–2120, 2009 www.biogeosciences.net/6/2099/2009/ © Author(s) 2009. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Biogeosciences Carbon-nitrogen interactions regulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks.... Inclusion of fundamental ecological interactions between carbon and nitrogen cycles in the land component of an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) leads to decreased carbon uptake associated with CO2 fertil- ization, and increased carbon...

  16. Estimates of Radioxenon Released from Southern Hemisphere Medical isotope Production Facilities Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Schrom, Brian T.

    2014-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and Xe-133 data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of Xe-133 from medical isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.8×1014 Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 1.2×1016 to 2.5×1016 Bq and estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 6.1×1013 to 3.6×1014 Bq. Although some releases from the facility in Argentina may reach these IMS sampling locations, the solution to the objective function is insensitive to the magnitude of those releases.

  17. Atmospheric Model Ocean Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Andrew

    -Seasonal Prediction of Remote Drivers of Australian Climate Variability using POAMA Andrew G Marshall, Debbie Hudson index at 140°°°°E for OBS and POAMA hindcasts > http://poama.bom.gov.au andrew.marshall@bom.gov.au #12;

  18. Characterization of Caribbean Meso-Scale Eddies Jose M. Lopez

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Characterization of Caribbean Meso-Scale Eddies Jose M. Lopez Department of Marine Sciences, P-term goal is to improve predictivity of physical, biogeochemical and optical properties of Eastern Caribbean, biological and optical variables across frontal and eddy boundaries in the Eastern Caribbean Sea · To develop

  19. Mesoscale simulations of surfactant dissolution and mesophase formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Prinsen; P. B. Warren; M. A. J. Michels

    2002-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The evolution of the contact zone between pure surfactant and solvent has been studied by mesoscale simulation. It is found that mesophase formation becomes diffusion controlled and follows the equilibrium phase diagram adiabatically almost as soon as individual mesophases can be identified, corresponding to times in real systems of order 10 microseconds.

  20. LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering: Materials at the Mesoscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 11th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering: Materials at the Mesoscale Lujan Center Los Alamos. Please name the applicant for admission to the 11th LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering: Last, First LANSCE School on Neutron Scattering including: drive and motivation, ability to work with others

  1. OUMBE, Armel, WALD, Lucien, BLANC, Philippe, and SCHROEDTER-HOMSCHEIDT, Marion. Exploitation of radiative transfer model for assessing solar radiation: the relative importance of atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of radiative transfer model for assessing solar radiation: the relative importance of atmospheric constituents, Germany * Corresponding Author, armel.oumbe@ensmp.fr Abstract Solar radiation is modified in its way: solar radiation, atmospheric optics, satellite images, Heliosat method 1. Introduction A wealth

  2. Benchmark experiments with global climate models applicable to extra-solar gas giant planets in the shallow atmosphere approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bending, V L; Kolb, U

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growing field of exoplanetary atmospheric modelling has seen little work on standardised benchmark tests for its models, limiting understanding of the dependence of results on specific models and conditions. With spatially resolved observations as yet difficult to obtain, such a test is invaluable. Although an intercomparison test for models of tidally locked gas giant planets has previously been suggested and carried out, the data provided were limited in terms of comparability. Here, the shallow PUMA model is subjected to such a test, and detailed statistics produced to facilitate comparison, with both time means and the associated standard deviations displayed, removing the time dependence and providing a measure of the variability. Model runs have been analysed to determine the variability between resolutions, and the effect of resolution on the energy spectra studied. Superrotation is a robust and reproducible feature at all resolutions.

  3. Impact of Resolution on Simulation of Closed Mesoscale Cellular Convection Identified by Dynamically Guided Watershed Segmentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martini, Matus; Gustafson, William I.; Yang, Qing; Xiao, Heng

    2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Organized mesoscale cellular convection (MCC) is a common feature of marine stratocumulus that forms in response to a balance between mesoscale dynamics and smaller scale processes such as cloud radiative cooling and microphysics. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) and fully coupled cloud-aerosol interactions to simulate marine low clouds during the VOCALS-REx campaign over the southeast Pacific. A suite of experiments with 3- and 9-km grid spacing indicates resolution-dependent behavior. The simulations with finer grid spacing have smaller liquid water paths and cloud fractions, while cloud tops are higher. The observed diurnal cycle is reasonably well simulated. To isolate organized MCC characteristics we develop a new automated method, which uses a variation of the watershed segmentation technique that combines the detection of cloud boundaries with a test for coincident vertical velocity characteristics. This ensures that the detected cloud fields are dynamically consistent for closed MCC, the most common MCC type over the VOCALS-REx region. We demonstrate that the 3-km simulation is able to reproduce the scaling between horizontal cell size and boundary layer height seen in satellite observations. However, the 9-km simulation is unable to resolve smaller circulations corresponding to shallower boundary layers, instead producing invariant MCC horizontal scale for all simulated boundary layers depths. The results imply that climate models with grid spacing of roughly 3 km or smaller may be needed to properly simulate the MCC structure in the marine stratocumulus regions.

  4. Crossing the mesoscale no-mans land via parallel kinetic Monte Carlo.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia Cardona, Cristina (San Diego State University); Webb, Edmund Blackburn, III; Wagner, Gregory John; Tikare, Veena; Holm, Elizabeth Ann; Plimpton, Steven James; Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Slepoy, Alexander (U. S. Department of Energy, NNSA); Zhou, Xiao Wang; Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Chandross, Michael Evan

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetic Monte Carlo method and its variants are powerful tools for modeling materials at the mesoscale, meaning at length and time scales in between the atomic and continuum. We have completed a 3 year LDRD project with the goal of developing a parallel kinetic Monte Carlo capability and applying it to materials modeling problems of interest to Sandia. In this report we give an overview of the methods and algorithms developed, and describe our new open-source code called SPPARKS, for Stochastic Parallel PARticle Kinetic Simulator. We also highlight the development of several Monte Carlo models in SPPARKS for specific materials modeling applications, including grain growth, bubble formation, diffusion in nanoporous materials, defect formation in erbium hydrides, and surface growth and evolution.

  5. The Tropical Atmospheric El Nio Signal in Satellite Precipitation Data and a Global Climate Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) ABSTRACT Aspects of the tropical atmospheric response to El Niño related to the global energy and water and the Advanced Micro- wave Scanning Radiometer-E and simulations from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies are highly correlated, but anomalies in stratiform­convective rainfall partitioning in the two datasets

  6. Atmospheric Environment 42 (2008) 35713583 MICS-Asia II: Modeling gaseous pollutants and evaluating an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pollutants, and grasp the ability to study and forecast air pollutant parameters. Effec- tive energy Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100029 Beijing, China Received 2 March 2007, and a low but extensive pattern enclosing southern China, Taiwan, and East Sea. Extension of the pattern

  7. A Hydrogen Atmosphere Spectral Model Applied to the Neutron Star X7 in the Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig O. Heinke; George B. Rybicki; Ramesh Narayan; Jonathan E. Grindlay

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current X-ray missions are providing high-quality X-ray spectra from neutron stars (NSs) in quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries (qLMXBs). This has motivated us to calculate new hydrogen-atmosphere models, including opacity due to free-free absorption and Thomson scattering, thermal electron conduction, and self-irradiation by photons from the compact object. We have constructed a self-consistent grid of neutron star models covering a wide range of surface gravities as well as effective temperatures, which we make available to the scientific community. We present multi-epoch Chandra X-ray observations of the qLMXB X7 in the globular cluster 47 Tuc, which is remarkably nonvariable on timescales from minutes to years. Its high-quality X-ray spectrum is adequately fit by our hydrogen-atmosphere model without any hard power-law component or narrow spectral features. If a mass of 1.4 Msol is assumed, our spectral fits require that its radius be in the range R=14.5^{+1.8}_{-1.6} km (90% confidence), larger than expected from currently preferred models of NS interiors. If its radius is assumed to be 10 km, then a mass of M=2.20^{+0.03}_{-0.16} Msol is required. Using models with the appropriate surface gravity for each value of the mass and radius becomes important for interpretation of the highest quality data.

  8. Computational Modeling of Self-organization of Dislocations and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computational Modeling of Self-organization of Dislocations and Mesoscale Deformation of Metals Event Sponsor: Mathematics and Computing Science - LANS Seminar Start Date: Jun 19...

  9. Documentation of Hybrid Hydride Model for Incorporation into...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Strategy This report documents the development, demonstration and validation of a mesoscale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride d-ZrH1.5...

  10. Development of an atmospheric aerosol model for studies of global budgets and effects of airborne particulate material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giorgi, F.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microphysics-removal Atmospheric Aerosol Model (AAM) is developed for use in General Circulation Models (GCM) to study global budgets and effects of particulate material. In this model the particle population is assumed to be composed of a set of log-normal modes whose time evolution due to microphysical processes is described via prognostic equations for an appropriate number of moments of the particle size distribution. This newly devised technique, by making use of a small number of prognostic equations for the aerosol variables and utilizing optimized numerical procedures, renders the model computationally efficient, hence particularly suitable for use in complex 3D GCMs. Detailed parameterizations of particle coagulation, sedimentation, dry deposition, and wet removal are incorporated into the AAM.

  11. Mesoscale simulation of shocked poly-(4-methyl-1-pentene) (PMP) foams.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroen, Diana Grace; Flicker, Dawn G.; Haill, Thomas A.; Root, Seth; Mattsson, Thomas Kjell Rene

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrocarbon foams are commonly used in HEDP experiments, and are subject to shock compression from tens to hundreds of GPa. Modeling foams is challenging due to the heterogeneous character of the foam. A quantitative understanding of foams under strong dynamic compression is sought. We use Sandia's ALEGRA-MHD code to simulate 3D mesoscale models of pure poly(4-methyl-1-petene) (PMP) foams. We employ two models of the initial polymer-void structure of the foam and analyze the statistical properties of the initial and shocked states. We compare the simulations to multi-Mbar shock experiments at various initial foam densities and flyer impact velocities. Scatter in the experimental data may be a consequence of the initial foam inhomogeneity. We compare the statistical properties the simulations with the scatter in the experimental data.

  12. Thermodynamic properties of mesoscale convective systems observed during BAMEX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Correia, James; Arritt, R.

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dropsonde observations from the Bow-echo and Mesoscale convective vortex EXperiment (BAMEX) are used to document the spatio-temporal variability of temperature, moisture and wind within mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). Onion type sounding structures are found throughout the stratiform region of MCSs but the temperature and moisture variability is large. Composite soundings were constructed and statistics of thermodynamic variability were generated within each sub-region of the MCS. The calculated air vertical velocity helped identify subsaturated downdrafts. We found that lapse rates within the cold pool varied markedly throughout the MCS. Layered wet bulb potential temperature profiles seem to indicate that air within the lowest several km comes from a variety of source regions. We also found that lapse rate transitions across the 0 C level were more common than isothermal, melting layers. We discuss the implications these findings have and how they can be used to validate future high resolution numerical simulations of MCSs.

  13. A study of atmosphere-ocean interaction using a one-dimensional numerical air-sea boundary layer model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hebenstreit, Gerald Thomas

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    surface with no allowance for exchange induced by wave action. The model does produce reasonable solutions, in comparison with oceanic data, for the response of the lower atmosphere and the upper ocean to specific. sets of meteorological and oceanic.../2 this function is of the form f(Ri) = (1 + b Ri) , then one obtains ? 3 1/2 2 -1 K (z) = K 62 (gX ) exp(z/W) (z/I + rdI) (1 + b Ri) hw 1 (61) Although KITAIGORODSKII (1961) does not give a specific value of b, it would appear that b = 10/3 would be in line...

  14. Quantum fluctuations and saturable absorption in mesoscale lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy-Choudhury, Kaushik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0484 (United States); Levi, A. F. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0484 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-2533 (United States)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a quantum-mechanical treatment of fluctuations and saturable absorption in mesoscale lasers. The time evolution of the density matrix is obtained from numerical integration and field-field and intensity-intensity correlations are calculated to obtain steady-state linewidth and photon statistics. Inclusion of a saturable absorber in the otherwise homogeneous medium is shown to suppress lasing, increase fluctuations, and enhance spontaneous emission near threshold.

  15. Modelled Black Carbon Radiative Forcing and Atmospheric Lifetime in AeroCom Phase II Constrained by Aircraft Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.; Herber, Andreas; Kondo, Yutaka; Li, Shao-Meng; Moteki, N.; Koike, Makoto; Oshima, N.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T.; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, M.; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Lin, Guang; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, Joyce E.; Schulz, M.; Seland, O.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Zhang, Kai

    2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb solar radiation, and are generally held to exacerbate global warming through exerting a positive radiative forcing1. However, the total contribution of BC to the ongoing changes in global climate is presently under debate2-8. Both anthropogenic BC emissions and the resulting spatial and temporal distribution of BC concentration are highly uncertain2,9. In particular, long range transport and processes affecting BC atmospheric lifetime are poorly understood, leading to large estimated uncertainty in BC concentration at high altitudes and far from emission sources10. These uncertainties limit our ability to quantify both the historical, present and future anthropogenic climate impact of BC. Here we compare vertical profiles of BC concentration from four recent aircraft measurement campaigns with 13 state of the art aerosol models, and show that recent assessments may have overestimated present day BC radiative forcing. Further, an atmospheric lifetime of BC of less than 5 days is shown to be essential for reproducing observations in transport dominated remote regions. Adjusting model results to measurements in remote regions, and at high altitudes, leads to a 25% reduction in the multi-model median direct BC forcing from fossil fuel and biofuel burning over the industrial era.

  16. Global Simulations of Ice nucleation and Ice Supersaturation with an Improved Cloud Scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gettelman, A.; Liu, Xiaohong; Ghan, Steven J.; Morrison, H.; Park, Sungsu; Conley, Andrew; Klein, Stephen A.; Boyle, James; Mitchell, David; Li, J-L F.

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A process-based treatment of ice supersaturation and ice-nucleation is implemented in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). The new scheme is designed to allow (1) supersaturation with respect to ice, (2) ice nucleation by aerosol particles and (3) ice cloud cover consistent with ice microphysics. The scheme is implemented with a 4-class 2 moment microphysics code and is used to evaluate ice cloud nucleation mechanisms and supersaturation in CAM. The new model is able to reproduce field observations of ice mass and mixed phase cloud occurrence better than previous versions of the model. Simulations indicate heterogeneous freezing and contact nucleation on dust are both potentially important over remote areas of the Arctic. Cloud forcing and hence climate is sensitive to different formulations of the ice microphysics. Arctic radiative fluxes are sensitive to the parameterization of ice clouds. These results indicate that ice clouds are potentially an important part of understanding cloud forcing and potential cloud feedbacks, particularly in the Arctic.

  17. The Atmospheric Circulation of the Hot Jupiter WASP-43b: Comparing Three-Dimensional Models to Spectrophotometric Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kataria, Tiffany; Fortney, Jonathan J; Stevenson, Kevin B; Line, Michael R; Kreidberg, Laura; Bean, Jacob L; Désert, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hot Jupiter WASP-43b has now joined the ranks of transiting hot Jupiters HD 189733b and HD 209458b as an exoplanet with a large array of observational constraints on its atmospheric properties. Because WASP-43b receives a similar stellar flux as HD 209458b but has a rotation rate 4 times faster and a much higher gravity, studying WASP-43b serves as a test of the effect of rotation rate and gravity on the circulation when stellar irradiation is held approximately constant. Here we present 3D atmospheric circulation models of WASP-43b using the SPARC/MITgcm, a coupled radiation and circulation model, exploring the effects of composition, metallicity, and frictional drag. We find that the circulation regime of WASP-43b is not unlike other hot Jupiters, with equatorial superrotation that yields an eastward-shifted hotspot and large day-night temperature variations (~600 K at photospheric pressures). We then compare our model results to observations from Stevenson et al. which utilize HST/WFC3 to collect spect...

  18. Development of an atmospheric aerosol model for studies of global budgets and effects of airborne particulate material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giorgi, F.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microphysics-removal atmospheric aerosol model (AAM) is developed for use in general circulation models (GCMs) to study global budgets and effects of particulate material. In this model the particle population is composed of a set of log-normal modes whose time evolution due to microphysical processes is described via prognostic equations for an appropriate number of moments of the particle-size distribution. Detailed parameterizations of particle coagulation, sedimentation, dry deposition, and wet removal are developed and implemented into the AAM. The AAM is incorporated into a GCM and is applied to two types of studies: (1) characteristics of the particle wet and dry removal processes, and (2) climatic impact of massive particulate injections following a global nuclear war, with emphasis on the sensitivity of the simulated effects to the inclusion of particle microphysics. Results are discussed.

  19. Vortex arrays and meso-scale turbulence of self-propelled particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Grossmann; Pawel Romanczuk; Markus Bär; Lutz Schimansky-Geier

    2014-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Inspired by the Turing mechanism for pattern formation, we propose a simple self-propelled particle model with short-ranged alignment and anti-alignment at larger distances. It is able to produce orientationally ordered states, periodic vortex patterns as well as meso-scale turbulence. The latter phase resembles observations in dense bacterial suspensions. The model allows a systematic derivation and analysis of a kinetic theory as well as hydrodynamic equations for density and momentum fields. A phase diagram with regions of such pattern formation as well as spatially homogeneous orientational order and disorder is obtained from a linear stability analysis of these continuum equations. Microscopic Langevin simulations of the self-propelled particle system are in agreement with these findings.

  20. Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 44274436 Statistical comparison of observed and CMAQ modeled daily

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun, Mikyoung

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004 Abstract New statistical procedures to evaluate the Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality reserved. Keywords: Air quality model; Model evaluation; Space­time process; Separable covariance function 1. Introduction The Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system has been

  1. DOE Workshop; Pan-Gass Conference on the Representation of Atmospheric Processes in Weather and Climate Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, PI Hugh

    2012-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the first meeting of the whole new GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) Atmospheric System Study (GASS) project that has been formed from the merger of the GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) Project and the GEWEX Atmospheric Boundary Layer Studies (GABLS). As such, this meeting will play a major role in energizing GEWEX work in the area of atmospheric parameterizations of clouds, convection, stable boundary layers, and aerosol-cloud interactions for the numerical models used for weather and climate projections at both global and regional scales. The representation of these processes in models is crucial to GEWEX goals of improved prediction of the energy and water cycles at both weather and climate timescales. This proposal seeks funds to be used to cover incidental and travel expenses for U.S.-based graduate students and early career scientists (i.e., within 5 years of receiving their highest degree). We anticipate using DOE funding to support 5-10 people. We will advertise the availability of these funds by providing a box to check for interested participants on the online workshop registration form. We will also send a note to our participants' mailing lists reminding them that the funds are available and asking senior scientists to encourage their more junior colleagues to participate. All meeting participants are encouraged to submit abstracts for oral or poster presentations. The science organizing committee (see below) will base funding decisions on the relevance and quality of these abstracts, with preference given to under-represented populations (especially women and minorities) and to early career scientists being actively mentored at the meeting (e.g. students or postdocs attending the meeting with their advisor).

  2. Causes and implications of persistent atmospheric carbon dioxide biases in Earth System Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2013), The Community Earth System Model: A framework forcycle in the CMIP5 Earth System Models, J. Clim. , 26(18),feedbacks in CMIP5 Earth System Models, J. Clim. , 26(15),

  3. Pluto's Atmosphere Does Not Collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olkin, C B; Borncamp, D; Pickles, A; Sicardy, B; Assafin, M; Bianco, F B; Buie, M W; de Oliveira, A Dias; Gillon, M; French, R G; Gomes, A Ramos; Jehin, E; Morales, N; Opitom, C; Ortiz, J L; Maury, A; Norbury, M; Ribas, F B; Smith, R; Wasserman, L H; Young, E F; Zacharias, M; Zacharias, N

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combining stellar occultation observations probing Pluto's atmosphere from 1988 to 2013 and models of energy balance between Pluto's surface and atmosphere, we conclude that Pluto's atmosphere does not collapse at any point in its 248-year orbit. The occultation results show an increasing atmospheric pressure with time in the current epoch, a trend present only in models with a high thermal inertia and a permanent N2 ice cap at Pluto's north rotational pole.

  4. Analysis of 11 june 2003 mesoscale convective vortex genesis using weather surveillance radar ??88 doppler (wsr-88d) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, Amber Elizabeth

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Mesoscale convective vortices (MCVs), which typically form within the stratiform rain of some mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), may persist for days, often regenerating convection daily. Long-lived MCVs can produce as much precipitation as a...

  5. Analysis of 11 june 2003 mesoscale convective vortex genesis using weather surveillance radar ??88 doppler (wsr-88d)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, Amber Elizabeth

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Mesoscale convective vortices (MCVs), which typically form within the stratiform rain of some mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), may persist for days, often regenerating convection daily. Long-lived MCVs can produce as much precipitation as a...

  6. A case study of the mesoscale and synoptic-scale heat and moisture budgets in the vicinity of a mesoscale convective complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dial, Greg Leander

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A CASE STUDY OF THE MESOSCALE AND SYNOPTIC-SCALE HEAT AND MOISTURE BUDGETS IN THE VICINITY OF A MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE COMPLEX A Thesis by GREG LEANDER DIAL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8 M University in partial...&j Leandor Dial Approved as lo style and content by: Kcnnctt& C, ftrunrti&lgc (Ctn&i& ol' Co&nn&ittcc) (I tcn&l&c&) Norman W. Na glc (Mcmbcr) E ar . ipscr (I les&I of Dcpartmcnt) I 1 a y I 9 &3 0 ABSTRACT A Case Study of the Mesoscale and Synoptic...

  7. Use of principal components analysis and three-dimensional atmospheric-transport models for reactor-consequence evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Walton, J.J.; Alpert, D.J.; Johnson, J.D.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work explores the use of principal components analysis coupled to three-dimensional atmospheric transport and dispersion models for evaluating the environmental consequences of reactor accidents. This permits the inclusion of meteorological data from multiple sites and the effects of topography in the consequence evaluation; features not normally included in such analyses. The technique identifies prevailing regional wind patterns and their frequencies for use in the transport and dispersion calculations. Analysis of a hypothetical accident scenario involving a release of radioactivity from a reactor situated in a river valley indicated the technique is quite useful whenever recurring wind patterns exist, as is often the case in complex terrain situations. Considerable differences were revealed in a comparison with results obtained from a more conventional Gaussian plume model using only the reactor site meteorology and no topographic effects.

  8. THE CARBON-LAND MODEL INTERCOMPARISON PROJECT (C-LAMP): A PROTOTYPE FOR COUPLED BIOSPHERE-ATMOSPHERE MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Forrest M.

    often referred to as Earth System Models (ESMs). While a number of terrestrial and ocean carbon models

  9. Millimeter radiation from a 3D model of the solar atmosphere I. Diagnosing chromospheric thermal structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loukitcheva, Maria; Carlsson, Mats; White, Stephen

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aims. We use advanced 3D NLTE radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar atmosphere to carry out detailed tests of chromospheric diagnostics at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. Methods. We focused on the diagnostics of the thermal structure of the chromosphere in the wavelength bands from 0.4 mm up to 9.6 mm that can be accessed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) and investigated how these diagnostics are affected by the instrumental resolution. Results. We find that the formation height range of the millimeter radiation depends on the location in the simulation domain and is related to the underlying magnetic structure. Nonetheless, the brightness temperature is a reasonable measure of the gas temperature at the effective formation height at a given location on the solar surface. There is considerable scatter in this relationship, but this is significantly reduced when very weak magnetic fields are avoided. Our results indicate that although instrumental smearin...

  10. Near Maximal Atmospheric Neutrino Mixing in Neutrino Mass Models with Two Texture Zeros

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Dev; Radha Raman Gautam; Lal Singh; Manmohan Gupta

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The implications of a large value of the effective Majorana neutrino mass for a class of two texture zero neutrino mass matrices have been studied in the flavor basis. It is found that these textures predict near maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing angle in the limit of large effective Majorana neutrino mass. It is noted that this prediction is independent of the values of solar and reactor neutrino mixing angles. We present the symmetry realization of these textures using the discrete cyclic group $Z_3$. It is found that the texture zeros realised in this work remain stable under renormalization group running of the neutrino mass matrix from the seesaw scale to the electroweak scale, at one loop level.

  11. Petascale Atmospheric General Circulation Models R. D. Nair and H. M. Tufo#

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Ramachandran D.

    ) into an Earth system model will require a highly scalable and accurate flux-form formulation of the dynamics

  12. Inferring the mesoscale structure of layered, edge-valued and time-varying networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peixoto, Tiago P

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many network systems are composed of interdependent but distinct types of interactions, which cannot be fully understood in isolation. These different types of interactions are often represented as layers, attributes on the edges or as a time-dependence of the network structure. Although they are crucial for a more comprehensive scientific understanding, these representations offer substantial challenges. Namely, it is an open problem how to precisely characterize the large or mesoscale structure of network systems in relation to these additional aspects. Furthermore, the direct incorporation of these features invariably increases the effective dimension of the network description, and hence aggravates the problem of overfitting, i.e. the use of overly-complex characterizations that mistake purely random fluctuations for actual structure. In this work, we propose a robust and principled method to tackle these problems, by constructing generative models of modular network structure, incorporating layered, attr...

  13. FeCycle: Attempting an iron biogeochemical budget from a mesoscale SF6 tracer experiment in unperturbed low iron waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, Steven W.

    FeCycle: Attempting an iron biogeochemical budget from a mesoscale SF6 tracer experiment to ocean physics. In summer 2003 we conducted FeCycle, a 10-day mesoscale tracer release in HNLC waters SE biogeochemical budget from a mesoscale SF6 tracer experiment in unperturbed low iron waters, Global Biogeochem

  14. Proceedings in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, 31 October 2007 Parametrization for Mesoscale Ocean Transport through Random Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramer, Peter

    Proceedings in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, 31 October 2007 Parametrization for Mesoscale a mathematical approach based on homogenization theory toward representing the effects of mesoscale coherent in parameterizing the transport effects of sub-grid scale flow structures appearing in mesoscale oceanic turbulence

  15. Anatomy and evolution of a cyclonic mesoscale eddy observed in the northeastern Pacific tropical-subtropical transition zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anatomy and evolution of a cyclonic mesoscale eddy observed in the northeastern Pacific tropical and evolution of a cyclonic mesoscale eddy observed in the northeastern Pacific tropical-subtropical transition zone, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 118, doi:10.1002/ 2013JC009339. 1. Introduction [2] Mesoscale eddy

  16. Charge transfer and in-cloud structure of large-charge-moment positive lightning strokes in a mesoscale convective system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummer, Steven A.

    in a mesoscale convective system Gaopeng Lu,1 Steven A. Cummer,1 Jingbo Li,1 Feng Han,1 Richard J. Blakeslee,2 positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) strokes in a mesoscale convective system. Although no high altitude images of large-charge-moment positive lightning strokes in a mesoscale convective system, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36

  17. THE USE OF SPATIAL CONSTRAINTS IN THE DERIVATION OF MESOSCALE SEA SURFACE CURRENT FIELDS FROM MULTI-SENSOR SATELLITE DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamburg,.Universität

    THE USE OF SPATIAL CONSTRAINTS IN THE DERIVATION OF MESOSCALE SEA SURFACE CURRENT FIELDS FROM MULTI images are used for the computation of mesoscale surface currents in the Northern and Southern Baltic for the derivation of mesoscale sea surface currents using multi-sensor / multi-channel satellite images by means

  18. THE PRECIPITATION REGIME OF DRONNING MAUD LAND, ANTARCTICA, DERIVED FROM AMPS (ANTARCTIC MESOSCALE PREDICTION SYSTEM) ARCHIVE DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlosser, Elisabeth

    THE PRECIPITATION REGIME OF DRONNING MAUD LAND, ANTARCTICA, DERIVED FROM AMPS (ANTARCTIC MESOSCALE. Manning2) 1) Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics, University of Innsbruck, Austria 2) Mesoscale the temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation in DML using AMPS (Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System

  19. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS, VOL. 25, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2009 1047 A New Mechanism for Mesoscale Legged

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster III, Robert James

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS, VOL. 25, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2009 1047 A New Mechanism for Mesoscale for a novel mechanism for robotic legged locomotion at the mesoscale (from hundreds of microns to tens mesoscale locomotion tasks, in- cluding endoscopic capsule robot locomotion in the gastrointestinal tract

  20. Characterization of Mesoscale Coiled-Coil Peptide-Porphyrin Brian J. Pepe-Mooney, Bashkim Kokona, and Robert Fairman*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fairman, Robert

    Characterization of Mesoscale Coiled-Coil Peptide-Porphyrin Complexes Brian J. Pepe-Mooney, Bashkim-assemble to form mesoscale filaments and serve as a scaffold for porphyrin interaction. In our earlier work mesoscale fibrils were formed, taking advantage of the types of porphyrin interactions that are present