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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric conditions albedo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Removal of Atmospheric Effects prom AVHRR Albedos  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on numerical simulations, coefficients are determined to be used in a linear relationship between clear-sky planetary albedo and surface albedo. Thew coefficients are given as functions of solar zenith angle and atmospheric parameters for ...

Peter Koepke

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Accurate top of the atmosphere albedo determination from multiple views of the Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) instrument  

SciTech Connect

Changes in the Earth`s surface albedo impact the atmospheric and global energy budget and contribute to the global climate change. It is now recognized that multispectral and multiangular views of the Earth`s top of the atmosphere (TOA) albedo are necessary to provide information on albedo changes. In this paper we describe four semi- empirical bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) models which are inverted for two and three unknowns. The retrieved BRF parameters are then used to compute the TOA spectral albedo for clear sky conditions. Using this approach we find that the albedo can be computed with better than one percent error in the visible and one and a half percent in the near infrared (NIR) for most surface types. Global monitoring of the earth radiation budget is one of the main goals in global change research programs. Thus global measurements of the TOA albedo are important. Our goals is to compute the TOA spectral albedo for clear sky conditions.

Borel, C.C.; Gerstl, S.A.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tornow, C. [German Aerospace Research Establishment, Berlin (Germany)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

An Investigation with a General Circulation Model of the Climatic Effects of Cloud Albedo Changes Caused by Atmospheric Pollution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A hemispheric general circulation model, with fixed zonally averaged cloud cover, was used to investigate the climatic impact of increased albedo of low-level clouds caused by atmospheric pollution. The albedo of these clouds was increased from ...

B. G. Hunt

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Annual Cycle of Surface Albedo  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monthly mean surface albedo for the full spectra range of incoming solar radiation and average atmospheric properties is estimated for the period 1 April 1974–31 March 1975. It can be considered approximately representative of average conditions ...

G. Kukla; D. Robinson

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

A Model for the Spectral Albedo of Snow. II: Snow Containing Atmospheric Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Small highly absorbing particles, present in concentrations of only 1 part per million by weight (ppmw) or less, can lower snow albedo in the visible by 5–15% from the high values (96–99%) predicted for pure snow in Part I. These particles have, ...

Stephen G. Warren; Warren J. Wiscombe

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

THE SIZE, SHAPE, ALBEDO, DENSITY, AND ATMOSPHERIC LIMIT OF TRANSNEPTUNIAN OBJECT (50000) QUAOAR FROM MULTI-CHORD STELLAR OCCULTATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present results derived from the first multi-chord stellar occultations by the transneptunian object (50000) Quaoar, observed on 2011 May 4 and 2012 February 17, and from a single-chord occultation observed on 2012 October 15. If the timing of the five chords obtained in 2011 were correct, then Quaoar would possess topographic features (crater or mountain) that would be too large for a body of this mass. An alternative model consists in applying time shifts to some chords to account for possible timing errors. Satisfactory elliptical fits to the chords are then possible, yielding an equivalent radius R{sub equiv} = 555 {+-} 2.5 km and geometric visual albedo p{sub V} = 0.109 {+-} 0.007. Assuming that Quaoar is a Maclaurin spheroid with an indeterminate polar aspect angle, we derive a true oblateness of {epsilon}= 0.087{sup +0.0268}{sub -0.0175}, an equatorial radius of 569{sup +24}{sub -17} km, and a density of 1.99 {+-} 0.46 g cm{sup -3}. The orientation of our preferred solution in the plane of the sky implies that Quaoar's satellite Weywot cannot have an equatorial orbit. Finally, we detect no global atmosphere around Quaoar, considering a pressure upper limit of about 20 nbar for a pure methane atmosphere.

Braga-Ribas, F.; Vieira-Martins, R.; Camargo, J. I. B. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Sicardy, B.; Lellouch, E.; Lecacheux, J. [Observatoire de Paris, LESIA, F-92195 Meudon (France); Ortiz, J. L.; Morales, N. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia-CSIC, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Tancredi, G.; Roland, S.; Bruzzone, S. [Observatorio Astronomico Los Molinos, Montevideo U-12400 (Uruguay); Assafin, M. [Observatorio do Valongo/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Behrend, R. [Observatoire de Geneve, Sauverny (Switzerland); Vachier, F.; Colas, F. [Observatoire de Paris, IMCCE, F-75014 Paris (France); Maury, A. [San Pedro de Atacama Celestial Explorations, San Pedro de Atacama (Chile); Emilio, M. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Ponta Grossa (Brazil); Amorim, A. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil); Unda-Sanzana, E. [Unidad de Astronomia, Universidad de Antofagasta, Antofagasta (Chile); Almeida, L. A., E-mail: ribas@on.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, DAS, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); and others

2013-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

7

The Role of Surface Albedo Feedback in Climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A coarse resolution coupled ocean–atmosphere simulation in which surface albedo feedback is suppressed by prescribing surface albedo, is compared to one where snow and sea ice anomalies are allowed to affect surface albedo. Canonical CO2-doubling ...

Alex Hall

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

The Albedo of Fractal Stratocumulus Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An increase in the planetary albedo of the earth-atmosphere system by only 10% can decrease the equilibrium surface temperature to that of the last ice age. Nevertheless, albedo biases of 10% or greater would be introduced into large regions of ...

Robert F. Cahalan; William Ridgway; Warren J. Wiscombe; Thomas L. Bell; Jack B. Snider

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Top-of-Atmosphere Albedo Estimation from Angular Distribution Models Using Scene Identification from Satellite Cloud Property Retrievals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The next generation of earth radiation budget satellite instruments will routinely merge estimates of global top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes with cloud properties. This information will offer many new opportunities for validating radiative ...

Norman G. Loeb; Frédéric Parol; Jean-Claude Buriez; Claudine Vanbauce

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

HYPERsensarium : an archive of atmospheric conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HYPERsensarium proposes a tangible interface of atmospheres for public experience through an archive of historical and projected weathers. While architecture's purpose has long been to act as the technical boundary between ...

Shaw, Kelly E. (Kelly Evelyn)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Surface Spectral Albedo Intensive Operational Period at the ARM SGP Site in august 2002: Results, Analysis, and Future Plans  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spectral Albedo Intensive Operational Period Spectral Albedo Intensive Operational Period at the ARM SGP Site in August 2002: Results, Analysis, and Future Plans A. P. Trishchenko and Y. Luo Canada Centre for Remote Sensing Ottawa, Ontario, Canada M. C. Cribb and Z. Li University of Maryland College Park, Maryland K. Hamm University of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma Introduction A surface spectral albedo Intensive Operational Period (IOP) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site was conducted during August 14-19, 2002, to meet the ARM Program need in a detailed knowledge of surface boundary conditions for atmospheric radiation studies. We measured surface spectral albedos/reflectances for several representative surface types and made a survey of landcover types over an area of approximately 10 km x 10 km centered

12

A Global Climatology of Albedo, Roughness Length and Stomatal Resistance for Atmospheric General Circulation Models as Represented by the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Components of the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB) of Sellers et al. were used to generate global monthly fields of surface albedo (0.4–4.0 ?m), roughness length and minimum surface (stomatal) resistance.

J. L. Dorman; P. J. Sellers

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Investigation of Unusual Albedos in the SGP Domain  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Investigation of Unusual Albedos in the SGP Domain Investigation of Unusual Albedos in the SGP Domain Groff, David ARM SGP Duchon, Claude University Of Oklahoma Category: Atmospheric State and Surface We investigate the cause of unusually high albedos at an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) extended facility near Morris, OK. In a previous study, daily albedos were calculated at several SGP extended facilities for 1998 and 1999 using broadband (.28 to 3 microns) pyranometers. The average daily albedo during this period was calculated to be at least about 5% higher at Morris than at any of the other SGP extended facilities. Surface based measurements of daily albedos at Morris and two nearby SGP extended facilities during 2004 and 2005 suggest the unusually high albedo measurements at Morris are real.

14

Conditional Sampling of Turbulence in the Atmospheric Surface Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conditional sampling and averaging techniques are used to obtain statistics of convectively-driven quasi-ordered structures at a height of 4 m within the atmospheric surface layer. The fraction of time 'y occupiedby these structures, and their ...

R. A. Antonia; S. Rajagopalan; A. J. Chambers

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

The Moist Available Energy of a Conditionally Unstable Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The concept of “moist available energy,” defined by Lorenz, is applied to study the potential energy available for cumulus convection in a conditionally unstable atmosphere. A modified version of Lorenz's parcel-moving algorithm is applied to the ...

David A. Randall; Junyi Wang

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Study of Laser Scintillation in Different Atmospheric Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser scintillation observations were carried out over a flat surface in different atmospheric conditions on 33 separate days during March 1990?April 1991 and were analyzed and studied. The principal results of the analysis reveal (i) marked ...

P. Ernest Raj; S. Sharma; P. C. S. Devara; G. Pandithurai

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Surface Contribution to Planetary Albedo Variability in Cryosphere Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Climatological planetary albedo obtained from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) D-series flux dataset is broken down into contributions from the surface and atmosphere in cryosphere regions. The atmosphere accounts for ...

Xin Qu; Alex Hall

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Retrieval of Land Surface Albedo from Satellite Observations: A Simulation Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Land surface albedo is a critical parameter affecting the earth’s climate and is required by global and regional climatic modeling and surface energy balance monitoring. Surface albedo retrieved from satellite observations at one atmospheric ...

Shunlin Liang; Alan H. Strahler; Charles Walthall

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Compensation of hemispheric albedo asymmetries by shifts of the ITCZ and tropical clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Despite a substantial hemispheric asymmetry in clear-sky albedo, observations of Earth’s radiation budget reveal that the two hemispheres have the same all-sky albedo. Here, aquaplanet simulations with the atmosphere general circulation model ...

Aiko Voigt; Bjorn Stevens; Jürgen Bader; Thorsten Mauritsen

20

Global Cooling: Increasing World-Wide Urban Albedos to Offset CO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modification of urban albedos reduces summertime urban temperatures, resulting in a better urban air quality and building air-conditioning savings. Furthermore, increasing urban albedos has the added benefit of reflecting some of the incoming global solar radiation and countering to some extent the effects of global warming. In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). Using reflective materials, both roof and the pavement albedos can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60% (a U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills). On a global basis, our preliminary estimate is that increasing the world-wide albedos of urban roofs and paved surfaces will induce a negative radiative forcing on the earth equivalent to removing {approx} 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. Since, 55% of the emitted CO{sub 2} remains in the atmosphere, removal of 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere is equivalent to reducing global CO{sub 2} emissions by 40-73 Gt. At {approx} $25/tonne of CO{sub 2}, a 40-73 Gt CO{sub 2} emission reduction from changing the albedo of roofs and paved surfaces is worth about $1,000B to 1800B. These estimated savings are dependent on assumptions used in this study, but nevertheless demonstrate considerable benefits that may be obtained from cooler roofs and pavements.

Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi; Rosenfeld, Arthur

2008-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric conditions albedo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Interpretation of Surface and Planetary Directional Albedos for Vegetated Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An atmospheric solar radiation model has been coupled with surface reflectance measurements for two vegetation types, pasture land and savannah, in order to address several issues associated with understanding the directional planetary albedo; ...

Inna L. Vulis; Robert D. Cess

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Broadband Albedo Observations in the Southern Great Plains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Time series of daily broadband surface albedo for 1998 and 1999 have been analyzed from six locations in the network of 22 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Solar–Infrared Radiation Stations distributed from central Kansas to central ...

Claude E. Duchon; Kenneth G. Hamm

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Surface Albedo Estimates from Nimbus-7 ERB Data and a Two-Stream Approximation of the Radiative Transfer Equation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar zenith angle-dependent surface albedo is determined by equating top of the atmosphere (TOA) albedo evaluated from Nimbus-7 data with TOA albedo predicted by a two-layer, two-stream radiative transfer model of the atmosphere. Results are ...

Howard W. Barker; John A. Davies

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

ARM - Measurement - Surface albedo  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

albedo albedo ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Surface albedo The fraction of incoming solar radiation at a surface (i.e. land, cloud top) that is effectively reflected by that surface. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments MFR : Multifilter Radiometer External Instruments ETA : Eta Model Runs ECMWFDIAG : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Diagnostic Analyses ECMWF : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Model

25

Ks-BAND DETECTION OF THERMAL EMISSION AND COLOR CONSTRAINTS TO CoRoT-1b: A LOW-ALBEDO PLANET WITH INEFFICIENT ATMOSPHERIC ENERGY REDISTRIBUTION AND A TEMPERATURE INVERSION  

SciTech Connect

We report the detection in Ks-band of the secondary eclipse of the hot Jupiter CoRoT-1b from time series photometry with the ARC 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point Observatory. The eclipse shows a depth of 0.336 +- 0.042% and is centered at phase 0.5022{sup +0.0023}{sub -0.0027}, consistent with a zero eccentricity orbit (e cos omega = 0.0035{sup +0.0036}{sub -0.0042}). We perform the first optical to near-infrared multi-band photometric analysis of an exoplanet's atmosphere and constrain the reflected and thermal emissions by combining our result with the recent 0.6, 0.71, and 2.09 mum secondary eclipse detections by Snellen et al., Gillon et al., and Alonso et al. Comparing the multi-wavelength detections to state-of-the-art radiative-convective chemical-equilibrium atmosphere models, we find the near-infrared fluxes difficult to reproduce. The closest blackbody-based and physical models provide the following atmosphere parameters: a temperature T = 2460{sup +80}{sub -160} K; a very low Bond albedo A{sub B} = 0.000{sup +0.081}{sub -0.000}; and an energy redistribution parameter P{sub n} = 0.1, indicating a small but nonzero amount of heat transfer from the day to nightside. The best physical model suggests a thermal inversion layer with an extra optical absorber of opacity kappa{sub e} = 0.05 cm{sup 2} g{sup -1}, placed near the 0.1 bar atmospheric pressure level. This inversion layer is located 10 times deeper in the atmosphere than the absorbers used in models to fit mid-infrared Spitzer detections of other irradiated hot Jupiters.

Rogers, Justin C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 366 Bloomberg Center, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Apai, Daniel [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lopez-Morales, Mercedes [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washngton, 5241 Broad Branch Rd. NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Sing, David K. [UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Burrows, Adam, E-mail: rogers@pha.jhu.ed [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2009-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

26

Albedos and Glitter Patterns of a Wind-Roughened Sea Surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The downward albedo (irradiance reflectance) r? and the upward albedo r+ of a random air–water surface, formed by capillary waves, are computed as a function of lighting conditions and wind speed by Monte Carlo means for incident unpolarized ...

Rudolph W. Preisendorfer; Curtis D. Mobley

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Aerosol Single-Scattering Albedo in the Arctic, Determined from Ground-Based Nonspectral Solar Irradiance Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The single-scattering albedo of atmospheric aerosol is a crucial parameter in realistic radiative transfer calculations. Various attempts have been undertaken to determine this variable.

J. Freund

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

An Analysis of the Conditional Instability of the Tropical Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ice phase is included in thermodynamic calculations of convective available potential energy (CAPE) for a large number of soundings in the tropical atmosphere, at both land and ocean stations. It is found that the positive-buoyancy ...

Erle Williams; Nilton Renno

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Observations of Secondary Organic Aerosol Production and Soot Aging under Atmospheric Conditions Using a Novel Environmental Aerosol Chamber  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) comprise a substantial fraction of the total global aerosol budget. While laboratory studies involving smog chambers have advanced our understanding of the formation mechanisms responsible for SOA, our knowledge of the processes leading to SOA production under ambient gaseous and particulate concentrations as well as the impact these aerosol types have on climate is poorly understood. Although the majority of atmospheric aerosols scatter radiation either directly or indirectly by serving as cloud condensation nuclei, soot is thought to have a significant warming effect through absorption. Like inorganic salts, soot may undergo atmospheric transformation through the vapor condensation of non-volatile gaseous species which will alter both its chemical and physical properties. Typical smog chamber studies investigating the formation and growth of SOA as well as the soot aging process are temporally limited by the initial gaseous concentrations injected into the chamber environment. Furthermore, data interpretation from such experiments is generally restricted to the singular gaseous species under investigation. This dissertation discusses the use of a new aerosol chamber designed to study the formation and growth of SOA and soot aging under atmospherically relevant conditions. The Ambient Aerosol Chamber for Evolution Studies (AACES) was deployed at three field sites where size and hygroscopic growth factor (HGF) of ammonium sulfate seed particles was monitored over time to examine the formation and growth of SOA. Similar studies investigating the soot aging process were also conducted in Houston, TX. It is shown that during the ambient growth of ammonium sulfate seed particles, as particle size increases, hygroscopic growth factors decrease considerably resulting in a significant organic mass fraction in the particle phase concluding an experiment. Observations of soot aging show an increase in measured size, HGF, mass and single scattering albedo. Ambient growth rate comparisons with chamber growth yielded similar trends verifying the use of AACES to study aerosol aging. Based on the results from this study, it is recommended that AACES be employed in future studies involving the production and growth of SOA and soot aging under ambient conditions in order to bridge the gaps in our current scientific knowledge.

Glen, Crystal

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Fluorescence emission induced by extensive air showers in dependence on atmospheric conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Charged particles of extensive air showers (EAS), mainly electrons and positrons, initiate the emission of fluorescence light in the Earth's atmosphere. This light provides a calorimetric measurement of the energy of cosmic rays. For reconstructing the primary energy from an observed light track of an EAS, the fluorescence yield in air has to be known in dependence on atmospheric conditions, like air temperature, pressure, and humidity. Several experiments on fluorescence emission have published various sets of data covering different parts of the dependence of the fluorescence yield on atmospheric conditions. Using a compilation of published measurements, a calculation of the fluorescence yield in dependence on altitude is presented. The fluorescence calculation is applied to simulated air showers and different atmospheric profiles to estimate the influence of the atmospheric conditions on the reconstructed shower parameters.

Keilhauer, Bianca

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Black carbon snow albedo reduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Black carbon snow albedo reduction Black carbon snow albedo reduction Title Black carbon snow albedo reduction Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Hadley, Odelle L., and Thomas W. Kirchstetter Journal Nature Climate Change Volume 2 Pagination 437-440 Abstract Climate models indicate that the reduction of surface albedo caused by black-carbon contamination of snow contributes to global warming and near-worldwide melting of ice1, 2. In this study, we generated and characterized pure and black-carbon-laden snow in the laboratory and verified that black-carbon contamination appreciably reduces snow albedo at levels that have been found in natural settings1, 3, 4. Increasing the size of snow grains in our experiments decreased snow albedo and amplified the radiative perturbation of black carbon, which justifies the aging-related positive feedbacks that are included in climate models. Moreover, our data provide an extensive verification of the Snow, Ice and Aerosol Radiation model1, which will be included in the next assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change5.

32

Atmospheric Dispersion Model Validation in Low Wind Conditions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

and SCIPUFF models and under-prediction bias by the ALOHA model. The experiment parameters were for near field dispersion (less than 100 meters) in low wind speed conditions (less than 2 meters per second).

Patrick Sawyer

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Dependence of Land Surface Albedo on Solar Zenith Angle: Observations and Model Parameterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the dependence of surface albedo on solar zenith angle (SZA) over snow-free land surfaces using the intensive observations of surface shortwave fluxes made by the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (...

Fanglin Yang; Kenneth Mitchell; Yu-Tai Hou; Yongjiu Dai; Xubin Zeng; Zhuo Wang; Xin-Zhong Liang

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Intercomparison and Interpretation of Satellite-Derived Directional Albedos over Deserts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Desert regions are employed in somewhat of a tutorial mode for the purpose of addressing several issues associated with understanding the dependence of planetary (top-of-the-atmosphere) albedo upon solar zenith angle, i.e., the directional ...

Robert D. Cess; Inna L. Vulis

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

A Method for the Estimate of Broadband Directional Surface Albedo from a Geostationary Satellite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface albedo can be inferred from geostationary satellite measurements as long as the effects due to the atmosphere, the spectral response of the sensor, and the angular anisotropy of the reflected field are corrected. In this paper, we ...

B. Pinty; D. Ramond

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Conditional Sampling of Updrafts and Downdrafts in the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The properties of updrafts and downdrafts in the lower third of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) over the central Pacific Ocean are investigated using a conditional sampling technique. When the drafts are classified according to their ...

Siri Jodha Singh Khalsa; Gary K. Greenhut

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

The Regional Atmospheric Water Budget over Southwestern Germany under Different Synoptic Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study addresses the question of how complex topography in a low-mountain region affects the partitioning and the variability of the atmospheric water budget components (WBCs) as a function of synoptic-scale flow conditions. The WBCs are ...

Romi Sasse; Gerd Schädler; Christoph Kottmeier

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Surface Turbulent Flux Formulation in Stable Conditions for Atmospheric Circulation Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The forty-day Wangara data set is used to discuss the applicability of the traditional formulations for the surface fluxes for atmospheric circulation models. It is shown that, while in unstable conditions the surface layer relationships can be ...

Yves Delage

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Stability Parameters and Wind-Stress Coefficients under Various Atmospheric Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stability parameters and wind-stress coefficients under various atmospheric conditions are related to wind velocity and air-sea temperature difference. Readily applicable formulae, without iterative computations, of wind-stress coefficients under ...

Jin Wu

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Effects of Initial and Boundary Conditions of Mesoscale Models on Simulated Atmospheric Refractivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radar ducting is caused by sharp vertical changes in temperature and, especially, water vapor at the top of the atmospheric boundary layer, both of which are sensitive to variations in the underlying surface conditions, local mesoscale weather, ...

Changgui Wang; Damian Wilson; Tracy Haack; Peter Clark; Humphrey Lean; Robert Marshall

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric conditions albedo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Global Cooling: Effect of Urban Albedo on Global Temperature  

SciTech Connect

In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). The roof and the pavement albedo can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60%. We estimate U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills. Increasing albedo of urban surfaces can reduce the summertime urban temperature and improve the urban air quality. Increasing the urban albedo has the added benefit of reflecting more of the incoming global solar radiation and countering the effect of global warming. We estimate that increasing albedo of urban areas by 0.1 results in an increase of 3 x 10{sup -4} in Earth albedo. Using a simple global model, the change in air temperature in lowest 1.8 km of the atmosphere is estimated at 0.01K. Modelers predict a warming of about 3K in the next 60 years (0.05K/year). Change of 0.1 in urban albedo will result in 0.01K global cooling, a delay of {approx}0.2 years in global warming. This 0.2 years delay in global warming is equivalent to 10 Gt reduction in CO2 emissions.

Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi; Rosenfeld, Arthur

2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

42

Description of Atmospheric Conditions at the Pierre Auger Observatory using the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric conditions at the site of a cosmic ray observatory must be known for reconstructing observed extensive air showers. The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) is a global atmospheric model predicated on meteorological measurements and numerical weather predictions. GDAS provides altitude-dependent profiles of the main state variables of the atmosphere like temperature, pressure, and humidity. The original data and their application to the air shower reconstruction of the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. By comparisons with radiosonde and weather station measurements obtained on-site in Malargue and averaged monthly models, the utility of the GDAS data is shown.

Abreu, P.; /Lisbon, IST; Aglietta, M.; /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Ahlers, M.; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Ahn, E.J.; /Fermilab; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; /Sao Paulo U.; Allard, D.; /APC, Paris; Allekotte, I.; /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Allen, J.; /New York U.; Allison, P.; /Ohio State U.; Almela, A.; /Natl. Tech. U., San Nicolas /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Alvarez Castillo, J.; /Mexico U., ICN /Santiago de Compostela U.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Wind Turbines Under Atmospheric Icing Conditions - Ice Accretion Modeling, Aerodynamics, and Control Strategies for Mitigating Performance Degradation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis presents a combined engineering methodology of ice accretion, airfoil data, and rotor performance analysis of wind turbines subject to moderate atmospheric icing conditions.… (more)

Brillembourg, Dwight

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

A Method to Derive the Multispectral Surface Albedo Consistent with MODIS from Historical AVHRR and VGT Satellite Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multispectral surface albedo and bidirectional properties are required for accurate determination of the surface and atmosphere solar radiation budget. A method is developed here to obtain time series of these surface characteristics consistent ...

Alexander P. Trishchenko; Yi Luo; Konstantin V. Khlopenkov; Shusen Wang

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

An Algorithm to Infer Continental-Scale Albedo from AVHRR Data, Land Cover Class, and Field Observations of Typical BRDFs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method to derive bottom-of-atmosphere land surface albedos from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite measurements is presented. The algorithm described uses kernel-based bidirectional reflectance distribution function (...

Nicholas C. Strugnell; Wolfgang Lucht

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Single-Scattering Albedo and Radiative Forcing of Various Aerosol Species with a Global Three-Dimensional Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global distributions of the aerosol optical thickness, Ĺngström exponent, and single-scattering albedo are simulated using an aerosol transport model coupled with an atmospheric general circulation model. All the main tropospheric aerosols are ...

Toshihiko Takemura; Teruyuki Nakajima; Oleg Dubovik; Brent N. Holben; Stefan Kinne

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Albedo Feedback, the Meridional Structure of the Effective Heat Diffusivity, and Climatic Sensitivity: Results from Dynamic and Diffusive Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sensitivity of a two-level primitive equation atmospheric model to solar constant perturbations is examined in the presence of surface albedo feedback. The model is simplified to the point that a large number of numerical experiments can be ...

Isaac M. Held; David I. Linder; Max J. Suarez

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

A GCM Simulation Study of the Influence of Saharan Evapotranspiration and Surface-Albedo Anomalies on July Circulation and Rainfall  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The GLA (Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres) GCM (general circulation model) was employed to investigate the influence of surface albedo and evapotranspiration anomalies that could result from the hypothetical semiarid vegetation over North ...

Y. C. Sud; A. Molod

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Influences of atmospheric conditions and air mass on the ratio of ultraviolet to total solar radiation  

SciTech Connect

The technology to detoxify hazardous wastes using ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation is being investigated by the DOE/SERI Solar Thermal Technology Program. One of the elements of the technology evaluation is the assessment and characterization of UV solar radiation resources available for detoxification processes. This report describes the major atmospheric variables that determine the amount of UV solar radiation at the earth's surface, and how the ratio of UV-to-total solar radiation varies with atmospheric conditions. These ratios are calculated from broadband and spectral solar radiation measurements acquired at SERI, and obtained from the literature on modeled and measured UV solar radiation. The following sections discuss the atmospheric effects on UV solar radiation and provide UV-to-total solar radiation ratios from published studies, as well as measured values from SERI's data. A summary and conclusions are also given.

Riordan, C.J.; Hulstrom, R.L.; Myers, D.R.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Simultaneous Spectral Albedo Measurements Near the ARM SGP Central Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Simultaneous Spectral Albedo Measurements Simultaneous Spectral Albedo Measurements Near the ARM SGP Central Facility J. J. Michalsky and Q.-L. Min Atmospheric Sciences Research Center State University of New York Albany, New York J. C. Barnard and R. T. Marchand Pacific Northwest National Laboratory P. Pilewskie National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ames Research Center Moffett Field, California Introduction During ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment II (ARESE II) the Twin Otter aircraft made low-altitude (100-300-m) passes over the Central Facility (CF) at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Clouds and Radiation Testbed (CART) site as part of the flight pattern design for the experiment. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center's Solar Spectral Flux

51

Albedo of a Dissipating Snow Cover  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Albedos of surfaces covered with 50 cm of fresh dry snow following a major U.S. East Coast storm on 11–12 February 1983 ranged from 0.20 over a mixed coniferous forest to 0.80 over open farmland. As the snow cover dissipated, albedo decreased in ...

David A. Robinson; George Kukla

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Arctic Sea Ice Albedo from AVHRR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The seasonal cycle of surface albedo of sea ice in the Arctic is estimated from measurements made with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the polar-orbiting satellites NOAA-10 and NOAA-11. The albedos of 145 200-km-square ...

R. W. Lindsay; D. A. Rothrock

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Surface Albedo at ARM SGP from Helicopter Observations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

model (Fu and Liou 1993), ARM profile information and aerosols, and albedo spectral shape from the CARE experiment. Surface albedo is then adjusted such that model fluxes...

54

The Influence of Atmospheric Noise and Uncertainty in Ocean Initial Conditions on the Limit of Predictability in a Coupled GCM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of atmospheric stochastic forcing and uncertainty in initial conditions on the limit of predictability of the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS) is quantified based on comparisons of idealized identical twin prediction experiments ...

Cristiana Stan; Ben P. Kirtman

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

An Analysis of Wind Fluctuation Statistics Collected under Stable Atmospheric Conditions at Three Sites in Alberta, Canada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wind fluctuation data collected under stable atmospheric conditions at two prairie sites and a site located near the Rocky Mountain foothills have been analyzed. Results of the analysis show a marked tendency for horizontal fluctuation angles to ...

D. M. Leahey; M. C. Hansen; M. B. Schroeder

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

The ISLSCP Initiative I Global Datasets: Surface Boundary Conditions and Atmospheric Forcings for Land-Atmosphere Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comprehensive series of global datasets for land-atmosphere models has been collected, formatted to a common grid, and released on a set of CD-ROMS. This paper describes the motivation for and the, contents of the dataset.

P. J. Sellers; B. W. Meeson; J. Closs; J. Collatz; F. Corprew; D. Dazlich; F. G. Hall; Y. Kerr; R. Koster; S. Los; K. Mitchell; J. McManus; D. Myers; K-J. Sun; P. Try

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Comparison of Regional Clear-Sky Albedos Inferred from Satellite Observations and Model Computations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have taken an important first step in validating climate models by comparing model and satellite inferred clear sky TOA (top-of-atmosphere) albedos. Model albodos were computed on a 1° × 1° latitude-longitude grid, allowing for variations in ...

B. P. Briegleb; P. Minnis; V. Ramanathan; E. Harrison

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

The Albedo Decay of Prairie Snows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Daily albedos of snow were measured between November and April, 1969–87, and were analyzed to determine the decay rate between snowfalls. The data essentially represent the snow accumulation season because the analysis was limited to days when ...

D. G. Baker; D. L. Ruschy; D. B. Wall

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Coupling Diffuse Sky Radiation and Surface Albedo  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New satellite instruments have been delivering a wealth of information regarding land surface albedo. This basic quantity describes what fraction of solar radiation is reflected from the earth’s surface. However, its concept and measurements have ...

Bernard Pinty; Alessio Lattanzio; John V. Martonchik; Michel M. Verstraete; Nadine Gobron; Malcolm Taberner; Jean-Luc Widlowski; Robert E. Dickinson; Yves Govaerts

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Gamma-ray albedo of the moon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use the GEANT4 Monte Carlo framework to calculate the gamma-ray albedo of the Moon due to interactions of cosmic ray (CR) nuclei with moon rock. Our calculation of the albedo spectrum agrees with the EGRET data. We show that the spectrum of gamma rays from the Moon is very steep with an effective cutoff around 4 GeV (600 MeV for the inner part of the Moon disc). Apart from other astrophysical sources, the albedo spectrum of the Moon is well understood, including its absolute normalisation; this makes it a useful "standard candle" for gamma-ray telescopes, such as the forthcoming Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). The albedo flux depends on the incident CR spectrum which changes over the solar cycle. Therefore, it is possible to monitor the CR spectrum using the albedo gamma-ray flux. Simultaneous measurements of CR proton and helium spectra by the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA), and observations of the albedo gamma rays by the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT), can be used to test the model predictions and will enable the GLAST LAT to monitor the CR spectrum near the Earth beyond the lifetime of PAMELA.

Igor V. Moskalenko; Troy A. Porter

2007-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric conditions albedo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Estimating Spatial Variability in Atmospheric Properties over Remotely Sensed Land Surface Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the spatial relationships between surface fluxes and near-surface atmospheric properties (AP), and the potential errors in flux estimation due to homogeneous atmospheric inputs over heterogeneous landscapes. A large-eddy ...

Giacomo Bertoldi; William P. Kustas; John D. Albertson

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Effect of Ice-Albedo Feedback on Global Sensitivity in a One-Dimensional Radiative-Convective Climate Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feedback between ice albedo and temperature is included in a one-dimensional radiative-convective climate model. The effect of this feedback on global sensitivity to changes in solar constant is studied for the current climate conditions. ...

Wei-Chyung Wang; Peter H. Stone

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Independent Pixel and Monte Carlo Estimates of Stratocumulus Albedo  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monte Carlo radiative transfer methods are employed here to estimate the plane-parallel albedo bias for marine stratocumulus clouds. This is the bias in estimates of the mesoscale-average albedo, which arises from the assumption that cloud liquid ...

Robert F. Cahalan; William Ridgway; Warren J. Wiscombe; Steven Gollmer; Harshvardhan

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Direct Determination of Surface Albedos from Satellite Imagery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An empirical method to measure the spectral surface albedo of surfaces from LANDSAT imagery is presented and analyzed.

Yuri Mekler; Joachim H. Joseph

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Plane Parallel Albedo Biases from Satellite Observations. Part II: Parameterizations for Bias Removal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the same satellite observations as in Part I of this paper, the authors explore ways to remove the cloud albedo bias (or plane parallel albedo bias), the difference between the plane parallel homogeneous albedo and the average albedo of ...

Lazaros Oreopoulos; Roger Davies

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Plane Parallel Albedo Biases from Satellite Observations. Part I: Dependence on Resolution and Other Factors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to cloud heterogeneity and the nonlinear dependence of albedo on cloud water content, the average albedo of a cloudy scene found by calculating the albedo of independent pixels within the scene tends to be different from the albedo calculated ...

Lazaros Oreopoulos; Roger Davies

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

On the Relationship between Clear-Sky Planetary and Surfae Albedos  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on simulations, a simple linear relationship is derived between planetary albedo and the surface albedo for the case of clear skies. This relationship enables one to estimate the planetary albedo, given only the surface albedo, and vice ...

T. S. Chen; George Ohring

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

New Vegetation Albedo Parameters and Global Fields of Soil Background Albedo Derived from MODIS for Use in a Climate Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New values are derived for snow-free albedo of five plant functional types (PFTs) and the soil/litter substrate from data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on board Terra and Aqua. The derived albedo ...

Caroline J. Houldcroft; William M. F. Grey; Mike Barnsley; Christopher M. Taylor; Sietse O. Los; Peter R. J. North

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

New Visible to Broadband Shortwave Conversions for Deriving Albedos from GOES-8 Over the ARM-SGP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Visible to Broadband Shortwave Conversions for New Visible to Broadband Shortwave Conversions for Deriving Albedos from GOES-8 Over the ARM-SGP V. Chakrapani, D. R. Doelling, and M. M. Khaiyer Analytical Services and Materials, Inc. Hampton, Virginia P. Minnis National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia Introduction The radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) is a quantity of fundamental importance to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Thus, it is necessary to measure the radiation budget components, broadband shortwave (SW) albedo and outgoing longwave radiation, as accurately as possible. Measurement of TOA broadband albedos over the ARM surface sites has only been possible since the advent of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES; Wielicki et al.

70

Conditional Sampling of Coherent Structures in Atmospheric Turbulence Using the Wavelet Transform  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development and evaluation of a technique to detect and retrieve coherent structures embedded in a record of atmospheric surface-layer temperature fluctuations is described. This new detection scheme, based on a local wavelet transform, is ...

B. J. Turner; M. Y. Leclerc

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Large Eddy Simulation of an Inhomogeneous Atmospheric Boundary Layer under Neutral Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flow structures in an inhomogeneous neutrally stratified atmospheric boundary layer flow, obtained from large eddy simulation, are analyzed and compared with homogeneous case counterparts. The inhomogeneity is imposed in the streamwise direction ...

Ching-Long Lin; John W. Glendening

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Influence of Ocean Surface Conditions on Atmospheric Vertical Thermodynamic Structure and Deep Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors analyze the influence of sea surface temperature (SST) and surface wind divergence on atmospheric thermodynamic structure and the resulting effects on the occurrence of deep convection using National Meteorological Center radiosonde ...

Rong Fu; Anthony D. Del Genio; William B. Rossow

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

The Sensitivity of the Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Thickness and Its Dependence on the Surface Albedo Parameterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the response of sea ice thickness to changes in the external forcing is investigated and particularly how this response depends on the surface albedo formulation by means of a one-dimensional coupled ocean–ice–atmosphere model. The ...

Göran Björk; Christian Stranne; Karin Borenäs

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

The Soil Moisture–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (SMACEX): Background, Hydrometeorological Conditions, and Preliminary Findings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Soil Moisture–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (SMACEX) was conducted in conjunction with the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02) during June and July 2002 near Ames, Iowa—a corn and soybean production region. The primary objective of SMEX02 ...

William P. Kustas; Jerry L. Hatfield; John H. Prueger

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Global cooling: increasing world-wide urban albedos to offset...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

In addition, increasing urban albedo can result in less absorption of incoming solar radiation by the surface-troposphere system, countering to some extent the global scale...

76

E – ? model of spray-laden near-sea atmospheric layer in high wind conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In-depth understanding and accurate modelling of the interaction between ocean spray and a turbulent flow under high-wind conditions is essential for improving intensity forecasts of hurricanes and severe storms. Here we consider the E – ? closure ...

Yevgenii Rastigejev; Sergey A. Suslov

77

Aerosol Radiative Forcing Under Cloudless Conditions.in Winter ZCAREX-2001  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Forcing Under Cloudless Conditions Forcing Under Cloudless Conditions in Winter ZCAREX-2001 G. S. Golitsyn, I. A. Gorchakova, and I. I. Mokhov Institute of Atmospheric Physic Moscow, Russia Introduction Aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) is estimated for winter clear-sky conditions from measurements during ZCAREX-2001-Cloud-Aerosol-Radiation Experiment in February-March, 2001 at the Zvenigorod Scientific Station (ZSS) of the A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS. ARF in the shortwave range is determined by the difference between the net fluxes of the solar radiation, calculated with and without the aerosol component of the atmosphere. The estimates of ARF are made for conditions with high surface albedo. Data Used The following data of atmospheric characteristics observed during winter are used for the

78

Albedo Following Fire in a Northern Hardwood Forest  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changes in albedo were tracked following fire on 18 August 1980 in a successional hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan (43°33?N, 84°42?W). Shortwave albedo (300–3000 nm) changed little with zenith angle up to 55°, but then increased ...

Thomas W. Jurik; David M. Gates

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Black Carbon Soot Impact on Snow Albedo: A Laboratory Investigation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Black Carbon Soot Impact on Snow Albedo: A Laboratory Investigation Black Carbon Soot Impact on Snow Albedo: A Laboratory Investigation Speaker(s): Odelle Hadley Date: August 13, 2009 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3075 This presentation examines the changing cryosphere and specifically the role of black carbon on the reflectivity of snow. Small amounts of black carbon in snow purportedly contribute to a reduction in snow albedo, contributing to regional climate change and early onset of melting. Our current research focuses on the connection between black carbon and albedo reduction. This presentation will describe our laboratory experiments wherein we make and characterize pure and contaminated snow and assess the black carbon snow albedo reduction as a function of black carbon mixing ratio and snow grain size. Experimental results are compared to verify or

80

A STUDY ON LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA, WATER CHEMISTRY, AND ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS IN COOLING TOWERS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

SciTech Connect

Legionnaires disease is a pneumonia caused by the inhalation of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila. The majority of illnesses have been associated with cooling towers since these devices can harbor and disseminate the bacterium in the aerosolized mist generated by these systems. Historically, Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling towers have had occurrences of elevated levels of Legionella in all seasons of the year and in patterns that are difficult to predict. Since elevated Legionella in cooling tower water are a potential health concern a question has been raised as to the best control methodology. In this work we analyze available chemical, biological, and atmospheric data to determine the best method or key parameter for control. The SRS 4Q Industrial Hygiene Manual, 4Q-1203, 1 - G Cooling Tower Operation and the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program, states that 'Participation in the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program is MANDATORY for all operating cooling towers'. The resulting reports include L. pneumophila concentration information in cells/L. L. pneumophila concentrations >10{sup 7} cells/L are considered elevated and unsafe so action must be taken to reduce these densities. These remedial actions typically include increase biocide addition or 'shocking'. Sometimes additional actions are required if the problem persists including increase tower maintenance (e.g. cleaning). Evaluation of 14 SRS cooling towers, seven water quality parameters, and five Legionella serogroups over a three-plus year time frame demonstrated that cooling tower water Legionella densities varied widely though out this time period. In fact there was no one common consistent significant variable across all towers. The significant factors that did show up most frequently were related to suspended particulates, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen, not chlorine or bromine as might be expected. Analyses of atmospheric data showed that there were more frequent significant elevated Legionella concentrations when the dew point temperature was high--a summertime occurrence. However, analysis of the three years of Legionella monitoring data of the 14 different SRS Cooling Towers demonstrated that elevated concentrations are observed at all temperatures and seasons. The objective of this study is to evaluate the ecology of L. pneumophila including serogroups and population densities, chemical, and atmospheric data, on cooling towers at SRS to determine whether relationships exist among water chemistry, and atmospheric conditions. The goal is to more fully understand the conditions which inhibit or encourage L. pneumophila growth and supply this data and associated recommendations to SRS Cooling Tower personnel for improved management of operation. Hopefully this information could then be used to help control L. pneumophila growth more effectively in SRS cooling tower water.

Smith, C.; Brigmon, R.

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric conditions albedo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

The Gamma-ray Albedo of the Moon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use the GEANT4 Monte Carlo framework to calculate the gamma-ray albedo of the Moon due to interactions of cosmic ray (CR) nuclei with moon rock. Our calculation of the albedo spectrum agrees with the EGRET data. We show that the spectrum of gamma rays from the Moon is very steep with an effective cutoff around 3-4 GeV (600 MeV for the inner part of the Moon disk) and exhibits a narrow pion-decay line at 67.5 MeV, perhaps unique in astrophysics. Apart from other astrophysical sources, the albedo spectrum of the Moon is well understood, including its absolute normalisation; this makes it a useful "standard candle" for gamma-ray telescopes. The steep albedo spectrum also provides a unique opportunity for energy calibration of gamma-ray telescopes, such as the forthcoming Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). Since the albedo flux depends on the incident CR spectrum which changes over the solar cycle, it is possible to monitor the CR spectrum using the albedo gamma-ray flux. Simultaneous measurements of CR proton and helium spectra by the Payload for Antimatter-Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA), and observations of the albedo gamma rays by the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT), can be used to test the model predictions and will enable the LAT to monitor the CR spectrum near the Earth beyond the lifetime of the PAMELA.

Igor V. Moskalenko; Troy A. Porter

2007-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

82

Variable control of neutron albedo in toroidal fusion devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An arrangement is provided for controlling neutron albedo in toroidal fusion devices having inboard and outboard vacuum vessel walls for containment of the neutrons of a fusion plasma. Neutron albedo material is disposed immediately adjacent the inboard wall, and is movable, preferably in vertical directions, so as to be brought into and out of neutron modifying communication with the fusion neutrons. Neutron albedo material preferably comprises a liquid form, but may also take pebble, stringer and curtain-like forms. A neutron flux valve, rotatable about a vertical axis is also disclosed.

Jassby, Daniel L. (Princeton, NJ); Micklich, Bradley J. (Princeton, NJ)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Final report for the project "Improving the understanding of surface-atmosphere radiative interactions by mapping surface reflectance over the ARM CART site" (award DE-FG02-02ER63351)  

SciTech Connect

Surface spectral reflectance (albedo) is a fundamental variable affecting the transfer of solar radiation and the Earth’s climate. It determines the proportion of solar energy absorbed by the surface and reflected back to the atmosphere. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) identified surface albedo among key factors influencing climate radiative forcing. Accurate knowledge of surface reflective properties is important for advancing weather forecasting and climate change impact studies. It is also important for determining radiative impact and acceptable levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which makes this work strongly linked to major scientific objectives of the Climate Change Research Division (CCRD) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Most significant accomplishments of eth project are listed below. I) Surface albedo/BRDF datasets from 1995 to the end of 2004 have been produced. They were made available to the ARM community and other interested users through the CCRS public ftp site ftp://ftp.ccrs.nrcan.gc.ca/ad/CCRS_ARM/ and ARM IOP data archive under “PI data Trishchenko”. II) Surface albedo properties over the ARM SGP area have been described for 10-year period. Comparison with ECMWF data product showed some deficiencies in the ECMWF surface scheme, such as missing some seasonal variability and no dependence on sky-conditions which biases surface energy budget and has some influence of the diurnal cycle of upward radiation and atmospheric absorption. III) Four surface albedo Intensive Observation Period (IOP) Field Campaigns have been conducted for every season (August, 2002, May 2003, February 2004 and October 2004). Data have been prepared, documented and transferred to ARM IOP archive. Nine peer-reviewed journal papers and 26 conference papers have been published.

Alexander P. Trishchenko; Yi Luo; Konstantin V. Khlopenkov, William M. Park; Zhanqing Li; Maureen Cribb

2008-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

84

Prediction of Monthly-Mean Temperature: The Roles of Atmospheric and Land Initial Conditions and Sea Surface Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the retrospective forecasts from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) coupled atmosphere–ocean Climate Forecast System (CFS) and the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) simulations from its uncoupled ...

Mingyue Chen; Wanqiu Wang; Arun Kumar

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Global and Local Effect of Increasing Land Surface Albedo as...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global and Local Effect of Increasing Land Surface Albedo as a Geo-Engineering AdaptationMitigation Option: A Case Study of Mediterranean Greenhouse Farming Speaker(s): Pablo...

86

Black Carbon Soot Impact on Snow Albedo: A Laboratory Investigation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Black Carbon Soot Impact on Snow Albedo: A Laboratory Investigation Speaker(s): Odelle Hadley Date: August 13, 2009 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3075 This presentation examines the...

87

ME EET Seminar: Black Carbon: Snow Albedo Reduction and Emissions...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ME EET Seminar: Black Carbon: Snow Albedo Reduction and Emissions from Cookstoves Speaker(s): Thomas Kirchstetter Date: February 3, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: Campus TBD For more...

88

Surface Albedo over the Sahel from METEOSAT Radiances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method to estimate surface albedo in the African Sahel is proposed and discussed. This method, which uses METEOSAT imagery and routine surface global radiation measurement is shown to be relevant for climatological studies.

Bernard Pinty; Gérard Szejwach; Jacques Stum

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Assessing Snow Albedo Feedback in Simulated Climate Change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the two factors controlling Northern Hemisphere springtime snow albedo feedback in transient climate change are isolated and quantified based on scenario runs of 17 climate models used in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ...

Xin Qu; Alex Hall

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

A FALSE POSITIVE FOR OCEAN GLINT ON EXOPLANETS: THE LATITUDE-ALBEDO EFFECT  

SciTech Connect

Identifying liquid water on the surface of planets is a high priority, as this traditionally defines habitability. One proposed signature of oceans is specular reflection ('glint'), which increases the apparent albedo of a planet at crescent phases. We post-process a global climate model of an Earth-like planet to simulate reflected light curves. Significantly, we obtain glint-like phase variations even though we do not include specular reflection in our model. This false positive is the product of two generic properties: (1) for modest obliquities, a planet's poles receive less orbit-averaged stellar flux than its equator, so the poles are more likely to be covered in highly reflective snow and ice; and (2) we show that reflected light from a modest-obliquity planet at crescent phases probes higher latitudes than at gibbous phases, therefore a planet's apparent albedo will naturally increase at crescent phase. We suggest that this 'latitude-albedo effect' will operate even for large obliquities: in that case the equator receives less orbit-averaged flux than the poles, and the equator is preferentially sampled at crescent phase. Using rotational and orbital color variations to map the surfaces of directly imaged planets and estimate their obliquity will therefore be a necessary pre-condition for properly interpreting their reflected phase variations. The latitude-albedo effect is a particularly convincing glint false positive for zero-obliquity planets, and such worlds are not amenable to latitudinal mapping. This effect severely limits the utility of specular reflection for detecting oceans on exoplanets.

Cowan, Nicolas B. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Abbot, Dorian S. [Department of Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Voigt, Aiko [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstr. 53, D-20146, Hamburg (Germany)

2012-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

91

Transition of the Large-Scale Atmospheric and Land Surface Conditions from the Dry to the Wet Season over Amazonia as Diagnosed by the ECMWF Re-Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using 15-yr instantaneous European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis (ERA) data, the authors have examined the large-scale atmospheric conditions and the local surface fluxes through the transition periods from the dry to wet ...

Wenhong Li; Rong Fu

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Climate impacts of bioenergy: Inclusion of carbon cycle and albedo dynamics in life cycle impact assessment  

SciTech Connect

Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be an invaluable tool for the structured environmental impact assessment of bioenergy product systems. However, the methodology's static temporal and spatial scope combined with its restriction to emission-based metrics in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) inhibits its effectiveness at assessing climate change impacts that stem from dynamic land surface-atmosphere interactions inherent to all biomass-based product systems. In this paper, we focus on two dynamic issues related to anthropogenic land use that can significantly influence the climate impacts of bioenergy systems: i) temporary changes to the terrestrial carbon cycle; and ii) temporary changes in land surface albedo-and illustrate how they can be integrated within the LCA framework. In the context of active land use management for bioenergy, we discuss these dynamics and their relevancy and outline the methodological steps that would be required to derive case-specific biogenic CO{sub 2} and albedo change characterization factors for inclusion in LCIA. We demonstrate our concepts and metrics with application to a case study of transportation biofuel sourced from managed boreal forest biomass in northern Europe. We derive GWP indices for three land management cases of varying site productivities to illustrate the importance and need to consider case- or region-specific characterization factors for bioenergy product systems. Uncertainties and limitations of the proposed metrics are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for including temporary surface albedo and carbon cycle changes in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) is elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concepts are applied to a single bioenergy case whereby a range of feedstock productivities are shown to influence results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results imply that case- and site-specific characterization factors can be essential for a more informed impact assessment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uncertainties and limitations of the proposed methodologies are elaborated.

Bright, Ryan M., E-mail: ryan.m.bright@ntnu.no; Cherubini, Francesco; Stromman, Anders H.

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

93

In-situ characterization of free-volume holes in polymer thin films under controlled humidity conditions with an atmospheric positron probe microanalyzer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pulsed, slow positron beam, with a diameter of 200 {mu}m, was extracted into air through a thin SiN window of an atmospheric positron probe microanalyzer (PPMA), and used to measure the ortho-positronium lifetimes {tau} in polyvinyl alcohol and polycaprolactam sub-{mu}m-thick films. By measuring the variation of {tau} as a function of relative humidity, the effect of water molecules on the hole sizes, deduced from {tau}, was examined for the films with consideration to the chain mobility. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the atmospheric PPMA to the in-situ characterization of nanoscopic holes in thin films under practical conditions.

Zhou Wei; Oshima, Nagayasu; O'Rourke, Brian E.; Kuroda, Ryunosuke; Suzuki, Ryoichi [Research Institute of Instrumentation Frontier (RIIF), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Chen Zhe; Ito, Kenji [Metrology Institute of Japan (MIJ), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Yanagishita, Hiroshi [Research Institute for Innovation in Sustainable Chemistry (ISC), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Tsutsui, Takuro; Uedono, Akira [Division of Applied Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Hayashizaki, Noriyosu [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8850 (Japan)

2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

94

Adding Complex Terrain and Stable Atmospheric Condition Capability to the Simulator for On/Offshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation describes changes made to NREL's OpenFOAM-based wind plant aerodynamics solver so that it can compute the stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer and flow over terrain. Background about the flow solver, the Simulator for Off/Onshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) is given, followed by details of the stable stratification/complex terrain modifications to SOWFA, along with some preliminary results calculations of a stable atmospheric boundary layer and flow over a simple set of hills.

Churchfield, M. J.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Adding Complex Terrain and Stable Atmospheric Condition Capability to the Simulator for On/Offshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation describes changes made to NREL's OpenFOAM-based wind plant aerodynamics solver so that it can compute the stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer and flow over terrain. Background about the flow solver, the Simulator for Off/Onshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) is given, followed by details of the stable stratification/complex terrain modifications to SOWFA, along with some preliminary results calculations of a stable atmospheric boundary layer and flow over a simple set of hills.

Churchfield, M. J.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Radiation Budget Parameters at the Top of the Earth's Atmosphere from METEOSAT Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a method to derive radiation budget parameters (albedo and emitted longwave flux) at the top of the atmosphere from the three-band METEOSAT images. Model calculations are used to correct for the anisotropic radiance ...

Marianne Gube

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Remote sensing of atmospheric particles using LIDAR, Calipso satellite, & AERONET: algorithm development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Algorithms have been developed for the determination of essential parameters such as Aerosol Size Distribution, Angstrom coefficient, and Single Scattering Albedo necessary in the determination of regional climatological model and weather prediction ... Keywords: AERONET, Calipso, atmospheric parameters, lidar, remote sensing

Javier Mčndez; Hamed Parsiani; Emmanuel Sanchez

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

A Study of the Effect of Molecular and Aerosol Conditions in the Atmosphere on Air Fluorescence Measurements at the Pierre Auger Observatory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The air fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to perform calorimetric measurements of extensive air showers created by cosmic rays of above 10^18 eV. To correct these measurements for the effects introduced by atmospheric fluctuations, the Observatory contains a group of monitoring instruments to record atmospheric conditions across the detector site, an area exceeding 3,000 km^2. The atmospheric data are used extensively in the reconstruction of air showers, and are particularly important for the correct determination of shower energies and the depths of shower maxima. This paper contains a summary of the molecular and aerosol conditions measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory since the start of regular operations in 2004, and includes a discussion of the impact of these measurements on air shower reconstructions. Between 10^18 and 10^20 eV, the systematic uncertainties due to all atmospheric effects increase from 4% to 8% in measurements of shower energy, and 4 g/cm^2 to 8 g/cm^...

,

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Assimilation of Satellite-Observed Snow Albedo in a Land Surface Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study assesses the impact of assimilating satellite-observed snow albedo on the Noah land surface model (LSM)-simulated fluxes and snow properties. A direct insertion technique is developed to assimilate snow albedo into Noah and is applied ...

M. Jahanzeb Malik; Rogier van der Velde; Zoltan Vekerdy; Zhongbo Su

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Surface Albedo over the Arctic Ocean Derived from AVHRR and Its Validation with SHEBA Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is presented for retrieving the broadband albedo over the Arctic Ocean using advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data obtained from NOAA polar-orbiting satellites. Visible and near-infrared albedos over snow and ice surfaces ...

Xiaozhen Xiong; Knut Stamnes; Dan Lubin

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric conditions albedo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Surface Albedo of the Antarctic Sea Ice Zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In three ship-based field experiments, spectral albedos were measured at ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared wavelengths for open water, grease ice, nilas, young “grey” ice, young grey-white ice, and first-year ice, both with and without snow ...

Richard E. Brandt; Stephen G. Warren; Anthony P. Worby; Thomas C. Grenfell

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Variable control of neutron albedo in toroidal fusion devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention pertains to methods of controlling in the steady state, neutron albedo in toroidal fusion devices, and in particular, to methods of controlling the flux and energy distribution of collided neutrons which are incident on an outboard wall of a toroidal fusion device.

Jassby, D.L.; Micklich, B.J.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Land-Cover and Surface Water Change Drive Large Albedo Increases in South America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Albedo is an important factor affecting global climate, but uncertainty in the sources and magnitudes of albedo change has led to simplistic treatments of albedo in climate models. Here, the authors examine nine years (2000–08) of historical 1-km ...

Scott R. Loarie; David B. Lobell; Gregory P. Asner; Christopher B. Field

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Albedo and Reflection Spectra of Extrasolar Giant Planets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We generate theoretical albedo and reflection spectra for a full range of extrasolar giant planet (EGP) models, from Jovian to 51-Pegasi class objects. Our albedo modeling utilizes the latest atomic and molecular cross sections, a Mie theory treatment of extinction by condensates, a variety of particle size distributions, and an extension of the Feautrier radiative transfer method which allows for a general treatment of the scattering phase function. We find that due to qualitative similarities in the compositions and spectra of objects within each of four broad effective temperature ranges, it is natural to establish four representative EGP albedo classes: a ``Jovian'' class (T$_{\\rm eff} \\lesssim 150$ K; Class I) with tropospheric ammonia clouds, a ``water cloud'' class (T$_{\\rm eff} \\sim 250$ K; Class II) primarily affected by condensed H$_2$O, a ``clear'' class (T$_{\\rm eff} \\gtrsim 350$ K; Class III) which lacks clouds, and a high-temperature class (T$_{\\rm{eff}}$ $\\gtrsim$ 900 K; Class IV) for which alk...

Sudarsky, D; Pinto, P A; Sudarsky, David; Burrows, Adam; Pinto, Philip

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Pathways Relating Soil Moisture Conditions to Future Summer Rainfall within a Model of the Land–Atmosphere System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the key pathways and mechanisms through which soil moisture conditions affect future rainfall over the U.S. Midwest are investigated using a regional climate model. A series of numerical experiments are performed to identify these ...

Jeremy S. Pal; Elfatih A. B. Eltahir

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Direct and indirect effects of atmospheric conditions and soil moisture on surface energy partitioning revealed by a prolonged drought at a temperate forest site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mechanism that controls the variation of surface energy partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes at a temperate deciduous forest site in central Missouri, USA. Taking advantage of multiple micrometeorological and ecophysiological measurements and a prolonged drought in the middle of the 2005 growing season at this site, we studied how soil moisture, atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and net radiation affected surface energy partitioning. We stratified these factors to minimize potential confounding effects of correlation among them. We found that all three factors had direct effects on surface energy partitioning, but more important, all three factors also had crucial indirect effects. The direct effect of soil moisture was characterized by a rapid decrease in Bowen ratio with increasing soil moisture when the soil was dry and by insensitivity of Bowen ratio to variations in soil moisture when the soil was wet. However, the rate of decrease in Bowen ratio when the soil was dry and the level of soil moisture above which Bowen ratio became insensitive to changes in soil moisture depended on atmospheric conditions. The direct effect of increased net radiation was to increase Bowen ratio. The direct effect of VPD was very nonlinear: Increased VPD decreased Bowen ratio at low VPD but increased Bowen ratio at high VPD. The indirect effects were much more complicated. Reduced soil moisture weakened the influence of VPD but enhanced the influence of net adiation on surface energy partitioning. Soil moisture also controlled how net radiation influenced the relationship between surface energy partitioning and VPD and how VPD affected the relationship between surface energy partitioning and net radiation. Furthermore, both increased VPD and increased net radiation enhanced the sensitivity of Bowen ratio to changes in soil moisture and the effect of drought on surface energy partitioning. The direct and indirect effects of atmospheric conditions and soil moisture on surface energy partitioning identified in this paper provide a target for testing atmospheric general circulation models in their representation of land-atmosphere coupling.

Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Meyers, T. P. [NOAA ATDD; Pallardy, Stephen G. [University of Missouri; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Yang, Bai [ORNL; Heuer, Mark [ATDD, NOAA; Hosman, K. P. [University of Missouri; Riggs, Jeffery S [ORNL; Sluss, Daniel Wayne [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

A celestial gamma-ray foreground due to the albedo of small solar system bodies and a remote probe of the interstellar cosmic ray spectrum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We calculate the gamma-ray albedo flux from cosmic-ray (CR) interactions with the solid rock and ice in Main Belt asteroids (MBAs), Jovian and Neptunian Trojan asteroids, and Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) using the Moon as a template. We show that the gamma-ray albedo for the Main Belt, Trojans, and Kuiper Belt strongly depends on the small-body size distribution of each system. Based on an analysis of the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) data we infer that the diffuse emission from the MBAs, Trojans, and KBOs has an integrated flux of less than ~6x10^{-6} cm^{-2} s^{-1} (100-500 MeV), which corresponds to ~12 times the Lunar albedo, and may be detectable by the forthcoming Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). If detected by GLAST, it can provide unique direct information about the number of small bodies in each system that is difficult to assess by any other method. Additionally, the KBO albedo flux can be used to probe the spectrum of CR nuclei at close-to-interstellar conditions. The orbits of MBAs, Trojans, and KBOs are distributed near the ecliptic, which passes through the Galactic center and high Galactic latitudes. Therefore, the asteroid gamma-ray albedo has to be taken into account when analyzing weak gamma-ray sources close to the ecliptic, especially near the Galactic center and for signals at high Galactic latitudes, such as the extragalactic gamma-ray emission. The asteroid albedo spectrum also exhibits a 511 keV line due to secondary positrons annihilating in the rock. This may be an important and previously unrecognized celestial foreground for the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) observations of the Galactic 511 keV line emission including the direction of the Galactic center.

Igor V. Moskalenko; Troy A. Porter; Seth W. Digel; Peter F. Michelson; Jonathan F. Ormes

2007-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

108

A REVISED ASTEROID POLARIZATION-ALBEDO RELATIONSHIP USING WISE/NEOWISE DATA  

SciTech Connect

We present a reanalysis of the relationship between asteroid albedo and polarization properties using the albedos derived from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. We find that the function that best describes this relation is a three-dimensional linear fit in the space of log (albedo)-log (polarization slope)-log (minimum polarization). When projected to two dimensions, the parameters of the fit are consistent with those found in previous work. We also define p* as the quantity of maximal polarization variation when compared with the albedo and present the best-fitting albedo-p* relation. Some asteroid taxonomic types stand out in this three-dimensional space, notably the E, B, and M Tholen types, while others cluster in clumps coincident with the S- and C-complex bodies. We note that both low albedo and small (D < 30 km) asteroids are underrepresented in the polarimetric sample, and we encourage future polarimetric surveys to focus on these bodies.

Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 321-520, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 East Fort Lowell, Suite 106, Tucson, AZ 85719-2395 (United States); Wright, E. L. [UCLA Astronomy, P.O. Box 91547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); McMillan, R. S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, Kuiper Space Science Building 92, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Tholen, D. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Blain, A. W., E-mail: Joseph.Masiero@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

2012-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

109

Seasonal Albedo of an Urban/Rural Landscape from Satellite Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spatial distribution and seasonal variation of surface reflectance and albedo in a heterogeneous urban/rural landscape (Hartford, Conn.) was examined using 27 calibrated Landsat observations.

Christopher L. Brest

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

ASSESSMENT OF 90SR AND 137CS PENETRATION INTO REINFORCED CONCRETE (EXTENT OF 'DEEPENING') UNDER NATURAL ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect

When assessing the feasibility of remediation following the detonation of a radiological dispersion device or improvised nuclear device in a large city, several issues should be considered including the levels and characteristics of the radioactive contamination, the availability of resources required for decontamination, and the planned future use of the city's structures and buildings. Currently, little is known about radionuclide penetration into construction materials in an urban environment. Knowledge in this area would be useful when considering costs of a thorough decontamination of buildings, artificial structures, and roads in an affected urban environment. Pripyat, a city substantially contaminated by the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in April 1986, may provide some answers. The main objective of this study was to assess the depth of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs penetration into reinforced concrete structures in a highly contaminated urban environment under natural weather conditions. Thirteen reinforced concrete core samples were obtained from external surfaces of a contaminated building in Pripyat. The concrete cores were drilled to obtain sample layers of 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, 20-30, 30-40, and 40-50 mm. Both {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were detected in the entire 0-50 mm profile of the reinforced cores sampled. In most of the cores, over 90% of the total {sup 137}Cs inventory and 70% of the total {sup 90}Sr inventory was found in the first 0-5 mm layer of the reinforced concrete. {sup 90}Sr had penetrated markedly deeper into the reinforced concrete structures than {sup 137}Cs.

Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Black carbon in Arctic snow and its effect on surface albedo  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Black carbon in Arctic snow and its effect on surface albedo Stephen Warren, University wavelengths: ice is nearly transparent. Absorptive impurities: Black carbon (soot) Brown carbon (organics broadband albedo: 83% 71% (2) by addition of black carbon (BC) (20 ppb): 0.5% for r = 100 µm 1.6% for r

112

Albedo of the U.S. Great Plains as Determined from NOAA-9 AVHRR Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The seasonal variation of surface albedo is derived from NOAA-9 AVHRR observations of the US. Great Plains during the snow-free months of 1986 and 1987. Monthly albedo maps are constructed using a simple model-independent technique which includes ...

G. Gutman; G. Ohring; D. Tarpley; R. Ambroziak

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Characterization of Surface Albedo Over the ARM SGP CART and the NSA  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Characterization of Surface Albedo Characterization of Surface Albedo Over the ARM SGP CART and the NSA Z. Li and M. C. Cribb Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center University of Maryland College Park, Maryland A. P. Trishchenko and Y. Luo Canada Centre for Remote Sensing Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Introduction Surface albedo is needed for satellite remote sensing of the surface radiation budget and for climate modelling. Determination of areal-mean surface albedo is challenging. Over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, a primary challenge lies in the inhomogeneity associated with different land cover types. Over the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site, persistent cloud cover renders remote sensing of surface albedo difficult. We tackle both challenges following two different approaches. Over the SGP site, we

114

Albedo estimates for land surface models and support for a new paradigm based on foliage nitrogen concentration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vegetation albedo is a critical component of the Earth s climate system, yet efforts to evaluate and improve albedo parameterizations in climate models have lagged relative to other aspects of model development. Here, we calculated growing season albedos for deciduous and evergreen forests, crops, and grasslands based on over 40 site-years of data from the AmeriFlux network and compared them with estimates presently used in the land surface formulations of a variety of climate models. Generally, the albedo estimates used in land surface models agreed well with this data compilation. However, a variety of models using fixed seasonal estimates of albedo overestimated the growing season albedo of northerly evergreen trees. In contrast, climatemodels that rely on a common two-stream albedo submodel provided accurate predictions of boreal needle-leaf evergreen albedo but overestimated grassland albedos. Inverse analysis showed that parameters of the two-stream model were highly correlated. Consistent with recent observations based on remotely sensed albedo, the AmeriFlux dataset demonstrated a tight linear relationship between canopy albedo and foliage nitrogen concentration (for forest vegetation: albedo 50.0110.071%N, r250.91; forests, grassland, and maize: albedo50.0210.067%N, r250.80). However, this relationship saturated at the higher nitrogen concentrations displayed by soybean foliage. We developed similar relationships between a foliar parameter used in the two-stream albedo model and foliage nitrogen concentration. These nitrogen-based relationships can serve as the basis for a new approach to land surface albedo modeling that simplifies albedo estimation while providing a link to other important ecosystem processes.

Hollinger, D. [USDA Forest Service; Ollinger, S. V. [University of Hew Hampshire; Richardson, A. D. [University of Hew Hampshire; Martin, M. E. [University of New Hampshire; Meyers, T. P. [NOAA ATDD; Dail, D. B. [University of Maine; Scott, N. A. [Queens University, Kingston, ON, Canada; Arkebauer, T. J. [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Baldocchi, D. D. [University of California, Berkeley; Clark, K. L. [USDA Forest Service; Curtis, Peter [Ohio State University, The, Columbus; Davis, K. J. [Pennsylvania State University; Desai, Desai Ankur R. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Dragoni, Danilo [Indiana University; Goulden, M. L. [University of California, Irvine; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Katul, G. G. [Duke University; Pallardy, Stephen G. [University of Missouri; Pawu, K. T. [University of California, Davis; Schmid, H. P. [IFU, FZK IMK, Institute of Meteorology & Climate, Garmisch Partenkirchen, Germany; Stoy, P. C. [University of Edinburgh; Suyker, A. E. [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Verma, Shashi [University of Nebraska

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Atmospheric Aerosols  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

measuring equipment Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric aerosol research at Berkeley Lab seeks to understand the air quality and climate impacts of particles in the atmosphere. On...

116

Simple solar spectral model for direct and diffuse irradiance on horizontal and tilted planes at the earth's surface for cloudless atmospheres  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new, simple model for calculating clear-sky direct and diffuse spectral irradiance on horizontal and tilted surfaces is presented. The model is based on previously reported simple algorithms and on comparisons with rigorous radiative transfer calculations and limited outdoor measurements. Equations for direct normal irradiance are outlined; and include: Raleigh scattering; aerosol scattering and absorption; water vapor absorption; and ozone and uniformly mixed gas absorption. Inputs to the model include solar zenith angle, collector tilt angle, atmospheric turbidity, amount of ozone and precipitable water vapor, surface pressure, and ground albedo. The model calculates terrestrial spectra from 0.3 to 4.0 ..mu..m with approximately 10 nm resolution. A major goal of this work is to provide researchers with the capability to calculate spectral irradiance for different atmospheric conditions and different collector geometries using microcomputers. A listing of the computer program is provided.

Bird, R.; Riordan, C.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Evaluation of Snow Albedo in Land Models for Weather and Climate Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Snow albedo plays an important role in land models for weather, climate, and hydrometeorological studies, but its treatment in various land models still contains significant deficiencies. Complementary to previous studies that evaluated the snow ...

Zhuo Wang; Xubin Zeng

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Estimating Cloud Field Albedo Using One-Dimensional Series Of Optical Depth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the ability to estimate regional cloud albedo using 1D series of cloud optical depth ? similar to those inferred from ground-based microwave radiometers. The investigation has two facets: use of appropriate radiative transfer ...

Howard W. Barker

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

The Relation between Cumulus Albedo and Extinction Coefficient and Its Application to Remote Sensing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analytic model of three-dimensional radiative transfer is modified to include cloud-cloud interactions and finite surface albedo. The spectrally integrated output is used to derive extinction coefficients for cumulus clouds from aircraft ...

S. G. Bradley

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

The Plane-Parallel Albedo Bias of Liquid Clouds from MODIS Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors present the global plane-parallel shortwave albedo bias of liquid clouds for two months, July 2003 and January 2004. The cloud optical properties necessary to perform the bias calculations come from the operational Moderate Resolution ...

Lazaros Oreopoulos; Robert F. Cahalan; Steven Platnick

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric conditions albedo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

An Improved Method to Derive Surface Albedo from Narrowband AVHRR Satellite Data: Narrowband to Broadband Conversion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method was investigated to estimate broadband surface shortwave albedo from the narrowband reflectances obtained by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRRs) on board the polar orbiting satellites. Field experiments were conducted ...

J. Song; W. Gao

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Comparison of Aerosol Single Scattering Albedos Derived by Diverse Techniques in Two North Atlantic Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol single scattering albedo ? (the ratio of scattering to extinction) is important in determining aerosol climatic effects, in explaining relationships between calculated and measured radiative fluxes, and in retrieving aerosol optical ...

P. B. Russell; J. Redemann; B. Schmid; R. W. Bergstrom; J. M. Livingston; D. M. McIntosh; S. A. Ramirez; S. Hartley; P. V. Hobbs; P. K. Quinn; C. M. Carrico; M. J. Rood; E. Öström; K. J. Noone; W. von Hoyningen-Huene; L. Remer

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Atmospheric optical calibration system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

Hulstrom, Roland L. (Bloomfield, CO); Cannon, Theodore W. (Golden, CO)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Atmospheric optical calibration system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

1988-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

125

An Energetics Study of Wintertime Northern Hemisphere Storm Tracks under 4 × CO2 Conditions in Two Ocean–Atmosphere Coupled Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Different possible behaviors of winter Northern Hemisphere storm tracks under 4 × CO2 forcing are considered by analyzing the response of two of the ocean–atmosphere coupled models that were run for the fourth Assessment Report of the ...

Alexandre Laîné; Masa Kageyama; David Salas-Mélia; Gilles Ramstein; Serge Planton; Sébastien Denvil; Sophie Tyteca

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Atmospheric Aerosols  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tom Kirchstetter with aerosol measurement instrument Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric aerosol research at LBNL seeks to understand the air quality and climate impacts of particles...

127

Retrieval of Atmospheric Optical Depth Profiles from Downward-Looking High-Resolution O2 A-Band Measurements: Optically Thin Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A quasi-linear retrieval was developed to profile moderately thin atmospheres using a high-resolution O2 A-band spectrometer. The retrieval is explicitly linear with respect to single scattering; the multiple-scattering contribution is treated as ...

Qilong Min; Lee C. Harrison

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Methodology for Calculating Spectral Surface Albedo Using ARM MFSR and MFR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methodology for Calculating Spectral Surface Albedo Using ARM MFSR and MFR Methodology for Calculating Spectral Surface Albedo Using ARM MFSR and MFR Data Gaustad, Krista Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Long, Chuck Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Category: Radiation This poster will describe a methodology for identifying the best estimate downwelling and upwelling irradiance measurements for use in calculating a global and spectral albedo for the area located near the SGP ARM's central facility 10m tower. The best estimate MFRSR downwelling global measurement is identified through comparisons between mfrsrE13, mfrsrC1, sirsE13, and sirsC1 downwelling global measurements. The poster will examine whether the best estimate of the individual six downwelling spectral measurements that correspond to the mfr operating wavelengths can

129

Atmospheric attenuation of solar radiation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The attenuation of solar radiation by the atmosphere between the heliostat and receiver of a Central Receiver solar energy system has been computed for a number of atmospheric conditions and tower-heliostat distances. The most important atmospheric variable is found to be the atmospheric aerosol content. No dependence of atmospheric water vapor is found and only a weak dependence on solar zenith angle. For a 500 m heliostat-tower distance two to four percent reductions are expected under typical desert conditions (50 to 120 km visibility). The reduction is approximately linear with heliostat-tower distance. A representative value of the attenuation coefficient is 0.051 km/sup -1/.

Randall, C.M.

1977-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

130

Top-of-atmosphere radiative cooling with white roofs: experimental  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Top-of-atmosphere radiative cooling with white roofs: experimental Top-of-atmosphere radiative cooling with white roofs: experimental verification and model-based evaluation Title Top-of-atmosphere radiative cooling with white roofs: experimental verification and model-based evaluation Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Salamanca, Francisco, Shaheen R. Tonse, Surabi Menon, Vishal Garg, Krishna P. Singh, Manish Naja, and Marc L. Fischer Journal Environmental Research Letters Volume 7 Issue 4 Abstract We evaluate differences in clear-sky upwelling shortwave radiation reaching the top of the atmosphere in response to increasing the albedo of roof surfaces in an area of India with moderately high aerosol loading. Treated (painted white) and untreated (unpainted) roofs on two buildings in northeast India were analyzed on five cloudless days using radiometric imagery from the IKONOS satellite. Comparison of a radiative transfer model (RRTMG) and radiometric satellite observations shows good agreement (R2 = 0.927). Results show a mean increase of ~50 W m-2 outgoing at the top of the atmosphere for each 0.1 increase of the albedo at the time of the observations and a strong dependence on atmospheric transmissivity.

131

Maximum Surface Albedo of Seasonally Snow-Covered Lands in the Northern Hemisphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Areally weighted clear sky surface albedo of snow-covered land in the middle and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere was measured from satellite imagery in A 1×1° latitude-longitude cells. The study area included 87% of the land polewards ...

David A. Robinson; George Kukla

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

A Model for the Spectral Albedo of Snow. I: Pure Snow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a method for calculating the spectral albedo of snow which can be used at any wavelength in the solar spectrum and which accounts for diffusely or directly incident radiation at any zenith angle. For deep snow, the model contains only ...

Warren J. Wiscombe; Stephen G. Warren

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Albedo Influences on Surface UV Irradiance at the Sonnblick High-Mountain Observatory (3106-m Altitude)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work the influences of ozone, aerosols, and albedo on the clear sky UVA and UVB irradiance at a high-mountain station are investigated by using both routine spectral UV measurements from the high-mountain Sonnblick observatory in Austria (...

Philipp Weihs; Stana Simic; Wolfgang Laube; Wieslaw Mikielewicz; Govindaraj Rengarajan; Michael Mandl

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Numerical Simulation of the Atmospheric Response to the Time-Varying El Nińo SST Anomalies during May 1982 Through October 1983  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A general circulation model was first integrated for 25 months with monthly climatological boundary conditions of sea surface temperature (SST), soil moisture, sea ice and albedo. Starting from day 165 of this “control” integration, which ...

M. J. Fennessy; J. Shukla

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Contrasting Conditions of Surface Water Balance in Wet Years and Dry Years as a Possible Land Surface-Atmosphere Feedback Mechanism in the West African Sahel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The climate of West Africa, in particular the Sahel, is characterized by multiyear persistence of anomalously wet or dry conditions. Its Southern Hemisphere counterpart, the Kalahari, lacks the persistence that is evident in the Sahel even though ...

A. R. Lare; S. E. Nicholson

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

The Effect of Changes in Cloud Amount on the Net Radiation at the Top of the Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to the opposing albedo and greenhouse effects of clouds, the possibility exists that the net radiation at the top of the earth-atmosphere system is, in the mean, insensitive to changes in cloud amount. If so, this would have important ...

George Ohring; Philip Clapp

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Ground-Based and Satellite-Derived Measurements of Surface Albedo on the North Slope of Alaska  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spatial and temporal variations of surface albedo on the North Slope of Alaska were investigated using both ground-based tower measurements and satellite remote sensing data. Ground-based measurements of incident and reflected solar radiation at ...

T. Zhang; T. Scambos; T. Haran; L. D. Hinzman; Roger G. Barry; D. L. Kane

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Satellite-Derived Surface Radiation Budget over the African Continent. Part I: Estimation of Downward Solar Irradiance and Albedo  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Downward surface solar irradiance and albedo of the African continent are estimated from Meteosat B2 data at 30-km spatial resolution. The algorithm, based on Dedieu et al.’s approach, is verified against other satellite estimates and ground-...

Mamoudou B. Ba; Robert Frouin; Sharon E. Nicholson; Gérard Dedieu

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Determining the Susceptibility of Cloud Albedo to Changes in Droplet Concentration with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Combustion Processes that Produce greenhouse gases also increase cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations, which in turn increase cloud droplet concentrations and thereby cloud albedo. A calculation of cloud susceptibility, defined in this ...

S. Platnick; S. Twomey

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Electron energy and charge albedos - calorimetric measurement vs Monte Carlo theory  

SciTech Connect

A new calorimetric method has been employed to obtain saturated electron energy albedos for Be, C, Al, Ti, Mo, Ta, U, and UO/sub 2/ over the range of incident energies from 0.1 to 1.0 MeV. The technique was so designed to permit the simultaneous measurement of saturated charge albedos. In the cases of C, Al, Ta, and U the measurements were extended down to about 0.025 MeV. The angle of incidence was varied from 0/sup 0/ (normal) to 75/sup 0/ in steps of 15/sup 0/, with selected measurements at 82.5/sup 0/ in Be and C. In each case, state-of-the-art predictions were obtained from a Monte Carlo model. The generally good agreement between theory and experiment over this extensive parameter space represents a strong validation of both the theoretical model and the new experimental method. Nevertheless, certain discrepancies at low incident energies, especially in high-atomic-number materials, and at all energies in the case of the U energy albedos are not completely understood.

Lockwood, G.J.; Ruggles, L.E.; Miller, G.H.; Halbleib, J.A.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric conditions albedo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

AMIP: The Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) is an international effort to determine the systematic climate errors of atmospheric models under realistic conditions, and calls for the simulation of the climate of the decade 1979–1988 using ...

W. Lawrence Gates

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

HIGH-ALBEDO C-COMPLEX ASTEROIDS IN THE OUTER MAIN BELT: THE NEAR-INFRARED SPECTRA  

SciTech Connect

Primitive, outer-belt asteroids are generally of low albedo, reflecting carbonaceous compositions like those of CI and CM meteorites. However, a few outer-belt asteroids having high albedos are known, suggesting the presence of unusually reflective surface minerals or, conceivably, even exposed water ice. Here, we present near-infrared (1.1-2.5 {mu}m) spectra of four outer-belt C-complex asteroids with albedos {>=}0.1. We find no absorption features characteristic of water ice (near 1.5 and 2.0 {mu}m) in the objects. Intimate mixture models set limits to the water ice by weight {<=}2%. Asteroids (723) Hammonia and (936) Kunigunde are featureless and have (60%-95%) amorphous Mg pyroxenes that might explain the high albedos. Asteroid (1276) Ucclia also shows a featureless reflection spectrum with (50%-60%) amorphous Mg pyroxenes. Asteroid (1576) Fabiola shows a possible weak, broad absorption band (1.5-2.1 {mu}m). The feature can be reproduced by (80%) amorphous Mg pyroxenes or orthopyroxene (crystalline silicate), either of which is likely to cause its high albedo. We discuss the origin of high-albedo components in primitive asteroids.

Kasuga, Toshihiro [Public Relations Center, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Usui, Fumihiko; Hasegawa, Sunao [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Ootsubo, Takafumi [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Kuroda, Daisuke, E-mail: toshi.kasuga@nao.ac.jp [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 3037-5 Honjo, Kamogata, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Synoptic Reorganization of Atmospheric Flow during the Last Glacial Maximum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A coupled global atmosphere–ocean model of intermediate complexity is used to study the influence of glacial boundary conditions on the atmospheric circulation during the Last Glacial Maximum in a systematical manner. A web of atmospheric ...

Flávio Justino; Axel Timmermann; Ute Merkel; Enio P. Souza

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Precursors to atmospheric blocking events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric blocking events disturb synoptic-scale features from their normal eastward progression, causing anomalous weather conditions for the duration of the blocking event. The essence of blocking can be captured by ...

Marino, Garrett P

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Atmospheric Precorrected Differential Absorption technique to retrieve columnar water vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Differential absorption techniques are suitable to retrieve the total column water vapor contents from imaging spectroscopy data. A technique called Atmospheric Precorrected Differential Absorption (APDA) is derived directly from simplified radiative transfer equations. It combines a partial atmospheric correction with a differential absorption technique. The atmospheric path radiance term is iteratively corrected during the retrieval of water vapor. This improves the results especially over low background albedos. The error of the method for various ground reflectance spectra is below 7% for most of the spectra. The channel combinations for two test cases are then defined, using a quantitative procedure, which is based on MODTRAN simulations and the image itself. An error analysis indicates that the influence of aerosols and channel calibration is minimal. The APDA technique is then applied to two AVIRIS images acquired in 1991 and 1995. The accuracy of the measured water vapor columns is within a range of {+-}5% compared to ground truth radiosonde data.

Schlaepfer, D.; Itten, K.I. [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland). Dept. of Geography] [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland). Dept. of Geography; Borel, C.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Keller, J. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)] [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Sensitivity of Dynamical Intraseasonal Prediction Skills to Different Initial Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Predictability of intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) relies on both initial conditions and lower boundary conditions (or atmosphere–ocean interaction). The atmospheric reanalysis datasets are commonly used as initial conditions. Here, the biases of ...

Xiouhua Fu; Bin Wang; June-Yi Lee; Wanqiu Wang; Li Gao

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Neural Network and Multiple Linear Regression for Estimating Surface Albedo from ASTER Visible and Near-Infrared Spectral Bands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)-based broadband albedo model requires shortwave infrared bands 5 (2.145–2.185 nm), 6 (2.185–2.225 nm), 8 (2.295–2.365 nm), and 9 (2.360–2.430 nm) and visible/near-...

Mohammad H. Mokhtari; Ibrahim Busu; Hossein Mokhtari; Gholamreza Zahedi; Leila Sheikhattar; Mohammad A. Movahed

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Statistical Dependence of Albedo and Cloud Cover on Sea Surface Temperature for Two Tropical Marine Stratocumulus Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship between sea surface temperature (SST) and albedo or cloud cover is examined for two tropical regions with high values of cloud radiative forcing and persistent marine stratocumulus (mSc)–one off the west coast of Peru, the other ...

Lazaros Oreopoulos; Roger Davies

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Time–Space Distribution of Long-Range Atmospheric Predictability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The global three-dimensional structure of long-range (one month to one season) atmospheric predictability was investigated with a general circulation model. The main focus was to ascertain the role of atmospheric initial conditions for such ...

Thomas Reichler; John O. Roads

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

A new approach for simultaneously retrieving cloud albedo and cloud fraction from surface-based shortwave radiation measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ENVIRONMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Environ. Res. Lett. 8 (2013) 044023 (9pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/4/044023 A new approach for simultaneously retrieving cloud albedo and cloud fraction from surface-based shortwave radiation measurements Yu Xie and Yangang Liu Environmental Sciences Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA E-mail: yxie@bnl.gov Received 27 June 2013 Accepted for publication 8 October 2013 Published 30 October 2013 Online at stacks.iop.org/ERL/8/044023 Abstract Surface-based measurements of shortwave (SW) radiative fluxes contain valuable information on cloud properties, but have not been fully used to infer those properties. Here a new analytical approach is presented that simultaneously infers cloud albedo and cloud fraction from surface-based measurements of total and direct radiative fluxes. An inspection of the

151

Coastal Atmospheric Circulation around an Idealized Cape during Wind-Driven Upwelling Studied from a Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study analyzes atmospheric circulation around an idealized coastal cape during summertime upwelling-favorable wind conditions simulated by a mesoscale coupled ocean–atmosphere model. The domain resembles an eastern ocean boundary with a ...

Natalie Perlin; Eric D. Skyllingstad; Roger M. Samelson

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Impacts of Urban Albedo Increase on Local Air Temperature at Daily–Annual Time Scales: Model Results and Synthesis of Previous Work  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors combine urban and soil–vegetation surface parameterization schemes with one-dimensional (1D) boundary layer mixing and radiation parameterizations to estimate the maximum impact of increased surface albedo on urban air temperatures. ...

E. Scott Krayenhoff; James A. Voogt

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Transmission of Solar Radiation by Clouds over Snow and Ice Surfaces: A Parameterization in Terms of Optical Depth, Solar Zenith Angle, and Surface Albedo  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multilevel spectral radiative transfer model is used to develop simple but accurate parameterizations for cloud transmittance as a function of cloud optical depth, solar zenith angle, and surface albedo, for use over snow, ice, and water ...

Melanie F. Fitzpatrick; Richard E. Brandt; Stephen G. Warren

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Effects of Aerosol and Horizontal Inhomogeneity on the Broadband Albedo of Marine Stratus: Numerical Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent estimates of the effect of increasing amounts of anthropogenic sulfate aerosol on the radiative forcing of the atmosphere have indicated that its impact may be comparable in magnitude to the effect from increases in CO2. Much of this ...

D. P. Duda; G. L. Stephens; B. Stevens; W. R. Cotton

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Broken Cloud Biases in Albedo and Surface Insolation Derived from Satellite Imagery Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiative transfer calculations for a one-dimensional column model of the atmosphere containing a plane-parallel, homogeneous cloud are used to show that the common procedure of assuming that fields of view for high resolution satellite imagers ...

James A. Coakley Jr.; Takahisa Kobayashi

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Spatial Superposition Method via Model Coupling for Urban Heat Island Albedo Mitigation Strategies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A spatial superposition design is presented that couples the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) with the National Center of Excellence (NCE) lumped urban thermal model for ...

Humberto Silva III; Jay S. Golden

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Spectral Preconditioners for Nonhydrostatic Atmospheric Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The elliptic problems in semi-implicit nonhydrostatic atmospheric models are difficult. Typically, they are poorly conditioned, nonseparable, contain cross-derivative terms, and are often nonsymmetric. Here, the resulting linear system is solved ...

Stephen J. Thomas; Joshua P. Hacker; Piotr K. Smolarkiewicz; Roland B. Stull

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Intraseasonal Variability in a Dry Atmospheric Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A long integration of a primitive equation dry atmospheric model with time-independent forcing under boreal winter conditions is analyzed. A variety of techniques such as time filtering, space–time spectral analysis, and lag regressions are used ...

Hai Lin; Gilbert Brunet; Jacques Derome

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Linear Baroclinic Instability in the Martian Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The linear baroclinic instability of zonal-mean flows like those in the wintertime Martian atmosphere under both relatively nondusty and highly dusty conditions is examined using a spherical quasi-geostrophic model. The basic states are idealized,...

Jeffrey R. Barnes

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Detection of Atomic Chlorine in Io's Atmosphere with HST/GHRS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the detection of atomic chlorine emissions in the atmosphere of Io using Hubble Space Telescope observations with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS). The Cl I 1349 A dipole allowed and Cl I] 1386 A forbidden transition multiplets are detected at a signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 6 and 10, respectively, in a combined GHRS spectrum acquired from 1994 through 1996. Oxygen and sulfur emissions are simultaneously detected with the chlorine which allows for self-consistent abundance ratios of chlorine to these other atmospheric species. The disk averaged ratios are: Cl/O = 0.017 +/- 0.008, Cl/S = 0.10 +/- 0.05, and S/O = 0.18 +/- 0.08. We also derive a geometric albedo of 1.0 +/- 0.4 % for Io at 1335 A assuming an SO2 atmospheric column density of 1x10^{16} cm^{-2}.

Feaga, L M; Feldman, P D; Strobel, D F; Feaga, Lori M.; Grath, Melissa A. Mc; Feldman, Paul D.; Strobel, Darrell F.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric conditions albedo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Detection of Atomic Chlorine in Io's Atmosphere with HST/GHRS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the detection of atomic chlorine emissions in the atmosphere of Io using Hubble Space Telescope observations with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS). The Cl I 1349 A dipole allowed and Cl I] 1386 A forbidden transition multiplets are detected at a signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 6 and 10, respectively, in a combined GHRS spectrum acquired from 1994 through 1996. Oxygen and sulfur emissions are simultaneously detected with the chlorine which allows for self-consistent abundance ratios of chlorine to these other atmospheric species. The disk averaged ratios are: Cl/O = 0.017 +/- 0.008, Cl/S = 0.10 +/- 0.05, and S/O = 0.18 +/- 0.08. We also derive a geometric albedo of 1.0 +/- 0.4 % for Io at 1335 A assuming an SO2 atmospheric column density of 1x10^{16} cm^{-2}.

Lori M. Feaga; Melissa A. McGrath; Paul D. Feldman; Darrell F. Strobel

2004-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

162

Analysis of Cold Airmass Temperature Modification across the U.S. Great Plains as a Consequence of Snow Depth and Albedo  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The presence of snow cover has been shown to modify atmospheric conditions through much of the earth’s troposphere due to its radiative effects. Snow cover has garnered much attention in recent decades as a result of concerns associated with ...

Andrew W. Ellis; Daniel J. Leathers

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Effects of soot-induced snow albedo change on snowpack and hydrological cycle in western United States based on Weather Research and Forecasting chemistry and regional climate simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiative forcing induced by soot on snow is a major anthropogenic forcing affecting the global climate. However, it is uncertain how the soot-induced snow albedo perturbation affects regional snowpack and the hydrological cycle. In this study we simulated the deposition of soot aerosol on snow and investigated the resulting impact on snowpack and the surface water budget in the western United States. A yearlong simulation was performed using the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) to determine an annual budget of soot deposition, followed by two regional climate simulations using WRF in meteorology-only mode, with and without the soot-induced snow albedo perturbations. The chemistry simulation shows large spatial variability in soot deposition that reflects the localized emissions and the influence of the complex terrain. The soot-induced snow albedo perturbations increase the net solar radiation flux at the surface during late winter to early spring, increase the surface air temperature, reduce snow water equivalent amount, and lead to reduced snow accumulation and less spring snowmelt. These effects are stronger over the central Rockies and southern Alberta, where soot deposition and snowpack overlap the most. The indirect forcing of soot accelerates snowmelt and alters stream flows, including a trend toward earlier melt dates in the western United States. The soot-induced albedo reduction initiates a positive feedback process whereby dirty snow absorbs more solar radiation, heating the surface and warming the air. This warming causes reduced snow depth and fraction, which further reduces the regional surface albedo for the snow covered regions. Our simulations indicate that the change of maximum snow albedo induced by soot on snow contributes to 60% of the net albedo reduction over the central Rockies. Snowpack reduction accounts for the additional 40%.

Qian, Yun; Gustafson, William I.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ghan, Steven J.

2009-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

164

Analysis of Broadband Solar Radiation and Albedo over the Ocean Surface at COVE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A coupled atmosphere–ocean radiative transfer model has been applied to analyze a full year of broadband solar irradiances (up and down) measured over an ocean site 25 km east of the coast of Virginia in the Atlantic. The coupled model treats ...

Zhonghai Jin; Thomas P. Charlock; Ken Rutledge

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Radiative Forcing of Climate By Ice-Age Atmospheric Dust  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During glacial periods, dust deposition rates and inferred atmospheric concentrations were globally much higher than present. According to recent model results, the large enhancement of atmospheric dust content at the last glacial maximum (LGM) can be explained only if increases in the potential dust source areas are taken into account. Such increases are to be expected, due to e#ects of low precipitation and low atmospheric (CO 2 ) on plant growth. Here the modelled three-dimensional dust fields from Mahowald et al. and modelled seasonally varying surface-albedo fields derived in a parallel manner, are used to quantify the mean radiative forcing due to modern (non-anthropogenic) and LGM dust. The e#ect of mineralogical provenance on the radiative properties of the dust is taken into account, as is the range of optical properties associated with uncertainties about the mixing state of the dust particles. The high-latitude (poleward of 45#) mean change in forcing (LGM minus modern) is estimated to be small (--0.9 to +0.2 W m ), especially when compared to nearly --20 W m due to reflection from the extended ice sheets. Although the net e#ect of dust over ice sheets is a positive forcing (warming), much of the simulated high-latitude dust was not over the ice sheets, but over unglaciated regions close to the expanded dust source region in central Asia. In the tropics the change in forcing is estimated to be overall negative, and of similarly large magnitude (--2.2 to --3.2 W m ) to the radiative cooling e#ect of low atmospheric (CO 2 ). Thus, the largest long-term climatic e#ect of the LGM dust is likely to have been a cooling of the tropics. Low tropical sea-surface temperatures, low atmospheric (CO 2 ) and high atmospheric dust loading may be mutually reinforcin...

T. Claquin; C. Roelandt; K.E. Kohfeld; S.P. Harrison; I. Tegen; I.C. Prentice; Y. Balkanski; Prentice Ć Y. Balkanski; G. Bergametti; Ć N. Mahowald; Ć M. Schulz; M. Schulz; Ć K. E. Kohfeld; Ć K. E. Kohfeld; C. Roelandt; C. Roelandt; Ć S. P. Harrison; Ć S. P. Harrison; Ć S. P. Harrison; G. Bergametti; H. Rodhe; Ć H. Rodhe; M. Hansson; M. Hansson; N. Mahowald; N. Mahowald

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Observatory (UAO) Pilot Experiment at NYC" - Michael Reynolds, BNL 17:30 "EML Pilot Studies for the Urban Atmospheric Observatory" - Hsi-Na (Sam) Lee, EML 17:40 "A...

167

The Boulder Atmospheric Observatory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) is a unique research facility for studying the planetary boundary layer and for testing and calibrating atmospheric sensors. The facility includes a 300 m tower instrumented with fast- and slow-response ...

J. C. Kaimal; J. E. Gaynor

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

An Evaluation of the Strength of Land–Atmosphere Coupling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two ensembles of 1-month integrations of a coupled land–atmosphere climate model that differ only in their treatment of land surface boundary conditions have been generated from initial conditions chosen from the July states taken from each year ...

Paul A. Dirmeyer

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 ARM 2003 Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement WARNING! WARNING! Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Two Topics Two Topics * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ARM Status - Science ARM Status - Science * Steadily increasing productivity - Poster session - over 220 posters (may need to do something about submissions next year) - Peer-reviewed articles: 2.5 to 3 per year per

170

Spectrally Invariant Approximation within Atmospheric Radiative Transfer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Certain algebraic combinations of single scattering albedo and solar radiation reflected from, or transmitted through, vegetation canopies do not vary with wavelength. These “spectrally invariant relationships” are the consequence of wavelength ...

A. Marshak; Y. Knyazikhin; J. C. Chiu; W. J. Wiscombe

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Predicting fissile content of spent nuclear fuel assemblies with the passive neutron Albedo reactivity technique and Monte Carlo code emulation  

SciTech Connect

There is a great need in the safeguards community to be able to nondestructively quantify the mass of plutonium of a spent nuclear fuel assembly. As part of the Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative, we are investigating several techniques, or detector systems, which, when integrated, will be capable of quantifying the plutonium mass of a spent fuel assembly without dismantling the assembly. This paper reports on the simulation of one of these techniques, the Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity with Fission Chambers (PNAR-FC) system. The response of this system over a wide range of spent fuel assemblies with different burnup, initial enrichment, and cooling time characteristics is shown. A Monte Carlo method of using these modeled results to estimate the fissile content of a spent fuel assembly has been developed. A few numerical simulations of using this method are shown. Finally, additional developments still needed and being worked on are discussed.

Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

172

Regional Diurnal Albedo Climatology and Diurnal Time Extrapolation of Reflected Solar Flux Observations: Application to the ScaRaB Record  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A regional (2.5° × 2.5° resolved) diurnal (hourly) albedo climatology for low and midlatitudes is derived for each month from the 5?-yr narrow-field-of-view data record obtained from the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS). It is used in a ...

Carsten Standfuss; Michel Viollier; Robert S. Kandel; Jean Philippe Duvel

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Error Structure and Atmospheric Temperature Trends in Observations from the Microwave Sounding Unit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) onboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration polar-orbiting satellites measures the atmospheric temperature from the surface to the lower stratosphere under all weather conditions, excluding ...

Cheng-Zhi Zou; Mei Gao; Mitchell D. Goldberg

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

A Study of the Incoming Longwave Atmospheric Radiation from a Clear Sky  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A band model for atmospheric absorption is used to calculate the incoming longwave atmospheric radiative flux for some typical clear sky conditions. The sky radiation is also measured using a specially-designed calorimetric apparatus over a wide ...

J. W. Ramsey; H. D. Chiang; R. J. Goldstein

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

On the Insignificance of Photochemical Hydrocarbon Aerosols in the Atmospheres of Close-in Extrasolar Giant Planets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The close-in extrasolar giant planets (CEGPs) reside in irradiated environments much more intense than that of the giant planets in our solar system. The high UV irradiance strongly influences their photochemistry and the general current view believed that this high UV flux will greatly enhance photochemical production of hydrocarbon aerosols. In this letter, we investigate hydrocarbon aerosol formation in the atmospheres of CEGPs. We find that the abundances of hydrocarbons in the atmospheres of CEGPs are significantly less than that of Jupiter except for models in which the CH$_4$ abundance is unreasonably high (as high as CO) for the hot (effective temperatures $\\gtrsim 1000$ K) atmospheres. Moreover, the hydrocarbons will be condensed out to form aerosols only when the temperature-pressure profiles of the species intersect with the saturation profiles--a case almost certainly not realized in the hot CEGPs atmospheres. Hence our models show that photochemical hydrocarbon aerosols are insignificant in the atmospheres of CEGPs. In contrast, Jupiter and Saturn have a much higher abundance of hydrocarbon aerosols in their atmospheres which are responsible for strong absorption shortward of 600 nm. Thus the insignificance of photochemical hydrocarbon aerosols in the atmospheres of CEGPs rules out one class of models with low albedos and featureless spectra shortward of 600 nm.

Mao-Chang Liang; Sara Seager; Christopher D. Parkinson; Anthony Y. -T; . Lee; Yuk L. Yung

2004-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

176

Diurnal to annual variations in the atmospheric water cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is not clear. Albedo, heat capacity, and angle of incidencemimicking the larger heat capacity of the water), whichthe land’s lower heat capacity and reduced evaporative

Ruane, Alexander C.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Atmospheric Laser Communication  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric laser communication, often referred to as free-space optics (FSO) or free-space laser (FSL) communication, is similar to fiber optic cable in terms of carrier wavelength and bandwidth capability, but data are transmitted directly ...

Kenneth W. Fischer*Michael R. Witiw; Jeffrey A. Baars+; T. R. Oke

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Simulation of Atmospheric Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A spectral atmospheric circulation model is time-integrated for approximately 18 years. The model has a global computational domain and realistic geography and topography. The model undergoes an annual cycle as daily values of seasonally varying ...

Syukuro Manabe; Douglas G. Hahn

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Atmospheric Available Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The total potential energy of the atmosphere is the sum of its internal and gravitational energies. The portion of this total energy available to be converted into kinetic energy is determined relative to an isothermal, hydrostatic, equilibrium ...

Peter R. Bannon

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

DIRECT SOLUTIONS OF THE MAXWELL EQUATIONS EXPLAIN OPPOSITION PHENOMENA OBSERVED FOR HIGH-ALBEDO SOLAR SYSTEM OBJECTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several spectacular backscattering effects observed for particulate planetary surfaces have been interpreted in terms of the effect of weak localization (WL) of electromagnetic waves. However, the interference concept of WL explicitly relies on the notion of phase of an electromagnetic wave and is strictly applicable only when particles forming the surface are widely separated. Therefore, one needs a definitive quantitative proof of the WL nature of specific optical effects observed for densely packed particulate media. We use numerically exact computer solutions of the Maxwell equations to simulate electromagnetic scattering by realistic models consisting of large numbers of randomly positioned, densely packed particles. By increasing the particle packing density from zero to approx40%, we track the onset and evolution of the full suite of backscattering optical effects predicted by the low-density theory of WL, including the brightness and polarization opposition effects (BOE and POE). We find that all manifestations of WL, except the circular polarization ratio and POE, are remarkably immune to packing-density effects. Even POE can survive packing densities typical of planetary regolith surfaces. Our numerical data coupled with the results of unique observations at near-backscattering geometries demonstrate that the BOE and POE detected simultaneously for high-albedo solar system objects are caused by the effect of WL.

Mishchenko, Michael I.; Liu Li [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025 (United States); Dlugach, Janna M.; Rosenbush, Vera K.; Kiselev, Nikolai N. [Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 27 Zabolotny Street, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Shkuratov, Yuri G., E-mail: mmishchenko@giss.nasa.go [Astronomical Institute of the Kharkiv National University, 35 Sumska Street, 61022 Kharkiv (Ukraine)

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric conditions albedo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Diagnosis of Local Land–Atmosphere Feedbacks in India  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Following the convective triggering potential (CTP)–humidity index (HIlow) framework by Findell and Eltahir, the sensitivity of atmospheric convection to soil moisture conditions is studied for India. Using the same slab model as Findell and ...

O. A. Tuinenburg; R. W. A. Hutjes; C. M. J. Jacobs; P. Kabat

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Mesoscale Modeling of Boundary Layer Refractivity and Atmospheric Ducting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study four mesoscale forecasting systems were used to investigate the four-dimensional structure of atmospheric refractivity and ducting layers that occur within evolving synoptic conditions over the eastern seaboard of the United States. ...

Tracy Haack; Changgui Wang; Sally Garrett; Anna Glazer; Jocelyn Mailhot; Robert Marshall

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Atmospheric Circulation Changes Associated with Rainfall Anomalies over Tropical Brazil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During February–March 1981, striking contrasts existed in the rainfall distribution over most of Brazil and in the atmospheric circulation features over South America and the North and South Atlantic Oceans. Drier than normal conditions prevailed ...

Vernon E. Kousky

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Some Turbulence Characteristics in Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric boundary layer measurements during stable and near neutral condition from seven sites in different kinds of terrain have been analyzed in order to find relationships among turbulence parameters.

Ann-Sofi Smedman

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Atmospheric Research Using Kites: Here We Go Again!  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recent campaign on Christmas Island in the equatorial Pacific has demonstrated that, at least under some conditions, simple and relatively inexpensive kites can serve as effective platforms for continuous monitoring of the tree atmosphere. ...

B. B. Balsley; C. L. Baisley; J. B. Williams; G. W. Tyrrell

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Atmospheric Variability on a Zonally Symmetric Land Planet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric variability an a zonally symmetric planet in the absence of external forcing anomalies is studied. With idealized boundary conditions such as the absence of ocean and topography, and by using perpetual equinox solar forcing, a 15-year ...

Lai-Yung Leung; Gerald R. North

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Winter marine atmospheric conditions over the Japan Sea  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

near 100°E, 50°N, and the Aleutian Cyclone (Low) in the Gulfof the Siberian High (H), the Aleutian Low (L), and the mainto the northwest, and the Aleutian Low to the east. At 850

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Winter marine atmospheric conditions over the Japan Sea  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

suggestive of lee-side subsidence and adiabatic warming. Thesurface air dried, and subsidence returned above 12 of 26and column warmed while the subsidence increased and the

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Winter marine atmospheric conditions over the Japan Sea  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

data reveals the strong, offshore wind speed gradients thatVCSAO event periods. offshore winds as experienced by the

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Effects of Changing Atmospheric Conditions on Wind Turbine Performance (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

Multi-megawatt, utility-scale wind turbines operate in turbulent and dynamic winds that impact turbine performance in ways that are gradually becoming better understood. This poster presents a study made using a turbulent flow field simulator (TurbSim) and a Turbine aeroelastic simulator (FAST) of the response of a generic 1.5 MW wind turbine to changing inflow. The turbine power output is found to be most sensitive to wind speed and turbulence intensity, but the relationship depends on the wind speed with respect to the turbine's rated wind speed. Shear is found to be poorly correlated to power. A machine learning method called 'regression trees' is used to create a simple model of turbine performance that could be used as part of the wind resource assessment process. This study has used simple flow fields and should be extended to more complex flows, and validated with field observations.

Clifton, A.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

THERMALLY DRIVEN ATMOSPHERIC ESCAPE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurately determining the escape rate from a planet's atmosphere is critical for determining its evolution. A large amount of Cassini data is now available for Titan's upper atmosphere and a wealth of data is expected within the next decade on escape from Pluto, Mars, and extra-solar planets. Escape can be driven by upward thermal conduction of energy deposited well below the exobase, as well as by nonthermal processes produced by energy deposited in the exobase region. Recent applications of a model for escape driven by upward thermal conduction, called the slow hydrodynamic escape model, have resulted in surprisingly large loss rates for the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. Based on a molecular kinetic simulation of the exobase region, these rates appear to be orders of magnitude too large. Therefore, the slow hydrodynamic model is evaluated here. It is shown that such a model cannot give a reliable description of the atmospheric temperature profile unless it is coupled to a molecular kinetic description of the exobase region. Therefore, the present escape rates for Titan and Pluto must be re-evaluated using the atmospheric model described here.

Johnson, Robert E., E-mail: rej@virginia.ed [Engineering Physics, Thornton Hall B102, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22902 (United States); Physics Department, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

2010-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

192

Article Atmospheric Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

© The Author(s) 2012. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com csb.scichina.com www.springer.com/scp © The Author(s) 2012. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com csb.scichina.com www.springer.com/scp *Corresponding author (email: luchunsong110@gmail.com) Article Atmospheric Science February 2013 Vol.58 No.4-5: 545  551 doi: 10.1007/s11434-012-5556-6 A method for distinguishing and linking turbulent entrainment mixing and collision-coalescence in stratocumulus clouds LU ChunSong 1,2* , LIU YanGang 2 & NIU ShengJie 1 1 Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Physics and Environment of China Meteorological Administration, Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China; 2 Atmospheric Sciences Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York 11973, USA

193

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric moisture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

moisture moisture ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric moisture The moisture content of the air as indicated by several measurements including relative humidity, specific humidity, dewpoint, vapor pressure, water vapor mixing ratio, and water vapor density; note that precipitable water is a separate type. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AERI : Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer

194

BNL | Atmospheric Systems Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric System Research is a DOE observation-based research program Atmospheric System Research is a DOE observation-based research program created to advance process-level understanding of the key interactions among aerosols, clouds, precipitation, radiation, dynamics, and thermodynamics, with the ultimate goal of reducing the uncertainty in global and regional climate simulations and projections. General areas of research at BNL under this program include studies of aerosol and cloud lifecycles, and cloud-aerosol-precipitation interactions. Contact Robert McGraw, 631.344.3086 aerosols Aerosol Life Cycle The strategic focus of the Aerosol Life Cycle research is observation-based process science-examining the properties and evolution of atmospheric aerosols. Observations come from both long-term studies conducted by the

195

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric pressure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

pressure pressure ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric pressure The pressure exerted by the atmosphere as a consequence of gravitational attraction exerted upon the "column" of air lying directly above the point in question. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments SONDE : Balloon-Borne Sounding System CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System

196

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

temperature temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric temperature The temperature indicated by a thermometer exposed to the air in a place sheltered from direct solar radiation. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AERI : Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer SONDE : Balloon-Borne Sounding System CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System

197

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility | Argonne  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Argonne scientists study climate change 1 of 22 Argonne scientists study climate change The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science provided $60 million in ARRA funding for climate research to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, a DOE national user facility that has been operating climate observing sites around the world for nearly two decades. These sites help scientists study clouds and their influence on the sun's radiant energy, which heats our planet. Above is one of the purchases: the Vaisala Present Weather Detector. It optically measures visibility, present weather, precipitation intensity, and precipitation type. It provides a measure of current weather conditions by combining measurements from three

198

Simulation of the atmospheric behavior for the environment of a small-scale wind turbine.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study investigates a method using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to model low-elevation atmospheric conditions. There are three goals in this research: to analyze the… (more)

Nguyen, Viet

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Environmental Evaluation on Atmosphere Radioactive Pollution of Uranium Mine Shaft Ventilation Exhausts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study on calculation and evaluation on atmosphere radioactive pollution of uranium mine well ventilation exhaust gas is presented in this paper. Neutral atmosphere conditions were taken into consideration. Nuclear industry standards on safety protection ... Keywords: atmosphere pollution, radiation protection, environmental evaluation, control methods

Dong Xie; Zehua Liu; Jun Xiong; Jianxiang Liu

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Precomputed atmospheric scattering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a new and accurate method to render the atmosphere in real time from any viewpoint from ground level to outer space, while taking Rayleigh and Mie multiple scattering into account. Our method reproduces many effects of the scattering of light, ...

Eric Bruneton; Fabrice Neyret

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric conditions albedo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Integrated Column Description An Integrated Column Description of the Atmosphere An Integrated Column Description of the Atmosphere Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Pacific Northwest National Laboratory The "other" Washington ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Credits to Credits to * Ric Cederwall * Xiquan Dong * Chuck Long * Jay Mace * Mark Miller * Robin Perez * Dave Turner and the rest of the ARM science team * Ric Cederwall * Xiquan Dong * Chuck Long * Jay Mace * Mark Miller * Robin Perez * Dave Turner and the rest of the ARM science team ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Outline Outline * A little philosophy

202

Measurement and modeling of shortwave irradiance components in cloud-free atmospheres  

SciTech Connect

Atmosphere scatters and absorbs incident solar radiation modifying its spectral content and decreasing its intensity at the surface. It is very useful to classify the earth-atmospheric solar radiation into several components--direct solar surface irradiance (E{sub direct}), diffuse-sky downward surface irradiance (E{sub diffuse}), total surface irradiance, and upwelling flux at the surface and at the top-of-the atmosphere. E{sub direct} depends only on the extinction properties of the atmosphere without regard to details of extinction, namely scattering or absorption; furthermore it can be accurately measured to high accuracy (0.3%) with the aid of an active cavity radiometer (ACR). E{sub diffuse} has relatively larger uncertainties both in its measurement using shaded pyranometers and in model estimates, owing to the difficulty in accurately characterizing pyranometers and in measuring model inputs such as surface reflectance, aerosol single scattering albedo, and phase function. Radiative transfer model simulations of the above surface radiation components in cloud-free skies using measured atmospheric properties show that while E{sub direct} estimates are closer to measurements, E{sub diffuse} is overestimated by an amount larger than the combined uncertainties in model inputs and measurements, illustrating a fundamental gap in the understanding of the magnitude of atmospheric absorption in cloud-free skies. The excess continuum type absorption required to reduce the E{sub diffuse} model overestimate ({approximately}3--8% absorptance) would significantly impact climate prediction and remote sensing. It is not clear at present what the source for this continuum absorption is. Here issues related to measurements and modeling of the surface irradiance components are discussed.

Halthore, R.N.

1999-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

203

ON THE STABILITY OF SUPER-EARTH ATMOSPHERES  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the stability of super-Earth atmospheres around M stars using a seven-parameter, analytical framework. We construct stability diagrams in the parameter space of exoplanetary radius versus semimajor axis and elucidate the regions in which the atmospheres are stable against the condensation of their major constituents, out of the gas phase, on their permanent nightside hemispheres. We find that super-Earth atmospheres that are nitrogen-dominated (Earth-like) occupy a smaller region of allowed parameter space, compared to hydrogen-dominated atmospheres, because of the dual effects of diminished advection and enhanced radiative cooling. Furthermore, some super-Earths which reside within the habitable zones of M stars may not possess stable atmospheres, depending on the mean molecular weight and infrared photospheric pressure of their atmospheres. We apply our stability diagrams to GJ 436b and GJ 1214b, and demonstrate that atmospheric compositions with high mean molecular weights are disfavored if these exoplanets possess solid surfaces and shallow atmospheres. Finally, we construct stability diagrams tailored to the Kepler data set, for G and K stars, and predict that about half of the exoplanet candidates are expected to harbor stable atmospheres if Earth-like conditions are assumed. We include 55 Cancri e and CoRoT-7b in our stability diagram for G stars.

Heng, Kevin [ETH Zuerich, Institute for Astronomy, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093, Zuerich (Switzerland); Kopparla, Pushkar [ETH Zuerich, Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092, Zuerich (Switzerland)

2012-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

204

A Numerical Study on the Atmospheric Circulation over the Midlatitude North Pacific during the Last Glacial Maximum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamics of the atmospheric circulation change over the midlatitude North Pacific under the boundary conditions during the last glacial maximum (LGM) have been studied by atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) with different ocean ...

Wataru Yanase; Ayako Abe-Ouchi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Hydrostatic Adjustment in Nonisothermal Atmospheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The author examines hydrostatic adjustment due to heating in two nonisothermal atmospheres. In the first case both the temperature and lapse rate decrease with height; in the second case the atmosphere consists of a troposphere with constant ...

Dean G. Duffy

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Efficient rendering of atmospheric phenomena  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rendering of atmospheric bodies involves modeling the complex interaction of light throughout the highly scattering medium of water and air particles. Scattering by these particles creates many well-known atmospheric optical phenomena including rainbows, ...

Kirk Riley; David S. Ebert; Martin Kraus; Jerry Tessendorf; Charles Hansen

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric turbulence  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

turbulence turbulence ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric turbulence High frequency velocity fluctuations that lead to turbulent transport of momentum, heat, mositure, and passive scalars, and often expressed in terms of variances and covariances. Categories Atmospheric State, Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System

208

Differential atmospheric tritium sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The mixture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H.sub.2 or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

Griesbach, Otto A. (Langhorne, PA); Stencel, Joseph R. (Skillman, NJ)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability  

SciTech Connect

The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual atmospheric release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 Department of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years.

Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Atmospheric Mercury Research Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is a summary and analysis of research findings on utility and environmental mercury from 1997 to 2003. The update categorizes and describes recent work on mercury in utility-burned coal and its route through power plants, the measures for its control, and its fate in the environment following emissions from utility stacks. This fate includes atmospheric chemistry and transport, deposition to land and water surfaces, aquatic cycling, the dynamics of mercury in freshwater fish food webs, and th...

2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

211

On the Correlated k-Distribution Method for Radiative Transfer in Nonhomogeneous Atmospheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The correlated k-distribution method for radiative transfer in nonhomogeneous atmospheres is discussed in terms of the physical and mathematical conditions under which this method is valid. Two correlated conditions are necessary and sufficient ...

Qiang Fu; K. N. Liou

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

The Diurnal Cycle of Land–Atmosphere Interactions across Oklahoma’s Winter Wheat Belt  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This manuscript documents the impact of Oklahoma’s winter wheat belt (WWB) on the near-surface atmosphere by comparing the diurnal cycle of meteorological conditions within the WWB relative to conditions in adjacent counties before and after the ...

Matthew J. Haugland; Kenneth C. Crawford

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

ORISE: Climate and Atmospheric Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Climate and Atmospheric Research Climate and Atmospheric Research Capabilities Overview U.S. Climate Reference Network U.S. Historical Climate Network Contact Us Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education Climate and Atmospheric Research The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) partners with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (ATDD) to conduct climate research focused on issues of national and global importance. Research is performed with personnel support from ORISE's Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification (IEAV) programs, as well as in collaboration with scientists and engineers from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and numerous other organizations, government agencies, universities and private research institutions.

214

PNNL: FCSD: Atmospheric Sciences & Global Change: Programs &...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Programs & Facilities Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and ARM Climate Research Facility ARM Aerial Facility Environmental...

215

EMSL: Science: Atmospheric Aerosol Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Atmospheric Aerosol Systems atmospheric logo Nighttime enhancement of nitrogen-containing organic compounds, or NOC Observed nighttime enhancement of nitrogen-containing organic compounds, or NOC, showed evidence of being formed by reactions that transform carbonyls into imines. The Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Science Theme focuses on understanding the chemistry, physics and molecular-scale dynamics of aerosols for model parameterization to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations and develop a predictive understanding of climate. By elucidating the role of natural and anthropogenic regional and global climate forcing mechanisms, EMSL can provide DOE and others with the ability to develop cost-effective strategies to monitor, control and mitigate them.

216

Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. A 3-D chemistry-transport model has been applied to the Mexico City metropolitan area to investigate the origin of elevated levels of non-fossil (NF) carbonaceous aerosols observed in this highly urbanized region. High time resolution measurements of the fine aerosol concentration and composition, and 12 or 24 h integrated 14 C measurements of aerosol modern carbon have been performed in and near Mexico City during the March 2006 MILAGRO field experiment. The non-fossil carbon fraction (fNF), which is lower than the measured modern fraction (fM) due to the elevated 14 C in the atmosphere caused by nuclear bomb testing, is estimated from the measured fM and the source-dependent information on modern carbon enrichment. The fNF contained in PM1 total carbon analyzed by a US team (f TC

unknown authors

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Atmospheric Corrosion Test Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 27   Some marine-atmospheric corrosion test sites around the world...Zealand Phia Marine 0.2 0.12 15.8 2.4 � � � � Greece Rafina Marine 0.2 0.12 13.6 1.0 � � � � Rhodes Marine 0.2 0.12 14.3 1.5 � � � � Netherlands Schagen Marine 2.4 1.5 17.0 2.0 � � � � Spain Almeria � 0.035 0.022 22.4 1.6 � � � � Cartagena � 0.050 0.031 5.2 1.9 � � � � La Coruña � 0.160 0.1 26.2 1.4...

218

ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 38 (1995) 207-235 ATMOSPHERIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 38 (1995) 207-235 ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH On the parameterization of ice and water substance mixing ratio fields were only strongly altered by turning off the ice phase of these schemes includes ice processes. But in mid- latitudes and also in tropics the ice phase is an important

Moelders, Nicole

219

Adjustment of the Remote Tropical Climate to El Nińo Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The adjustment of the tropical climate outside the Pacific (the “remote Tropics”) to the abrupt onset of El Nińo conditions is examined in a tropical atmosphere model that assumes simplified vertical structure and quasi-equilibrium (QE) ...

Benjamin R. Lintner; John C. H. Chiang

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Investigation of Surface Duct Conditions over Istanbul, Turkey  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comprehensive examination of 2 yr of radiosonde data to determine the surface duct conditions over Istanbul (4°N, 29°E), Turkey, was made. The refractivity of the atmosphere is a function of air temperature and water vapor pressure. Any ...

?Sibel Mentes; Zerefsan Kaymaz

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric conditions albedo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Fermi Guest Investigator Program Cycle 2 Project Final Report Albedo Polarimetry of Gamma-Ray Bursts and Solar Flares with GBM  

SciTech Connect

Several key properties of GRBs remain poorly understood and are difficult or even impossible to infer with the information currently being collected. Polarization measurements will probe the precise nature of the central engine. For solar flares, high-energy polarization measurements are expected to be useful in determining the beaming (or directivity) of solar flare electrons - a quantity that may provide important clues about electron acceleration and transport. We propose to investigate the viability of using the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) to measure the polarization of GRBs and solar flares using the albedo photon flux. This approach was previously developed for use with BATSE data. We will conduct a careful study of this technique using a modified version of the GRESS simulation tools developed by the GBM team.

Kippen, Richard Marc [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

222

The Albedo Field and Cloud Radiative Forcing Produced by a General Circulation Model with Internally Generated Cloud Optics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A spectral general circulation model (GCM) is run for perpetual January with fixed sea surface temperature conditions. It has internally generated, variable cloud optical properties as well as variable cloud arm and heights. The cloud optics are ...

Thomas P. Charlock; V. Ramanathan

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and Atmospheric  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science and Infrastructure Steering Committee CHARTER June 2012 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not

224

An Evaluation of Bulk Ri-Based Surface Layer Flux Formulas for Stable and Very Stable Conditions with Intermittent Turbulence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-rate near-surface overnight atmospheric data taken during the Cooperative Atmosphere–Surface Exchange Study-1999 (CASES-99) is used to quantify the representativeness of surface layer formulations under statically stable conditions. Combined ...

Gregory S. Poulos; Sean P. Burns

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Hybrid fluid/kinetic modeling of Pluto's escaping atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Predicting the rate of escape and thermal structure of Pluto's upper atmosphere in preparation for the New Horizons Spacecraft encounter in 2015 is important for planning and interpreting the expected measurements. Having a moderate Jeans parameter Pluto's atmosphere does not fit the classic definition of Jeans escape for light species escaping from the terrestrial planets, nor does it fit the hydrodynamic outflow from comets and certain exoplanets. It has been proposed for some time that Pluto lies in the region of slow-hydrodynamic escape. Using a hybrid fluid/molecular-kinetic model, we previously demonstrated the typical implementation of this model fails to correctly describe the appropriate temperature structure for the upper atmosphere for solar minimum conditions. Here we used a time-dependent solver to allow us to extend those simulations to higher heating rates and we examined fluid models in which Jeans-like escape expressions are used for the upper boundary conditions. We compare these to our hybr...

Erwin, Justin T; Johnson, Robert E

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Computer controlled air conditioning systems  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a computer controlled air conditioning system providing for circulation of air through an air conditioned house in contact with concrete walls requiring a humidity within a critical range. The improvement consists of: a computer for processing sensed environmental input data including humidity and oxygen to produce output control signals for affecting the humidity of the air in the house; provision for an air flow circulation path through the house in contact with the concrete walls; sensing responsive to the amount of oxygen in the house for providing input signals to the computer; mixing for combining with the air in the house a variable amount of fresh atmospheric air to supply fresh oxygen; and humidity modifying means for modifying the humidity of the air flowing in the flow path responsive to the control signals.

Dumbeck, R.F.

1986-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

227

Baiu rainband termination in atmospheric and atmosphere-ocean models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Baiu rainband is a summer rainband stretching from eastern China through Japan towards the Northwest Pacific. The climatological termination of the Baiu rainband is investigated using Japanese 25-year ReAnalysis (JRA25), a stand-alone atmospheric ...

Akira Kuwano-Yoshida; Bunmei Taguchi; Shang-Ping Xie

228

Krypton-85 in the atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurement results are presented on 85Kr content in the atmosphere over the European part of Russia in 1971-1995 based on the analysis of the commercial krypton, which is separated from air by industrial plants. Our results are by 15 per cent lower then 85Kr activites observed over West Europe. According our prediction by 2030 85Kr content in the atmosphere over Europe will amount to 1,5-3 Bq in m3 air. Average 85Kr release to the atmosphere from regeneration of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is estimated, some 180 TBq per a ton SNF. It is advisable to recommence monitoring of 85Kr content within Russia.

A. T. Korsakov; E. G. Tertyshnik

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

229

Krypton-85 in the atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurement results are presented on 85Kr content in the atmosphere over the European part of Russia in 1971-1995 based on the analysis of the commercial krypton, which is separated from air by industrial plants. Our results are by 15 per cent lower then 85Kr activites observed over West Europe. According our prediction by 2030 85Kr content in the atmosphere over Europe will amount to 1,5-3 Bq in m3 air. Average 85Kr release to the atmosphere from regeneration of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is estimated, some 180 TBq per a ton SNF. It is advisable to recommence monitoring of 85Kr content within Russia.

Korsakov, A T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Mountain Forces and the Atmospheric Energy Budget  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although mountains are generally thought to exert forces on the atmosphere, the related transfers of energy between earth and atmosphere are not represented in standard energy equations of the atmosphere. It is shown that the axial rotation of the ...

Joseph Egger

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

A Combined Local and Nonlocal Closure Model for the Atmospheric Boundary Layer. Part I: Model Description and Testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The modeling of the atmospheric boundary layer during convective conditions has long been a major source of uncertainty in the numerical modeling of meteorological conditions and air quality. Much of the difficulty stems from the large range of ...

Jonathan E. Pleim

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

A Refined Calibration Procedure of Two-Channel Sun Photometers to Measure Atmospheric Precipitable Water at Various Antarctic Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two-channel sun photometers can be easily employed at Antarctic sites, where harsh environmental conditions prevail, to carry out measurements of precipitable water W. In the very dry air conditions observed in the Antarctic atmosphere, water ...

Claudio Tomasi; Boyan Petkov; Elena Benedetti; Luca Valenziano; Angelo Lupi; Vito Vitale; Ubaldo Bonafé

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Determining Generative Models of Objects Under Varying Illumination: Shape and Albedo from Multiple Images Using SVDand Integrability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe a method of learning generative models of objects from a set of images of the object under different, and unknown, illumination. Such a model allows us to approximate the objects‘ appearance under a range of lighting conditions. ... Keywords: Singular Value Decomposition, illumination models, photometric stereo

A. L. Yuille; D. Snow; R. Epstein; P. N. Belhumeur

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Glossary Term - Composition of the Earth's Atmosphere  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Earth's Atmosphere Source: Definition of the U.S. Standard Atmosphere (1976) CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 77th Edition Gas Formula Abundance percent by volume...

235

A Computational Thermodynamic Analysis of Atmospheric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 1, 2001 ... The vacuum atmosphere is typically 0.1 atm. However, the vacuum atmosphere creates two major problems: air leakage and batch operation to ...

236

(Chemistry of the global atmosphere)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the conference The Chemistry of the Global Atmosphere,'' and presented a paper on the anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to the atmosphere. The conference included meetings of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) programme, a core project of the International Geosphere/Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and the traveler participated in meetings on the IGAC project Development of Global Emissions Inventories'' and agreed to coordinate the working group on CO{sub 2}. Papers presented at the conference focused on the latest developments in analytical methods, modeling and understanding of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, NMHCs, CFCs, and aerosols.

Marland, G.

1990-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

237

The Navy's Operational Atmospheric Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In January of 1988, significant upgrades were made to the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS). Among these improvements was the implementation of a multivariate optimum interpolation analysis scheme. Since that time, ...

James S. Goerss; Patricia A. Phoebus

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

The Workshop in Atmospheric Predictability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A workshop on the subject of atmospheric predictability was held during 23-25 April 2001 at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. Of primary concern was the nature of forecast uncertainty due to initial conditionuncertainty of ...

Ronald M. Errico; Rolf Langland; David P. Baumhefner

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Stochastic Simulation of Atmospheric Trajectories  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods are presented for generating an ensemble of synthetic atmospheric trajectories. These include methods for a set of independent trajectories, and methods for a correlated set of sequential trajectories. The models incorporate first-order ...

Mitchell J. Small; Perry J. Samson

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Atmospheric Water Vapor over China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chinese radiosonde data from 1970 to 1990 are relatively homogeneous in time and are used to examine the climatology, trends, and variability of China’s atmospheric water vapor content. The climatological distribution of precipitable water (PW) ...

Panmao Zhai; Robert E. Eskridge

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric conditions albedo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Automated Measurements of Atmospheric Visibility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The concept of using a solid-state, linear-array imaging device coupled with computerized scene analysis and display to measure daytime atmospheric visibility is described. Computer software is implemented for routine conversion of observed ...

W. Viezee; W. E. Evans

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

International Journal of Computers and Applications, Vol. 31, No. 2, 2009 PASSIVE ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as atmospheric gas dispersion by industrial accidents or processes are generally predicted with Gaussian plumes simplicity, the Gaussian dispersion model is often used for predicting the progression of atmospheric gas of passive dispersion, initial conditions of gas emissions are often addressed differently, as various gases

Beauchemin, Steven S.

243

AN ANALYTIC RADIATIVE-CONVECTIVE MODEL FOR PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an analytic one-dimensional radiative-convective model of the thermal structure of planetary atmospheres. Our model assumes that thermal radiative transfer is gray and can be represented by the two-stream approximation. Model atmospheres are assumed to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, with a power-law scaling between the atmospheric pressure and the gray thermal optical depth. The convective portions of our models are taken to follow adiabats that account for condensation of volatiles through a scaling parameter to the dry adiabat. By combining these assumptions, we produce simple, analytic expressions that allow calculations of the atmospheric-pressure-temperature profile, as well as expressions for the profiles of thermal radiative flux and convective flux. We explore the general behaviors of our model. These investigations encompass (1) worlds where atmospheric attenuation of sunlight is weak, which we show tend to have relatively high radiative-convective boundaries; (2) worlds with some attenuation of sunlight throughout the atmosphere, which we show can produce either shallow or deep radiative-convective boundaries, depending on the strength of sunlight attenuation; and (3) strongly irradiated giant planets (including hot Jupiters), where we explore the conditions under which these worlds acquire detached convective regions in their mid-tropospheres. Finally, we validate our model and demonstrate its utility through comparisons to the average observed thermal structure of Venus, Jupiter, and Titan, and by comparing computed flux profiles to more complex models.

Robinson, Tyler D. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Catling, David C., E-mail: robinson@astro.washington.edu [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Box 351310, Seattle, WA 98195-1310 (United States)

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

244

Atmospheric Condensation Potential of Windows in Hot, Humid Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In hot, humid climates, the internal surfaces of windows in air-conditioned buildings are in contact with relatively colder air. Meanwhile, the external surfaces are exposed to hot humid atmospheric air. This hygro-thermal condition may cause frequent atmospheric condensation on external surfaces of windows when their surface temperature drops below the dew point temperature of the hot humid air. To date, external surface condensation on windows has been given relatively much less importance than their internal surface condensation. In addition, the thermal analysis of windows in hot humid climates has always been performed in the absence of condensation. Under moderate air temperature and humidity conditions, such practice is acceplable. However, when windows experience atmospheric condensation on their external surfaces, the effect of condensation on window energy loss needs to be examined. In this paper, the external condensation process is analyzed and the atmospheric water vapor mass condensation rate has been obtained by utilizing a simplified transient uni-dimensional finite difference model. The results show that this model has enhanced the assessment of the potential for atmospheric condensation on windows in hot, humid climates and in predicting the amount of condensation expected, as well as the associated energy loss for given thermal and moisture conditions. The numerical computation of the model is able to account for condensation and its impact on the temperature gradient across the window. Thermal analysis of both single and insulated double-glazed windows under condensation conditions is presented. The work also includes the computational procedure used and the results or a case study demonstrating the model's capabilities.

El Diasty, R.; Budaiwi, I.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years. Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square. Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds. Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations. Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites. Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale. Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote facilities at ARM's Tropical Western Pacific and the North Slope of Alaska sites. Over time, this new facility will extend ARM science to a much broader range of conditions for model testing.

Ackerman, T

2004-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

246

Anomalous North Pacific Atmospheric Circulation and Large Winter Floods in the Southwestern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Specific anomalous atmospheric circulation conditions over the North Pacific are conducive to the occurrence of the largest winter floods (?10-yr return period) on rivers in six hydroclimatic subregions of Arizona and southern Utah, Nevada, and ...

Lisa L. Ely; Yehouda Enzel; Daniel R. Cayan

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Tracking Atmospheric Instabilities with the Kalman Filter. Part II: Two-Layer Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sequential data assimilation schemes approaching true optimality for sizable atmospheric models are becoming a reality. The behavior of the Kalman filter (KF) under difficult conditions needs therefore to be understood. In this two-part paper the ...

Michael Ghil; Ricardo Todling

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Extreme Cold Winter Temperatures in Europe under the Influence of North Atlantic Atmospheric Blocking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

North Atlantic atmospheric blocking conditions explain part of the winter climate variability in Europe, being associated with anomalous cold winter temperatures. In this study, the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution is fitted to monthly ...

Jana Sillmann; Mischa Croci-Maspoli; Malaak Kallache; Richard W. Katz

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Comparison of Infrared Atmospheric Brightness Temperatures Measured by a Fourier Transform Spectrometer and a Filter Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increased interest in using atmospheric brightness temperature measurements from simple infrared radiometers combined with radars and lidars has prompted the investigation of their accuracy for various sky conditions. In comparisons of ...

Joseph A. Shaw; Jack B. Snider; James H. Churnside; Mark D. Jacobson

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

On the Maximum Exospheric Temperature of Hydrogen-Dominated Planetary Atmospheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that under static conditions the maximum temperature attainable in the exospheres of hydrogen-dominated planetary atmospheres is of order 105 K when gravitational separation between hydrogen and other elements has occurred, and 104 K ...

G. P. Horedt

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Atmospheric Response to Zonal Variations in Midlatitude SST: Transient and Stationary Eddies and Their Feedback  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Midwinter storm track response to zonal variations in midlatitude sea surface temperatures (SSTs) has been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model under aquaplanet and perpetual-January conditions. Zonal wavenumber-1 SST ...

Masaru Inatsu; Hitoshi Mukougawa; Shang-Ping Xie

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Mount Kenya Global Atmosphere Watch Station (MKN): Installation and Meteorological Characterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The meteorological conditions at the Mount Kenya (station identifier MKN) tropical Global Atmosphere Watch Programme station are described. Like other stations in mountainous terrain, the site experiences thermally induced wind systems that ...

Stephan Henne; Wolfgang Junkermann; Josiah M. Kariuki; John Aseyo; Jörg Klausen

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

A Green Planet versus a Desert World: Estimating the Effect of Vegetation Extremes on the Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of vegetation extremes on the general circulation is estimated by two atmospheric GCM simulations using global desert and forest boundary conditions over land. The difference between the climates of a “green planet” and a “desert world”...

Klaus Fraedrich; Axel Kleidon; Frank Lunkeit

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Intermittency and the Organization of Turbulence in the Near-Neutral Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aircraft data from the JASIN Experiment have been used to examine the role that intermittency plays in turbulent transfer in the near-neutral marine atmospheric boundary layer. Conditional sampling, using the time-varying dissipation rate as an ...

William J. Shaw; Joost A. Businger

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

A 2 Degree of Freedom Dynamical System for Interdecadal Oscillations of the Ocean–Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A four-box model of the ocean–atmosphere is constructed that exhibits self-sustained oscillations in the regime of decadal to interdecadal periods found in oceanic general circulation models under certain boundary conditions. The oscillations are ...

Alain Colin de Verdičre; Thierry Huck

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Atmospheric Dispersion from Elevated Sources in an Urban Area: Comparison between Tracer Experiments and Model Calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric dispersion experiments were carried out in the Copenhagen area under neutral and unstable conditions. The tracer sulphurhexafluoride was released without buoyancy from a tower at a height of 115 m and then collected at ground-level ...

Sven-Erik Gryning; Erik Lyck

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

An Algorithm for Lidar Mapping of Aerosol Concentrations in a Varying Atmospheric Background Density  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An algorithm for the determination of the number density profiles of a specific aerosol as a function of time and space is developed and discussed. The algorithm is applicable to atmospheric conditions in which a varying density particulate ...

Moshe Kleiman; Smadar Egert; Ariel Cohen

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

On the Analytical Solutions of Flux-Profile Relationships for the Atmospheric Surface Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analytical solutions Of surface layer similarity equations are presented for the nondimensional profile functional forms suggested by Businger et al. For stable atmospheric conditions, exact analytical solutions of the Monin-Obukhoy stability ...

Daewon W. Byun

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

The Layered Structure of the Winter Atmospheric Boundary Layer in the Interior of Alaska  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The high-latitude winter atmospheric boundary layer of interior Alaska continually exhibits a complex layered structure as a result of extreme meteorological conditions. In this paper the occurrence of elevated inversions (EI), surface-based ...

John A. Mayfield; Gilberto J. Fochesatto

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

A Total Turbulent Energy Closure Model for Neutrally and Stably Stratified Atmospheric Boundary Layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a turbulence closure for neutral and stratified atmospheric conditions. The closure is based on the concept of the total turbulent energy. The total turbulent energy is the sum of the turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent ...

Thorsten Mauritsen; Gunilla Svensson; Sergej S. Zilitinkevich; Igor Esau; Leif Enger; Branko Grisogono

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric conditions albedo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Climate Simulation for 125 kyr BP with a Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ECHAM-1 T21/LSG coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation model (GCM) is used to simulate climatic conditions at the last interglacial maximum (Eemian, 125 kyr BP). The results reflect the expected surface temperature changes (with respect ...

Marisa Montoya; Hans von Storch; Thomas J. Crowley

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

PASS: A Portable Atmospheric Sampling System for Chemical Studies in the Marine Troposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The measurement of many trace substances in the remote marine atmosphere requires that they be collected under controlled conditions and that meteorological and other data concerning these measurements be available to the experimenter. A Portable ...

George Schwartze; Robert Boldi; Timothy Wasco; Robert Duce

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Contrasting Regional Responses to Increasing Leaf-Level Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide over Australia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a coupled atmosphere–land surface model, simulations were conducted to characterize the regional climate changes that result from the response of stomates to increases in leaf-level carbon dioxide (CO2) under differing conditions of ...

Faye T. Cruz; Andrew J. Pitman; John L. McGregor; Jason P. Evans

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Initialization of Soil-Water Content in Regional-Scale Atmospheric Prediction Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of determining the soil-water content fields required as initial conditions for land surface components within atmospheric prediction models. This is done using a model of the hydrologic ...

Christopher B. Smith; Mercedes N. Lakhtakia; William J. Capehart; Toby N. Carlson

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Stability and Variability in a Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Climate Model: Results of 100-year Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two 100-year seasonal simulators, one performed with a low resolution atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) coupled to a mixed-layer ocean formulation and the other made with the GCM forced by prescribed ocean conditions, are compared to ...

David D. Houghton; Robert G. Gallimore; Linda M. Keller

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

EPIC2001 and the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere System of the Tropical East Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coupled global ocean–atmosphere models currently do a poor job of predicting conditions in the tropical east Pacific, and have a particularly hard time reproducing the annual cycle in this region. This poor performance is probably due to the ...

David J. Raymond; Steven K. Esbensen; Clayton Paulson; Michael Gregg; Christopher S. Bretherton; Walter A. Petersen; Robert Cifelli; Lynn K. Shay; Carter Ohlmann; Paquita Zuidema

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

CDIAC Atmospheric Pressure Data Sets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Pressure Atmospheric Pressure CDIAC Climate Holdings Containing Atmospheric Pressure Data Global Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN); Vs. 1 (CDIAC NDP-041) R.S. Vose et al. Surface stations; monthly mean sea-level pressure Varies by station; through 1990 Extended Edited Synoptic Cloud Reports from Ships and Land Stations Over the Globe, 1952-2009 (CDIAC NDP-026C) C.J. Hahn, S.G. Warren, and R. Eastman Six-hourly synoptic observations of sea-level pressure Land 1971-2009; Ocean 1952-2008 Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN); Vs. 2 (Note: the above link takes you to NOAA's National Climatic Data Center website.) R.S. Vose et al. Surface stations; monthly mean sea-level pressure Varies by station; some through most recent month

268

National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NARAC TOC NARAC TOC The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center, NARAC, provides tools and services to the Federal Government, that map the probable spread of hazardous material accidentally or intentionally released into the atmosphere. NARAC provides atmospheric plume predictions in time for an emergency manager to decide if taking protective action is necessary to protect the health and safety of people in affected areas. Located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, NARAC is a national support and resource center for planning, real-time assessment, emergency response, and detailed studies of incidents involving a wide variety of hazards, including nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological, and natural emissions. In an emergency situation (if lives are at risk), event-specific NARAC

269

CDIAC Atmospheric Moisture Data Sets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Moisture Atmospheric Moisture CDIAC Climate Holdings Containing Atmospheric Moisture Data Global Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Extended Edited Synoptic Cloud Reports from Ships and Land Stations Over the Globe, 1952-2009 (CDIAC NDP-026C) C.J. Hahn, S.G. Warren, and R. Eastman Six-hourly synoptic observations of dew point depression (combined with air temperature) Land 1971-2009; Ocean 1952-2008 Regional Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Six- and Three-Hourly Meteorological Observations from 223 Former U.S.S.R. Stations (CDIAC NDP-048) V. Razuvaev et al. Surface stations; 6- and 3-hourly observations of relative humidity, vapor pressure, humidity deficit, and dew point temperature Varies by station; through 2000

270

atmospheric pressure | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

pressure pressure Dataset Summary Description (Abstract):Atmospheric Pressure (kPa)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Atmospheric Pressure (kPa)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; positive values are north and east. Boundaries of the -90/-180 region Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords atmospheric pressure climate NASA SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 46 MiB)

271

Simulated Performance of the Integrated Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity and Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry Detector Designed for Spent Fuel Measurement at the Fugen Reactor in Japan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An integrated nondestructive assay instrument, which combined the Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity (PNAR) and the Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry (SINRD) techniques, is the research focus for a collaborative effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Japanese Atomic Energy Agency as part of the Next Generation Safeguard Initiative. We will quantify the anticipated performance of this experimental system in two physical environments: (1) At LANL we will measure fresh Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) assemblies for which the average enrichment can be varied from 0.2% to 3.2% and for which Gd laced rods will be included. (2) At Fugen we will measure spent Mixed Oxide (MOX-B) and LEU spent fuel assemblies from the heavy water moderated Fugen reactor. The MOX-B assemblies will vary in burnup from {approx}3 GWd/tHM to {approx}20 GWd/tHM while the LEU assemblies ({approx}1.9% initial enrichment) will vary from {approx}2 GWd/tHM to {approx}7 GWd/tHM. The estimated count rates will be calculated using MCNPX. These preliminary results will help the finalization of the hardware design and also serve a guide for the experiment. The hardware of the detector is expected to be fabricated in 2012 with measurements expected to take place in 2012 and 2013. This work is supported by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security, National Nuclear Security Administration.

Ulrich, Timothy J. II [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lafleur, Adrienne M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seya, Michio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bolind, Alan M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

272

Propagation of B mesons in the atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Collisions of cosmic rays in the atmosphere may produce heavy hadrons of very high energy. The decay length of a $B$ meson of energy above $10^7$ GeV is larger than 1 km, implying that such a particle tends to interact in the air before it decays. We show that the fraction of energy deposited in these interactions is much smaller than in proton and pion collisions. We parameterize their elasticity and determine the average number of interactions and the atmospheric depth at the decay point for different initial energies. We find that the profile of a $3\\times 10^9$ GeV bottom shower may be very different from the profile of a proton shower of the same energy, defining either a very deep maximum, or two maxima, or other features that cannot be parameterized with a single Gaisser-Hillas function. Finally, we discuss under what conditions a bottom hadron inside the parent air shower may provide observable effects.

A. Bueno; A. Gascon; J. I. Illana; M. Masip

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

273

The Relationship between Incident and Double-Way Transmittances: An Application for the Estimate of Surface Albedo from Satellites over the African Sahel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The inference of surface reflectance from satellite observations requires the knowledge of the double-way transmittance through the atmosphere. Since the existing pyranometer networks routinely provide measurements of the incident transmittance ...

B. Pinty; D. Tanre

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Uptake of tritium by plants from atmosphere and soil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uptake of tritiated water (HTO) by plants was examined under field conditions when tritium was available to leaves from only the atmosphere and when tritium was available from both the soil (root uptake) and the atmosphere. Maple, oak, and elm trees, planted in clean soil, were transported to a tritium-contaminated forest, where the atmospheric tritium concentration was elevated, to examine HTO uptake by tree leaves when the source was only in the atmosphere. The results partially agreed with a diffusion model of tritium uptake by plants. Discrepancies found between predicted and measured leaf HTO/air HTO ratios should be attributed to the existence of some isolated water, which is isolated from the transpiration stream in the leaves, that was not available for rapid turnover. The uptake of tritium by trees, when the source was both in the soil and atmosphere, was also examined using deciduous trees (maple and elm) resident to the tritium-contaminated forest. The results were in agreement with a prediction model.

Amano, H [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI); Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Geomagnetic Effects on Atmospheric Neutrinos  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Geomagnetic effects distort the zenith angle distribution of sub--GeV and few--GeV atmospheric neutrinos, breaking the up--down symmetry that would be present in the absence of neutrino oscillations and without a geomagnetic field. The geomagnetic effects also produce a characteristic azimuthal dependence of the $\

Paolo Lipari; T. K. Gaisser; Todor Stanev

1998-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

276

Quality Assurance in Atmospheric Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper summarizes a number of best practices associated with the use of numerical models of the atmosphere and is motivated by the rapid growth in the number of model users, who have a range of scientific and technical preparations. An underlying ...

Thomas T. Warner

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

A Fast Line-by-Line Method for Atmospheric Absorption Computations: The Automatized Atmospheric Absorption Atlas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A computationally fast line-by-line method for the determination of atmospheric absorption is described. This method is based on the creation of an Automatized Atmospheric Absorption Atlas (4A) covering all possible plausible atmospheric ...

N. A. Scott; A. Chedin

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

High-energy atmospheric neutrinos  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-energy neutrinos, arising from decays of mesons that were produced through the cosmic rays collisions with air nuclei, form unavoidable background noise in the astrophysical neutrino detection problem. The atmospheric neutrino flux above 1 PeV should be supposedly dominated by the contribution of charmed particle decays. These (prompt) neutrinos originated from decays of massive and shortlived particles, $D^\\pm$, $D^0$, $\\bar{D}{}^0$, $D_s^\\pm$, $\\Lambda^+_c$, form the most uncertain fraction of the high-energy atmospheric neutrino flux because of poor explored processes of the charm production. Besides, an ambiguity in high-energy behavior of pion and especially kaon production cross sections for nucleon-nucleus collisions may affect essentially the calculated neutrino flux. There is the energy region where above flux uncertainties superimpose. A new calculation presented here reveals sizable differences, up to the factor of 1.8 above 1 TeV, in muon neutrino flux predictions obtained with usage of known hadronic models, SIBYLL 2.1 and QGSJET-II. The atmospheric neutrino flux in the energy range $10-10^7$ GeV was computed within the 1D approach to solve nuclear cascade equations in the atmosphere, which takes into account non-scaling behavior of the inclusive cross-sections for the particle production, the rise of total inelastic hadron-nucleus cross-sections and nonpower-law character of the primary cosmic ray spectrum. This approach was recently tested in the atmospheric muon flux calculations [1]. The results of the neutrino flux calculations are compared with the Frejus, AMANDA-II and IceCube measurement data.

S. I. Sinegovsky; A. A. Kochanov; T. S. Sinegovskaya

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

279

Semiclassical energy conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present and develop several nonlinear energy conditions suitable for use in the semiclassical regime. In particular, we consider the recently formulated "flux energy condition" (FEC), and the novel "trace-of-square" (TOSEC) and "determinant" (DETEC) energy conditions. As we shall show, these nonlinear energy conditions behave much better than the classical linear energy conditions in the presence of semiclassical quantum effects. Moreover, whereas the quantum extensions of these nonlinear energy conditions seem to be quite widely satisfied as one enters the quantum realm, analogous quantum extensions are generally not useful for the linear classical energy conditions.

Martin-Moruno, Prado

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Surface shortwave aerosol radiative forcing during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility deployment in Niamey, Niger  

SciTech Connect

This study presents ground-based remote sensing measurements of aerosol optical properties and corresponding shortwave surface radiative effect calculations for the deployment of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program’s Mobile Facility (AMF) to Niamey, Niger during 2006. Aerosol optical properties including aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), and asymmetry parameter (AP) were derived from multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) measurements during the two dry seasons (Jan-Apr and Oct-Dec) at Niamey. The vertical distribution of aerosol extinction was derived from the collocated micropulse lidar (MPL). The aerosol optical properties and vertical distribution of extinction varied significantly throughout the year, with higher AOD, lower SSA, and deeper aerosol layers during the Jan-Apr time period, when biomass burning aerosol layers were more frequent. Using the retrieved aerosol properties and vertical extinction profiles, broadband shortwave surface fluxes and atmospheric heating rate profiles were calculated. Corresponding calculations with no aerosol were used to estimate the aerosol direct radiative effect at the surface. Comparison of the calculated surface fluxes to observed fluxes for non-cloudy periods indicated that the remote sensing retrievals provided a reasonable estimation of the optical properties, with mean differences between calculated and observed fluxes of less than 5 W/m2 and RMS differences less than 25 W/m2. Sensitivity tests for a particular case study showed that the observed fluxes could be matched with variations of < 10% in the inputs to the radiative transfer model. We estimated the daily-averaged aerosol radiative effect at the surface by subtracting the clear calculations from the aerosol calculations. The average daily SW aerosol radiative effect over the study period was -27 W/m2, which is comparable to values estimated from satellite data and from climate models with sophisticated dust parameterizations.

McFarlane, Sally A.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Ackerman, Thomas P.

2009-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric conditions albedo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

The Promise of GPS in Atmospheric Monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper provides an overview of applications of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for active measurement of the Earth's atmosphere. Microwave radio signals transmitted by GPS satellites are delayed (refracted) by the atmosphere as they ...

Steven Businger; Steven R. Chiswell; Michael Bevis; Jingping Duan; Richard A. Anthes; Christian Rocken; Randolph H. Ware; Michael Exner; T. VanHove; Fredrick S. Solheim

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Interannual Variation of Global Atmospheric Angular Momentum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relative atmospheric angular momentum (RAM) integrated over the globe is an explicit variable representing the state of the atmospheric general circulation. After removing the annual, semiannual, and higher-frequency components, the filtered ...

Tsing-Chang Chen; Joseph J. Tribbia; Ming-Cheng Yen

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Generation of Turbulence by Atmospheric Gravity Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The standard current criterion for the generation of turbulence by atmospheric gravity waves and for the associated limitation on wave growth is based upon the standard criterion for static instability of the unperturbed atmosphere, namely, that ...

Colin O. Hines

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Retrieval of atmospheric properties of extrasolar planets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new method to retrieve molecular abundances and temperature profiles from exoplanet atmosphere photometry and spectroscopy. Our method allows us to run millions of 1-D atmosphere models in order to cover the ...

Nikku, Madhusudhan, 1980-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Testing and Evaluating Atmospheric Climate Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Model validation is a crucial process that underpins model development and gives confidence to the results from running models. This article discusses a range of techniques for validating atmosphere models given that the atmosphere is chaotic and incompletely ...

Vicky Pope; Terry Davies

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Sulfuryl fluoride in the global atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The first calibrated high-frequency, high-precision, in situ atmospheric and archived air measurements of the fumigant sulfuryl fluoride (SO[subscript 2]F[subscript 2]) have been made as part of the Advanced Global Atmospheric ...

Muhle, J.

287

Dynamical Processes of Equatorial Atmospheric Angular Momentum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamical processes that drive intraseasonal equatorial atmospheric angular momentum (EAAM) fluctuations are examined with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis data. ...

Steven B. Feldstein

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

VALDRIFT—A Valley Atmospheric Dispersion Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

VALDRIFT (valley drift) is a valley atmospheric transport, diffusion, and deposition model. The model is phenomenological—that is, the dominant meteorological processes governing the behavior of the valley atmosphere are formulated explicitly in ...

K. Jerry Allwine; Xindi Bian; C. David Whiteman; Harold W. Thistle

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

A Spontaneously Generated Tropical Atmospheric General Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of idealized atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) experiments are presented. These experiments examine whether and how atmospheric deep moist convection, in the absence of meridional gradients in external forcing, interacts with ...

Ben P. Kirtman; Edwin K. Schneider

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Atmospheric Turbidity in the Polar Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis is presented of 800 measurements of atmospheric monochromatic aerosol optical depth made poleward of 65° latitude. The atmosphere of the southern polar region appears to be uncontaminated but is charged with a background aerosol having ...

Glenn E. Shaw

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Statistics Education in the Atmospheric Sciences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analyses of atmospheric sciences data and models are heavily dependent upon statistical and probabilistic reasoning. Statistical methods have played an important role in establishing physical relationships of atmosphere-ocean-land interactions ...

Timothy J. Brown; L. Mark Berliner; Daniel S. Wilks; Michael B. Richman; Christopher K. Wilke

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Atmospheric Control on the Thermohaline Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In an attempt to elucidate the role of atmospheric and oceanic processes in setting a vigorous ocean overturning circulation in the North Atlantic but not in the North Pacific, a comparison of the observed atmospheric circulation and net surface ...

Arnaud Czaja

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Advanced Atmospheric Modeling for Emergency Response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric transport and diffusion models are an important part of emergency response systems for industrial facilities that have the potential to release significant quantities of toxic or radioactive material into the atmosphere. An advanced ...

Jerome D. Fast; B. Lance O'steen; Robert P. Addis

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Quantitative determination of atmospheric hydroperoxyl radical  

SciTech Connect

A method for the quantitative determination of atmospheric hydroperoxyl radical comprising: (a) contacting a liquid phase atmospheric sample with a chemiluminescent compound which luminesces on contact with hydroperoxyl radical; (b) determining luminescence intensity from the liquid phase atmospheric sample; and (c) comparing said luminescence intensity from the liquid phase atmospheric sample to a standard luminescence intensity for hydroperoxyl radical. An apparatus for automating the method is also included.

Springston, Stephen R. (Upton, NY); Lloyd, Judith (Westbury, NY); Zheng, Jun (Stony Brook, NY)

2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

295

INHIBITION OF METHANE ATMOSPHERIC FLAMES BY ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... atmospheric pressure was studied. The burner temperature was maintained at 65 “C by using a thermostat. The volumetric velocity ...

2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

296

North Carolina Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

North Carolina Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Calendar Day)

297

Detecting atmospheric rivers in large climate datasets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extreme precipitation events on the western coast of North America are often traced to an unusual weather phenomenon known as atmospheric rivers. Although these storms may provide a significant fraction of the total water to the highly managed western ... Keywords: atmospheric rivers, automatic detection of atmospheric rivers, connected component labeling, extreme climate events

Surendra Byna; Prabhat; Michael F. Wehner; Kesheng John Wu

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

The Ability of MM5 to Simulate Ice Clouds: Systematic Comparison between Simulated and Measured Fluxes and Lidar/Radar Profiles at SIRTA Atmospheric Observatory  

SciTech Connect

Ice clouds play a major role in the radiative energy budget of the Earth-atmosphere system (Liou 1986). Their radiative effect is governed primarily by the equilibrium between their albedo and greenhouse effects. Both macrophysical and microphysical properties of ice clouds regulate this equilibrium. For quantifying the effect of these clouds onto climate and weather systems, they must be properly characterized in atmospheric models. In this paper we use remote-sensing measurements from the SIRTA ground based atmospheric observatory (Site Instrumental de Recherche par Teledetection Atmospherique, http://sirta.lmd.polytechnique.fr). Lidar and radar observations taken over 18 months are used, in order to gain statistical confidence in the model evaluation. Along this period of time, 62 days are selected for study because they contain parts of ice clouds. We use the ''model to observations'' approach by simulating lidar and radar signals from MM5 outputs. Other more classical variables such as shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes are also used. Four microphysical schemes, among which that proposed by Reisner et al. (1998) with original or modified parameterizations of particle terminal fall velocities (Zurovac-Jevtic and Zhang 2003, Heymsfield and Donner 1990), and the simplified Dudhia (1989) scheme are evaluated in this study.

Chiriaco, M.; Vautard, R.; Chepfer, H.; Haeffelin, M.; Wanherdrick, Y.; Morille, Y.; Protat, A.; Dudhia, J.

2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

299

Stability and phase evolution of mullite in reducing atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of this study is to investigate the stability of mullite and its phase evolution when heated at 1600-1650 deg. C in reducing atmosphere created by a carbon bed. The stoichiometric mullite (3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.2SiO{sub 2}) was synthesized by reacting the proper precursors at 1400 deg. C in air atmosphere. Samples containing the primary mullite and graphite or carbon were prepared by pressing the mix and heated at 1600-1650 deg. C. Products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the stoichiometric mullite could decompose to corundum and alumina-rich mullite. During firing under reducing atmosphere, the stoichiometric mullite became richer in Al{sup 3+} cations. The gaseous SiO compound was found to be released from the sample and reacting with C to form SiC phase. Comparison of general mullite solid solution (Al{sub 4+2x}Si{sub 2-2x}O{sub 10-x}) with alumina-rich mullite obtained from decomposition revealed that x would take different values depending on temperature and atmosphere. The ultimate decomposition product was found to be corundum. - Research Highlights: {yields} This method is a new route for investigation of thermochemical stability of stoichimetric mullite under reducing condition which have done by the authors. {yields} This research has got very good results for stability of mullite at different conditions. {yields} This work has also studied the mechanism of stability of mullite under reducing atmosphere.

Naghizadeh, R., E-mail: rnaghizadeh@iust.ac.ir; Golestani-fard, F.; Rezaie, H.R.

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

300

About ÂŤEffectiveÂŽ Height of the Aerosol Atmosphere in Visible and IR Wavelength Range  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

"Effective" Height of the Aerosol Atmosphere in "Effective" Height of the Aerosol Atmosphere in Visible and IR Wavelength Range V. N. Uzhegov, D. M. Kabanov, M. V. Panchenko, Yu. A. Pkhalagov, and S. M. Sakerin Institute of Atmospheric Optics Tomsk, Russia Introduction Aerosol component of the atmosphere is one of the important factors affecting the radiation budget of the space - atmosphere - underlying surface system in visible and infrared (IR) wavelength ranges. It is extremely important to take into account the contribution of this component into the extinction of solar radiation under cloudless sky conditions. Sometimes it is important to know not only the total value of the aerosol component of extinction, but also to have the possibility to estimate the "effective" height of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric conditions albedo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Atmospheric Profiles at the Southern Pierre Auger Observatory and their Relevance to Air Shower Measurement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dependence of atmospheric conditions on altitude and time have to be known at the site of an air shower experiment for accurate reconstruction of extensive air showers and their simulations. The height-profile of atmospheric depth is of particular interest as it enters directly into the reconstruction of longitudinal shower development and of the primary energy and mass of cosmic rays. For the southern part of the Auger Observatory, the atmosphere has been investigated in a number of campaigns with meteorological radio soundings and with continuous measurements of ground-based weather stations. Focussing on atmospheric depth and temperature profiles, temporal variations are described and monthly profiles are developed. Uncertainties of the monthly atmospheres that are currently applied in the Auger reconstruction are discussed.

B. Keilhauer; J. Bluemer; R. Engel; D. Gora; P. Homola; H. Klages; J. Pekala; M. Risse; M. Unger; B. Wilczynska; H. Wilczynski; for the Pierre Auger Collaboration

2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

302

Air Conditioning and lungs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Conditioning and lungs Name: freeman Status: NA Age: NA Location: NA Country: NA Date: Around 1993 Question: What affect does air conditioning have upon the lungs of the...

303

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composition and Reactions of Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Wednesday, 29 June 2005 00:00 Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while changing organic composition by 13 to 24% per day, an oxidation rate significantly slower than is currently used in atmospheric models. Since oxidation has a strong effect on particle lifetime in the atmosphere, these results will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change.

304

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while changing organic composition by 13 to 24% per day, an oxidation rate significantly slower than is currently used in atmospheric models. Since oxidation has a strong effect on particle lifetime in the atmosphere, these results will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change.

305

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while changing organic composition by 13 to 24% per day, an oxidation rate significantly slower than is currently used in atmospheric models. Since oxidation has a strong effect on particle lifetime in the atmosphere, these results will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change.

306

Acoustic Waves in the Turbulent Atmosphere: A Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The subject of atmospheric acoustics and its role in atmospheric research and in development of modern methods of ground-based remote sensing of the atmosphere are outlined. A historical overview of investigations of the effect of atmospheric ...

M. A. Kallistratova

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Conditional belief types  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study type spaces where a player’s type at a state is a conditional probability on the space. We axiomatize these type spaces using conditional belief operators, and examine three additional axioms of increasing strength. First, introspection, which requires the agent to be unconditionally certain of her beliefs. Second, echo, according to which the unconditional beliefs implied by the condition must be held given the condition. Third, determination, which says that the conditional beliefs are the unconditional beliefs that are conditionally certain. The echo axiom implies that conditioning on an event is the same as conditioning on the event being certain, which formalizes the standard informal interpretation of conditioning in probability theory. The echo axiom also implies that the conditional probability given an event is a prior of the unconditional probability. The game-theoretic application of our model, which we treat in the context of an example, sheds light on a number of basic issues in the analysis of extensive form games. Type spaces are closely related to the sphere models of counterfactual conditionals and to models of hypothetical knowledge, and we discuss these relationships in detail.

Alfredo Di; Tillio Joseph; Y. Halpern; Dov Samet

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Northern Hemispheric Trends of Pressure Indices and Atmospheric Circulation Patterns in Observations, Reconstructions, and Coupled GCM Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The decadal trend behavior of the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation is investigated utilizing long-term simulations with different state-of-the-art coupled general circulation models (GCMs) for present-day climate conditions (1990), ...

C. C. Raible; T. F. Stocker; M. Yoshimori; M. Renold; U. Beyerle; C. Casty; J. Luterbacher

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

The Atmospheric Bridge: The Influence of ENSO Teleconnections on Air–Sea Interaction over the Global Oceans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During El Nińo–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, the atmospheric response to sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the equatorial Pacific influences ocean conditions over the remainder of the globe. This connection between ocean basins via ...

Michael A. Alexander; Ileana Bladé; Matthew Newman; John R. Lanzante; Ngar-Cheung Lau; James D. Scott

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Impact of Surface Flux Formulations and Geostrophic Forcing on Large-Eddy Simulations of Diurnal Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of surface flux boundary conditions and geostrophic forcing on multiday evolution of flow in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) was assessed using large-eddy simulations (LES). The LES investigations included several combinations of ...

Vijayant Kumar; Gunilla Svensson; A. A. M. Holtslag; Charles Meneveau; Marc B. Parlange

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Diagnosing the strength of land-atmosphere coupling at sub-seasonal to seasonal time scales in Asia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper focuses on diagnosing the strength of soil moisture-atmosphere coupling at sub-seasonal to seasonal time scales over Asia using two different approaches, the conditional correlation approach (applied to the GLDAS data, the CFSR ...

Di Liu; Guiling Wang; Rui Mei; Zhongbo Yu; Huanghe Gu

312

Cloud Diabatic Forcing of the Atmosphere, Estimated from Simultaneous ECMWF Diabatic Heating and ISCCP Cloud Amount Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cloud diabatic forcing (CDF) of the atmosphere, defined as the difference between the diabatic heating in average and in clear-sky conditions is estimated from time series of simultaneous observations of diabatic heating and cloud amount. The ...

Peter Siegmund

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Study of the atmospheric chemistry of radon progeny in laboratory and real indoor atmospheres  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the second year of the 28 month grant current grant to Clarkson University to study the chemical and physical behavior of the polonium 218 atom immediately following its formation by the alpha decay of radon. Because small changes in size for activity result in large changes in the delivered dose per unit exposure, this behavior must be understood if the exposure to radon progeny and it dose to the cells in the respiratory tract are to be fully assessed. Two areas of radon progeny behavior are being pursued; laboratory studies under controlled conditions to better understand the fundamental physical and chemical process that affect the progeny's atmospheric behavior and studies in actual indoor environments to develop a better assessment of the exposure of the occupants of that space to the size and concentration of the indoor radioactive aerosol. This report describes the progress toward achieving these objectives.

Hopke, P.K.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Regional Ecosystem-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange Via Atmospheric Budgets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inversions of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio measurements to determine CO2 sources and sinks are typically limited to coarse spatial and temporal resolution. This limits our ability to evaluate efforts to upscale chamber- and stand-level CO2 flux measurements to regional scales, where coherent climate and ecosystem mechanisms govern the carbon cycle. As a step towards the goal of implementing atmospheric budget or inversion methodology on a regional scale, a network of five relatively inexpensive CO2 mixing ratio measurement systems was deployed on towers in northern Wisconsin. Four systems were distributed on a circle of roughly 150-km radius, surrounding one centrally located system at the WLEF tower near Park Falls, WI. All measurements were taken at a height of 76 m AGL. The systems used single-cell infrared CO2 analyzers (Licor, model LI-820) rather than the siginificantly more costly two-cell models, and were calibrated every two hours using four samples known to within ± 0.2 ppm CO2. Tests prior to deployment in which the systems sampled the same air indicate the precision of the systems to be better than ± 0.3 ppm and the accuracy, based on the difference between the daily mean of one system and a co-located NOAA-ESRL system, is consistently better than ± 0.3 ppm. We demonstrate the utility of the network in two ways. We interpret regional CO2 differences using a Lagrangian parcel approach. The difference in the CO2 mixing ratios across the network is at least 2?3 ppm, which is large compared to the accuracy and precision of the systems. Fluxes estimated assuming Lagrangian parcel transport are of the same sign and magnitude as eddy-covariance flux measurements at the centrally-located WLEF tower. These results indicate that the network will be useful in a full inversion model. Second, we present a case study involving a frontal passage through the region. The progression of a front across the network is evident; changes as large as four ppm in one minute are captured. Influence functions, derived using a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion model driven by the CSU Regional Atmospheric Modeling System and nudged to NCEP reanalysis meteorological fields, are used to determine source regions for the towers. The influence functions are combined with satellite vegetation observations to interpret the observed trends in CO2 concentration. Full inversions will combine these elements in a more formal analytic framework.

Davis, K.J.; Richardson, S.J.; Miles, N.L.

2007-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

315

High-energy atmospheric neutrinos  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-energy neutrinos, arising from decays of mesons that were produced through the cosmic rays collisions with air nuclei, form unavoidable background noise in the astrophysical neutrino detection problem. The atmospheric neutrino flux above 1 PeV should be supposedly dominated by the contribution of charmed particle decays. These (prompt) neutrinos originated from decays of massive and shortlived particles, $D^\\pm$, $D^0$, $\\bar{D}{}^0$, $D_s^\\pm$, $\\Lambda^+_c$, form the most uncertain fraction of the high-energy atmospheric neutrino flux because of poor explored processes of the charm production. Besides, an ambiguity in high-energy behavior of pion and especially kaon production cross sections for nucleon-nucleus collisions may affect essentially the calculated neutrino flux. There is the energy region where above flux uncertainties superimpose. A new calculation presented here reveals sizable differences, up to the factor of 1.8 above 1 TeV, in muon neutrino flux predictions obtained with usage of known...

Sinegovsky, S I; Sinegovskaya, T S

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Terms and Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Terms and Conditions Terms and Conditions Terms and Conditions As a premier national research and development laboratory, LANL seeks to do business with qualified companies that offer value and high quality products and services. Contact Small Business Office (505) 667-4419 Email Use information below as guideline to doing business An "Appendix SFA-1" contains FAR and DEAR Clauses that are incorporated by reference into a particular subcontract. "Exhibit A General Conditions" are the general terms and conditions applicable to a particular subcontract. Note: The contents of the SFA-1 and Exhibit A (below) are not the only terms and conditions that will be in a LANS subcontract but represent the terms that generally do not change in a particular type of procurement. The

317

An Analysis of the Klemp and Durran Radiation Boundary Condition as Applied to Dissipative Internal Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical simulations of the oceanic (atmospheric) boundary layer are complicated by the need to specify appropriate “outflow” or “radiation” boundary conditions at the artificial lower (upper) boundary of the computational domain. If the ...

Gregory P. Chini; Sidney Leibovich

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Experimental Study on Wind-Wave Momentum Flux in Strongly Forced Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A quantitative description of wind-wave momentum transfer in high wind conditions is necessary for accurate wave models, storm and hurricane forecasting, and models that require atmosphere–ocean coupling such as circulation and mixed layer models. ...

Ivan B. Savelyev; Brian K. Haus; Mark A. Donelan

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

The Behavior of the Snow White Chilled-Mirror Hygrometer in Extremely Dry Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Snow White hygrometer, made by Meteolabor AG, Switzerland, is a new chilled-mirror instrument using a thermoelectric Peltier cooler to measure atmospheric water vapor. Its performance under dry conditions is evaluated in simultaneous ...

H. Vömel; M. Fujiwara; M. Shiotani; F. Hasebe; S. J. Oltmans; J. E. Barnes

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Variation of Hydrometeorological Conditions along a Topographic Transect in Northwestern Mexico during the North American Monsoon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Relatively little is currently known about the spatiotemporal variability of land surface conditions during the North American monsoon, in particular for regions of complex topography. As a result, the role played by land–atmosphere interactions ...

Enrique R. Vivoni; Hugo A. Gutiérrez-Jurado; Carlos A. Aragón; Luis A. Méndez-Barroso; Alex J. Rinehart; Robert L. Wyckoff; Julio C. Rodríguez; Christopher J. Watts; John D. Bolten; Venkataraman Lakshmi; Thomas J. Jackson

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric conditions albedo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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321

Heavy Precipitation Events in New Jersey: Attendant Upper-Air Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first of an anticipated multipart study of atmospheric conditions occurring before and during heavy precipitation events in New Jersey, representative of the mid-Atlantic region, is presented. Upper-air data parameters were analyzed for 81 ...

Robert P. Harnack; Kirk Apffel; Joseph R. Cermak III

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Numerical Studies of Urban Planetary Boundary-Layer Structure under Realistic Synoptic Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Pennsylvania State University (PSU)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) mesoscale model was modified and used to simulate the evolution of meteorological conditions in the vicinity of St. Louis, Missouri, from near sunrise to noon ...

Nelson L. Seaman; Francis L. Ludwig; Evelyn G. Donall; Thomas T. Warner; Chandrakant M. Bhumralkar

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Response of Thermohaline Circulation to Freshwater Forcing under Present-Day and LGM Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Responses of the thermohaline circulation (THC) to freshwater forcing (hosing) in the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean under present-day and the last glacial maximum (LGM) conditions are investigated using the National Center for Atmospheric ...

Aixue Hu; Bette L. Otto-Bliesner; Gerald A. Meehl; Weiqing Han; Carrie Morrill; Esther C. Brady; Bruce Briegleb

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Climatological Conditions of Lake-Effect Precipitation Events Associated with the New York State Finger Lakes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A climatological analysis was conducted of the environmental and atmospheric conditions that occurred during 125 identified lake-effect (LE) precipitation events in the New York State Finger Lakes region for the 11 winters (October–March) from ...

Neil Laird; Ryan Sobash; Natasha Hodas

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Influence of Initial Conditions on Summer Precipitation Simulations over the United States and Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of initial conditions on summer precipitation over North America for July–September was examined by comparing long-term simulations of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) runs with the ensemble simulations (SIMUs) ...

Kingtse C. Mo; J. E. Schemm; H. Kim; W. R. Higgins

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

The Use of Equivalent Potential Vorticity to Diagnose Regions of Conditional Symmetric Instability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conditional symmetric instability (CSI) is an important property of the atmosphere when diagnosing and predicting mesoscale bands of moderate to heavy precipitation within winter cyclones. Within regions of CSI, slantwise convection can increase ...

James T. Moore; Thomas E. Lambert

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Land surface conditions over Eurasia and Indian summer monsoon rainfall  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Land surface conditions over Eurasia and Indian summer monsoon rainfall Alan Robock and Mingquan Mu, surface air temperature, atmospheric circulation, and Indian summer monsoon precipitation from 1870 to 2000, we examine the relationship between interannual variations of the strength of the monsoon

Robock, Alan

328

Movements in air conditioning.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Movements in Air Conditioning is a collection of poems that explores the obstacles inherent in creating a new sense of home in a country that… (more)

Hitt, Robert D. (Robert David)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Operating Conditions Opportunity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Components in Aggressive Operating Conditions Opportunity Research is active on the patent-pending technology, titled "3-Dimensional Functionally Gradient Coatings for...

330

Data quality objectives for the initial fuel conditioning examinations  

SciTech Connect

The Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) were established for the response of the first group of fuel samples shipped from the K West Basin to the Hanford 327 Building hot cells for examinations to the proposed Path Forward conditioning process. Controlled temperature and atmosphere furnace testing testing will establish performance parameters using the conditioning process (drying, sludge drying, hydride decomposition passivation) proposed by the Independent Technical Assessment (ITA) Team as the baseline.

Lawrence, L.A.

1995-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

331

Nanoindentation Under Dynamic Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of H2 atmosphere P mN Load Q kJ mol-1 Activation energy R J mol-1 K-1 Molar gas constant - 8.31451 ± 7.0e-05 S mN nm-1 Stiffness – dp/dh at peak load and depth T şC Temperature Tc şC Critical temperature above which hydrogen has no miscibility... to the plasticity index H/Er. Finally, the issue of local and average strain rate is addressed. 2.3.1 Indenter Geometry There are several different indenter geometries in common usage. Some of these, such as the Brinell sphere, Rockwell conospheroids, and Vickers...

Wheeler, Jeffrey M

2009-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

332

Atmospheric neutrino flux at INO site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To illustrate the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux, we briefly explain our calculation scheme and important components, such as primary cosmic ray spectra, interaction model, and geomagnetic model. Then, we calculate the atmospheric neutrino flux at INO site in our calculation scheme. We compare the calculated atmospheric neutrino fluxes predicted at INO with those at other major neutrino detector sites, especially that at SK site.

Honda, Morihiro [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

2011-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

333

NREL: Process Development and Integration Laboratory - Atmospheric  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Processing Platform Capabilities Atmospheric Processing Platform Capabilities The Atmospheric Processing platform in the Process Development and Integration Laboratory offers powerful capabilities with integrated tools for depositing, processing, and characterizing photovoltaic materials and devices. In particular, this platform focuses on different methods to deposit ("write") materials onto a variety of substrates and then further process into optoelectronic materials using rapid thermal processing. You can read more on the rationale for developing this platform and its capabilities. Contact Maikel van Hest for more details on these capabilities. The Atmospheric Processing platform will allow deposition in any sequence and is applicable to activities in all Technology Roadmaps, which include

334

Earth and Atmospheric Sciences | More Science | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nuclear Forensics Climate & Environment Sensors and Measurements Chemical & Engineering Materials Computational Earth Science Systems Modeling Geographic Information Science and Technology Materials Science and Engineering Mathematics Physics More Science Home | Science & Discovery | More Science | Earth and Atmospheric Sciences SHARE Earth and Atmospheric Sciences At ORNL, we combine our capabilities in atmospheric science, computational science, and biological and environmental systems science to focus in the cross-disciplinary field of climate change science. We use computer models to improve climate change predications and to measure the impact of global warming on the cycling of chemicals in earth systems. Our Climate Change Science Institute uses models to explore connections among atmosphere,

335

Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a non-technical review of the problems associated with atmospheric carbon dioxide and the resulting greenhouse effect. (TEM)

Firestine, M.W. (ed.)

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

12.815 Atmospheric Radiation, Fall 2005  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction to the physics of atmospheric radiation and remote sensing including use of computer codes. Radiative transfer equation including emission and scattering, spectroscopy, Mie theory, and numerical solutions. ...

Prinn, Ronald G.

337

Mesoscale Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

small-scale features in ocean winds. Science, 303, Chelton,of the regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model RCAO. Borealstress dependence on ocean surface velocity: implications

Seo, Hyodae

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Mesoscale coupled ocean-atmosphere interaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

small-scale features in ocean winds. Science, 303, Chelton,of the regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model RCAO. Borealstress dependence on ocean surface velocity: implications

Seo, Hyodae

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

FOAM:The Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Models Performance User Resources Publications History Developer's Page FOAM The Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model cup2.jpeg (48474 bytes) Image made by Johan Kellum with Vis5D...

340

Jefferson Lab Science Series - Investigating Earth's Atmosphere  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Byron Meadows - NASALangley Research Center May 14, 1991 Demonstrations of weather forecasting tools and techniques for experiments in the atmosphere and of lasers used to...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric conditions albedo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Convective and Orographically...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Induced Precipitation Study The U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is providing the ARM Mobile Facility...

342

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2010 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of...

343

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1-June 30, 2011 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work...

344

Total Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity Former ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Former Corporation/Refiner Total Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (bbl/cd)a New Corporation/Refiner Date of Sale Table 14. Refinery Sales During 2005

345

Simplified Space Conditioning  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Simplified Space Conditioning Simplified Space Conditioning Duncan Prahl, RA IBACOS, Inc. Building America Technical Update April 29, 2013 Simplified Space Conditioning Rethinking HVAC Design * Traditional Method - Assume envelope losses dictate the load - Room by room load analysis - Pick Equipment and distribute to meet the load in each room * New Method - Consider how the occupants live in the building - Seriously consider internal gains in both heating and cooling - Consider ventilation strategy - Design system Simplified Space Conditioning If you are: * A production builder * Participating in "above code" programs * Following ACCA Manual RS or ASHRAE 55 * Need to prove "delivering heat to each habitable room" * Concerned about litigation * Play it safe, Use Manual J, S & D and condition every

346

Regional forecasting with global atmospheric models; Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project was to conduct model simulations for past and future climate change with respect to the proposed Yucca Mtn. repository. The authors report on three main topics, one of which is boundary conditions for paleo-hindcast studies. These conditions are necessary for the conduction of three to four model simulations. The boundary conditions have been prepared for future runs. The second topic is (a) comparing the atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) with observations and other GCMs; and (b) development of a better precipitation data base for the Yucca Mtn. region for comparisons with models. These tasks have been completed. The third topic is preliminary assessments of future climate change. Energy balance model (EBM) simulations suggest that the greenhouse effect will likely dominate climate change at Yucca Mtn. for the next 10,000 years. The EBM study should improve rational choice of GCM CO{sub 2} scenarios for future climate change.

Crowley, T.J.; Smith, N.R. [Applied Research Corp., College Station, TX (United States)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Internal Versus SST-Forced Atmospheric Variability as Simulated by an Atmospheric General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The variability of atmospheric flow is analyzed by separating it into an internal part due to atmospheric dynamics only and an external (or forced) part due to the variability of sea surface temperature forcing. The two modes of variability are ...

Ali Harzallah; Robert Sadourny

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Measurements of Atmospheric Methane and 13C/12C of Atmospheric...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methane and 13C12C, Flask Air Samples Measurements of Atmospheric Methane and 13C12C of Atmospheric Methane from Flask Air Samples (1999) data Data Investigators Paul Quay and...

349

Response of the Middle Atmosphere to CO2 Doubling: Results from the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM) has been used to examine the middle atmosphere response to CO2 doubling. The radiative-photochemical response induced by doubling CO2 alone and the response produced by changes in prescribed SSTs are ...

V. I. Fomichev; A. I. Jonsson; J. de Grandpré; S. R. Beagley; C. McLandress; K. Semeniuk; T. G. Shepherd

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Transient Response of a Global Ocean-Atmosphere Model to a Doubling of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transient response of climate to an instantaneous increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide has been investigated by a general circulation model of the coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system with global geography and annual ...

Syukuro Manabe; Kirk Bryan; Michael J. Spelman

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Cost Sensitive Conditional Planning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

While POMDPs provide a general platform for conditional planning under a wide range of quality metrics they have limited scalability. On the other hand, uniform probability conditional planners scale very well, but many lack the ability to optimize plan quality metrics. We present an innovation to planning graph based heuristics that helps uniform probability conditional planners both scale and generate high quality plans when using actions with non uniform costs. We make empirical comparisons with two state of the art planners to show the benefit of our techniques.

Daniel Bryce; Subbarao Kambhampati

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Atmospheric Longwave Irradiance Uncertainty: Pyrgeometers Compared to an Absolute Sky-Scanning Radiometer, Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer, and Radiative Transfer Model Calculations  

SciTech Connect

Because atmospheric longwave radiation is one of the most fundamental elements of an expected climate change, there has been a strong interest in improving measurements and model calculations in recent years. Important questions are how reliable and consistent are atmospheric longwave radiation measurements and calculations and what are the uncertainties? The First International Pyrgeometer and Absolute Sky-scanning Radiometer Comparison, which was held at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program's Souther Great Plains site in Oklahoma, answers these questions at least for midlatitude summer conditions and reflects the state of the art for atmospheric longwave radiation measurements and calculations. The 15 participating pyrgeometers were all calibration-traced standard instruments chosen from a broad international community. Two new chopped pyrgeometers also took part in the comparison. And absolute sky-scanning radiometer (ASR), which includes a pyroelectric detector and a reference blackbody source, was used for the first time as a reference standard instrument to field calibrate pyrgeometers during clear-sky nighttime measurements. Owner-provided and uniformly determined blackbody calibration factors were compared. Remarkable improvements and higher pyrgeometer precision were achieved with field calibration factors. Results of nighttime and daytime pyrgeometer precision and absolute uncertainty are presented for eight consecutive days of measurements, during which period downward longwave irradiance varied between 260 and 420 W m-2. Comparisons between pyrgeometers and the absolute ASR, the atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer, and radiative transfer models LBLRTM and MODTRAN show a surprisingly good agreement of <2 W m-2 for nighttime atmospheric longwave irradiance measurements and calculations.

Philipona, J. R.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; Stoffel, T.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Reda, I.; Stifter, Armin; Wendling, Peter; Wood, Norm; Clough, Shepard A.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Anderson, Gail; Revercomb, Henry E.; Shippert, Timothy R.

2001-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

353

ARM - Measurement - Surface condition  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

condition condition ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Surface condition State of the surface, including vegetation, land use, surface type, roughness, and such; often provided in model output. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments NAV : Navigational Location and Attitude SURFLOG : SGP Surface Conditions Observations by Site Technicians S-TABLE : Stabilized Platform MET : Surface Meteorological Instrumentation

354

Terms and Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Terms and Conditions Terms and Conditions R&D Overview 100G Testbed Testbed Description Testbed Results Current Testbed Research Proposal Process Terms and Conditions Virtual Circuits (OSCARS) Performance (perfSONAR) Tools Development Green Networking Authentication & Trust Federation (ATF) Partnerships Contact Us Technical Assistance: 1 800-33-ESnet (Inside the US) 1 800-333-7638 (Inside the US) 1 510-486-7600 (Globally) 1 510-486-7607 (Globally) Report Network Problems: trouble@es.net Provide Web Site Feedback: info@es.net Terms and Conditions Researchers must provide ESnet copies of any articles, presentations, and publications based on testbed research for posting on the ESnet Testbed web site. All publications based on work conducted on the testbed must include the following statement:

355

Anemometry in Icing Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accuracy of wind measurements in icing conditions is discussed, and wind tunnel calibrations as well as field comparisons are presented for three heated anemometers that use different measuring principles. It is pointed out that ice-free ...

Lasse Makkonen; Pertti Lehtonen; Lauri Helle

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Images reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A large fraction of submicron atmospheric particles contains both organic material and inorganic salts. As the relative humidity cycles in the atmosphere, these mixed particles can undergo a range of phase transitions, possibly including liquid-liquid phase separation. If liquid-liquid phase separation occurs, the gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric semi-volatile organic compounds, the scattering and absorption of solar radiation, and the uptake of reactive gas species on atmospheric particles will be affected, with important implications for climate predictions. The actual occurrence of these types of phase transitions within individual atmospheric particles has been considered uncertain, in large part because of the absence of observations for real-world samples. Here, using optical and fluorescence microscopy, we observe the coexistence of two non-crystalline phases in particles generated from real-world samples collected on multiple days in Atlanta, Georgia, and in particles generated in the laboratory using atmospheric conditions. These results reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations. Using a box model, we show that liquid-liquid phase separation can result in increased concentrations of gas-phase NO3 and N2O5 in the Atlanta region, due to decreased particle uptake of N2O5.

You, Yuan; Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Hanna, Sarah; Hiranuma, Naruki; Kamal, Saeid; Smith, Mackenzie L.; Zhang, Xiaolu; Weber, Rodney; Shilling, John E.; Dabdub, Donald; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

357

Human effects on the global atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

This review considers whether human activities can significantly change important functions of the global atmosphere by altering the amount or distribution of certain trace species. It deals with three specific topics: stratopheric ozone, the role of species other than carbon dioxide on the greenhouse effect, and certain recently recognized atmospheric consequences of a large scale nuclear war. 64 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

Johnston, H.S.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Overwater Atmospheric Diffusion: Measurements and Parameterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of ten atmospheric tracer experiments provided 62 hours of overwater atmospheric dispersion data. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was released as the tracer gas at a height of 13 m from a ship positioned about 7 km off the central California ...

Walter F. Dabberdt

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Measurements of Atmospheric Nanoparticles (1875–1980)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The atmosphere contains a large variety of particles, ranging in size from near molecular (~1 nm) to larger than 10,000 nm. The total number concentration N of particles is dominated by nanoparticles ? 100 nm in diameter. Discovery of atmospheric ...

Volker Mohnen; George M. Hidy

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Exponential Conditional Volatility Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- relation function (ACF) is less straightforward than it is for a GARCHmodel, analytic expressions can be obtained and these expressions are more general. Speci?cally, formulae for the ACF of the (absolute values of ) the observations raised to any power can... proposes an exponential link function for the conditional mean in gamma and Weibull distributions. As well as setting out the conditions for the asymptotic theory to be valid, expressions for moments, ACFs and multi-step forecasts are derived. Leverage...

Harvey, Andrew

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric conditions albedo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Modern Records of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide (N2O) and a 2000-year Ice-core  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modern Records of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide (N2O) and a 2000-year Ice-core Modern Records of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide (N2O) and a 2000-year Ice-core Record from Law Dome, Antarctica Introduction This page provides an introduction and links to records of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) over the last 2000 years, emphasizing large data bases each representing currently active stations. Records in recent decades (time period depending on location) have been obtained from samples of ambient-air at remote locations, which represent changing global atmospheric conditions rather than influences of local sources. The longer (2000-year) record is from the Law Dome ice core in Antarctica. The ice-core record has been merged with modern annual data from Cape Grim, Tasmania to provide a 2000-year time series of annual values. A spline function has been fit to the data to provide a continuous time series of

362

THE FACILITY 350 HELIUM-ATMOSPHERE SYSTEM. Final Report, Metallurgy Division Program 1.5.5  

SciTech Connect

The He atmosphere system in Argonne's Facility 350 is described in detail. The system is straightforward, employing drying and carbon towers for the removal of moisture, oxygen, and other impurities. The bulk of the 15,000 ft/ sup 3/ of He atmosphere is continuously recirculated at nearly atmospheric pressure. Purification is accomplished at 140 psig on a portion of the gas that is passed through the drying tower at room temperature and the carbon towers at -- 46 deg C (--50 deg F). The operation is continuous, requiring a minimum of maintenance and operational manpower. The He atmosphere is supplied to the glove- boxes with impurity levels below 3,000 ppm nitrogen, 1,000 ppm oxygen, and 50 ppm moisture. Such purity levels prevent oxidation and combustion of the Pu materials being processed. Experimental data concerning the adsorption of oxygen from He by activated carbon over a range of temperature and pressure conditions are reported. (auth)

Mayfield, R.M.; Tope, W.G.; Shuck, A.B.

1962-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Earth's early atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Ideas about atmospheric composition and climate on the early Earth have evolved considerably over the last 30 years, but many uncertainties still remain. It is generally agreed that the atmosphere contained little or no free oxygen initially and that oxygen concentrations increased markely near 2.0 billion years ago, but the precise timing of and reasons for its rise remain unexplained. Likewise, it is usually conceded that the atmospheric greenhouse effect must have been higher in the past to offset reduced solar luminosity, but the levels of atmospheric carbon cioxide and other greenhouse gases required remain speculative. A better understanding of past atmospheric evolution is important to understanding the evolution of life and to predicting whether Earth-like planets might exist elsewhere in the galaxy.

Kasting, J.F. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))

1993-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

364

Tracer Gas Transport under Mixed Convection Conditions in an Experimental  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tracer Gas Transport under Mixed Convection Conditions in an Experimental Tracer Gas Transport under Mixed Convection Conditions in an Experimental Atrium: Comparison Between Experiments and CFD Predictions Title Tracer Gas Transport under Mixed Convection Conditions in an Experimental Atrium: Comparison Between Experiments and CFD Predictions Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2006 Authors Jayaraman, Buvaneswari, Elizabeth U. Finlayson, Michael D. Sohn, Tracy L. Thatcher, Phillip N. Price, Emily E. Wood, Richard G. Sextro, and Ashok J. Gadgil Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 40 Start Page Chapter Pagination 5236-5250 Keywords airflow and pollutant transport group, atria, indoor airflow and pollutant transport, indoor environment department, indoor pollutant dispersion, mixed convection, turbulence model

365

NREL: Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction - Air Conditioning and Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conditioning and Emissions Conditioning and Emissions Air conditioning and indirect emissions go together in the sense that when a vehicle's air conditioning system is in use, fuel economy declines. When more petroleum fuel is burned, more pollution and greenhouse gases are emitted. An additional, "direct" source of greenhouse gas emissions is the refrigerant used in air conditioning. Called HFC-134a, this pressurized gas tends to seep through tiny openings and escapes into the atmosphere. It can also escape during routine service procedures such as system recharging. NREL's Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction team applied its vehicle systems modeling expertise in a study to predict fuel consumption and indirect emissions resulting from the use of vehicle air conditioning. The analysis

366

ECWEBTermsandConditions.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

US DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY US DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ELECTRONIC COMMERCE PROCEDURES, TERMS AND CONDITIONS Version 1.0 May 1, 1998 PROCEDURES What follows prescribes the general procedures and policies to be followed when Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is used for transmitting requests for quote, quotations, purchase orders, or other business information in lieu of creating one or more paper documents normally associated with conducting business with the Government. See the Terms and Conditions section below for a list of the standard FAR (Federal Acquisition Regulation) and DEAR (Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation) clauses and provisions mandated to be included in Government contracting actions. The Terms and Conditions together with any clauses specified in the specific contract transaction,

367

Mineralogy under extreme conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have performed measurements of minerals based on the synchrotron source for single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, inelastic scattering, spectroscopy and radiography by using diamond anvil cells. We investigated the properties of iron (Fe), iron-magnesium oxides (Fe, Mg)O, silica(SiO{sub 2}), iron-magnesium silicates (Fe, Mg)SiO{sub 3} under simulated high pressure-high temperature extreme conditions of the Earth's crust, upper mantle, low mantle, core-mantle boundary, outer core, and inner core. The results provide a new window on the investigation of the mineral properties at Earth's conditions.

Shu, Jinfu (CIW)

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

368

The Upper Atmosphere of HD17156b  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HD17156b is a newly-found transiting extrasolar giant planet (EGP) that orbits its G-type host star in a highly eccentric orbit (e~0.67) with an orbital semi-major axis of 0.16 AU. Its period, 21.2 Earth days, is the longest among the known transiting planets. The atmosphere of the planet undergoes a 27-fold variation in stellar irradiation during each orbit, making it an interesting subject for atmospheric modelling. We have used a three-dimensional model of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere for extrasolar gas giants in order to simulate the progress of HD17156b along its eccentric orbit. Here we present the results of these simulations and discuss the stability, circulation, and composition in its upper atmosphere. Contrary to the well-known transiting planet HD209458b, we find that the atmosphere of HD17156b is unlikely to escape hydrodynamically at any point along the orbit, even if the upper atmosphere is almost entirely composed of atomic hydrogen and H+, and infrared cooling by H3+ ions is negligible. The nature of the upper atmosphere is sensitive to to the composition of the thermosphere, and in particular to the mixing ratio of H2, as the availability of H2 regulates radiative cooling. In light of different simulations we make specific predictions about the thermosphere-ionosphere system of HD17156b that can potentially be verified by observations.

T. T. Koskinen; A. D. Aylward; S. Miller

2008-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

369

Estimating the Meridional Energy Transports in the Atmosphere and Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The poleward energy transports in the atmosphere–ocean system are estimated for the annual mean and the four seasons based on satellite measurements of the net radiation balance at the top of the atmosphere, atmospheric transports of energy at ...

B. C. Carissimo; A. H. Oort; T. H. Vonder Haar

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Biogenic Hydrocarbons in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer: A Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nonmethane hydrocarbons are ubiquitous trace atmospheric constituents yet they control the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere. Both anthropogenic and biogenic processes contribute to the release of hydrocarbons to the atmosphere. In this ...

J. D. Fuentes; L. Gu; M. Lerdau; R. Atkinson; D. Baldocchi; J. W. Bottenheim; P. Ciccioli; B. Lamb; C. Geron; A. Guenther; T. D. Sharkey; W. Stockwell

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

The NCAR Atmosphere-Surface Turbulent Exchange Research (ASTER) Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Atmosphere-Surface Turbulent Exchange Research (ASTER) facility developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) will support observational research on the structure of the atmospheric surface layer. ASTER will provide state-...

J. A. Businger; W. F. Dabberdt; A. C. Delany; T. W. Horst; C. L. Martin; S. P. Oncley; S. R. Semmer

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Vacillations in a Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are presented from a 35-year integration of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Both ocean and atmosphere are two-level, nonlinear primitive equations models. The global atmospheric model is forced by a steady, zonally symmetric Newtonian ...

Paul S. Schopf; Max J. Suarez

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Rainfall and Radiative Heating Rates from TOGA COARE Atmospheric Budgets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric heat and moisture budgets are used to determine rainfall and radiative heating rates over the western Pacific warm pool during the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE). Results are ...

Richard H. Johnson; Paul E. Ciesielski

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Including Atmospheric Layers in Vegetation and Urban Offline Surface Schemes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A formulation to include prognostic atmospheric layers in offline surface schemes is derived from atmospheric equations. Whereas multilayer schemes developed previously need a complex coupling between atmospheric-model levels and surface-scheme ...

Valéry Masson; Yann Seity

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Homoclinic Dynamics: A Scenario for Atmospheric Ultralow-Frequency Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a link will be established between atmospheric ultralow-frequency variability (ULFV) and the occurrence of homoclinic dynamics in models of large-scale atmospheric flow. It is known that uncoupled atmosphere models possess ...

Daan T. Crommelin

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

A Wave Theory for the Onset and Initial Growth of Condensation in the Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pre-storm conditions are often characterized by an atmosphere in the presence of rather strong wind shears and a temperature inversion. The latter acts as a lid for moisture in the boundary layer. In this paper we discuss the possibility that a ...

G. Chimonas; F. Einaudi; D. P. Lalas

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Variability in a Mixed Layer Ocean Model Driven by Stochastic Atmospheric Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A stochastic model of atmospheric surface conditions, developed from 30 years of data at Ocean Weather Station P in the northeast Pacific, is used to drive a mixed layer model of the upper mean. The spectral characteristics of anomalies in the ...

Michael A. Alexander; Cecile Penland

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

A new wall-shear stress model for atmospheric boundary layer simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new wall-shear stress model to be used as wall-boundary condition for Large Eddy Simulations of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer is proposed. The new model computes the wall shear stress and the vertical derivatives of the streamwise velocity ...

Marcus Hultmark; Marc Calaf; Marc B. Parlange

379

Necessary conditions for stabilization agreements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Climate Convention calls for stabilization of atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. This paper considers the issues that must be faced in formulating a plan to meet any such target, using a proposed CO2 level ...

Yang, Zili.; Jacoby, Henry D.

380

Numerical Study of the Effects of Atmospheric and Wake Turbulence on Wind Turbine Dynamics  

SciTech Connect

Although the atmospheric sciences community has been studying the effects of atmospheric stability and surface roughness on the planetary boundary layer for some time, their effects on wind turbine dynamics have not been well studied. In this study, we performed numerical experiments to explore some of the effects of atmospheric stability and surface roughness on wind turbine dynamics. We used large-eddy simulation to create atmospheric winds and compute the wind turbine flows, and we modeled the wind turbines as revolving and flexible actuator lines coupled to a wind turbine structural and system dynamic model. We examined the structural moments about the wind turbine blade, low-speed shaft, and nacelle; power production; and wake evolution when large 5-MW turbines are subjected to winds generated from low- and high-surface roughness levels representative of offshore and onshore conditions, respectively, and also neutral and unstable atmospheric conditions. In addition, we placed a second turbine 7 rotor diameters downwind of the first one so that we could explore wake effects under these different conditions. The results show that the turbulent structures generated within the atmospheric boundary layer wind simulations cause isolated loading events at least as significant as when a turbine is waked by an upwind turbine. The root-mean-square (RMS) turbine loads are consistently larger when the surface roughness is higher. The RMS blade-root out-of-plane bending moment and low-speed shaft torque are higher when the atmospheric boundary layer is unstable as compared with when it is neutral. However, the RMS yaw moments are either equal or reduced in the unstable case as compared with the neutral case. For a given surface roughness, the ratio of power produced by the downwind turbine relative to that of the upwind turbine is 15-20% higher when the conditions are unstable as compared with neutral. For a given atmospheric stability, this power ratio is 10% higher with the onshore roughness value versus the offshore one. The main conclusion is that various coherent turbulent structures that form under different levels of atmospheric stability and surface roughness have important effects on wind turbine structural response, power production, and wake evolution.

Churchfield, M. J.; Lee, S.; Michalakes, J.; Moriarty, P. J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric conditions albedo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Large-Scale Atmospheric and Oceanic Conditions During the 2011-2012 DYNAMO Field Campaign  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An international field campaign, Dynamics of the Madden Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO), took place in the Indian Ocean during October 2011 – March 2012 to collect observations for the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), especially its convective ...

Jon Gottschalck; Paul E. Roundy; Carl J. Schreck III; Augustin Vintzileos; Chidong Zhang

382

Design and construction of uniform glow discharge plasma system operating under atmospheric condition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design of a uniform glow discharge plasma system operating without vacuum is presented. A full-bridge switching circuit was used to switch the transformers. The primary windings of transformers were connected in parallel, but in opposite phase to double the output voltage. Theoretically, 20 000 V{sub pp} was obtained. Rectangle copper electrodes were used, and placed parallel to each other. To prevent the spark production that is, to obtain uniformity, two 2 mm Teflon sheets were glued to the electrodes. However, it was observed that the operating frequency also affected the uniformity. For the system presented here, the frequency at which more uniformity was obtained was found to be 14 kHz.

Kocum, C.; Ayhan, H. [Biomedical Engineering Department, Baskent University, Ankara 06530 (Turkey); Chemistry Department, Biochemistry Division, Mugla University, Faculty of Science, Koetekli, 48170 Mugla (Turkey)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

The Importance of Spring and Autumn Atmospheric Conditions for the Evaporation Regime of Lake Superior  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feedbacks between ice extent and evaporation have long been suspected to be important for Lake Superior evaporation because it is during autumn and winter when latent heat fluxes are highest. Recent direct measurements of evaporation made at the ...

C. Spence; P. D. Blanken; J. D. Lenters; N. Hedstrom

384

Discrimination of Solid from Liquid Precipitation over Northern Eurasia Using Surface Atmospheric Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Daily synoptic observations were examined to determine the critical air temperatures and dew points that separate solid versus liquid precipitation for fall and spring seasons at 547 stations over northern Eurasia. We found that critical air ...

Hengchun Ye; Judah Cohen; Michael Rawlins

385

The NPOESS Airborne Sounding Testbed Interferometer—Remotely Sensed Surface and Atmospheric Conditions during CLAMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS), the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I), flying aboard the high-altitude ...

W. L. Smith Sr.; D. K. Zhou; A. M. Larar; S. A. Mango; H. B. Howell; R. O. Knuteson; H. E. Revercomb; W. L. Smith Jr.

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

The Moist Available Energy of a Conditionally Unstable Atmosphere. Part II: Further Analysis of GATE Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The generalized convective available potential energy (GCAPE) observed during GATE has been analyzed using the Lagrangian algorithm of Lorenz, as modified by Randall and Wang. The effects of ice are included and are discussed in an Appendix. A ...

Junyi Wang; David A. Randall

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Surface tension measurements of coal ash slags under reducing conditions at atmospheric pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The global demand for reduced CO{sub 2} emission from power plants can be answered by coal gasification techniques. To develop integrated gasification combined cycles that incorporate hot syngas cleaning facilities, detailed knowledge of the thermophysical properties of coal ashes is imperative. Currently, the surface tension of liquid coal ash slags in a reducing environment was studied by means of the sessile drop method. Three different algorithms were employed to analyze the acquired drop images. The slags under consideration were obtained from black and brown coals as well as from an experimental gasification reactor. Typically, a sharp surface tension decrease with temperature was found in the melting interval of the ashes. This was followed by a temperature range of smooth drop contours during which a slight rise of the surface tension could mostly be observed. Bubbles at the circumference of the drops started to appear when approaching the measurement temperature limit of 1550{sup o}C. With regard to the temperature regime of uncorrugated drop profiles, coal ash slags exhibited surface tension values between 400 and 700 mN/m. 32 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Tobias Melchior; Gunther Putz; Michael Mueller [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany). Institute of Energy Research

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

388

The Importance of Spring and Autumn Atmospheric Conditions for the Evaporation Regime of Lake Superior  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feedbacks between ice extent and evaporation have long been suspected to be important for Lake Superior evaporation because it is during autumn and winter when latent heat fluxes are highest. Recent direct measurements of evaporation made at the ...

C. Spence; P. D. Blanken; J. D. Lenters; N. Hedstrom

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

The Role of Atmospheric Conditions in Determining Intensity of Crepuscular and Anticrepuscular Rays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the summer of 2006, daily observations of crepuscular and anticrepuscular rays were made around sunset from central Oklahoma. A relative scale of ray intensity was developed and used to relate the rays to concurrent meteorological ...

Matthew S. Van Den Broeke; William H. Beasley; Michael B. Richman

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

A Sensitivity Study of Convective Cloud Formation by Vegetation Forcing with Different Atmospheric Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Variable vegetation cover is a possible trigger for convection, especially in semiarid areas due to differential surface forcing. A two-dimensional numerical model with explicit cloud physics and a detailed vegetation parameterization scheme is ...

Xiaodong Hong; Martin J. Leach; Sethu Raman

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Sea Ice Cover and Related Atmospheric Conditions in Arctic Canada During the Summer of 1978  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Maps are presented of sea ice cover and open water in the Canadian Arctic for the final day of each month, June–September, 1978. The maps are derived from NOAA satellite imagery and show an extent of open water which is considerably smaller than ...

B. Dey

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Atmospheric Circulation Response to an Instantaneous Doubling of Carbon Dioxide. Part II: Atmospheric Transient Adjustment and Its Dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamical mechanisms underlying the transient circulation adjustment in the extratropical atmosphere after the instantaneous doubling of carbon dioxide are investigated using the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere ...

Yutian Wu; Richard Seager; Tiffany A. Shaw; Mingfang Ting; Naomi Naik

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon-13 in Methane Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and...

394

A U. S. Department of Energy User Facility Atmospheric Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

S. Department of Energy User Facility Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program DOESC-ARM...

395

ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH ANNUAL REPORT 1975-76  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

this room ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH -RECEIVED •I.AWSSKCEDIVISION ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH ANNUAL REPORTMass and Composition of Aerosol as a Function of Time,

Novakov, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH, ANNUAL REPORT 1976-77  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DIVISION ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH ANNUAL REPORTLow-Z Elements in Atmospheric Aerosol Particles by Nuclearof sulfur dioxide by aerosols of manganese sulfate," Ind.

Novakov, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Shortwave Transport in the Cloudy Atmosphere  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shortwave Transport in the Cloudy Atmosphere Shortwave Transport in the Cloudy Atmosphere by Anomalous/Lévy Diffusion: New Diagnostics Using FORTÉ Lightning Data A. B. Davis Los Alamos National Laboratory Space & Remote Sensing Sciences Group Los Alamos, New Mexico D. M. Suszcynsky Los Alamos National Laboratory Space & Atmospheric Sciences Group Los Alamos, New Mexico A. Marshak National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland Introduction Anomalous photon diffusion can be described as an ad hoc modification of the popular 2-stream approximation, specifically the δ-Eddington/diffusion version, for monochromatic radiative transfer in a scattering plane-parallel atmosphere. In the physical picture that describes the standard diffusion (hence

398

Atmospheric considerations for central receiver power plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the results of a study of the effects of atmospheric attenuation, turbulent scattering, and the use of cooling towers on the performance of solar thermal central receiver power plants.

Henderson, R.G.; Pitter, R.L.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Toward a Fully Lagrangian Atmospheric Modeling System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved treatment of advection is essential for atmospheric transport and chemistry models. Eulerian treatments are generally plagued with instabilities, unrealistic negative constituent values, diffusion, and dispersion errors. A higher-...

Jahrul M. Alam; John C. Lin

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Filtering of Gravity Modes in Atmospheric Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of gravity modes in atmospheric model predictions is assessed quantitatively by comparing integrations with a normal mode initialized primitive equation model and its corresponding pseudogeostrophic form to document some generally ...

F. Baer; J. J. Tribbia

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric conditions albedo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Stochastic Dynamics of the Midlatitude Atmospheric Jet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The innate tendency of the background straining field of the midlatitude atmospheric jet to preferentially amplify a subset of disturbances produces a characteristic response to stochastic perturbation whether the perturbations are internally ...

Brian F. Farrell; Peteros J. Ioannou

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Mars Atmosphere Pressure Periodicities from Viking Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first martian year of pressure data taken by the Viking landers on Mars is subjected to power spectrum analysis. The analysis suggests that strong periodicities are present in the martian atmosphere, especially at the high-latitude (48°N) ...

R. D. Sharman; J. A. Ryan

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Nonlinear Atmospheric Adjustment to Thermal Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A nonlinear, numerical model of a compressible atmosphere is used to simulate the hydrostatic and geostrophic adjustment to a localized prescribed heating applied over five minutes with a size characteristic of an isolated, deep, cumulus cloud. ...

Paul F. Fanelli; Peter R. Bannon

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Effect of Nonlinearity on Atmospheric Gravity Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The weakly nonlinear limit of two-dimensional gravity waves in an incompressible, inviscid and stably stratified atmosphere is studied. The three-wave resonant interaction theory indicates an energy cascade from a vertically propagating wave (...

Mostafa M. Ibrahim

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Shear Excitation of Atmospheric Gravity Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Unstable Velocity shears are a Common source of vertically propagating gravity waves in the atmosphere. However, the growth rates of unstable modes predicted by linear theory cannot always amount for their observed importance.

David C. Fritts

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Dynamic Stabilization of Atmospheric Single Column Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single column models (SCMs) provide an economical framework for assessing the sensitivity of atmospheric temperature and humidity to natural and imposed perturbations, and also for developing improved representations of diabatic processes in ...

John W. Bergman; Prashant D. Sardeshmukh

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Potential Vorticity in a Moist Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential vorticity principle for a nonhydrostatic, moist, precipitating atmosphere is derived. An appropriate generalization of the well-known (dry) Ertel potential vorticity is found to be P = ??1(2? + × u)?·???, where ? is the total ...

Wayne H. Schubert; Scott A. Hausman; Matthew Garcia; Katsuyuki V. Ooyama; Hung-Chi Kuo

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

The Flywheel Effect in the Middle Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of the requirement of geostrophic balance, mechanical inertia can affect the thermal response of the atmosphere to transient heating. We examine some very simple linear models of this “flywheel effect,” and discuss their possible ...

Roelof K. Snieder; Stephen B. Fels

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Atmospheric Entropy. Part I: Climate Dissipation Structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric entropy and its association with climate dissipation are investigated. The balance equation for entropy is derived through the mean and transient thermal and moisture equations. The entropy production contains the internal and external ...

Jiangnan Li; Petr Chylek

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Atmospheric Turbidity over Central North Carolina  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some 8500 observations of atmospheric turbidity, taken at Raleigh, North Carolina from July 1969 to July 1975 are analyzed for within-day and day-to-day variations and their dependence on meteorological parameters. The annual average turbidity of ...

James T. Peterson; Edwin C. Flowers; Guillermo J. Berri; Cheryl L. Reynolds; John H. Rudisill

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Exploring Atmospheric Aerosols by Twilight Photometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The instrument twilight photometer was designed, developed, and installed at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune, India (18°43?N, 73°51?E), to monitor the vertical distribution of atmospheric aerosols. The instrument, based ...

B. Padma Kumari; S. H. Kulkarni; D. B. Jadhav; A. L. Londhe; H. K. Trimbake

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Carbon Dioxide Variability and Atmospheric Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hourly values of the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide at Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) formed the basis for an investigation of concentration fluctuations on daily to monthly time scales. In agreement with earlier studies we found no ...

James C. Sadler; Colin S. Ramage; Arnold M. Hori

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Meteorological Tracer Techniques for Parameterizing Atmospheric Dispersion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although tracer materials have been used in atmospheric dispersion studies for decades, basic information about meteorological tracer techniques is scattered among a number of different sources. This paper attempts to pull together this ...

Warren B. Johnson

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Atmosphere–Ocean Modeling Exploiting Fluid Isomorphisms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mathematical isomorphisms between the hydrostatic equations that govern the evolution of a compressible atmosphere and an incompressible ocean are described and exploited to guide the design of a hydrodynamical kernel for simulation of either ...

John Marshall; Alistair Adcroft; Jean-Michel Campin; Chris Hill; Andy White

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Basic Meteorological Observations for Schools: Atmospheric Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article addresses measurement of atmospheric surface pressure using economical instruments. It is intended to provide members of the Society with a ready reference to respond to inquiries from earth and physical science teachers at the ...

John T. Snow; Michelle E. Akridge; Shawn B. Harley

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

The Atmospheric Mesoscale Dispersion Modeling System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mesoscale dispersion modeling system (MDMS) described herein is under development as a simulation tool to investigate atmospheric flow and pollution dispersion over complex terrain for domains up to several hundred kilometers. The system ...

Marek Uliasz

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

State-Space Modeling for Atmospheric Pollution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two different aspect concerning the state-space modeling for atmospheric pollution are dealt with separately in this paper: (i) the treatment of the advection-diffusion equation and (ii) the use of time series analysis.

E. Hernández; F. Martín; F. Valero

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Resonant Planetary Waves in a Spherical Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A global model of planetary wave propagation in a spherical atmosphere is used to examine the spectrum of free or resonant planetary waves of the solstitial stratosphere. These free modes are located by forcing the model with a weak periodic ...

Mark R. Schoeberl; John H. E. Clark

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

A Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development is described of a Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS)—the result of a cooperative project to collect global weather observations taken near the ocean's surface since 1854, primarily from merchant ships, into a compact and ...

Scott D. Woodruff; Ralph J. Slutz; Roy L. Jenne; Peter M. Steurer

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Effects of Atmospheric Turbulence on Ballistic Testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of atmospheric turbulence on munition target scatter are determined from numerical simulations of ballistic trajectories through many realizations of realistic simulated turbulent wind fields. A technique is evaluated for correcting ...

Rod Frehlich; Robert Sharman; Charles Clough; Michael Padovani; Kelly Fling; Ward Boughers; W. Scott Walton

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric conditions albedo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Pierre Auger Atmosphere-Monitoring Lidar System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fluorescence-detection techniques of cosmic-ray air-shower experiments require precise knowledge of atmospheric properties to reconstruct air-shower energies. Up to now, the atmosphere in desert-like areas was assumed to be stable enough so that occasional calibration of atmospheric attenuation would suffice to reconstruct shower profiles. However, serious difficulties have been reported in recent fluorescence-detector experiments causing systematic errors in cosmic ray spectra at extreme energies. Therefore, a scanning backscatter lidar system has been constructed for the Pierre Auger Observatory in Malargue, Argentina, where on-line atmospheric monitoring will be performed. One lidar system is already deployed at the Los Leones fluorescence detector site and the second one is currently (April 2003) under construction at the Coihueco site. Next to the established ones, a novel analysis method with assumption on horizontal invariance, using multi-angle measurements is shown to unambiguously measure optical depth, as well as absorption and backscatter coefficient.

A. Filipcic; M. Horvat; D. Veberic; D. Zavrtanik; M. Zavrtanik; M. Chiosso; R. Mussa; G. Sequeiros; M. A. Mostafa; M. D. Roberts

2003-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

422

Profiling atmospheric aerosols | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a number of instruments that use low power lasers (the instrument is called Micropulse Lidar, MPL) to measure the turbidity of the atmosphere above the ground. For the first time,...

423

Reducing the atmospheric impact of wet slaking  

SciTech Connect

Means of reducing the atmospheric emissions due to the wet slaking of coke are considered. One option, investigated here, is to remove residual active silt and organic compounds from the biologically purified wastewater sent for slaking, by coagulation and flocculation.

B.D. Zubitskii; G.V. Ushakov; B.G. Tryasunov; A.G.Ushakov [Kuznetsk Basin State Technical University, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

424

Quantum light in the turbulent atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nonclassical properties of light propagating through the turbulent atmosphere are studied. We demonstrate by numerical simulation that the probability distribution of the transmission coefficient, which characterizes the effects of the atmosphere on the quantum state of light, can be reconstructed by homodyne detection. Nonclassical photon-statistics and, more generally, nonclassical Glauber-Sudarshan functions appear to be more robust against turbulence for weak light fields rather than for bright ones.

A. A. Semenov; W. Vogel

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

425

Sampling Conditioned Hypoelliptic Diffusions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A series of recent articles introduced a method to construct stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) which are invariant with respect to the distribution of a given conditioned diffusion. These works are restricted to the case of elliptic diffusions where the drift has a gradient structure, and the resulting SPDE is of second order parabolic type. The present article extends this methodology to allow the construction of SPDEs which are invariant with respect to the distribution of a class of hypoelliptic diffusion processes, subject to a bridge conditioning. This allows the treatment of more realistic physical models, for example one can use the resulting SPDE to study transitions between meta-stable states in mechanical systems with friction and noise. In this situation the restriction of the drift being a gradient can also be lifted.

Hairer, Martin; Voss, Jochen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Lookup tables to compute high energy cosmic ray induced atmospheric ionization and changes in atmospheric chemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A variety of events such as gamma-ray bursts and supernovae may expose the Earth to an increased flux of high-energy cosmic rays, with potentially important effects on the biosphere. Existing atmospheric chemistry software does not have the capability of incorporating the effects of substantial cosmic ray flux above 10 GeV . An atmospheric code, the NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center two-dimensional (latitude, altitude) time-dependent atmospheric model (NGSFC), is used to study atmospheric chemistry changes. Using CORSIKA, we have created tables that can be used to compute high energy cosmic ray (10 GeV - 1 PeV) induced atmospheric ionization and also, with the use of the NGSFC code, can be used to simulate the resulting atmospheric chemistry changes. We discuss the tables, their uses, weaknesses, and strengths.

Dimitra Atri; Adrian L. Melott; Brian C. Thomas

2008-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

427

Boiler Condition Assessment Guideline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report Boiler Condition Assessment Guideline provides a concise overview of procedures developed by the Electric Power Research Institute EPRI to help power plant operators cost-effectively determine the extent of degradation and remaining life of key boiler components. The Guideline draws from EPRIs detailed area-specific guidelines, which in turn are based on extensive research findings by EPRI, member companies, and other organizations. This Guideline offers a starting point for power plant perso...

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

428

Solar air conditioning  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Development of a hybrid solar-assisted air conditioning system that combines a vapor compression section for sensible cooling with a desiccant section for dehumidification and that uses both solar energy and condenser waste heat to drive the dehumidifier has been under way for the last two years (1981 and 1982). The results of this research are included in this report: utilizing solar energy in an economical way has proven quite difficult.

Robison, H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

High voltage pulse conditioning  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

Stringfield, R.M.; Wheat, R.M. Jr.

1989-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

430

High voltage pulse conditioning  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

Springfield, Ray M. (Sante Fe, NM); Wheat, Jr., Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Conditional SIC-POVMs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we examine a generalization of the symmetric informationally complete POVMs. SIC-POVMs are the optimal measurements for full quantum tomography, but if some parameters of the density matrix are known, then the optimal SIC POVM should be orthogonal to a subspace. This gives the concept of the conditional SIC-POVM. The existence is not known in general, but we give a result in the special cases when the diagonal is known of the density matrix.

D. Petz; L. Ruppert; A. Szanto

2012-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

432

Conditional SIC-POVMs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we examine a generalization of the symmetric informationally complete POVMs. SIC-POVMs are the optimal measurements for full quantum tomography, but if some parameters of the density matrix are known, then the optimal SIC POVM should be orthogonal to a subspace. This gives the concept of the conditional SIC-POVM. The existence is not known in general, but we give a result in the special cases when the diagonal is known of the density matrix.

Petz, D; Szanto, A

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Fuel gas conditioning process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Atmospheric Neutrinos in the MINOS Far Detector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The phenomenon of flavour oscillations of neutrinos created in the atmosphere was first reported by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration in 1998 and since then has been confirmed by Soudan 2 and MACRO. The MINOS Far Detector is the first magnetized neutrino detector able to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations. Although it was designed to detect neutrinos from the NuMI beam, it provides a unique opportunity to measure the oscillation parameters for neutrinos and anti-neutrinos independently. The MINOS Far Detector was completed in August 2003 and since then has collected 2.52 kton-years of atmospheric data. Atmospheric neutrino interactions contained within the volume of the detector are separated from the dominant background from cosmic ray muons. Thirty seven events are selected with an estimated background contamination of less than 10%. Using the detector's magnetic field, 17 neutrino events and 6 anti-neutrino events are identified, 14 events have ambiguous charge. The neutrino oscillation parameters for {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} are studied using a maximum likelihood analysis. The measurement does not place constraining limits on the neutrino oscillation parameters due to the limited statistics of the data set analysed. However, this thesis represents the first observation of charge separated atmospheric neutrino interactions. It also details the techniques developed to perform atmospheric neutrino analyses in the MINOS Far Detector.

Howcroft, Caius L.F.; /Cambridge U.

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

The Birth and Life of Our Atmosphere  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Birth and Life of Our Atmosphere Birth and Life of Our Atmosphere Nature Bulletin No. 554-A February 15, 1975 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation THE BIRTH AND LIFE OF OUR ATMOSPHERE In Bulletin No. 542-A we described the atmosphere that surrounds the earth, held there by the pull of gravity, including the canopy of air immediately above us. That canopy is responsible for our weather and climates, shields us from the killing rays of the sun, and furnishes substances necessary for all life: oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. Astronomers believe that none of the other planets -- excepting Mars, perhaps -- has an atmosphere anything like ours. The principal elements, free nitrogen (78 percent) and free oxygen (21 percent), apparently are rare in the universe. On the other hand, the earth's atmosphere contains only traces of free hydrogen and helium -- the two lightest gases -- whereas they are by far the most common elements elsewhere in the universe.

436

Precision Determination of Atmospheric Extinction at Optical and Near IR Wavelengths  

SciTech Connect

The science goals for future ground-based all-sky surveys, such as the Dark Energy Survey, PanSTARRS, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, require calibration of broadband photometry that is stable in time and uniform over the sky to precisions of a per cent or better, and absolute calibration of color measurements that are similarly accurate. This performance will need to be achieved with measurements made from multiple images taken over the course of many years, and these surveys will observe in less than ideal conditions. This paper describes a technique to implement a new strategy to directly measure variations of atmospheric transmittance at optical wavelengths and application of these measurements to calibration of ground-based observations. This strategy makes use of measurements of the spectra of a small catalog of bright 'probe' stars as they progress across the sky and back-light the atmosphere. The signatures of optical absorption by different atmospheric constituents are recognized in these spectra by their characteristic dependences on wavelength and airmass. State-of-the-art models of atmospheric radiation transport and modern codes are used to accurately compute atmospheric extinction over a wide range of observing conditions. We present results of an observing campaign that demonstrate that correction for extinction due to molecular constituents and aerosols can be done with precisions of a few millimagnitudes with this technique.

Burke, David L.; /SLAC; Axelrod, T.; /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ.; Blondin, Stephane; /European Southern Observ. /Marseille, CPPM; Claver, Chuck; /NOAO, Tucson; Ivezic, Zeljko; Jones, Lynne; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Saha, Abhijit; /NOAO, Tucson; Smith, Allyn; /Austin Peay State U.; Smith, R.Chris; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.; Stubbs, Christopher W.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

2011-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

437

A comparison of atmospheric transport considerations in eastern and western oil shale operations  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric transport represents one of the critically important pathways for the distribution of pollutants from any oil shale operation. Our experience in studying eastern and western shale resources and operation suggest many common features regarding the atmospheric domain, but also many significant differences. Any issue of atmospheric transport and dispersion can be broken down into major elements: source factors which include the spatial and temporal distribution of pollutant sources as well as their chemical and physical characteristics, boundary conditions which include the character of the underlying surface as a lower boundary and the large scale meteorological circulations as an ''upper'' boundary; and meteorological structure is the resulting wind, temperature, moisture, and turbulence environment in the volume of air occupied by emitted material in an atmosphere subjected to the boundary conditions described above. For purposes of planning an industry, we want to be able to reliably model the atmospheric structure on a variety of time and space scales and the subsequent distribution of pollutants. This paper discusses differences in modeling concepts and results in the separate environments of eastern and western oil shale resources. 10 refs., 5 figs.

Barr, S.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Numerical Simulations of Air–Sea Interaction under High Wind Conditions Using a Coupled Model: A Study of Hurricane Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, a coupled atmosphere–ocean wave modeling system is used to simulate air–sea interaction under high wind conditions. This coupled modeling system is made of three well-tested model components: The Pennsylvania State University–...

J-W. Bao; J. M. Wilczak; J-K. Choi; L. H. Kantha

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Attachment K TERMS AND CONDITIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Attachment K TERMS AND CONDITIONS AWARD # #12;TERMS AND CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION PAGE ............................................................................... 24 i #12;TERMS AND CONDITIONS 1. Grant Agreement This project is being funded with a grant from, the Terms and Conditions, and all attachments. These Terms and Conditions are standard requirements

440

Extreme Anomalous Atmospheric Circulation in the West Antarctic Peninsula Region in Austral Spring and Summer 2001/02, and Its Profound Impact on Sea Ice and Biota  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Exceptional sea ice conditions occurred in the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region from September 2001 to February 2002, resulting from a strongly positive atmospheric pressure anomaly in the South Atlantic coupled with strong negative ...

Robert A. Massom; Sharon E. Stammerjohn; Raymond C. Smith; Michael J. Pook; Richard A. Iannuzzi; Neil Adams; Douglas G. Martinson; Maria Vernet; William R. Fraser; Langdon B. Quetin; Robin M. Ross; Yuko Massom; H. Roy Krouse

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric conditions albedo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Impact of Initial Soil Moisture Anomalies on Subsequent Precipitation over North America in the Coupled Land–Atmosphere Model CAM3–CLM3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To investigate the impact of anomalous soil moisture conditions on subsequent precipitation over North America, a series of numerical experiments is performed using a modified version of the Community Atmosphere Model version 3 and the Community ...

Yeonjoo Kim; Guiling Wang

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

On the Nature of the Chromosphere-Corona Transition Region of the Solar Atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The distribution of temperature and emission measure in the stationary heated solar atmosphere was obtained for the limiting cases of slow and fast heating, when either the gas pressure or the concentration are constant throughout the layer depth. Under these conditions the temperature distribution with depth is determined by radiation loss and thermal conductivity. It is shown that both in the case of slow heating and of impulsive heating, temperatures are distributed in such a way that classical collisional heat conduction is valid in the chromosphere-corona transition region of the solar atmosphere.

Ptitsyna, O

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Scanning Lidar Based Atmospheric Monitoring for Fluorescent Detectors of Cosmic Showers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurements of the cosmic-ray air-shower fluorescence at extreme energies require precise knowledge of atmospheric conditions. The absolute calibration of the cosmic-ray energy depends on the absorption of fluorescence light between its origin and point of its detection. To reconstruct basic atmospheric parameters we review a novel analysis method based on two- and multi-angle measurements performed by the scanning backscatter lidar system. Applied inversion methods, optical depth, absorption and backscatter coefficient, as well as other parameters that enter the lidar equation are discussed in connection to the attenuation of the light traveling from shower to fluorescence detector.

A. Filipcic; M. Horvat; D. Veberic; D. Zavrtanik; M. Zavrtanik

2002-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

444

3D atmospheric modeling based on MODTRAN4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

All the factors of atmospheric environment that influence the transmission of infrared radiation were analyzed in detail in the paper. Taking horizontally varying atmospheric property into consideration, a 3D model of atmospheric transmission of infrared ... Keywords: MODTRAN4, infrared radiation, model, path radiation, ratio of atmospheric transmission, simulation, single scatter solar radiation

Ge Li; Zhifeng Lu; Gang Guo; Kedi Huang

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

East Coast (PADD 1) Gross Inputs to Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

East Coast (PADD 1) Gross Inputs to Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Units (Thousand Barrels per Day)

446

Guam Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Guam Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Calendar Day)

447

Refining District New Mexico Gross Inputs to Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refining District New Mexico Gross Inputs to Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Units (Thousand Barrels per Day)

448

Conditional sterility in plants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

Meagher, Richard B. (Athens, GA); McKinney, Elizabeth (Athens, GA); Kim, Tehryung (Taejeon, KR)

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

449

Battery condition indicator  

SciTech Connect

A battery condition indicator is described for indicating both the charge used and the life remaining in a rechargeable battery comprising: rate multiplying and counting means for indirectly measuring the charge useed by the battery between charges; means for supplying variable rate clock pulse to the rate multiplying and counting means, the rate of the clock pulses being a function of whether a high current consumption load is connected to the battery or not; timing means for measuring the total time in service of the battery; charge used display means responsive to the rate multiplying and counting means for providing an indication of the charge remaining in the battery; and age display means responsive to the timing means for providing an indication of the life or age of the battery.

Fernandez, E.A.

1987-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

450

Atmospheric and Climate Science | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric and Climate Science Atmospheric and Climate Science Argonne research in aerosols, micro-meteorology, remote sensing, and atmospheric chemistry combined with our scalable, portable, high-performance climate and weather applications offer a unique look at the complexities of a dynamic planet. Changes in climate can affect biodiversity, the cost of food, our health, and even whole economies. Argonne is developing computational models and tools designed to shed light on complex biological processes and their economic, social, and health effects. Research spans the molecular level to whole organisms and their interaction with climate, the ecosystem, and human activities. The goal is to improve our understanding of the world around us while increasing the accuracy of regional climate models to

451

Atmospheric Delta 14C Record from Wellington  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Isotopes » Carbon Isotopes » δ14C from Wellington Atmospheric δ14C Record from Wellington graphics Graphics data Data Investigators M.R. Manning, W.H. Melhuish National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Ltd., Climate Division, Gracefield Road, Gracefield, P.O. Box 31-311, Lower Hutt, New Zealand Period of Record 1954-93 Methods Trays containing ~2 L of 5 normal NaOH carbonate-free solution are typically exposed for intervals of 1-2 weeks, and the atmospheric CO2 absorbed during that time is recovered by acid evolution. Considerable fractionation occurs during absorption into the NaOH solution, and the standard fractionation correction (Stuiver and Polach 1977) is used to determine a δ 14C value corrected to δ 13C = -25 per mil. Some samples reported here were taken using BaOH solution or with extended

452

atmospheric water vapor | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

atmospheric water vapor atmospheric water vapor Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. Source NREL Date Released July 31st, 2006 (8 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords atmospheric water vapor Carribean Islands Central America DNI GIS Mexico NREL GEF solar SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 247.8 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 370.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review

453

Our Dusty Atmosphere | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Dusty Atmosphere Dusty Atmosphere Our Dusty Atmosphere September 6, 2011 - 4:26pm Addthis A heavy layer of air pollution, a mix of aerosol particles and vapors, obscures the view over Mexico City. Two studies by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory show the importance of including the small-scale effects of aerosols in climate modeling. | Image courtesy of PNNL A heavy layer of air pollution, a mix of aerosol particles and vapors, obscures the view over Mexico City. Two studies by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory show the importance of including the small-scale effects of aerosols in climate modeling. | Image courtesy of PNNL Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science What are the key facts? Researchers are developing a better understanding of the effects of

454

Our Dusty Atmosphere | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Our Dusty Atmosphere Our Dusty Atmosphere Our Dusty Atmosphere September 6, 2011 - 4:26pm Addthis A heavy layer of air pollution, a mix of aerosol particles and vapors, obscures the view over Mexico City. Two studies by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory show the importance of including the small-scale effects of aerosols in climate modeling. | Image courtesy of PNNL A heavy layer of air pollution, a mix of aerosol particles and vapors, obscures the view over Mexico City. Two studies by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory show the importance of including the small-scale effects of aerosols in climate modeling. | Image courtesy of PNNL Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science What are the key facts? Researchers are developing a better understanding of the effects of

455

Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

A Community Atmosphere Model with Superparameterized Clouds  

SciTech Connect

In 1999, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) scientists Wojciech Grabowski and Piotr Smolarkiewicz created a "multiscale" atmospheric model in which the physical processes associated with clouds were represented by running a simple high-resolution model within each grid column of a lowresolution global model. In idealized experiments, they found that the multiscale model produced promising simulations of organized tropical convection, which other models had struggled to produce. Inspired by their results, Colorado State University (CSU) scientists Marat Khairoutdinov and David Randall created a multiscale version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). They removed the cloud parameterizations of the CAM, and replaced them with Khairoutdinov's high-resolution cloud model. They dubbed the embedded cloud model a "super-parameterization," and the modified CAM is now called the "SP-CAM." Over the next several years, many scientists, from many institutions, have explored the ability of the SP-CAM to simulate tropical weather systems, the day-night changes of precipitation, the Asian and African monsoons, and a number of other climate processes. Cristiana Stan of the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions found that the SP-CAM gives improved results when coupled to an ocean model, and follow-on studies have explored the SP-CAM's utility when used as the atmospheric component of the Community Earth System Model. Much of this research has been performed under the auspices of the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes, a National Science Foundation (NSF) Science and Technology Center for which the lead institution is CSU.

Randall, David; Branson, Mark; Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.; Craig, Cheryl; Gettelman, A.; Edwards, Jim

2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

457

Atmospheric Correction Algorithm for Hyperspectral Imagery  

SciTech Connect

In December 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established a Center of Excellence (Hyperspectral-Multispectral Algorithm Research Center, HyMARC) for promoting the research and development of algorithms to exploit spectral imagery. This center is located at the DOE Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, and is operated for the DOE by Bechtel Nevada. This paper presents the results to date of a research project begun at the center during 1998 to investigate the correction of hyperspectral data for atmospheric aerosols. Results of a project conducted by the Rochester Institute of Technology to define, implement, and test procedures for absolute calibration and correction of hyperspectral data to absolute units of high spectral resolution imagery will be presented. Hybrid techniques for atmospheric correction using image or spectral scene data coupled through radiative propagation models will be specifically addressed. Results of this effort to analyze HYDICE sensor data will be included. Preliminary results based on studying the performance of standard routines, such as Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption and Nonlinear Least Squares Spectral Fit, in retrieving reflectance spectra show overall reflectance retrieval errors of approximately one to two reflectance units in the 0.4- to 2.5-micron-wavelength region (outside of the absorption features). These results are based on HYDICE sensor data collected from the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site during overflights conducted in July of 1997. Results of an upgrade made in the model-based atmospheric correction techniques, which take advantage of updates made to the moderate resolution atmospheric transmittance model (MODTRAN 4.0) software, will also be presented. Data will be shown to demonstrate how the reflectance retrieval in the shorter wavelengths of the blue-green region will be improved because of enhanced modeling of multiple scattering effects.

R. J. Pollina

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Modern Records of Atmospheric Methane (CH4) and a 2000-year Ice-core Record  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(CH4) » Ice Cores (CH4) » Ice Cores Modern Records of Atmospheric Methane (CH4) and a 2000-year Ice-core Record from Law Dome, Antarctica Introduction This page provides an introduction and links to records of atmospheric methane (CH4) over the last 2000 years, emphasizing large data bases each representing currently active stations. Records in recent decades (time period depending on location) have been obtained from samples of ambient-air at remote locations, which represent global atmospheric conditions rather than influences of local sources. The longer (2000-year) record is from the Law Dome ice core in Antarctica. The ice-core record has been merged with modern annual data from Cape Grim, Tasmania to provide a 2000-year record ending with the most recent data. A spline function has

459

Release of ethanol to the atmosphere during use of consumer cleaning products  

SciTech Connect

Liquid laundry and hand dish washing detergents contain volatile organic compounds, including ethanol, that may be liberated during use and contribute to photochemical air pollution. In this study, the release of ethanol to the atmosphere during simulated household use of liquid detergents was measured. Three replicate experiments, plus a blank, were conducted in a 20-m{sup 3} environmental chamber for each of four conditions: typical dish washing (DT), high-release dish washing (DH), typical laundry (LT), and high-release laundry (LH). Average amounts of ethanol transferred to the atmosphere per use (and the fraction of ethanol used so liberated) were 32 mg (0.038) for DT, 100 mg (0.049) for DH, 18 mg (0.002) for LT, and 110 mg (0.011) for LH. Thus, a large fraction of the ethanol added to wash solutions with liquid detergents is discharged to the sewer rather than transferred to the atmosphere during use.

Wooley, J.; Nazaroff, W.W. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA)); Hodgson, A.T. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley, CA (USA))

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Atmospheric and Wake Turbulence Impacts on Wind Turbine Fatigue Loading: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Large-eddy simulations of atmospheric boundary layers under various stability and surface roughness conditions are performed to investigate the turbulence impact on wind turbines. In particular, the aeroelastic responses of the turbines are studied to characterize the fatigue loading of the turbulence present in the boundary layer and in the wake of the turbines. Two utility-scale 5 MW turbines that are separated by seven rotor diameters are placed in a 3 km by 3 km by 1 km domain. They are subjected to atmospheric turbulent boundary layer flow and data is collected on the structural response of the turbine components. The surface roughness was found to increase the fatigue loads while the atmospheric instability had a small influence. Furthermore, the downstream turbines yielded higher fatigue loads indicating that the turbulent wakes generated from the upstream turbines have significant impact.

Lee, S.; Churchfield, M.; Moriarty, P.; Jonkman, J.; Michalakes, J.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric conditions albedo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

In situ Carbon 13 and Oxygen 18 Ratios of Atmospheric CO2 from Cape Grim,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen Isotopes and Ratios » 13C and 18O Oxygen Isotopes and Ratios » 13C and 18O Ratios, Atmospheric CO2, Cape Grim In situ Carbon 13 and Oxygen 18 Ratios of Atmospheric CO2 from Cape Grim, Tasmania, Australia: 1982-1993 DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.db1014 data Data Investigators Francey R. J. and C. E. Allison Description Since 1982, a continuous program of sampling atmospheric CO2 to determine stable isotope ratios has been maintained at the Australian Baseline Air Pollution Station, Cape Grim, Tasmania (40°, 40'56"S, 144°, 41'18"E). The process of in situ extraction of CO2 from air, the preponderance of samples collected in conditions of strong wind from the marine boundary layer of the Southern Ocean, and the determination of all isotope ratios relative to a common high purity CO2 reference gas with isotopic δ13C close to

462

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows TDM - Karma Sawyer Robert C. Tenent National Renewable Energy Laboratory robert.tenent@nrel.gov 303-384-6775 4/4/2013 Insulating Glass Unit (IGU) Glass Transparent Conductor (TC) Active Electrode Counter Electrode Ion Conductor 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose and Objectives * Expense - Current market price of $50-$100/ft 2 - Projections indicate under $20/ft 2 needed - A new production paradigm is required * Aesthetics - Architects hesitant to adopt "smurf glass"

463

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows TDM - Karma Sawyer Robert C. Tenent National Renewable Energy Laboratory robert.tenent@nrel.gov 303-384-6775 4/4/2013 Insulating Glass Unit (IGU) Glass Transparent Conductor (TC) Active Electrode Counter Electrode Ion Conductor 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose and Objectives * Expense - Current market price of $50-$100/ft 2 - Projections indicate under $20/ft 2 needed - A new production paradigm is required * Aesthetics - Architects hesitant to adopt "smurf glass"

464

Calibration of LSST Instrumental and Atmospheric Photometric Passbands  

SciTech Connect

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will continuously image the entire sky visible from Cerro Pachon in northern Chile every 3-4 nights throughout the year. The LSST will provide data for a broad range of science investigations that require better than 1% photometric precision across the sky (repeatability and uniformity) and a similar accuracy of measured broadband color. The fast and persistent cadence of the LSST survey will significantly improve the temporal sampling rate with which celestial events and motions are tracked. To achieve these goals, and to optimally utilize the observing calendar, it will be necessary to obtain excellent photometric calibration of data taken over a wide range of observing conditions - even those not normally considered 'photometric'. To achieve this it will be necessary to routinely and accurately measure the full optical passband that includes the atmosphere as well as the instrumental telescope and camera system. The LSST mountain facility will include a new monochromatic dome illumination projector system to measure the detailed wavelength dependence of the instrumental passband for each channel in the system. The facility will also include an auxiliary spectroscopic telescope dedicated to measurement of atmospheric transparency at all locations in the sky during LSST observing. In this paper, we describe these systems and present laboratory and observational data that illustrate their performance.

Burke, David L.; /SLAC; Axelrod, T.; /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ.; Barrau, Aurelien; Baumont, Sylvain; /LPSC, Grenoble; Blondin, Stephane; /Marseille, CPPM; Claver, Chuck; /NOAO, Tucson; Gorecki, Alexia; /LPSC, Grenoble; Ivezic, Zeljko; Jones, Lynne; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Krabbendam, Victor; Liang, Ming; Saha, Abhijit; /NOAO, Tucson; Smith, Allyn; /Austin Peay State U.; Smith, R.Chris; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.; Stubbs, Christopher W.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

465

Attachment J TERMS AND CONDITIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Attachment J TERMS AND CONDITIONS AWARD # PON-10-603 #12;TERMS AND CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................... 24 i #12;TERMS AND CONDITIONS 1. Grant Agreement This project is being funded with a grant from is comprised of the grant funding award, the Terms and Conditions, and all attachments. These Terms

466

Fuel conditioning process  

SciTech Connect

A fuel conditioning process and apparatus for use where natural gas is compressed by a field compressor driven by a natural gas powered engine. The fuel portion of the compressed raw natural gas is passed through an adsorption vessel containing an adsorbent material capable of adsorbing impurities. The outlet gas from the adsorption vessel is accumulated and mixed for averaging and controlling the heating value of the outlet gas used for fuel. Regeneration of the adsorption material, when employing multiple adsorption vessels, is accomplished by connecting one adsorption vessel to the suction side of the compressor, purified gas from another adsorption vessel in adsorption service is backflowed through the loaded adsorption vessel to desorb the previously adsorbed impurities, the flow of the compressed raw natural gas to the other adsorption vessel is terminated and the pressure within the two adsorption vessels is equalized. The regenerated adsorption vessel is then repressured with the compressed raw natural gas prior to returning it to the adsorption mode.

McGill, J. C.; Alley, J. R.; Coombs, D. W.

1985-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

467

International RADAGAST Experiment in Niamey, Niger: Changes and Drivers of Atmospheric Radiation Balance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Sahara desert is notorious as a source of massive dust storms. This dust dramatically influences the Earth-atmosphere energy budget through reflecting and absorbing the incoming sunlight. However, this budget is poorly understood, and in particular, we lack quantitative understanding of how the diurnal and seasonal variation of meteorological variables and aerosol properties influence the propagation of solar irradiance through the desert atmosphere. To improve our understanding of these influences, coincident and collocated observations of fluxes, measured from both space and the surface, are highly desirable. Recently, the unique capabilities of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) Experiment, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF), the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument, and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) were combined effectively as part of a large international project: the Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using AMF, GERB data and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST), which took place in Niamey, Niger, in 2006. The RADAGAST objectives, instrumentation, and scientific background are presented in [1]. Initial results from RADAGAST documented the strong radiative impact of a major Saharan dust storm on the Earth’s radiation budget [2]. A special issue of the Journal of Geophysical Research will include a collection of papers with the more complete results from RADAGAST (e.g., [1,3], and references therein). In particular, a year-long time series from RADAGAST are used to investigate (i) the factors that control the radiative fluxes and the divergence of radiation across the atmosphere [3-5], (ii) seasonal changes in the surface energy balance and associated variations in atmospheric constituents (water vapor, clouds, aerosols) [6], and (iii) sensitivity of microphysical, chemical and optical properties of aerosols to their sources and the atmospheric conditions [7]. Here we show retrievals of the aerosol properties from spectrally resolved solar measurements, the simulated and observed radiative fluxes at the surface, and outline factors that control the magnitude and variability of aerosol and radiative properties [8].

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Slingo, A.; Bharmal, N.; Robinson, G. J.; Turner, David D.; Miller, Mark; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Miller, R.

2009-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

468

Atmospheric Pressure Low Current Plasma for Syngas Production from Alcohol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract – Atmospheric pressure low current arc discharge between graphite electrodes with conical geometry in liquid ethanol/water mixture was investigated. Syngas production was demonstrated over large experimental conditions. In this paper we focus on discharge aspects. It is shown from pictures that the behavior of low current arc discharge with consumable electrodes represents non-stationary plasma. The energetic properties of plasmas can be used to carry out many applications, particularly in discharge based systems. Recently, research interest focuses on the Non Thermal Plasma (NTP) treatment of hydrocarbons, alcohol, or biomass aimed to improve the yield of synthetic gas (syngas: H2+CO) production at low cost [1, 4]. Experiments were performed on a plasma reactor consisting of two graphite electrodes with conical shape

Ahmed Khacef; Khadija Arabi; Olivier Aubry; Jean Marie Cormier

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Effects of mesoscale surface inhomogeneities on atmospheric boundary layer transfer  

SciTech Connect

Defining the nature of turbulent transfer over horizontally inhomogeneous surfaces remains one of the challenges in meteorology. Because the transfer of energy and momentum through the atmospheric boundary layer forms part of the lower boundary condition for global climate models (GCMs), the problem is important. Over the last two decades, advances in sensor and computer technology wave made good point measurements of turbulent fluxes fairly routine. A fundamental question with respect to climate models, however, is how such point measurements are related to average fluxes over the area of a GCM grid box. In this paper we will use data from the field program to depict the evolution of the boundary layer over adjacent, sharply contrasting surface types on two separate occasions. We will then use simple scaling based on the observations to argue that sub-gridscale motions would often be likely to significantly alter the estimates and resulting parameterizations of GCM-scale surface fluxes in the region.

Shaw, W.J.; Doran, J.C.; Hubbe, J.M.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Effect of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Changes on Tropical Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) changes on tropical coupled ocean-atmosphere system via oceanic and atmospheric processes. A suite of numerical simulations have been conducted and the results show that both oceanic and atmospheric circulation changes induced by AMOC changes can have a profound impact on tropical sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) conditions, but their dominance varies in different parts of the tropical oceans. The oceanic process has a dominant control on SST and SSS response to AMOC changes in the South Tropical Atlantic, while the atmospheric teleconnection is mainly responsible for SST and SSS changes over the North Tropical Atlantic and Pacific Oceans during the period of reduced AMOC. The finding has significant implication for the interpretation of the paleotemperature reconstructions over the southern Caribbean and the western Tropical Atlantic regions during the Younger Dryas. It suggests that the strong spatial inhomogeneity of the SST change revealed by the proxy records in these regions may be attributed to the competing oceanic and atmospheric processes that dominate the SST response. Similar mechanisms may also explain the reconstructed paleo-salinity change in the tropical Atlantic, which shows a basin-wide increase in SSS during the Younger Dryas, according to recent paleo climate studies. Finally, we show that atmospheric teleconnection induced by the surface cooling of the North Atlantic and the North Pacific in response to a weakened AMOC, is a leading physical mechanism that dictates the behavior of El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) response to AMOC changes. However, depending on its origin, the atmospheric teleconnection can affect ENSO variability in different ways. The atmospheric process associated with the North Atlantic cooling tends to enhance El Nino occurrence with a deepened mean thermocline depth in the eastern Pacific, whereas the atmospheric process associated with the North Pacific cooling tends to produce more La Nina events with a reduced mean thermocline depth in the eastern Pacific. Preliminary analysis suggests that the change in ENSO characteristics is associated with the change in internal atmospheric variability caused by the surface cooling in the North Atlantic and North Pacific. Complex nature of the underlying dynamics concerning the effect of the AMOC on ENSO calls for further investigation into this problem.

Wan, Xiuquan

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

A comparison of the Monte Carlo and the flux gradient method for atmospheric diffusion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order to model the dispersal of atmospheric pollutants in the planetary boundary layer, various methods of parameterizing turbulent diffusion have been employed. The purpose of this paper is to use a three-dimensional particle-in-cell transport and diffusion model to compare the Markov chain (Monte Carlo) method of statistical particle diffusion with the deterministic flux gradient (K-theory) method. The two methods are heavily used in the study of atmospheric diffusion under complex conditions, with the Monte Carlo method gaining in popularity partly because of its more direct application of turbulence parameters. The basis of comparison is a data set from night-time drainage flow tracer experiments performed by the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program at the Geysers geothermal region in northern California. The Atmospheric Diffusion Particle-In-Cell (ADPIC) model used is the main model in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory emergency response program: Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC). As a particle model, it can simulate diffusion in both the flux gradient and Monte Carlo modes. 9 refs., 6 figs.

Lange, R.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Fractionating Recalcitrant Lignocellulose at Modest Reaction Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effectively releasing the locked polysaccharides from recalcitrant lignocellulose to fermentable sugars is among the greatest technical and economic barriers to the realization of lignocellulose biorefineries because leading lignocellulose pre-treatment technologies suffer from low sugar yields, and/or severe reaction conditions, and/or high cellulase use, narrow substrate applicability, and high capital investment, etc. A new lignocellulose pre-treatment featuring modest reaction conditions (50 C and atmospheric pressure) was demonstrated to fractionate lignocellulose to amorphous cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and acetic acid by using a non-volatile cellulose solvent (concentrated phosphoric acid), a highly volatile organic solvent (acetone), and water. The highest sugar yields after enzymatic hydrolysis were attributed to no sugar degradation during the fractionation and the highest enzymatic cellulose digestibility ({approx}97% in 24 h) during the hydrolysis step at the enzyme loading of 15 filter paper units of cellulase and 60 IU of beta-glucosidase per gram of glucan. Isolation of high-value lignocellulose components (lignin, acetic acid, and hemicellulose) would greatly increase potential revenues of a lignocellulose biorefinery.

Zhang, Y.-H. Percival [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Ding, Shi-You [National Energy Renewable Laboratory; Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL; Cui, Jing-Biao [Dartmouth College; Elander, Richard T. [Dartmouth College; Laser, Mark [Dartmouth College; Himmel, Michael [ORNL; McMillan, James R. [National Energy Renewable Laboratory; Lynd, L. [Dartmouth College

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Atmospheric Gravity Waves and Aircraft Turbulence Encounters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe aircraft turbulence-atmospheric gravity wave events which occurred during a 2-day period over the Continental Divide. The waves are observed by two microbarograph networks an each side of the divide and last for several hours at a ...

A. J. Bedard Jr.; F. Canavero; F. Einaudi

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Heat Budget of Tropical Ocean and Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat budget estimates for the global tropics are derived from recent calculations of the oceanic heat budget and satellite measurements of net radiation at the top of the atmosphere. Annual mean heat export from the zone 30°N–30°S amounts to 101 ...

Stefan Hastenrath

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Baroclinic Modons as Prototypes for Atmospheric Blocking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-layer quasi-geostrophic channel model on a ?-plane is used to investigate the properties of dipole eddies which may be relevant models for atmospheric blocking. It is shown that quasi-stationary equivalent barotropic dipole eddies, similar ...

K. Haines

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Accuracy of Atmospheric Energy Budgets from Analyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Issues relevant to achieving an accuracy of better than 10 W m?2 on 250-km scales for monthly means in the atmospheric energy balance are explored from the standpoint of the formulation and computational procedures using the National Centers for ...

Kevin E. Trenberth; David P. Stepaniak; Julie M. Caron

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

The Mathematics of Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Gaussian plume model is a standard approach for studying the transport of airborne contaminants due to turbulent diffusion and advection by the wind. This paper reviews the assumptions underlying the model, its derivation from the advection-diffusion ... Keywords: Gaussian plume solution, advection-diffusion equation, atmospheric dispersion, contaminant transport, inverse problem, linear least squares

John M. Stockie

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Temperature stratification of the atmosphere of Arcturus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A brief overview of the results of the investigations of the red giant star Arcturus is given. One-dimensional LTE modeling of the atmospheres of Arcturus and the Sun as a star is carried out on the basis of synthesis of the extended wings of the H and K Ca II lines. It is found that the local continuum in this spectral region is underestimated by an average of 12% in the atlases of Arcturus. The average deficit in UV absorption amounts to 43% for Arcturus whereas it is 9% for the Sun. For Arcturus the correction factor to the continuum opacity at the wavelengths of 390.0, 392.5, 395.0, 398.0, and 400.0 nm equals 2.20, 1.90, 1.70, 1.55, and 1.45. The model atmosphere of Arcturus obtained from the best-fit of the wings of the H and K Ca II lines corresponds to the model atmosphere with the fundamental parameters T_eff = 4286 K, log g = 1.66, and [Fe/H]=-0.52 derived by Ramirez and Allende Prieto (2011). The temperature stratification of Arcturus' atmosphere is presented in tabular form. To obtain more accurate...

Sheminova, V A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Atmospheric Heat Engines on Earth and Mars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The character of the Earth's atmospheric heat engine depends, inter alia, on the relatively tight linkage between surface fluxes of energy and of H20. On Mars, on the other hand, H2O-based latent heat fluxes are only a trivial fraction of total ...

J. R. Philip

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Analysis methods for Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescopes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three different analysis techniques for Atmospheric Imaging System are presented. The classical Hillas parameters based technique is shown to be robust and efficient, but more elaborate techniques can improve the sensitivity of the analysis. A comparison of the different analysis techniques shows that they use different information for gamma-hadron separation, and that it is possible to combine their qualities.

Mathieu de Naurois

2006-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric conditions albedo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Profiling Atmospheric Water Vapor by Microwave Radiometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-altitude microwave radiometric observations at frequencies near 92 and 183.3 GHz were used to study the potential of retrieving atmospheric water vapor profiles over both land and water. An algorithm based on an extended Kaiman-Bucy filter ...

J. R. Wang; J. L. King; T. T. Wilheit; G. Szejwach; L. H. Gesell; R. A. Nieman; D. S. Niver; B. M. Krupp; J. A. Gagliano

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Thermally driven escape from Pluto's atmosphere: A combined fluid/kinetic model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A combined fluid/kinetic model is developed to calculate thermally driven escape of N2 from Pluto's atmosphere for two solar heating conditions: no heating above 1450 km and solar minimum heating conditions. In the combined model, one-dimensional fluid equations are applied for the dense part of the atmosphere, while the exobase region is described by a kinetic model and calculated by the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. Fluid and kinetic parts of the model are iteratively solved in order to maintain constant total mass and energy fluxes through the simulation region. Although the atmosphere was found to be highly extended, with an exobase altitude at ~6000 km at solar minimum, the outflow remained subsonic and the escape rate was within a factor of two of the Jeans rate for the exobase temperatures determined. This picture is drastically different from recent predictions obtained solely using a fluid model which, in itself, requires assumptions about atmospheric density, flow velocity and energy flux ca...

Tucker, O J; Deighan, J I; Volkov, A N; Johnson, R E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Atmosphere Feedbacks during ENSO in a Coupled GCM with a Modified Atmospheric Convection Scheme  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The too diverse representation of ENSO in a coupled GCM limits one’s ability to describe future change of its properties. Several studies pointed to the key role of atmosphere feedbacks in contributing to this diversity. These feedbacks are ...

Eric Guilyardi; Pascale Braconnot; Fei-Fei Jin; Seon Tae Kim; Michel Kolasinski; Tim Li; Ionela Musat

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Atmospheric Energetics in the Wavelet Domain. Part II: Time-Averaged Observed Atmospheric Blocking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wavelet energetics (WE) is a useful generalization of traditional wavenumber energetics, for analyzing atmospheric dynamics. WE is doubly indexed by wavenumber band j and location k. The interpretation is that 2 to the jth power is proportional ...

Aimé Fournier

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Characteristics of Atmospheric Transport Using Three Numerical Formulations for Atmospheric Dynamics in a Single GCM Framework  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the sensitivity of a number of important archetypical tracer problems to the numerical method used to solve the equations of tracer transport and atmospheric dynamics. The tracers' scenarios were constructed to exercise the ...

Philip J. Rasch; Danielle B. Coleman; Natalie Mahowald; David L. Williamson; Shian-Jiann Lin; Byron A. Boville; Peter Hess

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Racing for conditional independence inference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article, we consider the computational aspects of deciding whether a conditional independence statement t is implied by a list of conditional independence statements L using the implication related to the method of structural imsets. ...

Remco R. Bouckaert; Milan Studený

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Atmospheric performance of the special-purpose Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) thin-airfoil family  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), in cooperation with SeaWest Energy Group, has completed extensive atmospheric testing of the special-purpose SERI thin-airfoil family during the 1990 wind season. The purpose of this test program was to experimentally verify the predicted performance characteristics of the thin-airfoil family on a geometrically optimized blade, and to compare it to original-equipment blades under atmospheric wind conditions. The tests were run on two identical Micon 65/13 horizontal-axis wind turbines installed side-by-side in a wind farm. The thin-airfoil family 7.96 m blades were installed on one turbine, and AeroStar 7.41 m blades were installed on the other. This paper presents final performance results of the side-by-side comparative field test for both clean and dirty blade conditions. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Tangler, J; Smith, B; Jager, D; Olsen, T

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

(Barrels per Calendar Day) (Barrels per Calendar Day) Data Series: Total Number of Operable Refineries Number of Operating Refineries Number of Idle Refineries Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/SD) Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Total Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Delayed Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD Thermal Cracking Fluid Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Visbreaking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Other/Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Cracking Fresh Feed Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Cracking Recycle Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Residual Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Low Pressure Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming High Pressure Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating/Desulfurization Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Naphtha/Reformer Feed Charge Cap (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Gasoline Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Heavy Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Kerosene/Jet Fuel Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Diesel Fuel Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Other Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Residual/Other Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Residual Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Other Oils Charge Capacity (B/SD) Fuels Solvent Deasphalting Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Total Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Catalytic Cracking Fresh Feed Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Period:

489

Energy conditions and their implications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy conditions and their implications Matt Visser Physics Department Washington University Saint;#16;s (Los Alamos) Midwest Relativity 9 November 1999. #12; Abstract: The energy conditions of general- itational #12;elds and cosmological geometries. However, the energy conditions are beginning to look a lot

Visser, Matt

490

TECHNETIUM SORPTION BY CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS UNDER REDUCING CONDITIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to measure Tc sorption to cementitious materials under reducing conditions to simulate Saltstone Disposal Facility conditions. Earlier studies were conducted and the experimental conditions were found not to simulate those of the facility. Through a five month subcontract with Clemson University, sorption of {sup 99}Tc to four cementitious materials was examined within an anaerobic glovebag targeting a 0.1% H2(g)/ 99.9% N{sub 2}(g) atmosphere. Early experiments based on Tc sorption and Eh indicated that 0.1% H{sub 2}(g) (a reductant) was necessary to preclude experimental impacts from O{sub 2}(g) diffusion into the glovebag. Preliminary data to date (up to 56 days) indicates that sorption of {sup 99}Tc to cementitious materials increased with increasing slag content for simulated saltstone samples. This is consistent with the conceptual model that redox active sulfide groups within the reducing slag facilitate reduction of Tc(VII) to Tc(IV). These experiments differ from previous experiments where a 2% H{sub 2}(g) atmosphere was maintained (Kaplan et al., 2011 (SRNL-STI-2010-00668)). The impact of the 2% H{sub 2}(g) reducing atmosphere on this data was examined and determined to cause the reduction of Tc in experimental samples without slag. In the present ongoing study, after 56 days, Tc sorption by the 50-year old cement samples (no slag) was undetectable, whereas Tc sorption in the cementitious materials containing slag continues to increase with contact time (measured after 1, 4, 8, 19 and 56 days). Sorption was not consistent with spike concentrations and steady state has not been demonstrated after 56 days. The average conditional K{sub d} value for the Vault 2 cementitious material was 6,362 mL/g (17% slag), for the TR547 Saltstone (45% slag) the conditional K{sub d} was 1258 mL/g, and for TR545 (90% slag) the conditional K{sub d} was 12,112 mL/g. It is anticipated that additional samples will be collected until steady state conditions are established to permit measuring more representative K{sub d} and solubility values under these experimental conditions.

Kaplan, D.; Estes, S.; Arai, Y.; Powell, B.

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

491

Initial Assessment of the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR)-Based Aerosol Retrieval: Sensitivity Study  

SciTech Connect

The Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) being developed for airborne measurements will offer retrievals of aerosol microphysical and optical properties from multi-angular and multi-spectral measurements of sky radiance and direct-beam sun transmittance. In this study, we assess the expected accuracy of the 4STAR-based aerosol retrieval and its sensitivity to major sources of anticipated perturbations in the 4STAR measurements by adapting a theoretical approach previously developed for the AERONET measurements. The major anticipated perturbations are (1) an apparent enhancement of sky radiance at small scattering angles associated with the necessarily compact design of the 4STAR and (2) and an offset (i.e. uncertainty) of sky radiance calibration independent of scattering angle. The assessment is performed through application of the operational AERONET aerosol retrieval and constructed synthetic 4STAR-like data. Particular attention is given to the impact of these perturbations on the upwelling and downwelling broadband fluxes and the direct aerosol radiative forcing at the bottom and top of the atmosphere. The results from this study suggest that limitations in the accuracy of 4STAR-retrieved particle size distributions and scattering phase functions have diminished impact on the accuracy of retrieved bulk microphysical parameters, permitting quite accurate retrievals of properties including the effective radius (up to 10%, or 0.03), and the radiatively important optical properties, such as the asymmetry factor (up to 4%, or ±0.02) and single-scattering albedo (up to 6%, or ±0.04). Also, the obtained results indicate that the uncertainties in the retrieved aerosol optical properties are quite small in the context of the calculated fluxes and direct aerosol radiative forcing (up to 15%, or 3 Wm-2).

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Flynn, Connor J.; Redemann, Jens; Schmid, Beat; Russell, P. B.; Sinyuk, Alexander

2012-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

492

Transient response of the Hadley Centre coupled ocean-atmosphere model to increasing carbon dioxide. Part 3: Analysis of global-mean response using simple models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The roles of surface, atmospheric, and oceanic feedbacks in controlling the global-mean transient response of a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (AOGCM) to increasing carbon dioxide are investigated. The analysis employs a four-box energy balance model (EBM) and an oceanic box-diffusion model (BDM) both tuned to the simulated general circulation model response. The land-sea contrast in the surface warming is explained almost entirely by the shortwave radiative feedbacks associated with changes in cloud and surface albedo. The oceanic thermal inertia delays the response; however, the initial delay is enhanced by increases in Anarctic sea-ice cover, which substantially reduce the effective climate sensitivity of the model in the first half of the 75-year experiment. When driven by the observed anthropogenic greenhouse forcing from the pre-industrial period to present day, the energy balance model overestimates the warming observed over land. However, inclusion of the direct forcing due to anthropogenic tropospheric sulphate aerosol eliminates the land/sea contrast in the response at 1990, leaving the simulated warming over land slightly below the observed value, although the rapid warming observed during the 1980s is well reproduced. The vertical penetration of the oceanic response is small below 1000 m. Within the top 1000 m the effective diffusivities are substantially enhanced by reduced convection and thermohaline overturning, driven by increased precipitation minus evaporation at high latitudes. These changes in ocean heat transport become significant after year 30, whereupon the effective oceanic heat capacity increases substantially, although this increase is partially offset by the effect of changes in the sea-ice margin.

Murphy, J.M. [Meteorological Office, Bracknell, Berkshire (United Kingdom)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

ARM - Field Campaign - Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsTropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere govCampaignsTropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Exp Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Exp 1992.07.11 - 1993.02.28 Lead Scientist : Chuck Long Data Availability Final data available. For data sets, see below. Summary IOP completed. Description The Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA-COARE) was conducted to better understand the structure of the coupled system of the warm pool of the western Pacific Ocean. Hundreds of participants from dozens of countries took part in this experiment from November 1, 1992 through February 28, 1993. Campaign Data Sets

494

Land–Atmosphere Coupling Strength in the Global Forecast System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The operational coupled land–atmosphere forecast model from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) is evaluated for the strength and characteristics of its coupling in the water cycle between land and atmosphere. Following the ...

Li Zhang; Paul A. Dirmeyer; Jiangfeng Wei; Zhichang Guo; Cheng-Hsuan Lu

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Atmospheric Response to the Gulf Stream: Seasonal Variations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The atmospheric response to the Gulf Stream front in sea surface temperature is investigated using high-resolution data from satellite observations and operational analysis and forecast. Two types of atmospheric response are observed with ...

Shoshiro Minobe; Masato Miyashita; Akira Kuwano-Yoshida; Hiroki Tokinaga; Shang-Ping Xie

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Adaptive Multilevel Modeling of Land-Atmosphere Interactions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Adaptive multilevel methods allow full coupling of atmospheric and land surface hydrological models by preserving consistency between the large-scale (atmospheric) and the regional (land) components. The methodology was investigated for three ...

Ana Paula Barros

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Systematic Metastable Atmospheric Regime Identification in an AGCM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study the authors apply a recently developed clustering method for the systematic identification of metastable atmospheric regimes in high-dimensional datasets generated by atmospheric models. The novelty of this approach is that it ...

Christian Franzke; Illia Horenko; Andrew J. Majda; Rupert Klein

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

On the Sources of Methane to the Los Angeles Atmosphere  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

On the Sources of Methane to the Los Angeles Atmosphere Title On the Sources of Methane to the Los Angeles Atmosphere Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012...

499

A Simulated Climatology of Spectrally Decomposed Atmospheric Infrared Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simulation experiment is conducted to inquire into the mean climate state and likely trends in atmospheric infrared radiation spectra. Upwelling and downwelling spectra at five vertical levels from the surface to the top of the atmosphere (TOA) ...

Yi Huang

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Hadley Cell Dynamics in a Virtually Dry Snowball Earth Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Hadley cell of a virtually dry snowball Earth atmosphere under equinox insolation is studied in a comprehensive atmospheric general circulation model. In contrast to the Hadley cell of modern Earth, momentum transport by dry convection, which ...

Aiko Voigt; Isaac M. Held; Jochem Marotzke

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z