Sample records for atmospheric gases experiment

  1. Atmospheric Modelling of Greenhouse Gases and Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tipple, Brett

    . Increase in mixing height (h) entrains (draws in) air from above the box #12Atmospheric Modelling of Greenhouse Gases and Air Quality John C. Lin Courtenay Strong University of Utah: February 20th, 2013 Department of Atmospheric Sciences University of Utah #12;Outline ·CO2 ó Air

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric gases final Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on Climate and Planets http:icp.giss.nasa.gov The Role of the Atmosphere and Greenhouse Effect in Summary: gases, and scenario 3 - an atmosphere and greenhouse gases. Use...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric greenhouse gases Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to longwave radiation 12;Greenhouse Gases Polyatomic molecules... the greenhouse effect ... Source: Frierson, Dargan - Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of...

  4. Atmospheric Trace Gases from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication, Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. The collections under the CDIAC heading of Atmospheric Trace Gases include: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Atmospheric Methane, Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide, Atmospheric Hydrogen, Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases, Radionuclides, Aerosols, and Other Trace Gases.

  5. Experiments with interacting Bose and Fermi gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stan, Claudiu Andrei

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past few years, the study of trapped fermionic atoms evolved from the first cooling experiments which produced quantum degenerate samples to becoming one of the most exciting branches of current atomic physics ...

  6. Clathrate hydrates as a sink of noble gases in Titan's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, C; Ballenegger, V; Picaud, Sylvain

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use a statistical thermodynamic approach to determine the composition of clathrate hydrates which may form from a multiple compound gas whose composition is similar to that of Titan's atmosphere. Assuming that noble gases are initially present in this gas phase, we calculate the ratios of xenon, krypton and argon to species trapped in clathrate hydrates. We find that these ratios calculated for xenon and krypton are several orders of magnitude higher than in the coexisting gas at temperature and pressure conditions close to those of Titan's present atmosphere at ground level. Furthermore we show that, by contrast, argon is poorly trapped in these ices. This trapping mechanism implies that the gas-phase is progressively depleted in xenon and krypton when the coexisting clathrate hydrates form whereas the initial abundance of argon remains almost constant. Our results are thus compatible with the deficiency of Titan's atmosphere in xenon and krypton measured by the {\\it Huygens} probe during its descent on J...

  7. Atmospheric Chemistry, Carbon Cycle, and Climate (AC4): Observational Constraints on Sources and Sinks of Aerosols and Greenhouse Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and gas extraction can also inform future energy choices. In FY 2014, Atmospheric Chemistry, Carbon Cycle anthropogenic-biogenic emission intense regions 3. Deposition processes controlling atmospheric concentrations of aerosols and greenhouse gases Projects that quantify sources and sinks via new measurements and/or modeling

  8. Clathrate hydrates as a sink of noble gases in Titan's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Thomas; O. Mousis; V. Ballenegger; S. Picaud

    2007-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We use a statistical thermodynamic approach to determine the composition of clathrate hydrates which may form from a multiple compound gas whose composition is similar to that of Titan's atmosphere. Assuming that noble gases are initially present in this gas phase, we calculate the ratios of xenon, krypton and argon to species trapped in clathrate hydrates. We find that these ratios calculated for xenon and krypton are several orders of magnitude higher than in the coexisting gas at temperature and pressure conditions close to those of Titan's present atmosphere at ground level. Furthermore we show that, by contrast, argon is poorly trapped in these ices. This trapping mechanism implies that the gas-phase is progressively depleted in xenon and krypton when the coexisting clathrate hydrates form whereas the initial abundance of argon remains almost constant. Our results are thus compatible with the deficiency of Titan's atmosphere in xenon and krypton measured by the {\\it Huygens} probe during its descent on January 14, 2005. However, in order to interpret the subsolar abundance of primordial Ar also revealed by {\\it Huygens}, other processes that occurred either during the formation of Titan or during its evolution must be also invoked.

  9. Oil and gas exploration system and method for detecting trace amounts of hydrocarbon gases in the atmosphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wamsley, Paula R. (Littleton, CO); Weimer, Carl S. (Littleton, CO); Nelson, Loren D. (Evergreen, CO); O'Brien, Martin J. (Pine, CO)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oil and gas exploration system and method for land and airborne operations, the system and method used for locating subsurface hydrocarbon deposits based upon a remote detection of trace amounts of gases in the atmosphere. The detection of one or more target gases in the atmosphere is used to indicate a possible subsurface oil and gas deposit. By mapping a plurality of gas targets over a selected survey area, the survey area can be analyzed for measurable concentration anomalies. The anomalies are interpreted along with other exploration data to evaluate the value of an underground deposit. The system includes a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system with a spectroscopic grade laser light and a light detector. The laser light is continuously tunable in a mid-infrared range, 2 to 5 micrometers, for choosing appropriate wavelengths to measure different gases and avoid absorption bands of interference gases. The laser light has sufficient optical energy to measure atmospheric concentrations of a gas over a path as long as a mile and greater. The detection of the gas is based on optical absorption measurements at specific wavelengths in the open atmosphere. Light that is detected using the light detector contains an absorption signature acquired as the light travels through the atmosphere from the laser source and back to the light detector. The absorption signature of each gas is processed and then analyzed to determine if a potential anomaly exists.

  10. Carbon dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center: A for Atmospheric trace gases. Annual progress report, FY 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtis, M.D. [comp.] [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Jones, S.B.; Nelson, T.R.; Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments made by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases during the fiscal year 1994. Topics discussed in this report include; organization and staff, user services, systems, communications, Collaborative efforts with China, networking, ocean data and activities of the World Data Center-A.

  11. What are greenhouse gases? Many chemical compounds in the atmosphere act as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Michigan State University, 2 Michigan State University Extension Climate Change and Agriculture Fact Sheet greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide over the past 2000 years. Data are from ice core

  12. A Field Experiment to Validate Atmospheric Dispersion and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rise-R.495 A Field Experiment to Validate Atmospheric Dispersion and Dose Models S. P. Nielsen* S Roskilde, Denmark May 1986 #12;RIS?-R-495 DOUBLE TRACER EXPERIMENTS TO EVALUATE ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT Pollution Laboratory, Risø National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark Abstract. Two tracers

  13. Atmospheric Environment 42 (2008) 30763086 Scavenging of soluble gases by evaporating and growing cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elperin, Tov

    and condensation of a cloud droplet in the presence of soluble gases. It is assumed that gas absorption we performed numerical analysis of simultaneous heat and mass transfer during evaporation into account thermal effect of gas absorption. It was shown that nonlinear behavior of different parameters

  14. Changes in atmospheric gases during isobaric storage of beef packaged pre- and post-rigor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoermann, Karen Lee

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    displacement measurements of the head- space volume were conducted during two weeks of storage. Males of the headspace gases were calculated using the general gas law (PU = nRT). Carbon dioxide absorption by the meat was greatest in steaks stored in 100% C... OF FIGURES INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REV IELV Microbiol ogical Aspects of Packaging Meat Shelf-Life of Packaged Meat Respiration . Carbon Dioxide Absorption OBJECTIVES EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Description of Meat Samples . Molar...

  15. Atom chip apparatus for experiments with ultracold rubidium and potassium gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivory, M. K.; Ziltz, A. R.; Fancher, C. T.; Pyle, A. J.; Sensharma, A.; Chase, B.; Field, J. P.; Garcia, A.; Aubin, S., E-mail: saaubi@wm.edu [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187 (United States); Jervis, D. [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7 (Canada)] [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7 (Canada)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a dual chamber atom chip apparatus for generating ultracold {sup 87}Rb and {sup 39}K atomic gases. The apparatus produces quasi-pure Bose-Einstein condensates of 10{sup 4} {sup 87}Rb atoms in an atom chip trap that features a dimple and good optical access. We have also demonstrated production of ultracold {sup 39}K and subsequent loading into the chip trap. We describe the details of the dual chamber vacuum system, the cooling lasers, the magnetic trap, the multicoil magnetic transport system, the atom chip, and two optical dipole traps. Due in part to the use of light-induced atom desorption, the laser cooling chamber features a sufficiently good vacuum to also support optical dipole trap-based experiments. The apparatus is well suited for studies of atom-surface forces, quantum pumping and transport experiments, atom interferometry, novel chip-based traps, and studies of one-dimensional many-body systems.

  16. The second virial coefficient of the major atmospheric gases at low temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claitor, Lilburn Carroll

    1948-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    scale oxygen plants. The design of these plants, if they are to be efficient and economical, requires accurate thermodynamic data on the atmospher1c gases. None of the thermodynamic diagrams from the literature (8, 20, 28, 41, 44 )+ for any... that encounters between molecules are rare, the only forces acting on the molecules are those of the retaining vessel. The behavior of a gas under such conditions 's expressed oy the ideal gas law, PV = RT where P is pressure, V is volume, R is the universal...

  17. Atmospheric photochemistry, surface features, and potential biosignature gases of terrestrial exoplanets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Renyu, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The endeavor to characterize terrestrial exoplanets warrants the study of chemistry in their atmospheres. Here I present a comprehensive one-dimensional photochemistry-thermochemistry model developed from the ground up for ...

  18. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for atmospheric trace gases: FY 1993 activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment, and Resources Center

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provide technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC (including World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases) during the period October 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of NDPS, CMPS, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints are provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also presented.

  19. Expression of Interest: The Atmospheric Neutrino Neutron Interaction Experiment (ANNIE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Anghel; J. F. Beacom; M. Bergevin; G. Davies; F. Di Lodovico; A. Elagin; H. Frisch; R. Hill; G. Jocher; T. Katori; J. Learned; R. Northrop; C. Pilcher; E. Ramberg; M. C. Sanchez; M. Smy; H. Sobel; R. Svoboda; S. Usman; M. Vagins; G. Varner; R. Wagner; M. Wetstein; L. Winslow; M. Yeh

    2014-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutron tagging in Gadolinium-doped water may play a significant role in reducing backgrounds from atmospheric neutrinos in next generation proton-decay searches using megaton-scale Water Cherenkov detectors. Similar techniques might also be useful in the detection of supernova neutrinos. Accurate determination of neutron tagging efficiencies will require a detailed understanding of the number of neutrons produced by neutrino interactions in water as a function of momentum transferred. We propose the Atmospheric Neutrino Neutron Interaction Experiment (ANNIE), designed to measure the neutron yield of atmospheric neutrino interactions in gadolinium-doped water. An innovative aspect of the ANNIE design is the use of precision timing to localize interaction vertices in the small fiducial volume of the detector. We propose to achieve this by using early production of LAPPDs (Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors). This experiment will be a first application of these devices demonstrating their feasibility for Water Cherenkov neutrino detectors.

  20. Letter of Intent: The Atmospheric Neutrino Neutron Interaction Experiment (ANNIE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anghel, I; Bergevin, M; Blanco, C; Catano-Mur, E; Di Lodovico, F; Elagin, A; Frisch, H; Griskevich, J; Hill, R; Jocher, G; Katori, T; Krennrich, F; Learned, J; Malek, M; Northrop, R; Pilcher, C; Ramberg, E; Repond, J; Sacco, R; Sanchez, M C; Smy, M; Sobel, H; Svoboda, R; Usman, S M; Vagins, M; Varner, G; Wagner, R; Weinstein, A; Wetstein, M; Winslow, L; Xia, L; Yeh, M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutron tagging in Gadolinium-doped water may play a significant role in reducing backgrounds from atmospheric neutrinos in next generation proton-decay searches using megaton-scale Water Cherenkov detectors. Similar techniques might also be useful in the detection of supernova neutrinos. Accurate determination of neutron tagging efficiencies will require a detailed understanding of the number of neutrons produced by neutrino interactions in water as a function of momentum transferred. We propose the Atmospheric Neutrino Neutron Interaction Experiment (ANNIE), designed to measure the neutron yield of atmospheric neutrino interactions in gadolinium-doped water. An innovative aspect of the ANNIE design is the use of precision timing to localize interaction vertices in the small fiducial volume of the detector. We propose to achieve this by using early production of LAPPDs (Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors). This experiment will be a first application of these devices demonstrating their feasibility for Wate...

  1. ARESE (ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment) Science Plan [Atmospheric Radiation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valero, F.P.J.; Schwartz, S.E.; Cess, R.D.; Ramanathan, V.; Collins, W.D.; Minnis, P.; Ackerman, T.P.; Vitko, J.; Tooman, T.P.

    1995-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Several recent studies have indicated that cloudy atmospheres may absorb significantly more solar radiation than currently predicted by models. The magnitude of this excess atmospheric absorption, is about 50% more than currently predicted and would have major impact on our understanding of atmospheric heating. Incorporation of this excess heating into existing general circulation models also appears to ameliorate some significant shortcomings of these models, most notably a tendency to overpredict the amount of radiant energy going into the oceans and to underpredict the tropopause temperature. However, some earlier studies do not show this excess absorption and an underlying physical mechanism that would give rise to such absorption has yet to be defined. Given the importance of this issue, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is sponsoring the ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) to study the absorption of solar radiation by clear and cloudy atmospheres. The experimental results will be compared with model calculations. Measurements will be conducted using three aircraft platforms (ARM-UAV Egrett, NASA ER-2, and an instrumented Twin Otter), as well as satellites and the ARM central and extended facilities in North Central Oklahoma. The project will occur over a four week period beginning in late September, 1995. Spectral broadband, partial bandpass, and narrow bandpass (10nm) solar radiative fluxes will be measured at different altitudes and at the surface with the objective to determine directly the magnitude and spectral characteristics of the absorption of shortwave radiation by the atmosphere (clear and cloudy). Narrow spectral channels selected to coincide with absorption by liquid water and ice will help in identifying the process of absorption of radiation. Additionally, information such as water vapor profiles, aerosol optical depths, cloud structure and ozone profiles, needed to use as input in radiative transfer calculations, will be acquired using the aircraft and surface facilities available to ARESE. This document outlines the scientific approach and measurement requirements of the project.

  2. Atmospheric Climate Model Experiments Performed at Multiple Horizontal Resolutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, T; Bala, G; Gleckler, P; Lobell, D; Mirin, A; Maxwell, R; Rotman, D

    2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents salient features of version 3.3 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3.3) and of three climate simulations in which the resolution of its latitude-longitude grid was systematically increased. For all these simulations of global atmospheric climate during the period 1980-1999, observed monthly ocean surface temperatures and sea ice extents were prescribed according to standard Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) values. These CAM3.3 resolution experiments served as control runs for subsequent simulations of the climatic effects of agricultural irrigation, the focus of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project. The CAM3.3 model was able to replicate basic features of the historical climate, although biases in a number of atmospheric variables were evident. Increasing horizontal resolution also generally failed to ameliorate the large-scale errors in most of the climate variables that could be compared with observations. A notable exception was the simulation of precipitation, which incrementally improved with increasing resolution, especially in regions where orography plays a central role in determining the local hydroclimate.

  3. atmospheric dispersion experiment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the earth surface. In general, the atmospheric motion is driven by the intense solar energy arriving at the equator 2 A GIS-based atmospheric dispersion model Computer...

  4. A Study of the Adsorption of Some Atmospheric Gases on Soils of the Willamette Valley River Basin.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quale, Thomas R.

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? Recent work indicates that microorganisms present in soils can remove carbon monoxide from the atmosphere and as such constitutes a major sink. B.E.T. adsorption (more)

  5. Global and regional emissions of HFC-125 (CHF[subscript 2]CF[subscript 3]) from in situ and air archive atmospheric observations at AGAGE and SOGE observatories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Doherty, S.

    High-frequency, in situ observations from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) and System for Observation of halogenated Greenhouse gases in Europe (SOGE) networks for the period 1998 to 2008, combined ...

  6. CHAPTER 7. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT We examine in this chapter the role played by atmospheric gases in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    113 CHAPTER 7. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT We examine in this chapter the role played by atmospheric of the surface known as the greenhouse effect. As we will see, trapping of terrestrial radiation by naturally accumulated in the atmosphere over the past decades and added to the greenhouse effect (Figure 7-1). Figure 7

  7. Experiments on the reduction of nitric oxide from exhaust gases by selective non-catalytic reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narney, John Kenneth

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The simulated exhaust gas contained varying amounts of N2, 02, H20, CO, and NO and the reactor conditions were varied with regard to temperature, residence time, and mixing. The results of these experiments show that the effect of oxygen concentration and NH3...

  8. aerosol precursor gases: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sunlight 11 GREENHOUSE GASES GREENHOUSE GASES BACKGROUND CiteSeer Summary: The Earths climate depends on the amount of solar radiation received and the atmospheric abundance of...

  9. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakr, W.

    Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision ...

  10. Integrated Study of MFRSR-derived Parameters of Atmospheric Aerosols and Trace Gases Over the ARM CART Site Extended Facili...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfrared Land SurfaceVirus-Infected Macaques throughBiomass

  11. Fiscal Year 1998 Annual Report, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, World Data Center -- A for Atmospheric Trace Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Hook, L.A.; Jones, S.B.; Kaiser, D.P.; Nelson, T.R.

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Once again, the most recent fiscal year was a productive one for the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), as well as a year for change. The FY 1998 in Review section in this report summarizes quite a few new and updated data and information products, and the ''What's Coming in FY 1999'' section describes our plans for this new fiscal year. During FY 1998, CDIAC began a data-management system for AmeriFlux, a long-term study of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere of the Western Hemisphere and the atmosphere. The specific objectives of AmeriFlux are to establish an infrastructure for guiding, collecting, synthesizing, and disseminating long-term measurements of CO{sub 2}, water, and energy exchange from a variety of ecosystems; collect critical new information to help define the current global CO{sub 2} budget; enable improved predictions of future concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2}; and enhance understanding of carbon fluxes. Net Ecosystem Production (NEP), and carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere. The data-management system, available from CDIAC'S AmeriFlux home page (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/programs/ameriflux/ ) is intended to provide consistent, quality-assured, and documented data across all AmeriFlux sites in the US, Canada, Costa Rica, and Brazil. It is being developed by Antoinette Brenkert and Tom Boden, with assistance from Susan Holladay (who joined CDIAC specifically to support the AmeriFlux data-management effort).

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout

  13. Effective Mass Matrix for Light Neutrinos Consistent with Solar and Atmospheric Neutrino Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. P. Rosen; Waikwok Kwong

    1995-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose an effective mass matrix for light neutrinos which is consistent with the mixing pattern indicated by solar and atmospheric neutrino experiments. Two scenarios for the mass eigenvalues are discussed and the connection with double beta decay is noted.

  14. Development of the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ong, R A

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STACEE is a proposed atmospheric Cherenkov telescope for ground-based gamma-ray astrophysics between 25 and 500 GeV. The telescope will make use of the large solar mirrors (heliostats) available at a solar research facility to achieve an energy threshold lower than any existing ground-based instrument. This paper describes the development of STACEE, including an overview of the complete instrument design and a discussion of results from recent prototype tests at the large solar heliostat field of Sandia National Laboratories.

  15. Development of the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rene A. Ong; the STACEE Collaboration

    1997-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    STACEE is a proposed atmospheric Cherenkov telescope for ground-based gamma-ray astrophysics between 25 and 500 GeV. The telescope will make use of the large solar mirrors (heliostats) available at a solar research facility to achieve an energy threshold lower than any existing ground-based instrument. This paper describes the development of STACEE, including an overview of the complete instrument design and a discussion of results from recent prototype tests at the large solar heliostat field of Sandia National Laboratories.

  16. ARM - Field Campaign - Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience4AJ01)3,CloudgovCampaignsIR CloudgovCampaignsLower Atmospheric

  17. Prototype Test Results of the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STACEE Collaboration

    1997-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    There are currently no experiments, either satellite or ground-based, that are sensitive to astrophysical gamma-rays at energies between 20 and 250 GeV. We are developing the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) to explore this energy range. STACEE will use heliostat mirrors at a solar research facility to collect Cherenkov light from extensive air showers produced by high energy gamma-rays. Here we report on the results of prototype test work at the solar facility of Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque, NM). The work demonstrates that the facility is suitable for use as an astrophysical observatory. In addition, using a full scale prototype of part of STACEE, we detected atmospheric Cherenkov radiation at energies lower than any other ground-based experiment to date.

  18. Degenerate quantum gases of strontium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stellmer, Simon; Killian, Thomas C

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Degenerate quantum gases of alkaline-earth-like elements open new opportunities in research areas ranging from molecular physics to the study of strongly correlated systems. These experiments exploit the rich electronic structure of these elements, which is markedly different from the one of other species for which quantum degeneracy has been attained. Specifically, alkaline-earth-like atoms, such as strontium, feature metastable triplet states, narrow intercombination lines, and a non-magnetic, closed-shell ground state. This review covers the creation of quantum degenerate gases of strontium and the first experiments performed with this new system. It focuses on laser-cooling and evaporation schemes, which enable the creation of Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases of all strontium isotopes, and shows how they are used for the investigation of optical Feshbach resonances, the study of degenerate gases loaded into an optical lattice, as well as the coherent creation of Sr_2 molecules.

  19. Asian Tracer Experiment and Atmospheric Modeling (TEAM) Project: Draft Field Work Plan for the Asian Long-Range Tracer Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an experimental plan for a proposed Asian long-range tracer study as part of the international Tracer Experiment and Atmospheric Modeling (TEAM) Project. The TEAM partners are China, Japan, South Korea and the United States. Optimal times of year to conduct the study, meteorological measurements needed, proposed tracer release locations, proposed tracer sampling locations and the proposed durations of tracer releases and subsequent sampling are given. Also given are the activities necessary to prepare for the study and the schedule for completing the preparation activities leading to conducting the actual field operations. This report is intended to provide the TEAM members with the information necessary for planning and conducting the Asian long-range tracer study. The experimental plan is proposed, at this time, to describe the efforts necessary to conduct the Asian long-range tracer study, and the plan will undoubtedly be revised and refined as the planning goes forward over the next year.

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric diffusion experiments Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technical coupling software... linking the main model components of present-day Earth System models (ESMs), i.e. the atmosphere... be followed to couple ocean and atmosphere...

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric experiment recherche Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technical coupling software... linking the main model components of present-day Earth System models (ESMs), i.e. the atmosphere... be followed to couple ocean and atmosphere...

  2. The extreme nonlinear optics of gases and femtosecond optical filamentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milchberg, H. M.; Chen, Y.-H.; Cheng, Y.-H.; Jhajj, N.; Palastro, J. P.; Rosenthal, E. W.; Varma, S.; Wahlstrand, J. K.; Zahedpour, S. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Under certain conditions, powerful ultrashort laser pulses can form greatly extended, propagating filaments of concentrated high intensity in gases, leaving behind a very long trail of plasma. Such filaments can be much longer than the longitudinal scale over which a laser beam typically diverges by diffraction, with possible applications ranging from laser-guided electrical discharges to high power laser propagation in the atmosphere. Understanding in detail the microscopic processes leading to filamentation requires ultrafast measurements of the strong field nonlinear response of gas phase atoms and molecules, including absolute measurements of nonlinear laser-induced polarization and high field ionization. Such measurements enable the assessment of filamentation models and make possible the design of experiments pursuing applications. In this paper, we review filamentation in gases and some applications, and discuss results from diagnostics developed at Maryland for ultrafast measurements of laser-gas interactions.

  3. Laboratory Experiments and Instrument Development for the Study of Atmospheric Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidovits, Paul

    2011-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Soot particles are generated by incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass fuels. Through direct effects clear air aerosols containing black carbon (BC) such as soot aerosols, absorb incoming light heating the atmosphere, while most other aerosols scatter light and produce cooling. Even though BC represents only 1-2% of the total annual emissions of particulate mass to the atmosphere, it has been estimated that the direct radiative effect of BC is the second-most important contributor to global warming after absorption by CO2. Ongoing studies continue to underscore the climate forcing importance of black carbon. However, estimates of the radiative effects of black carbon on climate remain highly uncertain due to the complexity of particles containing black carbon. Quantitative measurement of BC is challenging because BC often occurs in highly non-spherical soot particles of complex morphology. Freshly emitted soot particles are typically fractal hydrophobic aggregates. The aggregates consist of black carbon spherules with diameters typically in the range of about 15-40 nm, and they are usually coated by adsorbed polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced during combustion. Diesel-generated soot particles are often emitted with an organic coating composed primarily of lubricating oil and unburned fuel, as well as well as PAH compounds. Sulfuric acid has also been detected in diesel and aircraft-emitted soot particles. In the course of aging, these particle coatings may be substantially altered by chemical reactions and/or the deposition of other materials. Such processes transform the optical and CCN properties of the soot aerosols in ways that are not yet well understood. Our work over the past seven years consisted of laboratory research, instrument development and characterization, and field studies with the central focus of improving our understanding of the black carbon aerosol climate impacts. During the sixth year as well as during this seventh year (no-cost extension period) of our grant, we extended our studies to perform experiments on the controlled production and characterization of secondary organic aerosol.

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric chemistry experiment Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Sc) (Ns) 18 Cloud Physics and Atmospheric ... Source: Collection: Geosciences 2 Curriculum Vitae Hiroshi Tanimoto, Ph.D. Summary: : National Institute for Environmental Studies,...

  5. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.

    1986-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  6. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  7. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, S.

    1986-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  8. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  9. Preliminary simulations of planned experiments to study the impact of trace gases on the capacity of the Weyburn-Midale field to store carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, S; Hao, Y

    2009-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The CO{sub 2} stream injecting into the Weyburn-Midale field can be generally classified as a reducing stream with residual H{sub 2}S and low-molecular weight hydrocarbons. The composition of the CO{sub 2} gas stream from the Dakota Gasification Company is reported to be 95% CO{sub 2}, 4% hydrocarbons, and 1% H{sub 2}S by volume (Huxley 2006). In addition to the H{sub 2}S introduced at the injection wells, significant concentrations of H{sub 2}S are thought to have been produced in-situ by sulfate reducing bacteria from previous water floods for enhanced oil production. Produced gas compositions range in H{sub 2}S concentrations from 1 to 6 volume percent. The produced gas, including the trace impurities, is re-injected into the field. Although there is no evidence for inorganic reduction of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} to H{sub 2}S at the Weyburn-Midale field, Sitchler and Kazuba (2009) suggest that SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} can be inorganically reduced to elemental sulfur in highly reducing environments based on a natural analog study of the Madison Formation in Wyoming. They propose that elevated concentrations of CO{sub 2} dissolve anhydrite to produce the sulfate that is then reduced. Oxidizing CO{sub 2} streams with residual O{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} typical of streams captured from oxyfuel and post combustion processes are not presently an issue at the Weyburn-Midale field. However it is possible that the oxidizing CO{sub 2} streams may be injected in the future in carbonate reservoirs similar to the Weyburn-Midale field. To date there are few modeling and experimental studies that have explored the impact of impurity gases in CO{sub 2} streams targeted for geologic storage (Gale 2009). Jacquemet et al (2009) reviewed select geochemical modeling studies that explored the impact of SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S impurities in the waste streams (Gunter et al., 2000, Knauss et al., 2005, Xu et al., 2007). These studies collectively show that SO{sub 2} significantly reduces the pH when oxidized to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} causing enhanced dissolution of carbonate minerals and some sulfate mineral precipitation. Low pH results in higher mineral solubility and faster dissolution rates and is thought to enhance porosity and permeability near the injection well when trace amounts of SO{sub 2} is injected with CO{sub 2}. The impact of H{sub 2}S on storage reservoir performance appears to more subtle. Knauss et al (2005) report no significant impacts of injection of CO{sub 2} gas streams with and without H{sub 2}S (1 M Pascal H{sub 2}S + 8.4 M Pascal CO{sub 2}) in simulations of CO{sub 2} storage in the Frio sandstone formation. Geochemical reactions for H{sub 2}S impurities include enhance field alkalinity and reaction with iron bearing minerals that may delay breakthrough of H{sub 2}S relative to CO{sub 2}. Emberley et al. (2005) report that half of the alkalinity measured at monitoring wells at the Weyburn-Midale field is due to HS{sup -}. Schoonen and Xu (2004) report that H{sub 2}S can be sequestered as pyrite in sandstones and carbonates by dissolving iron hydroxides and iron-bearing clays. Similarly, Gunter et al (2000) propose the that siderite converts to iron sulfides when it is reacted with H{sub 2}S. The geochemical reactions between H{sub 2}S and iron bearing minerals together with the high solubility of H{sub 2}S relative to CO{sub 2} may contribute to the delayed break though of H{sub 2}S in experiments. A few core flood experiments have shown that the injection of supercritical CO{sub 2} into carbonate aquifers has the potential to significantly alter the porosity in the absence of trace gases such as SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S. Luquot and Gouze (2009) documented a 2% porosity increase in carbonate cores when rock-water interactions were transport limited and solution concentrations were closer to equilibrium and a 4% porosity increase when rock-water interactions were reaction limited and solution compositions were further from equilibrium. Similarly Le Guen et al (2007) used x-ray micro-tomography and geochemistry to show that porosity signific

  10. Detailed discussion of a linear electric field frequency shift (important for next generation) electric dipole moment searches) induced in confined gases by a magnetic field gradient: Implications for electric dipole moment experiments (II)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. L. Barabanov; R. Golub; S. K. Lamoreaux

    2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The search for particle electric dipole moments represents a most promising way to search for physics beyond the standard model. A number of groups are planning a new generation of experiments using stored gases of various kinds. In order to achieve the target sensitivities it will be necessary to deal with the systematic error resulting from the interaction of the well-known E x v field with magnetic field gradients (often referred to as the geometric phase effect [9,10]). This interaction produces a frequency shift linear in the electric field, mimicking an edm. In this work we introduce an analytic model for the correlation function which determines the behavior of the frequency shift [11], and show in detail how it depends on the operating conditions of the experiment. We also propose a method to directly measure ths correlation function under the exact conditions of a given experiment.

  11. Light Collection in Liquid Noble Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinsey, Dan [Yale University

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid noble gases are increasingly used as active detector materials in particle and nuclear physics. Applications include calorimeters and neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, direct dark matter, muon electron conversion, and the neutron electric dipole moment. One of the great advantages of liquid noble gases is their copious production of ultraviolet scintillation light, which contains information about event energy and particle type. I will review the scintillation properties of the various liquid noble gases and the means used to collect their scintillation light, including recent advances in photomultiplier technology and wavelength shifters.

  12. Strongly interacting Fermi gases : non-equilibrium dynamics and dimensional crossover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sommer, Ariel T. (Ariel Tjodolv)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments using ultracold atomic gases address fundamental problems in many-body physics. This thesis describes experiments on strongly-interacting gases of fermionic atoms, with a focus on non-equilibrium physics and ...

  13. Observations of the Pulsar PSR B1951+32 with the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Kildea; J. Zweerink; J. Ball; J. E. Carson; C. E. Covault; D. D. Driscoll; P. Fortin; D. M. Gingrich; D. S. Hanna; A. Jarvis; T. Lindner; C. Mueller; R. Mukherjee; R. A. Ong; K. Ragan; D. A. Williams

    2007-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the analysis and results of 12.5 hours of high-energy gamma-ray observations of the EGRET-detected pulsar PSR B1951+32 using the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE). STACEE is an atmospheric Cherenkov detector, in Albuquerque, New Mexico, that detects cosmic gamma rays using the shower-front-sampling technique. STACEE's sensitivity to astrophysical sources at energies around 100 GeV allows it to investigate emission from gamma-ray pulsars with expected pulsed emission cutoffs below 100 GeV. We discuss the observations and analysis of STACEE's PSR 1951+32 data, accumulated during the 2005 and 2006 observing seasons.

  14. Observations of the Pulsar PSR B1951+32 with the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kildea, J; Ball, J; Carson, J E; Covault, C E; Driscoll, D D; Fortin, P; Gingrich, D M; Hanna, D S; Jarvis, A; Lindner, T; Mller, C; Mukherjee, R; Ong, R A; Ragan, K; Williams, D A

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the analysis and results of 12.5 hours of high-energy gamma-ray observations of the EGRET-detected pulsar PSR B1951+32 using the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE). STACEE is an atmospheric Cherenkov detector, in Albuquerque, New Mexico, that detects cosmic gamma rays using the shower-front-sampling technique. STACEE's sensitivity to astrophysical sources at energies around 100 GeV allows it to investigate emission from gamma-ray pulsars with expected pulsed emission cutoffs below 100 GeV. We discuss the observations and analysis of STACEE's PSR 1951+32 data, accumulated during the 2005 and 2006 observing seasons.

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric tracer experiments Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Collection: Geosciences 11 The University of Reading Helen Dacre Evaluating pollution transport in Summary: study Tracer experiments NAME tracer analysis UM tracer...

  16. Modeling of modification experiments involving neutral-gas release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernhardt, P.A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many experiments involve the injection of neutral gases into the upper atmosphere. Examples are critical velocity experiments, MHD wave generation, ionospheric hole production, plasma striation formation, and ion tracing. Many of these experiments are discussed in other sessions of the Active Experiments Conference. This paper limits its discussion to: (1) the modeling of the neutral gas dynamics after injection, (2) subsequent formation of ionosphere holes, and (3) use of such holes as experimental tools.

  17. Atmospheric effects in astroparticle physics experiments and the challenge of ever greater precision in measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Louedec

    2014-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Astroparticle physics and cosmology allow us to scan the universe through multiple messengers. It is the combination of these probes that improves our understanding of the universe, both in its composition and its dynamics. Unlike other areas in science, research in astroparticle physics has a real originality in detection techniques, in infrastructure locations, and in the observed physical phenomenon that is not created directly by humans. It is these features that make the minimisation of statistical and systematic errors a perpetual challenge. In all these projects, the environment is turned into a detector medium or a target. The atmosphere is probably the environment component the most common in astroparticle physics and requires a continuous monitoring of its properties to minimise as much as possible the systematic uncertainties associated. This paper introduces the different atmospheric effects to take into account in astroparticle physics measurements and provides a non-exhaustive list of techniques and instruments to monitor the different elements composing the atmosphere. A discussion on the close link between astroparticle physics and Earth sciences ends this paper.

  18. Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Gases Executive Order 13514 requires Federal agencies to inventory and manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate...

  19. Session Papers Quality Measurement Experiments Within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBi (2) SrEvaluatingconstructionSession Name: WorkflowsSession

  20. Eddy covariance flux measurements of pollutant gases in urban Mexico City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velasco, Erik

    Eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of the atmosphere/surface exchange of gases over an urban area are a direct way to improve and evaluate emissions inventories, and, in turn, to better understand urban atmospheric ...

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurment (ARM) Data from the Ganges Valley, India for the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    In 2011 and 2012, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective was to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region. During the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from the Ganges Valley region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. The complex field study used the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol characteristics over the mainland. The resulting data set captured pre-monsoon to post-monsoon conditions to establish a comprehensive baseline for advancements in the study of the effects of atmospheric conditions of the Ganges Valley.

  2. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Fischer, Marc

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  3. High Energy Gamma-Ray Observations of the Crab Nebula and Pulsar with the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STACEE Collaboration; S. Oser; D. Bhattacharya; L. M. Boone; M. C. Chantell; Z. Conner; C. E. Covault; M. Dragovan; P. Fortin; D. T. Gregorich; D. S. Hanna; R. Mukherjee; R. A. Ong; K. Ragan; R. A. Scalzo; D. R. Schuette; C. G. Theoret; T. O. Tumer; D. A. Williams; J. A. Zweerink

    2000-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is a new ground-based atmospheric Cherenkov telescope for gamma-ray astronomy. STACEE uses the large mirror area of a solar heliostat facility to achieve a low energy threshold. A prototype experiment which uses 32 heliostat mirrors with a total mirror area of ~ 1200\\unit{m^2} has been constructed. This prototype, called STACEE-32, was used to search for high energy gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula and Pulsar. Observations taken between November 1998 and February 1999 yield a strong statistical excess of gamma-like events from the Crab, with a significance of $+6.75\\sigma$ in 43 hours of on-source observing time. No evidence for pulsed emission from the Crab Pulsar was found, and the upper limit on the pulsed fraction of the observed excess was E_{th}) = (2.2 \\pm 0.6 \\pm 0.2) \\times 10^{-10}\\unit{photons cm^{-2} s^{-1}}. The observed flux is in agreement with a continuation to lower energies of the power law spectrum seen at TeV energies.

  4. The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx): Goals, platforms, and field operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, R.; Springston, S.; Mechoso, C. R.; Bretherton, C. S.; A.Weller, R.; Huebert, B.; Straneo, F.; Albrecht, B. A.; Coe, H.; Allen, G.; Vaughan, G.; Daum, P.; Fairall, C.; Chand, D.; Klenner, L. G.; Garreaud, R.; Grados, C.; Covert, D. S.; Bates, T. S.; Krejci, R.; Russell, L. M.; Szoeke, S. d.; Brewer, A.; Yuter, S. E.; Chaigneau, A.; Toniazzo, T.; Minnis, P.; Palikonda, R.; Abel, S. J.; Brown, W. O. J.; Williams, S.; Fochesatto, J.; Brioude, J.; Bower, K. N

    2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) was an international field program designed to make observations of poorly understood but critical components of the coupled climate system of the southeast Pacific. This region is characterized by strong coastal upwelling, the coolest SSTs in the tropical belt, and is home to the largest subtropical stratocumulus deck on Earth. The field intensive phase of VOCALS-REx took place during October and November 2008 and constitutes a critical part of a broader CLIVAR program (VOCALS) designed to develop and promote scientific activities leading to improved understanding, model simulations, and predictions of the southeastern Pacific (SEP) coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system, on diurnal to interannual timescales. The other major components of VOCALS are a modeling program with a model hierarchy ranging from the local to global scales, and a suite of extended observations from regular research cruises, instrumented moorings, and satellites. The two central themes of VOCALS-REx focus upon (a) links between aerosols, clouds and precipitation and their impacts on marine stratocumulus radiative properties, and (b) physical and chemical couplings between the upper ocean and the lower atmosphere, including the role that mesoscale ocean eddies play. A set of hypotheses designed to be tested with the combined field, monitoring and modeling work in VOCALS is presented here. A further goal of VOCALS-REx is to provide datasets for the evaluation and improvement of large-scale numerical models. VOCALS-REx involved five research aircraft, two ships and two surface sites in northern Chile. We describe the instrument payloads and key mission strategies for these platforms and give a summary of the missions conducted.

  5. Atmospheric science and power production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randerson, D. (ed.)

    1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the third in a series of scientific publications sponsored by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the two later organizations, the US Energy Research and Development Adminstration, and the US Department of Energy. The first book, Meteorology and Atomic Energy, was published in 1955; the second, in 1968. The present volume is designed to update and to expand upon many of the important concepts presented previously. However, the present edition draws heavily on recent contributions made by atmospheric science to the analysis of air quality and on results originating from research conducted and completed in the 1970s. Special emphasis is placed on how atmospheric science can contribute to solving problems relating to the fate of combustion products released into the atmosphere. The framework of this book is built around the concept of air-quality modeling. Fundamentals are addressed first to equip the reader with basic background information and to focus on available meteorological instrumentation and to emphasize the importance of data management procedures. Atmospheric physics and field experiments are described in detail to provide an overview of atmospheric boundary layer processes, of how air flows around obstacles, and of the mechanism of plume rise. Atmospheric chemistry and removal processes are also detailed to provide fundamental knowledge on how gases and particulate matter can be transformed while in the atmosphere and how they can be removed from the atmosphere. The book closes with a review of how air-quality models are being applied to solve a wide variety of problems. Separate analytics have been prepared for each chapter.

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric-pressure photoionization source...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Collection: Physics 47 Photoionization of atmospheric gases studied by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy Summary: with the examined gas at atmospheric pressure. The THz...

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric pollutant concentrations Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sunlight, and natural atmospheric gases. Primary and secondary pollutants 12;Air Pollutants 12... , an atmospheric inversion occurs that can restrict circulation in...

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric pollution study Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sunlight, and natural atmospheric gases. Primary and secondary pollutants 12;Air Pollutants 12... , an atmospheric inversion occurs that can restrict circulation in the lower...

  9. atmospheric pressure glow: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 12 - 21% Oxygen - 1% other gases (argon,...

  10. atmospheric emissions produced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of alkaline paper mill...

  11. atmosphere gcm implications: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gases, and sulfate aerosols are predicted to raise global temperatures via the "greenhouse effect" (IPCC, 1996), growing emissions of SO2Interactions Among Emissions, Atmospheric...

  12. Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to inventory and manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate change. Learn about: Basics: Read an overview of greenhouse gases Federal...

  13. Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.2 Flue gases and fuel gases: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, incineration and other and gasification technologies for heat and power . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.4 Waste incineration and waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.3 Formation of sulphur compounds during combustion and gasification . . 3-5 3.4 Emission

  14. Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    and gasification technologies for heat and power . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.4 Waste incineration and waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.2 Flue gases and fuel gases: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, incineration and other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.3 Formation of sulphur compounds during combustion and gasification . 3-5 3.4 Emission

  15. Method for introduction of gases into microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA); Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA); Rosencwaig, Allan (Danville, CA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing small hollow glass spheres filled with a gas by introduction of the gas during formation of the hollow glass spheres. Hollow glass microspheres having a diameter up to about 500.mu. with both thin walls (0.5 to 4.mu.) and thick walls (5 to 20.mu.) that contain various fill gases, such as Ar, Kr, Xe, Br, DT, H.sub.2, D.sub.2, He, N.sub.2, Ne, CO.sub.2, etc. in the interior thereof, can be produced by the diffusion of the fill gas or gases into the microsphere during the formation thereof from a liquid droplet of glass-forming solution. This is accomplished by filling at least a portion of the multiple-zone drop-furnace used in producing hollow microspheres with the gas or gases of interest, and then taking advantage of the high rate of gaseous diffusion of the fill gas through the wall of the gel membrane before it transforms into a glass microsphere as it is processed in the multiple-zone furnace. Almost any gas can be introduced into the inner cavity of a glass microsphere by this method during the formation of the microsphere provided that the gas is diffused into the gel membrane or microsphere prior to its transformation into glass. The process of this invention provides a significant savings of time and related expense of filling glass microspheres with various gases. For example, the time for filling a glass microballoon with 1 atmosphere of DT is reduced from about two hours to a few seconds.

  16. Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program was suspended May 2011. It was a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., could report to the Energy Information Administration, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

  17. Process for removing sulfur dioxide from flue gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, M.W. Jr.

    1989-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an improvement in a dry process for the removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gases by the addition thereto of hydrated lime containing sugar in a coal combustion unit, wherein the flue gases result from the combustion of a coal in a combustion chamber, and the flue gases are treated in an electrostatic precipitator prior to discharge to the atmosphere the improvement comprising: passing the flue gases, after the addition of the hydrated lime is of fine particles of a specific surface of 7 to 25 square meters per gram, through a conduit towards the electrostatic precipitator; and adding an aqueous media to the flue gases in the conduit in an amount to increase the water content of the flue gases and cool the same by evaporative cooling to a temperature no lower than 20{sup 0}F. about the dew point of the gas, so as to avoid forming water droplets in the gas, so as to prevent condensation of water therefrom.

  18. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY); Dietz, Russell N. (Patchogue, NY)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

  19. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

    1994-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

  20. Chapter 22 Greenhouse Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation SitesStanding FriedelIron-Sulfur3-1 November 2012 Words2-11-1

  1. Guidance Document CompressedGases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    electricity. Oxygen by itself does not burn, but it will support or accelerate combustion of flammable the regulator is completely closed. 3. When possible use flammable and reactive gases in a fume hood. Certain

  2. The changing atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graedel, T.E.; Crutzen, P.J.

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemistry of the atmosphere is changing, in large measure because of gases emitted by such human activities as farming, manufacturing, and the combustion of fossil fuels. The deleterious effects are increasingly evident; they may well become worse in the years ahead. This paper discusses the pollutants and the environmental perturbations with which they are associated. The authors believe the solution to the earth's environmental problems lies in a truly global effort.

  3. Studies with a laboratory atmospheric fluidized bed combustor system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orndorff, W.W.; Su, Shi; Napier, J. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Growing public concerns over acid rain and municipal solid waste problems have created interest in the development of atmospheric fluidized bed combustion systems. A computer controlled 12-inch laboratory atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) system has been developed at Western Kentucky University. On-line analysis by gas chromatography, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and mass spectrometry (MS) allows extensive analysis of the flux gases. Laboratory experiments with a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) interfaced with FTIR and MS systems are used to screen fuel blends for runs in the AFBC system. Current experiments being conducted include co-firing blends of refuse derived fuels with coal and extended burns with coals containing different levels of chlorine.

  4. Decontamination of combustion gases in fluidized bed incinerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leon, Albert M. (Mamaroneck, NY)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur-containing atmospheric pollutants are effectively removed from exit gas streams produced in a fluidized bed combustion system by providing a fluidized bed of particulate material, i.e. limestone and/or dolomite wherein a concentration gradient is maintained in the vertical direction. Countercurrent contacting between upwardly directed sulfur containing combustion gases and descending sorbent particulate material creates a concentration gradient across the vertical extent of the bed characterized in progressively decreasing concentration of sulfur, sulfur dioxide and like contaminants upwardly and decreasing concentration of e.g. calcium oxide, downwardly. In this manner, gases having progressively decreasing sulfur contents contact correspondingly atmospheres having progressively increasing concentrations of calcium oxide thus assuring optimum sulfur removal.

  5. Feasibility of reconstructing paleoatmospheric records of selected alkanes, methyl halides, and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saltzman, Eric

    , and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores M. Aydin,1 M. B. Williams,1 and E. S. Saltzman1 Received 7-lived atmospheric trace gases were measured in 25 ice core samples from Summit, Greenland. Samples were selected. The CH3Br results are consistent with previous observations of ``excess'' CH3Br in Greenland firn air

  6. Benchmark experiments with global climate models applicable to extra-solar gas giant planets in the shallow atmosphere approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bending, V L; Kolb, U

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growing field of exoplanetary atmospheric modelling has seen little work on standardised benchmark tests for its models, limiting understanding of the dependence of results on specific models and conditions. With spatially resolved observations as yet difficult to obtain, such a test is invaluable. Although an intercomparison test for models of tidally locked gas giant planets has previously been suggested and carried out, the data provided were limited in terms of comparability. Here, the shallow PUMA model is subjected to such a test, and detailed statistics produced to facilitate comparison, with both time means and the associated standard deviations displayed, removing the time dependence and providing a measure of the variability. Model runs have been analysed to determine the variability between resolutions, and the effect of resolution on the energy spectra studied. Superrotation is a robust and reproducible feature at all resolutions.

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric radiation measurement Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Applied Science Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 22 CHAPTER 7. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT We examine in this chapter the role played by atmospheric gases in Summary:...

  8. An analytical inversion method for determining regional and global emissions of greenhouse gases: Sensitivity studies and application to halocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stohl, A.

    A new analytical inversion method has been developed to determine the regional and global emissions of long-lived atmospheric trace gases. It exploits in situ measurement data from three global networks and builds on ...

  9. United States Department Atmospheric and Biospheric Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    United States Department Atmospheric and Biospheric Interactions of Agriculture Forest Service coordinator. 1997. Atmospheric and biospheric interactions of gases and energy in the Pacific region century have caused a dramatic increase in global air pollution. This process has accelerated in the past

  10. The mean climate of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) in forced SST and fully coupled experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neale, Richard; Richter, Jadwiga; Park, Sungsu; Lauritzen, P. H.; Vavrus, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Zhang, Minghua

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Community Atmosphere Model, version 4 (CAM4) was released as the atmosphere component of the Community Climate System Model, version 4 (CCSM4) and is described. The finite volume dynamical core available in CAM3 is now the default due to its superior transport and conservation properties. Deep convection parameterization changes include a dilute plume calculation of convective available potential energy (CAPE) and the introduction of a formulation for Convective Momentum Transport (CMT). For the cloud fraction an additional calculation is performed following macrophysical state updates that provides improved thermodynamic condistancy. A freeze-drying modification is further made to the cloud fraction calculation in very dry environments, such as arctic Winter, where cloud fractionand cloud water estimates were often inconsistant in CAM3. In CAM4 the finite volume dynamical core leads to a degradation in the excessive trade-wind simulation, but with an accompanying reduction in zonal stresses at higher latitudes. Plume dilution leads to a moister deep tropics alleviating much of the mid-tropospheric dry biases and reduces the persistant precipitation biases over the Arabian peninsular and the southern Indian ocean during the Indian Monsoon. CMT reduces much of the excessive trade-wind biases in eastern ocean basins. The freeze drying modification alleviates much of the high latitude, winter-time excessive cloud bias and improves the associated surface cloud-related energy budget, but the updated cloud macrophysical calculation generally leads to reduced cloud fraction and cloud forcing away from high latitudes. Although there are marginal improvements in time-averaged, large-scale hydrology there are signficant improvements in regional climate features such as the generation of tropical and propagation of stationary waves from the Pacific into mid-latitudes and in the seasonal frequency of Northern Hemisphere blocking events. A 1? versus 2? horizontal resolution of the finite volume 24 dynamical core exhibits signficiant improvements in model climate. Improvements in the fully coupled mean climate between CAM3 and CAM4 are also much more signficant than in forced Sea Surface Temperature (SST) simulations. Furthermore, improvements in the transient characteristics ofthe model climate, documented elsewhere, are substantial.

  11. ARM - Amount of Greenhouse Gases in the Global Atmosphere

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert SouthwestTechnologies |NovemberARMContactsARM Engineering andPlansAmount of Greenhouse

  12. atmospheric trace gases: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    it back down to the Earth. This phenomenon, called the greenhouse. Without the greenhouse effect, the Earth's average surface temperature would be about 60 Fahrenheit 29...

  13. Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicy and Assistance100 tonusingdeposition.EnergyExpedited6

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Steamboat Springs, Colorado, for the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    In October 2010, the initial deployment of the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) took place at Steamboat Springs, Colorado, for the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX). The objective of this field campaign was to obtain data about liquid and mixed-phase clouds using AMF2 instruments in conjunction with Storm Peak Laboratory (located at an elevation of 3220 meters on Mt. Werner), a cloud and aerosol research facility operated by the Desert Research Institute. STORMVEX datasets are freely available for viewing and download. Users are asked to register with the ARM Archive; the user's email address is used from that time forward as the login name.

  15. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

  16. On detecting biospheres from thermodynamic disequilibrium in planetary atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krissansen-Totton, Joshua; Catling, David C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric chemical disequilibrium has been proposed as a method for detecting extraterrestrial biospheres from exoplanet observations. Chemical disequilibrium is potentially a generalized biosignature since it makes no assumptions about particular biogenic gases or metabolisms. Here, we present the first rigorous calculations of the thermodynamic chemical disequilibrium in the atmospheres of Solar System planets, in which we quantify the difference in Gibbs free energy of an observed atmosphere compared to that of all the atmospheric gases reacted to equilibrium. The purely gas phase disequilibrium in Earth's atmosphere, as measured by this available Gibbs free energy, is not unusual by Solar System standards and smaller than that of Mars. However, Earth's atmosphere is in contact with a surface ocean, which means that gases can react with water, and so a multiphase calculation that includes aqueous species is required. We find that the disequilibrium in Earth's atmosphere-ocean system (in joules per mole o...

  17. Hard probes of strongly-interacting atomic gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishida, Yusuke [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate properties of an energetic atom propagating through strongly interacting atomic gases. The operator product expansion is used to systematically compute a quasiparticle energy and its scattering rate both in a spin-1/2 Fermi gas and in a spinless Bose gas. Reasonable agreement with recent quantum Monte Carlo simulations even at a relatively small momentum k/kF > 1.5 indicates that our large-momentum expansions are valid in a wide range of momentum. We also study a differential scattering rate when a probe atom is shot into atomic gases. Because the number density and current density of the target atomic gas contribute to the forward scattering only, its contact density (measure of short-range pair correlation) gives the leading contribution to the backward scattering. Therefore, such an experiment can be used to measure the contact density and thus provides a new local probe of strongly interacting atomic gases.

  18. Industrial Gases as a Vehicle for Competitiveness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dale, J. R.

    the diversity and options available to enable cost savings and environmentally driven process improvements. Industrial gases have come of age during the last fifteen years. Engineers and scientists have looked beyond the paradigms of their operations...INDUSTRIAL GASES AS A VEHICLE FOR COMPETITIVENESS James R. Dale, Director, Technology Programs, Airco Industrial Gases Division, The BOC Group, Inc., Murray Hill, New Jersey ABSTRACT Industrial gases are produced using compressed air...

  19. Smoke plumes from Kuwaiti oil fires as atmospheric experiment of opportunity: An early look. Final report, Mar-Oct 91

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, E.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document sets in context the smoke plume phenomenology associated with the large number of oil fires lit by the Iraqi military in Kuwait in February 1991, and which are probably the worst man-made air pollution event in human history. Based on the simple phenomenology given here, and considered an unfortunate 'experiment of opportunity', the question is raised of what actions should be taken, and what one can hope to learn from these events. From the standpoint of SDIO, most of the basic physical elements of the fire and smoke phenomenology appear to be understood although there are some new effects and the initial quantitative predictions of the experts appear to differ significantly from the results of the detailed measurements. Many observations have been made. They require analysis followed by review and publication before being incorporated in the DoD integrated phenomenology models. This document represents an early look at the smoke plumes before most of the observations have been analyzed, reviewed, and published; its main function is to raise questions that should be addressed more carefully later.

  20. Experiences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series toESnet4:Epitaxial Thin Film XRDEvanExecutiveSRD-13Experiences with

  1. A Biomass-based Model to Estimate the Plausibility of Exoplanet Biosignature Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seager, S; Hu, R

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biosignature gas detection is one of the ultimate future goals for exoplanet atmosphere studies. We have created a framework for linking biosignature gas detectability to biomass estimates, including atmospheric photochemistry and biological thermodynamics. The new framework is intended to liberate predictive atmosphere models from requiring fixed, Earth-like biosignature gas source fluxes. New biosignature gases can be considered with a check that the biomass estimate is physically plausible. We have validated the models on terrestrial production of NO, H2S, CH4, CH3Cl, and DMS. We have applied the models to propose NH3 as a biosignature gas on a "cold Haber World," a planet with a N2-H2 atmosphere, and to demonstrate why gases such as CH3Cl must have too large of a biomass to be a plausible biosignature gas on planets with Earth or early-Earth-like atmospheres orbiting a Sun-like star. To construct the biomass models, we developed a functional classification of biosignature gases, and found that gases (such...

  2. Polyport atmospheric gas sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guggenheim, S. Frederic (Teaneck, NJ)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric gas sampler with a multi-port valve which allows for multi, sequential sampling of air through a plurality of gas sampling tubes mounted in corresponding gas inlet ports. The gas sampler comprises a flow-through housing which defines a sampling chamber and includes a gas outlet port to accommodate a flow of gases through the housing. An apertured sample support plate defining the inlet ports extends across and encloses the sampling chamber and supports gas sampling tubes which depend into the sampling chamber and are secured across each of the inlet ports of the sample support plate in a flow-through relation to the flow of gases through the housing during sampling operations. A normally closed stopper means mounted on the sample support plate and operatively associated with each of the inlet ports blocks the flow of gases through the respective gas sampling tubes. A camming mechanism mounted on the sample support plate is adapted to rotate under and selectively lift open the stopper spring to accommodate a predetermined flow of gas through the respective gas sampling tubes when air is drawn from the housing through the outlet port.

  3. Oxygen buffering of Kilauea volcanic gases and the oxygen fugacity of Kilauea basalt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerlach, T.M. (Geological Survey, Vancouver, WA (United States))

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volcanic gases collected during episode 1 of the Puu Oo eruption along the east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, have uniform C-O-H-S-Cl-F compositions that are sharply depleted in CO[sub 2]. The CO[sub 2]-poor gases are typical of Type II volcanic gases (GERLACH and GRAEBER, 1985) and were emitted from evolved magma stored for a prolonged period of time in the east rift zone after releasing CO[sub 2]-rich gases during an earlier period of temporary residence in the summit magma chamber. The samples are remarkably free of contamination by atmospheric gases and meteoric water. Thermodynamic evaluation of the analytical data shows that the episode 1 gases have equilibrium compositions appropriate for temperatures between 935 and 1032[degrees]C. Open- and closed-system equilibrium models of species distributions for the episode 1 gases show unequivocally that coexisting lavas buffered the gas oxygen fugacities during cooling. These models indicate that the F[sub o[sub 2

  4. How are greenhouse gases related to agriculture? Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    levels are causing Earth's average global temperature to rise. Consequently, we experience changes States. How will climate change affect Michigan field crop agriculture? Global warming is likely to bring naturally in the atmosphere and keep the Earth warm, allowing us to survive on Earth. Over the last 200

  5. AtmosphericAtmospheric Composition Introduction The division investigates the atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    development on observation side was the installation of an ozone observation station in Surinam in close co-operation with the Surinam Meteorological Service. Processes in the tropical regions are important for the global climate and the global atmospheric composition. The participation in Indoex (Indian Ocean Experiment) and this Surinam

  6. Evolving research directions in Surface OceanLower Atmosphere (SOLAS) science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evolving research directions in Surface Ocean­Lower Atmosphere (SOLAS) science Cliff S. Law. Understanding the exchange of energy, gases and particles at the ocean­atmosphere interface is critical­Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS) coordinates multi-disciplinary ocean­ atmosphere research projects that quantify

  7. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature version 2.1 (MEGAN2.1): an extended and updated framework for modeling biogenic emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guenther, A. B.

    The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature version 2.1 (MEGAN2.1) is a modeling framework for estimating fluxes of biogenic compounds between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere using simple mechanistic ...

  8. Particle entanglement in rotating gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Zhao; Fan Heng [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we investigate the particle entanglement in two-dimensional (2D) weakly interacting rotating Bose and Fermi gases. We find that both particle localization and vortex localization can be indicated by particle entanglement. We also use particle entanglement to show the occurrence of edge reconstruction of rotating fermions. The different properties of condensate phase and vortex liquid phase of bosons can be reflected by particle entanglement and in vortex liquid phase we construct the same trial wave function with that in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 120405 (2001)] from the viewpoint of entanglement to relate the ground state with quantum Hall state. Finally, the relation between particle entanglement and interaction strength is studied.

  9. Production of quantum degenerate strontium gases: Larger, better, faster, colder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stellmer, Simon; Schreck, Florian

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on an improved scheme to generate Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) and degenerate Fermi gases of strontium. This scheme allows us to create quantum gases with higher atom number, a shorter time of the experimental cycle, or deeper quantum degeneracy than before. We create a BEC of 84-Sr exceeding 10^7 atoms, which is a 30-fold improvement over previously reported experiments. We increase the atom number of 86-Sr BECs to 2.5x10^4 (a fivefold improvement), and refine the generation of attractively interacting 88-Sr BECs. We present a scheme to generate 84-Sr BECs with a cycle time of 2s, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the shortest cycle time of BEC experiments ever reported. We create deeply-degenerate 87-Sr Fermi gases with T/T_F as low as 0.10(1), where the number of populated nuclear spin states can be set to any value between one and ten. Furthermore, we report on a total of five different double-degenerate Bose-Bose and Bose-Fermi mixtures. These studies prepare an excellent starting poi...

  10. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1985--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Earth`s capacity to support life depends on the moderating influences of gases that envelop the planet and warm its surface and protect it from harmful radiation. These gases are referred to as ``greenhouse gases.`` Their warming capacity, called ``the greenhouse effect,`` is essential to maintaining a climate hospitable to all plant, animal, and human life. In recent years, however, there has been increasing concern that human activity may be affecting the intricate balance between the Earth`s absorption of heat from the sun and its capacity to reradiate excess heat back into space. Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities may be an important mechanism that affects global climate. Thus, research is intensifying to improve our understanding of the role human activities might play in influencing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. On the basis of scientific findings of the past few decades, the US Government and the international community at large are now taking steps toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. This report contributes to that process. Mandated by Congress this report provides estimates of US emissions of the principal greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorcarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds. Estimates are for the period 1985 to 1990. Preliminary estimates for 1991 have also been included, whenever data were available.

  11. Measuring non-condensable gases in steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doornmalen, J. P. C. M. van; Kopinga, K., E-mail: k.kopinga@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In surgery, medical devices that are used should be sterilized. To obtain surface steam sterilization conditions, not only in the sterilizer chamber itself but also in the loads to be sterilized, the amount of non-condensable gases (NCGs), for instance air, should be very low. Even rather small fractions of NCGs (below 1%) seriously hamper steam penetration in porous materials or devices with hollow channels (e.g., endoscopes). A recently developed instrument which might detect the presence of residual NCGs in a reliable and reproducible way is the 3M{sup TM} Electronic Test System (ETS). In this paper, a physical model is presented that describes the behavior of this instrument. This model has been validated by experiments in which known fractions of NCGs were introduced in a sterilizer chamber in which an ETS was placed. Despite several approximations made in the model, a good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental results. The basic principle of the ETS, measuring the heat transfer by condensation on a cooled surface, permits a very sensitive detection of NCGs in harsh environments like water vapor at high temperatures and pressures. Our model may serve to develop adapted and optimized versions of this instrument for use outside the field of sterilization, e.g., in heat exchangers based on steam condensation.

  12. An Infrared Spectral Database for Detection of Gases Emitted...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Database for Detection of Gases Emitted by Biomass Burning. An Infrared Spectral Database for Detection of Gases Emitted by Biomass Burning. Abstract: We report the construction of...

  13. Evolution and stability of shock waves in dissipative gases characterized by activated inelastic collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sirmas, Nick

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous experiments have revealed that shock waves driven through dissipative gases may become unstable, for example, in granular gases, and in molecular gases undergoing strong relaxation effects. The mechanisms controlling these instabilities are not well understood. We successfully isolated and investigated this instability in the canonical problem of piston driven shock waves propagating into a medium characterized by inelastic collision processes. We treat the standard model of granular gases, where particle collisions are taken as inelastic with constant coefficient of restitution. The inelasticity is activated for sufficiently strong collisions. Molecular dynamic simulations were performed for 30,000 particles. We find that all shock waves investigated become unstable, with density non-uniformities forming in the relaxation region. The wavelength of these fingers is found comparable to the characteristic relaxation thickness. Shock Hugoniot curves for both elastic and inelastic collisions were obtaine...

  14. Denitrification of combustion gases. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, R.T.

    1980-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating waste combustion gas to remove the nitrogen oxygen gases therefrom is disclosed wherein the waste gas is first contacted with calcium oxide which absorbs and chemically reacts with the nitrogen oxide gases therein at a temperature from about 100/sup 0/ to 430/sup 0/C. The thus reacted calcium oxide (now calcium nitrate) is then heated at a temperature range between about 430/sup 0/ and 900/sup 0/C, resulting in regeneration of the calcium oxide and production of the decomposition gas composed of nitrogen and nitrogen oxide gas. The decomposition gases can be recycled to the calcium oxide contacting step to minimize the amount of nitrogen oxide gases in the final product gas.

  15. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  16. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Gaisser

    2006-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a brief overview of the theory and experimental data of atmospheric neutrino production at the fiftieth anniversary of the experimental discovery of neutrinos.

  17. Biological production of products from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2002-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  18. REMOVAL PROCESSES OF VOLCANIC ASH PARTICLES FROM THE ATMOSPHERE Gregg J.S. Bluth and William I. Rose, Michigan Technological University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bluth, Gregg

    . Rose, Michigan Technological University INTRODUCTION The use of satellite techniques provides valuable and liquids) -the atmosphere (water/ice, dust, sea salt, gases) -products from volcano-atmosphere reactions with coating of water or ice; parti

  19. A white paper on Effects of Anthropogenic Pollution on the Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 A white paper on Effects of Anthropogenic Pollution on the Atmospheric Chemistry of the Tropical Brazilian Partner Organizations National Institute for Amazonian Research (INPA)1 The Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere by the atmospheric oxidation of trace gases to low volatility compounds (Chen et al. 2009). These products can

  20. Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere of anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere such as CO2, CH4, N2O and CFCs. The CO2 emissions to reflect, adsorb and emit the solar energy. However, the continuous emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere

  1. THE FUTURE OF ENERGY GASES David G. Howell, Editor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    totally independent of oil. Methane is found in association with coal; it is a byproduct of metabolic the term "energy gases" to distinguish those natural gases, primarily methane, that have utility for energy consequences associated with an expanded role of energy gases? Energy gases, particularly methane, are commonly

  2. Measuring the Isotopic Composition of Solar Wind Noble Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    noble gases. #12;Exploring the Solar Wind94 Light solar wind noble gases were directly measured by mass of the light gases are known to vary with energy, so none of these provided solar isotopic and elemental5 Measuring the Isotopic Composition of Solar Wind Noble Gases Alex Meshik, Charles Hohenberg, Olga

  3. Remote Sensing and In-Situ Observations of Arctic Mixed-Phase and Cirrus Clouds Acquired During Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Uninhabited Aerospace Vehicle Participation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarquhar, G.M.; Freer, M.; Um, J.; McCoy, R.; Bolton, W.

    2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atmospheric Radiation Monitor (ARM) uninhabited aerospace vehicle (UAV) program aims to develop measurement techniques and instruments suitable for a new class of high altitude, long endurance UAVs while supporting the climate community with valuable data sets. Using the Scaled Composites Proteus aircraft, ARM UAV participated in Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), obtaining unique data to help understand the interaction of clouds with solar and infrared radiation. Many measurements obtained using the Proteus were coincident with in-situ observations made by the UND Citation. Data from M-PACE are needed to understand interactions between clouds, the atmosphere and ocean in the Arctic, critical interactions given large-scale models suggest enhanced warming compared to lower latitudes is occurring.

  4. HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Greenhouse gases andGreenhouse gases and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    in gas turbinecombustion in gas turbine HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Effect of COEffect-depleting gases ·· COCO22 removal for gas purificationremoval for gas purification ·· COCO22 removal for greenhouse gas emissions reductionremoval for greenhouse gas emissions reduction ·· Other greenhouse gases

  5. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L.

    1989-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above. 3 figs.

  6. Perdido LF-Gase to Electricity | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Perdido LF-Gase to Electricity Perdido LF-Gase to Electricity This presentation was given at the July 17, 2012, Community Renewable Energy Deployment webinar on successful landfill...

  7. An advanced open-path atmospheric pollution monitor for large areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, L.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Large amounts of toxic waste materials, generated in manufacturing fuel for nuclear reactors, are stored in tanks buried over large areas at DOE sites. Flammable and hazardous gases are continually generated by chemical reactions in the waste materials. To prevent explosive concentrations of these gases, the gases are automatically vented to the atmosphere when the pressure exceeds a preset value. Real-time monitoring of the atmosphere above the tanks with automatic alarming is needed to prevent exposing workers to unsafe conditions when venting occurs. This project is to design, develop, and test an atmospheric pollution monitor which can measure concentrations of DOE-specified and EPA-specified hazardous gases over ranges as long as 4km. A CO{sub 2} laser to measure absorption spectra and to determine the distance over which the measurements are made, is combined with an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) to measure thermal emission spectra.

  8. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turick, Charles E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases.

  9. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turick, C.E.

    1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases. 3 figs.

  10. Thermodynamic formalism for field driven Lorentz gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver Muelken; Henk van Beijeren

    2003-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We analytically determine the dynamical properties of two dimensional field driven Lorentz gases within the thermodynamic formalism. For dilute gases subjected to an iso-kinetic thermostat, we calculate the topological pressure as a function of a temperature-like parameter $\\ba$ up to second order in the strength of the applied field. The Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and the topological entropy can be extracted from a dynamical entropy defined as a Legendre transform of the topological pressure. Our calculations of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy exactly agree with previous calculations based on a Lorentz-Boltzmann equation approach. We give analytic results for the topological entropy and calculate the dimension spectrum from the dynamical entropy function.

  11. Glass Membrane For Controlled Diffusion Of Gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelby, James E. (Alfred Station, NY); Kenyon, Brian E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass structure for controlled permeability of gases includes a glass vessel. The glass vessel has walls and a hollow center for receiving a gas. The glass vessel contains a metal oxide dopant formed with at least one metal selected from the group consisting of transition metals and rare earth metals for controlling diffusion of the gas through the walls of the glass vessel. The vessel releases the gas through its walls upon exposure to a radiation source.

  12. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 3 Earth's Modern Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    contact with high energy solar radiation · Thermopause is at 480km · High temperature, but not "hot--composition, temperature, and function. · List and describe the components of the modern atmosphere, giving their relative%), and others (1%). · Variable Gases: Water Vapor (H2O) (0 to 4%), CO2 (0.038%). · 4Less: Odorless, Colorless

  13. Unstructured Adaptive Mesh MOL Solvers for Atmospheric Reacting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    . Achieving high resolution in air pollution models is a difficult challenge because of the large number for the next generation of air pollution models in order to "capture important smaller scale atmospheric in understanding the complex processes which lead to the formation of pollutants such as greenhouse gases, acid

  14. Atmosphere Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmesApplication2ArgonneAssemblyDemandPlasma4 Medicare5Dust

  15. DOE research on atmospheric aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, S.E.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric aerosols are the subject of a significant component of research within DOE`s environmental research activities, mainly under two programs within the Department`s Environmental Sciences Division, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP). Research activities conducted under these programs include laboratory experiments, field measurements, and theoretical and modeling studies. The objectives and scope of these programs are briefly summarized. The ARM Program is the Department`s major research activity focusing on atmospheric processes pertinent to understanding global climate and developing the capability of predicting global climate change in response to energy related activities. The ARM approach consists mainly of testing and improving models using long-term measurements of atmospheric radiation and controlling variables at highly instrumented sites in north central Oklahoma, in the Tropical Western Pacific, and on the North Slope of Alaska. Atmospheric chemistry research within DOE addresses primarily the issue of atmospheric response to emissions from energy-generation sources. As such this program deals with the broad topic known commonly as the atmospheric source-receptor sequence. This sequence consists of all aspects of energy-related pollutants from the time they are emitted from their sources to the time they are redeposited at the Earth`s surface.

  16. Atmospheric Aerosol Systems | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Themes Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Overview Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Biosystem Dynamics & Design Energy Materials & Processes Terrestrial & Subsurface Ecosystems...

  17. Pressurized release of liquefied fuel gases (LNG and LPG). Topical report, May 1993-February 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atallah, S.; Janardhan, A.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is an important contribution to the behavior of pressurized liquefied gases when accidentally released into the atmosphere. LNG vehicle fueling stations and LPG storage facilities operate at elevated pressures. Accidental releases could result in rainout and the formation of an aerosol in the vapor cloud. These factors must be considered when estimating the extent of the hazard zone of the vapor cloud using a heavier-than-air gas dispersion model such as DEGADIS (or its Windows equivalent DEGATEC). The DOS program PREL has been incorporated in the Windows program LFGRISK.

  18. Atmospheric Environment ] (

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raman, Sethu

    and the other site was located downwind of the city to study the effect of the urban area on the stability energy budget located throughout Oklahoma City. Three wind-profiling radars were used to measure wind mixing heights during the Joint URBAN (2003) experiment in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. AERMET is a simple 2

  19. Asia-wide emissions of greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqi, T.A. [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States). Program on Environment

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions of principal greenhouse gases (GHGs) from Asia are increasing faster than those from any other continent. This is a result of rapid economic growth, as well as the fact that almost half of the world`s population lives in Asian countries. In this paper, the author provides estimates of emissions of the two principal greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}), from individual countries and areas. Recent literature has been reviewed for emission estimates for individual sources, such as carbon dioxide from cement manufacture, and methane from rice fields. There are very large uncertainties in many of these estimates, so several estimates are provided, where available. The largest anthropogenic source of CO{sub 2} emissions is the use of fossil fuels. Energy consumption data from 1992 have been used to calculate estimated emissions of CO{sub 2} from this source. In view of the ongoing negotiations to limit future greenhouse gas emissions, estimates of projected CO{sub 2} emissions from the developing countries of Asia are also provided. These are likely to be 3 times their 1986 levels by 2010, under business as usual scenarios. Even with the implementation of energy efficiency measures and fuel switching where feasible, the emissions of CO{sub 2} are likely to double within the same time period.

  20. Theory of ultracold atomic Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giorgini, Stefano; Pitaevskii, Lev P.; Stringari, Sandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM BEC Center, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM BEC Center, I-38050 Povo, Trento, Italy and Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems, ul. Kosygina 2, 117334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM BEC Center, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy)

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The physics of quantum degenerate atomic Fermi gases in uniform as well as in harmonically trapped configurations is reviewed from a theoretical perspective. Emphasis is given to the effect of interactions that play a crucial role, bringing the gas into a superfluid phase at low temperature. In these dilute systems, interactions are characterized by a single parameter, the s-wave scattering length, whose value can be tuned using an external magnetic field near a broad Feshbach resonance. The BCS limit of ordinary Fermi superfluidity, the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of dimers, and the unitary limit of large scattering length are important regimes exhibited by interacting Fermi gases. In particular, the BEC and the unitary regimes are characterized by a high value of the superfluid critical temperature, on the order of the Fermi temperature. Different physical properties are discussed, including the density profiles and the energy of the ground-state configurations, the momentum distribution, the fraction of condensed pairs, collective oscillations and pair-breaking effects, the expansion of the gas, the main thermodynamic properties, the behavior in the presence of optical lattices, and the signatures of superfluidity, such as the existence of quantized vortices, the quenching of the moment of inertia, and the consequences of spin polarization. Various theoretical approaches are considered, ranging from the mean-field description of the BCS-BEC crossover to nonperturbative methods based on quantum Monte Carlo techniques. A major goal of the review is to compare theoretical predictions with available experimental results.

  1. The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs Danish consumption and emissions, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption and emissions, 2007 Tomas Sander Poulsen AND EMISSION OF F-GASES 7 1.1.1 Consumption 7 1.1.2 Emission 7 1.1.3 Trends in total GWP contribution from F 21 4 EMISSION OF F-GASES 23 4.1.1 Emissions of HFCs from refrigerants 23 4.1.2 Emissions of HFCs from

  2. Suspended two-dimensional electron and hole gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazazis, D.; Bourhis, E.; Gierak, J.; Gennser, U. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS-LPN, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Bourgeois, O. [Institut Nel, CNRS-UJF, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Antoni, T. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS-LPN, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis, France and Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Universit Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)

    2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the fabrication of fully suspended two-dimensional electron and hole gases in III-V heterostructures. Low temperature transport measurements verify that the properties of the suspended gases are only slightly degraded with respect to the non-suspended gases. Focused ion beam technology is used to pattern suspended nanostructures with minimum damage from the ion beam, due to the small width of the suspended membrane.

  3. Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

  4. adjacente dos gases: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nature Le Roy, Robert J. 437 Classical disordered ground states: Super-ideal gases and stealth and equi-luminous materials Chemistry Websites Summary: Classical disordered...

  5. Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve Fuel Economy for Cars and Trucks Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Finalize...

  6. Shortcuts to adiabaticity for trapped ultracold gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaff, Jean-Franois; Labeyrie, Guillaume; Vignolo, Patrizia

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study, experimentally and theoretically, the controlled transfer of harmonically trapped ultracold gases between different quantum states. In particular we experimentally demonstrate a fast decompression and displacement of both a non-interacting gas and an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate which are initially at equilibrium. The decompression parameters are engineered such that the final state is identical to that obtained after a perfectly adiabatic transformation despite the fact that the fast decompression is performed in the strongly non-adiabatic regime. During the transfer the atomic sample goes through strongly out-of-equilibrium states while the external confinement is modified until the system reaches the desired stationary state. The scheme is theoretically based on the invariants of motion and scaling equations techniques and can be generalized to decompression trajectories including an arbitrary deformation of the trap. It is also directly applicable to arbitrary initial non-equilibrium sta...

  7. Shortcuts to adiabaticity for trapped ultracold gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jean-Franois Schaff; Pablo Capuzzi; Guillaume Labeyrie; Patrizia Vignolo

    2011-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We study, experimentally and theoretically, the controlled transfer of harmonically trapped ultracold gases between different quantum states. In particular we experimentally demonstrate a fast decompression and displacement of both a non-interacting gas and an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate which are initially at equilibrium. The decompression parameters are engineered such that the final state is identical to that obtained after a perfectly adiabatic transformation despite the fact that the fast decompression is performed in the strongly non-adiabatic regime. During the transfer the atomic sample goes through strongly out-of-equilibrium states while the external confinement is modified until the system reaches the desired stationary state. The scheme is theoretically based on the invariants of motion and scaling equations techniques and can be generalized to decompression trajectories including an arbitrary deformation of the trap. It is also directly applicable to arbitrary initial non-equilibrium states.

  8. Finite Temperature Gases of Fermionic Strings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamoli Chaudhuri

    2005-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that in the absence of a Ramond-Ramond sector both the type IIA and type IIB free string gases have a thermal instability due to low temperature tachyon modes. The gas of free IIA strings undergoes a thermal duality transition into a gas of free IIB strings at the self-dual temperature. The free heterotic string gas is a tachyon-free ensemble with gauge symmetry SO(16)$\\times$SO(16) in the presence of a timelike Wilson line background. It exhibits a holographic duality relation undergoing a self-dual phase transition with positive free energy and positive specific heat. The type IB open and closed string ensemble is related by thermal duality to the type I' string ensemble. We identify the order parameter for the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition from a low temperature gas of short open strings to a high temperature long string phase at or below T_C. Note Added (Sep 2005).

  9. Bogoliubov spectrum of interacting Bose gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu Lewin; Phan Thnh Nam; Sylvia Serfaty; Jan Philip Solovej

    2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the large-N limit of a system of N bosons interacting with a potential of intensity 1/N. When the ground state energy is to the first order given by Hartree's theory, we study the next order, predicted by Bogoliubov's theory. We show the convergence of the lower eigenvalues and eigenfunctions towards that of the Bogoliubov Hamiltonian (up to a convenient unitary transform). We also prove the convergence of the free energy when the system is sufficiently trapped. Our results are valid in an abstract setting, our main assumptions being that the Hartree ground state is unique and non-degenerate, and that there is complete Bose-Einstein condensation on this state. Using our method we then treat two applications: atoms with ''bosonic'' electrons on one hand, and trapped 2D and 3D Coulomb gases on the other hand.

  10. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  11. The origin of hydrothermal and other gases in the Kenya Rift Valley

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darling, W.G. [British Geological Survey, Wallingford (United Kingdom)] [British Geological Survey, Wallingford (United Kingdom); Griesshaber, E. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany)] [Max-Planck Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany); Andrews, J.N. [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom)] [and others] [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); and others

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Kenya Rift Valley (KRV) is part of a major continental rift system from which much outgassing is presently occurring. Previous research on gases in the KRV has tended to concentrate on their geothermal implications; the present paper is an attempt to broaden the interpretation by consideration of new data including helium and carbon isotope analyses from a wide cross-section of sites. In order to do this, gases have been divided into categories dependent on origin. N{sub 2} and noble gases are for the most part atmospherically derived, although their relative concentrations may be altered from ASW ratios by various physical processes. Reduced carbon (CH{sub 4} and homologues) appears to be exclusively derived from the shallow crust, with thermogenic {delta}{sup 13}C values averaging -25{per_thousand} PDB for CH{sub 4}. H{sub 2} is likely also to be crustally formed. CO{sub 2}, generally a dominant constituent, has a narrow {delta}{sup 13}C range averaging -3.7{per_thousand} PDB, and is likely to be derived with little modification from the upper mantle. Consideration of the ratio C/{sup 3}He supports this view in most cases. Sulphur probably also originates there. Ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He reach a MORB-like maximum of 8.0 R/R{sub A} and provide the best indication of an upper mantle source of gases beneath the KRV. A correlation between {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He and the hydrocarbon parameter log (C{sub 1}/{Sigma}C{sub 2-4}) appears to be primarily temperature related. The highest {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios in spring waters are associated with basalts, perhaps because of the leaching of basalt glasses. There may be a structural control on {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios in the KRV as a whole.

  12. Development of combustion data to utilize low-Btu gases as industrial process fuels: modification of flame characteristics. Project 61041 quarterly report, 1 January-31 March 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waibel, R.T.

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This program consists of an experimental program to determine the burner modifications that will yield suitable flame characteristics and shapes with oxygen-blown gases manufactured from coal. Experiments will also be conducted to evaluate methods of enchancing the flame characteristics of manufactured gases from air-blown gasifiers. Progress to date includes a partial completion of the oxygen-enrichment system, preparation of the furnace for the trials, and discussions of the burner modifications needed for combustion trials with the burner manufacturer.

  13. Method of converting environmentally pollutant waste gases to methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfingstl, H.; Martyniuk, W.; Hennepin, A. Ill; McNally, T.; Myers, R.; Eberle, L.

    1993-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous flow method is described of converting environmentally pollutant by-product gases emitted during the manufacture of silicon carbide to methanol comprising: (a) operating a plurality of batch furnaces of a silicon carbide manufacturing plant thereby producing silicon carbide and emitting by-product gases during the operation of the furnaces; (b) staggering the operation of the batch furnaces to achieve a continuous emission of the by-product gases; (c) continuously flowing the by-product gases as emitted from the batch furnaces directly to a methanol manufacturing plant; (d) cleansing the by-product gases of particulate matter, including removing the element sulfur from the by-product gases, as they are flowed to the methanol manufacturing plant, sufficiently for use of the by-product gases in producing methanol; and (e) immediately producing methanol from the by-product gases at the methanol manufacturing plant whereby the producing of silicon carbide is joined with the producing of methanol as a unified process.

  14. Continuous cryopump with a method for removal of solidified gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.; Herman, H.

    1988-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved cryopump for the removal of gases from a high vacuum, comprising a cryopanel incorporating honeycomb structure, refrigerant means thermally connected to the cryopanel, and a rotatable channel moving azimuthally around an axis located near the center of the cryopanel, removing gases adsorbed within the honeycomb structure by subliming them and conducting them outside the vacuum vessel. 4 figs.

  15. Radiative precursors driven by converging blast waves in noble gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdiak, G. C.; Lebedev, S. V.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Swadling, G. F.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Hall, G. N.; Khoory, E.; Pickworth, L.; Bland, S. N.; Grouchy, P. de; Skidmore, J.; Suttle, L.; Bennett, M.; Niasse, N. P. L. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)] [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Williams, R. J. R. [Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)] [Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Blesener, K.; Atoyan, L.; Cahill, A.; Hoyt, C.; Potter, W. [Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)] [Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); and others

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed study of the radiative precursor that develops ahead of converging blast waves in gas-filled cylindrical liner z-pinch experiments is presented. The experiment is capable of magnetically driving 20?km s{sup ?1} blast waves through gases of densities of the order 10{sup ?5} g cm{sup ?3} (see Burdiak et al. [High Energy Density Phys. 9(1), 5262 (2013)] for a thorough description). Data were collected for Ne, Ar, and Xe gas-fills. The geometry of the setup allows a determination of the plasma parameters both in the precursor and across the shock, along a nominally uniform line of sight that is perpendicular to the propagation of the shock waves. Radiation from the shock was able to excite NeI, ArII, and XeII/XeIII precursor spectral features. It is shown that the combination of interferometry and optical spectroscopy data is inconsistent with upstream plasmas being in LTE. Specifically, electron density gradients do not correspond to any apparent temperature change in the emission spectra. Experimental data are compared to 1D radiation hydrodynamics HELIOS-CR simulations and to PrismSPECT atomic physics calculations to assist in a physical interpretation of the observations. We show that upstream plasma is likely in the process of being radiatively heated and that the emission from a small percentage of ionised atoms within a cool background plasma dominates the emission spectra. Experiments were carried out on the MAGPIE and COBRA pulsed-power facilities at Imperial College London and Cornell University, respectively.

  16. Quantum criticality and universal scaling of strongly attractive spin-imbalanced Fermi gases in a one-dimensional harmonic trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin Xiangguo; Chen Shu [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Guan Xiwen [Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Batchelor, Murray T. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Mathematical Sciences Institute, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate quantum criticality and universal scaling of strongly attractive Fermi gases confined in a one-dimensional harmonic trap. We demonstrate from the power-law scaling of the thermodynamic properties that current experiments on this system are capable of measuring universal features at quantum criticality, such as universal scaling and Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid physics. The results also provide insights on recent measurements of key features of the phase diagram of a spin-imbalanced atomic Fermi gas [Y. Liao et al., Nature (London) 467, 567 (2010)] and point to further study of quantum critical phenomena in ultracold atomic Fermi gases.

  17. HYPERsensarium : an archive of atmospheric conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Kelly E. (Kelly Evelyn)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HYPERsensarium proposes a tangible interface of atmospheres for public experience through an archive of historical and projected weathers. While architecture's purpose has long been to act as the technical boundary between ...

  18. Precise Measurement of the Absolute Yield of Fluorescence Photons in Atmospheric Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ave, M.; /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol.; Bohacova, M.; /Chicago U., EFI; Daumiller, K.; /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol.; Di Carlo, P.; /INFN, Aquila; Di Giulio, C.; /INFN, Rome; Luis, P.Facal San; /Chicago U., EFI; Gonzales, D.; /Karlsruhe U., EKP; Hojvat, C.; /Fermilab; Horandel, J.R.; /Nijmegen U., IMAPP; Hrabovsky, M.; /Palacky U.; Iarlori, M.; /INFN, Aquila /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have performed a measurement of the absolute yield of fluorescence photons at the Fermilab Test Beam. A systematic uncertainty at 5% level was achieved by the use of Cherenkov radiation as a reference calibration light source. A cross-check was performed by an independent calibration using a laser light source. A significant improvement on the energy scale uncertainty of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays is expected.

  19. Cryogenic method for measuring nuclides and fission gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perdue, P.T.; Haywood, F.F.

    1980-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A cryogenic method is provided for determining airborne gases and particulates from which gamma rays are emitted. A special dewar counting vessel is filled with the contents of the sampling flask which is immersed in liquid nitrogen. A vertically placed sodium-iodide or germanium-lithium gamma-ray detector is used. The device and method are of particular use in measuring and identifying the radioactive noble gases including emissions from coal-fired power plants, as well as fission gases released or escaping from nuclear power plants.

  20. Analysis of air pollution and greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benkovitz, C.M.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current objective of the project Analysis of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases'' is to develop a study of emissions and emission sources that could easily be linked to models of economic activity. Initial studies were conducted to evaluate data currently available linking activity rates and emissions estimates. The emissions inventory developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) presents one of the most comprehensive data sets, and was chosen for our initial studies, which are described in this report. Over 99% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 98% of the NO{sub x} emission and 57% of the VOC emissions from area sources are related to fuel combustion. The majority of emission from these sources are generated by the transportation sector. Activity rates for area sources are not archived with the NAPAP inventory; alternative derivations of these data will be part of the future activities of this project. The availability and completeness of the fuel heat content data in the NAPAP inventory were also studied. Approximately 10% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 13% of the NO{sub x} emissions and 46% of the VOC emissions are generated by sources with unavailable data for fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content were generated. Future studies for this project include the derivation of activity rates for area sources, improved explanations for the default fuel parameters defined in the NAPAP inventory and the development of links to data bases of economic activity.

  1. FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicy andExsolutionFES Committees of9, 2011COMMERCIALBulletin 627

  2. Green House Gases | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Big Sky LearningGetGraphene's 3D Counterpart Print1,NSTARfromGreen House

  3. Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - SeptemberMicroneedlesAdvancedJanuary 13, 2011Portal Energy ForPurchase,

  4. Trace water vapor determination in nitrogen and corrosive gases using infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Espinoza, L.H.; Niemczyk, T.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Stallard, B.R.; Garcia, M.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The generation of particles in gas handling systems as a result of corrosion is a major concern in the microelectronics industry. The corrosion can be caused by the presence of trace quantities of water in corrosive gases such as HCl or HBr. FTIR spectroscopy has been shown to be a method that can be made compatible with corrosive gases and is capable of detecting low ppb levels of water vapor. In this report, the application of FTIR spectroscopy combined with classical least squares multivariate calibration to detect trace H{sub 2}O in N{sub 2}, HCl and HBr is discussed. Chapter 2 discusses the gas handling system and instrumentation required to handle corrosive gases. A method of generating a background spectrum useful to the measurements discussed in this report, as well as in other application areas such as gas phase environmental monitoring, is discussed in Chapter 3. Experimental results obtained with the first system are presented in Chapter 4. Those results made it possible to optimize the design options for the construction of a dedicate system for low ppb water vapor determination. These designs options are discussed in Chapter 5. An FTIR prototype accessory was built. In addition, a commercially available evacuable FTIR system was obtained for evaluation. Test results obtained with both systems are discussed in Chapter 6. Experiments dealing with the interaction between H{sub 2}O-HCl and potential improvements to the detection system are discussed in Chapter 7.

  5. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.; Liu, D.K.

    1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50 C is attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2], alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] can be removed in an economic fashion. 9 figs.

  6. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. are attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO and SO.sub.2 can be removed in an economic fashion.

  7. Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the Dixie Valley Region, Nevada (1996-1999)...

  8. Method of producing pyrolysis gases from carbon-containing materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mudge, Lyle K. (Richland, WA); Brown, Michael D. (West Richland, WA); Wilcox, Wayne A. (Kennewick, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gasification process of improved efficiency is disclosed. A dual bed reactor system is used in which carbon-containing feedstock materials are first treated in a gasification reactor to form pyrolysis gases. The pyrolysis gases are then directed into a catalytic reactor for the destruction of residual tars/oils in the gases. Temperatures are maintained within the catalytic reactor at a level sufficient to crack the tars/oils in the gases, while avoiding thermal breakdown of the catalysts. In order to minimize problems associated with the deposition of carbon-containing materials on the catalysts during cracking, a gaseous oxidizing agent preferably consisting of air, oxygen, steam, and/or mixtures thereof is introduced into the catalytic reactor at a high flow rate in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the reactor. This oxidizes any carbon deposits on the catalysts, which would normally cause catalyst deactivation.

  9. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beverly, Claude R. (Paducah, KY); Ernstberger, Harold G. (Paducah, KY)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases.

  10. Low-Value Waste Gases as an Energy Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waibel, R. T.

    Waste gases with potentially useful fuel value are generated at any number of points in refineries, chemical plants and other industrial and commercial sites. The higher quality streams have been utilized successfully in fuel systems for years...

  11. Viscosities of natural gases at high pressures and high temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, Anup

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimation of viscosities of naturally occurring petroleum gases provides the information needed to accurately work out reservoir-engineering problems. Existing models for viscosity prediction are limited by data, especially at high pressures...

  12. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, E.G.

    1985-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases. 1 fig.

  13. Studying coherence in ultra-cold atomic gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Daniel E. (Daniel Edward)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis will discuss the study of coherence properties of ultra-cold atomic gases. The atomic systems investigated include a thermal cloud of atoms, a Bose-Einstein condensate and a fermion pair condensate. In each ...

  14. Latitudinal survey of middle atmospheric water vapor revealed by shipboard microwave spectroscopy. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrader, M.L.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water vapor is one of the most important greenhouse gases and is an important tracer of atmospheric motions in the middle atmosphere. It also plays an important role in the chemistry of the middle atmosphere and through its photodissociation by solar radiation, it is the major source of hydrogen escaping to space. Ground-based microwave measurements conducted in the 1980s have provided a fair understanding of the seasonal variation of mesospheric water vapor in the northern hemisphere mid-latitudes, but the global distribution of water vapor in the middle atmosphere is only beginning to be revealed by space-based measurements.

  15. Chapter 4 The Gaseous State Chemistry of Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ihee, Hyotcherl

    .15 V = V0[1+(t/273.15oC)] Kelvin T = 273.15 + t(Celsius) #12;Boyle's Law · The stirling engine, a heatChapter 4 The Gaseous State NO2 #12;AIR #12;Chemistry of Gases SO3 .. corrosive gas SO2...burning) ~1760 Charle The definition of the Temperature All gases expand with increasing temperature by the same

  16. Biological production of ethanol from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products is disclosed. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various product, such as organic acids, alcohols H.sub.2, SCP, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  17. Evolution and stability of shock waves in dissipative gases characterized by activated inelastic collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nick Sirmas; Matei I. Radulescu

    2015-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous experiments have revealed that shock waves driven through dissipative gases may become unstable, for example, in granular gases, and in molecular gases undergoing strong relaxation effects. The mechanisms controlling these instabilities are not well understood. We successfully isolated and investigated this instability in the canonical problem of piston driven shock waves propagating into a medium characterized by inelastic collision processes. We treat the standard model of granular gases, where particle collisions are taken as inelastic with constant coefficient of restitution. The inelasticity is activated for sufficiently strong collisions. Molecular dynamic simulations were performed for 30,000 particles. We find that all shock waves investigated become unstable, with density non-uniformities forming in the relaxation region. The wavelength of these fingers is found comparable to the characteristic relaxation thickness. Shock Hugoniot curves for both elastic and inelastic collisions were obtained analytically and numerically. Analysis of these curves indicate that the instability is not of the Bethe-Zeldovich-Thompson or Dyakov-Kontorovich types. Analysis of the shock relaxation rates and rates for clustering in a convected fluid element with the same thermodynamic history outruled the clustering instability of a homogeneous granular gas. Instead, wave reconstruction of the early transient evolution indicates that the onset of instability occurs during the re-pressurization of the gas following the initial relaxation of the medium behind the lead shock. This re-pressurization gives rise to internal pressure waves in the presence of strong density gradients. This indicates that the mechanism of instability is more likely of the vorticity-generating Richtmyer-Meshkov type, relying on the action of the inner pressure waves development during the transient relaxation.

  18. Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennis, J A

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue

  19. Realization of effective super Tonks-Girardeau gases via strongly attractive one-dimensional Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Shu; Yin Xiangguo; Guan Liming [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Guan Xiwen [Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Batchelor, M. T. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Mathematical Sciences Institute, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A significant feature of the one-dimensional super Tonks-Girardeau gas is its metastable gas-like state with a stronger Fermi-like pressure than for free fermions which prevents a collapse of atoms. This naturally suggests a way to search for such strongly correlated behavior in systems of interacting fermions in one dimension. We thus show that the strongly attractive Fermi gas without polarization can be effectively described by a super Tonks-Girardeau gas composed of bosonic Fermi pairs with attractive pair-pair interaction. A natural description of such super Tonks-Girardeau gases is provided by Haldane generalized exclusion statistics. In particular, they are equivalent to ideal particles obeying more exclusive statistics than Fermi-Dirac statistics.

  20. Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Markun, Francis (Joliet, IL); Zawadzki, Mary T. (South Bend, IN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir.

  1. Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, K.C.; Markun, F.; Zawadzki, M.T.

    1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir. 6 figs.

  2. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases and production of phosphoric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorous preferably in a wet scrubber. The addition of yellow phosphorous in the system induces the production of O.sub.3 which subsequently oxidizes NO to NO.sub.2. The resulting NO.sub.2 dissolves readily and can be reduced to form ammonium ions by dissolved SO.sub.2 under appropriate conditions. In a 20 acfm system, yellow phosphorous is oxidized to yield P.sub.2 O.sub.5 which picks up water to form H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 mists and can be collected as a valuable product. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, better than 90% of SO.sub.2 and NO in simulated flue gas can be removed. Stoichiometric ratios (P/NO) ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 were obtained.

  3. CIRRICULUM VITAE: TOM BREIDER Atmospheric Chemistry Post-Doctoral Research Fellow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    to changing anthropogenic and dynamic biogenic emissions of trace gases and aerosols. These chemistry and trace gas factors affecting the number concentration of atmospheric Aitken (Dp=50 nm) particles. Discuss., 3, 1185-1221, 2010 4) Hossani, R., M. P. Chipperfield, W. Feng, T. J. Breider, E. Atlas, S. A

  4. CIRES/CSD Research Associate Atmospheric/Physical Research Scientist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    to address atmospheric problems of contemporary interest. A background in atmospheric science is not required or field environment. Experience with optics and optical sensors is highly desirable. Experience by contacting the ADA Coordinator at hr-ada@colorado.edu. The University of Colorado Boulder conducts background

  5. Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    1 Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http://aerosol.ucsd.edu/courses.html Text: Curry & Webster Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ch1 Composition Ch2 Laws Ch3 Transfers Ch12 Energy Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http

  6. 5, 60416076, 2005 Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    opportunity to examine atmospheric oxidation in a megacity that has more pollution than typical USACPD 5, 6041­6076, 2005 Atmospheric oxidation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area T. R. Shirley et.atmos-chem-phys.org/acpd/5/6041/ SRef-ID: 1680-7375/acpd/2005-5-6041 European Geosciences Union Atmospheric Chemistry

  7. Impact of rising greenhouse gases on mid-latitude storm tracks and associated hydroclimate variability and change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seager, Richard

    2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Project Summary This project aimed to advance physical understanding of how and why the mid-latitude jet streams and storm tracks shift in intensity and latitude in response to changes in radiative forcing with an especial focus on rising greenhouse gases. The motivation, and much of the work, stemmed from the importance that these mean and transient atmospheric circulation systems have for hydroclimate. In particular drying and expansion of the subtropical dry zones has been related to a poleward shift of the mid-latitude jets and storm tracks. The work involved integrated assessment of observation and model projections as well as targeted model simulations.

  8. Evaluation of exposures of hospital employees to anesthetic gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambeth, J.D.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hospital employees who work in hospital operating and recovery rooms are often exposed to a number of anesthetic gases. There is evidence to support the belief that such exposures have led to higher rates of miscarriages and spontaneous abortions of pregnancies among women directly exposed to these gases than among women not exposed. Most of the studies assessing exposure levels were conducted prior to the widespread use of scavenging systems. Air sampling was conducted in hospital operatories and recovery rooms of three large hospitals to assess the current exposure levels in these areas and determine the effectiveness of these systems in reducing exposures to fluoride-containing anesthetic gases. It was determined that recovery-room personnel are exposed to levels of anesthesia gases that often approach and exceed the recommended Threshold Limit Value-Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) of 2.0 ppm. Recovery-room personnel do not have the protection from exposure provided by scavenging systems in operating rooms. Operating-room personnel were exposed to anesthesia gas levels above the TLV-TWA only when patients were masked, or connected and disconnected from the scavenging systems. Recovery-room personnel also need to be protected from exposure to anesthesia gases by a scavenging system.

  9. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

  10. Separating hydrogen from coal gasification gases with alumina membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egan, B.Z. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E.; White, D.E. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis gas produced in coal gasification processes contains hydrogen, along with carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, water, nitrogen, and other gases, depending on the particular gasification process. Development of membrane technology to separate the hydrogen from the raw gas at the high operating temperatures and pressures near exit gas conditions would improve the efficiency of the process. Tubular porous alumina membranes with mean pore radii ranging from about 9 to 22 {Angstrom} have been fabricated and characterized. Based on hydrostatic tests, the burst strength of the membranes ranged from 800 to 1600 psig, with a mean value of about 1300 psig. These membranes were evaluated for separating hydrogen and other gases. Tests of membrane permeabilities were made with helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. Measurements were made at room temperature in the pressure range of 15 to 589 psi. Selected membranes were tested further with mixed gases simulating a coal gasification product gas. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Lattice vibrations of pure and doped GaSe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allakhverdiev, K. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey) and Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan)]. E-mail: kerim.allahverdi@mam.gov.tr; Baykara, T. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey); Ellialtioglu, S. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey); Hashimzade, F. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan); Huseinova, D. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan); Kawamura, K. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan); Kaya, A.A. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey); Kulibekov, A.M. [Department of Physics, Mugla University, Mugla 48000 (Turkey); Onari, S. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan)

    2006-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bridgman method is used to grow especially undoped and doped single crystals of GaSe. Composition and impurity content of the grown crystals were determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) method. X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, photoluminescence (PL), and IR transmission measurements were performed at room temperature. The long wavelength lattice vibrations of four modifications of GaSe were described in the framework of modified one-layer linear-chain model which also takes into consideration the interaction of the selenium (Se) atom with the second nearest neighbor gallium (Ga) atom in the same layer. The existence of an eight-layer modification of GaSe is suggested and the vibrational frequencies of this modification are explained in the framework of a lattice dynamical model considered in the present work. Frequencies and the type of vibrations (gap, local, or resonance) for the impurity atoms were calculated and compared with the experimental results.

  12. Lightning, atmospheric electricity and climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, C.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature records indicate that a global warming of 0.5{minus}0.7{degrees}C has occurred over the past century (Hansen and Lebedeff, 1987). Whether this trend is a result of increased trace gas concentrations in the atmosphere, or simply a result of natural variability; is still not known. These temperature trends are derived from thousands of observations worldwide. However, these observations are concentrated largely over continental areas, and then mainly in the northern hemisphere`s populated regions. This northern hemisphere continental bias results in large uncertainties in estimates of global temperature trends. Due to the increasing evidence that the present buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere may result in an additional global warming of 1-5{degrees}C by the year 2050 (IPCC, 1990), it is increasingly important to find afternative methods to monitor fluctuations in global surface temperatures. As shown by two recent studies (Williams, 1992; Price, 1993), the global atmospheric electric circuit may provide a promising afternative for monitoring future climate change.

  13. Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

  14. Methods, systems, and devices for deep desulfurization of fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (Richland, WA); Huo, Qisheng (Richland, WA)

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly effective and regenerable method, system and device that enables the desulfurization of warm fuel gases by passing these warm gasses over metal-based sorbents arranged in a mesoporous substrate. This technology will protect Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts and other sulfur sensitive catalysts, without drastic cooling of the fuel gases. This invention can be utilized in a process either alone or alongside other separation processes, and allows the total sulfur in such a gas to be reduced to less than 500 ppb and in some instances as low as 50 ppb.

  15. Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology: Editorial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Maroto-Valer, M.M.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This editorial introduces readers and contributors to a new online journal. Through the publication of articles ranging from peer-reviewed research papers and short communications, to editorials and interviews on greenhouse gas emissions science and technology, this journal will disseminate research results and information that address the global crisis of anthropogenic climate change. The scope of the journal includes the full spectrum of research areas from capture and separation of greenhouse gases from flue gases and ambient air, to beneficial utilization, and to sequestration in deep geologic formations and terrestrial (plant and soil) systems, as well as policy and technoeconomic analyses of these approaches.

  16. Dissipative dynamics of a Josephson junction in the Bose gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barankov, R.A. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Burmistrov, S.N. [RRC 'Kurchatov Institute', Kurchatov Sq.1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dissipative dynamics of a Josephson junction in Bose gases is considered within the framework of the model of a tunneling Hamiltonian. The effective action that describes the dynamics of the phase difference across the junction is derived using the functional integration method. The dynamic equation obtained for the phase difference across the junction is analyzed for the finite temperatures in the low-frequency limit involving the radiation terms. The asymmetric case of the Bose gases with the different order parameters is calculated as well.

  17. Atmospheric heat redistribution and collapse on tidally locked rocky planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wordsworth, Robin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric collapse is likely to be of fundamental importance to tidally locked rocky exoplanets but remains understudied. Here, general results on the heat transport and stability of tidally locked terrestrial-type atmospheres are reported. First, the problem is modeled with an idealized 3D general circulation model (GCM) with gray gas radiative transfer. It is shown that over a wide range of parameters the atmospheric boundary layer, rather than the large-scale circulation, is the key to understanding the planetary energy balance. Through a scaling analysis of the interhemispheric energy transfer, theoretical expressions for the day-night temperature difference and surface wind speed are created that reproduce the GCM results without tuning. Next, the GCM is used with correlated-k radiative transfer to study heat transport for two real gases (CO2 and CO). For CO2, empirical formulae for the collapse pressure as a function of planetary mass and stellar flux are produced, and critical pressures for atmospher...

  18. Recent Progress in the Research on Ion and Electron Transport in Gases at Swarm Energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urquijo, Jaime de [Centro de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, P.O. Box 48-3, 62251, Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico)

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with the presentation and discussion of recent research on the transport of electrons and ions in gases at low energies. Particular emphasis is placed on electron swarm experiments related with the negative differential conductivity of electrons in some gas mixtures, and with secondary ionisation processes due to the impact of metastables with neutrals (Penning ionisation). Ion transport is firstly addressed through some recent measurements on atomic and molecular systems for which both theory and experiment have reached a high degree of agreement, and also on those in which the ranges of the density-normalized electric field intensity E/N have been increased substantiality. Also, the recent advances on the application of transport theories dealing with inelastic collisions are presented, as well as some recent measurements of negative ions and charged clusters in gaseous mixtures, leading to the successful test of Blanc's law at low fields, to the experimental mobilities.

  19. Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Gaisser

    2005-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Starting with an historical review, I summarize the status of calculations of the flux of atmospheric neutrinos and how they compare to measurements.

  20. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT RISING GREENHOUSE GASES AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , methane, and nitrous oxides. The sun's energy passes through these gases, like light passing through risen by almost 40 percent. This is attributed primarily to the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, gasoline). Methane and nitrous oxides are also increasing rapidly, due in part to the expansion

  1. Use of low temperature blowers for recirculation of hot gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maru, H.C.; Forooque, M.

    1982-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described for maintaining motors at low operating temperatures during recirculation of hot gases in fuel cell operations and chemical processes such as fluidized bed coal gasification. The apparatus includes a means for separating the hot process gas from the motor using a secondary lower temperature gas, thereby minimizing the temperature increase of the motor and associated accessories.

  2. AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groth, Clinton P. T.

    AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #2 1. Using the formalism of the text book is as follows. Assume that the particle number density is a slowly varying function of the z coordinate #27; ? is a constant. 3. Show that if the potential function, U(r), varies as 1=r 4

  3. AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groth, Clinton P. T.

    AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #2 1. Using the formalism of the text book the particle number density and temperature are both slowly varying functions of the z coordinate of the previous problem is as follows. Assume that the particle number density is a slowly varying function

  4. Mitigation options for accidental releases of hazardous gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fthenakis, V.M.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this paper is to review and compare technologies available for mitigation of unconfined releases of toxic and flammable gases. These technologies include: secondary confinement, deinventory, vapor barriers, foam spraying, and water sprays/monitors. Guidelines for the design and/or operation of effective post-release mitigation systems and case studies involving actual industrial mitigation systems are also presented.

  5. Nature of superfluidity in ultracold Fermi gases near Feshbach resonances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stajic, Jelena; Levin, K. [James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Milstein, J.N.; Holland, M.J. [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Chen Qijin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Chiofalo, M.L. [Classe di Scienze and INFM, Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavelieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the superfluid state of atomic Fermi gases using a BCS-Bose-Einstein-condensation crossover theory. Our approach emphasizes noncondensed fermion pairs which strongly hybridize with their (Feshbach-induced) molecular boson counterparts. These pairs lead to pseudogap effects above T{sub c} and non-BCS characteristics below. We discuss how these effects influence the experimental signatures of superfluidity.

  6. INTRODUCTION Insects exchange respiratory gases through a complex network of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Socha, Jake

    3409 INTRODUCTION Insects exchange respiratory gases through a complex network of tracheal tubes through the tracheal system using diffusion alone (Krogh, 1920a; Weis-Fogh, 1964), many species are known to augment gas exchange using convection (Buck, 1962; Miller, 1966a). Two general mechanisms are recognized

  7. BP8.00113 A Plasma, Magnetorotational Instability Experiment , C. COLLINS, C.B. FOREST, R. KENDRICK, University of Wisconsin, Madison, A. SELTZMAN, NUF, Georgia Institute of Technology --A new experiment is underway at the University of Wisconsin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    the sound speed of the neutral gas and the thermal velocity of the ions. The technique of using two gases than in liquid metal experiments and will be the first experiment to investigate self-excited dynamos

  8. Atmospheric Thermodynamics Composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    1 Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ch1 Composition Ch2 Laws Ch3 Transfers Ch12 EnergyBalance Ch4 Water Ch Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http #12;2 Review from Ch. 1 Thermodynamic quantities Composition Pressure Density Temperature

  9. Atmospheric Dynamics II Instructor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AT602 Atmospheric Dynamics II 2 credits Instructor: David W. J. Thompson davet: An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, 5th Edition, Academic Press (recommended) · Marshall, J., and Plumb, R. A., 2008: Atmosphere, Ocean, and Climate Dynamics: An Introductory Text, Academic Press. · Vallis, G. K

  10. System for trapping and storing gases for subsequent chemical reduction to solids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogel, John S. (San Jose, CA); Ognibene, Ted J. (Oakland, CA); Bench, Graham S. (Livermore, CA); Peaslee, Graham F. (Holland, MI)

    2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for quantitatively reducing oxide gases. A pre-selected amount of zinc is provided in a vial. A tube is provided in the vial. The zinc and the tube are separated. A pre-selected amount of a catalyst is provided in the tube. Oxide gases are injected into the vial. The vial, tube, zinc, catalyst, and the oxide gases are cryogenically cooled. At least a portion of the vial, tube, zinc, catalyst, and oxide gases are heated.

  11. Propagation of strangelets in the Earth's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fei Wu; Ren-Xin Xu; Bo-Qiang Ma

    2007-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A new model for the description of the behaviour of strangelets in the Earth's atmosphere is presented. Strangelet fission induced by collision with air nuclei is included. It is shown that strangelets with certain parameters of initial mass and energy may reach depths near sea level, which can be examined by ground-based experiments.

  12. Proton reduction by molecular catalysts in water under demanding atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wakerley, David W.; Gross, Manuela A.; Reisner, Erwin

    2014-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    1, ESI), allowing the effect of other inhibiting gases to be established during proton reduction. Fig. 1a and b display CVs of NiP and CoP under inert and aerobic atmospheres. Irreversible O2 reduction occurs at Ep = #2;0.5 V vs. normal hydrogen... Ministry of Science, Research and Economy and National Foundation for Research, Technology and Development), and the OMV Group is gratefully acknowledged. Notes and references 1 N. S. Lewis and D. G. Nocera, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2006, 103, 15729...

  13. Search for Non-Standard Interactions by atmospheric neutrino

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinya Fukasawa

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effects of neutral current Non-Standard Interactions in propagation on atmospheric neutrino experiments such as Super-Kamiokande and Hyper-Kamiokande. With the ansatz where the parameters which have strong constraints from other experiments are neglected, we show how these experiments put constraints on the remaining parameters of the Non-Standard Interactions.

  14. Atmospheric Pollution Research 1 (2010) 220228 Atmospheric Pollution Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Atmospheric Pollution Research 1 (2010) 220228 Atmospheric Pollution Research www in modeling of the associated multiphase processes. Iron redox species are important pollutants. The oxidative capacity of the atmospheric cloud water decreases when dissolution is included

  15. A theoretical framework for volcanic degassing chemistry in a comparative planetology perspective and implications for planetary atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    gases dominated by H2O. This simple pattern broadly mirrors the atmospheres of Venus- Earth of extra-solar planets. Volatile abundances within the planetary body interiors also matter but they play a secondary role. Furthermore, our analysis shows that any difference in redox conditions prevailing during

  16. The electrodeless discharge at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laroussi, M.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently the generation and applications of atmospheric pressure plasmas received increased interest in the plasma research community. Applications such as the surface modification of materials, and the decontamination of matter have been under investigation. In this context, the authors introduce a new means of generating an atmospheric pressure discharge, which is suitable for use in the above-mentioned applications, and in the treatment of undesirable or polluting gases, such as VOC's. This device is a capacitively coupled discharge. It is basically made of a non-conducting tube with two independent loops of wire wrapped around it, and separated by a distance d. A stable discharge is generated inside the tube when an AC voltage of few hundred volts to few kilovolts, at a frequency of few kilohertz, is applied between the loops. One end of the tube is completely open to the outside air, and a seed gas (generally a noble gas such as Helium) is introduced in the tube. The plasma generated with this method is weakly ionized, cold, and is maintained by a relatively low input power (few tens of watts, depending on the size of the tube). In this paper, the discharge electrical characteristics, its radiation emission characteristics, and the measurement of relevant plasma parameters will be presented.

  17. Clostridium strain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, J.L.

    1997-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 4 figs.

  18. Apparatus for the plasma destruction of hazardous gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, M.

    1995-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A plasma cell for destroying hazardous gases is described. An electric-discharge cell having an electrically conducting electrode onto which an alternating high-voltage waveform is impressed and a dielectric barrier adjacent thereto, together forming a high-voltage electrode, generates self-terminating discharges throughout a volume formed between this electrode and a grounded conducting liquid electrode. The gas to be transformed is passed through this volume. The liquid may be flowed, generating thereby a renewable surface. Moreover, since hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids may be formed from destruction of various chlorofluorocarbons in the presence of water, a conducting liquid may be selected which will neutralize these corrosive compounds. The gases exiting the discharge region may be further scrubbed if additional purification is required. 4 figs.

  19. Apparatus for hot-gas desulfurization of fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for removing sulfur values from a hot fuel gas stream in a fdized bed contactor containing particulate sorbent material by employing a riser tube regeneration arrangement. Sulfur-laden sorbent is continuously removed from the fluidized bed through a stand pipe to the riser tube and is rapidly regenerated in the riser tube during transport of the sorbent therethrough by employing an oxygen-containing sorbent regenerating gas stream. The riser tube extends from a location below the fluidized bed to an elevation above the fluidized bed where a gas-solid separating mechanism is utilized to separate the regenerated particulate sorbent from the regeneration gases and reaction gases so that the regenerated sorbent can be returned to the fluidized bed for reuse.

  20. Clostridium stain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (2207 Tall Oaks Dr., Fayetteville, AR 72703)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

  1. Atmospheric Science: An introductory survey 1. Introduction to the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Folkins, Ian

    Gases are compressible.. liquids are incompressible #12;The Turbopause Separates homosphere instability #12;#12;#12;Turbulent diffusion #12;Weather systems Baroclinic waves.... extratropical cyclones fronts Tropical cyclones Severe convective storms #12;Extratropical cyclones #12;#12;Tropical

  2. Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITYCO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITY

  3. Wave Speed in the Macroscopic Extended Model for Ultrarelativistic Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Borghero; F. Demontis; S. Pennisi

    2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An exact macroscopic extended model for ultrarelativistic gases, with an arbitrary number of moments, is present in the literature. Here we exploit equations determining wave speeds for that model. We find interesting results; for example, the whole system for their determination can be divided into independent subsystems and some, but not all, wave speeds are expressed by rational numbers. Moreover, the extraordinary property that these wave speeds for the macroscopic model are the same of those in the kinetic model, is proved.

  4. Extraction of uranium from spent fuels using liquefied gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sawada, Kayo; Hirabayashi, Daisuke; Enokida, Youichi [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels, a novel method to extract actinides from spent fuel using highly compressed gases, nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide was proposed. As a fundamental study, the nitrate conversion with liquefied nitrogen dioxide and the nitrate extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide were demonstrated by using uranium dioxide powder, uranyl nitrate and tri-n-butylphosphate complex in the present study. (authors)

  5. The Kolmogorov-Sinai Entropy for Dilute Gases in Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. van Beijeren; J. R. Dorfman; H. A. Posch; Ch. Dellago

    1997-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We use the kinetic theory of gases to compute the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy per particle for a dilute gas in equilibrium. For an equilibrium system, the KS entropy, h_KS is the sum of all of the positive Lyapunov exponents characterizing the chaotic behavior of the gas. We compute h_KS/N, where N is the number of particles in the gas. This quantity has a density expansion of the form h_KS/N = a\

  6. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes sample gases of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for analysis. Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facilitys compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

  7. Evaluacin de la generacin de gases de efecto invernadero asociados al ciclo de vida de los biocombustibles colombianos = Assessment of greenhouse gases emissions associated to colombian biofuels lifecycle.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valencia Botero, Monica Julieth

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Valencia Botero, Monica Julieth (2012) Evaluacin de la generacin de gases de efecto invernadero asociados al ciclo de vida de los biocombustibles colombianos = Assessment (more)

  8. Computational study of atmospheric transfer radiation on an equatorial tropical desert (La Tatacoa, Colombia)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delgado-Correal, Camilo; Castao, Gabriel

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative transfer models explain and predict interaction between solar radiation and the different elements present in the atmosphere, which are responsible for energy attenuation. In Colombia there have been neither measurements nor studies of atmospheric components such as gases and aerosols that can cause turbidity and pollution. Therefore satellite images cannot be corrected radiometrically in a proper way. When a suitable atmospheric correction is carried out, loss of information is avoided, which may be useful for discriminating image land cover. In this work a computational model was used to find radiative atmospheric attenuation (300 1000nm wavelength region) on an equatorial tropical desert (La Tatacoa, Colombia) in order to conduct an adequate atmospheric correction.

  9. Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

  10. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report is the fifth annual update, covering national emissions over the period 1989--1995, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1996. The estimates contained in this report have been revised from those in last year`s report. Emissions estimates for carbon dioxide are reported in metric tons of carbon; estimates for other gases are reported in metric tons of gas. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapter 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Five appendixes are included with this report. 216 refs., 11 figs., 38 tabs.

  11. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

    1988-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

  12. atmospheric muon charge: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the CMS detector HEP - Experiment (arXiv) Summary: A measurement is presented of the flux ratio of positive and negative muons from cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere,...

  13. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR)-5/6/7 Fuel Irradiation Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Joseph Palmer; David A. Petti; S. Blaine Grover

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energys Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which each consist of at least five separate capsules, are being irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gases also have on-line fission product monitoring the effluent from each capsule to track performance of the fuel during irradiation. The first two experiments (designated AGR-1 and AGR-2), have been completed. The third and fourth experiments have been combined into a single experiment designated AGR-3/4, which started its irradiation in December 2011 and is currently scheduled to be completed in April 2014. The design of the fuel qualification experiment, designated AGR-5/6/7, is well underway and incorporates lessons learned from the three previous experiments. Various design issues will be discussed with particular details related to selection of thermometry.

  14. Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Dutton, Bryan C.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming generated in crucible has been studied with a specific goal to understand the impact of increased water content on foaming in oxy-fired furnaces. E-glass foams were generated in a fused-quartz crucible located in a quartz window furnace equipped with video recording. The present study showed that humidity in the furnace atmosphere destabilizes foam, while other gases have little effect on foam stability. This study suggests that the higher foaming in oxy-fired furnace compared to air-fired is caused by the effect of water on early sulfate decomposition, promoting more efficient refining gas generation from sulfate (known as dilution effect).

  15. Kinetic Theory Estimates for the Kolmogorov-Sinai Entropy and the Largest Lyapunov Exponents for Dilute, Hard-Ball Gases and for Dilute, Random Lorentz Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. van Beijeren; R. van Zon; J. R. Dorfman

    2000-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetic theory of gases provides methods for calculating Lyapunov exponents and other quantities, such as Kolmogorov-Sinai entropies, that characterize the chaotic behavior of hard-ball gases. Here we illustrate the use of these methods for calculating the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, and the largest positive Lyapunov exponent, for dilute hard-ball gases in equilibrium. The calculation of the largest Lyapunov exponent makes interesting connections with the theory of propagation of hydrodynamic fronts. Calculations are also presented for the Lyapunov spectrum of dilute, random Lorentz gases in two and three dimensions, which are considerably simpler than the corresponding calculations for hard-ball gases. The article concludes with a brief discussion of some interesting open problems.

  16. Etching process of silicon dioxide with nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamakawa, Koji; Hori, Masaru; Goto, Toshio; Den, Shoji; Katagiri, Toshirou; Kano, Hiroyuki [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-Cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Nagoya University, Furo-Cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-Cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Department of Engineering, Katagiri Engineering Co., Ltd., Minamikase Saiwai-ku, Kawasaki 661-8661 (Japan); NU-EcoEngineering Co., Ltd., Ooaza, Kurozasa Aza, Umazutsumi, Miyoshi-cho, Nishikamo-gun, Aichi 470-0201 (Japan)

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrahigh etch rate (14 {mu}m/min) of SiO{sub 2} and a high selectivity of SiO{sub 2}/Si over 200 were achieved using a microwave-excited nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma source employing He, NF{sub 3}, and H{sub 2}O gases, which have been developed for application to microelectromechanical systems and other bionanotechnology fields. In order to clarify the etching mechanism, two diagnostic methods have been performed: (1) imaging of plasma emission with an intensified charge-coupled device camera, and (2) absorption measurements using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The etching characteristics are discussed in relation to the spatial distributions of the species involved. The etch rate depended considerably on the distance between the plasma and the substrate. Some radicals generated from the feed gases reached the substrate directly, while other radicals recombined into different species, which reached the substrate. An abundance of HF molecules were produced through a reaction between radicals generated by the atmospheric pressure discharge of NF{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O. From these measurements, it has been found that the HF molecules generated played a role in producing the high etch rate of SiO{sub 2} and high etch selectivity of SiO{sub 2}/Si.

  17. Atmospheric-pressure plasma decontamination/sterilization chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herrmann, Hans W. (Los Alamos, NM); Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric-pressure plasma decontamination/sterilization chamber is described. The apparatus is useful for decontaminating sensitive equipment and materials, such as electronics, optics and national treasures, which have been contaminated with chemical and/or biological warfare agents, such as anthrax, mustard blistering agent, VX nerve gas, and the like. There is currently no acceptable procedure for decontaminating such equipment. The apparatus may also be used for sterilization in the medical and food industries. Items to be decontaminated or sterilized are supported inside the chamber. Reactive gases containing atomic and metastable oxygen species are generated by an atmospheric-pressure plasma discharge in a He/O.sub.2 mixture and directed into the region of these items resulting in chemical reaction between the reactive species and organic substances. This reaction typically kills and/or neutralizes the contamination without damaging most equipment and materials. The plasma gases are recirculated through a closed-loop system to minimize the loss of helium and the possibility of escape of aerosolized harmful substances.

  18. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2007-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes blind audit samples in a gas matrix for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facilitys compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

  19. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes blind audit samples in a gas matrix for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facilitys compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

  20. Parallization of Stellar Atmosphere Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Hoeflich

    2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Parallel computing has turned out to be the enabling technology to solve complex physical systems. However, the transition from shared memory, vector computers to massively parallel, distributed memory systems and, recently, to hybrid systems poses new challenges to the scientist. We want to present a cook-book (with a very strong, personal bias) based on our experience with parallization of our existing codes. Some of the general tools and communication libraries are discussed. Our approach includes a mixture of algorithm, domain and physical module based parallization. The advantages, scalability and limitations of each are discussed at some examples. We want show that it becomes easier to write parallel code with increasing complexity of the physical problem making stellar atmosphere codes beyond the classical assumptions very suitable.

  1. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

    1992-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

  2. Compressibility factors for retrograde gases: a new correlation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corredor Real, Jairo Hernando

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    deviations of proposed Methods 1 and 2, were 0. 96 and 1. 01 percent, respectively. DEDICATION Esta tesis es dedicada a: Mis padres que siempre me han guiado y ofrecido constante apoyo en todas mis metas y logros. Juan Sebastian por la dicha de ser tu... tested with an overall absolute deviation of 1. 01/o. Four condensate retrograde gases from published data were used for testing the accuracy of the proposed methods. Proposed method 2 presented the smallest overall average absolute deviation with 0...

  3. Prospecting by sampling and analysis of airborne particulates and gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is claimed for prospecting by sampling airborne particulates or gases at a ground position and recording wind direction values at the time of sampling. The samples are subsequently analyzed to determine the concentrations of a desired material or the ratios of the desired material to other identifiable materials in the collected samples. By comparing the measured concentrations or ratios to expected background data in the vicinity sampled, one can select recorded wind directions indicative of the upwind position of the land-based source of the desired material.

  4. Separation of gases through gas enrichment membrane composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swedo, R.J.; Kurek, P.R.

    1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin film composite membranes having as a permselective layer a film of a homopolymer of certain vinyl alkyl ethers are useful in the separation of various gases. Such homopolymers have a molecular weight of greater than 30,000 and the alkyl group of the vinyl alkyl monomer has from 4 to 20 carbon atoms with branching within the alkyl moiety at least at the carbon atom bonded to the ether oxygen or at the next adjacent carbon atom. These membranes show excellent hydrolytic stability, especially in the presence of acidic or basic gaseous components.

  5. The lifetime of excess atmospheric carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, B. III; Braswell, B.H. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States))

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the beginning of the industrial revolution human activity has significantly altered biogeochemical cycling on a global scale. The uncertainties of future climate change rests partly on issues of physical-climate system dynamics and their representation in general circulation models. However understanding the carbon cycle is a key to comprehending the changing terrestrial biosphere and to developing a reasonable range of future concentrations of greenhouse gases. The authors look at correction of model uncertainties in the examination of the lifetime of carbon dioxide. The two difficulties analysed are as follows: (1) most model-derived estimates of the relaxation of the concentration of CO2 reveal a function which is not always well approximated by weighted sums of exponentials; (2) the function c(t) is quite sensitive to assumptions about the terrestrial biosphere and the relaxation experiment. 51 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Dynamics of Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Read, Peter L.

    transfer ­ Solar heating of surface, and atmosphere via dust absorption ­ Infrared CO2 band cooling (especially around 667 cm-1) ­ nonLTE near-infrared heating of CO2 and nonLTE cooling effects above ~60-80 km. Baroclinic waves, scales, heat and momentum transport, seasonal occurrence. Qualitative treatment

  7. Dynamics of Planetary Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Read, Peter L.

    pressure (bars) N2 82%; Ar 12%; CH4 6%CO2 96.5%; N2 3.5%Atmospheric composition 26177Orbital inclination (1992) orbiter ­ Winds from cloud-tracking and probe drifts ­ IR temperatures, solar-fixed tides, polar-Huygens mission (from 2005) ­ Doppler wind descent profile ­ IR temperature and composition maps ­ Visible, IR

  8. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

  9. Process for recovery of sulfur from acid gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Towler, Gavin P. (Kirkbymoorside, GB2); Lynn, Scott (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elemental sulfur is recovered from the H.sub.2 S present in gases derived from fossil fuels by heating the H.sub.2 S with CO.sub.2 in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of a catalyst selected as one which enhances the thermal dissociation of H.sub.2 S to H.sub.2 and S.sub.2. The equilibrium of the thermal decomposition of H.sub.2 S is shifted by the equilibration of the water-gas-shift reaction so as to favor elemental sulfur formation. The primary products of the overall reaction are S.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. Small amounts of COS, SO.sub.2 and CS.sub.2 may also form. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture results in a substantial increase in the efficiency of the conversion of H.sub.2 S to elemental sulfur. Plant economy is further advanced by treating the product gases to remove byproduct carbonyl sulfide by hydrolysis, which converts the COS back to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S. Unreacted CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H.sub.2 and CO, which has value either as a fuel or as a chemical feedstock and recovers the hydrogen value from the H.sub.2 S.

  10. Self-pulsing of hollow cathode discharge in various gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, Y.; He, F., E-mail: hefeng@bit.edu.cn; Jiang, X. X.; Ouyang, J. T., E-mail: jtouyang@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Xie, K. [School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we investigate the self-pulsing phenomenon of cavity discharge in a cylindrical hollow cathode in various gases including argon, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, and air. The current-voltage characteristics of the cavity discharge, the waveforms of the self-pulsing current and voltage as well as the repetition frequency were measured. The results show that the pulsing frequency ranges from a few to tens kilohertz and depends on the averaged current and the pressure in all gases. The pulsing frequency will increase with the averaged current and decrease with the pressure. The rising time of the current pulse is nearly constant in a given gas or mixture. The self-pulsing does not depend on the external ballast but is affected significantly by the external capacitor in parallel with the discharge cell. The low-current self-pulsing in hollow cathode discharge is the mode transition between Townsend and glow discharges. It can be described by the charging-discharging process of an equivalent circuit consisting of capacitors and resistors.

  11. Diode laser-based sensor system for long-path absorption measurements of atmospheric concentration and near-IR molecular spectral parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, N.; Lee, J.; Adler-Golden, S.M.; Bien, F.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Line-locked near-IR diode lasers and a simple retroreflector/telescope system were used for remote sensing of atmospheric constituents over long atmospheric paths. The experimental configuration used in preliminary measurements of atmospheric water vapor and oxygen with AlGaAs diode lasers is presented. A prototype field sensor system currently under development shares the same basic configuration but incorporates interchangeable AlGaAs and InGaAsP diode-laser modules for monitoring a variety of atmospheric gases.

  12. Instantaneous and efficient surface wave excitation of a low pressure gas or gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levy, Donald J. (Berkeley, CA); Berman, Samuel M. (San Francisco, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for instantaneously ionizing and continuously delivering energy in the form of surface waves to a low pressure gas or mixture of low pressure gases, comprising a source of rf energy, a discharge container, (such as a fluorescent lamp discharge tube), an rf shield, and a coupling device responsive to rf energy from the source to couple rf energy directly and efficiently to the gas or mixture of gases to ionize at least a portion of the gas or gases and to provide energy to the gas or gases in the form of surface waves. The majority of the rf power is transferred to the gas or gases near the inner surface of the discharge container to efficiently transfer rf energy as excitation energy for at least one of the gases. The most important use of the invention is to provide more efficient fluorescent and/or ultraviolet lamps.

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earths surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earths energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - automobile exhaust gases Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    exhaust gases Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Ability of Catalytic Converters to Reduce Air Pollution Summary: Air Pollution MEASUREMENT OF SELECTED AIR POLLUTANTS IN CAR EXHAUST...

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - aircraft exhaust gases Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gases FAA, 2005. Water in the aircraft exhaust at altitude may have a greenhouse effect... . Aircraft ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques...

  16. Fact #825: June 16, 2014 Tier 3 Non-Methane Organic Gases Plus...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    organic gases (NMOG) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) that new light vehicles with gasoline engines are allowed to produce for model years 2017 to 2025. These standards apply to...

  17. Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Final report, April 1994--July 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Breshears, F.S.; Gaines, L.D.; Hays, K.S.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this program was to develop a commercial process for producing ethanol from refinery waste gases. this report presents results from the development phases. The major focus of this work was the preparation of the prototype design which will demonstrate this technology in a 2.5 lb/hr ethanol production facility. Additional areas of focus included efforts in obtaining an industrial partner to help finance the prototype, and advanced engineering experiments concentrating on process optimization in various areas needing future development and optimization. The advanced engineering experiments were performed in the laboratory in these areas: treatment and use of recycle water from distillation back to fermentation; alternative methods of removing cells from the fermentation broth; the fermentation of streams containing CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} alone, with little to no CO present; dealing with methanogen contaminants that are capable of fermenting CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} to methane; and acetate tolerance by the culture. Results from the design, industrial partner search and the laboratory R&D efforts are discussed in this report.

  18. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griesbach, O.A.; Stencel, J.R.

    1987-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The moisture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H/sub 2/ or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  19. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griesbach, Otto A. (Langhorne, PA); Stencel, Joseph R. (Skillman, NJ)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The mixture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H.sub.2 or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  20. New formulae to evaluate the atmospheric layers of precipitable water and gases, applicable in solar radiation computing models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in solar radiation computing models V. B0103descu Energetica, Centrale Electrice, Polytechn. Inst irradiance. In this context, the relatively low density of solar radiation recording stations favoured measurements. Reviews and classifications of the main calculations procedures of solar radiation have been

  1. Free Energies of Dilute Bose gases: upper bound

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun Yin

    2010-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive a upper bound on the free energy of a Bose gas system at density $\\rho$ and temperature $T$. In combination with the lower bound derived previously by Seiringer \\cite{RS1}, our result proves that in the low density limit, i.e., when $a^3\\rho\\ll 1$, where $a$ denotes the scattering length of the pair-interaction potential, the leading term of $\\Delta f$ the free energy difference per volume between interacting and ideal Bose gases is equal to $4\\pi a (2\\rho^2-[\\rho-\\rhoc]^2_+)$. Here, $\\rhoc(T)$ denotes the critical density for Bose-Einstein condensation (for the ideal gas), and $[\\cdot ]_+$ $=$ $\\max\\{\\cdot, 0\\}$ denotes the positive part.

  2. Finite-size energy of non-interacting Fermi gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Gebert

    2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We prove the asymptotics of the difference of the ground-state energies of two non-interacting $N$-particle Fermi gases on the half line of length $L$ in the thermodynamic limit up to order $1/L$. We are particularly interested in subdominant terms proportional to $1/L$, called finite-size energy. In the nineties Affleck and co-authors [Aff97, ZA97, AL94] claimed that the finite-size energy equals the decay exponent occuring in Anderson's orthogonality catastrophe. It turns out that the finite-size energy depends on the details of the thermodynamic limit and typically also includes a linear term in the scattering phase shift.

  3. Loschmidt echo in one-dimensional interacting Bose gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lelas, K.; Seva, T.; Buljan, H. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Split, Rudjera Boskovica BB, 21000 Split (Croatia); Department of Physics, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka c. 32, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore Loschmidt echo in two regimes of one-dimensional interacting Bose gases: the strongly interacting Tonks-Girardeau (TG) regime, and the weakly interacting mean-field regime. We find that the Loschmidt echo of a TG gas decays as a Gaussian when small (random and time independent) perturbations are added to the Hamiltonian. The exponent is proportional to the number of particles and the magnitude of a small perturbation squared. In the mean-field regime the Loschmidt echo shows richer behavior: it decays faster for larger nonlinearity, and the decay becomes more abrupt as the nonlinearity increases; it can be very sensitive to the particular realization of the noise potential, especially for relatively small nonlinearities.

  4. Environmental Chemistry II (Atmospheric Chemistry)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dibble, Theodore

    Seinfeld, J. H. and Pandis, S. N. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate ChangeSYLLABUS FOR Environmental Chemistry II (Atmospheric Chemistry) FCH 511 Fall 2013 Theodore S

  5. Setup for in situ investigation of gases and gas/solid interfaces by soft x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benkert, A., E-mail: andreas.benkert@kit.edu, E-mail: l.weinhardt@kit.edu [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-v.-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Universitt Wrzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII, Am Hubland, 97074 Wrzburg (Germany); Gemeinschaftslabor fr Nanoanalytik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Blum, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), 4505 Maryland Parkway, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States) [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), 4505 Maryland Parkway, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States); Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Meyer, F. [Universitt Wrzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII, Am Hubland, 97074 Wrzburg (Germany)] [Universitt Wrzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII, Am Hubland, 97074 Wrzburg (Germany); Wilks, R. G. [Solar Energy Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)] [Solar Energy Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Yang, W. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Br, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), 4505 Maryland Parkway, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States) [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), 4505 Maryland Parkway, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States); Solar Energy Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Insitut fr Physik und Chemie, Brandenburgische Technische Universitt Cottbus-Senftenberg, Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); and others

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a novel gas cell designed to study the electronic structure of gases and gas/solid interfaces using soft x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopies. In this cell, the sample gas is separated from the vacuum of the analysis chamber by a thin window membrane, allowing in situ measurements under atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the gas can be regulated from room temperature up to approximately 600?C. To avoid beam damage, a constant mass flow can be maintained to continuously refresh the gaseous sample. Furthermore, the gas cell provides space for solid-state samples, allowing to study the gas/solid interface for surface catalytic reactions at elevated temperatures. To demonstrate the capabilities of the cell, we have investigated a TiO{sub 2} sample behind a mixture of N{sub 2} and He gas at atmospheric pressure.

  6. Oceanic Trace Gases Numeric Data Packages from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Most data sets or packages, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. CDIAC lists the following numeric data packages under the broad heading of Oceanic Trace Gases: Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained during the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16S_2005 ( 01/11/05 - 022405) Determination of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Parameters during the R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer Cruise in the Southern Indian Ocean (WOCE Section S04I, 050396 - 070496) Inorganic Carbon, Nutrient, and Oxygen Data from the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16N_2003a (060403 081103) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Maurice Ewing Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A17, 010494 - 032194) Global Ocean Data Analysis Project GLODAP: Results and Data Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Cruises in the North Atlantic Ocean on WOCE Sections AR24 (1102 120596) and A24, A20, and A22 (053097 090397) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic and Chemical Data Obtained During the Nine R/V Knorr Cruises Comprising the Indian Ocean CO2 Survey (WOCE Sections I8SI9S, I9N, I8NI5E, I3, I5WI4, I7N, I1, I10, and I2; 120 194 012296) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 28/1 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A8, 032994 - 051294) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Cruise 138-3, -4, and -5 in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P6E, P6C, and P6W, 050292 - 073092) Global Distribution of Total Inorganic Carbon and Total Alkalinity below the deepest winter mixed layer depths Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V John V. Vickers Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P13, NOAA CGC92 Cruise, 080492 102192) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Hesperides Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A5, 071492 - 081592) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas G. Thompson Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P10, 100593 111093) The International Intercomparison Exercise of Underway fCO2 Systems during the R/V Meteor Cruise 36/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained during the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A10, Dec. 1992-Jan, 1993) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C, R/V Knorr , Oct. 1992-April 1993) Surface Water and Atmospheric Underway Carbon Data Obtained During the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Indian Ocean Survey Cruises (R/V Knorr, Dec. 1994 Jan, 1996) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Akademik Ioffe Cruise in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section S4P, Feb.-April 1992) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-1 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE section P17C) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-3 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE section P16C) Carbon-14 Measurements in Surface Water CO2 from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, 1965-1994 Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During R/V Meteor Cruise 18/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A1E) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained in the Central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P17S and P16S) during the TUNES-2 Expedition of the R/V Th

  7. ARM Carbon Cycle Gases Flasks at SGP Site

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Biraud, Sebastien

    Data from flasks are sampled at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program ARM, Southern Great Plains Site and analyzed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA, Earth System Research Laboratory ESRL. The SGP site is included in the NOAA Cooperative Global Air Sampling Network. The surface samples are collected from a 60 m tower at the ARM SGP Central Facility, usually once per week in the afternoon. The aircraft samples are collected approximately weekly from a chartered aircraft, and the collection flight path is centered over the tower where the surface samples are collected. The samples are collected by the ARM and LBNL Carbon Project.

  8. Pluto's Atmosphere Does Not Collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olkin, C B; Borncamp, D; Pickles, A; Sicardy, B; Assafin, M; Bianco, F B; Buie, M W; de Oliveira, A Dias; Gillon, M; French, R G; Gomes, A Ramos; Jehin, E; Morales, N; Opitom, C; Ortiz, J L; Maury, A; Norbury, M; Ribas, F B; Smith, R; Wasserman, L H; Young, E F; Zacharias, M; Zacharias, N

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combining stellar occultation observations probing Pluto's atmosphere from 1988 to 2013 and models of energy balance between Pluto's surface and atmosphere, we conclude that Pluto's atmosphere does not collapse at any point in its 248-year orbit. The occultation results show an increasing atmospheric pressure with time in the current epoch, a trend present only in models with a high thermal inertia and a permanent N2 ice cap at Pluto's north rotational pole.

  9. A Community Atmosphere Model with Superparameterized Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall, David; Branson, Mark; Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.; Craig, Cheryl; Gettelman, A.; Edwards, Jim

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1999, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) scientists Wojciech Grabowski and Piotr Smolarkiewicz created a "multiscale" atmospheric model in which the physical processes associated with clouds were represented by running a simple high-resolution model within each grid column of a lowresolution global model. In idealized experiments, they found that the multiscale model produced promising simulations of organized tropical convection, which other models had struggled to produce. Inspired by their results, Colorado State University (CSU) scientists Marat Khairoutdinov and David Randall created a multiscale version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). They removed the cloud parameterizations of the CAM, and replaced them with Khairoutdinov's high-resolution cloud model. They dubbed the embedded cloud model a "super-parameterization," and the modified CAM is now called the "SP-CAM." Over the next several years, many scientists, from many institutions, have explored the ability of the SP-CAM to simulate tropical weather systems, the day-night changes of precipitation, the Asian and African monsoons, and a number of other climate processes. Cristiana Stan of the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions found that the SP-CAM gives improved results when coupled to an ocean model, and follow-on studies have explored the SP-CAM's utility when used as the atmospheric component of the Community Earth System Model. Much of this research has been performed under the auspices of the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes, a National Science Foundation (NSF) Science and Technology Center for which the lead institution is CSU.

  10. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in Mexico City

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Charles E. Kolb

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was one of three collaborating grants designed to understand the atmospheric chemistry and aerosol particle microphysics impacting air quality in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its urban plume. The overall effort, titled MCMA- 2006, focused on: 1) the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles and 2) the measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine particular matter (PM) production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA). MCAM-2006 pursued it goals through three main activities: 1) performance and publication of detailed analyses of extensive MCMA trace gas and fine PM measurements made by the collaborating groups and others during earlier MCMA field campaigns in 2002 and 2003; 2) deployment and utilization of extensive real-time trace gas and fine PM instrumentation at urban and downwind MCMA sites in support of the MAX-Mex/MILAGRO field measurements in March, 2006; and, 3) analyses of the 2006 MCMA data sets leading to further publications that are based on new data as well as insights from analysis and publication of the 2002/2003 field data. Thirteen archival publications were coauthored with other MCMA-2003 participants. Documented findings included a significantly improved speciated emissions inventory from on-road vehicles, a greatly enhanced understanding of the sources and atmospheric loadings of volatile organic compounds, a unique analysis of the high fraction of ambient formaldehyde from primary emission sources, a much more extensive knowledge of the composition, size distributions and atmospheric mass loadings of both primary and secondary fine PM, including the fact that the rate of MCMA SOA production greatly exceeded that predicted by current atmospheric models, and evaluations of significant errors that can arise from standard air quality monitors for ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Deployment of the Aerodyne mobile laboratory, equipped with instruments from five collaborating laboratories, at the T0 urban supersite, four downwind sites and the Tula industrial area yielded unique trace gas and fine PM data sets during the March 2006 MAXMex/MILAGRO campaign. In addition, on-road measurements as the mobile laboratory moved between sites provided extensive data on 2006 MCMA fleet averaged vehicle emissions. Analyses of 2006 data sets have yielded the identification of a close correlation between the rate of production of SOA and Odd Oxygen (O3 + NO2) and primary organic PM with CO in the MCMA urban plume, a more sophisticated understanding of the interplay between nitrogen oxide speciation and ozone production, the identification of significant vehicular emission sources of HCN and CH3CN (usually associated with biomass burning), characterization of the aging of primary carbonaceous PM, and updated 2006 MCMA fleet on-road trace gas and fine PM emissions. Results from analyses of 2002/2003 and 2006 emissions and ambient measurements have conveyed to Mexican air quality managers who are using these data to devise and assess air quality management strategies. All data sets and published analyses are available to DOE/ASP researchers evaluating the impact of urban emissions on regional climate.

  11. Monte Carlo Simulation of Radiation in Gases with a NarrowBand Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dufresne, Jean-Louis

    , France (\\Phi) now at the Institute of Energy and Power Plant Technology, TH Darmstadt, 64287 DarmstadtMonte Carlo Simulation of Radiation in Gases with a Narrow­Band Model and a Net is used for simulation of radiative heat transfers in non­gray gases. The proposed procedure is based

  12. Abstract--Airborne pollution and explosive gases threaten human health and occupational safety, therefore generating high

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mason, Andrew

    Abstract--Airborne pollution and explosive gases threaten human health and occupational safety and a thumb-drive sized prototype system. I. INTRODUCTION xposure to air pollution consistently ranks among to occupational safety as energy demands rise. Airborne pollutants and explosive gases vary in both time and space

  13. Preserving noble gases in a convecting mantle Helge M. Gonnermann1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

    of a processed and out- gassed lower-mantle source, residues of mantle melting10,11 , depleted in uranium and mixing of noble-gas-depleted slabs dilutes the concentrations of noble gases in the mantle, thereby melt, which forms the ocean crust and leaves the residual mantle severely depleted of noble gases

  14. Bose-Einstein condensates in 85 Rb gases at higher densities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glyde, Henry R.

    Bose-Einstein condensates in 85 Rb gases at higher densities A. R. Sakhel, J. L. DuBois, and H. R August 2002; published 31 December 2002 The Bose-Einstein condensation in trapped gases of 85 Rb find that there is a significant depletion of the condensate at T 0 K, for example, 25% at na3 10 2

  15. Localization of Bogoliubov quasiparticles in interacting Bose gases with correlated disorder P. Lugan1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ) in a weakly interacting Bose gas of chemical potential µ subjected to a disordered potential V . We introduce-Einstein condensates [40­48], interacting Bose gases at equilibrium [26, 49­72], strongly interacting Fermi gases [73 behaviors can be found in various situa- tions. For instance, weak repulsive interactions in a Bose gas

  16. Final report on activities and findings under DOE grant Interactive Photochemistry in Earth System Models to Assess Uncertainty in Ozone and Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prather, Michael J. [UCI

    2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric chemistry controls the abundances and hence climate forcing of important greenhouse gases including N2O, CH4, HFCs, CFCs, and O3. Attributing climate change to human activities requires, at a minimum, accurate models of the chemistry and circulation of the atmosphere that relate emissions to abundances. This DOE-funded research provided realistic, yet computationally optimized and affordable, photochemical modules to the Community Earth System Model (CESM) that augment the CESM capability to explore the uncertainty in future stratospheric-tropospheric ozone, stratospheric circulation, and thus the lifetimes of chemically controlled greenhouse gases from climate simulations. To this end, we have successfully implemented Fast-J (radiation algorithm determining key chemical photolysis rates) and Linoz v3.0 (linearized photochemistry for interactive O3, N2O, NOy and CH4) packages in LLNL-CESM and for the first time demonstrated how change in O2 photolysis rate within its uncertainty range can significantly impact on the stratospheric climate and ozone abundances. From the UCI side, this proposal also helped LLNL develop a CAM-Superfast Chemistry model that was implemented for the IPCC AR5 and contributed chemical-climate simulations to CMIP5.

  17. Gas release during salt-well pumping: Model predictions and laboratory validation studies for soluble and insoluble gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peurrung, L.M.; Caley, S.M.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Site has 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. Of these, 67 are known or suspected to have leaked liquid from the tanks into the surrounding soil. Salt-well pumping, or interim stabilization, is a well-established operation for removing drainable interstitial liquid from SSTs. The overall objective of this ongoing study is to develop a quantitative understanding of the release rates and cumulative releases of flammable gases from SSTs as a result of salt-well pumping. The current study is an extension of the previous work reported by Peurrung et al. (1996). The first objective of this current study was to conduct laboratory experiments to quantify the release of soluble and insoluble gases. The second was to determine experimentally the role of characteristic waste heterogeneities on the gas release rates. The third objective was to evaluate and validate the computer model STOMP (Subsurface Transport over Multiple Phases) used by Peurrung et al. (1996) to predict the release of both soluble (typically ammonia) and insoluble gases (typically hydrogen) during and after salt-well pumping. The fourth and final objective of the current study was to predict the gas release behavior for a range of typical tank conditions and actual tank geometry. In these models, the authors seek to include all the pertinent salt-well pumping operational parameters and a realistic range of physical properties of the SST wastes. For predicting actual tank behavior, two-dimensional (2-D) simulations were performed with a representative 2-D tank geometry.

  18. High-temperature corrosion of metallic alloys in an oxidizing atmosphere containing NaCl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Federer, J.I.

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A particular heat-exchanger application involved metallic alloys exposed to flue gases of an aluminum remelt furnace. Because the flue gases might contain NaCl and other halides, the corrosion behavior of the alloys was to be investigated. Planned direct exposure of candidate alloys to the flue gases, however, was not conducted because of premature termination of the project. Complementary laboratory testing was conducted on seven commercially available alloys and two nickel aluminides. These materials were exposed to an oxidizing atmosphere containing 0.06 wt % NaCl for 1100 h at 1000/degree/C. Most of the alloy exhibited grain-boundary attack, which resulted in complete oxidation of enveloped grains. The alloys Incoloy MA-956, Incoloy 800, Inconel 625, Inconel 601, Hastelloy X, Haynes 188, and nickel aluminide IC-50 were substantially more corroded than Alloy 214 and nickel aluminide IC-221. The latter two alloys, therefore, would probably be superior to the others in application involving flue gases containing NaCl. Strength fabricability, and weldability, which are briefly discussed, would also affect selection of materials. 8 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ventilation rate'' of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  20. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ``ventilation rate`` of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  1. Atmospheric Aerosol Systems | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformationCenterResearch HighlightsTools PrintableCARIBU ProposalBeamAtmospheric

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmesApplication2ArgonneAssemblyDemandPlasma4August 1999 ARM

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmesApplication2ArgonneAssemblyDemandPlasma4August 1999

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmesApplication2ArgonneAssemblyDemandPlasma4August 1999July

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmesApplication2ArgonneAssemblyDemandPlasma4August

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmesApplication2ArgonneAssemblyDemandPlasma4August3 ARM 2003

  7. Atmospheric Particulates | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone byDear Friend,Arthur J. Nozik -GrownAn overheadAtmospheric

  8. Atmospheric Research at BNL

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Peter Daum

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Brookhaven researcher Peter Daum discusses an international field experiment designed to make observations of critical components of the climate system of the southeastern Pacific. Because elements of this system are poorly understood and poorly represent

  9. Cosmic-ray strangelets in the Earth's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Monreal

    2006-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    If strange quark matter is stable in small lumps, we expect to find such lumps, called ``strangelets'', on Earth due to a steady flux in cosmic rays. Following recent astrophysical models, we predict the strangelet flux at the top of the atmosphere, and trace the strangelets' behavior in atmospheric chemistry and circulation. We show that several strangelet species may have large abundances in the atmosphere; that they should respond favorably to laboratory-scale preconcentration techniques; and that they present promising targets for mass spectroscopy experiments.

  10. Feasibility of reconstructing paleoatmospheric records of selected alkanes, methyl halides, and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydin, M.; Williams, M. B; Saltzman, E. S

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    firn and ice at Summit, Greenland, J. Geophys. Res. , 98,AL. : TRACE GASES IN GREENLAND ICE CORE . Andreae Kettle,and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores M. Aydin, 1 M. B.

  11. Performance of the STACEE Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STACEE Collaboration; D. A. Williams; D. Bhattacharya; L. M. Boone; M. C. Chantell; Z. Conner; C. E. Covault; M. Dragovan; P. Fortin; D. Gingrich; D. T. Gregorich; D. S. Hanna; G. Mohanty; R. Mukherjee; R. A. Ong; S. Oser; K. Ragan; R. A. Scalzo; D. R. Schuette; C. G. Theoret; T. O. Tumer; F. Vincent; J. A. Zweerink

    2000-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is located at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The field of solar tracking mirrors (heliostats) around a central receiver tower is used to direct Cherenkov light from atmospheric showers onto secondary mirrors on the tower, which in turn image the light onto cameras of photomultiplier tubes. The STACEE Collaboration has previously reported a detection of the Crab Nebula with approximately 7 standard deviation significance, using 32 heliostats (STACEE-32). This result demonstrates both the viability of the technique and the suitability of the site. We are in the process of completing an upgrade to 48 heliostats (STACEE-48) en route to an eventual configuration using 64 heliostats (STACEE-64) in early 2001. In this paper, we summarize the results obtained on the sensitivity of STACEE-32 and our expectations for STACEE-48 and STACEE-64.

  12. Performance of the STACEE Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, D A; Boone, L M; Chantell, M C; Conner, Z; Covault, C E; Dragovan, M; Fortin, P; Gingrich, D M; Gregorich, D T; Hanna, D S; Mohanty, G B; Mukherjee, R; Ong, R A; Oser, S M; Ragan, K; Scalzo, R A; Schtte, D R; Theoret, C G; Tmer, T O; Vincent, F; Zweerink, J A

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is located at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The field of solar tracking mirrors (heliostats) around a central receiver tower is used to direct Cherenkov light from atmospheric showers onto secondary mirrors on the tower, which in turn image the light onto cameras of photomultiplier tubes. The STACEE Collaboration has previously reported a detection of the Crab Nebula with approximately 7 standard deviation significance, using 32 heliostats (STACEE-32). This result demonstrates both the viability of the technique and the suitability of the site. We are in the process of completing an upgrade to 48 heliostats (STACEE-48) en route to an eventual configuration using 64 heliostats (STACEE-64) in early 2001. In this paper, we summarize the results obtained on the sensitivity of STACEE-32 and our expectations for STACEE-48 and STACEE-64.

  13. Theoretical Studies of the Dynamics of Gases at Organic Surfaces...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    derived from high-accuracy ab initio calculations. For inelastic collisions, standard harmonic forcefields with improved non-bonding terms reproduce experiments on rare gas, O2,...

  14. Old-field Community, Climate and Atmospheric Manipulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aimee Classen

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We are in the process of finishing a number of laboratory, growth chamber and greenhouse projects, analyzing data, and writing papers. The projects reported addressed these subjects: How do climate and atmospheric changes alter aboveground plant biomass and community structure; Effects of multiple climate changes factors on plant community composition and diversity: what did we learn from a 5-year open-top chamber experiment using constructed old-field communities; Do atmospheric and climatic change factors interact to alter woody seedling emergence, establishment and productivity; Soil moisture surpasses elevated CO{sub 2} and temperature in importance as a control on soil carbon dynamics; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter belowground root and fungal biomass; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter soil microarthropod and microbial communities; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter belowground microbial function; Linking root litter diversity and microbial functioning at a micro scale under current and projected CO{sub 2} concentrations; Multifactor climate change effects on soil ecosystem functioning depend on concurrent changes in plant community composition; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter aboveground insect populations; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter festuca endophyte infection; How do climate and atmospheric changes soil carbon stabilization.

  15. Mobility of singly-charged lanthanide cations in rare gases: Theoretical assessment of the state specificity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchachenko, Alexei A., E-mail: alexei@classic.chem.msu.su [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow District 142432, Russia and Department of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Viehland, Larry A., E-mail: viehland@chatham.edu [Science Department, Chatham University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States)

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    High quality, ab initio calculations are reported for the potential energy curves governing the interactions of four singly-charged lanthanide ions (Yb{sup +}, Eu{sup +}, Lu{sup +}, and Gd{sup +}) with the rare gases (RG = HeXe). Scalar-relativistic coupled cluster calculations are used for the first three S-state ions, but for Gd{sup +}({sup 10}D) it is necessary to take the interaction anisotropy into account with the help of the multi-reference technique. The potential energy curves are used to determine the ion mobility and other transport properties describing the motion of the ions through the dilute RG, both as functions of the temperature, T, in the low-field limit, and at fixed T as functions of the ratio of the electrostatic field strength to the gas number density, E/N. The calculated mobilities are in good agreement with the very limited experimental data that have become available recently. The calculations show a pronounced dependence of the transport properties on the electronic configuration of the ion, as well as a significant effect of the spin-orbit coupling on the transport properties of the Gd{sup +} ion, and predict that state-specific mobilities could be detectable in Gd{sup +}RG experiments.

  16. Are Greenhouse Gases Changing ENSO Precursors in the Western North Pacific?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, S-Y (Simon); Heureux, Michelle L.; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using multiple observational and modeling datasets, we document a strengthening relationship between boreal winter sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the western North Pacific (WNP) and the development of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) one year later. The increased WNP-ENSO association emerged in the mid 20th century and has grown through the present, reaching correlation coefficients as high as ~0.70 in recent decades. Fully coupled climate experiments with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) replicate the WNP-ENSO association and indicate that greenhouse gases (GHG) are largely responsible for the observed increase. We speculate that shifts in the location and amplitudes of positive SST trends in the subtropical-tropical western Pacific impacts the low-level circulation so that WNP variability is increasingly influencing the development of ENSO one year later. A strengthened GHG-driven relationship between the WNP and ENSO provides an example of how anthropogenic climate change can potentially improve the skill of intraseasonal-to-interannual climate prediction.

  17. The Global Anthropogenic Lead Experiment Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Einat, Aharonov

    , coal combustion, incineration, cement manufacture). · Leaded gasoline utilization creates fine activities (smelting, coal burning, etc.) · Incineration -------------------------- · "Tin" can solder seams

  18. ARM - Field Campaign - 2013 Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience4AJ01)3, 2010September 30,JuneMay 15,October 6,2 NEAQS (New7

  19. In-Situ Microbial Conversion of Sequestered Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, M; Balin, D F

    2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the project are to use microbiological in situ bioconversion technology to convert sequestered or naturally-occurring greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, into methane and other useful organic compounds. The key factors affecting coal bioconversion identified in this research include (1) coal properties, (2) thermal maturation and coalification process, (3) microbial population dynamics, (4) hydrodynamics (5) reservoir conditions, and (6) the methodology of getting the nutrients into the coal seams. While nearly all cultures produced methane, we were unable to confirm sustained methane production from the enrichments. We believe that the methane generation may have been derived from readily metabolized organic matter in the coal samples and/or biosoluble organic material in the coal formation water. This raises the intriguing possibility that pretreatment of the coal in the subsurface to bioactivate the coal prior to the injection of microbes and nutrients might be possible. We determined that it would be more cost effective to inject nutrients into coal seams to stimulate indigenous microbes in the coal seams, than to grow microbes in fermentation vats and transport them to the well site. If the coal bioconversion process can be developed on a larger scale, then the cost to generate methane could be less than $1 per Mcf

  20. Fluidized bed pyrolysis of bitumen-impregnated sandstone at sub-atmospheric conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, J.V.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 15.2 cm diameter fluidized bed reactor was designed, built, and operated to study the pyrolysis of oil sands at pressures slightly less than atmospheric. Fluidizing gas flow through the reactor was caused by reducing the pressure above the bed with a gas pump operating in the vacuum mode. Pyrolysis energy was supplied by a propane burner, and the hot propane combustion gases were used for fluidization. The fluidized bed pyrolysis at reduced pressure using combustion gases allowed the reactor to be operated at significantly lower temperatures than previously reported. At 450{degree}, over 80% of the bitumen fed was recovered as a liquid product, and the spent sand contained less than 1% coke. The liquid product recovery system, by design, yielded three liquid streams with distinctly different properties.

  1. Fluidized bed pyrolysis of bitumen-impregnated sandstone at sub-atmospheric conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, J.V.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 15.2 cm diameter fluidized bed reactor was designed, built, and operated to study the pyrolysis of oil sands at pressures slightly less than atmospheric. Fluidizing gas flow through the reactor was caused by reducing the pressure above the bed with a gas pump operating in the vacuum mode. Pyrolysis energy was supplied by a propane burner, and the hot propane combustion gases were used for fluidization. The fluidized bed pyrolysis at reduced pressure using combustion gases allowed the reactor to be operated at significantly lower temperatures than previously reported. At 450[degree], over 80% of the bitumen fed was recovered as a liquid product, and the spent sand contained less than 1% coke. The liquid product recovery system, by design, yielded three liquid streams with distinctly different properties.

  2. Atmospheric propagation of THz radiation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wanke, Michael Clement; Mangan, Michael A.; Foltynowicz, Robert J.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this investigation, we conduct a literature study of the best experimental and theoretical data available for thin and thick atmospheres on THz radiation propagation from 0.1 to 10 THz. We determined that for thick atmospheres no data exists beyond 450 GHz. For thin atmospheres data exists from 0.35 to 1.2 THz. We were successful in using FASE code with the HITRAN database to simulate the THz transmission spectrum for Mauna Kea from 0.1 to 2 THz. Lastly, we successfully measured the THz transmission spectra of laboratory atmospheres at relative humidities of 18 and 27%. In general, we found that an increase in the water content of the atmosphere led to a decrease in the THz transmission. We identified two potential windows in an Albuquerque atmosphere for THz propagation which were the regions from 1.2 to 1.4 THz and 1.4 to 1.6 THz.

  3. Operating Experience Review of the INL HTE Gas Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. C. Cadwallader; K. G. DeWall

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the operations of several types of gas monitors in use at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) High Temperature Electrolysis Experiment (HTE) laboratory. The gases monitored at hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The operating time, calibration, and unwanted alarms are described. The calibration session time durations are described. Some simple statistics are given for the reliability of these monitors and the results are compared to operating experiences of other types of monitors.

  4. ATMOSPHERIC ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 44 (1997) 231-241

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reading, University of

    ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 44 (1997) 231-241 Error analysis of backscatter;accepted 14 February 1997 Abstract Ice sphere backscatter has been calculated using both Mie theory as a reasonable approximation for rv 1997 Elsevier Science B.V. 1. Introduction Cirrus clouds play

  5. ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 38 (1995) 207-235 ATMOSPHERIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moelders, Nicole

    ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 38 (1995) 207-235 ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH On the parameterization of ice and water substance mixing ratio fields were only strongly altered by turning off the ice phase of these schemes includes ice processes. But in mid- latitudes and also in tropics the ice phase is an important

  6. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luisa T. Molina, Rainer Volkamer, Benjamin de Foy, Wenfang Lei, Miguel Zavala, Erik Velasco; Mario J. Molina

    2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation. The measurement phase of the MILAGRO Campaign was successfully completed in March 2006 with excellent participation from the international scientific community and outstanding cooperation from the Mexican government agencies and institutions. The project reported here was led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Molina Center for Energy and the Environment (MIT/MCE2) team and coordinated with DOE/ASP-funded collaborators at Aerodyne Research Inc., University of Colorado at Boulder and Montana State University. Currently 24 papers documenting the findings from this project have been published. The results from the project have improved significantly our understanding of the meteorological and photochemical processes contributing to the formation of ozone, secondary aerosols and other pollutants. Key findings from the MCMA-2003 include a vastly improved speciated emissions inventory from on-road vehicles: the MCMA motor vehicles produce abundant amounts of primary PM, elemental carbon, particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and a wide range of air toxics; the feasibility of using eddy covariance techniques to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds in an urban core and a valuable tool for validating local emissions inventory; a much better understanding of the sources and atmospheric loadings of volatile organic compounds; the first spectroscopic detection of glyoxal in the atmosphere; a unique analysis of the high fraction of ambient formaldehyde from primary emission sources; characterization of ozone formation and its sensitivity to VOCs and NOx; a much more extensive knowledge of the composition, size distribution and atmospheric mass loadings of both primary and secondary fine PM, including the fact that the rate of MCMA SOA production greatly exceeded that predicted by current atmospheric models; evaluations of significant errors that can arise from standard air quality monitors for O3 and NO2; and the implementation of an innovative Markov Chain Monte Carlo method for inorganic aerosol modeling as a powerful tool to analyze aerosol data and predict gas phase concentrations where these are unavailable. During the MILAGRO Campaign the collaborative team utilized a combination of central fixed sites and a mobile laboratory deployed throughout the MCMA to representative urban and boundary sites to measure trace gases and fine particles. Analysis of the extensive 2006 data sets has confirmed the key findings from MCMA-2002/2003; additionally MCMA-2006 provided more detailed gas and aerosol chemistry and wider regional scale coverage. Key results include an updated 2006 emissions inventory; extension of the flux system to measure fluxes of fine particles; better understanding of the sources and apportionment of aerosols, including contribution from biomass burning and industrial sources; a comprehensive evaluation of metal containing particles in a complex urban environment; identification of a close correlation between

  7. IRRADIATION EXPERIMENTS &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    IRRADIATION EXPERIMENTS & FACILITIES AT BNL: BLIP & NSLS II Peter Wanderer Superconducting Magnet). Current user: LBNE ­ materials for Project X. · Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment ­ Abandoned gold mine

  8. Water Vapor Experiment Concludes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and Materials Disposition3 Water Vapor Experiment Concludes The

  9. Sharing Smart Grid Experiences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBi (2)Sharing Smart Grid Experiences through Performance Feedback

  10. Excitation spectrum and quasiparticles in quantum gases. A rigorous approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcin Napirkowski

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is devoted to a rigorous study of interacting quantum gases. The main objects of interest are the closely related concepts of excitation spectrum and quasiparticles. The immediate motivation of this work is to propose a spectral point of view concerning these two concepts. In the first part of this thesis we discuss the concepts of excitation spectrum and quasiparticles. We provide an overview of physical motivations and based on that we propose a spectral and Hamiltonian-based approach towards these terms. Based on that, we formulate definitions and propositions related to these concepts. In the second part we recall the Bogoliubov and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approximations, which in the physics literature are used to obtain the quasiparticle picture. We show how these two approaches fit into a universal scheme which allows us to arrive at a quasiparticle picture in a more general setup. This scheme is based on the minimization of Hamiltonians over the so-called Gaussian states. Its abstract formulation is the content of Beliaev's Theorem. In the last part we present a rigorous result concerning the justification of the Bogoliubov approximation. This justification employs the concept of the mean-field and infinite-volume limit. We show that for a large number of particles, a large volume and a sufficiently high density, the low-lying energy-momentum spectrum of the homogeneous Bose gas is well described by the Bogoliubov approximation. This result, which is formulated in the form of a theorem, can be seen as the main result of this thesis.

  11. ACID GASES IN CO2-RICH SUBSURFACE GEOLOGIC ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chialvo, Ariel A [ORNL] [ORNL; Vlcek, Lukas [ORNL] [ORNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University] [Ohio State University

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The analysis of species behavior involving dilute fluid environments has been crucial for the advance of modern solvation thermodynamics through molecular-based formalisms to guide the development of macroscopic regression tools in the description of fluid behavior and correlation of experimental data (Chialvo 2013). Dilute fluid environments involving geologic formations are of great theoretical and practical relevance regardless of the thermodynamic state conditions. The most challenging systems are those involving highly compressible and reactive confined environments, i.e., where small perturbations of pressure and/or temperature can trigger considerable density changes. This in turn can alter significantly the species solvation, their preferential solvation, and consequently, their reactivity with one another and with the surrounding mineral surfaces whose outcome is the modification of the substrate porosity and permeability, and ultimately, the integrity of the mineral substrates. Considering that changes in porosity and permeability resulting from dissolution and precipitation phenomena in confined environments are at the core of the aqueous CO2-mineral interactions, and that caprock integrity (e.g., sealing capacity) depends on these key parameters, it is imperative to gain fundamental understanding of the mineral-fluid interfacial phenomena and fluid-fluid equilibria under mineral confinement at subsurface conditions. In order to undertand the potential effects of acid gases as contaminants of supercritical CO2 streams, in the next section we will discuss the thermodynamic behavior of CO2 fluid systems by addressing two crucial issues in the context of carbon capture, utilization and sequestration (CCUS) technologies: (i) Why should we consider (acid gas) CO2 impurities? and (ii) Why are CO2 fluid - mineral interactions of paramount relevance?

  12. EIA - Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed NewcatalystNeutron scattering characterizesAnalysis & Projections Glossary ›‹

  13. New Materials for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from Combustion Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions andDataNational Library of1,Department ofNewofLaser'sLocalNewBuilding

  14. Hazardous Gases VASILIS M. FTHENAKIS Department of Applied Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Bigfront.jpgcommunity200cell 9Harvey Brooks, 1960Options for Accidental

  15. PPPL Wins Department of Energy Award For Reducing Greenhouse Gases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006 TheSteven Ashby Dr. Steven Ashby News RoomPlasma Physics

  16. PPPL wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006 TheSteven Ashby Dr. Steven Ashbystation | Princeton PlasmaPrinceton

  17. Pulse Radiolysis of Gases H atom yields, OH reactions,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    relevance to atmospheric chemistry is discussed. Pulse radiolysis of a number of different chemical systems. The l'fetirae of Pb(CH3)4 and Pb(C2H5)4 in ambient air is estimated. k(OH + Pb(CH3)4) = 3.8 * 109 M_l s determined: k(H + H2S · H2 + HS) = 4-6 x 108 M ^ s " 1 k(HS + HS · products) = (1.9 ± 0.1) x io1 0 M ^ s " 1

  18. Where Greenhouse Gases Come From | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and MaterialsWenjun DengWISP Sign InWhatpollution gets a whiff

  19. What's the Greenhouse Effect? The earth is surrounded by a blanket of gases. This

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowen, James D.

    #12;What's the Greenhouse Effect? The earth is surrounded by a blanket of gases. This blanket and climate change result from the greenhouse effect. #12;What's the Problem? Eradica@on of en

  20. Quantum coherence and magnetism in bosonic and fermionic gases of ultracold atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jo, Gyu-Boong

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, two sets of experimental studies in bosonic and fermionic gases are described. In the first part of the thesis, itinerant ferromagnetism was studied in a strongly interacting Fermi gas of ultracold atoms. ...

  1. Adsorption Modeling of Coalbed Gases and the Effects of Water on Their Adsorption Behavior.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammad, Sayeed Ahmed

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The simplified local-density/Peng-Robinson (SLD-PR) adsorption model was utilized to investigate the adsorption behavior of coalbed gases on coals of varying rank. The model parameters were (more)

  2. Spatio-temporal theory of lasing action in optically-pumped rotationally excited molecular gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chua, Song-Liang

    We investigate laser emission from optically-pumped rotationally excited molecular gases confined in a metallic cavity. To this end, we have developed a theoretical framework able to accurately describe, both in the spatial ...

  3. Quantifying emissions of greenhouse gases from South Asia through a targeted measurement campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganesan, Anita Lakshmi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N20) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) are powerful greenhouse gases with global budgets that are well-known but regional distributions that are not adequately constrained for the purposes of ...

  4. Field-driven dynamics of dilute gases, viscous liquids and polymer chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohan, Aruna, 1981-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is concerned with the exploration of field-induced dynamical phenomena arising in dilute gases, viscous liquids and polymer chains. The problems considered herein pertain to the slip-induced motion of a rigid, ...

  5. Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a Solar + Earth Spectrum IR Absorbers Grey Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect #12;Radiation: Solar and Earth Surface B"(T) Planck Ideal Emission Integrate at the carbon cycle #12;However, #12;Greenhouse Effect is Complex #12;PLANETARY ENERGY BALANCE G+W fig 3-5

  6. The Atmospheric Signatures of Super-Earths: How to Distinguish Between Hydrogen-Rich and Hydrogen-Poor Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Miller-Ricci; D. Sasselov; S. Seager

    2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Extrasolar super-Earths (1-10 M$_{\\earth}$) are likely to exist with a wide range of atmospheres. Some super-Earths may be able to retain massive hydrogen-rich atmospheres. Others might never accumulate hydrogen or experience significant escape of lightweight elements, resulting in atmospheres more like those of the terrestrial planets in our Solar System. We examine how an observer could differentiate between hydrogen-rich and hydrogen-poor atmospheres by modeling super-Earth emission and transmission spectra, and we find that discrimination is possible by observing the transmission spectrum alone. An Earth-like atmosphere, composed of mostly heavy elements and molecules, will have a very weak transmission signal due to its small atmospheric scale height (since the scale height is inversely proportional to molecular weight). On the other hand, a large hydrogen-rich atmosphere reveals a relatively large transmission signal. The super Earth emission spectrum can additionally contrain the atmospheric composition and temperature structure. Super-Earths with massive hydrogen atmospheres will reveal strong spectral features due to water, whereas those that have lost most of their hydrogen (and have no liquid ocean) will be marked by CO$_2$ features and a lack of H$_2$O. We apply our study specifically to the low-mass planet orbiting an M star, Gl 581c ($M sin i$ = 5 M$_{\\earth}$), although our conclusions are relevant for super-Earths in general. The ability to distinguish hydrogen-rich atmospheres might be essential for interpreting mass and radius observations of planets in the transition between rocky super-Earths and Neptune-like planets.

  7. Iron-based alloys with corrosion resistance to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Natesan, K.

    1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An iron-based alloy with improved performance with exposure to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases with the alloy containing about 9--30 wt. % Cr and a small amount of Nb and/or Zr implanted on the surface of the alloy to diffuse a depth into the surface portion, with the alloy exhibiting corrosion resistance to the corrosive gases without bulk addition of Nb and/or Zr and without heat treatment at temperatures of 1000--1100 C. 7 figs.

  8. Iron-based alloys with corrosion resistance to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Natesan, Krishnamurti (Naperville, IL)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An iron-based alloy with improved performance with exposure to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases with the alloy containing about 9-30 wt. % Cr and a small amount of Nb and/or Zr implanted on the surface of the alloy to diffuse a depth into the surface portion, with the alloy exhibiting corrosion resistance to the corrosive gases without bulk addition of Nb and/or Zr and without heat treatment at temperatures of 1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.

  9. Molecular extended thermodynamics of rarefied polyatomic gases and wave velocities for increasing number of moments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arima, Takashi, E-mail: tks@stat.nitech.ac.jp [Center for Social Contribution and Collaboration, Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan); Mentrelli, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.mentrelli@unibo.it [Department of Mathematics and Research Center of Applied Mathematics (CIRAM), University of Bologna (Italy); Ruggeri, Tommaso, E-mail: tommaso.ruggeri@unibo.it [Department of Mathematics and Research Center of Applied Mathematics (CIRAM), University of Bologna (Italy)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular extended thermodynamics of rarefied polyatomic gases is characterized by two hierarchies of equations for moments of a suitable distribution function in which the internal degrees of freedom of a molecule is taken into account. On the basis of physical relevance the truncation orders of the two hierarchies are proven to be not independent on each other, and the closure procedures based on the maximum entropy principle (MEP) and on the entropy principle (EP) are proven to be equivalent. The characteristic velocities of the emerging hyperbolic system of differential equations are compared to those obtained for monatomic gases and the lower bound estimate for the maximum equilibrium characteristic velocity established for monatomic gases (characterized by only one hierarchy for moments with truncation order of moments N) by Boillat and Ruggeri (1997) (?{sub (N)}{sup E,max})/(c{sub 0}) ??(6/5 (N?1/2 )),(c{sub 0}=?(5/3 k/m T)) is proven to hold also for rarefied polyatomic gases independently from the degrees of freedom of a molecule. -- Highlights: Molecular extended thermodynamics of rarefied polyatomic gases is studied. The relation between two hierarchies of equations for moments is derived. The equivalence of maximum entropy principle and entropy principle is proven. The characteristic velocities are compared to those of monatomic gases. The lower bound of the maximum characteristic velocity is estimated.

  10. Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Vol. 37, No. 3, 2001, pp. 314319. Translated from Izvestiya AN. Fizika Atmosfery i Okeana, Vol. 37, No. 3, 2001, pp. 339345. Original Russian Text Copyright 2001 by Kashin, Kamenogradskii, Grechko, Dzhola, Pobe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and, thus, in changes of the earth's climate. That is why, at present, there are different (first © 2001 by åAIK "Nauka /Interperiodica" (Russia). INTRODUCTION An increase in the content of greenhouse gases (CO2, H2O, CH4, N2O, and others) results in changes of the radiative properties of the atmosphere

  11. Predicting the pressure driven flow of gases through micro-capillaries and micro-orifices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, B.L.; Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large body of experimentally measured gas flow rates were obtained from the literature and then compared to the predictions obtained with constitutive flow equations. This was done to determine whether the equations apply to the predictions of gas flow rates from leaking containment vessels used to transport radioactive materials. The experiments consisted of measuring the volumetric pressure-driven flow of gases through micro-capillaries and micro-orifices. The experimental results were compared to the predictions obtained with the equations given in ANSI N14.5 the American National Standard for Radioactive Materials-Leakage Tests on Package for Shipment. The equations were applied to both (1) the data set according to the recommendations given in ANSI N14.5 and (2) globally to the complete data set. It was found that: The continuum and molecular flow equation provided good agreement between the experimental and calculated flow rates for flow rates less than about 1 atm{center_dot}cm{sup 3}/s. The choked flow equation resulted in over-prediction of the flow rates for flow rates less than about 1 atm-cm{sup 3}/s. For flow rates higher than 1 atm{center_dot}cm{sup 3}/s, the molecular and continuum flow equation over-predicted the measured flow rates and the predictions obtained with the choked flow equation agreed well with the experimental values. Since the flow rates of interest for packages used to transport radioactive materials are almost always less than 1 atm{center_dot}cm{sup 3}/s, it is suggested that the continuum and molecular flow equation be used for gas flow rate predictions related to these applications.

  12. Theoretical investigation of the impact of grain boundaries and fission gases on UO2 thermal conductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Shiyu [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Andersson, Anders D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Timothy C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stanek, Christopher R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal conductivity is one of the most important metrics of nuclear fuel performance. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the impact of microstructure features on thermal conductivity, especially since the microstructure evolves with burn-up or time in the reactor. For example, UO{sub 2} fuels are polycrystalline and for high-burnup fuels the outer parts of the pellet experience grain sub-division leading to a very fine grain structure. This is known to impact important physical properties such as thermal conductivity as fission gas release. In a previous study, we calculated the effect of different types of {Sigma}5 grain boundaries on UO{sub 2} thermal conductivity and predicted the corresponding Kapitza resistances, i.e. the resistance of the grain boundary in relation to the bulk thermal resistance. There have been reports of pseudoanisotropic effects for the thermal conductivity in cubic polycrystalline materials, as obtained from molecular dynamics simulations, which means that the conductivity appears to be a function of the crystallographic direction of the temperature gradient. However, materials with cubic symmetry should have isotropic thermal conductivity. For this reason it is necessary to determine the cause of this apparent anisotropy and in this report we investigate this effect in context of our earlier simulations of UO{sub 2} Kapitza resistances. Another source of thermal resistance comes from fission products and fission gases. Xe is the main fission gas and when generated in sufficient quantity it dissolves from the lattice and forms gas bubbles inside the crystalline structure. We have performed studies of how Xe atoms dissolved in the UO{sub 2} matrix or precipitated as bubbles impact thermal conductivity, both in bulk UO{sub 2} and in the presence of grain boundaries.

  13. Waste Heat Recovery from High Temperature Off-Gases from Electric Arc Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U [ORNL; Thekdi, Arvind [E3M Inc; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article presents a study and review of available waste heat in high temperature Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) off gases and heat recovery techniques/methods from these gases. It gives details of the quality and quantity of the sensible and chemical waste heat in typical EAF off gases, energy savings potential by recovering part of this heat, a comprehensive review of currently used waste heat recovery methods and potential for use of advanced designs to achieve a much higher level of heat recovery including scrap preheating, steam production and electric power generation. Based on our preliminary analysis, currently, for all electric arc furnaces used in the US steel industry, the energy savings potential is equivalent to approximately 31 trillion Btu per year or 32.7 peta Joules per year (approximately $182 million US dollars/year). This article describes the EAF off-gas enthalpy model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to calculate available and recoverable heat energy for a given stream of exhaust gases coming out of one or multiple EAF furnaces. This Excel based model calculates sensible and chemical enthalpy of the EAF off-gases during tap to tap time accounting for variation in quantity and quality of off gases. The model can be used to estimate energy saved through scrap preheating and other possible uses such as steam generation and electric power generation using off gas waste heat. This article includes a review of the historical development of existing waste heat recovery methods, their operations, and advantages/limitations of these methods. This paper also describes a program to develop and test advanced concepts for scrap preheating, steam production and electricity generation through use of waste heat recovery from the chemical and sensible heat contained in the EAF off gases with addition of minimum amount of dilution or cooling air upstream of pollution control equipment such as bag houses.

  14. TRIO experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Misra, B.; Billone, M.C.; Bowers, D.L.; Fischer, A.K.; Greenwood, L.R.; Mattas, R.F.; Tam, S.W.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The TRIO experiment is a test of in-situ tritium recovery and heat transfer performance of a miniaturized solid breeder blanket assembly. The assembly (capsule) was monitored for temperature and neutron flux profiles during irradiation and a sweep gas flowed through the capsule to an anaytical train wherein the amounts of tritium in its various chemical forms were determined. The capsule was designed to operate at different temperatures and sweep gas conditions. At the end of the experiment the amount of tritium retained in the solid was at a concentration of less than 0.1 wppM. More than 99.9% of tritium generated during the experiment was successfully recovered. The results of the experiment showed that the tritium inventories at the beginning and at the end of the experiment follow a relationship which appears to be characteristic of intragranular diffusion.

  15. FLORIDA TOWER FOOTPRINT EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WATSON,T.B.; DIETZ, R.N.; WILKE, R.; HENDREY, G.; LEWIN, K.; NAGY, J.; LECLERC, M.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Florida Footprint experiments were a series of field programs in which perfluorocarbon tracers were released in different configurations centered on a flux tower to generate a data set that can be used to test transport and dispersion models. These models are used to determine the sources of the CO{sub 2} that cause the fluxes measured at eddy covariance towers. Experiments were conducted in a managed slash pine forest, 10 km northeast of Gainesville, Florida, in 2002, 2004, and 2006 and in atmospheric conditions that ranged from well mixed, to very stable, including the transition period between convective conditions at midday to stable conditions after sun set. There were a total of 15 experiments. The characteristics of the PFTs, details of sampling and analysis methods, quality control measures, and analytical statistics including confidence limits are presented. Details of the field programs including tracer release rates, tracer source configurations, and configuration of the samplers are discussed. The result of this experiment is a high quality, well documented tracer and meteorological data set that can be used to improve and validate canopy dispersion models.

  16. Laser Atmospheric Studies with VERITAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. M. Hui; for the VERITAS collaboration

    2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    As a calibrated laser pulse propagates through the atmosphere, the amount of Rayleigh-scattered light arriving at the VERITAS telescopes can be calculated precisely. This technique was originally developed for the absolute calibration of ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray fluorescence telescopes but is also applicable to imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). In this paper, we present two nights of laser data taken with the laser at various distances away from the VERITAS telescopes and compare it to Rayleigh scattering simulations.

  17. Phase Behavior of Light Gases in Hydrocarbon and Aqueous Solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gasem, K.A.M.; Robinson, R.L., Jr.; Trvedi, N.J., Gao, W.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under previous support from the Department of Energy, an experimental facility has been established and operated to measure valuable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for systems of interest in the production and processing of coal fluids. To facilitate the development and testing of models for prediction of the phase behavior for such systems, we have acquired substantial amounts of data on the equilibrium phase compositions for binary mixtures of heavy hydrocarbon solvents with a variety of supercritical solutes, including hydrogen, methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The present project focuses on measuring the phase behavior of light gases and water in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) type solvents at conditions encountered in indirect liquefaction processes and evaluating and developing theoretically-based correlating frameworks to predict the phase behavior of such systems. Specific goals of the proposed work include (a) developing a state-of-the-art experimental facility to permit highly accurate measurements of equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) of challenging F-T systems, (b) measuring these properties for systematically-selected binary, ternary and molten F-T wax mixtures to provide critically needed input data for correlation development, (c) developing and testing models suitable for describing the phase behavior of such mixtures, and (d) presenting the modeling results in generalized, practical formats suitable for use in process engineering calculations. During the present reporting period, our solubility apparatus was refurbished and restored to full service. To test the experimental apparatus and procedures used, measurements were obtained for the solubility Of C0{sub 2} in benzene at 160{degrees}F. Having confirmed the accuracy of the newly acquired data in comparison with our previous measurements and data reported in the literature for this test system, we have begun to measure the solubility of hydrogen in hexane. The measurements for this system will cover the temperature range from 160 to 280{degrees}F at pressures to 2,500 psia. As part of our model evaluation efforts, we examined the predictive abilities of an alternative approach we have proposed for calculating the phase behavior properties of highly non-ideal systems. Using this approach, the liquid phase fugacities generated from an equation of state (EOS) are augmented by a fugacity deviation function correction. The correlative abilities of this approach are compared with those of an EOS equipped with the recently introduced Wong-Sandler (MWS) mixing rules. These two approaches are compared with the current methods for vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) calculations, i.e., the EOS (0/0) approach with the van der Waals mixing rules and the split (y/0) approach. The evaluations were conducted on a database comprised of non-ideal low pressure binary systems as well as asymmetric high pressure binary systems. These systems are of interest in the coal liquefaction and utilization processes. The Peng-Robinson EOS was selected for the purposes of this evaluation.

  18. Scale-free Universal Spectrum for Atmospheric Aerosol Size Distribution for Davos, Mauna Loa and Izana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Selvam

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric flows exhibit fractal fluctuations and inverse power law form for power spectra indicating an eddy continuum structure for the selfsimilar fluctuations. A general systems theory for fractal fluctuations developed by the author is based on the simple visualisation that large eddies form by space-time integration of enclosed turbulent eddies, a concept analogous to Kinetic Theory of Gases in Classical Statistical Physics. The ordered growth of atmospheric eddy continuum is in dynamical equilibrium and is associated with Maximum Entropy Production. The model predicts universal (scale-free) inverse power law form for fractal fluctuations expressed in terms of the golden mean. Atmospheric particulates are held in suspension in the fractal fluctuations of vertical wind velocity. The mass or radius (size) distribution for homogeneous suspended atmospheric particulates is expressed as a universal scale-independent function of the golden mean, the total number concentration and the mean volume radius. Model predicted spectrum is in agreement (within two standard deviations on either side of the mean) with total averaged radius size spectra for the AERONET (aerosol inversions) stations Davos and Mauna Loa for the year 2010 and Izana for the year 2009 daily averages. The general systems theory model for aerosol size distribution is scale free and is derived directly from atmospheric eddy dynamical concepts. At present empirical models such as the log normal distribution with arbitrary constants for the size distribution of atmospheric suspended particulates are used for quantitative estimation of earth-atmosphere radiation budget related to climate warming/cooling trends. The universal aerosol size spectrum will have applications in computations of radiation balance of earth-atmosphere system in climate models.

  19. Fragmentation Energetics of Clusters Relevant to Atmospheric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Clusters Relevant to Atmospheric New Particle Formation. Fragmentation Energetics of Clusters Relevant to Atmospheric New Particle Formation. Abstract: The exact mechanisms by...

  20. Report of the Solar and Atmospheric Neutrino Working Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back, H.; Bahcall, J.N.; Bernabeu, J.; Boulay, M.G.; Bowles, T.; Calaprice, F.; Champagne, A.; Freedman, S.; Gai, M.; Galbiati, C.; Gallagher, H.; Gonzalez-Garcia, C.; Hahn, R.L.; Heeger, K.M.; Hime, A.; Jung, C.K.; Klein, J.R.; Koike, M.; Lanou, R.; Learned, J.G.; Lesko, K.T.; Losecco, J.; Maltoni, M.; Mann, A.; McKinsey, D.; Palomares-Ruiz, S.; Pena-Garay, C.; Petcov, S.T.; Piepke, A.; Pitt, M.; Raghavan, R.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Scholberg, K.; Sobel, H.W.; Takeuchi, T.; Vogelaar, R.; Wolfenstein, L.

    2004-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The highest priority of the Solar and Atmospheric Neutrino Experiment Working Group is the development of a real-time, precision experiment that measures the pp solar neutrino flux. A measurement of the pp solar neutrino flux, in comparison with the existing precision measurements of the high energy {sup 8}B neutrino flux, will demonstrate the transition between vacuum and matter-dominated oscillations, thereby quantitatively testing a fundamental prediction of the standard scenario of neutrino flavor transformation. The initial solar neutrino beam is pure {nu}{sub e}, which also permits sensitive tests for sterile neutrinos. The pp experiment will also permit a significantly improved determination of {theta}{sub 12} and, together with other solar neutrino measurements, either a measurement of {theta}{sub 13} or a constraint a factor of two lower than existing bounds. In combination with the essential pre-requisite experiments that will measure the {sup 7}Be solar neutrino flux with a precision of 5%, a measurement of the pp solar neutrino flux will constitute a sensitive test for non-standard energy generation mechanisms within the Sun. The Standard Solar Model predicts that the pp and {sup 7}Be neutrinos together constitute more than 98% of the solar neutrino flux. The comparison of the solar luminosity measured via neutrinos to that measured via photons will test for any unknown energy generation mechanisms within the nearest star. A precise measurement of the pp neutrino flux (predicted to be 92% of the total flux) will also test stringently the theory of stellar evolution since the Standard Solar Model predicts the pp flux with a theoretical uncertainty of 1%. We also find that an atmospheric neutrino experiment capable of resolving the mass hierarchy is a high priority. Atmospheric neutrino experiments may be the only alternative to very long baseline accelerator experiments as a way of resolving this fundamental question. Such an experiment could be a very large scale water Cerenkov detector, or a magnetized detector with flavor and antiflavor sensitivity. Additional priorities are nuclear physics measurements which will reduce the uncertainties in the predictions of the Standard Solar Model, and similar supporting measurements for atmospheric neutrinos (cosmic ray fluxes, magnetic fields, etc.). We note as well that the detectors for both solar and atmospheric neutrino measurements can serve as multipurpose detectors, with capabilities of discovering dark matter, relic supernova neutrinos, proton decay, or as targets for long baseline accelerator neutrino experiments.

  1. Development and application of an analysis methodology for interpreting ambiguous historical pressure data in the WIPP gas-generation experiments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felicione, F. S.

    2006-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential for generation of gases in transuranic (TRU) waste by microbial activity, chemical interactions, corrosion, and radiolysis was addressed in the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-West) Gas-Generation Experiments (GGE). Data was collected over several years by simulating the conditions in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) after the eventual intrusion of brine into the repository. Fourteen test containers with various actual TRU waste immersed in representative brine were inoculated with WIPP-relevant microbes, pressurized with inert gases, and kept in an inert-atmosphere environment for several years to provide estimates of the gas-generation rates that will be used in computer models for future WIPP Performance Assessments. Modest temperature variations occurred during the long-term ANL-West experiments. Although the experiment temperatures always remained well within the experiment specifications, the small temperature variation was observed to affect the test container pressure far more than had been anticipated. In fact, the pressure variations were so large, and seemingly erratic, that it was impossible to discern whether the data was even valid and whether the long-term pressure trend was increasing, decreasing, or constant. The result was that no useful estimates of gas-generation rates could be deduced from the pressure data. Several initial attempts were made to quantify the pressure fluctuations by relating these to the measured temperature variation, but none was successful. The work reported here carefully analyzed the pressure measurements to determine if these were valid or erroneous data. It was found that a thorough consideration of the physical phenomena that were occurring can, in conjunction with suitable gas laws, account quite accurately for the pressure changes that were observed. Failure of the earlier attempts to validate the data was traced to the omission of several phenomena, the most important being the variation in the headspace volume caused by thermal expansion and contraction within the brine and waste. A further effort was directed at recovering useful results from the voluminous archived pressure data. An analytic methodology to do this was developed. This methodology was applied to each archived pressure measurement to nullify temperature and other effects to yield an adjusted pressure, from which gas-generation rates could be calculated. A review of the adjusted-pressure data indicated that generated-gas concentrations among these containers after approximately 3.25 years of test operation ranged from zero to over 17,000 ppm by volume. Four test containers experienced significant gas generation. All test containers that showed evidence of significant gas generation contained carbon-steel in the waste, indicating that corrosion was the predominant source of gas generation.

  2. Experiment Profile:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicy and Assistance100 tonusingdeposition.EnergyExpedited6 DES and

  3. Approved Experiments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmesApplication AccelerationCycle 31OCT97 Exp# Spokesperson

  4. Description and validation of ERAD: An atmospheric dispersion model for high explosive detonations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boughton, B.A.; DeLaurentis, J.M.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion (ERAD) model is a three-dimensional numerical simulation of turbulent atmospheric transport and diffusion. An integral plume rise technique is used to provide a description of the physical and thermodynamic properties of the cloud of warm gases formed when the explosive detonates. Particle dispersion is treated as a stochastic process which is simulated using a discrete time Lagrangian Monte Carlo method. The stochastic process approach permits a more fundamental treatment of buoyancy effects, calm winds and spatial variations in meteorological conditions. Computational requirements of the three-dimensional simulation are substantially reduced by using a conceptualization in which each Monte Carlo particle represents a small puff that spreads according to a Gaussian law in the horizontal directions. ERAD was evaluated against dosage and deposition measurements obtained during Operation Roller Coaster. The predicted contour areas average within about 50% of the observations. The validation results confirm the model`s representation of the physical processes.

  5. Cooling of hot gases by use of a spray tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pendleton, Elmer Lee

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    no effort to collect perfoz. mance data while main- taining the spray at the adiabatic saturation temperature of the air. In the experiments discussed herein, this was done in order to both improve the potential accuracy of the data and to simplify... at the entrance and at th. . throat oi' the venturi were connected by rubber tubing to a sensitive Meziam Company Yodel GP-5 inclined manometer, The maximum r. ading of this gauge was three inches of water while the cali- brationn intervals were 0. 02...

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - atlantic canada experience Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - the first continuous measuring... experiment on humanity's life- support system. Pre-industrial atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations were... of the programme in 2001, a...

  7. Dissipative Dynamics of a Josephson Junction In the Bose-Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. A. Barankov; S. N. Burmistrov

    2003-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The dissipative dynamics of a Josephson junction in the Bose-gases is considered within the framework of the model of a tunneling Hamiltonian. The effective action which describes the dynamics of the phase difference across the junction is derived using functional integration method. The dynamic equation obtained for the phase difference across the junction is analyzed for the finite temperatures in the low frequency limit involving the radiation terms. The asymmetric case of the Bose-gases with the different order parameters is calculated as well.

  8. Spin noise spectroscopy to probe quantum states of ultracold fermionic atom gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihaila, Bogdan; Blagoev, Krastan B.; Smith, Darryl L. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Crooker, Scott A.; Rickel, Dwight G. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Littlewood, Peter B. [Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We theoretically demonstrate that optical measurements of electron spin noise can be a spectroscopic probe of the entangled quantum states of ultracold fermionic atom gases and unambiguously reveal the detailed nature of the underlying interatomic correlations. Different models of the effective interatomic interactions predict entirely new sets of resonances in the spin noise spectrum. Once the correct effective interatomic interaction model is identified, the detailed noise line shapes of the spin noise can be used to constrain this model. We estimate the magnitude of spin noise signals expected in ultracold fermionic atom gases via noise measurements in classical alkali vapors, which demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.

  9. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL); Jalan, Vinod M. (Concord, MA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  10. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur-containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1982-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorbtion capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  11. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1984-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  12. Atmospheric dispersion and deposition of iodine-131 released from the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Simonen, C.A.; Burk, K.W.; Stage, S.A.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximately 2.6x10{sup 4} TBq (700,000 curies) of iodine-131 were released to the air from reactor fuel processing plants on the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington State from December 1944 through December 1949. The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project developed a suite of codes to estimate the doses that might have resulted from these releases. The Regional Atmospheric Transport Code for Hanford Emission Tracking (RATCHET) computer code is part of this suite. The RATCHET code implements a Lagrangian-trajectory, Gaussian-puff dispersion model that uses hourly meteorological and release rate data to estimate daily time-integrated air concentrations and surface contamination for use in dose estimates. In this model, iodine is treated as a mixture of three species (nominally, inorganic gases, organic gases, and particles). Model deposition parameters are functions of the mixture and meteorological conditions. A resistance model is used to calculate dry deposition velocities. Equilibrium between concentrations in the precipitation and the air near the ground is assumed in calculating wet deposition of gases, and irreversible washout of the particles is assumed. RATCHET explicitly treats the uncertainties in model parameters and meteorological conditions. Uncertainties in iodine-131 release rates and partitioning among the nominal species are treated by varying model input. The results of 100 model runs for December 1944 through December 1949 indicate that monthly average air concentrations and deposition have uncertainties ranging from a factor of two near the center of the time-integrated plume to more than an order of magnitude near the edge. These results indicate that -10% of the iodine-131 released to the atmosphere decayed during transit in the study area, -56% was deposited within the study area, and the remaining 34% was transported out of the study area while still in the air.

  13. SIO 217a Atmospheric and Climate Sciences I: Atmospheric Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    . Radiant Energy. Radiative Transfer. Transport.) 10-Oct W 3 More Transfer Processes 15-Oct M 4 4 Gas. Equation of State. Hydrostatic Equilibrium.) 3-Oct W 2 2.11 First and Second Laws and Characteristics. Precipitation Processes. Radiative Transfer in a Cloudy Atmosphere. Fogs, Stratus

  14. Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery Linked Environments for Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unidata Program Center #12;Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery The Team: 9 institutions and 105 MethodologyTraditional NWP Methodology STATIC OBSERVATIONS Radar Data Mobile Mesonets Surface Observations Satellites The Process is Entirely Prescheduled and Serial; It Does NOT Respond to the Weather! The Process

  15. NETL SOFC: Atmospheric Pressure Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Opticalhttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gifA Comparison95519LocalizedWaterTerryAtmospheric

  16. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash coat, and catalytic metals, to develop a regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor. The task of developing kinetic rate equations and modeling the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants will be abandoned since formulation of catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS is being in progress. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 46-570 seconds under reaction conditions to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases and evaluate their capabilities in reducing hydrogen sulfide and COS in coal gases. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,200-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-20,000-ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-27 v% hydrogen, 29-41 v% CO, 8-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of simulated coal gas mixtures to the reactor are 30 - 180 cm{sup 3}/min at 1 atm and 25 C (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio

  17. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. C. Kwon

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 130-156 seconds at 120-140 C to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases, evaluate removal capabilities of hydrogen sulfide and COS from coal gases with formulated catalysts, and develop an economic regeneration method of deactivated catalysts. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,300-3,800-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-1,900 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-21 v% hydrogen, 29-34 v% CO, 8-10 v% CO{sub 2}, 5-18 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 114-132 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-140 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 116-129 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is

  18. A BIOMASS-BASED MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE PLAUSIBILITY OF EXOPLANET BIOSIGNATURE GASES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seager, Sara

    Biosignature gas detection is one of the ultimate future goals for exoplanet atmosphere studies. We have created a framework for linking biosignature gas detectability to biomass estimates, including atmospheric photochemistry ...

  19. experiment, collaboration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Departamento Energias Renovables, Plataforma Solar de Almeria, E-04080 Almeria, Spain Departamento de Lenguajes y ca. factor 10 less complex then imaging solar Cerenkov exp.:smaller cost, fewer systematic errors #12; 5 Rainer Plaga The GRAAL experiment, ECRS Lodz July 2000 Location of GRAAL " Plataforma Solar de

  20. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Sustainable ForestManagement: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye (Ed.), Jayant; Makundi (Ed.), Willy; Goldberg (Ed.),Beth; Andrasko (Ed.), Ken; Sanchez (Ed.), Arturo

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The International Workshop on Sustainable Forest Management: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases was held in San Jose, Costa Rica, July 29-31, 1996. The main objectives of the workshop were to: (1) assemble key practitioners of forestry greenhouse gas (GHG) or carbon offset projects, remote sensing of land cover change, guidelines development, and the forest products certification movement, to offer presentations and small group discussions on findings relevant to the crucial need for the development of guidelines for monitoring and verifying offset projects, and (2) disseminate the findings to interested carbon offset project developers and forestry and climate change policy makers, who need guidance and consistency of methods to reduce project transaction costs and increase probable reliability of carbon benefits, at appropriate venues. The workshop brought together about 45 participants from developed, developing, and transition countries. The participants included researchers, government officials, project developers, and staff from regional and international agencies. Each shared his or her perspectives based on experience in the development and use of methods for monitoring and verifying carbon flows from forest areas and projects. A shared sense among the participants was that methods for monitoring forestry projects are well established, and the techniques are known and used extensively, particularly in production forestry. Introducing climate change with its long-term perspective is often in conflict with the shorter-term perspective of most forestry projects and standard accounting principles. The resolution of these conflicts may require national and international agreements among the affected parties. The establishment of guidelines and protocols for better methods that are sensitive to regional issues will be an important first step to increase the credibility of forestry projects as viable mitigation options. The workshop deliberations led to three primary outputs: (1) a Workshop Statement in the JI Quarterly, September, 1996; (2) the publication of a series of selected peer-reviewed technical papers from the workshop in a report of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL. 40501); and (3) a special issue of the journal ''Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change'', Kluwer Academic Publishers. The outputs will be distributed to practitioners in this field and to negotiators attending the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) deliberations leading up to the Third conference of Parties in Kyoto, in December 1997.

  1. HEATING THE ATMOSPHERE ABOVE SUNSPOTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rucklidge, Alastair

    become fragmented and twisted, and where they generate the necessary energy to heat the solar coronaHEATING THE ATMOSPHERE ABOVE SUNSPOTS David Alexander and Neal E. Hurlburt Lockheed Martin Solar, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 9EW, UK Abstract We present our results of a hybrid model of sunspots

  2. 13, 90179049, 2013 Stable atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 13, 9017­9049, 2013 Stable atmospheric methane in the 2000s I. Pison et al. Title Page Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands 3 SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands 4 Vrije Universiteit, Department of Systems Ecology, Amsterdam, the Netherlands 5

  3. Space Science: Atmosphere Thermal Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Space Science: Atmosphere Part -2 Thermal Structure Review tropospheres Absorption of Radiation Adiabatic Lapse Rate ~ 9 K/km Slightly smaller than our estimate Pressure ~3000ft under ocean surface thickness (positive up) is the solar zenith angle Fs is the solar energy flux at frequency (when

  4. Method and apparatus for separating gases based on electrically and magnetically enhanced monolithic carbon fiber composite sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judkins, R.R.; Burchell, T.D.

    1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for separating gases or other fluids involves placing a magnetic field on a monolithic carbon fiber composite sorption material to more preferentially attract certain gases or other fluids to the sorption material to which a magnetic field is applied. This technique may be combined with the known pressure swing adsorption'' technique utilizing the same sorption material. 1 fig.

  5. Method and apparatus for separating gases based on electrically and magnetically enhanced monolithic carbon fiber composite sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judkins, Roddie R. (9917 Rainbow Dr., Knoxville, TN 37922); Burchell, Timothy D. (109 Greywood Pl., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for separating gases or other fluids involves placing a magnetic field on a monolithic carbon fiber composite sorption material to more preferentially attract certain gases or other fluids to the sorption material to which a magnetic field is applied. This technique may be combined with the known "pressure swing adsorption" technique utilizing the same sorption material.

  6. Bose-Einstein Condensation in Atomic Gases Jerzy Zachorowski and Wojciech Gawlik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . It is instructive to compare orders of magnitude typical for the thermal and condensed gas samples. For atom gasBose-Einstein Condensation in Atomic Gases Jerzy Zachorowski and Wojciech Gawlik M. Smoluchowski on the Bose-Einstein condensate. We also present main parameters and expected characteristics of the first Pol

  7. Ion fragmentation in an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer interface with different gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, David D.Y.

    in the gas phase. However, particularly in multi- component samples, this may not be enough to unambigu predicts that the degree of ion fragmentation increases with increasing mass of the curtain gas. However with argon and krypton is caused by condensation of the gases within the free jet expansion between

  8. Electronic structure of the Si(111):GaSe van der Waals-like surface termination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olmstead, Marjorie

    Electronic structure of the Si(111):GaSe van der Waals-like surface termination Reiner Rudolph-like surface termination has been determined by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using photons. This explains both the absence of a surface core-level shift in Si 2p photoelectron spectra of the terminated

  9. Investigadores de la UA disean un catalizador que neutraliza gases responsables del cambio climtico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escolano, Francisco

    industria, las plantas de combustión o de las emisiones de vehículos Alicante, 6 de junio de 2013 a reducir todas las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero acordadas en el Protocolo de Kioto" explica emisiones de vehículos (motores de gasolina, motores diésel, etc.), entre otros. Actualidad Universitaria

  10. Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Dry Gases in the Cathode of PEM Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockie, John

    Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Dry Gases in the Cathode of PEM Fuel Cells M.J. Kermani1 J and N2, through the cathode of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is studied numerically) an energy equation, written in a form that has enthalpy as the dependent variable. Keywords: PEM fuel cells

  11. Classical disordered ground states: Super-ideal gases and stealth and equi-luminous materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torquato, Salvatore

    Classical disordered ground states: Super-ideal gases and stealth and equi-luminous materials of Materials, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA 4 Program in Applied and Computational focus on three classes of configurations with unique radiation scattering characteristics: i "stealth

  12. Predictive Modeling of Mercury Speciation in Combustion Flue Gases Using GMDH-Based Abductive Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

    to develop. The use of modern data-based machine learning techniques has been recently introduced, including and boiler operating conditions. Prediction performance compares favourably with neural network models for future work to further improve performance. Index Terms: Mercury speciation, Flue gases, Boiler emissions

  13. Nuclear fusion in gases of deuterium clusters heated with a femtosecond T. Ditmire,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ditmire, Todd

    Nuclear fusion in gases of deuterium clusters heated with a femtosecond laser* T. Ditmire, J deuterium­deuterium DD nuclear fusion. By diagnosing the fusion yield through measurements of 2.45 Me release of kinetic energy in fast ions can be harnessed to drive nuclear fusion between deuterium ions

  14. Ballistic spin transport in exciton gases A. V. Kavokin,1, 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , or spin-optronics challeng- ing. How possibly one can explore the current, which is carried by neutral are possible in exciton and exciton-polariton Bose gases. Bosonic spintronics or spin-optronics operates,28 . Combined with evident advantages of bosonic amplifica- tion and low dephasing, this makes spin-optronics

  15. ESTABoues, a decision tool to assess greenhouse gases of sewage sludge treatment and di

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    digestion, aerobic digestion, dewatering, al composting, drying) and sludge disposal route (land applicationORBIT2012 G ESTABoues, a decision tool to assess greenhouse gases of sewage sludge treatment and di-laure.reverdy@irstea.fr EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Sewage sludge production increases continuously reaching almost 20% (946 700 t 1 118 795

  16. 1988 Pilot Institute on Global Change on trace gases and the biosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddy, J.A.; Moore, B. III

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This proposal seeks multi-agency funding to conduct an international, multidisciplinary 1988 Pilot Institute on Global Change to take place from August 7 through 21, 1988, on the topic: Trace Gases and the Biosphere. The institute, to be held in Snowmass, Colorado, is envisioned as a pilot version of a continuing series of institutes on Global Change (IGC). This proposal seeks support for the 1988 pilot institute only. The concept and structure for the continuing series, and the definition of the 1988 pilot institute, were developed at an intensive and multidisciplinary Summer Institute Planning Meeting in Boulder, Colorado, on August 24--25, 1987. The theme for the 1988 PIGC, Trace Gases and the Biosphere, will focus a concerted, high-level multidisciplinary effort on a scientific problem central to the Global Change Program. Dramatic year-to-year increases in the global concentrations of radiatively-active trace gases such as methane and carbon dioxide are now well documented. The predicted climatic effects of these changes lend special urgency to efforts to study the biospheric sources and sinks of these gases and to clarify their interactions and role in the geosphere-biosphere system.

  17. Greenhouse gases accounting and reporting for waste management - A South African perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.z [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates how greenhouse gases are accounted and reported in the waste sector in South Africa. Developing countries (including South Africa) do not have binding emission reduction targets, but many of them publish different greenhouse gas emissions data which have been accounted and reported in different ways. Results show that for South Africa, inventories at national and municipal level are the most important tools in the process of accounting and reporting greenhouse gases from waste. For the development of these inventories international initiatives were important catalysts at national and municipal levels, and assisted in developing local expertise, resulting in increased output quality. However, discrepancies in the methodology used to account greenhouse gases from waste between inventories still remain a concern. This is a challenging issue for developing countries, especially African ones, since higher accuracy methods are more data intensive. Analysis of the South African inventories shows that results from the recent inventories can not be compared with older ones due to the use of different accounting methodologies. More recently the use of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) procedures in Africa, geared towards direct measurements of greenhouse gases from landfill sites, has increased and resulted in an improvement of the quality of greenhouse gas inventories at municipal level.

  18. Intercomparison of tritium and noble gases analyses, 3 and derived parameters excess air and recharge temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Intercomparison of tritium and noble gases analyses, 3 H/3 He ages and derived parameters excess with the tritiumhelium (3 H/3 He) method has become a powerful tool for hydrogeologists. The uncertainty in the inter- comparison for tritium analyses and ten laboratories participated in the noble gas

  19. Truck Stop Electrification as a Strategy To Reduce Greenhouse Gases, Fuel Consumption and Pollutant Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truck Stop Electrification as a Strategy To Reduce Greenhouse Gases, Fuel Consumption and Pollutant, Schneider, Lee, Bubbosh 2 ABSTRACT Extended truck idling is a very large source of fuel wastage, greenhouse, most long-haul truck drivers idle their vehicles for close to 10 hours per day to operate heating

  20. UA Researchers design a catalyst that neutralizes the gases responsible for climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escolano, Francisco

    in a fixed bed reactor through which the gas stream to be purified passes. The composition and temperature gases coming from industry, combustion plants or vehicle emissions that are responsible for increasing with ammonia, combustion processes of fossil fuels (coal, biomass, waste, etc.). and vehicle emissions

  1. Abstract--Energy consumption and the concomitant Green House Gases (GHG) emissions of network infrastructures are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Abstract--Energy consumption and the concomitant Green House Gases (GHG) emissions of network on the overall power consumption and on the GHG emissions with just 25% of green energy sources. I. INTRODUCTION]. In the zero carbon approach, renewable (green) energy sources (e.g. sun, wind, tide) are employed and no GHGs

  2. Towards a history of the international industrial gases industry Ray Stokes, Ralf Banken, and Matthias Phl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zaoyang

    industrial revolution" and their component companies. From David Landes's classic study, The Unbound of the industries of the second industrial revolution has been virtually ignored in this scholarship to date1 Towards a history of the international industrial gases industry Ray Stokes, Ralf Banken

  3. Internal structure and expansion dynamics of laser ablation plumes into ambient gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Internal structure and expansion dynamics of laser ablation plumes into ambient gases S. S. Harilal 13 December 2002 The effect of ambient gas on the expansion dynamics of the plasma generated by laser together with time resolved emission diagnostics, a triple structure of the plume was observed

  4. Measurement and Analysis of the Relationship between Ammonia, Acid Gases, and Fine Particles in Eastern North

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aneja, Viney P.

    ).2­4 Gas-to-particle conversion can be accomplished by condensation, which adds mass onto preMeasurement and Analysis of the Relationship between Ammonia, Acid Gases, and Fine Particles acid gas con- centrations of 0.23 g/m3 hydrochloric acid (standard deviation [SD] 0.2 g/m3 ); 1.14 g/m3

  5. Photoconductivity and luminescence in GaSe crystals at high levels of optical excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyazym-zade, A. G.; Salmanov, V. M., E-mail: vagif_salmanov@yahoo.com; Salmanova, A. A. [Baku State University (Azerbaijan); Alieva, A. M.; Ibaeva, R. Z. [National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The photoconductivity and luminescence of GaSe layered crystals at high levels of optical excitation are studied experimentally. The specific features observed in the photoconductivity and photoluminescence spectra are controlled by the nonlinear optical absorption in the region of excitonic resonance.

  6. Effects of Biochar and Basalt Additions on Carbon Sequestration and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases in Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Effects of Biochar and Basalt Additions on Carbon Sequestration and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases Emissions--Carbon Dioxide Emissions--Sequestration and Storage--Biochar--Basalt--Organic Fertilizers, this investigation focuses on the range of potential of different soil additives to enhance sequestration and storage

  7. Operational aspects of the desulfurization process of energy gases mimics in biotrickling filters5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Introduction Energy rich off-gases such as biogas are sometimes not used for electric power generation due impurities. H2S concentrations in biogas can range from 0.1 to 5 We dedicate this article to the memory/v (1000e20,000 ppmv), whereas the specifications for the maximum content of H2S in typical biogas

  8. Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine fuel cells are usually described as devices able to convert chemical energy into electrical energy. Conventional solid oxide fuel cells are separated into two compartments containing each electrode split

  9. Adsorption and Separation of Light Gases on an Amino-Functionalized MetalOrganic Framework: An Adsorption and In Situ XRD Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couck S.; Stavitski E.; Gobehiya, E.; Kirschhock, C.E.A.; Serra-Crespo, P.; Juan-Alcaniz, J.; Martinez Joaristi, A.; Gascon, J.; Kapteijn, F.; Baron, G. V.; Denayer J.F.M.

    2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al) metal-organic framework was studied for its use in the separation of CO{sub 2} from CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2} C{sub 2}H{sub 6} and C{sub 3}H{sub 8} mixtures. Isotherms of methane, ethane, propane, hydrogen, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2} were measured. The atypical shape of these isotherms is attributed to the breathing properties of the material, in which a transition from a very narrow pore form to a narrow pore form and from a narrow pore form to a large pore form occurs, depending on the total pressure and the nature of the adsorbate, as demonstrated by in-situ XRD patterns measured during adsorption. Apart from CO{sub 2}, all tested gases interacted weakly with the adsorbent. As a result, they are excluded from adsorption in the narrow pore form of the material at low pressure. CO{sub 2} interacted much more strongly and was adsorbed in significant amounts at low pressure. This gives the material excellent properties to separate CO{sub 2} from other gases. The separation of CO{sub 2} from methane, nitrogen, hydrogen, or a combination of these gases has been demonstrated by breakthrough experiments using pellets of NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al). The effect of total pressure (1-30 bar), gas composition, temperature (303-403 K) and contact time has been examined. In all cases, CO{sub 2} was selectively adsorbed, whereas methane, nitrogen, and hydrogen nearly did not adsorb at all. Regeneration of the adsorbent by thermal treatment, inert purge gas stripping, and pressure swing has been demonstrated. The NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al) pellets retained their selectivity and capacity for more than two years.

  10. Atmospheric sciences division. Annual report, fiscal year 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raynor, G.S. (ed.) [ed.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research activities of the Atmospheric Sciences Division of the Department of Energy and Environment for FY 1981 are presented. Facilities and major items of equipment are described. Research programs are summarized in three categories, modeling, field and laboratory experiments and data management and analysis. Each program is also described individually with title, principal investigator, sponsor and funding levels for FY 1981 and FY 1982. Future plans are summarized. Publications for FY 1981 are listed with abstracts. A list of personnel is included.

  11. ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)Productssondeadjustsondeadjust Documentation DataProductswsicloudwsicloudsummarygifAOS Processing

  12. Stack Monitor Operating Experience Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. C. Cadwallader; S. A. Bruyere

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stack monitors are used to sense radioactive particulates and gases in effluent air being vented from rooms of nuclear facilities. These monitors record the levels and types of effluents to the environment. This paper presents the results of a stack monitor operating experience review of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database records from the past 18 years. Regulations regarding these monitors are briefly described. Operating experiences reported by the U.S. DOE and in engineering literature sources were reviewed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of these monitors. Electrical faults, radiation instrumentation faults, and human errors are the three leading causes of failures. A representative all modes failure rate is 1E-04/hr. Repair time estimates vary from an average repair time of 17.5 hours (with spare parts on hand) to 160 hours (without spare parts on hand). These data should support the use of stack monitors in any nuclear facility, including the National Ignition Facility and the international ITER project.

  13. DISTRIBUTION OF CO{sub 2} IN SATURN'S ATMOSPHERE FROM CASSINI/CIRS INFRARED OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbas, M. M.; LeClair, A. [NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Woodard, E.; Young, M.; Stanbro, M. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Flasar, F. M.; Achterberg, R. K.; Bjoraker, G.; Brasunas, J.; Jennings, D. E. [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kunde, V. G., E-mail: Mian.M.Abbas@nasa.gov, E-mail: Andre.C.LeClair@nasa.gov, E-mail: eaw0009@uah.edu, E-mail: mcs0001@uah.edu, E-mail: youngmm@uah.edu, E-mail: f.m.flasar@nasa.gov, E-mail: virgil.g.kunde@gsfc.nasa.gov [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Collaboration: and the Cassini/CIRS team

    2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper focuses on the CO{sub 2} distribution in Saturn's atmosphere based on analysis of infrared spectral observations of Saturn made by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer aboard the Cassini spacecraft. The Cassini spacecraft was launched in 1997 October, inserted in Saturn's orbit in 2004 July, and has been successfully making infrared observations of Saturn, its rings, Titan, and other icy satellites during well-planned orbital tours. The infrared observations, made with a dual Fourier transform spectrometer in both nadir- and limb-viewing modes, cover spectral regions of 10-1400 cm{sup 1}, with the option of variable apodized spectral resolutions from 0.53 to 15 cm{sup 1}. An analysis of the observed spectra with well-developed radiative transfer models and spectral inversion techniques has the potential to provide knowledge of Saturn's thermal structure and composition with global distributions of a series of gases. In this paper, we present an analysis of a large observational data set for retrieval of Saturn's CO{sub 2} distribution utilizing spectral features of CO{sub 2} in the Q-branch of the ?{sub 2} band, and discuss its possible relationship to the influx of interstellar dust grains. With limited spectral regions available for analysis, due to low densities of CO{sub 2} and interference from other gases, the retrieved CO{sub 2} profile is obtained as a function of a model photochemical profile, with the retrieved values at atmospheric pressures in the region of ?1-10 mbar levels. The retrieved CO{sub 2} profile is found to be in good agreement with the model profile based on Infrared Space Observatory measurements with mixing ratios of ?4.9 10{sup 10} at atmospheric pressures of ?1 mbar.

  14. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A .gamma.-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the annular region therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly shaping the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, no ions survive for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  15. Sulfuryl fluoride in the global atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muhle, J.

    The first calibrated high-frequency, high-precision, in situ atmospheric and archived air measurements of the fumigant sulfuryl fluoride (SO[subscript 2]F[subscript 2]) have been made as part of the Advanced Global Atmospheric ...

  16. Ionisation in atmospheres of brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets VI: Properties of large-scale discharge events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, R L; Hodos, G; Bilger, C; Stark, C R

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mineral clouds in substellar atmospheres play a special role as a catalyst for a variety of charge processes. If clouds are charged, the surrounding environment becomes electrically activated, and ensembles of charged grains are electrically discharging (e.g. by lightning), which significantly infuences the local chemistry creating conditions similar to those thought responsible for life in early planetary atmospheres. We note that such lightning discharges contribute also to the ionisation state of the atmosphere. We apply scaling laws for electrical discharge processes from laboratory measurements and numerical experiments to Drift-Phoenix model atmosphere results to model the discharge's propagation downwards (as lightning) and upwards (as sprites) through the atmospheric clouds. We evaluate the spatial extent and energetics of lightning discharges. The atmospheric volume affected (e.g. by increase of temperature or electron number) is larger in a brown dwarf atmosphere ($10^8 -~10^{10}$m$^3$) than in a gi...

  17. Radar range measurements in the atmosphere.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The earth's atmosphere affects the velocity of propagation of microwave signals. This imparts a range error to radar range measurements that assume the typical simplistic model for propagation velocity. This range error is a function of atmospheric constituents, such as water vapor, as well as the geometry of the radar data collection, notably altitude and range. Models are presented for calculating atmospheric effects on radar range measurements, and compared against more elaborate atmospheric models.

  18. Quantitative determination of atmospheric hydroperoxyl radical

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Springston, Stephen R. (Upton, NY); Lloyd, Judith (Westbury, NY); Zheng, Jun (Stony Brook, NY)

    2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the quantitative determination of atmospheric hydroperoxyl radical comprising: (a) contacting a liquid phase atmospheric sample with a chemiluminescent compound which luminesces on contact with hydroperoxyl radical; (b) determining luminescence intensity from the liquid phase atmospheric sample; and (c) comparing said luminescence intensity from the liquid phase atmospheric sample to a standard luminescence intensity for hydroperoxyl radical. An apparatus for automating the method is also included.

  19. Molybdenum-based additives to mixed-metal oxides for use in hot gas cleanup sorbents for the catalytic decomposition of ammonia in coal gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayala, Raul E. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to additives to mixed-metal oxides that act simultaneously as sorbents and catalysts in cleanup systems for hot coal gases. Such additives of this type, generally, act as a sorbent to remove sulfur from the coal gases while substantially simultaneously, catalytically decomposing appreciable amounts of ammonia from the coal gases.

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using ARM Mobile

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmesApplication2ArgonneAssemblyDemandPlasma4August3Radiative

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and Atmospheric

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone byDear Friend,Arthur J. Nozik -GrownAnAtmospheric Radiation

  2. Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scherer, Norbert F.

    Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

  3. Impacts of Atmospheric Anthropogenic Nitrogen on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Bess

    anthropogenic carbon dioxide may result from this atmospheric nitrogen fertilization, leading to a decreaseImpacts of Atmospheric Anthropogenic Nitrogen on the Open Ocean R. A. Duce,1 * J. LaRoche,2 K quantities of atmospheric anthropogenic fixed nitrogen entering the open ocean could account for up to about

  4. Ch4. Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    than red light. #12;The Electromagnetic Spectrum 8% 47% 45% 100% solar radiation #12;Blue Sky, Red;Energy Pathways #12;Solar radiation transfer in the atmosphere Solar radiation Reflection Atmosphere or performing any work. #12;Solar radiation transfer in the atmosphere Solar radiation Reflection Transmission

  5. Proof of the Atmospheric Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Arthur P

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A recently advanced argument against the atmospheric greenhouse effect is refuted. A planet without an infrared absorbing atmosphere is mathematically constrained to have an average temperature less than or equal to the effective radiating temperature. Observed parameters for Earth prove that without infrared absorption by the atmosphere, the average temperature of Earth's surface would be at least 33 K lower than what is observed.

  6. ATS621, Fall 2013 Atmospheric Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ATS621, Fall 2013 Atmospheric Chemistry Tuesdays and Thursdays, 10 ­ 10:50, 212B ACRC) 491-8587 Teaching Assistant: Lauren Potter Atmospheric Chemistry Bldg., Room 11 Lepotter, transport, chemistry and deposition impact atmospheric chemical composition; 2) Explain the chemical

  7. ATS621, Fall 2014 Atmospheric Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    ATS621, Fall 2014 Atmospheric Chemistry Monday and Wednesday, 9 ­ 9:50, 212B ACRC Instructor: Prof) Understand quantitatively how emissions, transport, chemistry and deposition impact atmospheric chemical to Atmospheric Chemistry, D.J. Jacob Princeton University Press, 1999 PDF versions of the chapters can

  8. Evaluation of Health Risks of Atmospheric Pollutants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    4 5- (DRAFT) Evaluation of Health Risks of Atmospheric Pollutants Guy Landrieu INERIS Institut, Stuttgart : Germany (1995)" #12;INERIS: Evaluation of health risks of atmospheric pollutants (DRAFT may 1995) Evaluation of health risks of atmospheric pollutants Summary 1 Introduction 2 Background 3 Harmfulness

  9. 30TH INTERNATIONAL COSMIC RAY CONFERENCE Atmospheric Monitoring with a LIDAR and an Infra-red Camera at Black Rock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    density, the US atmospheric standard model is used so far, and a radio sonde data is also used COLLABORATION 1 Department of Physics, Kinki University 2 Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University 3 for cosmic rays experiment. The aims of atmospheric moni- toring are to calibrate observed energy

  10. Global Atmospheric Change and Animal Populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , which are increasing in frequency, also produce large amounts of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2; methane to increase dramatically (Withgott & Brennan, 2009; Figure 2). Burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, gasoline by 2100 (IPCC 2007). (Approximate contribution to global warming: 33%; Hansen & Sato 2001). Methane (CH4

  11. Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mollot, D.J.; Bonk, D.L.; Dowdy, T.E.

    1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Polluting NO{sub x} gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO{sub x} gases are removed is directed to introducing NO{sub x}-free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor. 2 figs.

  12. Process for removal of ammonia and acid gases from contaminated waters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C.J.; Mackenzie, P.D.

    1982-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Contaminating basic gases, i.e., ammonia and acid gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, are removed from process waters or waste waters in a combined extraction and stripping process. Ammonia in the form of ammonium ion is extracted by an immiscible organic phase comprising a liquid cation exchange component, especially an organic phosphoric acid derivative, and preferably di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, dissolved in an alkyl hydrocarbon, aryl hydrocarbon, higher alcohol, oxygenated hydrocarbon, halogenated hydrocarbon, and mixtures thereof. Concurrently, the acidic gaseous contaminants are stripped from the process or waste waters by stripping with stream, air, nitrogen, or the like. The liquid cation exchange component has the ammonia stripped therefrom by heating, and the component may be recycled to extract additional amounts of ammonia.

  13. Process for removal of ammonia and acid gases from contaminated waters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); MacKenzie, Patricia D. (Berkeley, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contaminating basic gases, i.e., ammonia, and acid gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, are removed from process waters or waste waters in a combined extraction and stripping process. Ammonia in the form of ammonium ion is extracted by an immiscible organic phase comprising a liquid cation exchange component, especially an organic phosphoric acid derivative, and preferably di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, dissolved in an alkyl hydrocarbon, aryl hydrocarbon, higher alcohol, oxygenated hydrocarbon, halogenated hydrocarbon, and mixtures thereof. Concurrently, the acidic gaseous contaminants are stripped from the process or waste waters by stripping with steam, air, nitrogen, or the like. The liquid cation exchange component has the ammonia stripped therefrom by heating, and the component may be recycled to extract additional amounts of ammonia.

  14. Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mollot, Darren J. (Morgantown, WV); Bonk, Donald L. (Louisville, OH); Dowdy, Thomas E. (Orlando, FL)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polluting NO.sub.x gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO.sub.x gases are removed is directed to introducing NO.sub.x -free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor.

  15. Bose and Fermi gases in the early Universe with self-gravitational effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niu Yuezhen; Huang Junwu; Ma Boqiang [School of Physics and State Keye Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) and Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) and Center for History and Philosophy of Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the self-gravitational effect on the equation of state (EoS) of Bose and Fermi gases in thermal equilibrium at the end of reheating, the period after quark-hadron transition and before big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). After introducing new grand canonical partition functions based on the work of Uhlenbeck and Gropper, we notice some interesting features of the newly developed EoSs with distinct behaviors of relativistic and nonrelativistic gases under self-gravity. The usual negligence of the self-gravitational effect when solving the background expansion of the early Universe is justified with numerical results, showing the magnitude of the self-gravitational modification of the state constant to be less than O(10{sup -78}). This helps us to clarify the background thermal evolution of the primordial patch. Such clarification is crucial in testing gravity theories, evaluating inflation models and determining element abundances in BBN.

  16. Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, W. S. Winston

    2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes are provided. The membranes can include at least one hydrophilic polymer, at least one cross-linking agent, at least one base, and at least one amino compound. The methods of separating gases using membranes can include contacting a gas stream containing at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl with one side of a nonporous and at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl selectively permeable membrane such that at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl is selectively transported through the membrane.

  17. Adsorption of molecular gases on porous materials in the SAFT-VR approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castro, M; Martinez, A; Rosu, H C; 10.1016/j.physa.2010.04.028

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple molecular thermodynamic approach is applied to the study of the adsorption of gases of chain molecules on solid surfaces. We use a model based on the Statistical Associating Fluid Theory for Variable Range (SAFT-VR) potentials [A. Gil-Villegas, A. Galindo, P. J. Whitehead, S. J. Mills, G. Jackson, A. N. Burgess, J. Chem. Phys. 106 (1997) 4168] that we extend by including a quasi-two-dimensional approximation to describe the adsorption properties of this type of real gases [A. Martinez, M. Castro, C. McCabe, A. Gil-Villegas, J. Chem. Phys. 126 (2007) 074707]. The model is applied to ethane, ethylene, propane, and carbon dioxide adsorbed on activated carbon and silica gel, which are porous media of significant industrial interest. We show that the adsorption isotherms obtained by means of the present SAFT-VR modeling are in fair agreement with the experimental results provided in the literature

  18. Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, J.L.

    1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 5 figs.

  19. Radiolytic and radiolytically induced generation of gases in simulated waste solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meisel, D.; Sauer, M.C. Jr.; Jonah, C.D.; Diamond, H.; Matheson, M.S.; Barnabas, F.; Cerny, E.; Cheng, Y.

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiolytic generation of gases in simulated mixed waste solutions was studied. Computer modeling of the non-homogeneous kinetic processes in these highly concentrated homogeneous solutions was attempted. The predictions of the modeling simulations were verified experimentally. Two sources for the radiolytic generation of H{sub 2} are identified: direct dissociation of highly energetic water molecules and hydrogen abstraction from the organic molecules by hydrogen atoms. Computer simulation of the homogeneous kinetics of the NO{sub X} system indicate that no N{sub 2}O will be produced in the absence of organic solutes and none was experimentally detected. It was also found that long term pre-irradiation of the simulated waste solutions leads to enhanced thermal production of these two gases. 22 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Radiolytic and radiolytically induced generation of gases in simulated waste solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meisel, D.; Sauer, M.C. Jr.; Jonah, C.D.; Diamond, H.; Matheson, M.S.; Barnabas, F.; Cerny, E.; Cheng, Y.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiolytic generation of gases in simulated mixed waste solutions was studied. Computer modeling of the non-homogeneous kinetic processes in these highly concentrated homogeneous solutions was attempted. The predictions of the modeling simulations were verified experimentally. Two sources for the radiolytic generation of H{sub 2} are identified: direct dissociation of highly energetic water molecules and hydrogen abstraction from the organic molecules by hydrogen atoms. Computer simulation of the homogeneous kinetics of the NO{sub X} system indicate that no N{sub 2}O will be produced in the absence of organic solutes and none was experimentally detected. It was also found that long term pre-irradiation of the simulated waste solutions leads to enhanced thermal production of these two gases. 22 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

  2. Plasmon mass and Drude weight in strongly spin-orbit-coupled two-dimensional electron gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agarwal, Amit; Chesi, Stefano; Jungwirth, T.; Sinova, Jairo; Vignale, G.; Polini, Marco.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) spin- orbit-coupled 2D electron and hole gases, which are promising candidates for semiconductor spintronics,1 (ii) graphene2 (a monolayer of carbon atoms arranged in a 2D honeycomb lattice), which has attracted a great deal of interest because..., in the case of graphene) degree of freedom. This coupling, being of relativistic origin,12 naturally breaks Galilean invariance and is thus the basic reason for a quite sensitive dependence of several observables on electron-electron interactions, even...

  3. Atmospheric Sciences Program Department of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences (MEAS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Matthew D. Brown

    atmospheric chemistry/air quality, boundary layer and air pollution meteorology, regional/global climatology MODELING OF MULTIPLE AIR POLLUTANTS AT URBAN AND REGIONAL SCALES Our atmosphere is a complex systemAtmospheric Sciences Program Department of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences (MEAS) (http

  4. atmospheric nitrogen fluorescence: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: Greenhouse Effect and Atmospheric Warming Atmosphere absorbs heat energy A real greenhouse traps heatCh4. Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances...

  5. atmospheric pressure surface: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K. 27 Ch4. Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances Geosciences Websites Summary: Greenhouse Effect and Atmospheric Warming Atmosphere absorbs heat energy A real greenhouse traps...

  6. Strongly Correlated Quantum Fluids: Ultracold Quantum Gases, Quantum Chromodynamic Plasmas, and Holographic Duality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allan Adams; Lincoln D. Carr; Thomas Schaefer; Peter Steinberg; John E. Thomas

    2012-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Strongly correlated quantum fluids are phases of matter that are intrinsically quantum mechanical, and that do not have a simple description in terms of weakly interacting quasi-particles. Two systems that have recently attracted a great deal of interest are the quark-gluon plasma, a plasma of strongly interacting quarks and gluons produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions, and ultracold atomic Fermi gases, very dilute clouds of atomic gases confined in optical or magnetic traps. These systems differ by more than 20 orders of magnitude in temperature, but they were shown to exhibit very similar hydrodynamic flow. In particular, both fluids exhibit a robustly low shear viscosity to entropy density ratio which is characteristic of quantum fluids described by holographic duality, a mapping from strongly correlated quantum field theories to weakly curved higher dimensional classical gravity. This review explores the connection between these fields, and it also serves as an introduction to the Focus Issue of New Journal of Physics on Strongly Correlated Quantum Fluids: from Ultracold Quantum Gases to QCD Plasmas. The presentation is made accessible to the general physics reader and includes discussions of the latest research developments in all three areas.

  7. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1987--1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1992, with annual updates thereafter. This is the third annual update report,covering national emissions over the period 1987--1993, with preliminary estimates of US carbon dioxide and halocarbon emissions for 1994. Calculating national aggregate emissions(or ``national inventories``) of greenhouse gases is a recently developed form of intellectual endeavor. Greenhouse gas emissions are rarely measured directly or reported to statistical agencies. Thus, to prepare emissions inventories usually requires inferring emissions indirectly from information collected for other purposes. Both the available information and the inferences drawn may be of varying reliability. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapters 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes.

  8. Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program, and to relate them to DOE`s programmatic objectives for ARM, based on the experience and scientific progress gained over the past five years. ARM programmatic objectives are to: (1) Relate observed radiative fluxes and radiances in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, specifically including water vapor and clouds, and to surface properties, and sample sufficient variety of situations so as to span a wide range of climatologically relevant possibilities; (2) develop and test parameterizations that can be used to accurately predict the radiative properties and to model the radiative interactions involving water vapor and clouds within the atmosphere, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation models. The primary observational methods remote sending and other observations at the surface, particularly remote sensing of clouds, water vapor and aerosols.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: atmospheric chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1development Sandia, NREL Release Wavearc-fault circuit interrupterchemistry

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: atmospheric research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1development Sandia, NREL Release Wavearc-fault circuit interrupterchemistryresearch

  11. Atmosphere to Electrons Program Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTie Ltd: Scope Change #1Impacts |Services SubcommitteeAtmosphere to

  12. atmospheric nitrogen dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Introduction Greenhouse gas emissions have been identified as the major source of global warming. Among the greenhouse gases emitted1 Clathrate hydrate equilibrium data for...

  13. ENVIRON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN ROMANIA--ESTROM PROJECT Sources and emission of greenhouse gases in Danube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    gases in Danube Delta lakes Alina Pavel & Edith Durisch-Kaiser & Sorin Balan & Silviu Radan & Sebastian. Radan GeoEcoMar, National Institute for Marine Geology and Geoecology, 024053 Bucharest, Romania E

  14. PII S0016-7037(01)00802-X Volatilization kinetics of silicon carbide in reducing gases: An experimental study with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossman, Lawrence

    PII S0016-7037(01)00802-X Volatilization kinetics of silicon carbide in reducing gases occurring hexagonal sili- con carbide ( -SiC), and -SiC, the cubic form, are occasion- ally reported

  15. High-Pressure Phase Equilibria of Ionic Liquids and Compressed Gases for Applications in Reactions and Absorption Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, Wei

    2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    of high-melting solids not liquids at processing conditions. Coupling ionic liquids with compressed gases systems may overcome most of these difficulties for their applications in separations, reactions, materials processing and engineering applications...

  16. A coal-fired power plant with zero-atmospheric emissions - article no. 023005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez-Frias, J.; Aceves, S.M.; Smith, J.R.; Brandt, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the thermodynamic and cost analysis of a coal-based zero-atmospheric emissions electric power plant. The approach involves an oxygen-blown coal gasification unit. The resulting synthetic gas (syngas) is combusted with oxygen in a gas generator to produce the working fluid for the turbines. The combustion produces a gas mixture composed almost entirely of steam and carbon dioxide. These gases drive multiple turbines to produce electricity. The turbine discharge gases pass to a condenser where water is captured. A stream of carbon dioxide then results that can be used for enhanced oil recovery or for sequestration. The term zero emission steam technology is used to describe this technology We present the analysis of a 400 MW electric power plant. The power plant has a net thermal efficiency of 39%. This efficiency is based on the lower heating value of the coal, and includes the energy necessary for coal gasification, air separation, and for carbon dioxide separation and sequestration. This paper also presents an analysis of the cost of electricity and the cost of conditioning carbon dioxide for sequestration. Electricity cost is compared for three different gasification processes (Texaco, Shell, and Koppers-Totzek) and two types of coals (Illinois 6 and Wyodak). COE ranges from 5.95/kW h to 6.15/kW In, indicating a 3.4% sensitivity to the gasification processes considered and the coal types used.

  17. Stability measurements of PPL atmospheric pressure arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roquemore, L.; Zweben, S.J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Wurden, G.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments on the stability of atmospheric pressure arcs have been started at PPL to understand and improve the performance of arc furnaces used for processing applications in metallurgy and hazardous waste treatment. Previous studies have suggested that the violent instabilities in such arcs may be due to kink modes. A 30 kW, 500 Amp CW DC experimental arc furnace was constructed with a graphite cathode and a molten steel anode. The arc plasma is diagnosed with 4000 frames/sec digital camera, Hall probes, and voltage and current monitors. Under certain conditions, the arc exhibits an intermittent helical instability, with the helix rotating at {approx}600 Hz. The nature of the instability is investigated. A possible instability mechanism is the self-magnetic field of the arc, with saturation occurring due to inhomogeneous heating in a helical arc. The effect of external DC and AC magnetic fields on the instability is investigated. Additionally, arc deflection due to external transverse magnetic field is investigated. The deflection angle is found to be proportional to the applied field, and is in good agreement with a simple model of the {rvec J} x {rvec b} force on the arc jet.

  18. Apparatus and method for atmospheric pressure reactive atom plasma processing for shaping of damage free surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr; Jeffrey W. (Livermore, CA)

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication apparatus and methods are disclosed for shaping and finishing difficult materials with no subsurface damage. The apparatus and methods use an atmospheric pressure mixed gas plasma discharge as a sub-aperture polisher of, for example, fused silica and single crystal silicon, silicon carbide and other materials. In one example, workpiece material is removed at the atomic level through reaction with fluorine atoms. In this example, these reactive species are produced by a noble gas plasma from trace constituent fluorocarbons or other fluorine containing gases added to the host argon matrix. The products of the reaction are gas phase compounds that flow from the surface of the workpiece, exposing fresh material to the etchant without condensation and redeposition on the newly created surface. The discharge provides a stable and predictable distribution of reactive species permitting the generation of a predetermined surface by translating the plasma across the workpiece along a calculated path.

  19. atmospheric research community: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Geosciences Websites Summary: University Corporation for Atmospheric Research CIGNA DENTAL PREFERRED PROVIDER INSURANCE EFFECTIVE...

  20. An Infrared Spectral Library for Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Infrared Spectral Library for Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring. An Infrared Spectral Library for Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring. Abstract: Infrared (IR) spectroscopy...

  1. Time dependences of atmospheric Carbon dioxide fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeSalvo, Riccardo

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the lifetime of CO2 in the atmosphere is critical for predictions regarding future climate changes. A simple mass conservation analysis presented here generates tight estimations for the atmosphere's retention time constant. The analysis uses a leaky integrator model that combines the observed deficit (only less than 40% of CO2 produced from combustion of fossil fuels is actually retained in the atmosphere, while more than 60% is continuously shed) with the exponential growth of fossil fuel burning. It reveals a maximum characteristic time of less than 23 year for the transfer of atmospheric CO2 to a segregation sink. This time constant is further constrained by the rapid disappearance of 14C after the ban of atmospheric atomic bomb tests, which provides a lower limit of 18 years for this transfer. The study also generates evaluations of other CO2 fluxes, exchange time constants and volumes exchanged. Analysis of large harmonic oscillations of atmospheric CO2 concentration, often neglected in th...

  2. The solvation radius of silicate melts based on the solubility of noble gases and scaled particle theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ottonello, Giulio, E-mail: giotto@dipteris.unige.it [DISTAV, Universit di Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genova (Italy)] [DISTAV, Universit di Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genova (Italy); Richet, Pascal [Institut de Physique du Globe, Rue Jussieu 2, 75005 Paris (France)] [Institut de Physique du Globe, Rue Jussieu 2, 75005 Paris (France)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The existing solubility data on noble gases in high-temperature silicate melts have been analyzed in terms of Scaling Particle Theory coupled with an ab initio assessment of the electronic, dispersive, and repulsive energy terms based on the Polarized Continuum Model (PCM). After a preliminary analysis of the role of the contracted Gaussian basis sets and theory level in reproducing appropriate static dipole polarizabilities in a vacuum, we have shown that the procedure returns Henry's law constants consistent with the values experimentally observed in water and benzene at T = 25?C and P = 1 bar for the first four elements of the series. The static dielectric constant (?) of the investigated silicate melts and its optical counterpart (?{sup ?}) were then resolved through the application of a modified form of the Clausius-Mossotti relation. Argon has been adopted as a probe to depict its high-T solubility in melts through an appropriate choice of the solvent diameter ?{sub s}, along the guidelines already used in the past for simple media such as water or benzene. The ?{sub s} obtained was consistent with a simple functional form based on the molecular volume of the solvent. The solubility calculations were then extended to He, Ne, and Kr, whose dispersive and repulsive coefficients are available from theory and we have shown that their ab initio Henry's constants at high T reproduce the observed increase with the static polarizability of the series element with reasonable accuracy. At room temperature (T = 25?C) the calculated Henry's constants of He, Ne, Ar, and Kr in the various silicate media predict higher solubilities than simple extrapolations (i.e., Arrhenius plots) based on high-T experiments and give rise to smooth trends not appreciably affected by the static polarizabilities of the solutes. The present investigation opens new perspectives on a wider application of PCM theory which can be extended to materials of great industrial interest at the core of metallurgical processes, ceramurgy, and the glass industry.

  3. 12.815 Atmospheric Radiation, Fall 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    Introduction to the physics of atmospheric radiation and remote sensing including use of computer codes. Radiative transfer equation including emission and scattering, spectroscopy, Mie theory, and numerical solutions. ...

  4. Urban Atmospheres captures a unique, synergistic moment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulos, Eric

    Urban Atmospheres captures a unique, synergistic moment expanding urban populations, rapid EDITORS Eric Paulos Intel Research eric@paulos.net Tom Jenkins Royal College of Art thomas

  5. Atmospheric and Surface Science Research Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric and Surface Science Research Laboratory Idaho National Laboratory (INL) researchers are contributing to the scientific understanding of contaminant transport through...

  6. atmospheres: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to optical depth perturbations. In Earth-type atmospheres sustained planetary greenhouse effect with a stable ground surface temperature can only exist at a particular...

  7. atmosphere: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to optical depth perturbations. In Earth-type atmospheres sustained planetary greenhouse effect with a stable ground surface temperature can only exist at a particular...

  8. atmospherics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to optical depth perturbations. In Earth-type atmospheres sustained planetary greenhouse effect with a stable ground surface temperature can only exist at a particular...

  9. The Marginal Damage Costs of Different Greenhouse Gases: An Application of FUND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anthoff, David; Rose, Steven K.; Tol, Richard

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use FUND 3.8 to estimate the social cost of four greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and sulphur hexafluoride emissions. The damage potential for each gasthe ratio of the social cost of the non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas to the social cost of carbon dioxideis also estimated. The damage potentials are compared to several metrics, focusing in particular on the global warming potentials, which are frequently used to measure the trade-off between gases in the form of carbon dioxide equivalents. We find that damage potentials could be significantly higher than global warming potentials. This finding implies that previous papers have underestimated the relative importance of reducing non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions from an economic damage perspective. We show results for a range of sensitivity analyses: carbon dioxide fertilization on agriculture productivity, terrestrial feedbacks, climate sensitivity, discounting, equity weighting, and socioeconomic and emissions scenarios. The sensitivity of the results to carbon dioxide fertilization is a primary focus as it is an important element of climate change that has not been considered in much of the previous literature. We estimate that carbon dioxide fertilization has a large positive impact that reduces the social cost of carbon dioxide with a much smaller effect on the other greenhouse gases. As a result, our estimates of the damage potentials of methane and nitrous oxide are much higher compared to estimates that ignore carbon dioxide fertilization. As a result, our base estimates of the damage potential for methane and nitrous oxide that include carbon dioxide fertilization are twice their respective global warming potentials. Our base estimate of the damage potential of sulphur hexafluoride is similar to the one previous estimate, both almost three times the global warming potential.

  10. Modelling of noble anaesthetic gases and high hydrostatic pressure effects in lipid bilayers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moskovitz, Yevgeny [Middle Tennessee State University; Yang, Hui [Middle Tennessee State University

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our objective was to study molecular processes that might be responsible for inert gas narcosis and high-pressure nervous syndrome. The classical molecular dynamics trajectories (200 ns-long) of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayers simulated by the Berger force field were evaluated for water and the atomic distribution of noble gases around DOPC molecules at a pressure range of 1 - 1000 bar and temperature of 310 Kelvin. Xenon and argon have been tested as model gases for general anesthetics, and neon has been investigated for distortions that are potentially responsible for neurological tremor at hyperbaric conditions. The analysis of stacked radial pair distribution functions of DOPC headgroup atoms revealed the explicit solvation potential of gas molecules, which correlates with their dimensions. The orientational dynamics of water molecules at the biomolecular interface should be considered as an influential factor; while excessive solvation effects appearing in the lumen of membrane-embedded ion channels could be a possible cause of inert gas narcosis. All the noble gases tested exhibit similar patterns of the order parameter for both DOPC acyl chains, which is opposite to the patterns found for the order parameter curve at high hydrostatic pressures in intact bilayers. This finding supports the critical volume hypothesis of anesthesia pressure reversal. The irregular lipid headgroup-water boundary observed in DOPC bilayers saturated with neon in the pressure range of 1 - 100 bar could be associated with the possible manifestation of neurological tremor at the atomic scale. The non-immobilizer neon also demonstrated the highest momentum impact on the normal component of the DOPC diffusion coefficient representing monolayers undulations rate, which indicates enhanced diffusivity, rather than atom size, as the key factor.

  11. Sequestration of noble gases by H3+ in protoplanetary disks and outer solar system composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olivier Mousis; Francoise Pauzat; Yves Ellinger; Cecilia Ceccarelli

    2007-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the efficiency of the noble gases sequestration by the ion H3+ in the form of XH3+ complexes (with X = argon, krypton or xenon) in gas phase conditions similar to those encountered during the cooling of protoplanetary disks, at the epoch of icy planetesimals formation. We show that XH3+ complexes form very stable structures in the gas phase and that their binding energies are much higher than those involved in the structures of X-H2O hydrates or pure X-X condensates. This implies that, in presence of H3+ ions, argon, krypton or xenon are likely to remain sequestrated in the form of XH3+ complexes embedded in the gas phase rather than forming ices during the cooling of protoplanetary disks. The amount of the deficiency depends on how much H3+ is available and efficient in capturing noble gases. In the dense gas of the mid-plane of solar nebula, H3+ is formed by the ionization of H2 from energetic particles, as those in cosmic rays or those ejected by the young Sun. Even using the largest estimate of the cosmic rays ionization rate, we compute that the H3+ abundance is two and three orders of magnitude lower than the xenon and krypton abundance, respectively. Estimating the ionization induced by the young Sun, on the other hand, is very uncertain but leaves the possibility to have enough H3+ to make krypton and xenon trapping efficent. Finally, additional source of H3+ formation may be provided by the presence of a nearby supernova, as discussed in the literature. Recent solar system observations show a deficiency of Ar, and, even more, of Kr and Xe in Titan and in comets. In this article, we consider the possibility that this deficiency is caused by the afore-mentioned process, namely trapping of those noble gases by H3+ ions in the solar nebula.

  12. EDDY RESOLVING NUTRIENT ECODYNAMICS IN THE GLOBAL PARALLEL OCEAN PROGRAM AND CONNECTIONS WITH TRACE GASES IN THE SULFUR, HALOGEN AND NMHC CYCLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. CHU; S. ELLIOTT

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ecodynamics and the sea-air transfer of climate relevant trace gases are intimately coupled in the oceanic mixed layer. Ventilation of species such as dimethyl sulfide and methyl bromide constitutes a key linkage within the earth system. We are creating a research tool for the study of marine trace gas distributions by implementing coupled ecology-gas chemistry in the high resolution Parallel Ocean Program (POP). The fundamental circulation model is eddy resolving, with cell sizes averaging 0.15 degree (lat/long). Here we describe ecochemistry integration. Density dependent mortality and iron geochemistry have enhanced agreement with chlorophyll measurements. Indications are that dimethyl sulfide production rates must be adjusted for latitude dependence to match recent compilations. This may reflect the need for phytoplankton to conserve nitrogen by favoring sulfurous osmolytes. Global simulations are also available for carbonyl sulfide, the methyl halides and for nonmethane hydrocarbons. We discuss future applications including interaction with atmospheric chemistry models, high resolution biogeochemical snapshots and the study of open ocean fertilization.

  13. Separation of rare gases and chiral molecules by selective binding in porous organic cages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Linjiang; Reiss, Paul S.; Chong, Samantha Y.; Holden, Daniel; Jelfs, Kim E.; Hasell, Tom; Little, Marc A.; Kewley, Adam; Briggs, Michael E.; Stephenson, Andrew; Thomas, K. M.; Armstrong, Jayne A.; Bell, Jon; Busto, Jose; Noel, Raymond; Liu, Jian; Strachan, Denis M.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Cooper, Andrew I.

    2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract: The rare gases krypton, xenon, and radon pose both an economic opportunity and a potential environmental hazard. Xenon is used in commercial lighting, medical imaging, and anesthesia, and can sell for $5,000 per kilogram. Radon, by contrast, Is naturally radioactive and the second largest cause of lung cancer, and radioactive xenon, 133Xe, was a major pollutant released In the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster. We describe an organic cage molecule that can capture xenon and radon with unprecedented selectivity, suggesting new technologies for environmental monitoring, removal of pollutants, or the recovery of rare, valuable elements from air.

  14. Steam Production from Waste Stack Gases in a Carbon Black Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Istre, R. I.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    superheated steam - G25 PSIG and 750 0 F. This steam is out into a steam header that serves Conoco plants in' t~e Lake Charles, Louisiana area. Combustion of the \\?taste gases to produce steam has t\\~O very important rewards -ener~y conservation.... This steam project has provided substantial ener~y conservation for the carbon black plant because the energy can be subtracted from the total ener~y used by the plant in determining the energy to produce carbon black. Oescription of the equipment used...

  15. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Final report No. 33

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

    1992-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

  16. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nolan, Paul S. (North Canton, OH); Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Bailey, Ralph T. (Uniontown, OH); Vecci, Stanley J. (Alliance, OH)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  17. Overview of the Flammability of Gases Generated in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LA Mahoney; JL Huckaby; SA Bryan; GD Johnson

    2000-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an overview of what is known about the flammability of the gases generated and retained in Hanford waste tanks in terms of the gas composition, the flammability and detonability limits of the gas constituents, and the availability of ignition sources. The intrinsic flammability (or nonflammability) of waste gas mixtures is one major determinant of whether a flammable region develops in the tank headspace; other factors are the rate, surface area, volume of the release, and the tank ventilation rate, which are not covered in this report.

  18. Overview of the Flammability of Gases Generated in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Huckaby, James L.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Johnson, Gerald D.

    2000-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an overview of what is known about the flammability of the gases generated and retained in Hanford waste tanks in terms of the gas composition, flammability and detonability limits of the gas constituents, and availability of ignition sources. The intrinsic flammability (or non-flammability) of waste gas mixtures is one major determinant of whether a flammable region develops in the tank headspace; other factors are the rate, surface area, and volume of the release and the tank ventilation rate, which are not covered in this report.

  19. Critical behavior of two freely evolving granular gases separated by an adiabatic piston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Javier Brey; Nagi Khalil

    2010-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Two granular gases separated by an adiabatic piston and initially in the same macroscopic state are considered. It is found that a phase transition with an spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs. When the mass of the piston is increased beyond a critical value, the piston moves to a stationary position different from the middle of the system. The transition is accurately described by a simple kinetic model that takes into account the velocity fluctuations of the piston. Interestingly, the final state is not characterized by the equality of the temperatures of the subsystems but by the cooling rates being the same. Some relevant consequences of this feature are discussed.

  20. Coherent spin mixing dynamics in thermal $^{87}$Rb spin-1 and spin-2 gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaoke; Wang, Fudong; Xu, Zhifang; Wang, Dajun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the non-equilibrium coherent spin mixing dynamics in ferromagnetic spin-1 and antiferromagnetic spin-2 thermal gases of ultracold $^{87}$Rb atoms. Long lasting spin population oscillations with magnetic field dependent resonances are observed in both cases. Our observations are well reproduced by Boltzmann equations of the Wigner distribution function. Compared to the equation of motion of spinor Bose-Einstein condensates, the only difference here is a factor of two increase in the spin-dependent interaction, which is confirmed directly in the spin-2 case by measuring the relation between the oscillation amplitude and the sample's density.

  1. Effective super Tonks-Girardeau gases as ground states of strongly attractive multicomponent fermions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin Xiangguo; Chen Shu [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Guan Xiwen [Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Batchelor, M. T. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Mathematical Sciences Institute, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the strong interaction limit, attractive fermions with N-component hyperfine states in a one-dimensional waveguide form unbreakable bound cluster states. We demonstrate that the ground state of strongly attractive SU(N) Fermi gases can be effectively described by a super Tonks-Girardeau gaslike state composed of bosonic cluster states with strongly attractive cluster-cluster interaction for even N and a Fermi duality of a super Tonks-Girardeau gaslike state composed of fermionic cluster states with weakly interacting cluster-cluster p-wave interaction for odd N.

  2. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2006-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  3. Cell model of in-cloud scavenging of highly soluble gases Alexander Baklanov a,b,n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elperin, Tov

    of fully online integrated atmospheric chemistry and meteorology models and Earth system models requires

  4. Hierardlicsl Diagnosis V. V. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Bigfront.jpgcommunity200cellHeatExperiment.TheoreticalHierardlicsl

  5. Response of global soil consumption of atmospheric methane to changes in atmospheric climate and nitrogen deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai

    Soil consumption of atmospheric methane plays an important secondary role in regulating the atmospheric CH4 budget, next to the dominant loss mechanism involving reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Here we used a ...

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - active trace gases Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    have a remarkable effect on the atmosphere E.g., ozone is less than 0... the greenhouse effect works How the Earth cools And how greenhouse ... Source: Frierson, Dargan -...

  7. Microplasma Discharges in High Pressure Gases Scaling Towards the Sub-micron Regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chitre, Aditya Rajeev

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric pressure microplasmas are uniquely characterized by their very high energy densities and also by their small discharge sizes. These properties allow for unique applications in plasma processing technologies. We have investigated...

  8. Experiment to Characterize Tropical Cloud Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Peter T.; Mather, Jim H.; Jakob, Christian

    2005-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A major experiment to study tropical convective cloud systems and their impacts will take place around Darwin, Northern Australia in early 2006. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) is a collaboration including the DOE ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) and ARM-UAV programs, NASA centers, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, CSIRO, and universities in the USA, Australia, Japan, the UK, and Canada. TWP-ICE will be preceded in November/December 2004 by a collaborating European aircraft campaign involving the EU SCOUT-O3 and UK NERC ACTIVE projects. Detailed atmospheric measurements will be made in the Darwin area through the whole Austral summer, giving unprecedented coverage through the pre-monsoon and monsoon periods.

  9. Some challenges of middle atmosphere data assimilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Some challenges of middle atmosphere data assimilation 1234567 89A64BC7DEF72B4 8629EEC7C72DEEE5.1256/qj.05.87 Some challenges of middle atmosphere data assimilation By S. POLAVARAPU1,2, T. G. SHEPHERD2 Data assimilation is employed at operational weather forecast centres to combine measurements and model

  10. OCEAN-ATMOSPHERE INTERACTION AND TROPICAL CLIMATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Shang-Ping

    radiation is the ultimate source of energy for motions in the atmosphere and ocean. Most absorption of solar radiation takes place on the Earth surface, the majority of which is occupied by oceans. Thus oceanic modulate surface radiative flux. Thus, the ocean and atmosphere are a coupled system and their interaction

  11. Doctoral Programs Atmospheric, Oceanic & Space Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eustice, Ryan

    University of Michigan Space Research Building 2455 Hayward Street Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 aoss Katherine E. White, Ann Arbor The Regents of the University of Michigan Research areas Atmospheric Science Atmospheric Dynamics Climate, Climate Modeling & Climate Change Clouds & Precipitation Paleoclimate, Ice

  12. Atmospheric Chemistry, Modeling, and Biogeochemistry of Mercury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atmospheric Chemistry, Modeling, and Biogeochemistry of Mercury Noelle Eckley Selin *Reprinted from Mercury in the Environment: Pattern and Process (Chapter 5) pp. 73-80 Copyright © 2012 with kind, and Biogeochemistry of Mercury NOELLE ECKLEY SELIN and their distribution in the atmosphere. This includes

  13. Extremes and Atmospheric Data Eric Gilleland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilleland, Eric

    Extremes and Atmospheric Data Eric Gilleland Research Applications Laboratory National Center for Atmospheric Research 2007-08 Program on Risk Analysis, Extreme Events and Decision Theory, opening workshop 16-19 September, North Carolina #12;Extremes · Interest in making inferences about large, rare, extreme phenomena

  14. VOCALS: The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wood, Robert (VOCALS-REx PI, University of Washington); Bretherton, Christopher (GEWEX/GCSS Representative, University of Washington); Huebert, Barry (SOLAS Representative, University of Hawaii); Mechoso, Roberto C. (VOCALS Science Working Group Chair, UCLA); Weller, Robert (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)

    VOCALS (VAMOS* Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study) is an international CLIVAR program the major goal of which is to develop and promote scientific activities leading to improved understanding of the Southeast Pacific (SEP) coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system on diurnal to inter-annual timescales. The principal program objectives are: 1) the improved understanding and regional/global model representation of aerosol indirect effects over the SEP; 2) the elimination of systematic errors in the region of coupled atmospheric-ocean general circulation models, and improved model simulations and predictions of the coupled climate in the SEP and global impacts of the system variability. VOCALS is organized into two tightly coordinated components: 1) a Regional Experiment (VOCALSREx), and 2) a Modeling Program (VOCALS-Mod). Extended observations (e.g. IMET buoy, satellites, EPIC/PACS cruises) will provide important additional contextual datasets that help to link the field and the modeling components. The coordination through VOCALS of observational and modeling efforts (Fig. 3) will accelerate the rate at which field data can be used to improve simulations and predictions of the tropical climate variability [Copied from the Vocals Program Summary of June 2007, available as a link from the VOCALS web at http://www.eol.ucar.edu/projects/vocals/]. The CLIVAR sponsored program to under which VOCALS falls is VAMOS, which stands for Variability of the American Monsoon Systems.

  15. Cosmic ray modulation of infra-red radiation in the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aplin, K L

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cosmic rays produce charged molecular clusters by ionisation as they pass through the lower atmosphere. Neutral molecular clusters such as dimers and complexes are expected to make a small contribution to the radiative balance, but atmospheric absorption by charged clusters has not hitherto been observed. In an atmospheric experiment, a filter radiometer tuned to the 9.15 um absorption band associated with infra-red absorption of charged molecular clusters was used to monitor changes immediately following events identified by a cosmic ray telescope sensitive to high energy (>400MeV) particles, principally muons. The change in longwave radiation in this absorption band due to charged molecular clusters is 7 mW^m-2. The integrated atmospheric energy change for each event is 2J, representing an amplification factor of 10^10 compared to the 2GeV energy of a typical tropospheric cosmic ray. This absorption is expected to occur continuously and globally.

  16. B. B. G. K. Y. Hierarchy Methods for Sums of Lyapunov Exponents for Dilute Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Dorfman; Arnulf Latz; Henk van Beijeren

    1998-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a general method for computing the sum of positive Lyapunov exponents for moderately dense gases. This method is based upon hierarchy techniques used previously to derive the generalized Boltzmann equation for the time dependent spatial and velocity distribution functions for such systems. We extend the variables in the generalized Boltzmann equation to include a new set of quantities that describe the separation of trajectories in phase space needed for a calculation of the Lyapunov exponents. The method described here is especially suitable for calculating the sum of all of the positive Lyapunov exponents for the system, and may be applied to equilibrium as well as non-equilibrium situations. For low densities we obtain an extended Boltzmann equation, from which, under a simplifying approximation, we recover the sum of positive Lyapunov exponents for hard disk and hard sphere systems, obtained before by a simpler method. In addition we indicate how to improve these results by avoiding the simplifying approximation. The restriction to hard sphere systems in $d$-dimensions is made to keep the somewhat complicated formalism as clear as possible, but the method can be easily generalized to apply to gases of particles that interact with strong short range forces.

  17. JV Task 125-Mercury Measurement in Combustion Flue Gases Short Course

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Laudal

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The short course, designed to train personnel who have an interest in measuring mercury in combustion flue gases, was held twice at the Drury Inn in Marion, Illinois. The short course helped to provide attendees with the knowledge necessary to avoid the many pitfalls that can and do occur when measuring mercury in combustion flue gases. The first short course, May 5-8, 2008, included both a classroom-type session and hands-on demonstration of mercury-sampling equipment. The hands-on demonstration of equipment was staged at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative. Not including the Illinois Clean Coal Institute and the U.S. Department of Energy project managers, there were 12 attendees. The second short course was conducted September 16-17, 2008, but only included the classroom portion of the course; 14 people attended. In both cases, lectures were provided on the various mercury measurement methods, and interaction between attendees and EERC research personnel to discuss specific mercury measurement problems was promoted. Overall, the response to the course was excellent.

  18. Particulate removal from high-temperature, high-pressure combustion gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, R.F.; Saxena, S.C.; Podolski, W.F.

    1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The adoption by utilities of coal-fired pressurized fluidized-bed/combined cycle combustion systems for electric power generation depends to a large extent on the development of an efficient and economic cleanup system for the high-temperature, high-pressure combustion gases. For adequate turbine protection, these gases must be sufficiently cleaned to bring particulate erosion and alkali vapor corrosion to a level acceptable to gas turbine manufacturers. At the same time, the total particulate content of the flue gas must be reduced to the limit set by the Environmental Protection Agency. To accomplish particulate removal from a dust-laden gas stream, a number of separation devices have been developed. These include conventional and augmented cyclones; porous metal, fiber, fabric, and ceramic filters, as well as fixed, moving, and fluidized-bed granular filters; and electrostatic precipitators. Several other novel separation devices have been proposed and developed to different degrees such as: contactors using molten salt, metal, or glass, dry scrubbers, acoustic agglomerators, as well as cyclones and granular-bed filters with external electrostatic or magnetic fields. Some of these separation devices in various combinations have been tested in process development units or in hot gas simulators by ANL, CPC, CURL, C-W, Exxon, GE, Westinghouse, etc. The results are discussed and evaluated for PFBC applications.

  19. Sequestration of noble gases by H3+ in protoplanetary disks and outer solar system composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mousis, Olivier; Ellinger, Yves; Ceccarelli, Cecilia

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the efficiency of the noble gases sequestration by the ion H3+ in the form of XH3+ complexes (with X = argon, krypton or xenon) in gas phase conditions similar to those encountered during the cooling of protoplanetary disks, at the epoch of icy planetesimals formation. We show that XH3+ complexes form very stable structures in the gas phase and that their binding energies are much higher than those involved in the structures of X-H2O hydrates or pure X-X condensates. This implies that, in presence of H3+ ions, argon, krypton or xenon are likely to remain sequestrated in the form of XH3+ complexes embedded in the gas phase rather than forming ices during the cooling of protoplanetary disks. The amount of the deficiency depends on how much H3+ is available and efficient in capturing noble gases. In the dense gas of the mid-plane of solar nebula, H3+ is formed by the ionization of H2 from energetic particles, as those in cosmic rays or those ejected by the young Sun. Even using the largest estimate of t...

  20. A SEARCH FOR MAGNESIUM IN EUROPA'S ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoerst, S. M. [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado-Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Brown, M. E., E-mail: sarah.horst@colorado.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2013-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Europa's tenuous atmosphere results from sputtering of the surface. The trace element composition of its atmosphere is therefore related to the composition of Europa's surface. Magnesium salts are often invoked to explain Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer spectra of Europa's surface, thus magnesium may be present in Europa's atmosphere. We have searched for magnesium emission in the Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph archival spectra of Europa's atmosphere. Magnesium was not detected and we calculate an upper limit on the magnesium column abundance. This upper limit indicates that either Europa's surface is depleted in magnesium relative to sodium and potassium, or magnesium is not sputtered as efficiently resulting in a relative depletion in its atmosphere.

  1. Chapter 9.1: Department of Atmospheric Science1 The Department of Atmospheric Science was founded in 1962 within the College of Engineering as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in first place among departments of atmosphere and ocean sciences in the nation. Strategic Planning Areas, or full professor levels) in atmospheric dynamics, climate dynamics, atmospheric radiation, atmospheric

  2. Article Atmospheric Science Simulated change in the near-surface soil freeze/thaw cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the soil experiences freeze/thaw processes, thus eventually affect- ing the surface energy fluxArticle Atmospheric Science Simulated change in the near-surface soil freeze/thaw cycle/thaw cycle in cold regions plays a major role in the surface energy budget, hydrological activity

  3. THE DOE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE PROGRAM Highlights from the 2008 Science Team Meeting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    atmospheric CO2 that would result in a given increase in global mean surface temperature. · Uncertainty Aerosol Experiment­MEXico City (MAX-MEX) ­ 2006. Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) ­ OK in global chemical transport models and global climate models. Summary. DOE workshop on "grand challenges

  4. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. C. Kwon

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2} in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives using a monolithic catalyst reactor, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 40-560 seconds at 120-150 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperatures, total pressure, space time, and catalyst regeneration on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,600-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,800-2,000 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 23-27 v% hydrogen, 36-41 v% CO, 10-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 30-180 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-150 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is mai

  5. Geothermal heating enhances atmospheric asymmetries on synchronously rotating planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haqq-Misra, Jacob

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Earth-like planets within the liquid water habitable zone of M type stars may evolve into synchronous rotators. On these planets, the sub-stellar hemisphere experiences perpetual daylight while the opposing anti-stellar hemisphere experiences perpetual darkness. Because the night-side hemisphere has no direct source of energy, the air over this side of the planet is prone to freeze out and deposit on the surface, which could result in atmospheric collapse. However, general circulation models (GCMs) have shown that atmospheric dynamics can counteract this problem and provide sufficient energy transport to the anti-stellar side. Here we use an idealized GCM to consider the impact of geothermal heating on the habitability of synchronously rotating planets. Geothermal heating may be expected due to tidal interactions with the host star, and the effects of geothermal heating provide additional habitable surface area and may help to induce melting of ice on the anti-stellar hemisphere. We also explore the persisten...

  6. Linear electric field frequency shift (important for next generation electric dipole moment searches) induced in confined gases by a magnetic field gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors A. L. Barabanov; R. Golub; S. K. Lamoreaux

    2006-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The search for particle electric dipole moments (edm) represents a most promising way to search for physics beyond the standard model. A number of groups are planning a new generation of experiments using stored gases of various kinds. In order to achieve the target sensitivities it will be necessary to deal with the systematic error resulting from the interaction of the well-known $\\overrightarrow{v}\\times \\overrightarrow{E}$ field with magnetic field gradients (often referred to as the geometric phase effect (Commins, ED; Am. J. Phys. \\QTR{bf}{59}, 1077 (1991), Pendlebury, JM \\QTR{em}{et al;} Phys. Rev. \\QTR{bf}{A70}, 032102 (2004)). This interaction produces a frequency shift linear in the electric field, mimicking an edm. In this work we introduce an analytic form for the velocity auto-correlation function which determines the velocity-position correlation function which in turn determines the behavior of the frequency shift (Lamoreaux, SK and Golub, R; Phys. Rev \\QTR{bf}{A71}, 032104 (2005)) and show how it depends on the operating conditions of the experiment. We also discuss some additional issues.

  7. Radiolytic and radiolytically induced generation of gases from synthetic wastes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meisel, D.; Jonah, C.D.; Kapoor, S.; Matheson, M.S.; Sauer, M.C. Jr.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To better understand the processes leading to the generation and release of gases from waste tanks, the authors studied the radiolytic and thermal generation of H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and NH{sub 3} in nonradioactive waste simulant solutions and slurries. The radiolytic sources for H{sub 2} are e{sub aq}{sup {minus}} and its predecessors and H atoms. Radiolysis of the water generates some H{sub 2} and an additional amount comes from the hydrogen abstraction reaction H + RH{yields}H{sub 2}+R{center_dot}. Nitrate scavenges e{sub aq}{sup {minus}} and its predecessors whereas nitrite is the major H-atom scavenger. Computer modeling shows that if [NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}] is above 0.5 M, and [NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}] is above 2M, the addition of other scavengers will have little effect on the yield of H{sub 2}. In the presence of organic molecules O{sub 2} is efficiently destroyed. Small yields of ammonia were measured and the yields increase linearly with dose. The nitrogen in NH{sub 3} comes from organic chelators. The yields of gases in solution depend only weakly on temperature. The rate of thermal generation of gases increases upon preirradiation, reaches a maximum, and then declines. The known radiolytic degradation products of chelators, NTA, IDA, glycolate, glyoxylate, formaldehyde, formate, oxalate, and hydroxylainine were examined for their roles in the thermal generation of H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O at 60{degrees}C. In solution or slurry only radiolytically produced Pd intermediate strongly retains H{sub 2}. Radiolytic yields of N{sub 2}O are strongly reduced by Cr(III). In irradiated slurry, loose and tight gas were found. The loose gas could be removed by bubbling from the slurry, but the tight gas could be released only by dissolution of the slurry.

  8. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 2: Appendixes A--S

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLuchi, M.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains the appendices to the report on Emission of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity. Emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and other greenhouse gases are discussed. Sources of emission including vehicles, natural gas operations, oil production, coal mines, and power plants are covered. The various energy industries are examined in terms of greenhouse gas production and emissions. Those industries include electricity generation, transport of goods via trains, trucks, ships and pipelines, coal, natural gas and natural gas liquids, petroleum, nuclear energy, and biofuels.

  9. Ultrahigh-speed etching of organic films using microwave-excited nonequilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamakawa, Koji; Hori, Masaru; Goto, Toshio; Den, Shoji; Katagiri, Toshirou; Kano, Hiroyuki [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-Cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Depertment of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Nagoya University, Furo-Cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-Cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Department of Engineering, Katagiri Engineering Co., Ltd., 3-5-34 Shitte Tsurumu-Ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0003 (Japan); NU-EcoEngineering Co., Ltd., Ooaza Kurozasa Aza Umazutsumi Miyoshi-cho Nishikamo-gun Aichi 470-0201 (Japan)

    2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrahigh etch rate (24 {mu}m/min at 155 deg. C and 0.3 mm/min at 325 deg. C) of an organic film was successfully achieved using a microwave-excited nonequilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasma source employing He and O{sub 2} gases. This has the potential to be applied to various kinds of fabrication of structures for microelectromechanical systems and bionanotechnology. A stable glow discharge was realized between the narrow gap (200 {mu}m) electrodes covered with a dielectric film in atmospheric pressure. The etching characteristics were investigated by changing the O{sub 2} flow rate and the distance of the substrate from the electrode. In order to clarify the ultrahigh etching mechanism, in situ diagnostic methods, including two-dimensional imaging of optical emissions in the plasma with an intensified charge-coupled device camera, electron-density evaluation using the Stark-broadened profile of the hydrogen Balmer beta line in optical emission spectroscopy, and two dimensional spatial distribution of ozone density measured with ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy, have been performed. It was found that O atoms were the dominant etching species for ultrahigh-speed etching of the organic film, and the effect of ozone on the etching process was negligible.

  10. Methane emission by termites: Impacts on the self-cleansing mechanisms of the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mugedo, J.Z.A. [Maseno Univ. College (Kenya)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Termites are reported to emit large quantities of methane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen and dimethyl sulfide. The emission of other trace gases, namely C{sub 2} to C{sub 10} hydrocarbons, is also documented. We have carried out, both in the field and in the laboratory, measurements of methane emissions by Macrotermes subhyalinus (Macrotermitinae), Trinervitermes bettonianus (Termitinae), and unidentified Cubitermes and Microcerotermes species. Measured CH{sub 4} field flux rates ranged from 3.66 to 98.25g per m{sup 2} of termite mound per year. Laboratory measurements gave emission rates that ranged from 14.61 to 165.05 mg CH{sub 4} per termite per year. Gaseous production in all species sampled varied both within species and from species to species. Recalculated global emission of methane from termites was found to be 14.0 x 10{sup 12} g CH{sub 4}, per year. From our study, termites contribution to atmospheric methane content is between 1.11% and 4.25% per year. This study discusses the greenhouse effects as well as photochemical disposal of methane in the lower atmosphere in the tropics and the impacts on the chemistry of HO{sub x} systems and CL{sub x} cycles.

  11. Emission factors for particles, elemental carbon, and trace gases from the Kuwait oil fires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laursen, K.K.; Ferek, R.J.; Hobbs, P.V. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rasmussen, R.A. [Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR (United States)

    1992-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Emission factors are presented for particles, elemental carbon (i.e., soot), total organic carbon in particles and vapor, and for various trace gases from the 1991 Kuwait oil fires. Particle emissions accounted for {approximately} 2% of the fuel burned. In general, soot emission factors were substantially lower than those used in recent {open_quotes}nuclear winter{close_quotes} calculations. Differences in the emissions and appearances of some of the individual fires are discussed. Carbon budget data for the composite plumes from the Kuwait fires are summarized; most of the burned carbon in the plumes was in the form of CO{sub 2}. Fluxes are presented for several combustion products. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  12. Statistical mechanics of Coulomb gases as quantum theory on Riemann surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gulden, T.; Janas, M.; Koroteev, P.; Kamenev, A., E-mail: kamenev@physics.umn.edu [University of Minnesota, Department of Physics (United States)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Statistical mechanics of a 1D multivalent Coulomb gas can be mapped onto non-Hermitian quantum mechanics. We use this example to develop the instanton calculus on Riemann surfaces. Borrowing from the formalism developed in the context of the Seiberg-Witten duality, we treat momentum and coordinate as complex variables. Constant-energy manifolds are given by Riemann surfaces of genus g {>=} 1. The actions along principal cycles on these surfaces obey the ordinary differential equation in the moduli space of the Riemann surface known as the Picard-Fuchs equation. We derive and solve the Picard-Fuchs equations for Coulomb gases of various charge content. Analysis of monodromies of these solutions around their singular points yields semiclassical spectra as well as instanton effects such as the Bloch bandwidth. Both are shown to be in perfect agreement with numerical simulations.

  13. Method for determining the concentration of atomic species in gases and solids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loge, Gary W. (304 Cheryl Ave., Los Alamos, NM 87544)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for determining the concentration of atomic species in gases and solids. Measurement of at least two emission intensities from a species in a sample that is excited by incident laser radiation. Which generates a plasma therein after a sufficient time period has elapsed and during a second time period, permits an instantaneous temperature to be established within the sample. The concentration of the atomic species to be determined is then derived from the known emission intensity of a predetermined concentration of that species in the sample at the measured temperature, a quantity which is measured prior to the determination of the unknown concentration, and the actual measured emission from the unknown species, or by this latter emission and the emission intensity of a species having known concentration within the sample such as nitrogen for gaseous air samples.

  14. Method for determining the concentration of atomic species in gases and solids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loge, Gary W. (2998 Plaza Blanca, Santa Fe, NM 87505)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for determining the concentration of atomic species in gases and solids. Measurement of at least two emission intensities from a species in a plasma containing the species after a sufficient time period has elapsed after the generation of the plasma and during a second time period, permits an instantaneous temperature to be established within the sample. The concentration of the atomic species to be determined is then derived from the known emission intensity of a predetermined concentration of that species in the sample at the measured temperature, a quantity which is measured prior to the determination of the unknown concentration, and the actual measured emission from the unknown species, or by this latter emission and the emission intensity of a species having known concentration within the sample.

  15. Method for determining the concentration of atomic species in gases and solids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loge, G.W.

    1998-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Method is described for determining the concentration of atomic species in gases and solids. The method involves measurement of at least two emission intensities from a species in a sample that is excited by incident laser radiation. This generates a plasma therein after a sufficient time period has elapsed and during a second time period, permits an instantaneous temperature to be established within the sample. The concentration of the atomic species to be determined is then derived from the known emission intensity of a predetermined concentration of that species in the sample at the measured temperature, a quantity which is measured prior to the determination of the unknown concentration, and the actual measured emission from the unknown species, or by this latter emission and the emission intensity of a species having known concentration within the sample such as nitrogen for gaseous air samples. 4 figs.

  16. On a non approximated approach to Extended Thermodynamics for dense gases and macromolecular fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. C. Carrisi; M. A. Mele; S. Pennisi

    2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently the 14 moments model of Extended Thermodynamics for dense gases and macromolecular fluids has been considered and an exact solution, of the restrictions imposed by the entropy principle and that of Galilean relativity, has been obtained through a non relativistic limit. Here we prove uniqueness of the above solution and exploit other pertinent conditions such us the convexity of the function $h'$ related to the entropy density, the problem of subsystems and the fact that the flux in the conservation law of mass must be the moment of order 1 in the conservation law of momentum. Also the solution of this last condition is here obtained without using expansions around equilibrium. The results present interesting aspects which were not suspected when only approximated solutions of this problem were known.

  17. Electrochemical separation and concentration of sulfur containing gases from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winnick, Jack (3805 Woodrail-on-the-Green, Columbia, MO 65201)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing sulfur oxides of H.sub.2 S from high temperature gas mixtures (150.degree.-1000.degree. C.) is the subject of the present invention. An electrochemical cell is employed. The cell is provided with inert electrodes and an electrolyte which will provide anions compatible with the sulfur containing anions formed at the anode. The electrolyte is also selected to provide inert stable cations at the temperatures encountered. The gas mixture is passed by the cathode where the sulfur gases are converted to SO.sub.4.sup.= or, in the case of H.sub.2 S, to S.sup.=. The anions migrate to the anode where they are converted to a stable gaseous form at much greater concentration levels (>10X). Current flow may be effected by utilizing an external source of electrical energy or by passing a reducing gas such as hydrogen past the anode.

  18. New equation calculates thermal conductivities of C[sub 1]-C[sub 4] gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Lin, X.; Bu, L.; Nijhawan, S. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States))

    1994-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In the design of heat exchangers, heat-transfer coefficients are commonly calculated for individual items. These calculations require knowledge of the thermal conductivities of the species involved. The calculation require knowledge of the thermal conductivities of the species involved. The calculation of the overall heat-transfer coefficient for a heat exchanger also requires thermal conductivity data for the individual species. In fact, thermal conductivity is the fundamental property involved in heat transfer. Ordinarily, thermal conductivities are either measured experimentally or estimated using complex correlations and models. Engineers must search existing literature for the values needed. Here, a compilation of thermal conductivity data for gases is presented for a wide temperature range. Using these data with the accompanying equation will enable engineers to quickly determine values at the desired temperatures. The results are provided in an easy-to-use tabular format, which is especially helpful for rapid calculations using a personal computer or hand-held calculator.

  19. An Accelerated Multiboson Algorithm for Coulomb Gases with Dynamical Dielectric Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Duncan; R. D. Sedgewick

    2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A recent reformulation [1] of the problem of Coulomb gases in the presence of a dynamical dielectric medium showed that finite temperature simulations of such systems can be accomplished on the basis of completely local Hamiltonians on a spatial lattice by including additional bosonic fields. For large systems, the Monte Carlo algorithm proposed in Ref. [1] becomes inefficient due to a low acceptance rate for particle moves in a fixed background multiboson field. We show here how this problem can be circumvented by use of a coupled particle-multiboson update procedure that improves acceptance rates on large lattices by orders of magnitude. The method is tested on a one-component plasma with neutral dielectric particles for a variety of system sizes.

  20. Bose-Einstein Condensation of Gases in the Frame of Quantum Electrodynamics: Interconnection of Constituents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark E. Perel'man

    2008-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Bose-Einstein condensate of rarified atomic gases is considered as the state formed by exchange of virtual photons, resonant to the lowest levels of atoms; such representation corresponds to the Einstein opinion about an inter-influence of condensable particles. Considered interactions directly lead to the QED structure of nonlinear potential in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Linear momenta that correspond to the thermal energy of condensable atoms are connected to near field of particles and therefore leave atoms immovable. The estimations of these effects do not contradict the observed data; the general quantum principles predict possibility of stimulating of BEC formation by resonant irradiation. All this requires the spectroscopic investigation of BEC on different steps of formation.