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1

Adsorption of Atmospheric Gases on Pu Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface adsorption represents a competition between collision and scattering processes that depend on surface energy, surface structure and temperature. The surface reactivity of the actinides can add additional complexity due to radiological dissociation of the gas and electronic structure. Here we elucidate the chemical bonding of gas molecules adsorbed on Pu metal and oxide surfaces. Atmospheric gas reactions were studied at 190 and 300 K using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Evolution of the Pu 4f and O 1s core-level states were studied as a function of gas dose rates to generate a set of Langmuir isotherms. Results show that the initial gas dose forms Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the Pu metal surface followed by the formation of PuO{sub 2} resulting in a layered oxide structure. This work represents the first steps in determining the activation energy for adsorption of various atmospheric gases on Pu.

Nelson, A J; Holliday, K S; Stanford, J A; Grant, W K; Erler, R G; Allen, P G; McLean, W; Roussel, P

2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

2

Graphics: Atmospheric Trace Gases in Whole-Air Samples  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Graphics graphics Graphics: Atmospheric Trace Gases in Whole-Air Samples The following links are for methane, nonmethane hydrocarbons, alkyl nitrates, and chlorinated carbon...

3

Experiments with interacting Bose and Fermi gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the past few years, the study of trapped fermionic atoms evolved from the first cooling experiments which produced quantum degenerate samples to becoming one of the most exciting branches of current atomic physics ...

Stan, Claudiu Andrei

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Numerical Modeling of the Turbulent Fluxes of Chemically Reactive Trace Gases in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Turbulent fluxes of chemically reactive trace gases in the neutral atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) were simulated with a one-dimensional, coupled diffusion-chemistry model. The effects of rapid chemical reactions were included with a suite of ...

W. Gao; M. L. Wesely

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Integrated model shows that atmospheric brown clouds and greenhouse gases have reduced rice harvests in India  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have found that atmospheric brown clouds partially offset the warming effects of greenhouse gases. This finding suggests a tradeoff between the impacts of reducing emissions of aerosols and greenhouse gases. Results from a statistical model of historical rice harvests in India, coupled with regional climate scenarios from a parallel climate model, indicate that joint reductions in brown clouds and greenhouse gases would in fact have complementary, positive impacts on harvests. The results also imply that adverse climate change due to brown clouds and greenhouse gases contributed to the slowdown in harvest growth that occurred during the past two decades.

Auffhammer, M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural and Resource Economics; Ramanathan, V. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, CA (United States); Vincent, J.R. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies

2007-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

6

What are greenhouse gases? Many chemical compounds in the atmosphere act as  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

greenhouse gas and plays an important role in regulating the climate. Changes in water vapor from human in the atmosphere, water vapor is not counted in the United States or international greenhouse gas inventories3 . Why do greenhouse gas levels matter? Atmospheric concentrations of several important greenhouse gases

7

Surface Delays for Gases Dispersing in the Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When a particle descends beneath the (nominal) lower boundary of the atmosphere, it may remain there for some time ? before it reemerges into the (resolved) flow. In particle trajectory models, ? is the random duration of unresolved trajectory ...

John D. Wilson; Thomas K. Flesch; Real d'Amours

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Hydration of Gases to Reduce Major Greenhouse Gases Emission into the Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technology on replacement methane (CH4) from natural gas hydrate (NGH) with carbon dioxide (CO2) is described. And the technology is demonstrated in theoretics and experiment, respectively. Moreover, combined with the main emission channel of CH4 in ... Keywords: greenhouse effect, hydrate, CO2, CH4

Feng Xu; Lihua Zhu; Qiang Wu

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

A comprehensive study of different gases in inductively coupled plasma torch operating at one atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

A numerical study is done to understand the possible operating regimes of RF-ICP torch (3 MHz, 50 kW) using different gases for plasma formation at atmospheric pressure. A two dimensional numerical simulation of RF-ICP torch using argon, nitrogen, oxygen, and air as plasma gas has been investigated using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software fluent{sup (c)}. The operating parameters varied here are central gas flow, sheath gas flow, RF-power dissipated in plasma, and plasma gas. The temperature contours, flow field, axial, and radial velocity profiles were investigated under different operating conditions. The plasma resistance, inductance of the torch, and the heat distribution for various plasma gases have also been investigated. The plasma impedance of ICP torch varies with different operating parameters and plays an important role for RF oscillator design and power coupling. These studies will be useful to decide the design criteria for ICP torches required for different material processing applications.

Punjabi, Sangeeta B. [Electrical Engineering Department, V. J.T.I, Matunga, Mumbai 400019 (India); Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Kalina, Santacruz(E) 400098 (India); Joshi, N. K. [Faculty of Engineering and technology, MITS, lakshmangarh, (Sikar), Rajasthan 332311 (India); Mangalvedekar, H. A.; Lande, B. K. [Electrical Engineering Department, V. J.T.I, Matunga, Mumbai 400019 (India); Das, A. K. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kothari, D. C. [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Kalina, Santacruz(E) 400098 (India)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

10

Atmospheric Trace Gases, Carbon Isotopes, Radionuclides, and Aerosols: Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

(Scroll down to find Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases, a subheading under the broader heading of Atmospheric Trace Gases, etc.) CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Information related to isotopes in greenhouse gases includes: • Monthly atmospheric 13C/12C isotopic ratios for 10 SIO stations, (2005) (Trends Online) • Mixing ratios of CO, CO2, CH4, and isotope ratios of associated 13C, 18O, and 2H in air samples from Niwot Ridge, Colorado, and Monta±a de Oro, California, USA (2004) • Estimates of Monthly CO2 Emissions and Associated 13C/12C Values from Fossil-Fuel Consumption in the U.S.A., (2004) (Trends Online) ?13C in CO2 from the CSIRO GASLAB Flask Sampling Network (Trends Online) • In Situ 13CO2 from Cape Grim, Tasmania, Australia: 1982-1993 (2001) (Trends Online) • In situ Carbon 13 and Oxygen 18 Ratios of Atmospheric CO2 from Cape Grim, Tasmania, Australia: 1982-1993 (1995) • Carbon-13 Isotopic Abundance and concentration of Atmospheric Methane for Background Air in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres from 1978 to 1989 (1995) • Measurements of Atmospheric Methane and 13C/12C of Atmospheric Methane from Flask Air Samples (1999) • 14CO 2 Observations from Schauinsland, Germany (1997) (Trends Online) • Carbon-14 Measurements in Atmospheric CO 2 from Northern and Southern Hemisphere Sites, 1962-1992 (1996) • Carbon-14 Measurements in Surface Water CO2 from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, 1965-1994 (1998) (Specialized Interface)

11

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases, Fiscal Year 2002 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which includes the World Data Center (WDC) for Atmospheric Trace Gases, is the primary global change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). More than just an archive of data sets and publications, CDIAC has, since its inception in 1982, enhanced the value of its holdings through intensive quality assurance, documentation, and integration. Whereas many traditional data centers are discipline-based (for example, meteorology or oceanography), CDIAC's scope includes potentially anything and everything that would be of value to users concerned with the greenhouse effect and global climate change, including atmospheric concentrations and atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other radiatively active gases; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea levels.

Cushman, R.M.

2003-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

12

Oil and gas exploration system and method for detecting trace amounts of hydrocarbon gases in the atmosphere  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oil and gas exploration system and method for land and airborne operations, the system and method used for locating subsurface hydrocarbon deposits based upon a remote detection of trace amounts of gases in the atmosphere. The detection of one or more target gases in the atmosphere is used to indicate a possible subsurface oil and gas deposit. By mapping a plurality of gas targets over a selected survey area, the survey area can be analyzed for measurable concentration anomalies. The anomalies are interpreted along with other exploration data to evaluate the value of an underground deposit. The system includes a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system with a spectroscopic grade laser light and a light detector. The laser light is continuously tunable in a mid-infrared range, 2 to 5 micrometers, for choosing appropriate wavelengths to measure different gases and avoid absorption bands of interference gases. The laser light has sufficient optical energy to measure atmospheric concentrations of a gas over a path as long as a mile and greater. The detection of the gas is based on optical absorption measurements at specific wavelengths in the open atmosphere. Light that is detected using the light detector contains an absorption signature acquired as the light travels through the atmosphere from the laser source and back to the light detector. The absorption signature of each gas is processed and then analyzed to determine if a potential anomaly exists.

Wamsley, Paula R. (Littleton, CO); Weimer, Carl S. (Littleton, CO); Nelson, Loren D. (Evergreen, CO); O' Brien, Martin J. (Pine, CO)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Fermi gases in one dimension: From Bethe Ansatz to experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This article reviews theoretical and experimental developments for one-dimensional Fermi gases. Specifically, the experimentally realized two-component delta-function interacting Fermi gas -- the Gaudin-Yang model -- and its generalisations to multi-component Fermi systems with larger spin symmetries. The exact results obtained for Bethe ansatz integrable models of this kind enable the study of the nature and microscopic origin of a wide range of quantum many-body phenomena driven by spin population imbalance, dynamical interactions and magnetic fields. This physics includes Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-like pairing, Tomonaga-Luttinger liquids, spin-charge separation, Fulde-Ferrel-Larkin-Ovchinnikov-like pair correlations, quantum criticality and scaling, polarons and the few-body physics of the trimer state (trions). The fascinating interplay between exactly solved models and experimental developments in one dimension promises to yield further insight into the exciting and fundamental physics of interacting Fermi systems.

Xi-Wen Guan; Murray T. Batchelor; Chaohong Lee

2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

14

Carbon dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center: A for Atmospheric trace gases. Annual progress report, FY 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments made by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases during the fiscal year 1994. Topics discussed in this report include; organization and staff, user services, systems, communications, Collaborative efforts with China, networking, ocean data and activities of the World Data Center-A.

Burtis, M.D. [comp.] [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Jones, S.B.; Nelson, T.R.; Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases Fiscal Year 2000 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which includes the World Data Center (WDC) for Atmospheric Trace Gases, is the primary global change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). More than just an archive of data sets and publications, CDIAC has, since its inception in 1982, enhanced the value of its holdings through intensive quality assurance, documentation, and integration. Whereas many traditional data centers are discipline-based (for example, meteorology or oceanography), CDIAC's scope includes potentially anything and everything that would be of value to users concerned with the greenhouse effect and global climate change, including concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of CO{sub 2} and other trace gases to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea levels.

Cushman, R.M.

2001-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

16

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases catalog of databases and reports  

SciTech Connect

Data products and reports made available by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Sciences Division, Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER), and the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) provide coverage in a number of areas relevant to the greenhouse effect and global climate change. Such areas include records of the concentration of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea level. Currently, in its eighth revision, this catalog provides information about the data products and reports available through CDIAC.

Burtis, M.D. [comp.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

The Seasonal and Latitudinal Behavior of Trace Gases and O3 as Simulated by a Two-Dimensional Model of the Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional zonal-mean model with parameterized dynamics and an advanced photochemical scheme is used to simulate the stratospheric distributions of atmospheric trace gases including ozone. The model calculates the distributions of 37 ...

Malcolm K. W. Ko; Nien Dak Sze; Mikhail Livshits; Michael B. McElroy; John A. Pyle

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

ARM - Field Campaign - Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsLower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment govCampaignsLower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment Campaign Links LABLE Website Related Campaigns 2013 Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment 2013.05.28, Turner, SGP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment 2012.09.17 - 2012.11.13 Lead Scientist : David Turner Description Boundary layer turbulence is an important process that is parameterized in most atmospheric numerical models. Turbulence redistributes energy and mass within the boundary layer. Many different characteristics can impact the character of turbulence in the boundary layer, including different surface types, horizontal wind speed and direction, and the vertical temperature structure of the atmosphere. However, there have been few studies that have

19

EAQUATE: An International Experiment For Hyperspectral Atmospheric Sounding Validation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The international experiment called the European Aqua Thermodynamic Experiment (EAQUATE) was held in September 2004 in Italy and the United Kingdom to validate Aqua satellite Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) radiance measurements and derived ...

J. P. Taylor; S. Newman; W. L. Smith; V. Cuomo; F. Romano; G. Pappalardo; G. Pavese; L. Mona; A. Amodeo; A. M. Larar; D. K. Zhou; C. Serio; P. Di Girolamo; F. Esposito; G. Grieco; D. Summa; R. Restieri; G. Masiello; T. Maestri; R. Rizzi; P. Antonelli; S. Mango; G. Pisani

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Atmospheric Trace Gases, Carbon Isotopes, Radionuclides, and Aerosols: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

CDIAC products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication titled Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most datasets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Information related to atmospheric carbon dioxide data includes: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Isotopes • Atmospheric carbon dioxide records from Mauna Loa, Hawaii • Monthly atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios and other data from the NOAA/CMDL continuous monitoring network • Data from the CSIRO GASLAB Flask Sampling Network • Atmospheric CO2 records from continuous measurements at Jubany Station, Antarctica and from 10 sites in the SIO air sampling network • Historical data from the extended Vostok ice core (2003) and the Siple Station ice core (1997) • Historical records from the Law Dome DE08, DE08-2, and DSS ice cores (1998) • AmeriFlux Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, and Energy Balance Measurements • Data from the Canadian Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network • Flask Samples from at U.S.S.R.-Operated Sites (1991) • The CISIRO (Australia) Monitoring Program from Aircraft for 1972-1981 • CO2 Concentrations in Surface Water and the Atmosphere during 1986-1989 NOAA/PMEL Cruises in the Pacific and Indian Oceans • Surface Water and Atmospheric CO2 and Nitrous Oxide Observations by Shipboard Automated Gas Chromatography: Results from Expeditions Between 1977 and 1990 (1992) • IPCC Working Group 1, 1994: Modeling Results Relating Future Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations to Industrial Emissions (1995). New datasets are added when available to the category of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric gases experiment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Group-velocity-dispersion measurements of atmospheric and combustion-related gases using  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, "Dispersion measurement of inert gases and gas mixtures at 800 nm," Appl. Opt. 47(27), 4856­4863 (2008). 17. T of the gas. For each gas measurement a pressure point was randomly selected, and the dispersion was measured (), and plot dispersion as a function of gas density in Fig. 3. As expected we see the linear dependence

Dantus, Marcos

22

Integrated Study of MFRSR-derived Parameters of Atmospheric Aerosols and Trace Gases Over the ARM CART Site Extended Facili...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integrated Study of MFRSR-Derived Parameters of Integrated Study of MFRSR-Derived Parameters of Atmospheric Aerosols and Trace Gases Over the ARM CART Site Extended Facilities - Comparison with Satellite and Other Ground-Based Measurements M. D. Alexandrov and B. Cairns Columbia University National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies New York, New York A. A. Lacis and B. E. Carlson National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies New York, New York Comparison of SGP MFRSR Network Aerosol Retrievals with MODIS Aerosol Product The network of Multi-filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSRs) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site consists of 21 instrument sites

23

Atmospheric photochemistry, surface features, and potential biosignature gases of terrestrial exoplanets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The endeavor to characterize terrestrial exoplanets warrants the study of chemistry in their atmospheres. Here I present a comprehensive one-dimensional photochemistry-thermochemistry model developed from the ground up for ...

Hu, Renyu, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Fast Time Response Tunable Diode Laser Measurements of Atmospheric Trace Gases for Eddy Correlation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fast-response, atmospheric trace gas monitor, based on the principle of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, has been developed for making eddy correlation measurements of dry deposition fluxes. This system, which is capable of ...

G. L. Ogram; F. J. Northrup; G. C. Edwards

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

GAPEX: A Ground-Based Atmospheric Profiling Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the week 29 October–4 November 1988, a Ground-based Atmospheric Profiling Experiment (GAPEX) was conducted at Denver Stapleton International Airport. The objective of GAPEX was to acquire and analyze atomspheric-temperature and moisture-...

W. L. Smith; H. E. Rvercomb; H. B. Howell; H. M. Woolf; R. O. Knuteson; R. G. Decker; M. J. Lynch; E. R. Westwater; R. G. Strauch; K. P. Moran; B. Stankov; M. J. Falls; J. Jordan; M. Jacobsen; W. F. Dabberdt; R. McBeth; G. Albright; C. Paneitz; G. Wright; P. T. May; M. T. Decker

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for atmospheric trace gases: FY 1993 activities  

SciTech Connect

During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provide technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC (including World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases) during the period October 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of NDPS, CMPS, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints are provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also presented.

Cushman, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment, and Resources Center

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Intercomparison of NDSC Ground-Based Solar FTIR Measurements of Atmospheric Gases at Lauder, New Zealand  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A formal intercomparison of atmospheric total column measurements of N2O, N2, CH4, O3, HCl, HNO3, and HF by two ground-based solar Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers conducted as part of the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric ...

D. W. T. Griffith; N. B. Jones; B. McNamara; C. Paton Walsh; W. Bell; C. Bernardo

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases Fiscal Year 2001 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which includes the World Data Center (WDC) for Atmospheric Trace Gases, is the primary global change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). More than just an archive of data sets and publications, CDIAC has, since its inception in 1982, enhanced the value of its holdings through intensive quality assurance, documentation, and integration. Whereas many traditional data centers are discipline-based (for example, meteorology or oceanography), CDIAC's scope includes potentially anything and everything that would be of value to users concerned with the greenhouse effect and global climate change, including concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of CO{sub 2} and other trace gases to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea levels. CDIAC is located within the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. CDIAC is co-located with ESD researchers investigating global-change topics, such as the global carbon cycle and the effects of carbon dioxide on climate and vegetation. CDIAC staff are also connected with current ORNL research on related topics, such as renewable energy and supercomputing technologies. CDIAC is supported by the Environmental Sciences Division (Jerry Elwood, Director) of DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research. CDIAC represents DOE in the multi-agency Global Change Data and Information System (GCDIS). Wanda Ferrell is DOE's Program Manager with overall responsibility for CDIAC. Roger Dahlman is responsible for CDIAC's AmeriFlux tasks, and Anna Palmisano for CDIAC's Ocean Data tasks. CDIAC is made up of three groups: Data Systems, Information Services, and Computer Systems, with nineteen full-time or part-time staff. The following section provides details on CDIAC's staff and organization. The Data Systems Group identifies and obtains databases important to global-change research; analyzes data; compiles needed databases; provides data management and support to specific programs [e.g., NARSTO, Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE), AmeriFlux, Oceans]; and prepares documentation to ensure the long-term utility of CDIAC's data holdings. The Information Services Group responds to data and information requests; maintains records of all request activities; analyzes user statistics; assists in Web development and maintenance; and produces CDIAC's newsletter (CDIAC Communications), the fiscal year annual reports, and various information materials. The Computer Systems Group provides computer system support for all CDIAC and WDC activities; designs and maintains CDIAC's computing system network; ensures compliance with ORNL/DOE computing security regulations; ensures long-term preservation of CDIAC data holdings through systematic backups; evaluates, develops, and implements software; ensures standards compliance; generates user statistics; provides Web design, development, and oversight; and provides systems analysis and programming assistance for scientific data projects.

Cushman, R.M.

2002-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

29

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases Fiscal Year 1999 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which includes the World Data Center (WDC) for Atmospheric Trace Gases, is the primary global-change data and information analysis center of the Department of Energy (DOE). More than just an archive of data sets and publications, CDIAC has--since its inception in 1982--enhanced the value of its holdings through intensive quality assurance, documentation, and integration. Whereas many traditional data centers are discipline-based (for example, meteorology or oceanography), CDIAC's scope includes potentially anything and everything that would be of value to users concerned with the greenhouse effect and global climate change, including concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of CO{sub 2} and other trace gases to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea level. CDIAC is located within the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. CDIAC is co-located with ESD researchers investigating global-change topics, such as the global carbon cycle and the effects of carbon dioxide on vegetation. CDIAC staff are also connected with current ORNL research on related topics, such as renewable energy and supercomputing technologies. CDIAC is supported by the Environmental Sciences Division (Jerry Elwood, Acting Director) of DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research. CDIAC's FY 1999 budget was 2.2M dollars. CDIAC represents the DOE in the multi-agency Global Change Data and Information System. Bobbi Parra, and Wanda Ferrell on an interim basis, is DOE's Program Manager with responsibility for CDIAC. CDIAC comprises three groups, Global Change Data, Computer Systems, and Information Services, with seventeen full-time and part-time staff. The Global Change Data group is responsible for identifying and obtaining databases important to global-change research, analyzing data, compiling needed databases, providing data management support to specific programs (e.g., NARSTO), and preparing documentation to ensure the long-term utility of CDIAC's data holdings. The Computer Systems group provides computer system support for all CDIAC and WDC activities, including designing and maintaining CDIAC's computing system network; ensuring compliance with ORNL/DOE computing security regulations; ensuring long-term preservation of CDIAC data holdings through systematic backups; evaluating, developing, and implementing software; ensuring standards compliance; generating user statistics; providing Web design, development, and oversight; and providing systems analysis and programming assistance for scientific data projects. The Information Services group responds to data and information requests; maintains records of all request activities; assists in Web development and maintenance; and produces CDIAC's newsletter, CDIAC Communications, catalog, glossary, and educational materials. The following section provides further details on CDIAC's organization.

Cushman, R.M.

2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

30

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tropical Warm Pool Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment General Description The Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) was a collaborative effort led by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Beginning January 21 and ending February 14, 2006, the experiment was conducted in the region near the ARM Climate Research Facility in Darwin, Northern Australia. This permanent facility is fully equipped with sophisticated instruments for measuring cloud and other atmospheric properties to provide a long-term record of continuous observational data. Measurements obtained from the other experiment components (explained below) will complement this dataset to provide a detailed description of the tropical atmosphere.

31

Data Preparation and Analysis for Annex III, USA/PRC Cooperation in the Field of Atmospheric Trace Gases  

SciTech Connect

The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) has been a long-time and very active participant in the joint research program on the Greenhouse Effect created by the bilateral agreement Annex III to the Protocol on Fossil Energy Research and Development on Cooperation in the Field of Atmospheric Trace Gases. This agreement between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the People's Republic of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) has fostered a large amount of data set development and research (Riches et al., 1992) as well as science exchange between the two countries. Within the agreement there have been four basic tasks: (1) to analyze general circulation models, (2) to prepare, validate, and analyze data, (3) analyze the relationship between large scale and local climate, and (4) atmospheric trace gas measurements, particularly methane (Riches et al. 1992). Within this framework the NCDC has had two basic tasks in this program: to develop, validate, analyze and exchange long-term climate data sets suitable for analyzing past climate change, and to perform research into past climate change and linking large-scale and regional climates. Following is a brief review of NCDC's accomplishments in the project.

Easterling, D.R.; Karl, T.R.

1999-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

32

Barometric pumping of burial trench soil gases into the atmosphere at the 740-G Sanitary Landfill  

SciTech Connect

In 1991, a soil gas survey was performed at the Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill as part of the characterization efforts required under the integrated Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation and Comprehensive Environmental Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation (RFI/RI) program. This report details the findings of this survey, which identified several areas of the landfill that were releasing volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere at levels exceeding regulatory standards. Knowledge of the rates of VOC outgassing is necessary to protect site workers, provide input into the human health and environmental risk assessment documents and provide input into the remedial design scenario.

Wyatt, D.E.; Pirkle, R.J.; Masdea, D.J.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

The Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LBA (Amazon) LBA (Amazon) The Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) Overview [LBA Logo] The Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is an international research initiative conducted from 1995-2005 and led by Brazil. The LBA Project encompasses several scientific disciplines, or components. The LBA-ECO component focuses on the question: "How do tropical forest conversion, regrowth, and selective logging influence carbon storage, nutrient dynamics, trace gas fluxes, and the prospect for sustainable land use in Amazonia?" The Amazon rain forest or Amazonia, is the largest remaining expanse of tropical rain forest on Earth, harboring approximately one-third of all Earth's species. Although the rain forest's area is so large that it

34

GLACE: The Global Land–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment. Part I: Overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Global Land–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) is a model intercomparison study focusing on a typically neglected yet critical element of numerical weather and climate modeling: land–atmosphere coupling strength, or the degree to which ...

Randal D. Koster; Y. C. Sud; Zhichang Guo; Paul A. Dirmeyer; Gordon Bonan; Keith W. Oleson; Edmond Chan; Diana Verseghy; Peter Cox; Harvey Davies; Eva Kowalczyk; C. T. Gordon; Shinjiro Kanae; David Lawrence; Ping Liu; David Mocko; Cheng-Hsuan Lu; Ken Mitchell; Sergey Malyshev; Bryant McAvaney; Taikan Oki; Tomohito Yamada; Andrew Pitman; Christopher M. Taylor; Ratko Vasic; Yongkang Xue

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

TOGA COARE: The Coupled Ocean—Atmosphere Response Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Despite significant progress in the Tropical Ocean—Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program, a number of major hurdles remain before the primary objective, prediction of the variability of the coupled ocean—atmosphere system on time scales of months to ...

Peter J. Webster; Roger Lukas

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

A primer on greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a reference summarizing current understanding of basic information for information greenhouse gases. Each of the gases included is recognized to be important to the future state of global atmospheric chemistry and climate. Included as greenhouse gases are thoses of direct radiative importance to climate, thoses that act as radiative precursors, and those of importance as intermediate constitutents because of their chemical activities. Knowns, unknowns and uncertainties for each gas are described. This document focuses on information relevant to understanding the role of energy and atmospheric chemical and radiative processes in the determination of atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases.

Wuebbles, D.J.; Edmonds, J.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Trace gases could double climate warming  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric concentrations of several trace gases capable of changing the climate are increasing. Researchers are concerned about the trace gases despite their miniscule concentrations because they are such efficient absorbers of far-infrared radiation. The trace gases that concern climatologists are methane, nitrous oxide, and the chlorofluorocarbons or CFC's. The increase in atmospheric concentrations of these gases are discussed and atmospheric models predicting their greenhouse effect are described.

Kerr, R.A.

1983-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

38

Field Experiment for Measurement of the Radiative Characteristics of a Hazy Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Theoretical two-and three-dimensional solutions to the radiative transfer equation have been applied to the earth-atmosphere system. A field experiment was conducted to test this theory. in the experiment the upward radiance was measured above ...

Y. J. Kaufman; T. W. Brakke; E. Eloranta

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Atmospheric Science Experiments Applicable to Space Shuttle Spacelab Missions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present lack of a lower atmosphere research satellite program for the 1980s has prompted consideration of the Space Shuttle/Spacelab system as a means of flying sensor complements geared toward specific research problems, as well as continued ...

F. R. Robertson; S. J. Goodman; G. S. Wilson; H. J. Christian Jr.; G. H. Fichtl; W. W. Vaughan

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Concentrations and fluxes of dissolved biogenic gases (DMS, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}) in the equatorial Pacific during the SAGA 3 experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The equatorial Pacific Ocean is a source of both sulfur and carbon to the atmosphere. In February and March 1990, as part of the Soviet-American Gases and Aerosols (SAGA 3) expedition, dimethylsulfide (DMS), methane (CH{sub 4}), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) partial pressures were determined in both surface seawater and the overlying atmosphere of the central equatorial Pacific Ocean (15{degrees}N to 10{degrees}S, 145{degrees}W to 165{degrees}W). The partial pressures were used to calculate the net flux of these gases from the ocean to the atmosphere. The average regional DMS and CO fluxes were similar, 7.1 and 4.2 {mu}mol/m{sup 2}/d, respectively. The mixing ratio of CH{sub 4} in surface seawater was close to equilibrium with the overlying atmosphere and hence the average flux was only 0.39 {mu}mol/m{sup 2}/d. The flux of CO{sub 2} clearly dominated the air-sea carbon exchange with an average regional flux of 5.4 mmol/m{sup 2}/d. 64 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Bates, T.S.; Johnson, J.E. [Pacific Marine Environmental Lab., Seattle, WA (United States)]|[Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Kelly, K.C. [Pacific Marine Environmental Lab., Seattle, WA (United States)

1993-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric gases experiment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

CO2-Induced Changes in Atmospheric Angular Momentum in CMIP2 Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The response of atmospheric angular momentum to a gradual doubling of CO2 is studied using 16 model experiments participating in the second phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP2). The relative angular momentum associated with ...

Jouni Räisänen

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Atmospheric Dispersion from Elevated Sources in an Urban Area: Comparison between Tracer Experiments and Model Calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric dispersion experiments were carried out in the Copenhagen area under neutral and unstable conditions. The tracer sulphurhexafluoride was released without buoyancy from a tower at a height of 115 m and then collected at ground-level ...

Sven-Erik Gryning; Erik Lyck

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

An Observing System Simulation Experiment for the Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of observing system simulation experiments (OSSES) was conducted to assess the potential impact of the Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) instrument on a 5-day forecast using the Florida State University (FSU) primitive equation ...

G. D. Rohaly; T. N. Krishnamurti

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Numerical Experiments on Consistent Horizontal and Vertical Resolution for Atmospheric Models and Observing Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simple numerical experiments are performed in order to determine the effects of inconsistent combinations of horizontal and vertical resolution in both atmospheric models and observing systems. In both cases, we find that inconsistent spatial ...

Michael S. Fox-Rabinovitz; Richard S. Lindzen

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Electronegative gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent knowledge on electronegative gases essential for the effective control of the number densities of free electrons in electrically stressed gases is highlighted. This knowledge aided the discovery of new gas dielectrics and the tailoring of gas dielectric mixtures. The role of electron attachment in the choice of unitary gas dielectrics or electronegative components in dielectric gas mixtures, and the role of electron scattering at low energies in the choice of buffer gases for such mixtures is outlined.

Christophorou, L.G.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Experience with atmospheric fluidized bed gasification of switchgrass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Switchgrass was gasified in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor rated at 800 kW (2.75 MMBtu/hr) thermal input and operating at atmospheric pressure. A combustible gas with higher heating value varying between 4.2--5.9 MJ/Nm{sup 3} (114--160 Btu/scf) was produced. Carbon conversion was approximately 85%. Difficulties in feeding high moisture switchgrass inhibited smooth reactor operation. Several feed systems for switchgrass were tried with varying degrees of success. The results of gasification trials using switchgrass as fuel are described.

Smeenk, J.; Brown, R.C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Center for Coal and the Environment

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

47

Development of the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

STACEE is a proposed atmospheric Cherenkov telescope for ground-based gamma-ray astrophysics between 25 and 500 GeV. The telescope will make use of the large solar mirrors (heliostats) available at a solar research facility to achieve an energy threshold lower than any existing ground-based instrument. This paper describes the development of STACEE, including an overview of the complete instrument design and a discussion of results from recent prototype tests at the large solar heliostat field of Sandia National Laboratories.

Rene A. Ong; the STACEE Collaboration

1997-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

48

The Soil Moisture–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (SMACEX): Background, Hydrometeorological Conditions, and Preliminary Findings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Soil Moisture–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (SMACEX) was conducted in conjunction with the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02) during June and July 2002 near Ames, Iowa—a corn and soybean production region. The primary objective of SMEX02 ...

William P. Kustas; Jerry L. Hatfield; John H. Prueger

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

CESM Century-Scale Climate Experiments with a High-Resolution Atmosphere |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A portion of the 1/4 degree grid global grid is shown over the southeast part of the United States. A portion of the 1/4 degree grid global grid is shown over the southeast part of the United States. The Community Earth System Model (CESM) is joint effort between the Department of Energy and National Science Foundation. It couples state-of-art atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, land/vegetation/ ecological/ and major glaciers into a unified system or components can be run independently. (see https://www2.ucar.edu/for-staff/update/community-earth-system-model) CESM Century-Scale Climate Experiments with a High-Resolution Atmosphere PI Name: Warren Washington PI Email: wmw@ucar.edu Institution: University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 102.8 Million Year: 2014 Research Domain: Earth Science Researchers at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

50

Scaling Water and Energy Fluxes in Climate Systems: Three Land-Atmospheric Modeling Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of small-scale heterogeneity in land-surface characteristics on the large-scale fluxes of water and energy in the land-atmosphere system have become a central focus of many of the climatology research experiments. The acquisition of ...

Eric F. Wood; Venkataraman Lakshmi

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

The safe use of low temperature liquefied gases 1. Introduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(5-10%) but the others are odourless. Liquefied gases ­ oxygen, nitrogen, argon, helium and carbonCare with cryogenics The safe use of low temperature liquefied gases #12;Index 1. Introduction 1.1 Objective 1.2 Gases considered and typical uses 2. Properties of low temperature liquefied atmospheric gases

Martin, Ralph R.

52

Prototype Test Results of the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There are currently no experiments, either satellite or ground-based, that are sensitive to astrophysical gamma-rays at energies between 20 and 250 GeV. We are developing the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) to explore this energy range. STACEE will use heliostat mirrors at a solar research facility to collect Cherenkov light from extensive air showers produced by high energy gamma-rays. Here we report on the results of prototype test work at the solar facility of Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque, NM). The work demonstrates that the facility is suitable for use as an astrophysical observatory. In addition, using a full scale prototype of part of STACEE, we detected atmospheric Cherenkov radiation at energies lower than any other ground-based experiment to date.

STACEE Collaboration

1997-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

53

International RADAGAST Experiment in Niamey, Niger: Changes and Drivers of Atmospheric Radiation Balance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Sahara desert is notorious as a source of massive dust storms. This dust dramatically influences the Earth-atmosphere energy budget through reflecting and absorbing the incoming sunlight. However, this budget is poorly understood, and in particular, we lack quantitative understanding of how the diurnal and seasonal variation of meteorological variables and aerosol properties influence the propagation of solar irradiance through the desert atmosphere. To improve our understanding of these influences, coincident and collocated observations of fluxes, measured from both space and the surface, are highly desirable. Recently, the unique capabilities of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) Experiment, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF), the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument, and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) were combined effectively as part of a large international project: the Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using AMF, GERB data and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST), which took place in Niamey, Niger, in 2006. The RADAGAST objectives, instrumentation, and scientific background are presented in [1]. Initial results from RADAGAST documented the strong radiative impact of a major Saharan dust storm on the Earth’s radiation budget [2]. A special issue of the Journal of Geophysical Research will include a collection of papers with the more complete results from RADAGAST (e.g., [1,3], and references therein). In particular, a year-long time series from RADAGAST are used to investigate (i) the factors that control the radiative fluxes and the divergence of radiation across the atmosphere [3-5], (ii) seasonal changes in the surface energy balance and associated variations in atmospheric constituents (water vapor, clouds, aerosols) [6], and (iii) sensitivity of microphysical, chemical and optical properties of aerosols to their sources and the atmospheric conditions [7]. Here we show retrievals of the aerosol properties from spectrally resolved solar measurements, the simulated and observed radiative fluxes at the surface, and outline factors that control the magnitude and variability of aerosol and radiative properties [8].

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Slingo, A.; Bharmal, N.; Robinson, G. J.; Turner, David D.; Miller, Mark; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Miller, R.

2009-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

54

The Boreal Ecosystem–Atmosphere Study (BOREAS): An Overview and Early Results from the 1994 Field Year  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Boreal Ecosystem Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) is large-scale international field experiment that has the goal of improving our understanding of the exchanges of radiative energy, heat water, CO2, and trace gases between the boreal forest and the ...

Piers Sellers; Forrest Hall; K. Jon Ranson; Hank Margolis; Bob Kelly; Dennis Baldocchi; Gerry den Hartog; Josef Cihlar; Michael G. Ryan; Barry Goodison; Patrick Crill; Dennis Lettenmaier; Diane E. Wickland

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

High Precision Long-Term Monitoring of Radiatively Active and Related Trace Gases at Surface Sites and from Aircraft in the Southern Hemisphere Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Routine high precision measurements of atmospheric CO2, CH4, CO, H2, N2O, and CO2 stable isotopes are conducted by CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia). Of particular relevance to global monitoring of ...

R. J. Francey; L. P. Steele; R. L. Langenfelds; B. C. Pak

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Climatology of the Low-Level Jet at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiments Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A unique dataset obtained with combinations of minisodars and 915-MHz wind profilers at the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiments (ABLE) facility in Kansas was used to examine the detailed characteristics of the nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ). In ...

Jie Song; Ke Liao; Richard L. Coulter; Barry M. Lesht

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Sea Level Changes under Increasing Atmospheric CO2 in a Transient Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere GCM Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Climate change resulting from the enhanced greenhouse effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations is expected to bring about global and local changes in sea level. A global rise in sea level would result from thermal expansion of seawater ...

J. M. Gregory

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Greenhouse gases: What is their role in climate change  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes information relevant to understanding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It examines the nature of the greenhouse effect, the Earth's radiation budget, the concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere, how these concentrations have been changing, natural processes which regulate these concentrations of greenhouse gases, residence times of these gases in the atmosphere, and the rate of release of gases affecting atmospheric composition by human activities. We address the issue of the greenhouse effect itself in the first section. In the second section we examine trends in atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases and emissions sources. In the third section, we examine the natural carbon cycle and its role in determining the atmospheric residence time of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). In the fourth section, we examine the role atmospheric chemistry plays in the determining the concentrations of greenhouse gases. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of these issues. Exhaustive treatments can be found in other volumes, many of which are cited throughout this paper. Rather, this paper is intended to summarize some of the major findings, unknowns, and uncertainties associated with the current state of knowledge regarding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. 57 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

Edmonds, J.A.; Chandler, W.U. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Wuebbles, D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

The Interface or Air–Sea Flux Component of the TOGA Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment and Its Impact on Subsequent Air–Sea Interaction Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interface or air–sea flux component of the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) research program and its subsequent impact on studies of air–sea interaction are described. The ...

Robert A. Weller; Frank Bradley; Roger Lukas

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Suppressant: Inert Gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Influencing the Reported Extinguishing Concentrations of Inert Gases.. ... for the Protection of Machinery Spaces and Gas Turbine Enclosures in ...

2013-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric gases experiment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Quantum Coulomb Gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lectures on Quantum Coulomb gases delivered at the CIME summer school on Quantum Many Body Systems 2010

Jan Philip Solovej

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

62

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

Kulprathipanja, S.

1986-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

63

Spectroscopic Measurements of Atmospheric Gases for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Similarly, accurate measurements of the O 2 A-band will support meteorological observations and weather modeling, and ... Facilities/Tools Used: ...

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Axisymmetric Hurricane in a Dry Atmosphere: Theoretical Framework and Numerical Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses the possible existence of hurricanes in an atmosphere without water vapor and analyzes the dynamic and thermodynamic structures of simulated hurricane-like storms in moist and dry environments. It is first shown that the “...

Agnieszka A. Mrowiec; Stephen T. Garner; Olivier M. Pauluis

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) Simulation Experiment for a Severe Storm Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The GOES satellites launched in the 1980's are carrying an instrument called the VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS), which is designed to provide temperature and moisture profile-sounding capability for mesoscale weather systems. As a controlled ...

Dennis Chesters; Louis W. Uccellini; Anthony Mostek

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

A Coupled Air–Sea Mesoscale Model: Experiments in Atmospheric Sensitivity to Marine Roughness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A coupled air–sea numerical model comprising a mesoscale atmospheric model, a marine circulation model, and a surface wave model is presented. The coupled model is tested through simulations of an event of frontal passage through the Lake Erie ...

Jordan G. Powers; Mark T. Stoelinga

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

The ONSAM Experiment: Remote Sensing Techniques for Vertical Sounding of the Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ONSala Atmospheric Measurement program was carried out in May 1983 in order to test the performance of new remote sensing equipment, compared with radiosondes launched for this particular program. A temperature profiling radiometer and a ...

J. Askne; G. Elgered; H. Nordius; G. Skoog; E. Winberg; A. Ha?ga?rd; E. Andersson; N. Gustafsson; J. Svensson; I. Carlsson

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Soil Moisture Memory in AGCM Simulations: Analysis of Global Land–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil moisture memory is a key aspect of land–atmosphere interaction and has major implications for seasonal forecasting. Because of a severe lack of soil moisture observations on most continents, existing analyses of global-scale soil moisture ...

Sonia I. Seneviratne; Randal D. Koster; Zhichang Guo; Paul A. Dirmeyer; Eva Kowalczyk; David Lawrence; Ping Liu; David Mocko; Cheng-Hsuan Lu; Keith W. Oleson; Diana Verseghy

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

A General Circulation Experiment with a Coupled Atmosphere, Ocean and Sea Ice Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the construction and results of a comprehensive, three-dimensional general circulation model (GCM) of the earth's climate. The model, developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), links separate existing ...

Warren M. Washington; Albert J. Semtner Jr.; Gerald A. Meehl; David J. Knight; Thomas A. Mayer

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Detailed discussion of a linear electric field frequency shift (important for next generation) electric dipole moment searches) induced in confined gases by a magnetic field gradient: Implications for electric dipole moment experiments (II)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The search for particle electric dipole moments represents a most promising way to search for physics beyond the standard model. A number of groups are planning a new generation of experiments using stored gases of various kinds. In order to achieve the target sensitivities it will be necessary to deal with the systematic error resulting from the interaction of the well-known E x v field with magnetic field gradients (often referred to as the geometric phase effect [9,10]). This interaction produces a frequency shift linear in the electric field, mimicking an edm. In this work we introduce an analytic model for the correlation function which determines the behavior of the frequency shift [11], and show in detail how it depends on the operating conditions of the experiment. We also propose a method to directly measure ths correlation function under the exact conditions of a given experiment.

A. L. Barabanov; R. Golub; S. K. Lamoreaux

2005-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

71

Midwinter Suppression of Northern Hemisphere Storm Track Activity in the Real Atmosphere and in GCM Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The seasonal cycle of the North Pacific and the North Atlantic storm track activity is investigated on the basis of daily National Meteorological Center (now known as NCEP) upper-air analyses (1946–89) and of data from the ECHAM3 T42 atmospheric ...

M. Christoph; U. Ulbrich; P. Speth

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Light Collection in Liquid Noble Gases  

SciTech Connect

Liquid noble gases are increasingly used as active detector materials in particle and nuclear physics. Applications include calorimeters and neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, direct dark matter, muon electron conversion, and the neutron electric dipole moment. One of the great advantages of liquid noble gases is their copious production of ultraviolet scintillation light, which contains information about event energy and particle type. I will review the scintillation properties of the various liquid noble gases and the means used to collect their scintillation light, including recent advances in photomultiplier technology and wavelength shifters.

McKinsey, Dan [Yale University

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

73

Observations of the Pulsar PSR B1951+32 with the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the analysis and results of 12.5 hours of high-energy gamma-ray observations of the EGRET-detected pulsar PSR B1951+32 using the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE). STACEE is an atmospheric Cherenkov detector, in Albuquerque, New Mexico, that detects cosmic gamma rays using the shower-front-sampling technique. STACEE's sensitivity to astrophysical sources at energies around 100 GeV allows it to investigate emission from gamma-ray pulsars with expected pulsed emission cutoffs below 100 GeV. We discuss the observations and analysis of STACEE's PSR 1951+32 data, accumulated during the 2005 and 2006 observing seasons.

Kildea, J; Ball, J; Carson, J E; Covault, C E; Driscoll, D D; Fortin, P; Gingrich, D M; Hanna, D S; Jarvis, A; Lindner, T; Müller, C; Mukherjee, R; Ong, R A; Ragan, K; Williams, D A

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Surface Meteorology and Air-Sea Fluxes in the Western Equatorial Pacific Warm Pool during the TOGA Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A major goal of the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) was to achieve significantly more accurate and complete descriptions of the surface meteorology and air-sea fluxes in the western equatorial warm pool region. Time series of ...

R. A. Weller; S. P. Anderson

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

In Situ Measurements of Long-Lived Trace Gases in the Lower Stratosphere by Gas Chromatography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detailed information on the four-channel Airborne Chromatograph for Atmospheric Trace Species (ACATS-IV), used to measure long-lived atmospheric trace gases, is presented. Since ACATS-IV was last described in the literature, the temporal ...

P. A. Romashkin; D. F. Hurst; J. W. Elkins; G. S. Dutton; D. W. Fahey; R. E. Dunn; F. L. Moore; R. C. Myers; B. D. Hall

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Quality of Mobile Air Temperature and Atmospheric Pressure Observations from the 2010 Development Test Environment Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 2010 Development Test Environment Experiment (DTE10) took place from 28 January to 29 March 2010 in the Detroit, Michigan, metropolitan area for the purposes of collecting and evaluating mobile data from vehicles. To examine the quality of ...

Amanda R. S. Anderson; Michael Chapman; Sheldon D. Drobot; Alemu Tadesse; Brice Lambi; Gerry Wiener; Paul Pisano

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Experiment plan for characterization of the properties of molten rock at atmospheric and elevated pressures: Magma Energy Research Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Knowledge of the properties of molten rock (magma) is of importance to the Magma Energy Research Project of Sandia Laboratories. Facilities have been set up at Sandia to study the physical properties, chemistry, and corrosive nature of magma to 1600/sup 0/C and from atmospheric pressure to 4 kbar (400 MPa). Experiments at atmospheric pressure are being done in the presence of multicomponent gas mixtures to control the chemical activities of oxygen and sulfur. The high-pressure apparatus includes cold-seal small-volume pressure vessels (to 1100/sup 0/C and 1 kbar) and a large (750 cm/sup 3/ sample volume), internally heated pressure vessel (to 1600/sup 0/C and 4 kbar). The large vessel contains a number of penetrations for electrical leads and pressure lines, and is linked to a computer for data acquisition and control of experiments. Water and other dissolved volatiles (CO/sub 2/, CO, SO/sub 2/, S/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S, HCl, HF) have significant effects on all the properties of magma, and these effects will be studied in the high-pressure apparatus. Phase equilibria, viscosity, electrical conductivity, and materials compatibility will be the first properties to be examined under pressure. This report includes a review of the nature and chemical basis for the effects of dissolved volatiles on these properties of magma. 70 references, 10 figures.

Modreski, P.J.

1979-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Techniques for measuring atmospheric aerosols at the High Resolution Fly's Eye experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe several techniques developed by the High Resolution Fly's Eye experiment for measuring aerosol vertical optical depth, aerosol horizontal attenuation length, and aerosol phase function. The techniques are based on measurements of side-scattered light generated by a steerable ultraviolet laser and collected by an optical detector designed to measure fluorescence light from cosmic-ray air showers. We also present a technique to cross-check the aerosol optical depth measurement using air showers observed in stereo. These methods can be used by future air fluorescence experiments.

The HiRes Collaboration

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

79

Simulation of Containment Atmosphere Mixing and Stratification Experiment in the ThAI Facility with a CFD Code  

SciTech Connect

The CFD code CFX4.4 was used to simulate an experiment in the ThAI facility, which was designed for investigation of thermal-hydraulic processes during a severe accident inside a Light Water Reactor containment. In the considered experiment, air was initially present in the vessel, and helium and steam were injected during different phases of the experiment at various mass flow rates and at different locations. The main purpose of the proposed work was to assess the capabilities of the CFD code to reproduce the atmosphere structure with a three-dimensional model, coupled with condensation models proposed by the authors. A three-dimensional model of the ThAI vessel for the CFX4.4 code was developed. The flow in the simulation domain was modeled as single-phase. Steam condensation on vessel walls was modeled as a sink of mass and energy using a correlation that was originally developed for an integral approach. A simple model of bulk phase change was also included. Calculated time-dependent variables together with temperature and volume fraction distributions at the end of different experiment phases are compared to experimental results. (authors)

Babic, Miroslav; Kljenak, Ivo; Mavko, Borut [Reactor Engineering Division, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Feasibility of perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) in atmospheric source-receptor experiments  

SciTech Connect

A brief description of the perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) system, which includes the tracers and the release equipment, the air samplers and the analyzers, is presented along with details on the research needs to provide a viable system for MATEX-scenario experiments. The present family of 2 viable PFTs needs to be increased to 5 to 6. Given the present precision of the analysis system, a one year long tracer experiment consisting of 4 hour releases every 60 hours from 5 different sites would require nearly 150 metric tons of PFTs at a cost of $15,000,000. Shortcomings in the programmable sampler include the pump, the sampling sequence control flexibility, data storage and retrieval, and the lack of remote communication capability; sampler adsorbent studies are also needed. The analytical system, including the catalyst processing bed, the chromatography column resolution, and the linearity of the detector, is in need of significant improvement. A higher resolution analysis system could significantly reduce analysis time but, more importantly, reduce tracer requirements more than 10-fold, for a cost savings potential of more than $13,000,000. A model is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of tracer material balances. Assessment of earlier long-range tracer experiments indicates the need for possibly 400 ground sampling sites requiring $8 to $14 million worth of samplers for a one-year tracer experiment. As many as six aircraft would be needed to conduct airborne model validation and material balance studies for each tracer plume.

Dietz, R.N.; Senum, G.I.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric gases experiment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx): Goals, platforms, and field operations  

SciTech Connect

The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) was an international field program designed to make observations of poorly understood but critical components of the coupled climate system of the southeast Pacific. This region is characterized by strong coastal upwelling, the coolest SSTs in the tropical belt, and is home to the largest subtropical stratocumulus deck on Earth. The field intensive phase of VOCALS-REx took place during October and November 2008 and constitutes a critical part of a broader CLIVAR program (VOCALS) designed to develop and promote scientific activities leading to improved understanding, model simulations, and predictions of the southeastern Pacific (SEP) coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system, on diurnal to interannual timescales. The other major components of VOCALS are a modeling program with a model hierarchy ranging from the local to global scales, and a suite of extended observations from regular research cruises, instrumented moorings, and satellites. The two central themes of VOCALS-REx focus upon (a) links between aerosols, clouds and precipitation and their impacts on marine stratocumulus radiative properties, and (b) physical and chemical couplings between the upper ocean and the lower atmosphere, including the role that mesoscale ocean eddies play. A set of hypotheses designed to be tested with the combined field, monitoring and modeling work in VOCALS is presented here. A further goal of VOCALS-REx is to provide datasets for the evaluation and improvement of large-scale numerical models. VOCALS-REx involved five research aircraft, two ships and two surface sites in northern Chile. We describe the instrument payloads and key mission strategies for these platforms and give a summary of the missions conducted.

Wood, R.; Springston, S.; Mechoso, C. R.; Bretherton, C. S.; A.Weller, R.; Huebert, B.; Straneo, F.; Albrecht, B. A.; Coe, H.; Allen, G.; Vaughan, G.; Daum, P.; Fairall, C.; Chand, D.; Klenner, L. G.; Garreaud, R.; Grados, C.; Covert, D. S.; Bates, T. S.; Krejci, R.; Russell, L. M.; Szoeke, S. d.; Brewer, A.; Yuter, S. E.; Chaigneau, A.; Toniazzo, T.; Minnis, P.; Palikonda, R.; Abel, S. J.; Brown, W. O. J.; Williams, S.; Fochesatto, J.; Brioude, J.; Bower, K. N

2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

82

Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases Print Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases Print ALS users should follow Berkeley Lab policy, as described below, for the purchase, delivery, storage, and use of all gases at the ALS. See Shipping and Receiving for information on any non-gas deliveries. Contacts: Gas purchase or delivery: ALS Receiving, 510-486-4494 Gas use and storage: Experiment Coordination, 510-486-7222, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it Gas Storage: Berkeley Lab Chemical Inventory All gas bottles and cylinders at the ALS must be identified with bar code and logged into the Berkeley Lab Chemical Inventory by ALS staff. The inventory will be updated periodically; for more information contact Experiment Coordination. Gases are stored either in the racks between buildings 6 and 7; toxic and corrosive gases are stored in Building 6, room 6C across the walkway from beamline 10.0.

83

Detailed Discussion of a linear electric field frequency shift induced in confined gases by a magnetic field gradient: Implications for neutron electric dipole moment experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The search for particle electric dipole moments (edm) is one of the best places to look for physics beyond the standard model because the size of time reversal violation predicted by the standard model is incompatible with present ideas concerning the creation of the Baryon-Antibaryon asymmetry. As the sensitivity of these edm searches increases more subtle systematic effects become important. We develop a general analytical approach to describe a systematic effect recently observed in an electric dipole moment experiment using stored particles \\cite{JMP}. Our approach is based on the relationship between the systematic frequency shift and the velocity autocorrelation function of the resonating particles. Our results, when applied to well-known limiting forms of the correlation function, are in good agreement with both the limiting cases studied in recent work that employed a numerical/heuristic analysis. Our general approach explains some of the surprising results observed in that work and displays the rich behavior of the shift for intermediate frequencies, which has not been previously studied.

S. K. Lamoreaux; R. Golub

2004-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

84

Sorption of organic gases in residential rooms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

residential rooms residential rooms Title Sorption of organic gases in residential rooms Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-59303 Year of Publication 2007 Authors Singer, Brett C., Alfred T. Hodgson, Toshifumi Hotchi, Katherine Y. Ming, Richard G. Sextro, Emily E. Wood, and Nancy J. Brown Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 41 Start Page Chapter Pagination 3251-3265 Keywords adsorption, hazardous air pollutants, nerve agents, sink effect, volatile organic compounds Abstract Experiments were conducted to characterize organic gas sorption in residential rooms studied ''as-is'' with furnishings and material surfaces unaltered and in a furnished chamber designed to simulate a residential room. Results are presented for 10 rooms (five bedrooms, two bathrooms, a home office, and two multi-function spaces) and the chamber. Exposed materials were characterized and areas quantified. A mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was rapidly volatilized within each room as it was closed and sealed for a 5-h Adsorb phase; this was followed by 30-min Flush and 2-h closed-room Desorb phases. Included were alkane, aromatic, and oxygenated VOCs representing a range of ambient and indoor air pollutants. Three organophosphorus compounds served as surrogates for Sarin-like nerve agents. Measured gas-phase concentrations were fit to three variations of a mathematical model that considers sorption occurring at a surface sink and potentially a second, embedded sink. The 3-parameter sink-diffusion model provided acceptable fits for most compounds and the 4-parameter two-sink model provided acceptable fits for the others. Initial adsorption rates and sorptive partitioning increased with decreasing vapor pressure for the alkanes, aromatics and oxygenated VOCs. Best-fit sorption parameters obtained from experimental data from the chamber produced best-fit sorption parameters similar to those obtained from the residential rooms

85

Simulations of greenhouse trace gases using the Los Alamos chemical tracer model  

SciTech Connect

Through three-dimensional global model studies on atmospheric composition and transport, we are improving our quantitative understanding of the origins and behavior of trace gases that affect Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. We will focus, in this paper, on the simulations of three individual trace gases including CFC-11, methyl chloroform, and methane. We first used our chemical tracer model to study the global distribution and trend of chemically inert CFC-11 observed by the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment. The results show that the model has the ability to reproduce the time-series of the observations. The purpose of this CFC-11 simulation was to test the transport of the model. We then used to model introduce methyl chloroform into the atmosphere according to the known emission patterns and iteratively varied OH fields so that the observed concentrations of methyl chloroform from the observations could be simulated well. The rationale behind this approach is that the reaction with OH is the dominant sink for metyl chloroform and the transport of the model has been tested in the previous CFC-11 study. Finally, using the inferred OH distributions, we conducted a steady-state simulation to reproduce the current methane distribution. The general agreement between the modeled an observed methane surface concentrations has laid a foundation for the simulation of the transient increase of methane.

Kao, C.Y.J.; Morz, E. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Tie, X. (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, CA (United States))

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Simulations of greenhouse trace gases using the Los Alamos chemical tracer model  

SciTech Connect

Through three-dimensional global model studies on atmospheric composition and transport, we are improving our quantitative understanding of the origins and behavior of trace gases that affect Earth`s radiative energy balance and climate. We will focus, in this paper, on the simulations of three individual trace gases including CFC-11, methyl chloroform, and methane. We first used our chemical tracer model to study the global distribution and trend of chemically inert CFC-11 observed by the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment. The results show that the model has the ability to reproduce the time-series of the observations. The purpose of this CFC-11 simulation was to test the transport of the model. We then used to model introduce methyl chloroform into the atmosphere according to the known emission patterns and iteratively varied OH fields so that the observed concentrations of methyl chloroform from the observations could be simulated well. The rationale behind this approach is that the reaction with OH is the dominant sink for metyl chloroform and the transport of the model has been tested in the previous CFC-11 study. Finally, using the inferred OH distributions, we conducted a steady-state simulation to reproduce the current methane distribution. The general agreement between the modeled an observed methane surface concentrations has laid a foundation for the simulation of the transient increase of methane.

Kao, C.Y.J.; Morz, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tie, X. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, CA (United States)

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Radio-frequency spectroscopy of ultracold atomic Fermi gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents experiments investigating the phase diagram of ultracold atomic Fermi gases using radio-frequency spectroscopy. The tunability of many experimental parameters including the temperature, the interparticle ...

Schirotzek, Andre

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

NRC symposium explores links between greenhouse gases, stratospheric ozone  

SciTech Connect

Two important climatic issues stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse gas increase and the apparent connection between them led to the holding in March 1988 of a Joint Symposium on Ozone Depletion, Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change. This symposium was primarily concerned with the linkages between ozone depletion and increasing greenhouse gases and with their combined effect in causing climate change to occur on a global scale. The presentations review the current state of knowledge about stratospheric ozone depletion, discuss the probable effect of predicted greenhouse gas increase on future ozone trends, summarize observational data on changing atmospheric chemistry and associated atmospheric temperatures, and describe the continuing effort to model and predict future scenarios of climatic change relative to ozone and greenhouse gases in both the stratosphere and the troposphere.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Acceleration of the Brewer–Dobson Circulation due to Increases in Greenhouse Gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The acceleration of the Brewer–Dobson circulation under rising concentrations of greenhouse gases is investigated using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model. The circulation strengthens as a result of increased wave driving in the ...

Rolando R. Garcia; William J. Randel

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Observatory (UAO) Pilot Experiment at NYC" - Michael Reynolds, BNL 17:30 "EML Pilot Studies for the Urban Atmospheric Observatory" - Hsi-Na (Sam) Lee, EML 17:40 "A...

91

The Mean Climate of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) in Forced SST and Fully Coupled Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Community Atmosphere Model, version 4 (CAM4), was released as part of the Community Climate System Model, version 4 (CCSM4). The finite volume (FV) dynamical core is now the default because of its superior transport and conservation ...

Richard B. Neale; Jadwiga Richter; Sungsu Park; Peter H. Lauritzen; Stephen J. Vavrus; Philip J. Rasch; Minghua Zhang

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.2 Flue gases and fuel gases: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, incineration and other and gasification technologies for heat and power . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.4 Waste incineration and waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.3 Formation of sulphur compounds during combustion and gasification . . 3-5 3.4 Emission

Zevenhoven, Ron

93

Sorption of organic gases in a furnished room  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a furnished room a furnished room Title Sorption of organic gases in a furnished room Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-53943 Year of Publication 2004 Authors Singer, Brett C., Kenneth L. Revzan, Toshifumi Hotchi, Alfred T. Hodgson, and Nancy J. Brown Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 38 Start Page Chapter Issue 16 Pagination 2483-2494 Abstract We present experimental data and semi-empirical models describing the sorption of organic gases in a simulated indoor residential environment. Two replicate experiments were conducted with 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a 50-m3 room finished with painted wallboard, carpet and cushion, draperies and furnishings. The VOCs span a wide volatility range and include ten Hazardous Air Pollutants. VOCs were introduced to the static chamber as a pulse and their gas-phase concentrations were measured during a net adsorption period and a subsequent net desorption period. Three sorption models were fit to the measured concentrations for each compound to determine the simplest formulation needed to adequately describe the observed behavior. Sorption parameter values were determined by fitting the models to adsorption period data then checked by comparing measured and predicted behavior during desorption. The adequacy of each model was evaluated using a goodness of fit parameter calculated for each period. Results indicate that sorption usually does not greatly affect indoor concentrations of methyl-tert-butyl ether, 2-butanone, isoprene and benzene. In contrast, sorption appears to be a relevant indoor process for many of the VOCs studied, including C8-C10 aromatic hydrocarbons (HC), terpenes, and pyridine. These compounds sorbed at rates close to typical residential air change rates and exhibited substantial sorptive partitioning at equilibrium. Polycyclic aromatic HCs, aromatic alcohols, ethenylpyridine and nicotine initially adsorbed to surfaces at rates of 1.5 to >6 h-1 and partitioned 95 to >99% in the sorbed phase at equilibrium

94

Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program established a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., can report to the EIA, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

Information Center

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Gases to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on AddThis.com... Sustainable Buildings & Campuses Operations & Maintenance Greenhouse Gases Basics Federal Requirements Guidance & Reporting Inventories & Performance Mitigation Planning Resources Contacts Water Efficiency Data Center Energy Efficiency Industrial Facilities Sustainable Federal Fleets

96

Interannual Variability of Trace Gases in the Subtropical Winter Stratosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of water vapor and methane from the Halogen Occultation Experiment instrument on board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite are used to study the interannual variability of trace gas distributions in the atmosphere. Particular ...

L. J. Gray; J. M. Russell Jr.

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY); Dietz, Russell N. (Patchogue, NY)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

1994-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

99

On the Climatology and Trend of the Atmospheric Heat Source over the Tibetan Plateau: An Experiments-Supported Revisit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric heating over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) enhances the Asian summer monsoon. This study presents a state-of-the-art estimate of the heating components and their total over the TP, with the aid of high-accuracy experimental data, an ...

Kun Yang; Xiaofeng Guo; Jie He; Jun Qin; Toshio Koike

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Characteristics of Drought and Persistent Wet Spells over the United States in the Atmosphere–Land–Ocean Coupled Model Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmosphere–land–ocean coupled model simulations are examined to diagnose the ability of models to simulate drought and persistent wet spells over the United States. A total of seven models are selected for this study. They are three versions of ...

Kingtse C. Mo; Lindsey N. Long; Jae-Kyung E. Schemm

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric gases experiment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

ARM tropical pacific experiment (ATPEX): Role of cloud, water vapor and convection feedbacks in the coupled ocean/atmosphere system  

SciTech Connect

We have initiated studies that include radiation model validation, improved treatment of the three-dimensional structure of cloud-radiation interactions, and sensitivity runs that will unravel the role of cloud-convection-radiation interactions in the Pacific Sear Surface Temperatures and the overlying Walker and Hadley circulation. The research program is divided into three phases: (1) radiation, (2) cloud parameterization issues; (3) feedback and ocean-atmosphere interactions.

Ramanathan, V.; Barnett, T.P.

1992-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

102

Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Gases October 7, 2013 - 9:59am Addthis Executive Order 13514 requires Federal agencies to inventory and manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate change. Basics: Read an overview of greenhouse gases. Federal Requirements: Look up requirements for agency greenhouse gas management as outlined in Federal initiatives and executive orders. Guidance and Reporting: Find guidance documents and resources for greenhouse gas accounting and reporting. GHG Inventories and Performance: See detailed comprehensive GHG inventories by Federal agency and progress toward achieving Scope 1 and 2 GHG and Scope 3 GHG reduction targets. Mitigation Planning: Learn how Federal agencies can cost-effectively meet their GHG reduction goals.

103

Ozone depletion, greenhouse gases, and climate change: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

This symposium was primarily concerned with the linkages between ozone depletion and increasing greenhouse gases and with their combined effect in causing climate change to occur on a global scale. The presentations in these proceedings review the current state of knowledge about stratospheric ozone depletion, discuss the probable effect of predicted greenhouse gas increase on future ozone trends, summarize observational data on changing atmospheric chemistry and associated atmospheric temperatures, and describe the continuing effort to model and predict future scenarios of climatic change relative to ozone and greenhouse gases in both the stratosphere and the troposphere. Some of the questions and answers that followed the presentations have been included when they highlight noteworthy points that were not covered in the presentation itself. The request by the National Climate Program Office for a symposium on the above related issues is included. The symposium agenda and participants are given. As well as a glossary of special terms and abbreviations. In summary, the Joint Symposium on Ozone Depletion, Greenhouse Gases, and Climate Change reviewed the magnitude and causes of stratospheric ozone depletion and examined the connections that exist between this problem and the impending climate warming to increasing greenhouse gases. The presentations of these proceedings indicate that the connections are real and important, and that the stratospheric ozone depletion and tropospheric greenhouse warming problems must be studied as parts of an interactive global system rather than as more or less unconnected events.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Atmospheric Aerosols  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

measuring equipment Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric aerosol research at Berkeley Lab seeks to understand the air quality and climate impacts of particles in the atmosphere. On...

105

Efficieny handling effluent gases through chemical scrubbing  

SciTech Connect

This paper is presented as an information source for efficiencies of chemical scrubbing. In it, we will discuss the specific problems of scrubbing silane, disilane, diborane, phosphine, hydrogen selenide and arsine. We will explain the scrubber dynamics, gases and flow rates used along with liquid mediums. The equipment and procedures used for testing, as well as the determination of the results, will be discussed. We intend to give examples of possible reactions and documentation of our efficiencies. Installation and maintenance will be touched, as well as our experiments into accidental catastrophic releases. From all of this we will derive conclusions as to the best possible means of wet chemical scrubbing.

Herman, T.; Soden, S.

1988-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

106

A Refined Method of Parameterizing Absorption Coefficients among Multiple Gases Simultaneously from Line-by-Line Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An extension of the correlated-k distribution method that uses spectral-mapping techniques was derived to parameterize line-by-line absorption coefficients for multiple gases simultaneously for use in three-dimensional atmospheric models. In a ...

Mark Z. Jacobson

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Climate VISION: Greenhouse Gases Information  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

GHG Information GHG Information Greenhouse Gases, Global Climate Change, and Energy Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2001 [1605(a)] This report, required by Section 1605(a) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, provides estimates of U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases, as well as information on the methods used to develop the estimates. The estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors, not on measured or metered emissions monitoring. Available Energy Footprints Industry NAICS* All Manufacturing Alumina & Aluminum 3313 Cement 327310 Chemicals 325 Fabricated Metals 332 Food and Beverages 311, 312 Forest Products 321, 322 Foundries 3315 Glass & Glass Products, Fiber Glass 3272, 3296 Iron & Steel Mills 331111 Machinery & Equipment 333, 334, 335, 336

108

Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Mercury typically forms the sulfide (HgS) #12;4 because of the prevalence of sulfides in volcanic gases Aq + 2e-- ´ Hg0 Atmos Equation 1 Ionic mercury can form from the oxidation of elemental mercury Coal is known to contain mercury as a result of testing done upon the flue gas emitted from power plant

Laughlin, Robert B.

109

The mean climate of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) in forced SST and fully coupled experiments  

SciTech Connect

The Community Atmosphere Model, version 4 (CAM4) was released as the atmosphere component of the Community Climate System Model, version 4 (CCSM4) and is described. The finite volume dynamical core available in CAM3 is now the default due to its superior transport and conservation properties. Deep convection parameterization changes include a dilute plume calculation of convective available potential energy (CAPE) and the introduction of a formulation for Convective Momentum Transport (CMT). For the cloud fraction an additional calculation is performed following macrophysical state updates that provides improved thermodynamic condistancy. A freeze-drying modification is further made to the cloud fraction calculation in very dry environments, such as arctic Winter, where cloud fractionand cloud water estimates were often inconsistant in CAM3. In CAM4 the finite volume dynamical core leads to a degradation in the excessive trade-wind simulation, but with an accompanying reduction in zonal stresses at higher latitudes. Plume dilution leads to a moister deep tropics alleviating much of the mid-tropospheric dry biases and reduces the persistant precipitation biases over the Arabian peninsular and the southern Indian ocean during the Indian Monsoon. CMT reduces much of the excessive trade-wind biases in eastern ocean basins. The freeze drying modification alleviates much of the high latitude, winter-time excessive cloud bias and improves the associated surface cloud-related energy budget, but the updated cloud macrophysical calculation generally leads to reduced cloud fraction and cloud forcing away from high latitudes. Although there are marginal improvements in time-averaged, large-scale hydrology there are signficant improvements in regional climate features such as the generation of tropical and propagation of stationary waves from the Pacific into mid-latitudes and in the seasonal frequency of Northern Hemisphere blocking events. A 1? versus 2? horizontal resolution of the finite volume 24 dynamical core exhibits signficiant improvements in model climate. Improvements in the fully coupled mean climate between CAM3 and CAM4 are also much more signficant than in forced Sea Surface Temperature (SST) simulations. Furthermore, improvements in the transient characteristics ofthe model climate, documented elsewhere, are substantial.

Neale, Richard; Richter, Jadwiga; Park, Sungsu; Lauritzen, P. H.; Vavrus, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Zhang, Minghua

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

110

Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United States, I, Regional Variability And Magmatic Origin Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United States, I, Regional Variability And Magmatic Origin Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Helium isotope ratios in gases of thirty hot springs and geothermal wells and of five natural gas wells in the western United States show no relationship to regional conductive heat flow, but do show a correlation with magma-based thermal activity and reservoir fluid temperature (or total convective heat discharge). Gases from high-T (> 200°C) reservoirs have 3He/4He > 2 _ the atmospheric value, with high He

111

NEW ATLAS9 AND MARCS MODEL ATMOSPHERE GRIDS FOR THE APACHE POINT OBSERVATORY GALACTIC EVOLUTION EXPERIMENT (APOGEE)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a new grid of model photospheres for the SDSS-III/APOGEE survey of stellar populations of the Galaxy, calculated using the ATLAS9 and MARCS codes. New opacity distribution functions were generated to calculate ATLAS9 model photospheres. MARCS models were calculated based on opacity sampling techniques. The metallicity ([M/H]) spans from -5 to 1.5 for ATLAS and -2.5 to 0.5 for MARCS models. There are three main differences with respect to previous ATLAS9 model grids: a new corrected H{sub 2}O line list, a wide range of carbon ([C/M]) and {alpha} element [{alpha}/M] variations, and solar reference abundances from Asplund et al. The added range of varying carbon and {alpha}-element abundances also extends the previously calculated MARCS model grids. Altogether, 1980 chemical compositions were used for the ATLAS9 grid and 175 for the MARCS grid. Over 808,000 ATLAS9 models were computed spanning temperatures from 3500 K to 30,000 K and log g from 0 to 5, where larger temperatures only have high gravities. The MARCS models span from 3500 K to 5500 K, and log g from 0 to 5. All model atmospheres are publicly available online.

Meszaros, Sz.; Allende Prieto, C.; De Vicente, A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Edvardsson, B.; Gustafsson, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Astronomy and Space Physics, Box 515, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Castelli, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Garcia Perez, A. E.; Majewski, S. R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Plez, B. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Universite Montpellier 2, CNRS, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Schiavon, R. [Gemini Observatory, 670 North A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Shetrone, M. [McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min × 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

M. Aslam K. Khalil

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

113

Surface water and atmospheric underway carbon data obtained during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Indian Ocean survey cruises (R/V Knorr, December 1998--January 1996)  

SciTech Connect

This data documentation presents the results of the surface water and atmospheric underway measurements of mole fraction of carbon dioxide (xCO{sub 2}), sea surface salinity, and sea surface temperature, obtained during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Indian Ocean survey cruises (December 1994--January 1996). Discrete and underway carbon measurements were made by members of the CO{sub 2} survey team. The survey team is a part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study supported by the US Department of Energy to make carbon-related measurements on the WOCE global survey cruises. Approximately 200,000 surface seawater and 50,000 marine air xCO{sub 2} measurements were recorded.

Kozyr, A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment, and Resources Center; Allison, L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Global Warming and Greenhouse Gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... NIST is producing new suites of primary gas standards for carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide in air at atmospheric levels ...

2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

115

Sustainability: Economics, Lifecycle Analysis, Green House Gases ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Report on Linking Transformational Materials and Processing for Energy and ... LIFECYCLE ANALYSIS, GREEN HOUSE GASES, AND CLIMATE CHANGE ...

116

Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Greenhouse Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel carbon-conversion-fig-1.jpg Key Challenges: An important strategy for reducing global CO2 emissions calls for capturing the greenhouse gas and converting it to fuels and chemicals. Although researchers working toward that goal demonstrated in 1992 such a reaction in the lab, a key outstanding scientific challenge was explaining the details of how the reaction took place - its "mechanism." Why it Matters: An important potential strategy for reducing global CO2 emissions calls for capturing the greenhouse gas and converting it electrochemically to fuels and chemicals. Accomplishments: Computation to explain how carbon dioxide can be converted to small organic molecules with little energy input. The

117

“Hard probes” of strongly-interacting atomic gases  

SciTech Connect

We investigate properties of an energetic atom propagating through strongly interacting atomic gases. The operator product expansion is used to systematically compute a quasiparticle energy and its scattering rate both in a spin-1/2 Fermi gas and in a spinless Bose gas. Reasonable agreement with recent quantum Monte Carlo simulations even at a relatively small momentum k/kF > 1.5 indicates that our large-momentum expansions are valid in a wide range of momentum. We also study a differential scattering rate when a probe atom is shot into atomic gases. Because the number density and current density of the target atomic gas contribute to the forward scattering only, its contact density (measure of short-range pair correlation) gives the leading contribution to the backward scattering. Therefore, such an experiment can be used to measure the contact density and thus provides a new local probe of strongly interacting atomic gases.

Nishida, Yusuke [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

118

Atmospheric Aerosols  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tom Kirchstetter with aerosol measurement instrument Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric aerosol research at LBNL seeks to understand the air quality and climate impacts of particles...

119

A Biomass-based Model to Estimate the Plausibility of Exoplanet Biosignature Gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biosignature gas detection is one of the ultimate future goals for exoplanet atmosphere studies. We have created a framework for linking biosignature gas detectability to biomass estimates, including atmospheric photochemistry and biological thermodynamics. The new framework is intended to liberate predictive atmosphere models from requiring fixed, Earth-like biosignature gas source fluxes. New biosignature gases can be considered with a check that the biomass estimate is physically plausible. We have validated the models on terrestrial production of NO, H2S, CH4, CH3Cl, and DMS. We have applied the models to propose NH3 as a biosignature gas on a "cold Haber World," a planet with a N2-H2 atmosphere, and to demonstrate why gases such as CH3Cl must have too large of a biomass to be a plausible biosignature gas on planets with Earth or early-Earth-like atmospheres orbiting a Sun-like star. To construct the biomass models, we developed a functional classification of biosignature gases, and found that gases (such...

Seager, S; Hu, R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Testing ice microphysics parameterizations in the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model Version 3 using Tropical Warm Pool–International Cloud Experiment data  

SciTech Connect

Cloud properties have been simulated with a new double-moment microphysics scheme under the framework of the single column version of NCAR CAM3. For comparisons, the same simulation was made with the standard single-moment microphysics scheme of CAM3. Results from both simulations were compared favorably with observations during the Tropical Warm Pool- International Cloud Experiment by US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Program in terms of the temporal variation and vertical distribution of cloud fraction and cloud condensate. Major differences between the two simulations are in the magnitude and distribution of ice water content within the mixed-phase cloud during the monsoon period, though the total frozen water (snow plus ice) content is similar. The ice mass content in the mixed-phase cloud from the new scheme is larger than that from the standard scheme, and extends 2 km further downward, which are closer to observations. The dependence of the frozen water mass fraction in total condensate on temperature from the new scheme is also closer to available observations. Outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) from the simulation with the new scheme is in general larger than that with the standard scheme, while the surface downward longwave radiation is similar. Sensitivity tests suggest that different treatments of the ice effective radius contribute significantly to the difference in the TOA OLR in addition to cloud water path. The deep convection process affects both TOA OLR and surface downward longwave radiation. The over-frequently-triggered deep convention process in the model is not the only mechanism for the excess middle and high level clouds. Further evaluation especially for ice cloud properties based on in-situ data is needed.

Wang, Weiguo; Liu, Xiaohong; Xie, Shaocheng; Boyle, James; McFarlane, Sally A.

2009-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric gases experiment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Atmospheric Circulation Trends, 1950–2000: The Relative Roles of Sea Surface Temperature Forcing and Direct Atmospheric Radiative Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relative roles of direct atmospheric radiative forcing (due to observed changes in well-mixed greenhouse gases, tropospheric and stratospheric ozone, sulfate and volcanic aerosols, and solar output) and observed sea surface temperature (SST) ...

Clara Deser; Adam S. Phillips

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Experiences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Experiences Experiences with 100Gbps Network Applications Mehmet Balman, Eric Pouyoul, Yushu Yao, E. Wes Bethel Burlen Loring, Prabhat, John Shalf, Alex Sim, and Brian L. Tierney Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory One Cyclotron Road Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA {mbalman,epouyoul,yyao,ewbethel,bloring,prabhat,jshalf,asim,btierney}@lbl.gov ABSTRACT 100Gbps networking has finally arrived, and many research and educational institutions have begun to deploy 100Gbps routers and services. ESnet and Internet2 worked together to make 100Gbps networks available to researchers at the Supercomputing 2011 con- ference in Seattle Washington. In this paper, we describe two of the first applications to take advantage of this network. We demon- strate a visualization application that enables remotely located sci- entists to gain insights from large datasets. We also demonstrate climate

123

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Greenhouse Gases, Climate Change, and Energy Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States. Contact the 1605(b) Program ...

124

A Spontaneously Generated Tropical Atmospheric General Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of idealized atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) experiments are presented. These experiments examine whether and how atmospheric deep moist convection, in the absence of meridional gradients in external forcing, interacts with ...

Ben P. Kirtman; Edwin K. Schneider

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Regenerable process for the selective removal of sulfur dioxide from effluent gases  

SciTech Connect

A regenerable process is claimed for scrubbing SO/sub 2/ from effluent gases using an aqueous alkanolamine and the corresponding sulfite as the solvent, such amine having a boiling point below about 250/sup 0/ C. At one atmosphere pressure and wherein the alkanolamine solutions containing heat stable salts (Hss) is regenerated by alkali addition, crystallization and vacuum distillation of the amine.

Atwood, G.R.; Kosseim, A.J.; Sokolik, J.E.

1983-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

126

The Measurement of Tropospheric Trace Gases at Fritz Peak Observatory, Colorado, by Long-Path Absorption: OH and Ancillary Gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The determination of the concentration of the hydroxyl radical in the troposphere is of fundamental importance to an understanding of the chemistry of the lower atmosphere. Described here are experiments located at Fritz Peak Observatory, ...

George H. Mount; Jerald W. Harder

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

A research program on radiative, chemical, and dynamical feedback progresses influencing the carbon dioxide and trace gases climate effects: Annual progress report, September 1, 1986--July 15, 1989  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the up-to-date progress. The program includes two tasks: atmospheric radiation and climatic effects and their objective is to link quantitatively the radiation forcing changes and the climate responses caused by increasing greenhouse gases. Here, the objective and approach are described. We investigate the combined atmospheric radiation characteristics of the greenhouse gases (H/sub 2/O, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, N/sub 2/O, CFCs, and O/sub 3/), aerosols and clouds. Since the climatic effect of increasing atmospheric greenhouse gases is initiated by perturabtion to the longwave thermal radiation, it is critical to understand better the radiation characteristics of the greenhouse gases and their relationship to radiatively-important aerosols and clouds; the latter reflect solar radiation (a cooling of the surface) and provide a greenhouse effect (a warming to the surface). Therefore, aerosol and cloud particles are an integral part of the radiation field in the atmosphere. 9 refs.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature version 2.1 (MEGAN2.1): an extended and updated framework for modeling biogenic emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature version 2.1 (MEGAN2.1) is a modeling framework for estimating fluxes of biogenic compounds between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere using simple mechanistic ...

Guenther, A. B.

129

Estimating Emissions of Other Greenhouse Gases  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Estimating Emissions of Other Greenhouse Gases Presentation to the Department of Energy Republic of the Philippines September 17, 1997 Arthur Rypinski Energy ...

130

Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Summary)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases...

131

Granular gases under extreme driving  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study inelastic gases in two dimensions using event-driven molecular dynamics simulations. Our focus is the nature of the stationary state attained by rare injection of large amounts of energy to balance the dissipation due to collisions. We find that under such extreme driving, with the injection rate much smaller than the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a power-law high energy tail. The numerically measured exponent characterizing this tail is in excellent agreement with predictions of kinetic theory over a wide range of system parameters. We conclude that driving by rare but powerful energy injection leads to a well-mixed gas and constitutes an alternative mechanism for agitating granular matter. In this distinct nonequilibrium steady-state, energy cascades from large to small scales. Our simulations also show that when the injection rate is comparable with the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a stretched exponential tail.

W. Kang; J. Machta; E. Ben-Naim

2010-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

132

APPARATUS FOR CATALYTICALLY COMBINING GASES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A convection type recombiner is described for catalytically recombining hydrogen and oxygen which have been radiolytically decomposed in an aqueous homogeneous nuclear reactor. The device is so designed that the energy of recombination is used to circulate the gas mixture over the catalyst. The device consists of a vertical cylinder having baffles at its lower enda above these coarse screens having platinum and alumina pellets cemented thereon, and an annular passage for the return of recombined, condensed water to the reactor moderator system. This devicea having no moving parts, provides a simple and efficient means of removing the danger of accumulated hot radioactive, explosive gases, and restoring them to the moderator system for reuse.

Busey, H.M.

1958-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

133

Remote monitoring of volcanic gases using passive Fourier transform spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Volcanic gases provide important insights on the internal workings of volcanoes and changes in their composition and total flux can warn of impending changes in a volcano`s eruptive state. In addition, volcanoes are important contributors to the earth`s atmosphere, and understanding this volcanic contribution is crucial for unraveling the effect of anthropogenic gases on the global climate. Studies of volcanic gases have long relied upon direct in situ sampling, which requires volcanologists to work on-site within a volcanic crater. In recent years, spectroscopic techniques have increasingly been employed to obtain information on volcanic gases from greater distances and thus at reduced risk. These techniques have included UV correlation spectroscopy (Cospec) for SO{sub 2} monitoring, the most widely-used technique, and infrared spectroscopy in a variety of configurations, both open- and closed-path. Francis et al. have demonstrated good results using the sun as the IR source. This solar occultation technique is quite useful, but puts rather strong restrictions on the location of instrument and is thus best suited to more accessible volcanoes. In order to maximize the flexibility and range of FTIR measurements at volcanoes, work over the last few years has emphasized techniques which utilize the strong radiance contrast between the volcanic gas plume and the sky. The authors have successfully employed these techniques at several volcanoes, including the White Island and Ruapehu volcanoes in New Zealand, the Kilauea volcano on Hawaii, and Mt. Etna in Italy. But Popocatepetl (5452 m), the recently re-awakened volcano 70 km southeast of downtown Mexico City, has provided perhaps the best examples to date of the usefulness of these techniques.

Love, S.P.; Goff, F.; Counce, D.; Schmidt, S.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Siebe, C.; Delgado, H. [Univ. Nactional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan (Mexico)

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Archive  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program established a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., can report to the EIA, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

Information Center

2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

135

The Ocean Response to Low-Frequency Interannual Atmospheric Variability in the Mediterranean Sea. Part I: Sensitivity Experiments and Energy Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study a general circulation model is used in order to investigate the interannual response of the Mediterranean Basin to low-frequency interannual variability in atmospheric forcing for the period 1980–88. The model incorporates a ...

G. Korres; N. Pinardi; A. Lascaratos

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Evaluation of a Mesoscale Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling System with Observations from the 1980 Great Plains Mesoscale Tracer Field Experiment. Part I: Datasets and Meteorological Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Colorado State University mesoscale atmospheric dispersion (MAD) numerical modeling system, which consists of a prognostic mesoscale meteorological model coupled to a mesoscale Lagrangian particle dispersion model, has been used to simulate ...

Michael D. Moran; Roger A. Pielke

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Atmospheric Circulation Response to an Instantaneous Doubling of Carbon Dioxide. Part I: Model Experiments and Transient Thermal Response in the Troposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study aims to understand the dynamical mechanisms driving the changes in the general circulation of the atmosphere due to increased carbon dioxide (CO2) by looking into the transient step-by-step adjustment of the circulation. The transient ...

Yutian Wu; Richard Seager; Mingfang Ting; Naomi Naik; Tiffany A. Shaw

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1985--1990  

SciTech Connect

The Earth`s capacity to support life depends on the moderating influences of gases that envelop the planet and warm its surface and protect it from harmful radiation. These gases are referred to as ``greenhouse gases.`` Their warming capacity, called ``the greenhouse effect,`` is essential to maintaining a climate hospitable to all plant, animal, and human life. In recent years, however, there has been increasing concern that human activity may be affecting the intricate balance between the Earth`s absorption of heat from the sun and its capacity to reradiate excess heat back into space. Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities may be an important mechanism that affects global climate. Thus, research is intensifying to improve our understanding of the role human activities might play in influencing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. On the basis of scientific findings of the past few decades, the US Government and the international community at large are now taking steps toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. This report contributes to that process. Mandated by Congress this report provides estimates of US emissions of the principal greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorcarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds. Estimates are for the period 1985 to 1990. Preliminary estimates for 1991 have also been included, whenever data were available.

Not Available

1993-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

139

Life cycles on earth complicate climate research studies of trace gases  

SciTech Connect

The Exchange of Trace Gases between Atmosphere and Biosphere was the theme of the 57th workshop held by the Dahlem Conferences of the Stifterverband fuer die Deutsche Wissenschaft (Donors Association for the Promotion of Arts and Sciences in Germany), in which the experts focused their attention on the trace gases methane (CH{sub 4}) and the nitrous oxides (N{sub 2}O, NO, NO{sub 2}). Although these substances only exist in minute quantities in comparison to carbon dioxide, they contribute just as much to the greenhouse effect.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Development of the first nonhydrostatic nested-grid grid-point global atmospheric modeling system on parallel machines  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Evaluating the importance of global and regional climate response to increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases requires a comprehensive global atmospheric modeling system (GAMS) capable of simulations over a wide range of atmospheric circulations, from complex terrain to continental scales, on high-performance computers. Unfortunately, all of the existing global circulation models (GCMs) do not meet this requirements, because they suffer from one or more of the following three shortcomings: (1) use of the hydrostatic approximation, which makes the models potentially ill-posed; (2) lack of a nested-grid (or multi-grid) capability, which makes it difficult to consistently evaluate the regional climate response to the global warming, and (3) spherical spectral (opposed to grid-point finite-difference) representation of model variables, which hinders model performance for parallel machine applications. The end product of the research is a highly modularized, multi-gridded, self-calibratable (for further parameterization development) global modeling system with state-of-the-science physics and chemistry. This system will be suitable for a suite of atmospheric problems: from local circulations to climate, from thunderstorms to global cloud radiative forcing, from urban pollution to global greenhouse trace gases, and from the guiding of field experiments to coupling with ocean models. It will also provide a unique testbed for high-performance computing architecture.

Kao, C.Y.J.; Langley, D.L.; Reisner, J.M.; Smith, W.S.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric gases experiment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Biomass Burning and the Production of Greenhouse Gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass burning is a source of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. In addition, biomass burning is a source of chemically active gases, including carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and nitric oxide. These gases, along ...

Levine J. S.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Improved correlations for retrograde gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three correlations for retrograde gases have been developed. First, a correlation was developed that relates the composition of a retrograde gas-condensate mixture at any depletion stage to the composition at its dew point pressure. This correlation is as accurate as previous correlations, and in addition, to the composition, it includes the trends for molecular weight of heptanes plus fraction (A4WC7+), specific gravity of heptanes plus fraction (SGC7+), gas produced (GP) and fraction of liquid (FL). Second, a correlation to describe the molar distribution Of C7+ of a gas-condensate mixture as a function of carbon number (CN), the C6 mole fraction and the properties Of C7+ has been developed. For comparison, the Ahmed, et aL, and Whitson methods were evaluated using a data base of 52 extended (from C]5+ and up) retrograde gascondensate samples. The evaluation of the Ahmed, et al. and Whitson methods showed that both methods are better than the new method. The Ahmed, et aL method does a better overall job than the Vvlhitson method. Comparing the relative error, Ahmed, et al. method had an error of 20.6 percent, and Whitson's method had an error of 25.1 percent. Third, a new and improved retrograde dew point pressure correlation has been developed. The new dew point correlation is an improvement of the Kennedy-Nemeth dew point correlation. Contrary to the Kennedy-Nemeth correlation, temperature is not included in the new correlation. The new dew point correlation is based on composition and the C7+ properties, molecular weight and specific gravity of the heptanes plus fraction.

Crogh, Arne

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

144

Michigan Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Date: 10312013 Referring Pages: Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas Michigan Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from...

145

Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology: Editorial  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology Editorial CurtisWelcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology. Throughon greenhouse gas emissions science and technology, this

Oldenburg, C.M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

The contribution from emissions of different gases to the enhanced greenhouse effect. Appendix B  

SciTech Connect

The main purpose of this paper is to compare the different contributions, that mankind has made to perturbing the atmosphere`s radiative balance. We have, and will continue to perturb both the balance of outgoing long-wave radiation and the balance of incoming short-wave radiation. Human activities since preindustrial times have caused a substantial enhancement of the greenhouse effect, a process involving the absorption of outgoing long-wave radiation which leads to a warming of the lower atmosphere. Because the atmosphere`s short-wave radiative balance is affected by the presence of small particles (aerosols) produced by the oxidation of sulphur compounds, anthropogenic emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) have also caused a perturbation of the overall balance. The greenhouse gases we will consider are, in order of importance: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), Methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and the halocarbons. We use observed and model-based concentration data together with the most recent information relating concentrations to radiative forcing to estimate the individual contributions of the different gases to the changing radiative balance of the atmosphere. We also estimate the ranges of uncertainty in each of these estimates. We base all results on the 1992 IPCC emissions scenarios IS92a-f. We begin with a summary of 1990 conditions, then consider each gas separately (but lumping the halocarbons into a single group), to compare their relative importance.

Wigley, T.M.L.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Denitrification of combustion gases. [Patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treating waste combustion gas to remove the nitrogen oxygen gases therefrom is disclosed wherein the waste gas is first contacted with calcium oxide which absorbs and chemically reacts with the nitrogen oxide gases therein at a temperature from about 100/sup 0/ to 430/sup 0/C. The thus reacted calcium oxide (now calcium nitrate) is then heated at a temperature range between about 430/sup 0/ and 900/sup 0/C, resulting in regeneration of the calcium oxide and production of the decomposition gas composed of nitrogen and nitrogen oxide gas. The decomposition gases can be recycled to the calcium oxide contacting step to minimize the amount of nitrogen oxide gases in the final product gas.

Yang, R.T.

1980-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

149

Collection and analysis of geothermal gases  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Rapid, reliable procedures are described for the collection and analysis of geothermal gases at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Gases covered are H/sub 2/, He, Ar, O/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, C/sub 2/H/sub 6/, CO/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/S. The methods outlined are suitable for geothermal exploration. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Shevenell, L.; Goff, F.; Gritzo, L.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Biological production of products from waste gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

2002-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

151

Rainfall and Radiative Heating Rates from TOGA COARE Atmospheric Budgets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric heat and moisture budgets are used to determine rainfall and radiative heating rates over the western Pacific warm pool during the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE). Results are ...

Richard H. Johnson; Paul E. Ciesielski

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Earth's early atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Ideas about atmospheric composition and climate on the early Earth have evolved considerably over the last 30 years, but many uncertainties still remain. It is generally agreed that the atmosphere contained little or no free oxygen initially and that oxygen concentrations increased markely near 2.0 billion years ago, but the precise timing of and reasons for its rise remain unexplained. Likewise, it is usually conceded that the atmospheric greenhouse effect must have been higher in the past to offset reduced solar luminosity, but the levels of atmospheric carbon cioxide and other greenhouse gases required remain speculative. A better understanding of past atmospheric evolution is important to understanding the evolution of life and to predicting whether Earth-like planets might exist elsewhere in the galaxy.

Kasting, J.F. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))

1993-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

153

Bayesian Modelling Volatility of Growth Rate in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric gases, such as carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, nitrous oxide, and etc., create a natural greenhouse effect and cause climate change. Therefore, modelling behavior of these gases could help policy makers to control greenhouse effects. In a ... Keywords: Stochastic volatility, Smooth transition autoregressive, Markov chain Monte Carlo, methods, Bayesian, ARCH, GARCH

Esmail Amiri

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

On Turbulence and Mixing in the Free Atmosphere Inferred from High-Resolution Soundings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mixing in the free atmosphere above the planetary boundary layer is of great importance to the fate of trace gases and pollutants. However, direct measurements of the turbulent dissipation rate by in situ probes are very scarce and radar ...

Carol Anne Clayson; Lakshmi Kantha

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Transient Climate Change Simulations with a Coupled Atmosphere–Ocean GCM Including the Tropospheric Sulfur Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The time-dependent climate response to changing concentrations of greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols is studied using a coupled general circulation model of the atmosphere and the ocean (ECHAM4/OPYC3). The concentrations of the well-mixed ...

E. Roeckner; L. Bengtsson; J. Feichter; J. Lelieveld; H. Rodhe

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

ARM tropical pacific experiment (ATPEX): Role of cloud, water vapor and convection feedbacks in the coupled ocean/atmosphere system. Progress report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

We have initiated studies that include radiation model validation, improved treatment of the three-dimensional structure of cloud-radiation interactions, and sensitivity runs that will unravel the role of cloud-convection-radiation interactions in the Pacific Sear Surface Temperatures and the overlying Walker and Hadley circulation. The research program is divided into three phases: (1) radiation, (2) cloud parameterization issues; (3) feedback and ocean-atmosphere interactions.

Ramanathan, V.; Barnett, T.P.

1992-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

157

Jefferson Lab Science Series - Investigating Earth's Atmosphere  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Byron Meadows - NASALangley Research Center May 14, 1991 Demonstrations of weather forecasting tools and techniques for experiments in the atmosphere and of lasers used to...

158

Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms and bathrooms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms and bathrooms Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms and bathrooms Title Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms and bathrooms Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBNL-56787 Year of Publication 2005 Authors Singer, Brett C., Alfred T. Hodgson, Toshifumi Hotchi, Katherine Y. Ming, Richard G. Sextro, Emily E. Wood, and Nancy J. Brown Conference Name Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate - Indoor Air 2005 Volume 2(9) Publisher Tsinghua University Press Conference Location Beijing, China Abstract Experiments were conducted to characterize organic gas sorption in residential bedrooms (n=4), bathrooms (n=2), and a furnished test chamber. Rooms were studied "as-is" with material surfaces and furnishings unaltered. Surface materials were characterized and areas quantified. Experiments included rapid volatilization of a volatile organic compound (VOC) mixture with the room closed and sealed for a 5-h Adsorb phase, followed by 30-min Flush and 2-h closed-room Desorb phases. The mixture included n-alkanes, aromatics, glycol ethers, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, dichlorobenzene, and organophosphorus compounds. Measured gas-phase concentrations were fit to three variations of a mathematical model that considers sorption occurring at one surface sink and one potential embedded sink. The 2-parameter sink model tracked measurements for most compounds, but improved fits were obtained for some VOCs with a 3-parameter sink-diffusion or a 4-parameter two-sink model. Sorptive partitioning and initial adsorption rates increased with decreasing vapour pressure within each chemical class.

159

Greenhouse gases and the metallurgical process industry  

SciTech Connect

The present lecture offers a brief review of the greenhouse effect, the sources of greenhouse gases, the potential effect of these gases on global warming, the response of the international community, and the probable cost of national compliance. The specific emissions of the metallurgical process industry, particularly those of the steel and aluminum sectors, are then examined. The potential applications of life-cycle assessments and of an input-output model in programs of emissions' abatement are investigated, and, finally, a few remarks on some implications for education are presented.

Lupis, C.H.P.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Composition of gases vented from a condenser  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Designers of systems that involve condensers often need to predict the amount of process vapor that accompanies the noncondensable gases that are vented from the condensers. An approximation is given that appears to provide, in many cases, reasonably accurate values for the mole ratio of process vapor to noncondensable gases in the vented mixture. The approximation is particularly applicable to flash and direct-contact power systems for geothermal brines and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). More regorous relationships are available for exceptional cases.

Lyon, R.N.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric gases experiment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Stationary light in cold atomic gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss stationary light created by a pair of counter-propagating control fields in Lambda-type atomic gases with electromagnetically induced transparency for the case of negligible Doppler broadening. In this case the secular approximation used in the discussion of stationary light in hot vapors is no longer valid. We discuss the quality of the effective light-trapping system and show that in contrast to previous claims it is finite even for vanishing ground-state dephasing. The dynamics of the photon loss is in general non exponential and can be faster or slower than in hot gases.

Gor Nikoghosyan; Michael Fleischhauer

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

162

Zevenhoven & Kilpinen FLUE GASES and FUEL GASES 19.6.2001 2-1 Chapter 2 Flue gases and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is combusted in a hot fuel / bed material (mostly sand) / ash mixture which is fluidised by the combustion air.8 Principle of a fuel cell (picture OECD/IEA&ETSU, 1993) Future technologies will be based increasingly on the direct oxidation of fuel gases in fuel cells, which implies direct conversion of chemical potential

Zevenhoven, Ron

163

Formation of Hydrogen Cottrell Atmosphere in Palladium: Theory ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Hydrogen Storage in Materials: Theory and Experiment. Presentation Title, Formation of Hydrogen Cottrell Atmosphere in Palladium: Theory and ...

164

SORPTION OF GASES BY VAPOR-DEPOSITED TITANIUM FILMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results are summarized for an investigation of the sorption rates of gases on vapor-deposited titanium films. The usefulness of such films for ultrahigh speed vacuum pumping is appraised. The sorption of hydrogen, deuterium, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water vapor, helium, argon, and methane onto titanium films was measured for a variety of circumstances using techniques and apparatus developed for this specific purpose. The information obtained and techniques evolved in this study have shown that large-scale getter pumping is feasible and can be a very effective means of pumping many gases. Sticking fractions larger than 0.8 were obtained for hydrogen, deuterium, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The experiments have shown that the sticking fraction for gases on vapor-deposited films is a function of the deposition conditions. There is strong evidence to support the supposition that conditions which favor the formation of a porous, fine-grained film structure with a large surface-to-volume ratio produce films with the highest sorption rates. The technique for measuring sticking fractions is new and in many respects unique. It utilizes a very large sorption surface, thus minimizing the perturbing effect of the instrumentation and evaporation apparatus and reducing the hazard of film contamination due to small leaks in the system or outgassing of system components. The method gives especially good accuracy for measurements of sticking fractions approaching unity. The quantity of gas adsorbed, the gas flux onto the getter surface, and the gas flux leaving the getter surface are measured directly. Any two of these three independent measurements can be used to determine the sticking fraction, thereby providing a means of checking the data. The evaporation techniques, substrate surface, and substrate area were chosen to very nearly duplicate the conditions likely to be encountered in the practical application of large-scale getter pumping. (auth)

Clausing, R.E.

1964-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

A Wind Tunnel and Theoretical Study of the Melting Behavior of Atmospheric Ice Particles. IV: Experiment and Theory for Snow Flakes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experiment in the Mainz vertical Cloud Tunnel is described in which natural and laboratory-made aggregates of snow crystals (snow flakes) were melted under free fall conditions in the vertical air stream of the tunnel, which was allowed to ...

S. K. Mitra; O. Vohl; M. Ahr; H. R. Pruppacher

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Atmospheric Methane at Cape Meares, Oregon, U.S.A.: A High-Resolution Data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Trace Gases » Methane » Atmospheric Trace Gases » Methane » Atmospheric Methane, Cape Meares Atmospheric Methane at Cape Meares, Oregon, U.S.A.: A High-Resolution Data Base for the Period 1979-1992 DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.db1007 data Data (DB1007) Investigators M. A. K. Khalil and R. A. Rasmussen Description This data base presents continuous automated atmospheric methane (CH4) measurements taken at the atmospheric monitoring facility in Cape Meares, Oregon, by the Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology. The Cape Meares data represent some 119,000 individual atmospheric methane measurements carried out during 1979-1992. Analysis of ambient air (collected 12 to 72 times daily) was carried out by means of an automated sampling and measurement system, using the method of gas chromatography and

167

Greenhouse gases emission from municipal waste management: The role of separate collection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The municipal solid waste management significantly contributes to the emission in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) and therefore the management process from collection to treatment and disposal has to be optimized in order to reduce these emissions. In this paper, starting from the average composition of undifferentiated municipal solid waste in Italy, the effect of separate collection on greenhouse gases emissions from municipal waste management has been assessed. Different combinations of separate collection scenarios and disposal options (i.e. landfilling and incineration) have been considered. The effect of energy recovery from waste both in landfills and incinerators has also been addressed. The results outline how a separate collection approach can have a significant effect on the emission of greenhouse gases and how wise municipal solid waste management, implying the adoption of Best Available Technologies (i.e. biogas recovery and exploitation system in landfills and energy recovery system in Waste to Energy plants), can not only significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions but, in certain cases, can also make the overall process a carbon sink. Moreover it has been shown that separate collection of plastic is a major issue when dealing with global warming relevant emissions from municipal solid waste management.

Calabro, Paolo S. [Dipartimento di Meccanica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, via Graziella - loc. Feo di Vito, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.calabro@unirc.it

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

168

BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases BOCLH | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases BOCLH BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases BOCLH Jump to: navigation, search Name BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases (BOCLH) Place Taipei, Taiwan Sector Solar Product BOCLH is a joint venture between the Lien Hwa Industrial Corporation and the BOC Group in the United Kingdom and produces high-purity gases used in solar component production. References BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases (BOCLH)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases (BOCLH) is a company located in Taipei, Taiwan . References ↑ "BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases (BOCLH)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=BOC_Lienhwa_Industrial_Gases_BOCLH&oldid=342956

169

Documentation for Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Data Sources for High-GWP Gases from Aerosols..... 163 Table 4-5. Data Sources for High-GWP Gases from Solvent Applications ..... 164 Table 4-6. Data Sources for High ...

170

CSIRO GASLAB Network: Individual Flask Measurements of Atmospheric Trace  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

GASLAB Network GASLAB Network CSIRO GASLAB Network: Individual Flask Measurements of Atmospheric Trace Gases (April 2003) data Data Investigators L.P. Steele, P.R. Krummel, and R.L. Langenfelds Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) DOI 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.db1021 Data are available for four atmospheric trace gases at nine stationary sites and one moving platform (aircraft over Cape Grim, Tasmania, and Bass Strait, between the Australian continent and Tasmania). The trace gases are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen (H2). Measurements of δ13C from CO2 are also included in this database. The nine stationary sites are, from north to south: Alert, Canada; Shetland Islands, Scotland; Estevan Point, Canada; Mauna Loa, Hawaii; Cape Ferguson,

171

Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases. 3 figs.

Turick, C.E.

1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

172

JILA Team Finds New Parallel Between Cold Gases and 'Hot' ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... theorists, have discovered another notable similarity between ultracold atomic gases and high-temperature superconductors, suggesting there may ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

173

Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases.

Turick, Charles E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Method of removing carbon monoxide from gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and catalyst are disclosed for purifying an atmosphere containing carbon monoxide by passing the atmosphere through a bed of a catalyst of TbO.sub.x, where x = 1.8 to 1.5, which oxidizes the carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide.

Gerstein, Bernard C. (Ames, IA); Macaulay, David B. (Arlington Heights, IL)

1976-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Atmospheric Mercury Deposition during the Last 270 Years: A  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that were placed in an oven at 50 °C overnight to ensure complete oxidation of all mercury species. Analysis requiring pollutant scrubbers that also likely remove a fraction of the Hg in flue gases. If so, the resultsAtmospheric Mercury Deposition during the Last 270 Years: A Glacial Ice Core Record of Natural

176

MEASUREMENT OF RADIOIODINE IN PUREX STACK GASES  

SciTech Connect

The chemical behavior of iodine-131 in stack air from this site's Purex process is reported. The radioiodine in the stack gases apparently consists of variable proportions of molecular vapor and other forms of iodine, thus causing the efficiencies for most collection media to vary widely. Activated charcoal is a satisfactory collection medium although Process gases (ammonia and oxides of nitrogen) lower the efficiency of the charcoal from 99 to 88%. Ambient temperature and humidity had no effect on deposition and retention of iodine in long stainless steel sampling lines. Process conditions did have an effect and estimates of iodine released were 10 to 15% low due to this line loss. (auth)

Jacobsen, W.R.; Jolly, L. Jr.

1963-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Cycling with air and other nonhydrocarbon gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Injecting lean gas into condensate reservoirs is a practice currently used to increase recovery. The process reduces condensation and increases liquid recovery by revaporization. However, delaying natural gas sales for long periods of time is economically unattractive. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of nonhydrocarbon gases (i.e., air, N/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/) for improving recovery from retrograde condensate reservoirs. A compositional model that uses the Peng-Robinson equation of state (PR-EOS) was developed to evaluate condensate reservoir performance. A 15-component hydrocarbon system and extensive experimental data were used in the study. The simulator was tuned to match the available experimental data. The model shows that nonhydrocarbon gases can vaporize hydrocarbon liquids effectively, with CO/sub 2/ the most effective nonhydrocarbon for vaporizing heavy fractions.

Striefel, M.A.; Ahmed, T.H.; Cady, G.V.

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Evaluation of the generation and release of flammable gases in tank 241-SY-101  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Tank 241-SY-101 is a double shell, high-level waste tank located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This tank contains about 1 million gallons of waste that was concentrated at the 242-S Evaporator. Shortly after the waste was put in the tank, the waste began to expand because the generation of gases. In 1990 this tank was declared to have an unreviewed safety question because of the periodic release of hydrogen and nitrous oxide. A safety program was established to conduct a characterization of the waste and vented gases and to determine an effective means to prevent the accumulation of flammable gases in the tank dome space and ventilation system. Results of the expanded characterization conducted in fiscal year 1991 are presented. The use of gas chromatographs, mass spectrometers, and hydrogen-specific monitors provided a greater understanding of the vented gases. Additional instrumentation placed in the tank also helped to provide more detailed information on tank temperatures, gas pressure, and gas flow rates. An extensive laboratory study involving the Westinghouse Hanford Company, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and the Georgia Institute of Technology was initiated for the purpose of determining the mechanisms responsible for the generation of various gases. These studies evaluate both radiolytic and thermochemical processes. Results of the first series of experiments are described.

Babad, H.; Johnson, G.D.; Lechelt, J.A.; Reynolds, D.A. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)) [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Pederson, L.R.; Strachan, D.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)) [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Meisel, D.; Jonah, C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)) [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Ashby, E.C. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States)) [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States)

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

International Journal of Computers and Applications, Vol. 31, No. 2, 2009 PASSIVE ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as atmospheric gas dispersion by industrial accidents or processes are generally predicted with Gaussian plumes simplicity, the Gaussian dispersion model is often used for predicting the progression of atmospheric gas of passive dispersion, initial conditions of gas emissions are often addressed differently, as various gases

Beauchemin, Steven S.

180

Simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides from combustion gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the simultaneous removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from power plant stack gases comprising contacting the stack gases with a supported iron oxide catalyst/absorbent in the presence of sufficient reducing agent selected from the group consisting of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and mixtures thereof, to provide a net reducing atmosphere in the SO.sub.x /NO.sub.x removal zone. The sulfur oxides are removed by absorption substantially as iron sulfide, and nitrogen oxides are removed by catalytic reduction to nitrogen and ammonia. The spent iron oxide catalyst/absorbent is regenerated by oxidation and is recycled to the contacting zone. Sulfur dioxide is also produced during regeneration and can be utilized in the production of sulfuric acid and/or sulfur.

Clay, David T. (Longview, WA); Lynn, Scott (Walnut Creek, CA)

1976-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric gases experiment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Entanglement creation in cold molecular gases using strong laser pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

While many-particle entanglement can be found in natural solids and strongly interacting atomic and molecular gases, generating highly entangled states between weakly interacting particles in a controlled and scalable way presents a significant challenge. We describe here a one-step method to generate entanglement in a dilute gas of cold polar molecules. For molecules in optical traps separated by a few micrometers, we show that maximally entangled states can be created using the strong off-resonant pulses that are routinely used in molecular alignment experiments. We show that the resulting alignment-mediated entanglement can be detected by measuring laser-induced fluorescence with single-site resolution and that signatures of this molecular entanglement also appear in the microwave absorption spectra of the molecular ensemble. We analyze the robustness of these entangled molecular states with respect to intensity fluctuations of the trapping laser and discuss possible applications of the system for quantum information processing.

Felipe Herrera; Sabre Kais; K. Birgitta Whaley

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

182

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, July 2001.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global Warming and Methane--Global warming, an increase in Earth's near-surface temperature, is believed to result from the buildup of what scientists refer to as ''greenhouse gases.'' These gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluoro-carbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Greenhouse gases can absorb outgoing infrared (heat) radiation and re-emit it back to Earth, warming the surface. Thus, these gases act like the glass of a greenhouse enclosure, trapping infrared radiation inside and warming the space. One of the more important greenhouse gases is the naturally occurring hydrocarbon methane. Methane, a primary component of natural gas, is the second most important contributor to the greenhouse effect (after carbon dioxide). Natural sources of methane include wetlands, fossil sources, termites, oceans, fresh-waters, and non-wetland soils. Methane is also produced by human-related (or anthropogenic) activities such as fossil fuel production, coal mining, rice cultivation, biomass burning, water treatment facilities, waste management operations and landfills, and domesticated livestock operations (Figure 1). These anthropogenic activities account for approximately 70% of the methane emissions to the atmosphere. Methane is removed naturally from the atmosphere in three ways. These methods, commonly referred to as sinks, are oxidation by chemical reaction with tropospheric hydroxyl ion, oxidation within the stratosphere, and microbial uptake by soils. In spite of their important role in removing excess methane from the atmosphere, the sinks cannot keep up with global methane production. Methane concentrations in the atmosphere have increased by 145% since 1800. Increases in atmospheric methane roughly parallel world population growth, pointing to anthropogenic sources as the cause (Figure 2). Increases in the methane concentration reduce Earth's natural cooling efficiency by trapping more of the outgoing terrestrial infrared radiation, increasing the near-surface temperature.

Holdridge, D. J.

2001-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

183

Ranges of Atmospheric Mass and Composition of Super Earth Exoplanets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Terrestrial-like exoplanets may obtain atmospheres from three primary sources: Capture of nebular gases, degassing during accretion, and degassing from subsequent tectonic activity. Here we model degassing during accretion to estimate the range of atmospheric mass and composition on exoplanets ranging from 1 to 30 Earth masses. We use bulk compositions drawn from primitive and differentiated meteorite compositions. Degassing alone can create a wide range of masses of planetary atmospheres, ranging from less than a percent of the planet's total mass up to ~6 mass% of hydrogen, ~20 mass% of water, and/or ~5 mass% of carbon compounds. Hydrogen-rich atmospheres can be outgassed as a result of oxidizing metallic iron with water, and excess water and carbon can produce atmospheres through simple degassing. As a byproduct of our atmospheric outgassing models we find that modest initial water contents (10 mass% of the planet and above) create planets with deep surface liquid water oceans soon after accretion is complete.

L. Elkins-Tanton; S. Seager

2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

184

Tropospheric Gases and Aerosols in Northeast Greenland  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of atmospheric pollution have taken place in northeast Greenland since 1990. Weekly samples have been collected for analysis of sulfur dioxide, sulfate in particles, and total gaseous and particulate phases of reduced and of oxidized ...

Niels Z. Heidam; Peter Wåhlin; Jesper H. Christensen

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Modern Records of Atmospheric Oxygen (O2) from Scripps Institution of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Trace Gases » Oxygen » Modern Records of Atmospheric Oxygen Atmospheric Trace Gases » Oxygen » Modern Records of Atmospheric Oxygen (O2) from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Modern Records of Atmospheric Oxygen (O2) from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Introduction This page provides an introduction and links to records of atmospheric oxygen (O2) concentrations at nine currently active stations. Records since 1989 are available from Scripps Pier and Alert, Alaska, although these are not continuous. Continuous records from seven stations extend back to 1993, and data for the other two stations (Cold Bay, Alaska and Palmer Station, Antarctica) are available back to the mid 1990s. These data are from remote locations or other locations situated so that they represent averages over large portions of the globe rather than local background sources.

186

U.S. Exports of Natural Gas Liquids and Liquid Refinery Gases ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Exports; Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Supply and Disposition;

187

Traveling dark solitons in superfluid Fermi gases  

SciTech Connect

Families of dark solitons exist in superfluid Fermi gases. The energy-velocity dispersion and number of depleted particles completely determine the dynamics of dark solitons on a slowly varying background density. For the unitary Fermi gas, we determine these relations from general scaling arguments and conservation of local particle number. We find solitons to oscillate sinusoidally at the trap frequency reduced by a factor of 1/{radical}(3). Numerical integration of the time-dependent Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation determines spatial profiles and soliton-dispersion relations across the BEC-BCS crossover, and proves consistent with the scaling relations at unitarity.

Liao Renyuan; Brand, Joachim [New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study and Centre for Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, Massey University, Private Bag 102904 NSMC, Auckland 0745 (New Zealand)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

188

Heat conduction in relativistic neutral gases revisited  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The kinetic theory of dilute gases to first order in the gradients yields linear relations between forces and fluxes. The heat flux for the relativistic gas has been shown to be related not only to the temperature gradient but also to the density gradient in the representation where number density, temperature and hydrodynamic velocity are the independent state variables. In this work we show the calculation of the corresponding transport coefficients from the full Boltzmann equation and compare the magnitude of the relativistic correction.

A. L. Garcia-Perciante; A. R. Mendez

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

189

Pressurized release of liquefied fuel gases (LNG and LPG). Topical report, May 1993-February 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report is an important contribution to the behavior of pressurized liquefied gases when accidentally released into the atmosphere. LNG vehicle fueling stations and LPG storage facilities operate at elevated pressures. Accidental releases could result in rainout and the formation of an aerosol in the vapor cloud. These factors must be considered when estimating the extent of the hazard zone of the vapor cloud using a heavier-than-air gas dispersion model such as DEGADIS (or its Windows equivalent DEGATEC). The DOS program PREL has been incorporated in the Windows program LFGRISK.

Atallah, S.; Janardhan, A.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

The Birth and Life of Our Atmosphere  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Birth and Life of Our Atmosphere Birth and Life of Our Atmosphere Nature Bulletin No. 554-A February 15, 1975 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation THE BIRTH AND LIFE OF OUR ATMOSPHERE In Bulletin No. 542-A we described the atmosphere that surrounds the earth, held there by the pull of gravity, including the canopy of air immediately above us. That canopy is responsible for our weather and climates, shields us from the killing rays of the sun, and furnishes substances necessary for all life: oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. Astronomers believe that none of the other planets -- excepting Mars, perhaps -- has an atmosphere anything like ours. The principal elements, free nitrogen (78 percent) and free oxygen (21 percent), apparently are rare in the universe. On the other hand, the earth's atmosphere contains only traces of free hydrogen and helium -- the two lightest gases -- whereas they are by far the most common elements elsewhere in the universe.

191

WIPP Gas-Generation Experiments  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An experimental investigation was conducted for gas generation in contact-handled transuranic (CH TRU) wastes subjected for several years to conditions similar to those expected to occur at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) should the repository eventually become inundated with brine. Various types of actual CH TRU wastes were placed into 12 corrosion-resistant vessels. The vessels were loosely filled with the wastes, which were submerged in synthetic brine having the same chemical composition as that in the WIPP vicinity. The vessels were also inoculated with microbes found in the Salado Formation at WIPP. The vessels were sealed, purged, and the approximately 750 ml headspace in each vessel was pressurized with nitrogen gas to approximately 146 atmospheres to create anoxic conditions at the lithostatic pressure estimated in the repository were it to be inundated. The temperature was maintained at the expected 30°C. The test program objective was to measure the quantities and species of gases generated by metal corrosion, radiolysis, and microbial activity. These data will assist in the specification of the rates at which gases are produced under inundated repository conditions for use in the WIPP Performance Assessment computer models. These experiments were very carefully designed, constructed, instrumented, and performed. Approximately 6 1/2 years of continuous, undisturbed testing were accumulated. Several of the vessels showed significantly elevated levels of generated gases, virtually all of which was hydrogen. Up to 4.2% hydrogen, by volume, was measured. Only small quantities of other gases, principally carbon dioxide, were detected. Gas generation was found to depend strongly on the waste composition. The maximum hydrogen generation occurred in vessels containing carbon steel. Visual examination of carbon-steel coupons confirmed the correspondence between the extent of observable corrosion and hydrogen generation. Average corrosion penetration rates in carbon-steel of up to 2.3 microns per year were deduced. Conversion of carbon to carbon dioxide was calculated to be as high as 4.7 µg mol/yr/g carbon. Carbon monoxide was detected in only two waste compositions, and methane was detected in only one. In all three of these cases, the concentrations of these lesser gases detected were barely above the detection limits. No hydrogen sulfide was ever detected. Initial rates of hydrogen generation measured in the carbon-steel-bearing wastes during the first year of testing did not always correspond to rates measured over the longer term. Compared to the long-term trends, the initial gas-generation rates for some waste types were higher, for some lower, and for others remained constant. Although carbon-steel corrosion was clearly the dominant hydrogen generator, the rates of generation were found to be reduced in test vessels where the same quantity of carbon steel was co-mingled with other waste types. This is a beneficial phenomenon relative to performance of the WIPP repository. Statistical analyses of the results were made to quantify these negative interaction effects. Electron microscopy analyses of the carbon-steel coupons revealed that corrosion products were predominantly iron chlorides and oxides. Iron, chlorine, oxygen, uranium, magnesium, calcium, aluminum, silicon were all present in the corrosion products. No americium nor neptunium, both present in the wastes, were detected in any of the corrosion products. All

Frank S. Felicione; Steven M. Frank; Dennis D. Keiser

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Greenhouse Gases and  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials (GWP) Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials (GWP) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials (GWP) (From Appendix E of the instructions to Form EIA-1605) GREENHOUSE GAS NAME GREENHOUSE GAS CODE FORMULA GWP TAR1 AR42 (1) Carbon Dioxide CO2 CO2 1 1 (2) Methane CH4 CH4 23 25 (3) Nitrous Oxide N2O N2O 296 298 (4) Hydroflourocarbons HFC-23 (trifluoromethane) 15 CHF3 12000 14800 HFC-32 (difluoromethane) 16 CH2F2 550 675 HFC-41 (monofluoromethane) 43 CH3F 97 -3 HFC-125 (pentafluoroethane) 17 CHF2CF3 3400 3500 HFC-134 (1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane) 44 CHF2CHF2 1100 -3 HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) 18 CH2FCF3 1300 1430 HFC-143 (1,1,2-trifluorethane) 45 CHF2CH2F 330 -3 HFC-143a (1,1,1-trifluoroethane) 46 CF3CH3 4300 4470 HFC-152 (1,2-difluorethane) 47 CH2FCH2F

193

A Simulated Climatology of Spectrally Decomposed Atmospheric Infrared Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simulation experiment is conducted to inquire into the mean climate state and likely trends in atmospheric infrared radiation spectra. Upwelling and downwelling spectra at five vertical levels from the surface to the top of the atmosphere (TOA) ...

Yi Huang

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Interannual Variability of Land-Atmosphere Coupling Strength  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent studies in the Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) established a framework to estimate the extent to which anomalies in the land surface state (e.g., soil moisture) can affect rainfall generation and other atmospheric ...

Zhichang Guo; Paul A. Dirmeyer

195

Experiments with Wind to Produce Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nat EXPERIMENTS WITH WIND TO PRODUCE ENERGY Curriculum: Wind Power (simple machines, weatherclimatology, aerodynamics, leverage, mechanics, atmospheric pressure, and energy...

196

Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Apparatus for recovery of heat from exhaust gases of dryer  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus and method are disclosed for recovery of heat from exhaust gases of dryers and return of heat to the dryer system. Fresh air is drawn through a plurality of tubes in heat exchange relation to heated exhaust gases and introduced into the drying system without intermingling of contaminated exhaust gases with the heated fresh air. The apparatus and method have particular utility in gas-fired commercial and industrial laundry dryers.

Winstel, F.H.

1977-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

198

Climate Change and the Middle Atmosphere. Part I: The Doubled CO2 Climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of doubled atmospheric CO2 on the climate of the middle atmosphere is investigated using the GISS global climate/middle atmosphere model. In the standard experiment, the CO2 concentration is doubled both in the stratosphere and ...

D. Rind; R. Suozzo; N. K. Balachandran; M. J. Prather

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Multiscale Variability of the Atmospheric Mixed Layer over the Western Pacific Warm Pool  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sounding data from Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) have provided a first opportunity to document the variability of the atmospheric mixed layer over the western Pacific warm pool on ...

Richard H. Johnson; Paul E. Ciesielski; Jennifer A. Cotturone

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Formation and Incorporation Energies of Fission Gases He, Xe, and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Formation and Incorporation Energies of Fission Gases He, Xe , ... nuclear fuels are bcc alloys of uranium that swell under fission conditions, ...

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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Contact  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

U.S. Mail: Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Energy Information Administration, EI-81 U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave, SW Washington, DC 20585...

202

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1999  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration / Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1999 iii ... The 1.1-percent average annual growth in U.S. green-

203

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program -Data and...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Home > Environment > Voluntary Reporting Program > Data and Reports Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Data and Reports The first reporting cycle under the revised...

204

Swapping Global Warming Gases for Methane in Gas Hydrate ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Swapping Global Warming Gases for Methane in Gas Hydrate Layer ... would serve as energy sources as well as carbon dioxide storage sites in the ...

2006-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

205

The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Interface: Spreadsheet Website: greet.es.anl.govmain Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): EERE tool, The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation...

206

Overwater Atmospheric Diffusion: Measurements and Parameterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of ten atmospheric tracer experiments provided 62 hours of overwater atmospheric dispersion data. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was released as the tracer gas at a height of 13 m from a ship positioned about 7 km off the central California ...

Walter F. Dabberdt

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Atmospheric Science and Climate Research [EVS Program Area]  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Science and Climate Research Atmospheric Science and Climate Research EVS research, combined with portable, high-performance climate and weather applications, offers a unique look at the complexities of a dynamic planet. In an ever-changing, dynamic climate, we measure, model, and analyze atmospheric processes that are vital to understanding our planet. Our measurement capabilities range from remote sensing and surface meteorology instruments to instrumentation designed to quantify the land-atmosphere exchange of energy, water, and greenhouse gases. Modeling capabilities begin with regional-scale climate, air quality, and aerosol modeling and extend to global chemical transport models, general circulation models of the atmosphere, models of the biosphere, and coupled Earth system models.

208

FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Bulletin 627 Bulletin 627 BUREAU o b MINES FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS By Michael G. Zabetakis DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement,

209

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

NONE

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Refinery Yield of Liquefied Refinery Gases  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Refinery Yield Refinery Yield (Percent) Product: Liquefied Refinery Gases Finished Motor Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Residual Fuel Oil Naphtha for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Still Gas Miscellaneous Products Processing Gain(-) or Loss(+) Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History U.S. 5.3 5.4 5.2 5.2 5.1 3.9 1993-2013 PADD 1 4.4 5.1 4.9 4.9 4.6 2.1 1993-2013 East Coast 4.4 5.3 5.1 5.1 4.9 2.2 1993-2013

211

HYPERsensarium : an archive of atmospheric conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HYPERsensarium proposes a tangible interface of atmospheres for public experience through an archive of historical and projected weathers. While architecture's purpose has long been to act as the technical boundary between ...

Shaw, Kelly E. (Kelly Evelyn)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

The origin of hydrothermal and other gases in the Kenya Rift Valley  

SciTech Connect

The Kenya Rift Valley (KRV) is part of a major continental rift system from which much outgassing is presently occurring. Previous research on gases in the KRV has tended to concentrate on their geothermal implications; the present paper is an attempt to broaden the interpretation by consideration of new data including helium and carbon isotope analyses from a wide cross-section of sites. In order to do this, gases have been divided into categories dependent on origin. N{sub 2} and noble gases are for the most part atmospherically derived, although their relative concentrations may be altered from ASW ratios by various physical processes. Reduced carbon (CH{sub 4} and homologues) appears to be exclusively derived from the shallow crust, with thermogenic {delta}{sup 13}C values averaging -25{per_thousand} PDB for CH{sub 4}. H{sub 2} is likely also to be crustally formed. CO{sub 2}, generally a dominant constituent, has a narrow {delta}{sup 13}C range averaging -3.7{per_thousand} PDB, and is likely to be derived with little modification from the upper mantle. Consideration of the ratio C/{sup 3}He supports this view in most cases. Sulphur probably also originates there. Ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He reach a MORB-like maximum of 8.0 R/R{sub A} and provide the best indication of an upper mantle source of gases beneath the KRV. A correlation between {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He and the hydrocarbon parameter log (C{sub 1}/{Sigma}C{sub 2-4}) appears to be primarily temperature related. The highest {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios in spring waters are associated with basalts, perhaps because of the leaching of basalt glasses. There may be a structural control on {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios in the KRV as a whole.

Darling, W.G. [British Geological Survey, Wallingford (United Kingdom)] [British Geological Survey, Wallingford (United Kingdom); Griesshaber, E. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany)] [Max-Planck Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany); Andrews, J.N. [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom)] [and others] [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); and others

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Quantum oscillations in ultracold Fermi gases : realizations with rotating gases or artificial gauge fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the angular momentum of a harmonically trapped, noninteracting Fermi gas subject to either rotation or to an artificial gauge field. The angular momentum of the gas is shown to display oscillations as a function of the particle number or chemical potential. This phenomenon is analogous to the de Haas - van Alphen oscillations of the magnetization in the solid-state context. However, key differences exist between the solid-state and ultracold atomic gases that we point out and analyze. We explore the dependence of the visibility of these oscillations on the physical parameters and propose two experimental protocols for their observation. Due to the very strong dependence of the amplitude of the oscillations on temperature, we propose their use as a sensitive thermometer for Fermi gases in the low temperature regime.

Charles Grenier; Corinna Kollath; Antoine Georges

2012-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

214

Continuous cryopump with a method for removal of solidified gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved cryopump for the removal of gases from a high vacuum, comprising a cryopanel incorporating honeycomb structure, refrigerant means thermally connected to the cryopanel, and a rotatable channel moving azimuthally around an axis located near the center of the cryopanel, removing gases adsorbed within the honeycomb structure by subliming them and conducting them outside the vacuum vessel. 4 figs.

Carlson, L.W.; Herman, H.

1988-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

215

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - High-GWP gases  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5. High-GWP gases 5. High-GWP gases 5.1. Total emissions Greenhouse gases with high global warming potential (high-GWP gases) are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which together represented 3 percent of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2009. Emissions estimates for the high-GWP gases are provided to EIA by the EPA's Office of Air and Radiation. The estimates for emissions of HFCs not related to industrial processes or electric transmission are derived from the EPA Vintaging Model. Emissions from manufacturing and utilities are derived by the EPA from a mix of public and proprietary data, including from the EPA's voluntary emission reduction partnership programs. For this year's EIA inventory, 2008 values for HFC-23 from HCFC-22

216

The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model (GREET) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model (GREET Fleet) Agency/Company /Organization: Argonne National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Greenhouse Gas, Transportation Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options Topics: Baseline projection, GHG inventory Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: greet.es.anl.gov/main Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): EERE tool, The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model, GREET References: GREET Fleet Main Page[1] Logo: The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model (GREET Fleet)

217

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

of Greenhouse Gases Program of Greenhouse Gases Program Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program ***THE VOLUNTARY REPORTING OF GREENHOUSE GASES ("1605(b)") PROGRAM HAS BEEN SUSPENDED.*** This affects all survey respondents. Please visit the What's New page for full details. What Is the Voluntary Reporting Program? logo Established by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program encourages corporations, government agencies, non-profit organizations, households, and other private and public entities to submit annual reports of their greenhouse gas emissions, emission reductions, and sequestration activities. The Program provides a means for voluntary reporting that is complete, reliable, and consistent. More information on the program...

218

Evolution of Organic Aerosols in the Atmosphere.  

SciTech Connect

Organic aerosol (OA) particles affect climate forcing and human health, but their sources and evolution remain poorly characterized. We present a unifying model framework that describes the atmospheric evolution of OA and is constrained and motivated by new, high time resolution, experimental characterizations of their composition, volatility, and oxidation state. OA and OA-precursor gases evolve by becoming increasingly oxidized, less volatile, and more hygroscopic, leading to the formation of large amounts of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) mass that has comparable concentrations to sulfate aerosol over the Northern Hemisphere. Our new model framework captures the dynamic aging behavior observed in the atmosphere and the laboratory and can serve as a basis for improving parameterizations in regional and global models.

Jimenez, J. L.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Donahue, N. M.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Zhang, Qi; Kroll, Jesse H.; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Allan, James D.; Coe, H.; Ng, N. L.; Aiken, Allison; Docherty, Kenneth S.; Ulbrich, Ingrid M.; Grieshop, A. P.; Robinson, A. L.; Duplissy, J.; Smith, J. D.; Wilson, K. R.; Lanz, V. A.; Hueglin, C.; Sun, Y. L.; Tian, J.; Laaksonen, A.; Raatikainen, T.; Rautiainen, J.; Vaattovaara, P.; Ehn, M.; Kulmala, M.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Collins, Donald R.; Cubison, Michael J.; Dunlea, E. J.; Huffman, John A.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Alfarra, M. R.; Williams, Paul I.; Bower, K.; Kondo, Yutaka; Schneider, J.; Drewnick, F.; Borrmann, S.; Weimer, S.; Demerjian, K.; Salcedo, D.; Cottrell, L.; Griffin, Robert; Takami, A.; Miyoshi, T.; Hatakeyama, S.; Shimono, A.; Sun, J. Y.; Zhang, Y. M.; Dzepina, K.; Kimmel, Joel; Sueper, D.; Jayne, J. T.; Herndon, Scott C.; Trimborn, Achim; Williams, L. R.; Wood, Ezra C.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Kolb, C. E.; Baltensperger, Urs; Worsnop, Douglas R.

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

219

Surface interactions involved in flashover with high density electronegative gases.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report examines the interactions involved with flashover along a surface in high density electronegative gases. The focus is on fast ionization processes rather than the later time ionic drift or thermalization of the discharge. A kinetic simulation of the gas and surface is used to examine electron multiplication and includes gas collision, excitation and ionization, and attachment processes, gas photoionization and surface photoemission processes, as well as surface attachment. These rates are then used in a 1.5D fluid ionization wave (streamer) model to study streamer propagation with and without the surface in air and in SF6. The 1.5D model therefore includes rates for all these processes. To get a better estimate for the behavior of the radius we have studied radial expansion of the streamer in air and in SF6. The focus of the modeling is on voltage and field level changes (with and without a surface) rather than secondary effects, such as, velocities or changes in discharge path. An experiment has been set up to carry out measurements of threshold voltages, streamer velocities, and other discharge characteristics. This setup includes both electrical and photographic diagnostics (streak and framing cameras). We have observed little change in critical field levels (where avalanche multiplication sets in) in the gas alone versus with the surface. Comparisons between model calculations and experimental measurements are in agreement with this. We have examined streamer sustaining fields (field which maintains ionization wave propagation) in the gas and on the surface. Agreement of the gas levels with available literature is good and agreement between experiment and calculation is good also. Model calculations do not indicate much difference between the gas alone versus the surface levels. Experiments have identified differences in velocity between streamers on the surface and in the gas alone (the surface values being larger).

Hodge, Keith Conquest; Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Wallace, Zachariah Red; Lehr, Jane Marie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Hot defluorination of reducing gases with lime pellets  

SciTech Connect

In IGCC and MCFC power generation systems the coal gas has to be purified from dust and deleterious gaseous species. Hot gas cleaning processes have advantages compared to conventional wet cleaning technologies. Losses of energy occurring during cooling and reheating of the gas can be avoided, and there is no formation of a wet slurry. In the present study the defluorination of reducing gases with dry absorbers such as calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) and calcium oxide (CaO) has been investigated in the temperature range 300--700 C. Two types of experiments were carried out to clarify the reaction kinetics: thermogravimetric experiments on single (or a few) pellets in which the weight change of the absorber due to its conversion to calcium fluoride was determined, and gas cleaning experiments using a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor in which the off-gas was analyzed. The results indicate that H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-HF and CO-H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-HF gas mixtures can be defluorinated both with CaO and with CaCO{sub 3}. The calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) forms as a shell around the unreacted core of calcium carbonate of the pellet, and the reaction rate is mainly controlled by gaseous pore diffusion. This is so also with respect to calcium oxide at high temperatures (500 C). But at low temperatures (300 C) the reaction occurs within the bulk of the pellet.

Shirai, H.; Fusch, Y.; Schwerdtfeger, K.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric gases experiment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Do Global Models Properly Represent the Feedback between Land and Atmosphere?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment/Climate Variability and Predictability (GEWEX/CLIVAR) Global Land–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) has provided an estimate of the global distribution of land–atmosphere coupling strength during ...

Paul A. Dirmeyer; Randal D. Koster; Zhichang Guo

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Precise Measurement of the Absolute Yield of Fluorescence Photons in Atmospheric Gases  

SciTech Connect

We have performed a measurement of the absolute yield of fluorescence photons at the Fermilab Test Beam. A systematic uncertainty at 5% level was achieved by the use of Cherenkov radiation as a reference calibration light source. A cross-check was performed by an independent calibration using a laser light source. A significant improvement on the energy scale uncertainty of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays is expected.

Ave, M.; /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol.; Bohacova, M.; /Chicago U., EFI; Daumiller, K.; /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol.; Di Carlo, P.; /INFN, Aquila; Di Giulio, C.; /INFN, Rome; Luis, P.Facal San; /Chicago U., EFI; Gonzales, D.; /Karlsruhe U., EKP; Hojvat, C.; /Fermilab; Horandel, J.R.; /Nijmegen U., IMAPP; Hrabovsky, M.; /Palacky U.; Iarlori, M.; /INFN, Aquila /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

An Intercomparison of Ground-Based Solar FTIR Measurements of Atmospheric Gases at Eureka, Canada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors report the results of an intercomparison of vertical column amounts of hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen fluoride (HF), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric acid (HNO3), methane (CH4), ozone (O3), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrogen (N2) ...

C. Paton-Walsh; R. L. Mittermeier; W. Bell; H. Fast; N. B. Jones; A. Meier

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Russian Grouting Experience  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The final report on Russian Grouting experience provided an opportunity for international cooperation and access to Russian grouting/waste form experience. the data on radiolytic gas generation from grout mixtures was already used in evaluation of the source of hydrogen and methane generation detected in the sampling ports around the SRS high-level waste tanks in 2002. The concept of venting the radiolytic gases from a waste form by adding porous aggregate is being considered for future cement-based TRU waste forms at SRS. The objectives of this work were to document the Russian experience on grouting for waste forms and tank closures or other decommissioning applications.

Langton, C.A.

2002-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

225

Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. A 3-D chemistry-transport model has been applied to the Mexico City metropolitan area to investigate the origin of elevated levels of non-fossil (NF) carbonaceous aerosols observed in this highly urbanized region. High time resolution measurements of the fine aerosol concentration and composition, and 12 or 24 h integrated 14 C measurements of aerosol modern carbon have been performed in and near Mexico City during the March 2006 MILAGRO field experiment. The non-fossil carbon fraction (fNF), which is lower than the measured modern fraction (fM) due to the elevated 14 C in the atmosphere caused by nuclear bomb testing, is estimated from the measured fM and the source-dependent information on modern carbon enrichment. The fNF contained in PM1 total carbon analyzed by a US team (f TC

unknown authors

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Examination on SK atmospheric neutrino experiment by the computer experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine neutrino events occurring inside the SuperKamiokande (SK) detector and those occurring outside the same detector using computer simulations. We analyze the zenith angle distribution of Fully Contained Events and show the method for the determination of the incident neutrino by the SK group is unreliable. The analysis of the neutrino events occurring outside the detector shows these events agree with the Monte Carlo simulation without oscillation.

A Misaki; E Konishi; N Takahashi; Y Minorikawa; V I Galkin; M Ishiwata; I Nakamura; M Kato

2006-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

227

ARM - Field Campaign - Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsTropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere govCampaignsTropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Exp Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Exp 1992.07.11 - 1993.02.28 Lead Scientist : Chuck Long Data Availability Final data available. For data sets, see below. Summary IOP completed. Description The Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA-COARE) was conducted to better understand the structure of the coupled system of the warm pool of the western Pacific Ocean. Hundreds of participants from dozens of countries took part in this experiment from November 1, 1992 through February 28, 1993. Campaign Data Sets

228

On the possible noble gas deficiency of Pluto's atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use a statistical-thermodynamic model to investigate the formation and composition of noble-gas-rich clathrates on Pluto's surface. By considering an atmospheric composition close to that of today's Pluto and a broad range of surface pressures, we find that Ar, Kr and Xe can be efficiently trapped in clathrates if they formed at the surface, in a way similar to what has been proposed for Titan. The formation on Pluto of clathrates rich in noble gases could then induce a strong decrease in their atmospheric abundances relative to their initial values. A clathrate thickness of order of a few centimeters globally averaged on the planet is enough to trap all Ar, Kr and Xe if these noble gases were in protosolar proportions in Pluto's early atmosphere. Because atmospheric escape over an extended period of time (millions of years) should lead to a noble gas abundance that either remains constant or increases with time, we find that a potential depletion of Ar, Kr and Xe in the atmosphere would best be explained ...

Mousis, Olivier; Mandt, Kathleen E; Schindhelm, Eric; Weaver, Harold A; Stern, S Alan; Waite, J Hunter; Gladstone, Randy; Moudens, Audrey

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Efficiency Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases Mission The team establishes an energy conservation program as defined in Executive Order (EO) 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management, and (EO) 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, and DOE Order 436.1, Departmental Sustainability, and approved by LM. The team incorporates requirements for energy efficiency and reductions in greenhouse gases, and it advocates conserving environmental resources and improving operational capabilities and mission sustainability. Scope The team evaluates how to maintain and operate its buildings and facilities in a resource-efficient, sustainable, and economically viable manner. The

230

Cryogenic method for measuring nuclides and fission gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cryogenic method is provided for determining airborne gases and particulates from which gamma rays are emitted. A special dewar counting vessel is filled with the contents of the sampling flask which is immersed in liquid nitrogen. A vertically placed sodium-iodide or germanium-lithium gamma-ray detector is used. The device and method are of particular use in measuring and identifying the radioactive noble gases including emissions from coal-fired power plants, as well as fission gases released or escaping from nuclear power plants.

Perdue, P.T.; Haywood, F.F.

1980-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

231

Isentropic Slopes, Downgradient Eddy Fluxes, and the Extratropical Atmospheric Circulation Response to Tropical Tropospheric Heating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Climate change experiments run on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)–class numerical models consistently suggest that increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases will lead to a poleward shift of the midlatitude jets and their ...

Amy H. Butler; David W. J. Thompson; Thomas Birner

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50 C is attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2], alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] can be removed in an economic fashion. 9 figs.

Chang, S.G.; Liu, D.K.

1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

233

Greenhouse gases and agriculture. Book chapter  

SciTech Connect

Agriculture ranks third in its contribution to Earth's anthropogenically enhanced greenhouse effect. (Energy use and production and chlorofluorocarbons are ranked first and second, respectively.) Specifically, greenhouse gas sources and sinks are increased, and sinks are decreased, by conversion of land to agricultural use, using fertilizers, cultivating paddy rice, producing other plant and animal crops, and by creating and managing animal and plant wastes. However, some of these same activities increase greenhouse gas sinks and decrease greenhouse gas sources so the net effects are not obvious. The paper identifies the agricultural inputs, outputs, and wastes that alter atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxides, and discusses agriculture's net impact on greenhouse gas fluxes.

Jackson, R.B.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Jump to: navigation, search Name Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Agency/Company /Organization United States Department of Agriculture Sector Land Focus Area Agriculture Topics GHG inventory, Policies/deployment programs Resource Type Guide/manual, Lessons learned/best practices Website http://globalresearchalliance. References Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases [1] Background "The Alliance is a bottom-up network, founded on the voluntary, collaborative efforts of countries. It will coordinate research on agricultural greenhouse gas emission reductions by linking up existing and new research efforts across a range of sub-sectors and work areas. It will

235

Semi-Continuous Detection of Mercury in Gases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Continuous Detection of Mercury in Gases Continuous Detection of Mercury in Gases Opportunity Research is currently active on the patented technology "Semi-Continuous Detection of Mercury in Gases." The technology, which is a spinoff of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL) GP-254 Process (U.S. patent 6,576,092), is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's NETL. Overview This invention discloses a method for the quantitative detection of heavy metals, especially mercury, in effluent gas streams. The method employs photo-deposition and an array of surface acoustic wave sensors where each sensor monitors a specific metal. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued a national regulation for mercury removal from coal-derived flue and fuel gases in December 2011,

236

Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases.

Beverly, Claude R. (Paducah, KY); Ernstberger, Harold G. (Paducah, KY)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Sorption of organic gases in a furnished room  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

were constructed with plywood under the wallboard. Theof organic gases 20.4-m 2 plywood floor was covered firstthrough the walls with plywood yields L d = 0.017-0.05 h -

Singer, Brett C.; Revzan, Kenneth L.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Brown, Nancy J.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Studying coherence in ultra-cold atomic gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis will discuss the study of coherence properties of ultra-cold atomic gases. The atomic systems investigated include a thermal cloud of atoms, a Bose-Einstein condensate and a fermion pair condensate. In each ...

Miller, Daniel E. (Daniel Edward)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases. 1 fig.

Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, E.G.

1985-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

240

Method of producing pyrolysis gases from carbon-containing materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gasification process of improved efficiency is disclosed. A dual bed reactor system is used in which carbon-containing feedstock materials are first treated in a gasification reactor to form pyrolysis gases. The pyrolysis gases are then directed into a catalytic reactor for the destruction of residual tars/oils in the gases. Temperatures are maintained within the catalytic reactor at a level sufficient to crack the tars/oils in the gases, while avoiding thermal breakdown of the catalysts. In order to minimize problems associated with the deposition of carbon-containing materials on the catalysts during cracking, a gaseous oxidizing agent preferably consisting of air, oxygen, steam, and/or mixtures thereof is introduced into the catalytic reactor at a high flow rate in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the reactor. This oxidizes any carbon deposits on the catalysts, which would normally cause catalyst deactivation.

Mudge, Lyle K. (Richland, WA); Brown, Michael D. (West Richland, WA); Wilcox, Wayne A. (Kennewick, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric gases experiment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Conference report for nuclear fusion phenomena in ionized gases  

SciTech Connect

A summary of the Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases, held in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, is given. In particular, the format of the conference and the content of the review papers are summarized. (auth)

Porkolab, M.

1975-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2004  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

243

World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Greenhouse Gases Model  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS+) Greenhouse Gases Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

244

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2002  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2005  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

246

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1996  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1995  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1994  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1999  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2000  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1997  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1998  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2001  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2003  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Development of laser absorption sensors for combustion gases.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In situ sensors based on laser absorption spectroscopy are developed to monitor key species in combustion exhaust gases. Direct absorption (DA) and wavelength-modulation-spectroscopy (WMS) strategies… (more)

Chao, Xing.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

The Boulder Atmospheric Observatory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) is a unique research facility for studying the planetary boundary layer and for testing and calibrating atmospheric sensors. The facility includes a 300 m tower instrumented with fast- and slow-response ...

J. C. Kaimal; J. E. Gaynor

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

GAS-GENERATION EXPERIMENTS FOR LONG-TERM STORAGE OF TRU WASTES AT WIPP  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An experimental investigation was conducted for gas generation in contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) wastes subjected for several years to conditions similar to those expected to occur at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) should the repository eventually become inundated with brine. Various types of actual CH-TRU wastes were placed into 12 corrosion-resistant vessels. The vessels were loosely filled with the wastes, which were submerged in synthetic brine having the same chemical composition as that in the WIPP vicinity. The vessels were also inoculated with microbes found in the Salado Formation at WIPP. The vessels were sealed, purged, and the approximately 750-ml headspace was pressurized with nitrogen gas to approximately 146 atmospheres to create anoxic conditions at the lithostatic pressure expected in the repository were it inundated. The temperature was maintained at the expected 30 C. The test program objective was to measure the quantities and species of gases generate d by metal corrosion, radiolysis, and microbial activity. These data will assist in the specification of the rates at which gases are produced under inundated repository conditions for use in the WIPP Performance Assessment computer models. These experiments were very carefully designed, constructed, instrumented, and performed. Approximately 6-1/2 years of continuous, undisturbed testing were accumulated. Several of the vessels showed significantly elevated levels of generated gases, virtually all of which was hydrogen. One vessel measured over 4.2% hydrogen, by volume. Two other vessels generated well over 1% hydrogen, and another was at nearly 1%. Only small quantities of other gases, principally carbon dioxide, were detected. Gas generation was found to depend strongly on the waste composition. The maximum hydrogen generation occurred in tests containing carbon steel. Average corrosion penetration rates in carbon-steel of up to 2.3 microns per year were deduced. Conversion of carbon to carbon dioxide was calculated to be up to 4.7 {micro}g-mol/yr/g-carbon.

Felicione, F.S.; Carney, K.P.; Dwight, C.C.; Cummings, D.G.; Foulkrod, L.E.

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

258

Biological production of ethanol from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products is disclosed. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various product, such as organic acids, alcohols H.sub.2, SCP, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Principal Modes of Atmospheric Variability in Model Atmospheres with and without Anomalous Sea Surface Temperature Forcing in the Tropical Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Principal modes of low-frequency atmospheric variability and the influence of sea surface temperature anomalies on such modes are investigated by examining the output from two general circulation model experiments. In the first experiment (the “...

In-Sik Kang; Ngar-Cheung Lau

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Solubility of Gases in Glass. II. He, Ne, and H2 in Fused Silica  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The statistical thermodynamics of the gas?in?glass system provides a basic model of both physical and chemical solubility. The physical solubility result is essentially equivalent to that for monatomic solubility. The chemical solubility result is dependent upon the specific system involved. The model was compared with experiment for a variety of systems. Helium and neon in fused silica were examples of the physical solubility of monatomic gases. Variations of the thermal history of the fused silica did not appear to have a measurable effect on physical solubility as evidenced in the helium data. Hydrogen in fused silica was an example of the physical solubility of polyatomic gases. Physical solubility was measured by a modified Seiverts technique and was characterized by a linear dependence on pressure. Binding energies for the physically dissolved species were of the order expected for van der Waals bonding. Vibrational frequencies were on the order of 1013 sec?1 with the heavier species having the lower frequencies. Hydrogen in fused silica was also an example of the chemical solubility of polyatomic gases. The literature gave data for the chemical solution of hydrogen in fused silica

James F. Shackelford; Perry L. Studt; Richard M. Fulrath

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric gases experiment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Pierre Auger Atmosphere-Monitoring Lidar System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fluorescence-detection techniques of cosmic-ray air-shower experiments require precise knowledge of atmospheric properties to reconstruct air-shower energies. Up to now, the atmosphere in desert-like areas was assumed to be stable enough so that occasional calibration of atmospheric attenuation would suffice to reconstruct shower profiles. However, serious difficulties have been reported in recent fluorescence-detector experiments causing systematic errors in cosmic ray spectra at extreme energies. Therefore, a scanning backscatter lidar system has been constructed for the Pierre Auger Observatory in Malargue, Argentina, where on-line atmospheric monitoring will be performed. One lidar system is already deployed at the Los Leones fluorescence detector site and the second one is currently (April 2003) under construction at the Coihueco site. Next to the established ones, a novel analysis method with assumption on horizontal invariance, using multi-angle measurements is shown to unambiguously measure optical depth, as well as absorption and backscatter coefficient.

A. Filipcic; M. Horvat; D. Veberic; D. Zavrtanik; M. Zavrtanik; M. Chiosso; R. Mussa; G. Sequeiros; M. A. Mostafa; M. D. Roberts

2003-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

262

Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir.

Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Markun, Francis (Joliet, IL); Zawadzki, Mary T. (South Bend, IN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method are disclosed for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir. 6 figs.

Gross, K.C.; Markun, F.; Zawadzki, M.T.

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

264

Trace gases, CO/sub 2/, climate, and the greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

Weather is driven by the sun's energy input and the difference between insolation per unit area of the poles and the equator. The energy flux of the Earth is in long-term balance: as much is radiated away by the Earth as is absorbed, or the mean temperature would have to increase or decrease steadily (and, of course, this is not observed). CO/sub 2/ and other ''trace gases'' can cause the Earth's mean temperature to rise through the Greenhouse Effect. The mean temperature in the Little Ice Age was only 1 /sup 0/C cooler, but large effects were felt, especially toward the poles. The CO/sub 2/ which stays in the atmosphere will raise Earth's mean temperature, with effects which are relatively certain: a lot of warming at the poles, and a very small amount of warming at the equator.

Aubrecht G.J. II

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

A Theoretical Study of the Wet Removal of Atmospheric Pollutants. Part II: The Uptake and Redistribution Of (NH4)2SO4 Particles and SO2 Gas Simultaneously Scavenged by Growing Cloud Drops  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A theoretical model has been formulated which allows the processes which control the wet deposition of atmospheric aerosol particles and pollutant gases to be included in cloud dynamic models. The cloud considered in the model was allowed to grow ...

A. I. Flossmann; H. R. Pruppacher; J. H. Topalian

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases and production of phosphoric acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorous preferably in a wet scrubber. The addition of yellow phosphorous in the system induces the production of O.sub.3 which subsequently oxidizes NO to NO.sub.2. The resulting NO.sub.2 dissolves readily and can be reduced to form ammonium ions by dissolved SO.sub.2 under appropriate conditions. In a 20 acfm system, yellow phosphorous is oxidized to yield P.sub.2 O.sub.5 which picks up water to form H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 mists and can be collected as a valuable product. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, better than 90% of SO.sub.2 and NO in simulated flue gas can be removed. Stoichiometric ratios (P/NO) ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 were obtained.

Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Sorption of organic gases in a furnished room  

SciTech Connect

We present experimental data and semi-empirical models describing the sorption of organic gases in a simulated indoor residential environment. Two replicate experiments were conducted with 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a 50-m{sup 3} room finished with painted wallboard, carpet and cushion, draperies and furnishings. The VOCs span a wide volatility range and include ten Hazardous Air Pollutants. VOCs were introduced to the static chamber as a pulse and their gas-phase concentrations were measured during a net adsorption period and a subsequent net desorption period. Three sorption models were fit to the measured concentrations for each compound to determine the simplest formulation needed to adequately describe the observed behavior. Sorption parameter values were determined by fitting the models to adsorption period data then checked by comparing measured and predicted behavior during desorption. The adequacy of each model was evaluated using a goodness of fit parameter calculated for each period. Results indicate that sorption usually does not greatly affect indoor concentrations of methyl-tert-butyl ether, 2-butanone, isoprene and benzene. In contrast, sorption appears to be a relevant indoor process for many of the VOCs studied, including C{sub 8}-C{sub 10} aromatic hydrocarbons (HC), terpenes, and pyridine. These compounds sorbed at rates close to typical residential air change rates and exhibited substantial sorptive partitioning at equilibrium. Polycyclic aromatic HCs, aromatic alcohols, ethenylpyridine and nicotine initially adsorbed to surfaces at rates of 1.5 to >6 h{sup -1} and partitioned 95 to >99% in the sorbed phase at equilibrium.

Singer, Brett C.; Revzan, Kenneth L.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Brown, Nancy J.

2003-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

268

Molecular dynamics of gases and vapors in nanoporous solids. Final LDRD project report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report provides a study of gases in microporous solids using molecular modeling. The theory of gas transport in porous materials as well as the molecular modeling literature is briefly reviewed. Work complete is described and analyzed with retard to the prevailing theory. The work covers two simple subjects, construction of porous solid models and diffusion of He, H{sub 2}, Ar and CH{sub 4} down a pressure gradient across the material models as in typical membrane permeation experiments. The broader objective is to enhance our capability to efficiently and accurately develop, produce and apply microporous materials.

Pohl, P.I.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

The legacy of Cf-252 operations at Savannah River Technology Center: Continuous releases of radioiodine to the atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The iodine isotopes I-132, 1-133, I-134, and I-135, which have half-lives ranging from 53 minutes to 21 hours, are measured in the atmospheric effluent from the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. SRS is operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The isotopes` release rates range from 10 to 300 microcuries per week compared to the rate. The resulting annual dose from all iodine isotopes is minor; it comprises 0.01 percent of the total offsite dose due to atmospheric releases from SRS in 1990. Circumstantial evidence indicates the radioiodine originates from traces of unencapsulated Cf-252. The determination that spontaneous fission of Cf-252 is the source of the radioiodine has several ramifications. Radioactive fission-product isotopes of the noble gas elements krypton and xenon must also be released. Noble gases are more volatile and mobile than iodine. Also, the released iodine isotopes decay to xenon isotopes. The noble gases decay to non-gaseous elements that are transported along with radioiodine to the terrestrial environment by deposition from the SRTC plume. Only Sr-89 is believed to accumulate sufficiently in the environment to approach detectable levels. Given similar conditions in earlier years, releases of short-lived radioiodine have occurred undetected in routine monitoring since the early 1970s. Release rates 20 years ago would have been 200 times greater than current release rates. This report documents preliminary experiments conducted by SRTC and Environmental Monitoring Section (EMS) scientists. The release process and the environmental impact of fission products from Cf-252 should be thoroughly researched.

Kantelo, M.V.; Crandall, B.S.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

270

The legacy of Cf-252 operations at Savannah River Technology Center: Continuous releases of radioiodine to the atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The iodine isotopes I-132, 1-133, I-134, and I-135, which have half-lives ranging from 53 minutes to 21 hours, are measured in the atmospheric effluent from the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. SRS is operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The isotopes' release rates range from 10 to 300 microcuries per week compared to the rate. The resulting annual dose from all iodine isotopes is minor; it comprises 0.01 percent of the total offsite dose due to atmospheric releases from SRS in 1990. Circumstantial evidence indicates the radioiodine originates from traces of unencapsulated Cf-252. The determination that spontaneous fission of Cf-252 is the source of the radioiodine has several ramifications. Radioactive fission-product isotopes of the noble gas elements krypton and xenon must also be released. Noble gases are more volatile and mobile than iodine. Also, the released iodine isotopes decay to xenon isotopes. The noble gases decay to non-gaseous elements that are transported along with radioiodine to the terrestrial environment by deposition from the SRTC plume. Only Sr-89 is believed to accumulate sufficiently in the environment to approach detectable levels. Given similar conditions in earlier years, releases of short-lived radioiodine have occurred undetected in routine monitoring since the early 1970s. Release rates 20 years ago would have been 200 times greater than current release rates. This report documents preliminary experiments conducted by SRTC and Environmental Monitoring Section (EMS) scientists. The release process and the environmental impact of fission products from Cf-252 should be thoroughly researched.

Kantelo, M.V.; Crandall, B.S.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Lightning, atmospheric electricity and climate change  

SciTech Connect

Temperature records indicate that a global warming of 0.5{minus}0.7{degrees}C has occurred over the past century (Hansen and Lebedeff, 1987). Whether this trend is a result of increased trace gas concentrations in the atmosphere, or simply a result of natural variability; is still not known. These temperature trends are derived from thousands of observations worldwide. However, these observations are concentrated largely over continental areas, and then mainly in the northern hemisphere`s populated regions. This northern hemisphere continental bias results in large uncertainties in estimates of global temperature trends. Due to the increasing evidence that the present buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere may result in an additional global warming of 1-5{degrees}C by the year 2050 (IPCC, 1990), it is increasingly important to find afternative methods to monitor fluctuations in global surface temperatures. As shown by two recent studies (Williams, 1992; Price, 1993), the global atmospheric electric circuit may provide a promising afternative for monitoring future climate change.

Price, C.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Impact of biomass burning on the atmosphere  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fire has played an important part in biogeochemical cycling throughout most of the history of our planet. Ice core studies have been very beneficial in paleoclimate studies and constraining the budgets of biogeochemical cycles through the past 160,000 years of the Vostok ice core. Although to date there has been no way of determining cause and effect, concentration of greenhouse gases directly correlates with temperature in ice core analyses. Recent ice core studies on Greenland have shown that significant climate change can be very rapid on the order of a decade. This chapter addresses the coupled evolution of our planet`s atmospheric composition and biomass burning. Special attention is paid to the chemical and climatic impacts of biomass burning on the atmosphere throughout the last century, specifically looking at the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. Information from ice core measurements may be useful in understanding the history of fire and its historic affect on the composition of the atmosphere and climate.

Dignon, J.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

On Surface Temperature, Greenhouse Gases, and Aerosols: Models and Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and sulphate aerosols on near-surface temperature is investigated using a version of the Hadley Centre atmospheric model coupled to a mixed layer ocean. The scattering of sunlight ...

J. F. B. Mitchell; R. A. Davis; W. J. Ingram; C. A. Senior

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 ARM 2003 Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement WARNING! WARNING! Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Two Topics Two Topics * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ARM Status - Science ARM Status - Science * Steadily increasing productivity - Poster session - over 220 posters (may need to do something about submissions next year) - Peer-reviewed articles: 2.5 to 3 per year per

275

Mean Climate Controls on the Simulated Response of ENSO to Increasing Greenhouse Gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Climate model experiments are analyzed to elucidate if and how the changes in mean climate in response to doubling of atmospheric CO2 (2xCO2) influence ENSO. The processes involved the development, transition, and decay of simulated ENSO events ...

Pedro N. DiNezio; Ben P. Kirtman; Amy C. Clement; Sang-Ki Lee; Gabriel A. Vecchi; Andrew Wittenberg

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve Fuel Economy for Cars and Trucks Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve Fuel Economy for Cars and Trucks Agency/Company /Organization: EPA and NHTSA Focus Area: Standards - Incentives - Policies - Regulations Topics: Policy Impacts Resource Type: Reports, Journal Articles, & Tools Website: www.epa.gov/oms/climate/regulations/420f10014.pdf This document establish a national program consisting of new standards for model year 2012 through 2016 light-duty vehicles that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy. EPA is finalizing the first-ever national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards under the

277

Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Electricity Factors  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Voluntary Reporting Program > Coefficients Voluntary Reporting Program > Coefficients Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program (Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emission Coefficients) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Fuel Emission Coefficients Table 1: Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion Table 2: Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Transportation Fuels Table 3: Generic Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Stationary Fuel Combustion Table 4: Specific Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Biogenic Fuel Sources Table 5: Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions Factors for Highway Vehicles Table 6: Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Alternative Fuel Vehicles Table 7: Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Non-Highway Mobile Combustion

278

Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model Agency/Company /Organization: Argonne National Laboratory Focus Area: GHG Inventory Development Topics: Analysis Tools Website: greet.es.anl.gov/ This full life-cycle model evaluates the energy and emission impacts of advanced vehicle technologies and new transportation fuels. The model allows users to evaluate various vehicle and fuel combinations. How to Use This Tool This tool is most helpful when using these strategies: Shift - Change to low-carbon modes Improve - Enhance infrastructure & policies Learn more about the avoid, shift, improve framework for limiting air

279

Other States Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Other States Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 513 491 515 539 557 534 541 579 574 585 558 573 1998 578 536 591 581 517 456 486 486 471 477 457 468 1999 466 438 489 495 499 510 547 557 544 555 541 579 2000 587 539 605 587 615 570 653 629 591 627 609 611 2001 658 591 677 690 718 694 692 679 686 697 688 700 2002 639 591 587 621 622 605 654 639 649 650 623 638 2003 689 624 649 676 702 691 733 732 704 734 719 748 2004 741 697 727 692 692 688 718 729 706 723 711 718

280

Lattice vibrations of pure and doped GaSe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Bridgman method is used to grow especially undoped and doped single crystals of GaSe. Composition and impurity content of the grown crystals were determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) method. X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, photoluminescence (PL), and IR transmission measurements were performed at room temperature. The long wavelength lattice vibrations of four modifications of GaSe were described in the framework of modified one-layer linear-chain model which also takes into consideration the interaction of the selenium (Se) atom with the second nearest neighbor gallium (Ga) atom in the same layer. The existence of an eight-layer modification of GaSe is suggested and the vibrational frequencies of this modification are explained in the framework of a lattice dynamical model considered in the present work. Frequencies and the type of vibrations (gap, local, or resonance) for the impurity atoms were calculated and compared with the experimental results.

Allakhverdiev, K. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey) and Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan)]. E-mail: kerim.allahverdi@mam.gov.tr; Baykara, T. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey); Ellialtioglu, S. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey); Hashimzade, F. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan); Huseinova, D. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan); Kawamura, K. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan); Kaya, A.A. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey); Kulibekov, A.M. [Department of Physics, Mugla University, Mugla 48000 (Turkey); Onari, S. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan)

2006-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric gases experiment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Sampling and analysis methods for geothermal fluids and gases  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The sampling procedures for geothermal fluids and gases include: sampling hot springs, fumaroles, etc.; sampling condensed brine and entrained gases; sampling steam-lines; low pressure separator systems; high pressure separator systems; two-phase sampling; downhole samplers; and miscellaneous methods. The recommended analytical methods compiled here cover physical properties, dissolved solids, and dissolved and entrained gases. The sequences of methods listed for each parameter are: wet chemical, gravimetric, colorimetric, electrode, atomic absorption, flame emission, x-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, spark source mass spectrometry, neutron activation analysis, and emission spectrometry. Material on correction of brine component concentrations for steam loss during flashing is presented. (MHR)

Watson, J.C.

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Spinor Bose gases: Explorations of symmetries, magnetism and quantum dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spinor Bose gases form a family of quantum fluids manifesting both magnetic order and superfluidity. This article reviews experimental and theoretical progress in understanding the static and dynamic properties of these fluids. The connection between system properties and the rotational symmetry properties of the atomic states and their interactions are investigated. Following a review of the experimental techniques used for characterizing spinor gases, their mean-field and many-body ground states, both in isolation and under the application of symmetry-breaking external fields, are discussed. These states serve as the starting point for understanding low-energy dynamics, spin textures and topological defects, effects of magnetic dipole interactions, and various non-equilibrium collective spin-mixing phenomena. The paper aims to form connections and establish coherence among the vast range of works on spinor Bose gases, so as to point to open questions and future research opportunities.

Stamper-Kurn, Dan M

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Raman/FTIR spectroscopy of oil shale retort gases  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Raman facility was assembled in order to aid in the evaluation of the feasibility of using Raman or FTIR spectroscopy for analyzing gas mixtures of interest in oil shale. Applications considered in oil shale research included both retort monitoring and laboratory kinetic studies. Both techniques gave limits of detection between 10 and 1000 ppM for ten representative pertinent gases. Both techniques are inferior as a general analytical technique for oil shale gas analysis in comparison with mass spectroscopy, which had detection limits between 1 and 50 ppM for the same gases. The conclusion of the feasibility study was to recommend that mass spectroscopic techniques be used for analyzing gases of interest to oil shale.

Richardson, J.H.; Monaco, S.B.; Sanborn, R.H.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Taylor, J.R.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997  

SciTech Connect

This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

NONE

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Separating hydrogen from coal gasification gases with alumina membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Synthesis gas produced in coal gasification processes contains hydrogen, along with carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, water, nitrogen, and other gases, depending on the particular gasification process. Development of membrane technology to separate the hydrogen from the raw gas at the high operating temperatures and pressures near exit gas conditions would improve the efficiency of the process. Tubular porous alumina membranes with mean pore radii ranging from about 9 to 22 {Angstrom} have been fabricated and characterized. Based on hydrostatic tests, the burst strength of the membranes ranged from 800 to 1600 psig, with a mean value of about 1300 psig. These membranes were evaluated for separating hydrogen and other gases. Tests of membrane permeabilities were made with helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. Measurements were made at room temperature in the pressure range of 15 to 589 psi. Selected membranes were tested further with mixed gases simulating a coal gasification product gas. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Egan, B.Z. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E.; White, D.E. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Using  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Using Renewable Energy in Buildings Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Using Renewable Energy in Buildings October 7, 2013 - 11:15am Addthis To support planning for using renewable energy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the Federal agency or program-level, it is important to consider what changes to the agencies building or land-holding portfolio may have on opportunities for renewable energy. Changes to consider include: Addition of new buildings or sites to the agencies portfolio Major renovations to existing buildings Office moves into or out of agency-owned or leased space. As is the case with planning energy efficiency measures, planning for renewable energy in new construction can be more cost-effective than

287

Pattern formation and shocks in granular gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Granular media such as sand and sugar are ubiquitous in nature and industry but are less well understood than fluids or solids. We consider the behavior of rapid granular flows where the transfer of momenta by collisions dominates. The physics is quite different for the opposite limit of static or slowly moving grains (e.g., sand piles). To gain understanding of granular flows we consider two problems that have been investigated with experiments, particle simulations and hydrodynamic theory: vertically oscillating granular layers and flow past an obstacle. Oscillating granular layers spontaneously form spatial patterns when the container acceleration amplitude exceeds a critical value, about 2.5 times the gravitational acceleration. Simulations with hard spheres that conserve linear momentum and dissipate energy in collisions are in qualitative accord with some but not all aspects of the observed patterns. It is necessary to include friction and angular momentum conservation in the simulations to achieve quantitative accord with observations. [Abridged

Harry L. Swinney; E. C. Rericha

2004-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

288

Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations from Aircraft for 1972-1981, CSIRO  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Trace Gases » CO2 » Concentrations from Aircraft for Atmospheric Trace Gases » CO2 » Concentrations from Aircraft for 1972-1981 Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations from Aircraft for 1972-1981, CSIRO Monitoring Program DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.ndp007 data Data (NDP-007) PDF PDF Investigators D. J. Beardsmore and G. I. Pearman Methods From 1972 through 1981, air samples were collected in glass flasks from aircraft at a variety of latitudes and altitudes over Australia, New Zealand, and Antarctica. The samples were analyzed for CO2 concentrations with nondispersive infrared gas analysis. The resulting data contain the sampling dates, type of aircraft, flight number, flask identification number, sampling time, geographic sector, distance in kilometers from the listed distance measuring equipment (DME) station, station number of the

289

Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology: Editorial  

SciTech Connect

This editorial introduces readers and contributors to a new online journal. Through the publication of articles ranging from peer-reviewed research papers and short communications, to editorials and interviews on greenhouse gas emissions science and technology, this journal will disseminate research results and information that address the global crisis of anthropogenic climate change. The scope of the journal includes the full spectrum of research areas from capture and separation of greenhouse gases from flue gases and ambient air, to beneficial utilization, and to sequestration in deep geologic formations and terrestrial (plant and soil) systems, as well as policy and technoeconomic analyses of these approaches.

Oldenburg, C.M.; Maroto-Valer, M.M.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Methods, systems, and devices for deep desulfurization of fuel gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A highly effective and regenerable method, system and device that enables the desulfurization of warm fuel gases by passing these warm gasses over metal-based sorbents arranged in a mesoporous substrate. This technology will protect Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts and other sulfur sensitive catalysts, without drastic cooling of the fuel gases. This invention can be utilized in a process either alone or alongside other separation processes, and allows the total sulfur in such a gas to be reduced to less than 500 ppb and in some instances as low as 50 ppb.

Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (Richland, WA); Huo, Qisheng (Richland, WA)

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

292

Hazardous Gases VASILIS M. FTHENAKIS Department of Applied Science  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Mitigation Options for Mitigation Options for Accidental Releases of Hazardous Gases VASILIS M. FTHENAKIS Department of Applied Science Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, N Y 11973 ABSTRACT The objective of this paper is to review and compare technologies available for mitigation of unconfined releases of toxic and flammable gases. These technologies indude: secondary confinement, de- inventory, vapor barriers, foam spraying, and water sprays/monitors. Guidelines for the design and/or operation of effective post-release mitigation systems and case studies involving actual industrial mitigation systems are also presented. 1. ACCIDENT PREVENTION & MITIGATION OPTIONS Accident prevention and mitigation in the process industries is based on the military concept of defense in

293

Mass-transport considerations pertinent to aqueous-phase reactions of gases in liquid-water clouds  

SciTech Connect

Reactions of gases in liquid-water clouds are potentially important in the transformation of atmospheric pollutants affecting their transport in the atmosphere and subsequent removal and deposition to the surface. Such processes consist of the following sequence of steps. Mass-transport of the reagent gas or gases to the air-water interface; transfer across the interface and establishment of solubility equilibria locally at the interface; mass-transport of the dissolved gas or gases within the aqeuous phase; aqueous-phase chemical reactions(s); mass-transport of reaction product(s) and possible subsequent evolution into the gas-phase. Description of the rate of the overall process requires identification of the rate-limiting step (or steps) and evaluation of the rate of such step(s). Identification of the rate-limiting step may be achieved by evaluation and comparison of the characteristic times pertinent to the several processes and may be readily carried out by methods outlined herein, for known or assumed reagent concentrations, drop size, and fundamental constants as follows: gas- and aqueous-phase diffusion coefficients; Henry's law coefficient and other pertinent equilibrium constants; interfacial mass-transfer accommodation coefficient; aqueous-phase reaction rate constant(s). A graphical method is described whereby it may be ascertained whether a given reaction is controlled solely by reagent solubility and intrinsic chemical kinetics or is mass-transport limited by one or another of the above processes. In the absence of mass-transport limitation, reaction rates may be evaluated uniformly for the entire liquid-water content of the cloud using equilibrium reagent concentrations. In contrast, where appreciable mass-transport limitation is indicated, evaluation of the overall rate requires knowledge of and integration over the drop-size distribution characterizing the cloud. 68 references, 16 figures.

Schwartz, S.E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

The Impact of Land Surface and Atmospheric Initialization on Seasonal Forecasts with CCSM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Series of forecast experiments for two seasons investigate the impact of specifying realistic initial states of the land in conjunction with the observed states of the ocean and atmosphere while using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (...

Daniel A. Paolino; James L. Kinter III; Ben P. Kirtman; Dughong Min; David M. Straus

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Revisiting GLACE: Understanding the Role of the Land Surface in Land–Atmosphere Coupling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Global Land–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) established a method for quantifying and comparing the influence of soil moisture on the atmosphere in AGCMs. The models included in the GLACE intercomparison displayed a wide range in the ...

Ruth E. Comer; Martin J. Best

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

The Effect of Ocean Dynamics and Orography on Atmospheric Storm Tracks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The control of atmospheric storm tracks by ocean dynamics, orography, and their interaction is investigated using idealized experiments with a simplified coupled atmosphere–ocean climate model. The study focuses on the quasi–steady state for the ...

Chris Wilson; Bablu Sinha; Richard G. Williams

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Spatial Variability of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Structure over the Eastern Equatorial Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Variations in the atmospheric boundary layer structure over the eastern equatorial Pacific are analyzed using 916 soundings collected during the First Global Atmospheric Research Program Global Experiment. Unstable boundary layer structures are ...

Bingfan Yin; Bruce A. Albrecht

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Interannual to Decadal Predictability in a Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The predictability of the coupled ocean–atmosphere climate system on interannual to decadal timescales has been studied by means of ensemble forecast experiments with a global coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation model. Over most parts of ...

A. Grötzner; M. Latif; A. Timmermann; R. Voss

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

ATMOSPHERIC RETRIEVAL FOR SUPER-EARTHS: UNIQUELY CONSTRAINING THE ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION WITH TRANSMISSION SPECTROSCOPY  

SciTech Connect

We present a retrieval method based on Bayesian analysis to infer the atmospheric compositions and surface or cloud-top pressures from transmission spectra of exoplanets with general compositions. In this study, we identify what can unambiguously be determined about the atmospheres of exoplanets from their transmission spectra by applying the retrieval method to synthetic observations of the super-Earth GJ 1214b. Our approach to inferring constraints on atmospheric parameters is to compute their joint and marginal posterior probability distributions using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique in a parallel tempering scheme. A new atmospheric parameterization is introduced that is applicable to general atmospheres in which the main constituent is not known a priori and clouds may be present. Our main finding is that a unique constraint of the mixing ratios of the absorbers and two spectrally inactive gases (such as N{sub 2} and primordial H{sub 2}+ He) is possible if the observations are sufficient to quantify both (1) the broadband transit depths in at least one absorption feature for each absorber and (2) the slope and strength of the molecular Rayleigh scattering signature. A second finding is that the surface pressure or cloud-top pressure can be quantified if a surface or cloud deck is present at low optical depth. A third finding is that the mean molecular mass can be constrained by measuring either the Rayleigh scattering slope or the shapes of the absorption features, thus enabling one to distinguish between cloudy hydrogen-rich atmospheres and high mean molecular mass atmospheres. We conclude, however, that without the signature of molecular Rayleigh scattering-even with robustly detected infrared absorption features (>10{sigma})-there is no reliable way to tell from the transmission spectrum whether the absorber is a main constituent of the atmosphere or just a minor species with a mixing ratio of X{sub abs} < 0.1%. The retrieval method leads us to a conceptual picture of which details in transmission spectra are essential for unique characterizations of well-mixed exoplanet atmospheres.

Benneke, Bjoern; Seager, Sara, E-mail: bbenneke@mit.edu [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

300

Spatial Gradients in Aerosol-Induced Atmospheric Heating and Surface Dimming over the Oceanic Regions around India: Anthropogenic or Natural?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Making use of the extensive shipboard and aircraft measurements of aerosol properties over the oceanic regions surrounding the Indian peninsula, under the Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB) field experiment during ...

Vijayakumar S. Nair; S. Suresh Babu; K. Krishna Moorthy; S. S. Prijith

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric gases experiment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost.

FTHENAKIS,V.

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Very high resolution etching of magnetic nanostructures in organic gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two methods for high resolution dry etching of permalloy (NiFe) and iron (Fe) nanostructures are presented and discussed. The first involves the use of carbon monoxide (CO) and ammonia (NH"3) as etching gases, the second uses methane (CH"4), hydrogen ... Keywords: CH4/H2/O2, CO/NH3, Dry etching, Fe, NiFe

X. Kong; D. Krása; H. P. Zhou; W. Williams; S. McVitie; J. M. R. Weaver; C. D. W. Wilkinson

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Noble gases and radiocarbon in natural gas hydrates Gisela Winckler  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Noble gases and radiocarbon in natural gas hydrates Gisela Winckler Lamont-Doherty Earth 2001; published 24 May 2002. [1] In samples of pure natural gas hydrates from Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia of rigid cages of water molecules that enclose guest gas molecules. The gas component of natural hydrates

Winckler, Gisela

304

Use of low temperature blowers for recirculation of hot gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus is described for maintaining motors at low operating temperatures during recirculation of hot gases in fuel cell operations and chemical processes such as fluidized bed coal gasification. The apparatus includes a means for separating the hot process gas from the motor using a secondary lower temperature gas, thereby minimizing the temperature increase of the motor and associated accessories.

Maru, H.C.; Forooque, M.

1982-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

305

National Waste Processing Conference Proceedings ASME 1994 ACID GASES, MERCURY,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) and elemental mercury (Hg«» under oxidizing conditions of the off-gases downstream of the refuse incinerator), sulfur dioxide (S02)' nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), PCDDs/PCDFs, cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg emission regulations. Mercury Control in MWCs The capture of Hg in flue gas cleaning devices depends on the

Columbia University

306

Atmospheric neutrino flux at INO, South Pole and Pyhäsalmi  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes for the neutrino experiments proposed at INO, South Pole and Pyh\\"asalmi. Neutrino fluxes have been obtained using ATMNC, a simulation code for cosmic ray in the atmosphere. Even using the same primary flux model and the interaction model, the calculated atmospheric neutrino fluxes are different for the different sites due to the geomagnetic field. The prediction of these fluxes in the present paper would be quite useful in the experimental analysis.

M. Sajjad Athar; M. Honda; T. Kajita; K. Kasahara; S. Midorikawa

2012-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

307

Possible Change of Extratropical Cyclone Activity due to Enhanced Greenhouse Gases and Sulfate Aerosols—Study with a High-Resolution AGCM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To investigate the possible impacts of enhanced greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols on extratropical cyclone activity, two 20-yr time-slice experiments—the control run and the global warming run—are performed with a high-resolution AGCM (T106) ...

Quanzhen Geng; Masato Sugi

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology: Editorial  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

past emissions. Sober projections suggest energy consumption2 in the atmosphere, and projections are that fossil fuelsprimary energy supply with projections of growth to 13% by

Oldenburg, C.M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Nonhydrostatic icosahedral atmospheric model (NICAM) for global cloud resolving simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new type of ultra-high resolution atmospheric global circulation model is developed. The new model is designed to perform ''cloud resolving simulations'' by directly calculating deep convection and meso-scale circulations, which play key roles not ... Keywords: Aqua-planet experiments, Atmospheric general circulation models, Cloud clusters, Cloud resolving model, Icosahedral grids, Nonhydrostatic model

M. Satoh; T. Matsuno; H. Tomita; H. Miura; T. Nasuno; S. Iga

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Impact of the Global Forest Industry on Atmospheric Greenhouse Gas | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Impact of the Global Forest Industry on Atmospheric Greenhouse Gas Impact of the Global Forest Industry on Atmospheric Greenhouse Gas Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Impact of the Global Forest Industry on Atmospheric Greenhouse Gas Agency/Company /Organization: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Sector: Land Focus Area: Industry, Forestry Topics: GHG inventory, Co-benefits assessment, - Environmental and Biodiversity Resource Type: Publications Website: www.fao.org/docrep/012/i1580e/i1580e00.pdf Impact of the Global Forest Industry on Atmospheric Greenhouse Gas Screenshot References: Forestry Industry Impacts[1] "This book examines the influence of the forest products (roundwood, processed wood products and pulp and paper) value chain on atmospheric greenhouse gases. Forests managed for natural conservation, for protection

311

Posters Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: Status and Water Vapor Continuum Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 Posters Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: Status and Water Vapor Continuum Results H. E. Revercomb, R. O. Knuteson, W. L. Smith, F. A. Best, and R. G. Dedecker University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin H. B. Howell National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Systems Design and Applications Branch Madison, Wisconsin Introduction Accurate and spectrally detailed observations of the thermal emission from radiatively important atmospheric gases, aerosols, and clouds are now being provided to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data base by the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) prototype at the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site. Spectra over the range from 520 to 3000 cm -1 (3 to 19 microns) with a resolution of 0.5 cm

312

Computational study of atmospheric transfer radiation on an equatorial tropical desert (La Tatacoa, Colombia)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiative transfer models explain and predict interaction between solar radiation and the different elements present in the atmosphere, which are responsible for energy attenuation. In Colombia there have been neither measurements nor studies of atmospheric components such as gases and aerosols that can cause turbidity and pollution. Therefore satellite images cannot be corrected radiometrically in a proper way. When a suitable atmospheric correction is carried out, loss of information is avoided, which may be useful for discriminating image land cover. In this work a computational model was used to find radiative atmospheric attenuation (300 1000nm wavelength region) on an equatorial tropical desert (La Tatacoa, Colombia) in order to conduct an adequate atmospheric correction.

Delgado-Correal, Camilo; Castaño, Gabriel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Monsoon Trough Boundary Layer Experiment (MONTBLEX)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Monsoon Trough Boundary Layer Experiment (MONTBLEX) is a multi-institutional, all-India coordinated program to study the atmospheric boundary-layer processes in the monsoon trough (MT) area of northern India. The experiment is being organized ...

Malti Goel; H. N. Srivastava

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Atmospheric Laser Communication  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric laser communication, often referred to as free-space optics (FSO) or free-space laser (FSL) communication, is similar to fiber optic cable in terms of carrier wavelength and bandwidth capability, but data are transmitted directly ...

Kenneth W. Fischer*Michael R. Witiw; Jeffrey A. Baars+; T. R. Oke

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Simulation of Atmospheric Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A spectral atmospheric circulation model is time-integrated for approximately 18 years. The model has a global computational domain and realistic geography and topography. The model undergoes an annual cycle as daily values of seasonally varying ...

Syukuro Manabe; Douglas G. Hahn

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Atmospheric Available Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The total potential energy of the atmosphere is the sum of its internal and gravitational energies. The portion of this total energy available to be converted into kinetic energy is determined relative to an isothermal, hydrostatic, equilibrium ...

Peter R. Bannon

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Atmospheric optical calibration system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

Hulstrom, Roland L. (Bloomfield, CO); Cannon, Theodore W. (Golden, CO)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Atmospheric optical calibration system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

1988-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

319

A Discrete Ordinate, Multiple Scattering, Radiative Transfer Model of the Venus Atmosphere from 0.1 to 260 ?m  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors describe a new radiative transfer model of the Venus atmosphere (RTM) that includes optical properties from nine gases and four cloud modes between 0.1 and 260 ?m. A multiple-stream discrete ordinate flux solver is used to calculate ...

Christopher Lee; Mark Ian Richardson

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

USE OF ZEEMAN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY IN OIL SHALE GASES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and R. E. Poulson. Mercury Emissions From A Simulated In-for the Measurement of Mercury in Oil Shale Gases D. GirvinJFOR THE MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY IN OIL SHALE GASES D. C.

Girvin, D.G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric gases experiment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Diffusive separation of noble gases and noble gas abundance patterns in sedimentary rocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

inventory of Xenon on noble gases in shales: the plastic bagnoble gas signature by shale, rock, gas, oil and or water byof noble gases on organic rich shales in the terrestrial

Torgersen, T.; Kennedy, B.M.; van Soest, M.C.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Dynamics of Atmospheric Teleconnections during the Northern Summer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the mechanisms of northern summertime teleconnections are investigated using a barotropic model. In a series of numerical experiments we study the atmospheric response over the eastern Pacific-North America to an idealized local ...

K-M. Lau; L. Peno

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Modeling Bulk Atmospheric Drainage Flow in a Valley  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most simulations of bulk valley-drainage flows depend heavily on parameterizations. The 1984 Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) field experiment in Brush Creek Valley, Colorado, provided an unprecedented density of measurements in a ...

Ronald J. Dobosy

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Local Dynamics of Baroclinic Waves in the Martian Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper investigates the processes that drive the spatiotemporal evolution of baroclinic transient waves in the Martian atmosphere by a simulation experiment with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) Mars General Circulation Model (...

Michael J. Kavulich Jr.; Istvan Szunyogh; Gyorgyi Gyarmati; R. John Wilson

325

Equatorial Atmospheric Waves and Their Association to Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Equatorial wave systems and their relationships with convective activity are analyzed in the western and central Pacific regions during the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) intensive observation periods. The study uses ...

P. Pires; J-L. Redelsperger; J-P. Lafore

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

A Moist Benchmark Calculation for Atmospheric General Circulation Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A benchmark calculation is designed to compare the climate and climate sensitivity of atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs). The experimental setup basically follows that of the aquaplanet experiment (APE) proposed by Neale and Hoskins, ...

Myong-In Lee; Max J. Suarez; In-Sik Kang; Isaac M. Held; Daehyun Kim

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

The Dispersion of Atmospheric Tracers in Nocturnal Drainage Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the results of a series of perfluorocarbon tracer experiments that were carried out in the Brush Creek Valley in western Colorado under the auspices of the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program. The results ...

Paul H. Gudiksen; Donald L. Shearer

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Laboratory Simulation of Atmospheric Motions in the Vicinity of Antarctica  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory experiments concerned with surface cooling, were conducted to simulate the surface wind patterns and the free atmosphere general circulation in the vicinity of Antarctica. The principal dynamical similarity parameter is shown to be ROT/...

Rui-Rong Chen; Don L. Boyer; Lijun Tao

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Reflectivity of the Atmosphere-Inhomogeneous Surfaces System: Laboratory Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Theoretical two- and three-dimensional solutions of the radiative transfer equation have been applied to the earth-atmosphere system. Such solutions have not been verified experimentally. A laboratory experiment simulates such a system to test ...

Yuri Mekler; Yoram J. Kaufman; Robert S. Fraser

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

An Automated Sequential Syringe Sampler for Atmospheric Tracer Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design of an improved sampler for the automatic collection of air samples during atmospheric halogenated tracer experiments is described. In this approach, each sample is collected in a small volume (20 to 150 ml) syringe using a rack and ...

Joseph P. Krasnec; David E. Demaray; Brian Lamb; Richard Benner

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Radiative Heating and Cooling Rates in the Middle Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the limitations to the accurate calculation of radiative heating and cooling rates in the stratosphere and mesosphere has been the lack of accurate data on the atmospheric temperature and composition. Data from the LIMS experiment on ...

John C. Gille; Lawrence V. Lyjak

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

System for trapping and storing gases for subsequent chemical reduction to solids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for quantitatively reducing oxide gases. A pre-selected amount of zinc is provided in a vial. A tube is provided in the vial. The zinc and the tube are separated. A pre-selected amount of a catalyst is provided in the tube. Oxide gases are injected into the vial. The vial, tube, zinc, catalyst, and the oxide gases are cryogenically cooled. At least a portion of the vial, tube, zinc, catalyst, and oxide gases are heated.

Vogel, John S. (San Jose, CA); Ognibene, Ted J. (Oakland, CA); Bench, Graham S. (Livermore, CA); Peaslee, Graham F. (Holland, MI)

2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

333

Agricultural Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases: Science and Policy Options  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Agricultural Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases: Science and Policy Options Agricultural Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases: Science and Policy Options Keith Paustian (keithp@nrel.colostate.edu; 970-491-1547) Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory Colorado State University Ft. Collins, CO 80523 Bruce Babcock (babcock@iastate.edu; 515-294-6785) Cathy Kling (ckling@iastate.edu; 515-294-5767) Center for Agriculture and Rural Development Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011-1070 Jerry Hatfield (hatfield@nstl.gov; 515-294-5723) USDA - National Soil Tilth Laboratory Ames, IA 50011 Rattan Lal (lal.1@osu.edu; 614-292-9069) School of Natural Resources The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210-1085 Bruce McCarl (mccarl@tamu.edu; 979-845-1706) Department of Agricultural Economics Texas A&M University College Station, TX 77843-2124 Sandy McLaughlin (un4@ornl.gov; 865-574-7358)

334

CO2 Separation from Low-Temperature Flue Gases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,842,126 entitled "Co 2 Separation from Low-Temperature Flue Gases." Disclosed in this patent are novel methods for processing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from combustion gas streams. Researchers at NETL are focused on the development of novel sorbent systems that can effectively remove CO 2 and other gases in an economically feasible manner with limited impact on energy production cost. The current invention will help in reducing greenhouse gas emissions by using an improved, regenerable aqueous amine and soluble potassium carbonate sorbent system. This novel solvent system may be capable of achieving CO 2 capture from larger emission streams at lower overall cost. Overview Sequestration of CO

335

EIA - Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Environment Environment Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U. S. Release Date: March 31, 2011 | Next Release Date: Report Discontinued | Report Number: DOE/EIA-0573(2009) This report-the eighteenth annual report-presents the U.S. Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. Download the GHG Report Introduction For this report, activity data on coal and natural gas consumption and electricity sales and losses by sector were obtained from the January 2011 Monthly Energy Review (MER). In keeping with current international practice, this report presents data on greenhouse gas emissions in million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data can be converted to carbon equivalent units by

336

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Getting Started  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Getting Started Getting Started Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Getting Started Form EIA-1605 may seem daunting at first, even for entities that have reported under the original program. That's why EIA has developed the Getting Started page to help entities take a systematic approach to reporting their emissions and reductions. The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program suggests that prospective reporters familiarize themselves with the specific requirements for reporting their entity's inventory and reductions by answering the questions embodied in the 10 steps below. In addition, EIA has prepared the interactive Getting Started tool to help reporters determine what parts of Form EIA-1605 they need to complete. Getting Started Tool Getting Started PDF Tables

337

Transporting & Shipping Hazardous Materials at LBNL: Compressed Gases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Compressed Gases Compressed Gases Self-Transport by Hand & Foot Self-Transport by Vehicle Ship by Common Carrier Conduct Field Work Return Cylinders Self-Transport by Hand & Foot Staff may personally move (self-transport) compressed gas cylinders by hand & foot between buildings and in connecting spaces (i.e., hallways, elevators, etc.) within buildings provided it can be done safely. The following safety precautions apply: Use standard cylinder dollies to transport compressed gas cylinders. While dollies are preferred, cylinders weighing 11 Kg (25 lbs) or less may be hand-carried. Never move a cylinder with a regulator connected to it. Cylinder valve-protection caps and valve-opening caps must be in place when moving cylinders. Lecture bottles and other cylinders that are

338

Recovery of CO2 from Flue Gases: Commercial Trends  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CO CO 2 from Flue Gases: Commercial Trends Originally presented at the Canadian Society of Chemical Engineers annual meeting October 4-6, 1999, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada Authors: Dan G. Chapel (dan.chapel@fluor.com; 949-349-7530) Carl L. Mariz (carl.mariz@fluor.com; 949-349-7530) FluorDaniel One Fluor Drive Aliso Viejo CA, 92698 John Ernest (john.ernest@minimed.com; 818-576-4293) Advanced Quality Services Inc 11024 Balboa Blvd. PMB154, Granada Hills, CA 91344-5007 1 Recovery of CO 2 from Flue Gases: Commercial Trends Originally presented at the Canadian Society of Chemical Engineers annual meeting October 4-6, 1999, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada Authors: Dan Chapel - Fluor Daniel Inc., Senior Vice President Technology; Oil, Gas & Power John Ernest - Advanced Quality Services Inc., Validation Engineer

339

PPPL wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PPPL wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases PPPL wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe October 2, 2012 Tweet Widget Facebook Like Google Plus One PPPL engineer Tim Stevenson checks for possible leaks of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), the gas used to insulate electronic equipment that has the potential to cause global warming at many times the rate of carbon dioxide. PPPL reduced leaks of SF6 by 65 percent over three years - reducing overall greenhouse gas emissions by 48 percent between 2008 and 2011. (Photo by Elle Starkman/PPPL Office of Communications) PPPL engineer Tim Stevenson checks for possible leaks of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), the gas used to insulate electronic equipment that has the potential to cause global warming at many times the rate of carbon

340

Reading Comprehension - Properties of Solids, Liquids, and Gases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Properties of Solids, Liquids, and Gases Properties of Solids, Liquids, and Gases A solid has a definite _________ mass texture volume and a _________ 3D irregular definite shape. The particles in a solid are _________ free to move around motionless packed tightly together . Particles in a solid move by _________ sliding past one another vibrating back and forth slightly jiggling around . _________ Viscosity Amorphous Crystalline solids soften before melting. The particles in this type of solid are not arranged in regular pattern. Amorphous solids _________ do don't have a distinct melting point. Crystalline solids have a _________ distinct color and shape distinct pattern and melting point . Liquids have no _________ volume mass shape of their own. A liquid takes the shape of its container. Without a container liquids spread into a wide,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric gases experiment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

PPPL Wins Department of Energy Award For Reducing Greenhouse Gases |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wins Department of Energy Award For Reducing Greenhouse Gases Wins Department of Energy Award For Reducing Greenhouse Gases By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe October 2, 2012 Tweet Widget Facebook Like Google Plus One PPPL's Tim Stevenson takes inventory of the SF6 levels at a power supply tank for NSTX. (Photo by Elle Starkman, PPPL Office of Communications) PPPL's Tim Stevenson takes inventory of the SF6 levels at a power supply tank for NSTX. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) has received a federal Sustainability Award for reducing overall greenhouse gas emissions 48 percent since 2008 - far exceeding the U.S. government's goal of a 28 percent reduction. Members of the PPPL staff were among the 20 recipients of the Sustainability Awards in a ceremony in Washington, D.C., on Thursday, Sept.

342

Apparatus for the plasma destruction of hazardous gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A plasma cell for destroying hazardous gases. An electric-discharge cell having an electrically conducting electrode onto which an alternating high-voltage waveform is impressed and a dielectric barrier adjacent thereto, together forming a high-voltage electrode, generates self-terminating discharges throughout a volume formed between this electrode and a grounded conducting liquid electrode. The gas to be transformed is passed through this volume. The liquid may be flowed, generating thereby a renewable surface. Moreover, since hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids may be formed from destruction of various chlorofluorocarbons in the presence of water, a conducting liquid may be selected which will neutralize these corrosive compounds. The gases exiting the discharge region may be further scrubbed if additional purification is required.

Kang, Michael (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Measurement of biocarbon in flue gases using 14C  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary investigation of the biocarbon fraction in carbon dioxide emissions of power plants using both fossil- and biobased fuels is presented. Calculation of the biocarbon fraction is based on radiocarbon content measured in power plant flue gases. Samples were collected directly from the chimneys into plastic sampling bags. The C-14 content in CO{sub 2} was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Flue gases from power plants that use natural gas, coal, wood chips, bark, plywood residue, sludge from the pulp factory, peat, and recovered fuel were measured. Among the selected plants, there was one that used only fossil fuel and one that used only biofuel; the other investigated plants burned mixtures of fuels. The results show that C-14 measurement provides the possibility to determine the ratio of bio and fossil fuel burned in power plants.

Haemaelaeinen, K.M.; Jungner, H.; Antson, O.; Rasanen, J.; Tormonen, K.; Roine, J. [University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland). Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Volatile oils and retrograde gases - What's the difference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Part 1 showed that at reservoir conditions, volatile oils exhibit bubble points and retrograde gases exhibit dew points. The article contained a graph of initial producing gas-oil ratio plotted against concentration of heptanes plus in the fluid. This paper reproduces a portion of that graph with the data points indicating that the fluid had a dew point or a bubble point at reservoir conditions. The scatter in the data reflects the compositional differences among the fluids and the differences in surface separation facilities and conditions. In this graph, only three fluids have dew points and initial producing gas-oil ratios less than 3,200 scf/STB, and only one fluid reaches a bubble point above this value. Therefore, a value of 3,200 scf/STB appears to be a good cutoff between volatile oils and retrograde gases.

McCain, W.D. Jr. (S.A. Holditch and Associates, College Station, TX (United States)); Bridges, B. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Clostridium stain which produces acetic acid from waste gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

Gaddy, James L. (2207 Tall Oaks Dr., Fayetteville, AR 72703)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Clostridium strain which produces acetic acid from waste gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 4 figs.

Gaddy, J.L.

1997-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

347

Comparative Analysis of Alternative Means for Removing Noncondensable Gases  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Comparative Analysis of Alternative Means for Removing Noncondensable Gases Comparative Analysis of Alternative Means for Removing Noncondensable Gases from Flashed-Steam Geothermal Power Plants:April 1999 - March 2000 Dataset Summary Description This dataset corresponds to the final report on a screening study to compare six methods of removing noncondensable gases from direct-use geo-thermal steam power plants. This report defines the study methodologies and compares the performance and economics of selected gas-removal systems. Recommendations are presented for follow-up investigations and implementation of some of the technologies discussed. The specific gas-removal methods include five vacuum system configurations using the conventional approach of evacuating gas/vapor mixtures from the power plant condenser system and a system for physical separation of steam and gases upstream of the power turbine. The study focused on flashed-steam applications, but the results apply equally well to flashed-steam and dry-steam geothermal power plant configurations. Two gas-removal options appear to offer profitable economic potential. The hybrid vacuum system configurations and the reboiler process yield positive net present value results over wide-ranging gas concentrations. The hybrid options look favorable for both low-temperature and high-temperature resource applications. The reboiler looks profitable for low-temperature resource applications for gas levels above about 20,000 parts per million by volume. A vacuum system configuration using a three-stage turbocompressor battery may be profitable for low-temperature resources, but results show that the hybrid system is more profitable. The biphase eductor alternative cannot be recommended for commercialization at this time. The report is available from NREL's publication database.

348

Mixtures of Bose Gases Confined in a Ring Potential  

SciTech Connect

The rotational properties of a mixture of two distinguishable Bose gases that are confined in a ring potential provide novel physical effects that we demonstrate in this study. Persistent currents are shown to be stable for a range of the population imbalance between the two components at low angular momentum. At higher values of the angular momentum, even small admixtures of a second species of atoms make the persistent currents highly fragile.

Smyrnakis, J.; Kavoulakis, G. M.; Magiropoulos, M. [Technological Education Institute of Crete, P.O. Box 1939, GR-71004, Heraklion (Greece); Bargi, S.; Kaerkkaeinen, K.; Reimann, S. M. [Mathematical Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 118, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden)

2009-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

349

Persistent currents in Bose gases confined in annular traps  

SciTech Connect

We examine the problem of stability of persistent currents in a mixture of two Bose gases trapped in an annular potential. We evaluate the critical coupling for metastability in the transition from quasi-one- to two-dimensional motion. We also evaluate the critical coupling for metastability in a mixture of two species as a function of the population imbalance. The stability of the currents is shown to be sensitive to the deviation from one-dimensional motion.

Bargi, S.; Malet, F.; Reimann, S. M. [Mathematical Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 118, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Kavoulakis, G. M. [Technological Educational Institute of Crete, P.O. Box 1939, GR-71004, Heraklion (Greece)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

350

Thermodynamic and hydrodynamic behaviour of interacting Fermi gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

data processing speed and decreased power consumption. Understanding the spin relaxation, diffusion and other transport properties is of fundamental importance this field. An important advantage of cold gases in studies of spin transport phenomena... of information [39]. Either extending conventional charge-based electronic appliances by the spin degree of free- dom, or using the spin alone can be the foundation for a new generation of “spintronic” devices. Advantages are for instance nonvolatility, increased...

Goulko, Olga

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

351

Bose-Einstein-condensed gases with arbitrary strong interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bose-condensed gases are considered with an effective interaction strength varying in the whole range of the values between zero and infinity. The consideration is based on the usage of a representative statistical ensemble for Bose systems with broken global gauge symmetry. Practical calculations are illustrated for a uniform Bose gas at zero temperature, employing a self-consistent mean-field theory, which is both conserving and gapless.

V. I. Yukalov; E. P. Yukalova

2007-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

352

Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases  

SciTech Connect

The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes sample gases of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for analysis. Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

Carlsbad Field Office

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Measurements of waste tank passive ventilation rates using tracer gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of ventilation rate studies of eight passively ventilated high-level radioactive waste tanks using tracer gases. Head space ventilation rates were determined for Tanks A-101, AX-102, AX-103, BY-105, C-107, S-102, U-103, and U-105 using sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) and/or helium (He) as tracer gases. Passive ventilation rates are needed for the resolution of several key safety issues. These safety issues are associated with the rates of flammable gas production and ventilation, the rates at which organic salt-nitrate salt mixtures dry out, and the estimation of organic solvent waste surface areas. This tracer gas study involves injecting a tracer gas into the tank headspace and measuring its concentration at different times to establish the rate at which the tracer is removed by ventilation. Tracer gas injection and sample collection were performed by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation and/or Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation, Characterization Project Operations. Headspace samples were analyzed for He and SF{sub 6} by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The tracer gas method was first demonstrated on Tank S-102. Tests were conducted on Tank S-102 to verify that the tracer gas was uniformly distributed throughout the tank headspace before baseline samples were collected, and that mixing was sufficiently vigorous to maintain an approximately uniform distribution of tracer gas in the headspace during the course of the study. Headspace samples, collected from a location about 4 in away from the injection point and 15, 30, and 60 minutes after the injection of He and SF{sub 6}, indicated that both tracer gases were rapidly mixed. The samples were found to have the same concentration of tracer gases after 1 hour as after 24 hours, suggesting that mixing of the tracer gas was essentially complete within 1 hour.

Huckaby, J.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Sklarew, D.S.; Evans, J.C.; Remund, K.M.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1996  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report is the fifth annual update, covering national emissions over the period 1989--1995, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1996. The estimates contained in this report have been revised from those in last year`s report. Emissions estimates for carbon dioxide are reported in metric tons of carbon; estimates for other gases are reported in metric tons of gas. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapter 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Five appendixes are included with this report. 216 refs., 11 figs., 38 tabs.

NONE

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - What's New  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Environment > Voluntary Reporting Program > What's New Environment > Voluntary Reporting Program > What's New Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program What's New Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Suspended May 2011 The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases ("1605(b)") Program has been suspended. The suspension is due to recent reductions in budget appropriations and is effective immediately. Survey respondents may still submit data to the 1605(b) Program using the program's Workbook Form via EIA's Secure File Transfer mechanism. However, EIA will not be able to process and review submitted data or offer respondent support on the submitted data. Should a respondant submit data under the current collection cycle to EIA, the data will be retained in our electronic records. If the 1605(b) Program resumes normal operations, your submitted data will be reviewed and processed at that time. You will be notified in the future if the 1605(b) Program resumes normal operation. If you have any questions, please contact the survey manager, Paul McArdle, at paul.mcardle@eia.gov

357

Evaluación de la generación de gases de efecto invernadero asociados al ciclo de vida de los biocombustibles colombianos = Assessment of greenhouse gases emissions associated to colombian biofuels lifecycle.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Valencia Botero, Monica Julieth (2012) Evaluación de la generación de gases de efecto invernadero asociados al ciclo de vida de los biocombustibles colombianos = Assessment… (more)

Valencia Botero, Monica Julieth

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

PNNL: Atmospheric Sciences & Global Change - Frontiers in Global Change  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Frontiers in Global Change Frontiers in Global Change Dr. Thanos Nenes Dr. Thanos Nenes Aerosol-Cloud Interactions: The Elusive Component of Climate Change Dr. Thanos Nenes Professor & Georgia Power Faculty Scholar, School of Earth & Atmospheric Sciences, School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA Thursday, August 1, 2013 EMSL Auditorium 10:00AM The effect of human activities on climate is one of the most important issues facing society. Humans influence climate in many ways. Emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) tend to warm climate, by reducing the amount of infrared radiation that is emitted to space. Increased levels of suspended atmospheric particles ("aerosols") exert a net cooling effect by directly scattering and absorption of solar radiation (the "aerosol direct climatic

359

Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, September 2001.  

SciTech Connect

Our Changing Climate--Is our climate really changing? How do we measure climate change? How can we predict what Earth's climate will be like for generations to come? One focus of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to improve scientific climate models enough to achieve reliable regional prediction of future climate. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the global mean surface temperature has increased by 0.5-1.0 F since the late 19th century. The 20th century's 10 warmest years all occurred in the last 15 years of the century, with 1998 being the warmest year of record. The global mean surface temperature is measured by a network of temperature-sensing instruments distributed around the world, including ships, ocean buoys, and weather stations on land. The data from this network are retrieved and analyzed by various organizations, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the World Meteorological Organization. Worldwide temperature records date back to 1860. To reconstruct Earth's temperature history before 1860, scientists use limited temperature records, along with proxy indicators such as tree rings, pollen records, and analysis of air frozen in ancient ice. The solar energy received from the sun drives Earth's weather and climate. Some of this energy is reflected and filtered by the atmosphere, but most is absorbed by Earth's surface. The absorbed solar radiation warms the surface and is re-radiated as heat energy into the atmosphere. Some atmospheric gases, called greenhouse gases, trap some of the re-emitted heat, keeping the surface temperature regulated and suitable for sustaining life. Although the greenhouse effect is natural, some evidence indicates that human activities are producing increased levels of some greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Scientists believe that the combustion of fossil fuels is responsible for the increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. According to the EPA, the burning of fossil fuels for cars and trucks, the heating of homes and businesses, and the operation of power plants account for approximately 98% of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions. The increase of greenhouse gases will, theoretically, enhance the greenhouse effect by trapping more of the heat energy emitted by Earth's surface, thus increasing the surface temperatures on a global scale. Scientists expect that the global average surface temperature could rise 1-4.5 F in the next 50 years and as much as 10 F in the next century. Global warming could potentially have harmful effects on human health, water resources, forests, agriculture, wildlife, and coastal areas. A few degrees of warming might lead to more frequent and severe heat waves, worsened air pollution with adverse effects on human respiratory health, and wider spread of tropical disease such as malaria. The world's hydrologic cycle might be affected by an increase in evaporation and, thus, in precipitation. An increase in evaporation will increase atmospheric water vapor, a significant natural greenhouse gas. The increase in water vapor might further enhance the global warming caused by the greenhouse effect. This is known as a positive feedback. The increase in water vapor could also change the amount of clouds present in the atmosphere, which could reduce temperatures in a negative feedback. Many interrelated factors affect the global climate and are responsible for climate change. Predicting the outcome of the interactions among the many factors is not easy, but it must be addressed. The ARM Program is taking a lead in this effort by collecting vast amounts of data whose analysis will improve our forecasting models for both daily weather and long-term climate. For more information on the ARM Program, please visit our web site at www.arm.gov.

Holdridge, D. J.

2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

360

Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, September 2001.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our Changing Climate--Is our climate really changing? How do we measure climate change? How can we predict what Earth's climate will be like for generations to come? One focus of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to improve scientific climate models enough to achieve reliable regional prediction of future climate. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the global mean surface temperature has increased by 0.5-1.0 F since the late 19th century. The 20th century's 10 warmest years all occurred in the last 15 years of the century, with 1998 being the warmest year of record. The global mean surface temperature is measured by a network of temperature-sensing instruments distributed around the world, including ships, ocean buoys, and weather stations on land. The data from this network are retrieved and analyzed by various organizations, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the World Meteorological Organization. Worldwide temperature records date back to 1860. To reconstruct Earth's temperature history before 1860, scientists use limited temperature records, along with proxy indicators such as tree rings, pollen records, and analysis of air frozen in ancient ice. The solar energy received from the sun drives Earth's weather and climate. Some of this energy is reflected and filtered by the atmosphere, but most is absorbed by Earth's surface. The absorbed solar radiation warms the surface and is re-radiated as heat energy into the atmosphere. Some atmospheric gases, called greenhouse gases, trap some of the re-emitted heat, keeping the surface temperature regulated and suitable for sustaining life. Although the greenhouse effect is natural, some evidence indicates that human activities are producing increased levels of some greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Scientists believe that the combustion of fossil fuels is responsible for the increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. According to the EPA, the burning of fossil fuels for cars and trucks, the heating of homes and businesses, and the operation of power plants account for approximately 98% of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions. The increase of greenhouse gases will, theoretically, enhance the greenhouse effect by trapping more of the heat energy emitted by Earth's surface, thus increasing the surface temperatures on a global scale. Scientists expect that the global average surface temperature could rise 1-4.5 F in the next 50 years and as much as 10 F in the next century. Global warming could potentially have harmful effects on human health, water resources, forests, agriculture, wildlife, and coastal areas. A few degrees of warming might lead to more frequent and severe heat waves, worsened air pollution with adverse effects on human respiratory health, and wider spread of tropical disease such as malaria. The world's hydrologic cycle might be affected by an increase in evaporation and, thus, in precipitation. An increase in evaporation will increase atmospheric water vapor, a significant natural greenhouse gas. The increase in water vapor might further enhance the global warming caused by the greenhouse effect. This is known as a positive feedback. The increase in water vapor could also change the amount of clouds present in the atmosphere, which could reduce temperatures in a negative feedback. Many interrelated factors affect the global climate and are responsible for climate change. Predicting the outcome of the interactions among the many factors is not easy, but it must be addressed. The ARM Program is taking a lead in this effort by collecting vast amounts of data whose analysis will improve our forecasting models for both daily weather and long-term climate. For more information on the ARM Program, please visit our web site at www.arm.gov.

Holdridge, D. J.

2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric gases experiment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

JGR-Atmospheres Papers from the RADAGAST Research Team  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

JGR-Atmospheres Papers from the RADAGAST Research Team JGR-Atmospheres Papers from the RADAGAST Research Team Bharmal, N.A., A. Slingo, G.J. Robinson, and J.J. Settle, 2009: Simulation of surface and top of atmosphere thermal fluxes and radiances from the RADAGAST experiment. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 114, doi:10.1029/2008JD010504, in press. Kollias, P., M.A. Miller, K.L. Johnson, M.P. Jensen, and D.T. Troyan, 2009: Cloud, thermodynamic, and precipitation observations in West Africa during 2006. Journal of Geophysical Research- Atmospheres, 114, doi: 10.1029/2008JD010641, in press. McFarlane, S.A., E.I. Kassianov, J. Barnard, C. Flynn, and T. Ackerman, 2009: Surface shortwave aerosol forcing during the ARM Mobile Facility deployment in Niamey, Niger. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 114, doi: 10.1029/2008JD010491, 17 pages.

362

Energy Spectra, Altitude Profiles and Charge Ratios of Atmospheric Muons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new measurement of air shower muons made during atmospheric ascent of the High Energy Antimatter Telescope balloon experiment. The muon charge ratio mu+ / mu- is presented as a function of atmospheric depth in the momentum interval 0.3-0.9 GeV/c. The differential mu- momentum spectra are presented between 0.3 and about 50 GeV/c at atmospheric depths between 13 and 960 g/cm^2. We compare our measurements with other recent data and with Monte Carlo calculations of the same type as those used in predicting atmospheric neutrino fluxes. We find that our measured mu- fluxes are smaller than the predictions by as much as 70% at shallow atmospheric depths, by about 20% at the depth of shower maximum, and are in good agreement with the predictions at greater depths. We explore the consequences of this on the question of atmospheric neutrino production.

S. Coutu; J. J. Beatty; M. A. DuVernois; S. W. Barwick; E. Schneider; A. Bhattacharyya; C. R. Bower; J. A. Musser; A. Labrador; D. Muller; S. P. Swordy; E. Torbet; C. Chaput; S. McKee; G. Tarle; A. D. Tomasch; S. L. Nutter; G. A. deNolfo

2000-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

363

THERMALLY DRIVEN ATMOSPHERIC ESCAPE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurately determining the escape rate from a planet's atmosphere is critical for determining its evolution. A large amount of Cassini data is now available for Titan's upper atmosphere and a wealth of data is expected within the next decade on escape from Pluto, Mars, and extra-solar planets. Escape can be driven by upward thermal conduction of energy deposited well below the exobase, as well as by nonthermal processes produced by energy deposited in the exobase region. Recent applications of a model for escape driven by upward thermal conduction, called the slow hydrodynamic escape model, have resulted in surprisingly large loss rates for the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. Based on a molecular kinetic simulation of the exobase region, these rates appear to be orders of magnitude too large. Therefore, the slow hydrodynamic model is evaluated here. It is shown that such a model cannot give a reliable description of the atmospheric temperature profile unless it is coupled to a molecular kinetic description of the exobase region. Therefore, the present escape rates for Titan and Pluto must be re-evaluated using the atmospheric model described here.

Johnson, Robert E., E-mail: rej@virginia.ed [Engineering Physics, Thornton Hall B102, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22902 (United States); Physics Department, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

2010-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

364

How Much Do Different Land Models Matter for Climate Simulation? Part II: A Decomposed View of the Land–Atmosphere Coupling Strength  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Global Land–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) built a framework to estimate the strength of the land–atmosphere interaction across many weather and climate models. Within this framework, GLACE-type experiments are performed with a single ...

Jiangfeng Wei; Paul A. Dirmeyer; Zhichang Guo

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Low Cost Open-Path Instrument for Monitoring Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide at Sequestration Sites  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Cost open-path Instrument for Low Cost open-path Instrument for monItorIng atmospherIC Carbon DIoxIDe at sequestratIon sItes Background Growing concern over the effect on global climate of the buildup of greenhouse gases (GHG), particularly carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), in the atmosphere may lead to the curtailment of CO 2 emissions. One potential course of action by industry to reduce GHG emissions is the subsurface disposal of CO 2 . An important requirement of such disposal is verification that the injected gases remain in place and do not leak to the surface. Perhaps the most direct evidence of a successful sequestration project is the lack of a detectable CO 2 concentration above the background level in the air near the ground. Although measurement of CO 2 concentration can be performed, it is

366

Article Atmospheric Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

© The Author(s) 2012. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com csb.scichina.com www.springer.com/scp © The Author(s) 2012. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com csb.scichina.com www.springer.com/scp *Corresponding author (email: luchunsong110@gmail.com) Article Atmospheric Science February 2013 Vol.58 No.4-5: 545  551 doi: 10.1007/s11434-012-5556-6 A method for distinguishing and linking turbulent entrainment mixing and collision-coalescence in stratocumulus clouds LU ChunSong 1,2* , LIU YanGang 2 & NIU ShengJie 1 1 Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Physics and Environment of China Meteorological Administration, Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China; 2 Atmospheric Sciences Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York 11973, USA

367

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric moisture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

moisture moisture ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric moisture The moisture content of the air as indicated by several measurements including relative humidity, specific humidity, dewpoint, vapor pressure, water vapor mixing ratio, and water vapor density; note that precipitable water is a separate type. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AERI : Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer

368

BNL | Atmospheric Systems Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric System Research is a DOE observation-based research program Atmospheric System Research is a DOE observation-based research program created to advance process-level understanding of the key interactions among aerosols, clouds, precipitation, radiation, dynamics, and thermodynamics, with the ultimate goal of reducing the uncertainty in global and regional climate simulations and projections. General areas of research at BNL under this program include studies of aerosol and cloud lifecycles, and cloud-aerosol-precipitation interactions. Contact Robert McGraw, 631.344.3086 aerosols Aerosol Life Cycle The strategic focus of the Aerosol Life Cycle research is observation-based process science-examining the properties and evolution of atmospheric aerosols. Observations come from both long-term studies conducted by the

369

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric pressure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

pressure pressure ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric pressure The pressure exerted by the atmosphere as a consequence of gravitational attraction exerted upon the "column" of air lying directly above the point in question. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments SONDE : Balloon-Borne Sounding System CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System

370

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

temperature temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric temperature The temperature indicated by a thermometer exposed to the air in a place sheltered from direct solar radiation. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AERI : Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer SONDE : Balloon-Borne Sounding System CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System

371

Precomputed atmospheric scattering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a new and accurate method to render the atmosphere in real time from any viewpoint from ground level to outer space, while taking Rayleigh and Mie multiple scattering into account. Our method reproduces many effects of the scattering of light, ...

Eric Bruneton; Fabrice Neyret

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes blind audit samples in a gas matrix for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

Carlsbad Field Office

2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

373

Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases  

SciTech Connect

The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes blind audit samples in a gas matrix for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

Carlsbad Field Office

2007-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

374

Supersolid phase in atomic gases with magnetic dipole interaction  

SciTech Connect

A major obstacle for the experimental realization of a supersolid phase with cold atomic gases in an optical lattice is the weakness of the nearest-neighbor interactions achievable via magnetic dipole-dipole interactions. In this paper, we show that by using a large filling of atoms within each well, the characteristic energy scales are strongly enhanced. Within this regime, the system is well described by the rotor model, and the qualitative behavior of the phase diagram derives from mean-field theory. We find a stable supersolid phase for realistic parameters with chromium atoms.

Buehler, Adam; Buechler, Hans Peter [Institute for Theoretical Physics III, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70550 (Germany)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

Prospecting by sampling and analysis of airborne particulates and gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is claimed for prospecting by sampling airborne particulates or gases at a ground position and recording wind direction values at the time of sampling. The samples are subsequently analyzed to determine the concentrations of a desired material or the ratios of the desired material to other identifiable materials in the collected samples. By comparing the measured concentrations or ratios to expected background data in the vicinity sampled, one can select recorded wind directions indicative of the upwind position of the land-based source of the desired material.

Sehmel, G.A.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Handbook of radiative heat transfer in high-temperature gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work offers both an original method for calculating optical properties of low-temperature plasma at elevated densities ... and an effective new means for calculating radiative heat transfer in hot gases and plasma with arbitrary temperature and pressure distributions. These methods allow for automatic accounting of all details of the plasma spectrum, including the line structure. This volume contains radiant transfer in problems of heat transfer; integration over frequency; methods of partial characteristics; method of effective populations; calculation of partial characteristics; appendix: tabular data.

Soloukhin, R.I.; Golovnev, I.F.; Zamurayev, V.P.; Katsnelson, S.S.; Kovalskaya, G.A.; Sevastyanenko, V.G.; Soloukhin, R.I.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

MAGNETIC METHOD FOR PRODUCING HIGH VELOCITY SHOCK WAVES IN GASES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is described for producing high-energy plasmas comprising a tapered shock tube of dielectric material and having a closed small end, an exceedingly low-inductance coll supported about and axially aligned with the small end of the tapered tube. an elongated multiturn coil supported upon the remninder of the exterior wall of the shock tube. a potential source and switch connected in series with the low-inductance coil, a potential source and switch connected in series with the elongated coil, means for hermetically sealing the large end of the tube, means for purging the tube of gases, and means for admitting a selected gas into the shock tube.

Josephson, V.

1960-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

378

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Reporting Guidelines  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Reporting Guidelines Reporting Guidelines Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Reporting Guidelines The purpose of the guidelines is to establish the procedures and requirements for filing voluntary reports, and to ensure that the annual reports of greenhouse gas emissions, emission reductions, and sequestration activities submitted by corporations, government agencies, non-profit organizations, households, and other private and public entities to submit are complete, reliable, and consistent. Over time, it is anticipated that these reports will provide a reliable record of the contributions reporting entities have made toward reducing their greenhouse gas emissions. General Guidelines General Guidelines Technical Guidelines Technical Guidelines Appendices to the Technical Guidelines:

379

Quantum mechanics of one-dimensional trapped Tonks gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Several experimental groups are currently working towards realizing quasi-one-dimensional (1D) atom waveguides and loading them with ultracold atoms. The dynamics becomes truly 1D in a regime (Tonks gas) of low temperatures and densities and large positive scattering lengths for which the transverse mode becomes frozen, in which case the many-body Schrodinger dynamics becomes exactly soluble via a Fermi-Bose mapping theorem. In this paper we review our recent work on the exact ground state and quantum dynamics of 1D Tonks gases and assess the possibility of approaching the Tonks regime using Bessel beam optical dipole traps.

M. D. Girardeau; E. M. Wright

2001-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

380

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008  

SciTech Connect

The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

LR Roeder

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric gases experiment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Role of the Tibetan Plateau on the Annual Variation of Mean Atmospheric Circulation and Storm-Track Activity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study reexamines how the Tibetan Plateau (TP) modulates the annual variation of atmospheric circulation and storm-track activity based on the Meteorological Research Institute's atmosphere–ocean coupled model experiments with a progressive TP ...

Sun-Seon Lee; June-Yi Lee; Kyung-Ja Ha; Bin Wang; Akio Kitoh; Yoshiyuki Kajikawa; Manabu Abe

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Interhemispheric Asymmetry in the Transient Response of a Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Model to a CO2 Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical experiments are carried out using a general circulation model of a coupled ocean-atmosphere system with idealized geography, exploring the transient response of climate to a rapid increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The ...

K. Bryan; S. Manabe; M. J. Spelman

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Beyond Thermal Interaction between Ocean and Atmosphere: On the Extratropical Climate Variability due to the Wind-Induced SST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Prescribing sea surface temperature (SST) for the atmospheric general circulation models (GCM) may not lead to underestimation of the coupled variability. In this study, a set of SST-driven atmospheric GCM experiments, starting from slightly ...

Dong Eun Lee; Zhengyu Liu; Yun Liu

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Integrated Column Description An Integrated Column Description of the Atmosphere An Integrated Column Description of the Atmosphere Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Pacific Northwest National Laboratory The "other" Washington ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Credits to Credits to * Ric Cederwall * Xiquan Dong * Chuck Long * Jay Mace * Mark Miller * Robin Perez * Dave Turner and the rest of the ARM science team * Ric Cederwall * Xiquan Dong * Chuck Long * Jay Mace * Mark Miller * Robin Perez * Dave Turner and the rest of the ARM science team ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Outline Outline * A little philosophy

385

Dissipative dynamics of vortex arrays in trapped Bose-condensed gases: neutron stars physics on $?$K scale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop a theory of dissipative dynamics of large vortex arrays in trapped Bose-condensed gases. We show that in a static trap the interaction of the vortex array with thermal excitations leads to a non-exponential decay of the vortex structure, and the characteristic lifetime depends on the initial density of vortices. Drawing an analogy with physics of pulsar glitches, we propose an experiment which employs the heating of the thermal cloud in the course of the decay of the vortex array as a tool for a non-destructive study of the vortex dynamics.

P. O. Fedichev; A. E. Muryshev

2000-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

386

Illinois Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

387

Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

388

Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

389

Performance demonstration program plan for analysis of simulated headspace gases  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for analysis of headspace gases will consist of regular distribution and analyses of test standards to evaluate the capability for analyzing VOCs, hydrogen, and methane in the headspace of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles will provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for TRU waste characterization. Laboratory performance will be demonstrated by the successful analysis of blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste drum headspace gases according to the criteria set within the text of this Program Plan. Blind audit samples (hereinafter referred to as PDP samples) will be used as an independent means to assess laboratory performance regarding compliance with the QAPP QAOs. The concentration of analytes in the PDP samples will encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual waste characterization gas samples. Analyses which are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with various regulatory requirements and which are included in the PDP must be performed by laboratories which have demonstrated acceptable performance in the PDP.

NONE

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Process for recovery of sulfur from acid gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Elemental sulfur is recovered from the H.sub.2 S present in gases derived from fossil fuels by heating the H.sub.2 S with CO.sub.2 in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of a catalyst selected as one which enhances the thermal dissociation of H.sub.2 S to H.sub.2 and S.sub.2. The equilibrium of the thermal decomposition of H.sub.2 S is shifted by the equilibration of the water-gas-shift reaction so as to favor elemental sulfur formation. The primary products of the overall reaction are S.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. Small amounts of COS, SO.sub.2 and CS.sub.2 may also form. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture results in a substantial increase in the efficiency of the conversion of H.sub.2 S to elemental sulfur. Plant economy is further advanced by treating the product gases to remove byproduct carbonyl sulfide by hydrolysis, which converts the COS back to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S. Unreacted CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H.sub.2 and CO, which has value either as a fuel or as a chemical feedstock and recovers the hydrogen value from the H.sub.2 S.

Towler, Gavin P. (Kirkbymoorside, GB2); Lynn, Scott (Pleasant Hill, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Apparatus for dusting off gas by filtration and aspiration cleaning of filter, and application to combustion gases  

SciTech Connect

Method and apparatus for dusting off gases by filtration and cleaning of filter by aspiration and application thereof to combustion gases are disclosed. This invention relates to the filtration of dust loaded gases, and, in particular, combustion gases in the hot state. It consists of passing gases to be dusted off from top to bottom over a bed of pulverulent material, in particular, a sand bed and cleaning the upper layer of said bed by aspiration of dusts deposited thereon. This invention is particularly adapted for dusting off combustion gases from boilers or thermal power stations or gases to be supplied to gas turbines.

Merry, J.

1982-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

393

Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory Title Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors McMeeking, Gavin R., Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Stephen Baker, Christian M. Carrico, Judith C. Chow, Jeffrey Collett L. Jr., Wei Min Hao, Amanda S. Holden, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, William C. Malm, Hans Moosmuller, Amy P. Sullivan, and Cyle E. Wold Journal Journal of Geophysical Research Volume 114 Abstract We characterized the gas- and speciated aerosol-phase emissions from the open combustion of 33 different plant species during a series of 255 controlled laboratory burns during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiments (FLAME). The plant species we tested were chosen to improve the existing database for U.S. domestic fuels: laboratory-based emission factors have not previously been reported for many commonly burned species that are frequently consumed by fires near populated regions and protected scenic areas. The plants we tested included the chaparral species chamise, manzanita, and ceanothus, and species common to the southeastern United States (common reed, hickory, kudzu, needlegrass rush, rhododendron, cord grass, sawgrass, titi, and wax myrtle). Fire-integrated emission factors for gas-phase CO2, CO, CH4, C2-4 hydrocarbons, NH3, SO2, NO, NO2, HNO3, and particle-phase organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO4 2, NO3, Cl, Na+, K+, and NH4 + generally varied with both fuel type and with the fire-integrated modified combustion efficiency (MCE), a measure of the relative importance of flaming- and smoldering-phase combustion to the total emissions during the burn. Chaparral fuels tended to emit less particulate OC per unit mass of dry fuel than did other fuel types, whereas southeastern species had some of the largest observed emission factors for total fine particulate matter. Our measurements spanned a larger range of MCE than prior studies, and thus help to improve estimates of the variation of emissions with combustion conditions for individual fuels.

394

Hydrostatic Adjustment in Nonisothermal Atmospheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The author examines hydrostatic adjustment due to heating in two nonisothermal atmospheres. In the first case both the temperature and lapse rate decrease with height; in the second case the atmosphere consists of a troposphere with constant ...

Dean G. Duffy

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Efficient rendering of atmospheric phenomena  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rendering of atmospheric bodies involves modeling the complex interaction of light throughout the highly scattering medium of water and air particles. Scattering by these particles creates many well-known atmospheric optical phenomena including rainbows, ...

Kirk Riley; David S. Ebert; Martin Kraus; Jerry Tessendorf; Charles Hansen

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric turbulence  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

turbulence turbulence ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric turbulence High frequency velocity fluctuations that lead to turbulent transport of momentum, heat, mositure, and passive scalars, and often expressed in terms of variances and covariances. Categories Atmospheric State, Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System

397

Differential atmospheric tritium sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The mixture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H.sub.2 or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

Griesbach, Otto A. (Langhorne, PA); Stencel, Joseph R. (Skillman, NJ)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability  

SciTech Connect

The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual atmospheric release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 Department of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years.

Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Atmospheric Mercury Research Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is a summary and analysis of research findings on utility and environmental mercury from 1997 to 2003. The update categorizes and describes recent work on mercury in utility-burned coal and its route through power plants, the measures for its control, and its fate in the environment following emissions from utility stacks. This fate includes atmospheric chemistry and transport, deposition to land and water surfaces, aquatic cycling, the dynamics of mercury in freshwater fish food webs, and th...

2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

400

A Community Atmosphere Model with Superparameterized Clouds  

SciTech Connect

In 1999, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) scientists Wojciech Grabowski and Piotr Smolarkiewicz created a "multiscale" atmospheric model in which the physical processes associated with clouds were represented by running a simple high-resolution model within each grid column of a lowresolution global model. In idealized experiments, they found that the multiscale model produced promising simulations of organized tropical convection, which other models had struggled to produce. Inspired by their results, Colorado State University (CSU) scientists Marat Khairoutdinov and David Randall created a multiscale version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). They removed the cloud parameterizations of the CAM, and replaced them with Khairoutdinov's high-resolution cloud model. They dubbed the embedded cloud model a "super-parameterization," and the modified CAM is now called the "SP-CAM." Over the next several years, many scientists, from many institutions, have explored the ability of the SP-CAM to simulate tropical weather systems, the day-night changes of precipitation, the Asian and African monsoons, and a number of other climate processes. Cristiana Stan of the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions found that the SP-CAM gives improved results when coupled to an ocean model, and follow-on studies have explored the SP-CAM's utility when used as the atmospheric component of the Community Earth System Model. Much of this research has been performed under the auspices of the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes, a National Science Foundation (NSF) Science and Technology Center for which the lead institution is CSU.

Randall, David; Branson, Mark; Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.; Craig, Cheryl; Gettelman, A.; Edwards, Jim

2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric gases experiment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

ARM Carbon Cycle Gases Flasks at SGP Site  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Data from flasks are sampled at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program ARM, Southern Great Plains Site and analyzed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA, Earth System Research Laboratory ESRL. The SGP site is included in the NOAA Cooperative Global Air Sampling Network. The surface samples are collected from a 60 m tower at the ARM SGP Central Facility, usually once per week in the afternoon. The aircraft samples are collected approximately weekly from a chartered aircraft, and the collection flight path is centered over the tower where the surface samples are collected. The samples are collected by the ARM and LBNL Carbon Project.

Sebastien Biraud

402

Electrical resistance of gases in explosive magnetic flux compression generator environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gases that are electrical insulators at STP can become conductors when subjected to the high pressure and temperature environment in explosive magnetic flux compression generators (FCGs). This thesis describes experiments performed to determine the electrical properties of several gases in the FCG environment. The hydrodynamics in a helical explosive magnetic flux compression generator (FCG) are modeled using the Gurney method and a shock physics code, CTH, developed at Sandia National Laboratory. The armature in a typical FCG is calculated to approach the stator at approximately 3 km/s. To simulate FCG operating conditions in the volume between the armature and stator, expendable, stagnated shock, explosively driven shock tubes are designed to propel aluminum flyer plates towards dense stainless steel plugs. Two opposing copper probes are inserted into the shock tube walls and charged to 2 kV by an external capacitor bank. The voltage across these probes is tracked by oscilloscope and the current is measured with a Pearson transformer at the capacitor bank. The current and voltage measurements are used to calculate a bulk resistance for the gas between the probes. Current limited experiments with series resistors have also been conducted. Experiments were performed using argon, helium, sulfur hexafluoride, and synthetic air (20% oxygen/80% nitrogen) as the shock tube fill gas. Argon readily ionizes throughout its volume in the shock tube. This effect is believed to be due to photo-ionization from radiation emitted in the shocked region. Helium only becomes ionized when the initial shock wave reflects off the stainless steel plug and stagnates. Air ionizes in the shock wave and maintains a resistance near 3 Ohms when the initially shocked region is measured. SF6 is ionized and becomes less resistive as the shocked region crosses the probes. The SF6 resistance measurement is 200 Ohms for the initial shock wave. In all cases, the reflected shock wave is expected to have sufficient energy to begin disassembling the shock tube, and calculations based on measurements made after the reflected shock wave reaches the voltage probes are unreliable.

Dorsey, Daniel John

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Utilization of the noble gases in studies of underground nuclear detonations  

SciTech Connect

From symposium on noble gases; Las Vegas, Nevada, USA (24 Sep 1973). The Livermore Gas Diagnostics Program employs a number of rare gas isotopes, both stable and radioactive, in its investigations of the phenomenology of underground nuclear detonations. Radioactive gases in a sample are radiochemically purified by elution chromatography, and the separated gases are radioassayed by gamma-ray spectrometry and by internal or thin-window beta proportional counting. Concentrations of the stable gases are determined by mass-spectrometry, following chemical removal of the reactive gases in the sample. The most general application of the noble gases is as device fraction indicators to provide a basis for estimating totals of chimney-gas components. All of the stable rare gases except argon have been used as tracers, as have /sup 127/Xe and /sup 85/Kr. /sup 37/Ar and /sup 85/Kr have proven to be of particular value in the absence of a good tracer material as reference species for studies of chimney-gas chemistry. The rate of mixing of chimney gases and the degree to which the sampled gas truly represents the underground gas mixture can be studied with the aid of the fission- product gases. /sup 222/Ra and He are released to the cavity from the surrounding rock and are therefore useful in studies of the interaction of the detonation with the surrounding medium. (auth)

Smith, C.F.

1973-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

404

Potential Application of Coal-Derived Fuel Gases for the Glass...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mitretek Technical Report Potential Application of Coal-Derived Fuel Gases for the Glass Industry: A Scoping Analysis December 2004 David Gray Salvatore Salerno Glen Tomlinson...

405

Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dry fuels were ignited using a butane pilot lighter applied4 H 8 (butene), and C 4 H 10 (n-butane) gases with a Hewlett

McMeeking, Gavin R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Gases other than carbon dioxide make up nearly 20% of U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

These gases are commonly used as refrigerants, aerosols, and solvents. Although PFC and SF 6 concentrations have decreased greatly since 1990, ...

407

EIA's Energy in Brief: What are greenhouse gases and how much are ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Greenhouse gases trap heat from the sun and warm the planet's surface. Of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, 87% are related to energy consumption. Since 1990, greenhouse ...

408

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for atmospheric trace gases: Fiscal year 1995 annual report  

SciTech Connect

Fiscal year 1995 was both a very productive year for the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and a year of significant change. This document presents information about the most notable accomplishments made during the year. Topics include: high-lights; statistics; future plans; publications, presentations, and awards; and change in organization and staff.

Burtis, M.D. [comp.; Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Jones, S.B.; Nelson, T.; Stoss, F.W.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Aerosols and Trace Gases by Means of Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer. Part I: Retrieval Algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A retrieval algorithm for processing multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) data from clear and partially cloudy days is described and validated. This method, while complementary to the Langley approach, uses consistency between the ...

Mikhail D. Alexandrov; Andrew A. Lacis; Barbara E. Carlson; Brian Cairns

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Aerosols and Trace Gases by Means of Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer. Part II: Climatological Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements from ground-based sun photometer networks can be used both to provide ground-truth validation of satellite aerosol retrievals and to produce a land-based aerosol climatology that is complementary to satellite retrievals that are ...

Mikhail D. Alexandrov; Andrew A. Lacis; Barbara E. Carlson; Brian Cairns

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

ORISE: Climate and Atmospheric Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Climate and Atmospheric Research Climate and Atmospheric Research Capabilities Overview U.S. Climate Reference Network U.S. Historical Climate Network Contact Us Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education Climate and Atmospheric Research The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) partners with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (ATDD) to conduct climate research focused on issues of national and global importance. Research is performed with personnel support from ORISE's Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification (IEAV) programs, as well as in collaboration with scientists and engineers from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and numerous other organizations, government agencies, universities and private research institutions.

412

Atmospheric attenuation of solar radiation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The attenuation of solar radiation by the atmosphere between the heliostat and receiver of a Central Receiver solar energy system has been computed for a number of atmospheric conditions and tower-heliostat distances. The most important atmospheric variable is found to be the atmospheric aerosol content. No dependence of atmospheric water vapor is found and only a weak dependence on solar zenith angle. For a 500 m heliostat-tower distance two to four percent reductions are expected under typical desert conditions (50 to 120 km visibility). The reduction is approximately linear with heliostat-tower distance. A representative value of the attenuation coefficient is 0.051 km/sup -1/.

Randall, C.M.

1977-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

413

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gases from  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gases from Vehicles and Mobile Equipment October 7, 2013 - 11:31am Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 1 Planned changes in a Federal agency's size, missions, transportation needs, and vehicle inventory all impact the strategic portfolio planning efforts that target greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation for vehicles and mobile equipment. Under Section 142 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) and Section 8 of Executive Order (E.O.) 13514, agencies are required to develop a plan that will reduce fleet GHG emissions to meet Federally mandated petroleum reduction and alternative fuel increase targets. Agencies can use these plans as a basis for determining potential changes in fleet size and

414

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Why Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Why Report Why Report Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Why Report What Is the Purpose of Form EIA-1605? Form EIA-1605 provides the means for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gas emissions, reductions, and sequestration under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The purpose of the Voluntary Reporting Program is to encourage corporations, government agencies, non-profit organizations, households, and other private and public entities to submit annual reports of their greenhouse gas emissions, emission reductions, and sequestration activities. Form EIA-1605 provides a means for voluntary reporting that is complete, reliable, and consistent. How Will My Entity Benefit From Reporting? There are a number of ways for your entity to benefit from reporting, including:

415

Simulations of Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition in Reactive Gases |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

numerically generated pseudo-schlieren image numerically generated pseudo-schlieren image Weak ignition behind a reflected Mach=1.5 shock in a stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen mixture at 0.1 atm initial pressure. Picture shows a numerically generated pseudo-schlieren image of the onset of a detonation in a turbulent boundary layer. Alexei Khokhlov, University of Chicago; Charles Bacon, Argonne National Laboratory, Joanna Austin, Andrew Knisely, University of Illinois at Urbanna-Champaign Simulations of Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition in Reactive Gases PI Name: Alexei Khokhlov PI Email: ajk@oddjob.uchicago.edu Institution: The University of Chicago Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 130 Million Year: 2013 Research Domain: Chemistry Hydrogen is an abundant, environmentally friendly fuel with the potential

416

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gases from  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Employee Commuting Employee Commuting Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gases from Employee Commuting October 7, 2013 - 1:42pm Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 1 For employee commuting, it is important to account for any planned or expected changes in a Federal agency's size when estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction potential for different operating units or worksites. Considerations include: Are employment levels expected to change in the next decade at specific facilities or agency-wide? Are there any planned facility moves at major worksites? Employee commute coordinators may want to engage human resources and strategic planners in this effort to establish likely changes in employment numbers. Facility planners may be engaged to understand changes in commutes

417

Onset of a Pseudogap Regime in Ultracold Fermi Gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We show, using an ab initio approach based on Quantum Monte Carlo technique, that the pseudogap regime emerges in ultracold Fermi gases close to the unitary point. We locate the onset of this regime at a value of the interaction strength corresponding to (k{sub F}a){sup -1}{approx_equal}-0.05 (a--scattering length). We determine the evolution of the gap as a function of temperature and interaction strength in the Fermi gas around the unitary limit and show that our results exhibit a remarkable agreement with the recent wave-vector resolved radio frequency spectroscopy data. Our results indicate that a finite temperature structure of the Fermi gas around unitarity is more complicated and involves the presence of the phase with preformed Cooper pairs, which, however, do not contribute to the long range order.

Magierski, Piotr [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, ulica Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States); Wlazlowski, Gabriel [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, ulica Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Bulgac, Aurel [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States)

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

418

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Amoco Oil Company is investigating the direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels via partial oxidation. This report describes work completed in the first quarter of the two-year project (first quarter FY 1990). Task 1 of the work, preparation of the Project Management Plan, has been completed. Work was started and progress made on three other tasks during this quarter: Task 2. Modification of an existing Amoco pilot plant to handle the conditions of this project. Minor modifications were made to increase the maximum operating pressure to 1500 psig. Other more extensive modifications are being designed, including addition of an oxygen compressor and recycle system. Task 3.1. Evaluation of a Los Alamos National Laboratory methane oxidation kinetic model for suitability in guiding the experimental portions of this project. Task 3.2. Process variable (e.g. temperature, pressure, residence time) studies to determine optimal partial oxidation conditions. 1 fig.

Foral, M.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Brownian motion in granular gases of viscoelastic particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A theory is developed of Brownian motion in granular gases (systems of many macroscopic particles undergoing inelastic collisions), where the energy loss in inelastic collisions is determined by a restitution coefficient {epsilon}. Whereas previous studies used a simplified model with {epsilon} = const, the present analysis takes into account the dependence of the restitution coefficient on relative impact velocity. The granular temperature and the Brownian diffusion coefficient are calculated for a granular gas in the homogeneous cooling state and a gas driven by a thermostat force, and their variation with grain mass and size and the restitution coefficient is analyzed. Both equipartition principle and fluctuation-dissipation relations are found to break down. One manifestation of this behavior is a new phenomenon of 'relative heating' of Brownian particles at the expense of cooling of the ambient granular gas.

Bodrova, A. S., E-mail: bodrova@polly.phys.msu.ru; Brilliantov, N. V.; Loskutov, A. Yu. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

420

Fuel cell stack with internal manifolds for reactant gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of plate-like fuel cells arranged along an axis generally parallel to cell thickness with electrically conductive separator plates between each pair of cells. A plurality of axial manifolds are provided at opposite sides of the stack in outer marginal portions beyond the edges of electrodes and electrolyte tiles. Sealing rings prevent cross-leakage of oxidant fuel gases through use of pairs of outwardly extending lips from opposite tile surfaces bonded to first and second electrode frames respectively. The frames provide transition between electrode edges and manifold perimeters. The pairs of extension lips are sealingly bonded together through an electrically insulative sealing ring with wedge shaped fastening members.

Schnacke, A.W.

1983-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric gases experiment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Fuel cell stack with internal manifolds for reactant gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of plate-like fuel cells arranged along an axis generally parallel to cell thickness with electrically conductive separator plates between each pair of cells. A plurality of axial manifolds are provided at opposite sides of the stack in outer marginal portions beyond the edges of electrodes and electrolyte tiles. Sealing rings prevent cross-leakage of oxidant fuel gases through use of pairs of outwardly extending lips from opposite tile surfaces bonded to first and second electrode frames respectively. The frames provide transition between electrode edges and manifold perimeters. The pairs of extension lips are sealingly bonded together through an electrically insulative sealing ring with wedge shaped fastening members.

Schnacke, Arthur W. (Schenectady, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

USE OF SORBENT BEDS FOR TRANSFERRING HYDROGEN GASES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of uranium or palladium black beds for transferring hydrogen isotopes has been described. Such beds react quantitatively and rapidly with hydrogen and its isotopes, store large volumes of gas as the solid hydride, and can evolve the gas in a controlled manner to give any reasonable pressure. The uranium bed is somewhat simpler to operate since only heat need be supplied to carry out the pumping cycle, while the palladium must be cooled to approximately - -100 deg C to sorb hydrogen and heated to evolve the gas. The palladium bed is very dependable in operation; it is poisoned only by gases like H/xub 2/S and CO and, if poisoned, can be easily reactivated. Uranium is rather easily poisoned by small amounts of air; cycling in hydrogen will reactivate the uncombined uranium but the portion reacted with air will be permanently combined. (auth)

Ahmann, D.H.; Flint, P.S.; Salmon, O.N.

1954-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

423

Free Energies of Dilute Bose gases: upper bound  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive a upper bound on the free energy of a Bose gas system at density $\\rho$ and temperature $T$. In combination with the lower bound derived previously by Seiringer \\cite{RS1}, our result proves that in the low density limit, i.e., when $a^3\\rho\\ll 1$, where $a$ denotes the scattering length of the pair-interaction potential, the leading term of $\\Delta f$ the free energy difference per volume between interacting and ideal Bose gases is equal to $4\\pi a (2\\rho^2-[\\rho-\\rhoc]^2_+)$. Here, $\\rhoc(T)$ denotes the critical density for Bose-Einstein condensation (for the ideal gas), and $[\\cdot ]_+$ $=$ $\\max\\{\\cdot, 0\\}$ denotes the positive part.

Jun Yin

2009-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

424

Low-Value Waste Gases as an Energy Source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Waste gases with potentially useful fuel value are generated at any number of points in refineries, chemical plants and other industrial and commercial sites. The higher quality streams have been utilized successfully in fuel systems for years. Lower quality streams, often difficult to capture and sometimes limited in quantity, have often not been utilized for their fuel value. Increasing environmental and economic concerns have led to greater interest in utilizing these marginal fuel value waste gas streams as auxiliary fuels. The combustion and heat transfer characteristics of these fuels are different from normal fuels and these differences must be considered when determining if they can be fired successfully in existing furnaces or when designing new furnaces to use them. In addition, because of the difficulties in burning them and the chemical compounds that may be included in them, the potential pollutant emissions from these waste streams is also a significant consideration.

Waibel, R. T.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Solubilities of gases in simulated Tank 241-SY-101 wastes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, methane, and nitrous oxide solubilities were evaluated as a function of temperature in SYl-SIM-93B, a homogeneous simulated waste mixture containing sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate, sodium aluminate, and sodium carbonate, the principal inorganic constituents of the wastes in Tank 241-SY-101. Ammonia solubility data for this simulated waste was obtained as a function of temperature in an earlier study. The choice of a homogeneous waste mixture in this study has the advantage of eliminating complications associated with a changing electrolyte concentration as a function of temperature that would be encountered with a slurry simulant. Dissolution is one of the means by which gases may be retained in Hanford Site wastes. While models are available to estimate gas solubilities in electrolyte solutions, few data are in existence that pertain to highly concentrated, multicomponent electrolytes such as those stored in Hanford Site waste tanks.

Norton, J.D.; Pederson, L.R.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Oceanic Trace Gases Numeric Data Packages from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

CDIAC products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Most data sets or packages, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. CDIAC lists the following numeric data packages under the broad heading of Oceanic Trace Gases: Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained during the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16S_2005 ( 01/11/05 - 022405) • Determination of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Parameters during the R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer Cruise in the Southern Indian Ocean (WOCE Section S04I, 050396 - 070496) • Inorganic Carbon, Nutrient, and Oxygen Data from the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16N_2003a (060403 – 081103) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Maurice Ewing Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A17, 010494 - 032194) • Global Ocean Data Analysis Project GLODAP: Results and Data • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Cruises in the North Atlantic Ocean on WOCE Sections AR24 (1102 – 120596) and A24, A20, and A22 (053097 – 090397) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic and Chemical Data Obtained During the Nine R/V Knorr Cruises Comprising the Indian Ocean CO2 Survey (WOCE Sections I8SI9S, I9N, I8NI5E, I3, I5WI4, I7N, I1, I10, and I2; 120 194 – 012296) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 28/1 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A8, 032994 - 051294) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Cruise 138-3, -4, and -5 in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P6E, P6C, and P6W, 050292 - 073092) • Global Distribution of Total Inorganic Carbon and Total Alkalinity below the deepest winter mixed layer depths • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V John V. Vickers Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P13, NOAA CGC92 Cruise, 080492 – 102192) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Hesperides Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A5, 071492 - 081592) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas G. Thompson Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P10, 100593 – 111093) • The International Intercomparison Exercise of Underway fCO2 Systems during the R/V Meteor Cruise 36/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained during the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A10, Dec. 1992-Jan, 1993) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C, R/V Knorr , Oct. 1992-April 1993) • Surface Water and Atmospheric Underway Carbon Data Obtained During the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Indian Ocean Survey Cruises (R/V Knorr, Dec. 1994 – Jan, 1996) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Akademik Ioffe Cruise in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section S4P, Feb.-April 1992) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-1 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE section P17C) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-3 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE section P16C) • Carbon-14 Measurements in Surface Water CO2 from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, 1965-1994 • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During R/V Meteor Cruise 18/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A1E) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained in the Central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P17S and P16S) during the TUNES-2 Expedition of the R

427

Old-field Community, Climate and Atmospheric Manipulation  

SciTech Connect

We are in the process of finishing a number of laboratory, growth chamber and greenhouse projects, analyzing data, and writing papers. The projects reported addressed these subjects: How do climate and atmospheric changes alter aboveground plant biomass and community structure; Effects of multiple climate changes factors on plant community composition and diversity: what did we learn from a 5-year open-top chamber experiment using constructed old-field communities; Do atmospheric and climatic change factors interact to alter woody seedling emergence, establishment and productivity; Soil moisture surpasses elevated CO{sub 2} and temperature in importance as a control on soil carbon dynamics; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter belowground root and fungal biomass; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter soil microarthropod and microbial communities; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter belowground microbial function; Linking root litter diversity and microbial functioning at a micro scale under current and projected CO{sub 2} concentrations; Multifactor climate change effects on soil ecosystem functioning depend on concurrent changes in plant community composition; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter aboveground insect populations; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter festuca endophyte infection; How do climate and atmospheric changes soil carbon stabilization.

Aimee Classen

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Free Floating Atmospheric Pressure Ball Plasmas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Free-Floating Atmospheric Pressure Ball Plasmas Free-Floating Atmospheric Pressure Ball Plasmas G. A. Wurden, Z. Wang, C. Ticos Los Alamos National Laboratory L Al NM 87545 USA Los Alamos, NM 87545 USA C. J. v. Wurden Los Alamos High School L Al NM 87544 Los Alamos, NM 87544 Presented at the PPPL Colloquium Sept. 17, 2008 U N C L A S S I F I E D Operated by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the DOE/NNSA LA-UR-08-06284 Outline of this talk *A discussion of ball lightning reports in nature *How can ball plasmas be made in the laboratory? *Detailed experiments on long lived free floating *Detailed experiments on long-lived free-floating atmospheric pressure ball plasmas C i f l b b ll l i h "b ll *Comparison of laboratory ball plasmas with "ball lightning" *Summary U N C L A S S I F I E D Operated by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the DOE/NNSA

429

TAPAS, a web-based service of atmospheric transmission computation for astronomy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spectra of astronomical targets acquired from ground-based instruments are affected by the atmospheric transmission. The authors and their institutes are developing a web-based service, TAPAS (Transmissions of the AtmosPhere for AStromomical data). This service, freely available, is developed and maintained within the atmospheric ETHER data center. TAPAS computes the atmospheric transmission in the line-of-sight to the target indicated by the user. The user files a request indicating the time, ground location, and either the equatorial coordinates of the target or the Zenith Angle of the line-of sight (LOS). The actual atmospheric profile (temperature, pressure, humidity, ozone content) at that time and place is retrieved from the ETHER atmospheric data base (from a combination of ECMWF meteorological field and other informations), and the atmospheric transmission is computed from LBLRTM software and HITRAN data base for a number of gases: O2, H2O, O3, CO2, and Rayleigh extinction. The first purpose of TAPAS ...

Bertaux, J L; Ferron, S; Boone, C; Bodichon, R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

PNNL: FCSD: Atmospheric Sciences & Global Change: Programs &...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Programs & Facilities Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and ARM Climate Research Facility ARM Aerial Facility Environmental...

431

The Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX) is a coordinated international project, composed of an observational field campaign and a research program, focused on the investigation of atmospheric rotors and closely related phenomena in complex ...

Vanda Grubiši?; James D. Doyle; Joachim Kuettner; Richard Dirks; Stephen A. Cohn; Laura L. Pan; Stephen Mobbs; Ronald B. Smith; C. David Whiteman; Stanley Czyzyk; Simon Vosper; Martin Weissmann; Samuel Haimov; Stephan F. J. De Wekker; Fotini Katopodes Chow

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

The Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) was conducted from 27 September through 22 October 2004 over the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) on the North Slope of Alaska. The ...

J. Verlinde; J. Y. Harrington; V. T. Yannuzzi; A. Avramov; S. Greenberg; S. J. Richardson; C. P. Bahrmann; G. M. McFarquhar; G. Zhang; N. Johnson; M. R. Poellot; J. H. Mather; D. D. Turner; E. W. Eloranta; D. C. Tobin; R. Holz; B. D. Zak; M. D. Ivey; A. J. Prenni; P. J. DeMott; J. S. Daniel; G. L. Kok; K. Sassen; D. Spangenberg; P. Minnis; T. P. Tooman; M. Shupe; A. J. Heymsfield; R. Schofield

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Performance of the STACEE Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is located at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The field of solar tracking mirrors (heliostats) around a central receiver tower is used to direct Cherenkov light from atmospheric showers onto secondary mirrors on the tower, which in turn image the light onto cameras of photomultiplier tubes. The STACEE Collaboration has previously reported a detection of the Crab Nebula with approximately 7 standard deviation significance, using 32 heliostats (STACEE-32). This result demonstrates both the viability of the technique and the suitability of the site. We are in the process of completing an upgrade to 48 heliostats (STACEE-48) en route to an eventual configuration using 64 heliostats (STACEE-64) in early 2001. In this paper, we summarize the results obtained on the sensitivity of STACEE-32 and our expectations for STACEE-48 and STACEE-64.

STACEE Collaboration; D. A. Williams; D. Bhattacharya; L. M. Boone; M. C. Chantell; Z. Conner; C. E. Covault; M. Dragovan; P. Fortin; D. Gingrich; D. T. Gregorich; D. S. Hanna; G. Mohanty; R. Mukherjee; R. A. Ong; S. Oser; K. Ragan; R. A. Scalzo; D. R. Schuette; C. G. Theoret; T. O. Tumer; F. Vincent; J. A. Zweerink

2000-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

434

Calibration of Nondispersive Infrared CO2 Analyzers with CO2-in-Air Reference Gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A set of eight CO2-in-air secondary standard calibration gases has been established by NOAA/Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change (GMCC) for use in its global CO2 monitoring program. Use of these gases obviates the need for pressure ...

W. D. Komhyr; T. B. Harris; L. S. Waterman

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

The control systems analyze of the Romanian refinery gases desulphurization plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper presents the control aspects concerning Romanian gases desulphurization plants. The paper has been divided into four parts. First part presents the structure of the Romanian gases desulphurization plants. The second part contains the steady-state ... Keywords: absorption, control, hierarchical, identification, industrial, modeling, unisim

Cristian Patrascioiu; Daniel Mihaescu

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Record from In Situ Measurements at Baring Head  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Baring Head Baring Head Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Record from In Situ Measurements at Baring Head graphics Graphics data Data Investigators M.R. Manning, A.J. Gomez, K.P. Pohl National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Ltd., Climate Division, Gracefield Road, Gracefield, P.O. Box 31-311, Lower Hutt, New Zealand Period of Record 1970-93 Methods Determinations of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios are made using a Siemens Ultramat-3 nondispersive infrared (NDIR) gas analyzer. The NDIR CO2 analyzer is connected via a gas manifold consisting of stainless steel tubing and computer-controlled solenoid switches to 12 gas cylinders and 2 sample air lines. The NDIR analyzer compares ambient air CO2 mixing ratios relative to known CO2 mixing ratios in tanks of compressed reference gases.

437

Method of recovering sulfur from the hydrogen sulfide contained in coke oven gases  

SciTech Connect

Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are washed out of the coke oven gas and stripped from the wash liquor in the form of gases and fumes or vapors. The ammonia is decomposed in a nickel catalyzer and a small part of the decomposition gases is supplied directly to a combustion furnace, while the larger part of the combustion gases is first cooled and freed from condensate, and only then supplied to the combustion furnace. In the combustion furnace, the proportion of H/sub 2/S/SO/sub 2/ needed for the Claus process is adjusted by a partial combustion of the decomposition gases. The gases from the combustion furnace are then processed in the Claus plant to sulfur.

Laufhutte, D.

1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

438

Gas release during salt-well pumping: Model predictions and laboratory validation studies for soluble and insoluble gases  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Hanford Site has 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. Of these, 67 are known or suspected to have leaked liquid from the tanks into the surrounding soil. Salt-well pumping, or interim stabilization, is a well-established operation for removing drainable interstitial liquid from SSTs. The overall objective of this ongoing study is to develop a quantitative understanding of the release rates and cumulative releases of flammable gases from SSTs as a result of salt-well pumping. The current study is an extension of the previous work reported by Peurrung et al. (1996). The first objective of this current study was to conduct laboratory experiments to quantify the release of soluble and insoluble gases. The second was to determine experimentally the role of characteristic waste heterogeneities on the gas release rates. The third objective was to evaluate and validate the computer model STOMP (Subsurface Transport over Multiple Phases) used by Peurrung et al. (1996) to predict the release of both soluble (typically ammonia) and insoluble gases (typically hydrogen) during and after salt-well pumping. The fourth and final objective of the current study was to predict the gas release behavior for a range of typical tank conditions and actual tank geometry. In these models, the authors seek to include all the pertinent salt-well pumping operational parameters and a realistic range of physical properties of the SST wastes. For predicting actual tank behavior, two-dimensional (2-D) simulations were performed with a representative 2-D tank geometry.

Peurrung, L.M.; Caley, S.M.; Gauglitz, P.A.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Morning Transition Tracer Experiments in a Deep Narrow Valley  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three sulfur hexafluoride atmospheric tracer experiments were conducted during the post-sunrise temperature inversion breakup period in the deep, narrow Brush Creek Valley of Colorado. Experiments were conducted under clear, undisturbed weather ...

C. David Whiteman

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

EMSL: Science: Atmospheric Aerosol Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Atmospheric Aerosol Systems atmospheric logo Nighttime enhancement of nitrogen-containing organic compounds, or NOC Observed nighttime enhancement of nitrogen-containing organic compounds, or NOC, showed evidence of being formed by reactions that transform carbonyls into imines. The Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Science Theme focuses on understanding the chemistry, physics and molecular-scale dynamics of aerosols for model parameterization to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations and develop a predictive understanding of climate. By elucidating the role of natural and anthropogenic regional and global climate forcing mechanisms, EMSL can provide DOE and others with the ability to develop cost-effective strategies to monitor, control and mitigate them.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric gases experiment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Atmospheric Corrosion Test Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 27   Some marine-atmospheric corrosion test sites around the world...Zealand Phia Marine 0.2 0.12 15.8 2.4 � � � � Greece Rafina Marine 0.2 0.12 13.6 1.0 � � � � Rhodes Marine 0.2 0.12 14.3 1.5 � � � � Netherlands Schagen Marine 2.4 1.5 17.0 2.0 � � � � Spain Almeria � 0.035 0.022 22.4 1.6 � � � � Cartagena � 0.050 0.031 5.2 1.9 � � � � La Coruña � 0.160 0.1 26.2 1.4...

442

Single Particle Laser Mass Spectrometry Applied to Differential Ice Nucleation Experiments at the AIDA Chamber  

SciTech Connect

Experiments conducted at the Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere (AIDA) chamber located in Karlsruhe, Germany permit investigation of particle properties that affect the nucleation of ice at temperature and water vapor conditions relevant to cloud microphysics and climate issues. Ice clouds were generated by heterogeneous nucleation of Arizona test dust (ATD), illite, and hematite and homogeneous nucleation of sulfuric acid. Ice crystals formed in the chamber were inertially separated from unactivated, or ‘interstitial’ aerosol particles with a pumped counterflow virtual impactor (PCVI), then evaporated. The ice residue (i.e., the aerosol which initiated ice nucleation plus any material which was scavenged from the gas- and/or particle-phase), was chemically characterized at the single particle level using a laser ionization mass spectrometer. In this manner the species that first nucleated ice could be identified out of a mixed aerosol population in the chamber. Bare mineral dust particles were more effective ice nuclei (IN) than similar particles with a coating. Metallic particles from contamination in the chamber initiated ice nucleation before other species but there were few enough that they did not compromise the experiments. Nitrate, sulfate, and organics were often detected on particles and ice residue, evidently from scavenging of trace gas-phase species in the chamber. Hematite was a more effective ice nucleus than illite. Ice residue was frequently larger than unactivated test aerosol due to the formation of aggregates due to scavenging, condensation of contaminant gases, and the predominance of larger aerosol in nucleation.

Gallavardin, S. J.; Froyd, Karl D.; Lohmann, U.; Moehler, Ottmar; Murphy, Daniel M.; Cziczo, Dan

2008-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

443

ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 38 (1995) 207-235 ATMOSPHERIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 38 (1995) 207-235 ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH On the parameterization of ice and water substance mixing ratio fields were only strongly altered by turning off the ice phase of these schemes includes ice processes. But in mid- latitudes and also in tropics the ice phase is an important

Moelders, Nicole

444

In-Situ Microbial Conversion of Sequestered Greenhouse Gases  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the project are to use microbiological in situ bioconversion technology to convert sequestered or naturally-occurring greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, into methane and other useful organic compounds. The key factors affecting coal bioconversion identified in this research include (1) coal properties, (2) thermal maturation and coalification process, (3) microbial population dynamics, (4) hydrodynamics (5) reservoir conditions, and (6) the methodology of getting the nutrients into the coal seams. While nearly all cultures produced methane, we were unable to confirm sustained methane production from the enrichments. We believe that the methane generation may have been derived from readily metabolized organic matter in the coal samples and/or biosoluble organic material in the coal formation water. This raises the intriguing possibility that pretreatment of the coal in the subsurface to bioactivate the coal prior to the injection of microbes and nutrients might be possible. We determined that it would be more cost effective to inject nutrients into coal seams to stimulate indigenous microbes in the coal seams, than to grow microbes in fermentation vats and transport them to the well site. If the coal bioconversion process can be developed on a larger scale, then the cost to generate methane could be less than $1 per Mcf

Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, M; Balin, D F

2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

445

Transverse spin diffusion in strongly interacting Fermi gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compute spin diffusion in a dilute Fermi gas at arbitrary temperature, polarization and strong interaction in the normal phase using kinetic theory. While the longitudinal spin diffusivity depends weakly on polarization and diverges for small temperatures, the transverse spin diffusivity D_\\perp has a strong polarization dependence and approaches a finite value for T->0 in the Fermi liquid phase. For a 3D unitary Fermi gas at infinite scattering length the diffusivities reach a minimum near the quantum limit of diffusion \\hbar/m in the quantum degenerate regime and are strongly suppressed by medium scattering, and we discuss the importance of the spin-rotation effect. In two dimensions, D_\\perp attains a minimum at strong coupling -1 < ln(kFa2D) < 1 and reaches D_\\perp~0.2...0.3\\hbar/m at large polarization. These values are consistent with recent measurements of two-dimensional ultracold atomic gases in the strong coupling regime.

Tilman Enss

2013-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

446

Process for removal of sulfur compounds from fuel gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fuel gases such as those produced in the gasification of coal are stripped of sulfur compounds and particulate matter by contact with molten metal salt. The fuel gas and salt are intimately mixed by passage through a venturi or other constriction in which the fuel gas entrains the molten salt as dispersed droplets to a gas-liquid separator. The separated molten salt is divided into a major and a minor flow portion with the minor flow portion passing on to a regenerator in which it is contacted with steam and carbon dioxide as strip gas to remove sulfur compounds. The strip gas is further processed to recover sulfur. The depleted, minor flow portion of salt is passed again into contact with the fuel gas for further sulfur removal from the gas. The sulfur depleted, fuel gas then flows through a solid absorbent for removal of salt droplets. The minor flow portion of the molten salt is then recombined with the major flow portion for feed to the venturi.

Moore, Raymond H. (Richland, WA); Stegen, Gary E. (Richland, WA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Coal derived fuel gases for molten carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Product streams from state-of-the-art and future coal gasification systems are characterized to guide fuel cell program planners and researchers in establishing performance goals and developing materials for molten carbonate fuel cells that will be compatible with gasifier product gases. Results are presented on: (1) the range of gasifier raw-gas compositions available from the major classes of coal gasifiers; (2) the degree of gas clean-up achievable with state-of-the-art and future gas clean-up systems; and (3) the energy penalties associated with gas clean-up. The study encompasses fixed-bed, fluid-bed, entrained-bed, and molten salt gasifiers operating with Eastern bituminous and Western subbituminous coals. Gasifiers operating with air and oxygen blowing are evaluated, and the coal gasification product streams are characterized with respect to: (1) major gas stream constituents, e.g., CO, H/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, N/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O; (2) major gas stream contaminants, e.g., H/sub 2/S, COS, particulates, tars, etc.; and (3) trace element contaminants, e.g., Na, K, V, Cl, Hg, etc.

Not Available

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Session Papers Quality Measurement Experiments Within the Atmospheric...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

temperatures to total water vapor and total liquid water in the column directly overhead, are derived from model-calculated brightness temperatures. The instrument uses a...

449

Atmosphere Response Time Scales Estimated from AOGCM Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The global-mean surface air temperature response of the climate system to a specific radiative forcing shows characteristic time scales. Identifying these time scales and their corresponding amplitudes (climate sensitivity) allows one to ...

D. J. L. Olivié; G. P. Peters; D. Saint-Martin

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

WRF Model Experiments on the Antarctic Atmosphere in Winter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The standard and polar versions 3.1.1 of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, both initialized by the 40-yr ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-40), were run in Antarctica for July 1998. Four different boundary layer–surface layer–radiation scheme ...

Esa-Matti Tastula; Timo Vihma

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Experience with Palladium Diffusers in Tritium Processing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen isotopes are separated from other gases by permeation through palladium and palladium-silver alloy diffusers in the Tritium Facilities at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS). Diffusers have provided effective service for almost forty years. This paper is an overview of the operational experience with the various diffuser types that have been employed at SRS. Alternative technologies being developed at SRS for purifying hydrogen isotopes are also discussed.

Motyka, T.; Clark, E.A.; Dauchess, D.A.; Heung, L.K.; Rabum, R.L.

1995-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

452

The Atmospheric Signatures of Super-Earths: How to Distinguish Between Hydrogen-Rich and Hydrogen-Poor Atmospheres  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extrasolar super-Earths (1-10 M$_{\\earth}$) are likely to exist with a wide range of atmospheres. Some super-Earths may be able to retain massive hydrogen-rich atmospheres. Others might never accumulate hydrogen or experience significant escape of lightweight elements, resulting in atmospheres more like those of the terrestrial planets in our Solar System. We examine how an observer could differentiate between hydrogen-rich and hydrogen-poor atmospheres by modeling super-Earth emission and transmission spectra, and we find that discrimination is possible by observing the transmission spectrum alone. An Earth-like atmosphere, composed of mostly heavy elements and molecules, will have a very weak transmission signal due to its small atmospheric scale height (since the scale height is inversely proportional to molecular weight). On the other hand, a large hydrogen-rich atmosphere reveals a relatively large transmission signal. The super Earth emission spectrum can additionally contrain the atmospheric composition and temperature structure. Super-Earths with massive hydrogen atmospheres will reveal strong spectral features due to water, whereas those that have lost most of their hydrogen (and have no liquid ocean) will be marked by CO$_2$ features and a lack of H$_2$O. We apply our study specifically to the low-mass planet orbiting an M star, Gl 581c ($M sin i$ = 5 M$_{\\earth}$), although our conclusions are relevant for super-Earths in general. The ability to distinguish hydrogen-rich atmospheres might be essential for interpreting mass and radius observations of planets in the transition between rocky super-Earths and Neptune-like planets.

E. Miller-Ricci; D. Sasselov; S. Seager

2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

453

(Interaction of slow electrons with high-pressure gases (quasi-liquids): synthesis of our knowledge on slow electron-molecule interactions. Progress report for year ending May 31, 1981  

SciTech Connect

Research on electron interactions with molecules at high pressure is reported. This includes electron collisions with chlorofluoroethanes; temperature dependence of electron attachment to halocarbons; electron energy distribution functions in argon; the role of electron attachment in the breakdown strength of gaseous dielectrics; a new high temperature swarm experiment; electron scattering from molecules of environmental interest; negative ions of polyatomic molecules; electron motion in high pressure polar gases (NH/sub 3/); fast gases for radiation detectors; and electron affinities of atoms and molecules. (GHT)

Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area  

SciTech Connect

This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation. The measurement phase of the MILAGRO Campaign was successfully completed in March 2006 with excellent participation from the international scientific community and outstanding cooperation from the Mexican government agencies and institutions. The project reported here was led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Molina Center for Energy and the Environment (MIT/MCE2) team and coordinated with DOE/ASP-funded collaborators at Aerodyne Research Inc., University of Colorado at Boulder and Montana State University. Currently 24 papers documenting the findings from this project have been published. The results from the project have improved significantly our understanding of the meteorological and photochemical processes contributing to the formation of ozone, secondary aerosols and other pollutants. Key findings from the MCMA-2003 include a vastly improved speciated emissions inventory from on-road vehicles: the MCMA motor vehicles produce abundant amounts of primary PM, elemental carbon, particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and a wide range of air toxics; the feasibility of using eddy covariance techniques to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds in an urban core and a valuable tool for validating local emissions inventory; a much better understanding of the sources and atmospheric loadings of volatile organic compounds; the first spectroscopic detection of glyoxal in the atmosphere; a unique analysis of the high fraction of ambient formaldehyde from primary emission sources; characterization of ozone formation and its sensitivity to VOCs and NOx; a much more extensive knowledge of the composition, size distribution and atmospheric mass loadings of both primary and secondary fine PM, including the fact that the rate of MCMA SOA production greatly exceeded that predicted by current atmospheric models; evaluations of significant errors that can arise from standard air quality monitors for O3 and NO2; and the implementation of an innovative Markov Chain Monte Carlo method for inorganic aerosol modeling as a powerful tool to analyze aerosol data and predict gas phase concentrations where these are unavailable. During the MILAGRO Campaign the collaborative team utilized a combination of central fixed sites and a mobile laboratory deployed throughout the MCMA to representative urban and boundary sites to measure trace gases and fine particles. Analysis of the extensive 2006 data sets has confirmed the key findings from MCMA-2002/2003; additionally MCMA-2006 provided more detailed gas and aerosol chemistry and wider regional scale coverage. Key results include an updated 2006 emissions inventory; extension of the flux system to measure fluxes of fine particles; better understanding of the sources and apportionment of aerosols, including contribution from biomass burning and industrial sources; a comprehensive evaluation of metal containing particles in a complex urban environment; identification of a close correlation between

Luisa T. Molina, Rainer Volkamer, Benjamin de Foy, Wenfang Lei, Miguel Zavala, Erik Velasco; Mario J. Molina

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

455

An Instrumentation Complex for Atmospheric Radiation Measurements in Siberia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Instrumentation Complex for Atmospheric Radiation Instrumentation Complex for Atmospheric Radiation Measurements in Siberia S. M. Sakerin, F. V. Dorofeev, D. M. Kabanov, V. S. Kozlov, M. V. Panchenko, Yu. A. Pkhalagov, V. V. Polkin, V. P. Shmargunov, S. A. Terpugova, S. A. Turchinovich, and V. N. Uzhegov Institute of Atmospheric Optics Tomsk, Russia Introduction The instrumentation complex is described, which has been prepared for radiative experiments in the region of Tomsk (West Siberia). The complex consists of three groups of devices to measure (a) the characteristics of the total downward radiation; (b) the most variable components of the atmospheric transparency directly affecting the income of radiation (aerosol optical depth [AOD], total content of water vapor, ozone, etc.); and (c) aerosol and meteorological parameters of the near-ground layer of the

456

Response of the Wintertime Northern Hemisphere Atmospheric Circulation to Current and Projected Arctic Sea Ice Decline: A Numerical Study with CAM5  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The wintertime Northern Hemisphere (NH) atmospheric circulation response to current (2007–12) and projected (2080–99) Arctic sea ice decline is examined with the latest version of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM5). The numerical experiments ...

Yannick Peings; Gudrun Magnusdottir

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Zevenhoven & Kilpinen Greenhouse Gases, Ozone-Depleting Gases 19.6.2001 9-1 Figure 9.1 Increasing world population  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the atmosphere", Max Plank Institute, Mainz (Germany) http://www.eurekalert.org/releases/mpg-anp072700.html CCT

Zevenhoven, Ron

458

ACID GASES IN CO2-RICH SUBSURFACE GEOLOGIC ENVIRONMENTS  

SciTech Connect

The analysis of species behavior involving dilute fluid environments has been crucial for the advance of modern solvation thermodynamics through molecular-based formalisms to guide the development of macroscopic regression tools in the description of fluid behavior and correlation of experimental data (Chialvo 2013). Dilute fluid environments involving geologic formations are of great theoretical and practical relevance regardless of the thermodynamic state conditions. The most challenging systems are those involving highly compressible and reactive confined environments, i.e., where small perturbations of pressure and/or temperature can trigger considerable density changes. This in turn can alter significantly the species solvation, their preferential solvation, and consequently, their reactivity with one another and with the surrounding mineral surfaces whose outcome is the modification of the substrate porosity and permeability, and ultimately, the integrity of the mineral substrates. Considering that changes in porosity and permeability resulting from dissolution and precipitation phenomena in confined environments are at the core of the aqueous CO2-mineral interactions, and that caprock integrity (e.g., sealing capacity) depends on these key parameters, it is imperative to gain fundamental understanding of the mineral-fluid interfacial phenomena and fluid-fluid equilibria under mineral confinement at subsurface conditions. In order to undertand the potential effects of acid gases as contaminants of supercritical CO2 streams, in the next section we will discuss the thermodynamic behavior of CO2 fluid systems by addressing two crucial issues in the context of carbon capture, utilization and sequestration (CCUS) technologies: (i) Why should we consider (acid gas) CO2 impurities? and (ii) Why are CO2 fluid - mineral interactions of paramount relevance?

Chialvo, Ariel A [ORNL] [ORNL; Vlcek, Lukas [ORNL] [ORNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University] [Ohio State University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and Atmospheric  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science and Infrastructure Steering Committee CHARTER June 2012 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not

460

Bubble Convection Experiments with a Semi-implicit Formulation of the Euler Equations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric models based on the Euler equations exist and are used occasionally to carry out numerical experiments. Such a model is used here to simulate the motion of warm bubbles in a dry isentropic atmosphere. For the time integration, this ...

André Robert

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

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461

The Energy Source for the Coastal-Trapped Waves in the Australian Coastal Experiment Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sea level on the southern Australian coast is examined for the source of the coastal-trapped wave energy observed during the Australian Coastal Experiment. Sea level, adjusted for atmospheric pressure, and atmospheric pressure are observed to ...

John A. Church; Howard J. Freeland

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Pairing and superfluidity in strongly interacting Fermi gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes experiments with superfluid spin mixtures of ultracold fermionic 6Li atoms. The properties of the strongly interacting gas are studied in the crossover regime between Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) ...

Schunck, Christian H. (Christian Heinrich)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Global warming potentials; Part 7 of 7 supporting documents. Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the general guidelines for voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Public review draft  

SciTech Connect

This document provides methods to account for the different effects of different gases on the atmosphere. It discusses the rationale and uses for simplified measures to represent human-related effects on climate and provides a brief introduction to a major index, the global warming potential (GWP) index. Appendix 7.A analyzes the science underlying the development of indices for concerns about climate, which is still evolving, evaluates the usefulness of currently available indices, and presents the state of the art for numerical indices and their uncertainties. For concerns about climate, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been instrumental in examining relative indices for comparing the radiative influences of greenhouse gases. The IPCC developed the concept of GWPs to provide a simple representation of the relative effects on climate resulting from a unit mass emission of a greenhouse gas. Alternative measures and variations on the definition of GWPs have also been considered and reported.

1994-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

464

Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion Guidebook -- 2002 Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current operating experience shows that atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) boilers meet high environmental standards and are commercially viable and economically attractive. To make the best business decision, power producers need to fully evaluate the technology as a power generation option. The content of this AFBC Guidebook allows readers to become quickly informed about all aspects of the technology.

2002-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

465

An Indirect Effect of Ice Nuclei on Atmospheric Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional cloud-resolving model (CRM) with observed large-scale forcing is used to study how ice nuclei (IN) affect the net radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). In all the numerical experiments carried out, the cloud ice ...

Xiping Zeng; Wei-Kuo Tao; Minghua Zhang; Arthur Y. Hou; Shaocheng Xie; Stephen Lang; Xiaowen Li; David O’C. Starr; Xiaofan Li; Joanne Simpson

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Von Kármán's Constant in Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flow: Reevaluated  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A field experiment has been carried out with the specific objective in mind to determine the value of von Kármán's constant in atmospheric boundary layer flow, and also to investigate its possible dependence on the surface Rossby number Ro0. Data ...

Ulf Högström

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Baiu rainband termination in atmospheric and atmosphere-ocean models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Baiu rainband is a summer rainband stretching from eastern China through Japan towards the Northwest Pacific. The climatological termination of the Baiu rainband is investigated using Japanese 25-year ReAnalysis (JRA25), a stand-alone atmospheric ...

Akira Kuwano-Yoshida; Bunmei Taguchi; Shang-Ping Xie

468

Krypton-85 in the atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurement results are presented on 85Kr content in the atmosphere over the European part of Russia in 1971-1995 based on the analysis of the commercial krypton, which is separated from air by industrial plants. Our results are by 15 per cent lower then 85Kr activites observed over West Europe. According our prediction by 2030 85Kr content in the atmosphere over Europe will amount to 1,5-3 Bq in m3 air. Average 85Kr release to the atmosphere from regeneration of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is estimated, some 180 TBq per a ton SNF. It is advisable to recommence monitoring of 85Kr content within Russia.

A. T. Korsakov; E. G. Tertyshnik

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

469

Krypton-85 in the atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurement results are presented on 85Kr content in the atmosphere over the European part of Russia in 1971-1995 based on the analysis of the commercial krypton, which is separated from air by industrial plants. Our results are by 15 per cent lower then 85Kr activites observed over West Europe. According our prediction by 2030 85Kr content in the atmosphere over Europe will amount to 1,5-3 Bq in m3 air. Average 85Kr release to the atmosphere from regeneration of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is estimated, some 180 TBq per a ton SNF. It is advisable to recommence monitoring of 85Kr content within Russia.

Korsakov, A T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470