Sample records for atmospheric concentrations gwps

  1. atmospheric radon-222 concentration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    data on the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide and on the magnitude of fossil-fuel combustion between the trends in fossil-fuel burning and the trends in atmospheric...

  2. atmospheric radon concentration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The present author has kept observation for concentrations of atmospheric radon, radon progeny and thoron progeny for several years at the campus of Fukushima Medical...

  3. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations during ancient greenhouse climates were similar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations during ancient greenhouse climates were similar to those predicted atmospheric CO2 concentrations (½CO2atm) during Earth's ancient greenhouse episodes is essential for accurately predicting the response of future climate to elevated CO2 levels. Empirical estimates of ½CO2atm

  4. Modeled atmospheric radon concentrations from uranium mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Droppo, J.G.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium mining and milling operations result in the release of radon from numerous sources of various types and strengths. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Air Act, is assessing the health impact of air emissions of radon from underground uranium mines. In this case, the radon emissions may impact workers and residents in the mine vicinity. To aid in this assessment, the EPA needs to know how mine releases can affect the radon concentrations at populated locations. To obtain this type of information, Pacific Northwest Laboratory used the radon emissions, release characteristics and local meterological conditions for a number of mines to model incremental radon concentrations. Long-term, average, incremental radon concentrations were computed based on the best available information on release rates, plume rise parameters, number and locations of vents, and local dispersion climatology. Calculations are made for a model mine, individual mines, and multiple mines. Our approach was to start with a general case and then consider specific cases for comparison. A model underground uranium mine was used to provide definition of the order of magnitude of typical impacts. Then computations were made for specific mines using the best mine-specific information available for each mine. These case study results are expressed as predicted incremental radon concentration contours plotted on maps with local population data from a previous study. Finally, the effect of possible overlap of radon releases from nearby mines was studied by calculating cumulative radon concentrations for multiple mines in a region with many mines. The dispersion model, modeling assumptions, data sources, computational procedures, and results are documented in this report. 7 refs., 27 figs., 18 tabs.

  5. Atmospheric radionuclide concentrations measured by Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1961

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, J.A.; Thomas, C.W.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, radon and thoron decay and the SNAP-9A burn-up ([sup 238]Pu) have been measured at Richland, Washington, since 1961; at Barrow, Alaska, since 1964; and at other stations for shorter periods of time. There has been considerable concern over the health hazard presented by these radionuclides, but it has also been recognized that atmospheric mixing and deposition rates can be determined from their measurement. Therefore, Pacific Northwest Laboratory began the continuous measurement of the atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, and radon and thoron decay. This report will discuss the concentrations of the longer-lived radionuclides (T 1/2 > 12 days). The concentrations of shorter-lived radionuclides measured following Chinese nuclear tests since 1972 are discussed in another report.

  6. Atmospheric radionuclide concentrations measured by Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1961

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, J.A.; Thomas, C.W.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, radon and thoron decay and the SNAP-9A burn-up ({sup 238}Pu) have been measured at Richland, Washington, since 1961; at Barrow, Alaska, since 1964; and at other stations for shorter periods of time. There has been considerable concern over the health hazard presented by these radionuclides, but it has also been recognized that atmospheric mixing and deposition rates can be determined from their measurement. Therefore, Pacific Northwest Laboratory began the continuous measurement of the atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, and radon and thoron decay. This report will discuss the concentrations of the longer-lived radionuclides (T 1/2 > 12 days). The concentrations of shorter-lived radionuclides measured following Chinese nuclear tests since 1972 are discussed in another report.

  7. Original article Responses to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Responses to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and nitrogen supply of Quercus* School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, 326 Newins-Ziegler Hall, Gainesville. Elevated [CO2] increased biomass production only in the high-N treatment. Fine root/foliage mass ratio

  8. Atmospheric Mercury Concentrations Near Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir - Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. L. Abbott

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elemental and reactive gaseous mercury (EGM/RGM) were measured in ambient air concentrations over a two-week period in July/August 2005 near Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir, a popular fishery located 50 km southwest of Twin Falls, Idaho. A fish consumption advisory for mercury was posted at the reservoir in 2002 by the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare. The air measurements were part of a multi-media (water, sediment, precipitation, air) study initiated by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10 to identify potential sources of mercury contamination to the reservoir. The sampling site is located about 150 km northeast of large gold mining operations in Nevada, which are known to emit large amounts of mercury to the atmosphere (est. 2,200 kg/y from EPA 2003 Toxic Release Inventory). The work was co-funded by the Idaho National Laboratory’s Community Assistance Program and has a secondary objective to better understand mercury inputs to the environment near the INL, which lies approximately 230 km to the northeast. Sampling results showed that both EGM and RGM concentrations were significantly elevated (~ 30 – 70%, P<0.05) compared to known regional background concentrations. Elevated short-term RGM concentrations (the primary form that deposits) were likely due to atmospheric oxidation of high EGM concentrations, which suggests that EGM loading from upwind sources could increase Hg deposition in the area. Back-trajectory analyses indicated that elevated EGM and RGM occurred when air parcels came out of north-central and northeastern Nevada. One EGM peak occurred when the air parcels came out of northwestern Utah. Background concentrations occurred when the air was from upwind locations in Idaho (both northwest and northeast). Based on 2003 EPA Toxic Release Inventory data, it is likely that most of the observed peaks were from Nevada gold mine sources. Emissions from known large natural mercury sources in that area cannot account for the observed EGM peaks due to their diffuse source geometry and the large (170 km) transport distance involved. The EGM peak originating from northwestern Utah air may be from three known mercury sources west of Salt Lake City (Kennecott, US Magnesium, Clean Harbors Aragonite) and/or the 1600 MW coal-fired Intermountain Power plant near Delta. However, the relative importance of these short-term peaks for long-term watershed mercury loading (critical factor affecting fish concentrations) is not known, and there is a need to better quantify the annual frequency and magnitude of these different inputs over a longer period of time.

  9. atmospheric co2 concentrations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  10. atmospheric co2 concentration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  11. atmospheric aerosol concentration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    suspension in the fractal fluctuations of vertical wind velocity. The mass or radius (size) distribution for homogeneous suspended atmospheric particulates is expressed as a...

  12. atmospheric krypton-85 concentrations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to optical depth perturbations. In Earth-type atmospheres sustained planetary greenhouse effect with a stable ground surface temperature can only exist at a particular...

  13. atmospheric oxygen concentration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: can be combined into a tracer known as atmospheric potential oxygen (APO % O2N2 + CO2) that is conservative with respect to terrestrial biological activity....

  14. Concentrations and Snow-Atmosphere Fluxes of Reactive Nitrogen at Summit, Greenland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Concentrations and Snow-Atmosphere Fluxes of Reactive Nitrogen at Summit, Greenland J. W. Munger AT SUMMIT, GREENLAND 2 Abstract. Concentrations and fluxes of NOy (total reactive nitrogen), ozone concentra at Summit, Greenland. Median NOy concentrations declined from 947 ppt in May to 444 ppt by July. NOy fluxes

  15. Leaf isoprene emission rate as a function of atmospheric CO2 concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Leaf isoprene emission rate as a function of atmospheric CO2 concentration M I C H A E L J . W I L not show an increase in isoprene emission at the lowest CO2 concentration. However, isoprene emission rates exhibited a 30­40% reduction in isoprene emission rate when grown at 800 ppmv CO2, compared with 400 ppmv CO

  16. High precision measurements of atmospheric concentrations and plant exchange rates of carbonyl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yakir, Dan

    High precision measurements of atmospheric concentrations and plant exchange rates of carbonyl K I R * *Environmental Sciences and Energy Research, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot. The results were consistent with those of nononline gas chromatography­mass spectrometry for COS and IR gas

  17. Rising concentrations of atmospheric CO2 have increased growth in natural stands of quaking aspen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waller, Donald M.

    Rising concentrations of atmospheric CO2 have increased growth in natural stands of quaking aspen of climate change. Recent large-scale experiments with quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), a dominant production. Field studies also reveal that droughts contribute to extensive aspen mortality. To complement

  18. THE INCREASING CONCENTRATION OF ATMOSPHERIC CO2: HOW MUCH, WHEN, AND WHY?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    emissions when fuel consumption is expressed in energy units. Table 1: CO2 Emission Rates for Fossil, and we examine the trends in both. We review the extent to which cause and effect can be demonstrated between the trends in fossil-fuel burning and the trends in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Finally, we

  19. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations the CSIRO (Australia) monitoring program from aircraft 1972 - 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beardsmore, D.J.; Pearman, G.I. [Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Victoria (Australia). Division of Atmospheric Research

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations were measured in the troposphere and lower stratosphere over the Australia-New Zealand region and as far south as Antarctica for the period 1972-1981. The samples were collected from aircraft over a large range of latitudes and altitudes. The sampling program has been based on the cooperation of the Australia Department of Transport, Quantas Airways, Trans Australia Airlines, the United States, New Zealand and Australian Air Forces and occasional chartering of light aircraft for special purposes.

  20. Materials, methods and devices to detect and quantify water vapor concentrations in an atmosphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allendorf, Mark D; Robinson, Alex L

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We have demonstrated that a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor coated with a nanoporous framework material (NFM) film can perform ultrasensitive water vapor detection at concentrations in air from 0.05 to 12,000 ppmv at 1 atmosphere pressure. The method is extendable to other MEMS-based sensors, such as microcantilevers, or to quartz crystal microbalance sensors. We identify a specific NFM that provides high sensitivity and selectivity to water vapor. However, our approach is generalizable to detection of other species using NFM to provide sensitivity and selectivity.

  1. Summary Elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and tropospheric ozone ([O3]) have the poten-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Summary Elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and tropospheric ozone ([O3 gases (greenhouse gases) altered by human activities (IPCC 2007), only carbon dioxide (CO2 vegeta- tion properties affect local and regional climate, as well as how atmospheric forcing

  2. Spatiotemporal correlation between microdischarges in concentric ring pattern in dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong Lifang; Liu Liang; Wang Yongjie; Yue Han; Li Xinchun [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China) and Hebei Key Laboratory of Optic-electronic Information Materials, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatiotemporal correlation between microdischarges of the concentric ring pattern in a dielectric barrier discharge in argon at atmospheric pressure is studied by the wavelet-correlation technique for the first time. The concentric ring patterns lasting more than 5 min have been obtained under circular boundaries with different sizes by suddenly raising the applied voltage. The average correlation coefficient between microdischarge clusters increases with their discharge region increasing. The wavelet-correlation shows a higher correlation degree between the microdischarge clusters at the edge where (d|U{sub appl}|/dt)<0 than at the edge where (d|U{sub appl}|/dt)>0 in per half-cycle of the applied voltage U{sub appl}.

  3. Soil moisture regulates the biological response of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations in a coupled

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niyogi, Dev

    and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University, United States b Departments of Geography and Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California at Los Angeles, United States Received 16 March 2005; received surface model, dynamically coupled to an atmospheric boundary layer and surface energy balance scheme

  4. Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 14171423 Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline and diesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Fangqun

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and diesel engine exhaust Fangqun Yua, *, Thomas Lannib , Brian P. Frankb a Atmospheric Sciences Research of a gasoline engine (K-car) and a diesel engine (diesel generator). Under the experimental set-up reported with most of the ions larger than 3 nm in the diesel engine exhaust. This difference in the measured ion

  5. Estimates of Radioxenon Released from Southern Hemisphere Medical isotope Production Facilities Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Schrom, Brian T.

    2014-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and Xe-133 data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of Xe-133 from medical isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.8×1014 Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 1.2×1016 to 2.5×1016 Bq and estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 6.1×1013 to 3.6×1014 Bq. Although some releases from the facility in Argentina may reach these IMS sampling locations, the solution to the objective function is insensitive to the magnitude of those releases.

  6. Sensitivity of plants to changing atmospheric CO2 concentration: From the geological past to the next century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franks, Peter J [University of Sydney, Australia; Adams, Mark A [University of Sydney, Australia; Amthor, Jeffrey S. [U.S. Department of Energy; Barbour, Margaret M [University of Sydney, Australia; Berry, Joseph A [Carnegie Institution of Washington; Ellsworth, David [ORNL; Farquhar, Graham D [Australian National University, Canberra, Australia; Ghannoum, Oula [University of Western Sydney, Australia; Lloyd, Jon [James Cook University; McDowell, Nathan [ORNL; Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Tissue, David Thomas [ORNL; Von Caemmerer, Susanne [Australian National University, Canberra, Australia

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rate of CO2 assimilation by plants is directly influenced by the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, ca. In response to a short-term change in ca, plants adjust stomatal conductance to CO2 and water vapour to maximise carbon gain in terms of the amount of water lost. This is one of several fundamental feedback processes between plants and their environment that govern the exchange of water for carbon. As an environmental variable, ca further has a unique global and historic significance. Although relatively stable and uniform in the short term, global ca has varied substantially on the timescale of thousands to millions of years, and currently is increasing at seemingly an unprecedented rate. This may exert profound impacts on both climate and plant function. Here we utilise extensive data sets and numerous models to develop an integrated, multi-scale assessment of the impact of changing ca on plant carbon dioxide uptake and water use. We find that, overall, the sensitivity of plants to rising or falling atmospheric CO2 concentration is qualitatively similar across all scales considered. It is characterised by an adaptive feedback response that moves towards maximising the rate of return, in the form of carbon, for the water and nitrogen resources invested in the process of carbon assimilation. This is achieved through predictable adjustments to stomatal anatomy and chloroplast biochemistry. Importantly, the long-term response to changing ca can be described by simple equations rooted in the formulation of more commonly studied short-term responses.

  7. Measurement of Atmospheric Sea Salt Concentration in the Dry Storage Facility of the Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masumi Wataru; Hisashi Kato; Satoshi Kudo; Naoko Oshima; Koji Wada [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry - CRIEPI (Japan); Hirofumi Narutaki [Electric Power Engineering Systems Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spent nuclear fuel coming from a Japanese nuclear power plant is stored in the interim storage facility before reprocessing. There are two types of the storage methods which are wet and dry type. In Japan, it is anticipated that the dry storage facility will increase compared with the wet type facility. The dry interim storage facility using the metal cask has been operated in Japan. In another dry storage technology, there is a concrete overpack. Especially in USA, a lot of concrete overpacks are used for the dry interim storage. In Japan, for the concrete cask, the codes of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers and the governmental technical guidelines are prepared for the realization of the interim storage as well as the code for the metal cask. But the interim storage using the concrete overpack has not been in progress because the evaluation on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the canister is not sufficient. Japanese interim storage facilities would be constructed near the seashore. The metal casks and concrete overpacks are stored in the storage building in Japan. On the other hand, in USA they are stored outside. It is necessary to remove the decay heat of the spent nuclear fuel in the cask from the storage building. Generally, the heat is removed by natural cooling in the dry storage facility. Air including the sea salt particles goes into the dry storage facility. Concerning the concrete overpack, air goes into the cask body and cools the canister. Air goes along the canister surface and is in contact with the surface directly. In this case, the sea salt in the air attaches to the surface and then there is the concern about the occurrence of the SCC. For the concrete overpack, the canister including the spent fuel is sealed by the welding. The loss of sealability caused by the SCC has to be avoided. To evaluate the SCC for the canister, it is necessary to make clear the amount of the sea salt particles coming into the storage building and the concentration on the canister. In present, the evaluation on that point is not sufficient. In this study, the concentration of the sea salt particles in the air and on the surface of the storage facility are measured inside and outside of the building. For the measurement, two sites of the dry storage facility using the metal cask are chosen. This data is applicable for the evaluation on the SCC of the canister to realize the interim storage using the concrete overpack. (authors)

  8. Ambient-atmosphere glow discharge for determination of elemental concentration in solutions in a high-throughput or transient fashion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Michael R. (Somerville, MA); Hieftje, Gary M. (Bloomington, IN); Andrade, Francisco (Leeds, GB)

    2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An ambient atmosphere glow discharge spectrometer is disclosed having a capillary, two electrodes and a means for recording the atomic emissions.

  9. Carbon Dioxide Production Responsibility on the Basis of comparing in Situ and mean CO2 Atmosphere Concentration Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mavrodiev, S Cht; Vachev, B

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The method is proposed for estimation of regional CO2 and other greenhouses and pollutants production responcibility. The comparison of CO2 local emissions reduction data with world CO2 atmosphere data will permit easy to judge for overall effect in curbing not only global warming but also chemical polution.

  10. A 1000 year history of atmospheric sulfate concentrations in southern Asia as recorded by a Himalayan ice core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    is paralleled by growing SO2 emissions over southern Asia resulting from the increased energy demand since 1970. This reflects regional differences between Europe and Asia in source strength and transport pathways for atmospheric sulfate, as well as differing degrees of environmental regulation. Citation: Duan

  11. Source Term Estimation of Radioxenon Released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Reactors Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Biegalski, S. [Univ. of Texas at Austin, TX (United States); Bowyer, Ted W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cooper, Matthew W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haas, Derek A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hoffman, Ian [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Korpach, E. [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Yi, Jing [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Miley, Harry S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rishel, Jeremy P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ungar, R. Kurt [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); White, Brian [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Woods, Vincent T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems designed to monitor airborne radionuclides released from underground nuclear explosions detected radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011. Atmospheric transport modeling (ATM) of plumes of noble gases and particulates were performed soon after the accident to determine plausible detection locations of any radioactive releases to the atmosphere. We combine sampling data from multiple International Modeling System (IMS) locations in a new way to estimate the magnitude and time sequence of the releases. Dilution factors from the modeled plume at five different detection locations were combined with 57 atmospheric concentration measurements of 133-Xe taken from March 18 to March 23 to estimate the source term. This approach estimates that 59% of the 1.24×1019 Bq of 133-Xe present in the reactors at the time of the earthquake was released to the atmosphere over a three day period. Source term estimates from combinations of detection sites have lower spread than estimates based on measurements at single detection sites. Sensitivity cases based on data from four or more detection locations bound the source term between 35% and 255% of available xenon inventory.

  12. The importance of aerosol composition and mixing state on predicted CCN concentration and the variation of the importance with atmospheric processing of aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.; Cubison, M.; Aiken, A.; Jimenez, J.; Collins, D.; Gaffney, J.; Marley, N.

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The influences of atmospheric aerosols on cloud properties (i.e., aerosol indirect effects) strongly depend on the aerosol CCN concentrations, which can be effectively predicted from detailed aerosol size distribution, mixing state, and chemical composition using Köhler theory. However, atmospheric aerosols are complex and heterogeneous mixtures of a large number of species that cannot be individually simulated in global or regional models due to computational constraints. Furthermore, the thermodynamic properties or even the molecular identities of many organic species present in ambient aerosols are often not known to predict their cloud-activation behavior using Köhler theory. As a result, simplified presentations of aerosol composition and mixing state are necessary for large-scale models. In this study, aerosol microphysics, CCN concentrations, and chemical composition measured at the T0 urban super-site in Mexico City during MILAGRO are analyzed. During the campaign in March 2006, aerosol size distribution and composition often showed strong diurnal variation as a result of both primary emissions and aging of aerosols through coagulation and local photochemical production of secondary aerosol species. The submicron aerosol composition was ~1/2 organic species. Closure analysis is first carried out by comparing CCN concentrations calculated from the measured aerosol size distribution, mixing state, and chemical composition using extended Köhler theory to concurrent CCN measurements at five supersaturations ranging from 0.11% to 0.35%. The closure agreement and its diurnal variation are studied. CCN concentrations are also derived using various simplifications of the measured aerosol mixing state and chemical composition. The biases associated with these simplifications are compared for different supersaturations, and the variation of the biases is examined as a function of aerosol age. The results show that the simplification of internally mixed, size-independent particle composition leads to substantial overestimation of CCN concentration for freshly emitted aerosols in early morning, but can reasonably predict the CCN concentration after the aerosols underwent atmospheric processing for several hours. This analysis employing various simplifications provides insights into the essential information of particle chemical composition that needs to be represented in models to adequately predict CCN concentration and cloud microphysics.

  13. Atmospheric Transport of Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, T.V.

    2003-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of atmospheric transport and diffusion calculations is to provide estimates of concentration and surface deposition from routine and accidental releases of pollutants to the atmosphere. This paper discusses this topic.

  14. GWPS Global Wind Power Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489InformationFrenchtown, NewG2 EnergyGISGSA JumpGTP ARRAGWE

  15. Response of sulfate concentration and isotope composition in Icelandic rivers to the decline in global atmospheric SO{sub 2} emissions into the North Atlantic region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sigurdur Reynir Gislason; Peter Torssander [University of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland). Institute of Earth Science

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents the changes in dissolved sulfate concentration and isotope composition of Icelandic river waters between the peak of SO{sub 2} emissions in the United States and Europe and the present. Chloride concentration in Icelandic rivers has not changed much since 1972. The overall average change from 1972-1973 to 1996-2004 was -3%, indicating insignificant sea-salt contribution changes. More than 99% of the river-dissolved sulfur was in the form of sulfate. There are three main sources for dissolved sulfate in the rivers: rocks, sea-salts, and anthropogenic. Total dissolved sulfate, {sub td}SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and non-sea-salt sulfate, {sub nss}SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, decreased in all of the rivers from the early 1970s to 1996-2004. The percentage decrease varies from 13% to 65%. The decrease is smallest in rivers were there is considerable rock-derived dissolved SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. The overall average decrease was 39% for {sub td}SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and 46% for {sub nss}SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. The anthropogenic sulfate fraction has declined making most of the river waters {delta}{sup 34}S values of sulfate higher through time. The overall decline in river sulfate and increase in {delta}{sup 34}S, while SO{sub 2} emissions from Iceland has been increasing, demonstrates the response of river chemistry in the remote North Atlantic to the decline in man-made emissions of SO{sub 2} in North America and Europe. 43 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. ESD_39v1

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    estimated. Some have argued that indirect effects of gases in the atmosphere and in other media should be taken into account in estimating GWPs (Delucchi 1997). Some economists...

  17. The importance of aerosol mixing state and size-resolved composition on CCN concentration and the variation of the importance with atmospheric aging of aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.; Cubison, M. J.; Aiken, A. C.; Jimenez, J. L.; Collins, D. R.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerosol microphysics, chemical composition, and CCN concentrations were measured at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City during Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) in March 2006. The aerosol size distribution and composition often showed strong diurnal variation associated with traffic emissions and aging of aerosols through coagulation and local photochemical production of secondary aerosol species. CCN concentrations (N{sub CCN}) are derived using Kohler theory from the measured aerosol size distribution and various simplified aerosol mixing state and chemical composition, and are compared to concurrent measurements at five supersaturations ranging from 0.11% to 0.35%. The influence of assumed mixing state on calculated N{sub CCN} is examined using both aerosols observed during MILAGRO and representative aerosol types. The results indicate that while ambient aerosols often consist of particles with a wide range of compositions at a given size, N{sub CCN} may be derived within {approx}20% assuming an internal mixture (i.e., particles at a given size are mixtures of all participating species, and have the identical composition) if great majority of particles has an overall {kappa} (hygroscopicity parameter) value greater than 0.1. For a non-hygroscopic particle with a diameter of 100 nm, a 3 nm coating of sulfate or nitrate is sufficient to increase its {kappa} from 0 to 0.1. The measurements during MILAGRO suggest that the mixing of non-hygroscopic primary organic aerosol (POA) and black carbon (BC) particles with photochemically produced hygroscopic species and thereby the increase of their {kappa} to 0.1 take place in a few hours during daytime. This rapid process suggests that during daytime, a few tens of kilometers away for POA and BC sources, N{sub CCN} may be derived with sufficient accuracy by assuming an internal mixture, and using bulk chemical composition. The rapid mixing also indicates that, at least for very active photochemical environments such as Mexico City, a substantially shorter timescale during daytime for the conversion of hydrophobic POA and BC to hydrophilic particles than the 1-2 days used in some global models. The conversion time scale is substantially longer during night. Most POA and BC particles emitted during evening hours likely remain non-hygroscopic until efficiently internally mixed with secondary species in the next morning. The results also suggest that the assumed mixing state strongly impacts calculated N{sub CCN} only when POA and BC represent a large fraction of the total aerosol volume. One of the implications is that while physically unrealistic, external mixtures, which are used in many global models, may also sufficiently predict N{sub CCN} for aged aerosol, as the contribution of non-hygroscopic POA and BC to overall aerosol volume is often substantially reduced due to the condensation of secondary species.

  18. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2012)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerber, Edwin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2012) Published online in Wiley Online Library using National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP) concentrations and sea- surface temperatures (SSTs). These integrations enable the relative role of ozone

  19. Preliminary concentrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    . Feely H.W., Larsen R.J., and Sanderson C.G. (1989), Factors that cause seasonal variations in 7.M. Lewis and K.K. Turekian (1978), Atmospheric 210 Pb fluxes determined from soil profiles, J. Geophysical Res. 83 No. C8 (4047 ­ 4051). Olsen, Larsen, Lowry, Cutshall, Todd, Wong and Casey (1985), Atmospheric

  20. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Gaisser

    2006-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a brief overview of the theory and experimental data of atmospheric neutrino production at the fiftieth anniversary of the experimental discovery of neutrinos.

  1. Concentrating collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Selected specifications from sixteen concentrating collector manufacturers are tabulated. Eleven are linear parabolic trough collectors, and the others include slats, cylindrical trough, linear Fresnel lens, parabolic cylindrical Fresnel lens, and two point focus parabolic dish collectors. Also included is a brief discussion of the operating temperatures and other design considerations for concentrating collectors. (LEW)

  2. Atmospheric Aerosols Workshop | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Aerosols Workshop Atmospheric Aerosols Workshop EMSL Science Theme Advisory Panel Workshop - Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry, Climate Change, and Air Quality. Baer DR, BJ...

  3. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griesbach, O.A.; Stencel, J.R.

    1987-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The moisture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H/sub 2/ or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  4. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griesbach, Otto A. (Langhorne, PA); Stencel, Joseph R. (Skillman, NJ)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The mixture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H.sub.2 or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  5. What does stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations mean?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacoby, Henry D.; Schmalensee, Richard.; Reiner, David M.

    The MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model is applied to an exploration of the national emissions obligations that would be required to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentrations at levels now under active ...

  6. Atmospheric Aerosol Systems | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Themes Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Overview Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Biosystem Dynamics & Design Energy Materials & Processes Terrestrial & Subsurface Ecosystems...

  7. atmospheric pressure corona: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric conditions. Our module is capable of measuring temperature, pressure, wind speed, and particle concentration. The module will take measurements every minute and the...

  8. atmospheric pressure plasmas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric conditions. Our module is capable of measuring temperature, pressure, wind speed, and particle concentration. The module will take measurements every minute and the...

  9. atmospheric pressure measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric conditions. Our module is capable of measuring temperature, pressure, wind speed, and particle concentration. The module will take measurements every minute and the...

  10. atmospheric pressure radio: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric conditions. Our module is capable of measuring temperature, pressure, wind speed, and particle concentration. The module will take measurements every minute and the...

  11. atmospheric pressure plasma: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric conditions. Our module is capable of measuring temperature, pressure, wind speed, and particle concentration. The module will take measurements every minute and the...

  12. atmospheric pressure field: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric conditions. Our module is capable of measuring temperature, pressure, wind speed, and particle concentration. The module will take measurements every minute and the...

  13. atmospheric fine particulate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    interlaced by concentrations of stronger magnetic field at the interface between the umbra and the outer field-free atmosphere. Calculated synthetic images show dark cores like...

  14. atmospheric fine elemental: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    interlaced by concentrations of stronger magnetic field at the interface between the umbra and the outer field-free atmosphere. Calculated synthetic images show dark cores like...

  15. atmospheric radioactive releases: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The present author has kept observation for concentrations of atmospheric radon, radon progeny and thoron progeny for several years at the campus of Fukushima Medical...

  16. atmospheric radioactivity monitoring: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The present author has kept observation for concentrations of atmospheric radon, radon progeny and thoron progeny for several years at the campus of Fukushima Medical...

  17. atmosphere radioactive releases: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The present author has kept observation for concentrations of atmospheric radon, radon progeny and thoron progeny for several years at the campus of Fukushima Medical...

  18. atmospheric radioactivity madrid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The present author has kept observation for concentrations of atmospheric radon, radon progeny and thoron progeny for several years at the campus of Fukushima Medical...

  19. INTRODUCTIONTOTHE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ? #12;WHAT ISTHE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE? #12;#12;1-D MODEL ATMOSPHERE · Averaged over space and time · GoodINTRODUCTIONTOTHE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE D. Shaun Bloomfield Trinity College Dublin #12;OUTLINE · What is the solar atmosphere? · How is the solar atmosphere observed? · What structures exist and how do they evolve

  20. Copyright 2007, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology) A History of Atmospheric CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Springer, Clint J.

    Copyright © 2007, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology) A History of Atmospheric CO2 and Its.00, ISBN 978-0-387- 22069-7. Atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2 ]) concentrations have varied considerably through time. Some estimates suggest extraordinarily high concentrations of atmospheric CO2 (~ 4000

  1. 8 ENVIRONMENT DECEMBER 2004 he atmosphere's concentration of car-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - tional energy supply industries on the grounds that to establish the pace required to achieve ago, the environmental community was almost exclusively interested in policies that promote renewable energy, conservation, and natural sinks. More recently, it has begun to explore alliances with tradi

  2. atmospheric pollutant concentrations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    October 28, 1980. The purposes of this meeting were: to synthesize our knowledge of the Norton Sound Lease Area (Sale No. 57) in order to facilitate the preparation of BLM's...

  3. How atmospheric ice forms | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric ice forms How atmospheric ice forms Released: September 08, 2014 New insights into atmospheric ice formation could improve climate models This study advances our...

  4. Atmospheric Pressure Reactor System | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Pressure Reactor System Atmospheric Pressure Reactor System The atmospheric pressure reactor system is designed for testing the efficiency of various catalysts for the...

  5. Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    1 Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http://aerosol.ucsd.edu/courses.html Text: Curry & Webster Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ch1 Composition Ch2 Laws Ch3 Transfers Ch12 Energy Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http

  6. Concentrating Solar Power Forum Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation's summaries: a convenient truth, comparison of three concentrator technologies, value of high efficiency, and status of industry.

  7. Terrestrial Planet Atmospheres. The Moon's Sodium Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Frederick M.

    ;Origins of Atmospheres · Outgassing ­ Volcanoes expel water, CO2, N2, H2S, SO2 removed by the Fme convecFon reaches deserts #12;Water and Ice Clouds #12;H2SO4

  8. Air Resources Laboratory Atmospheric Tracer Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The continuous (near real time) sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 ) analyzers are portable systems that make measurements of atmospheric SF6 concentrations with a response time of just under one second. The rapid response time in Gaussian plume transport and dispersion models. The SF6 analyzers include a computer controlled calibration

  9. atmospheric pressure radio-frequency: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric conditions. Our module is capable of measuring temperature, pressure, wind speed, and particle concentration. The module will take measurements every minute and...

  10. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A .gamma.-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the annular region therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly shaping the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, no ions survive for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  11. Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar is growing rapidly, and the concentrating photovoltaics industry-both high- and low-concentration cell approaches-may be ready to ramp production in 2009.

  12. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWER PROGRAM REVIEW 2013 Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power Principal Investigator: Prof. Gang Chen Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA...

  13. EMSL - Atmospheric Aerosol Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scienceatmospheric The Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Science Theme focuses on understanding the chemistry, physics and molecular-scale dynamics of aerosols for model...

  14. Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Gaisser

    2005-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Starting with an historical review, I summarize the status of calculations of the flux of atmospheric neutrinos and how they compare to measurements.

  15. Global budget of methanol: Constraints from atmospheric observations Daniel J. Jacob,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Qinbin

    Global budget of methanol: Constraints from atmospheric observations Daniel J. Jacob,1 Brendan D of atmospheric methanol to examine the consistency between observed atmospheric concentrations and current of methanol in the model is 7 days; gas-phase oxidation by OH accounts for 63% of the global sink, dry

  16. URBAN OZONE CONCENTRATION FORECASTING WITH ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK IN CORSICA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Perceptron; Ozone concentration. 1. Introduction Tropospheric ozone is a major air pollution problem, both, Ajaccio, France, e-mail: balu@univ-corse.fr Abstract: Atmospheric pollutants concentration forecasting is an important issue in air quality monitoring. Qualitair Corse, the organization responsible for monitoring air

  17. Atmospheric Dynamics II Instructor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AT602 Atmospheric Dynamics II 2 credits Instructor: David W. J. Thompson davet: An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, 5th Edition, Academic Press (recommended) · Marshall, J., and Plumb, R. A., 2008: Atmosphere, Ocean, and Climate Dynamics: An Introductory Text, Academic Press. · Vallis, G. K

  18. Atmospheric Thermodynamics Composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    1 Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ch1 Composition Ch2 Laws Ch3 Transfers Ch12 EnergyBalance Ch4 Water Ch Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http #12;2 Review from Ch. 1 · Thermodynamic quantities · Composition · Pressure · Density · Temperature

  19. Concentrating Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  20. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, Roland L. (Bloomfield, CO); Cannon, Theodore W. (Golden, CO)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

  1. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

    1988-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

  2. Photovoltaic concentrator initiative: Concentrator cell development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.H.; Narayanan, S. [Solarex Corp., Frederick, MD (US)

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involves the development of a large-area, low-cost, high-efficiency concentrator solar cell for use in the Entech 22-sun linear-focus Fresnel lens concentrator system. The buried contact solar cell developed at the University of New South Wales was selected for this project. Both Entech and the University of New South Wales are subcontractors. This annual report presents the program efforts from November 1990 through December 1991, including the design of the cell, development of a baseline cell process, and presentation of the results of preliminary cell processing. Important results include a cell designed for operation in a real concentrator system and substitution of mechanical grooving for the previously utilized laser scribing.

  3. Atmospheric Science: An introductory survey 1. Introduction to the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Folkins, Ian

    Sound Convergence Zone #12;Terrain effects #12;Von Karman vortex streets #12;Atmosphere in Earth system

  4. Effect of O3 on the atmospheric temperature structure of early Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von Paris, P; Godolt, M; Grenfell, J L; Stracke, B; Rauer, H

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ozone is an important radiative trace gas in the Earth's atmosphere. The presence of ozone can significantly influence the thermal structure of an atmosphere, and by this e.g. cloud formation. Photochemical studies suggest that ozone can form in carbon dioxide-rich atmospheres. We investigate the effect of ozone on the temperature structure of simulated early Martian atmospheres. With a 1D radiative-convective model, we calculate temperature-pressure profiles for a 1 bar carbon dioxide atmosphere. Ozone profiles are fixed, parameterized profiles. We vary the location of the ozone layer maximum and the concentration at this maximum. The maximum is placed at different pressure levels in the upper and middle atmosphere (1-10 mbar). Results suggest that the impact of ozone on surface temperatures is relatively small. However, the planetary albedo significantly decreases at large ozone concentrations. Throughout the middle and upper atmospheres, temperatures increase upon introducing ozone due to strong UV absorpt...

  5. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    eere.energy.gov * energy.govsunshot DOEGO-102012-3669 * September 2012 MOTIVATION All thermal concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar tracking, which involves moving...

  6. Concentrated Thermoelectric Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a concentrated solar hydroelectric power project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by MIT, is working to demonstrate concentrating solar thermoelectric generators with >10% solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency while limiting optical concentration to less than a factor of 10 and potentially less than 4. When combined with thermal storage, CSTEGs have the potential to provide electricity day and night using no moving parts at both the utility and distributed scale.

  7. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  8. Concentration in Green Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shewchuk, Jonathan

    , energy, infrastructure or transport. Participants in this specialization area work closely with the GreenConcentration in Green Design Research and Education Opportunities Carnegie Mellon University Civil and Environmental Engineering www.ce.cmu.edu M.S. Concentration Green Design - Course Only Track As an extension

  9. COFIN project Concentration Fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COFIN project Concentration Fluctuations in Gas Releases by Industrial Accidents Final Summary of random concentration fluctuations in hazardous gas releases and the method was to derive empirical. In each measurement cycle the Lidar emits a short laser light pulse and detects the light Lidar reflected

  10. Modeling the atmospheric inputs of MTBE to groundwater systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pankow, J.F.; Johnson, R.L. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering; Thomson, N.R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical transport model was used to calculate the movement of methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE) and several other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the atmosphere downward through the unsaturated zone and into shallow groundwater. Simulations were carried out for periods as long as 10 years to investigate whether a gaseous atmospheric MTBE source at typical ambient concentrations could account for the presence of MTBE in shallow groundwater at the types of low ug/L levels that have been found during the National Water Quality Assessment Program currently being conducted by the US Geological Survey. The simulations indicate that downward movement of MTBE to shallow groundwater will be very slow when there is no net downward movement of water through the vadose zone. For example, for a vadose zone composed of fine sand, and assuming tens of cm of infiltration, then only a few years will be required for water at a water table that is 5.0 m below ground surface to attain MTBE levels that correspond to saturation with respect to the atmospheric source gaseous concentration. An on/off atmospheric source, as might occur in the seasonal use of MTBE, will lead to concentrations in shallow groundwater that correspond to saturation with the time-averaging atmospheric source concentration.

  11. Dynamics of Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Read, Peter L.

    transfer ­ Solar heating of surface, and atmosphere via dust absorption ­ Infrared CO2 band cooling (especially around 667 cm-1) ­ nonLTE near-infrared heating of CO2 and nonLTE cooling effects above ~60-80 km. Baroclinic waves, scales, heat and momentum transport, seasonal occurrence. Qualitative treatment

  12. Laboratory for Atmospheric and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    . Along with this growth came a new building on campus and a new name: the Laboratory for Atmospheric of the Sun to the outermost fringes of the solar system. With LASP's continuing operations role in the planet traditional and stable approach based on federal agency funding of research grant

  13. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  14. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "This fact sheet describes a scattering solar thermal concentrators project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Pennsylvania State University, is working to demonstrate a new, scattering-based approach to concentrating sunlight that aims to improve the overall performance and reliability of the collector field. The research team aims to show that scattering solar thermal collectors are capable of achieving optical performance equal to state-of-the-art parabolic trough systems, but with the added benefits of immunity to wind-load tracking error, more efficient land use, and utilization of stationary receivers."

  15. Old-field Community, Climate and Atmospheric Manipulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aimee Classen

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We are in the process of finishing a number of laboratory, growth chamber and greenhouse projects, analyzing data, and writing papers. The projects reported addressed these subjects: How do climate and atmospheric changes alter aboveground plant biomass and community structure; Effects of multiple climate changes factors on plant community composition and diversity: what did we learn from a 5-year open-top chamber experiment using constructed old-field communities; Do atmospheric and climatic change factors interact to alter woody seedling emergence, establishment and productivity; Soil moisture surpasses elevated CO{sub 2} and temperature in importance as a control on soil carbon dynamics; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter belowground root and fungal biomass; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter soil microarthropod and microbial communities; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter belowground microbial function; Linking root litter diversity and microbial functioning at a micro scale under current and projected CO{sub 2} concentrations; Multifactor climate change effects on soil ecosystem functioning depend on concurrent changes in plant community composition; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter aboveground insect populations; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter festuca endophyte infection; How do climate and atmospheric changes soil carbon stabilization.

  16. SIO 217a Atmospheric and Climate Sciences I: Atmospheric Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    SIO 217a Atmospheric and Climate Sciences I: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Course Syllabus and Lecture Schedule Instructor: Lynn Russell, 343 NH, 534-4852, lmrussell@ucsd.edu Text: Thermodynamics of Atmospheres of Thermodynamics (Work, Heat, First Law, Second Law, Heat Capacity, Adiabatic Processes) 5-Oct F Hurricane Example

  17. Organic photovoltaics and concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mapel, Jonathan King

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The separation of light harvesting and charge generation offers several advantages in the design of organic photovoltaics and organic solar concentrators for the ultimate end goal of achieving a lower cost solar electric ...

  18. concentration 2-adrenoceptor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Junfeng

    inhibitor concentration agonist acid expressed region isolated treatment 2-adrenoceptor serum stimulation acid product metabolism human treatment analysis new ester metabolites derivatives content isolated expression level binding complex mrna integrin collagen genes form normal synthesis production beta 1

  19. Water Sample Concentrator

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Idaho National Laboratory

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Automated portable device that concentrates and packages a sample of suspected contaminated water for safe, efficient transport to a qualified analytical laboratory. This technology will help safeguard against pathogen contamination or chemical and biolog

  20. Joined concentric tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeJonghe, Lutgard; Jacobson, Craig; Tucker, Michael; Visco, Steven

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tubular objects having two or more concentric layers that have different properties are joined to one another during their manufacture primarily by compressive and friction forces generated by shrinkage during sintering and possibly mechanical interlocking. It is not necessary for the concentric tubes to display adhesive-, chemical- or sinter-bonding to each other in order to achieve a strong bond. This facilitates joining of dissimilar materials, such as ceramics and metals.

  1. Pluto's Atmosphere Does Not Collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olkin, C B; Borncamp, D; Pickles, A; Sicardy, B; Assafin, M; Bianco, F B; Buie, M W; de Oliveira, A Dias; Gillon, M; French, R G; Gomes, A Ramos; Jehin, E; Morales, N; Opitom, C; Ortiz, J L; Maury, A; Norbury, M; Ribas, F B; Smith, R; Wasserman, L H; Young, E F; Zacharias, M; Zacharias, N

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combining stellar occultation observations probing Pluto's atmosphere from 1988 to 2013 and models of energy balance between Pluto's surface and atmosphere, we conclude that Pluto's atmosphere does not collapse at any point in its 248-year orbit. The occultation results show an increasing atmospheric pressure with time in the current epoch, a trend present only in models with a high thermal inertia and a permanent N2 ice cap at Pluto's north rotational pole.

  2. Airborne agent concentration analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gelbard, Fred

    2004-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system for inferring airborne contaminant concentrations in rooms without contaminant sensors, based on data collected by contaminant sensors in other rooms of a building, using known airflow interconnectivity data. The method solves a least squares problem that minimizes the difference between measured and predicted contaminant sensor concentrations with respect to an unknown contaminant release time. Solutions are constrained to providing non-negative initial contaminant concentrations in all rooms. The method can be used to identify a near-optimal distribution of sensors within the building, when then number of available sensors is less than the total number of rooms. This is achieved by having a system-sensor matrix that is non-singular, and by selecting that distribution which yields the lowest condition number of all the distributions considered. The method can predict one or more contaminant initial release points from the collected data.

  3. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  4. Atmospheric ozone and colors of the Antarctic twilight sky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee Jr., Raymond L.

    Atmospheric ozone and colors of the Antarctic twilight sky Raymond L. Lee, Jr.,1, * Wolfgang Meyer absorption at longer wavelengths by ozone's Chappuis bands. Because stratospheric ozone is greatly depleted correlations between ozone concentration and twilight colors. We also used a spectroradiometer at a midlatitude

  5. High CO2 levels in the Proterozoic atmosphere estimated from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaufman, Alan Jay

    a Proterozoic (,1.4-gigayear-old) shale in North China. Calculated magnitudes of the carbon isotope such as carbon dioxide and methane must have been much higher1,2 . However, empirical estimates of Proterozoic levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations have not hitherto been available. Here we present ion

  6. arbon dioxide (CO2 atmosphere has increased by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    responsive to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration than C3 species. In the southwestern United States substrate for photosynthetic energy acquisition by life, the process of using light energy to combine CO2 surface and scale up to affect the landscape water balance. Thus, through its impacts on plant water use

  7. Atmospheric pressure helium afterglow discharge detector for gas chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rice, Gary (Gloucester, VA); D'Silva, Arthur P. (Ames, IA); Fassel, Velmer A. (Ames, IA)

    1986-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for providing a simple, low-frequency electrodeless discharge system for atmospheric pressure afterglow generation. A single quartz tube through which a gas mixture is passed is extended beyond a concentric electrode positioned thereabout. A grounding rod is placed directly above the tube outlet to permit optical viewing of the discharge between the electrodes.

  8. Atmospheric pressure helium afterglow discharge detector for gas chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rice, G.; D'Silva, A.P.; Fassel, V.A.

    1985-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for providing a simple, low-frequency, electrodeless discharge system for atmospheric pressure afterglow generation. A single quartz tube through which a gas mixture is passed is extended beyond a concentric electrode positioned thereabout. A grounding rod is placed directly above the tube outlet to permit optical viewing of the discharge between the electrodes.

  9. Introduction In the past two centuries, atmospheric methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    of methane in the atmosphere is controlled by oxidation, mainly in chemical reaction with the hydroxyl by the combination of pre-industrial methane concentration levels from ice cores and bottom-up estimates based important terms in the global methane budget. Anthropogenic source estimates are mainly based on socio

  10. LARGE ABUNDANCES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN TITAN'S UPPER ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Puertas, M.; Funke, B.; Garcia-Comas, M. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), E-18080 Granada (Spain); Dinelli, B. M. [ISAC-CNR, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Adriani, A.; D'Aversa, E. [IAPS-INAF, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Moriconi, M. L. [ISAC-CNR, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J., E-mail: puertas@iaa.es [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 (United States)

    2013-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we analyze the strong unidentified emission near 3.28 {mu}m in Titan's upper daytime atmosphere recently discovered by Dinelli et al. We have studied it by using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), after absorbing UV solar radiation, are able to emit strongly near 3.3 {mu}m. By using current models for the redistribution of the absorbed UV energy, we have explained the observed spectral feature and have derived the vertical distribution of PAH abundances in Titan's upper atmosphere. PAHs have been found to be present in large concentrations, about (2-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} particles cm{sup -3}. The identified PAHs have 9-96 carbons, with a concentration-weighted average of 34 carbons. The mean mass is {approx}430 u; the mean area is about 0.53 nm{sup 2}; they are formed by 10-11 rings on average, and about one-third of them contain nitrogen atoms. Recently, benzene together with light aromatic species as well as small concentrations of heavy positive and negative ions have been detected in Titan's upper atmosphere. We suggest that the large concentrations of PAHs found here are the neutral counterpart of those positive and negative ions, which hence supports the theory that the origin of Titan main haze layer is located in the upper atmosphere.

  11. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. 13: 164168 (2012)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waugh, Darryn W.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI: 10.1002/asl.384 Antarctic ozone depletion and trends using National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP) concentrations and sea- surface temperatures (SSTs). These integrations enable the relative role of ozone

  12. Atmosphere-soil-stream greenhouse gas fluxes from peatlands 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dinsmore, Kerry J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Peatlands cover approximately 2-3% of the world’s land area yet represent approximately a third of the worlds estimated total soil carbon pool. They therefore play an important role in regulating global atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations...

  13. ARM - Atmospheric Heat Budget

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearchSOLICITATIONIMODI FICATION OFMaterialsAnnual Reports27,ListAtmospheric Heat

  14. ARM - Atmospheric Pressure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearchSOLICITATIONIMODI FICATION OFMaterialsAnnual Reports27,ListAtmospheric

  15. Atmospheric PSF Interpolation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found The itemAIR SEPARATION BYAbrasion andArticle)Atmospheric

  16. Development of a Future Representative Concentration Pathway for Use in the IPCC 5th Assessment Earth System Model Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The representative concentration pathway to be delivered is a scenario of atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and other radiatively important atmospheric species, along with land-use changes, derived from the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). The particular representative concentration pathway (RCP) that the Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI) has been responsible for is a not-to-exceed pathway that stabilizes at a radiative forcing of 4.5Wm-2 in the year 2100.

  17. atmospheres thin atmospheres: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to optical depth perturbations. In Earth-type atmospheres sustained planetary greenhouse effect with a stable ground surface temperature can only exist at a particular...

  18. Representative Atmospheric Plume Development for Elevated Releases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Prichard, Andrew W.

    2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric explosion of a low-yield nuclear device will produce a large number of radioactive isotopes, some of which can be measured with airborne detection systems. However, properly equipped aircraft may not arrive in the region where an explosion occurred for a number of hours after the event. Atmospheric conditions will have caused the radioactive plume to move and diffuse before the aircraft arrives. The science behind predicting atmospheric plume movement has advanced enough that the location of the maximum concentrations in the plume can be determined reasonably accurately in real time, or near real time. Given the assumption that an aircraft can follow a plume, this study addresses the amount of atmospheric dilution expected to occur in a representative plume as a function of time past the release event. The approach models atmospheric transport of hypothetical releases from a single location for every day in a year using the publically available HYSPLIT code. The effective dilution factors for the point of maximum concentration in an elevated plume based on a release of a non-decaying, non-depositing tracer can vary by orders of magnitude depending on the day of the release, even for the same number of hours after the release event. However, the median of the dilution factors based on releases for 365 consecutive days at one site follows a power law relationship in time, as shown in Figure S-1. The relationship is good enough to provide a general rule of thumb for estimating typical future dilution factors in a plume starting at the same point. However, the coefficients of the power law function may vary for different release point locations. Radioactive decay causes the effective dilution factors to decrease more quickly with the time past the release event than the dilution factors based on a non-decaying tracer. An analytical expression for the dilution factors of isotopes with different half-lives can be developed given the power law expression for the non-decaying tracer. If the power-law equation for the median dilution factor, Df, based on a non-decaying tracer has the general form Df=a?×t?^(-b) for time t after the release event, then the equation has the form Df=e^(-?t)×a×t^(-b) for a radioactive isotope, where ? is the decay constant for the isotope.

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: concentrating photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    concentrating photovoltaic Sandia and EMCORE: Solar Photovoltaics, Fiber Optics, MODE, and Energy Efficiency On March 29, 2013, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Partnership,...

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: atmospheric chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and atmospheric chemistry that is expected to benefit auto and engine manufacturers, oil and gas utilities, and other industries that employ combustion models. A paper...

  1. ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 38 (1995) 207-235 ATMOSPHERIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moelders, Nicole

    ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 38 (1995) 207-235 ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH On the parameterization of ice and water substance mixing ratio fields were only strongly altered by turning off the ice phase of these schemes includes ice processes. But in mid- latitudes and also in tropics the ice phase is an important

  2. ATMOSPHERIC ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 44 (1997) 231-241

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reading, University of

    ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 44 (1997) 231-241 Error analysis of backscatter;accepted 14 February 1997 Abstract Ice sphere backscatter has been calculated using both Mie theory as a reasonable approximation for rv 1997 Elsevier Science B.V. 1. Introduction Cirrus clouds play

  3. Atmospheric-dispersion index for prescribed burning. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavdas, L.G.

    1986-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical index that estimates the atmosphere's capacity to disperse smoke from prescribed burning is described. The physical assumptions and mathematical development of the index are described in detail. The index is expressed as a positive integer in such a way that doubling the index implies a doubling of the estimated atmospheric capacity. The dispersion index is conceptually similar to ventilation factor but is better able to describe diurnal changes within the lower atmosphere. The index provides a guide to the effect of prescribed burning activity on atmospheric smoke concentration during a portion of a day.

  4. Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a Solar + Earth Spectrum IR Absorbers Grey Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect #12;Radiation: Solar and Earth Surface B"(T) Planck Ideal Emission Integrate at the carbon cycle #12;However, #12;Greenhouse Effect is Complex #12;PLANETARY ENERGY BALANCE G+W fig 3-5

  5. Ch4. Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    ;Energy Pathways #12;Solar radiation transfer in the atmosphere Solar radiation Reflection Atmosphere or performing any work. #12;Solar radiation transfer in the atmosphere Solar radiation Reflection Transmission or water. #12;Solar radiation transfer in the atmosphere Solar radiation Reflection Transmission Atmosphere

  6. Modeling Atmospheric Aerosols V. Rao Kotamarthi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling Atmospheric Aerosols V. Rao Kotamarthi and Yan Feng Climate Research Section Environmental Science Division Argonne National Laboratory #12;Outline Atmospheric Aerosols and gas phase heterogeneous reactions Regional Scales and Atmospheric Aerosols Regional Scale Aerosols: Ganges Valley Aerosol

  7. Concentric tube support assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubio, Mark F.; Glessner, John C.

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An assembly (45) includes a plurality of separate pie-shaped segments (72) forming a disk (70) around a central region (48) for retaining a plurality of tubes (46) in a concentrically spaced apart configuration. Each segment includes a support member (94) radially extending along an upstream face (96) of the segment and a plurality of annularly curved support arms (98) transversely attached to the support member and radially spaced apart from one another away from the central region for receiving respective upstream end portions of the tubes in arc-shaped spaces (100) between the arms. Each segment also includes a radial passageway (102) formed in the support member for receiving a fluid segment portion (106) and a plurality of annular passageways (104) formed in the support arms for receiving respective arm portions (108) of the fluid segment portion from the radial passageway and for conducting the respective arm portions into corresponding annular spaces (47) formed between the tubes retained by the disk.

  8. Fragmentation Energetics of Clusters Relevant to Atmospheric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Clusters Relevant to Atmospheric New Particle Formation. Fragmentation Energetics of Clusters Relevant to Atmospheric New Particle Formation. Abstract: The exact mechanisms by...

  9. Project Approval Form Concentration in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Bennett

    Project Approval Form Concentration in Nanotechnology Return completed form to ENG Undergraduate of Graduation:____________________________ Instructions: Please check one of the following ways in which you Plan to complete the project as a requirement for the concentration in Nanotechnology. Depending upon

  10. CO2 Concentration Global warming is a hot topic these days. One of the factors that may explain increases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carriquiry, Alicia

    CO2 Concentration Global warming is a hot topic these days. One of the factors that may explain increases in global temperatures is the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Is there a relationship between the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and global temperatures? Data Collection

  11. Environmental Chemistry II (Atmospheric Chemistry)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dibble, Theodore

    SYLLABUS FOR Environmental Chemistry II (Atmospheric Chemistry) FCH 511 Fall 2013 Theodore S/explaining the trends in J as a function of altitude and solar zenith angle. The second involves analyzing real

  12. THE MARTIAN ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spiga, Aymeric

    THE MARTIAN ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER A. Petrosyan,1 B. Galperin,2 S. E. Larsen,3 S. R. Lewis,4 A [Haberle et al., 1993a; Larsen et al., 2002; Hinson et al., 2008]. At night, convection is inhibited

  13. Atmospheric science and power production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randerson, D. (ed.)

    1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the third in a series of scientific publications sponsored by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the two later organizations, the US Energy Research and Development Adminstration, and the US Department of Energy. The first book, Meteorology and Atomic Energy, was published in 1955; the second, in 1968. The present volume is designed to update and to expand upon many of the important concepts presented previously. However, the present edition draws heavily on recent contributions made by atmospheric science to the analysis of air quality and on results originating from research conducted and completed in the 1970s. Special emphasis is placed on how atmospheric science can contribute to solving problems relating to the fate of combustion products released into the atmosphere. The framework of this book is built around the concept of air-quality modeling. Fundamentals are addressed first to equip the reader with basic background information and to focus on available meteorological instrumentation and to emphasize the importance of data management procedures. Atmospheric physics and field experiments are described in detail to provide an overview of atmospheric boundary layer processes, of how air flows around obstacles, and of the mechanism of plume rise. Atmospheric chemistry and removal processes are also detailed to provide fundamental knowledge on how gases and particulate matter can be transformed while in the atmosphere and how they can be removed from the atmosphere. The book closes with a review of how air-quality models are being applied to solve a wide variety of problems. Separate analytics have been prepared for each chapter.

  14. Laser Atmospheric Studies with VERITAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. M. Hui; for the VERITAS collaboration

    2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    As a calibrated laser pulse propagates through the atmosphere, the amount of Rayleigh-scattered light arriving at the VERITAS telescopes can be calculated precisely. This technique was originally developed for the absolute calibration of ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray fluorescence telescopes but is also applicable to imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). In this paper, we present two nights of laser data taken with the laser at various distances away from the VERITAS telescopes and compare it to Rayleigh scattering simulations.

  15. The feasibility of ethyl iodide as an atmospheric tracer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Everett, Joe Vincent

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Advisory Committee: Dr. R. D. Neff Interest in atmospheric diffusion has been heightened within the last decade by the increasing concern of air pollution and the possibility of radiation hazards intro- duced into the air from nuclear facilities.... Gaseous tracers provide an excellent means of measuring concentration levels at various points downwind of a facility. However, for long range stud cs, ve y low detectable levels are needed. Many problems encountered with tracers for use in long range...

  16. An evaluation of atmospheric evaporation for treating wood preserving wastes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shack, Pete A

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    i. hat a constant rate of total organi carbon and chemical oxygen demand removal occurred as the wastewai. r was evaporated. A procedure for designing atmospheric evaporation ponds was developed and applied to a hypothetical wood preserving plant.... From this example design estimates of equivalent hydrocarbon concentrations in the air downwind of the pond are made. Various other design con- siderations such as the input data, modifications to the design pro- cedure, solids accumulation...

  17. Observations of Secondary Organic Aerosol Production and Soot Aging under Atmospheric Conditions Using a Novel Environmental Aerosol Chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glen, Crystal

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    of the processes leading to SOA production under ambient gaseous and particulate concentrations as well as the impact these aerosol types have on climate is poorly understood. Although the majority of atmospheric aerosols scatter radiation either directly...

  18. Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related compounds 7A=E472C43AD.A0794E 0794E:CA27C725 AD383CADE64E7 #12;1 Global Warming Potentials and Radiative of REs and global39 warming potentials (GWPs) for these compounds, mostly employing atmospheric lifetimes

  19. Regional Atmospheric Transport Code for Hanford Emission Tracking, Version 2(RATCHET2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsdell, James V.; Rishel, Jeremy P.

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual describes the atmospheric model and computer code for the Atmospheric Transport Module within SAC. The Atmospheric Transport Module, called RATCHET2, calculates the time-integrated air concentration and surface deposition of airborne contaminants to the soil. The RATCHET2 code is an adaptation of the Regional Atmospheric Transport Code for Hanford Emissions Tracking (RATCHET). The original RATCHET code was developed to perform the atmospheric transport for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Fundamentally, the two sets of codes are identical; no capabilities have been deleted from the original version of RATCHET. Most modifications are generally limited to revision of the run-specification file to streamline the simulation process for SAC.

  20. Oscillations of solar atmosphere neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. L. Fogli; E. Lisi; A. Mirizzi; D. Montanino; P. D. Serpico

    2006-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sun is a source of high energy neutrinos (E > 10 GeV) produced by cosmic ray interactions in the solar atmosphere. We study the impact of three-flavor oscillations (in vacuum and in matter) on solar atmosphere neutrinos, and calculate their observable fluxes at Earth, as well as their event rates in a kilometer-scale detector in water or ice. We find that peculiar three-flavor oscillation effects in matter, which can occur in the energy range probed by solar atmosphere neutrinos, are significantly suppressed by averaging over the production region and over the neutrino and antineutrino components. In particular, we find that the relation between the neutrino fluxes at the Sun and at the Earth can be approximately expressed in terms of phase-averaged ``vacuum'' oscillations, dominated by a single mixing parameter (the angle theta_23).

  1. Cumulant expansions for atmospheric flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Meyer, Bettina; Marston, J B

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The equations governing atmospheric flows are nonlinear, and consequently the hierarchy of cumulant equations is not closed. But because atmospheric flows are inhomogeneous and anisotropic, the nonlinearity may manifests itself only weakly through interactions of mean fields with disturbances such as thermals or eddies. In such situations, truncations of the hierarchy of cumulant equations hold promise as a closure strategy. We review how truncations at second order can be used to model and elucidate the dynamics of turbulent atmospheric flows. Two examples are considered. First, we study the growth of a dry convective boundary layer, which is heated from below, leading to turbulent upward energy transport and growth of the boundary layer. We demonstrate that a quasilinear truncation of the equations of motion, in which interactions of disturbances among each other are neglected but interactions with mean fields are taken into account, can successfully capture the growth of the convective boundary layer. Seco...

  2. Process for concentrated biomass saccharification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA); Seapan, Mayis (Landenberg, PA); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

    2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes for saccharification of pretreated biomass to obtain high concentrations of fermentable sugars are provided. Specifically, a process was developed that uses a fed batch approach with particle size reduction to provide a high dry weight of biomass content enzymatic saccharification reaction, which produces a high sugars concentration hydrolysate, using a low cost reactor system.

  3. Declaration of Concentration in Nanotechnology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Bennett

    Declaration of Concentration in Nanotechnology Return completed form to ENG Undergraduate Records:____________________________ Instructions: ENG students declaring a Concentration in Nanotechnology should complete this form, obtain REQUIRED COURSES (Choose 1) 1. ENG EC 481­ Fundamentals of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology 4.0 ELECTIVES

  4. HEATING THE ATMOSPHERE ABOVE SUNSPOTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rucklidge, Alastair

    become fragmented and twisted, and where they generate the necessary energy to heat the solar coronaHEATING THE ATMOSPHERE ABOVE SUNSPOTS David Alexander and Neal E. Hurlburt Lockheed Martin Solar, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 9EW, UK Abstract We present our results of a hybrid model of sunspots

  5. Space Science: Atmosphere Thermal Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Space Science: Atmosphere Part -2 Thermal Structure Review tropospheres Absorption of Radiation Adiabatic Lapse Rate ~ 9 K/km Slightly smaller than our estimate Pressure ~3000ft under ocean surface thickness (positive up) is the solar zenith angle Fs is the solar energy flux at frequency (when

  6. Short-range atmospheric dispersion of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cortis, A.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a numerical study aimed at quantifying the effects of concentration-dependent density on the spread of a seeping plume of CO{sub 2} into the atmosphere such as could arise from a leaking geologic carbon sequestration site. Results of numerical models can be used to supplement field monitoring estimates of CO{sub 2} seepage flux by modelling transport and dispersion between the source emission and concentration-measurement points. We focus on modelling CO{sub 2} seepage dispersion over relatively short distances where density effects are likely to be important. We model dense gas dispersion using the steady-state Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with density dependence in the gravity term. Results for a two-dimensional system show that a density dependence emerges at higher fluxes than prior estimates. A universal scaling relation is derived that allows estimation of the flux from concentrations measured downwind and vice versa.

  7. Automated micro-tracking planar solar concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallas, Justin Matthew

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    E. Ford, “Reactive self-tracking solar concentration: designFord, “Reactive self- tracking solar concentration: designAutomated Micro-Tracking Planar Solar Concentrators by

  8. Design of inflatable solar concentrator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrasquillo, Omar (Omar Y. Carrasquillo De Armas)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar concentrators improve the performance of solar collection systems by increasing the amount of usable energy available for a given collector size. Unfortunately, they are not known for their light weight and portability, ...

  9. Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    From towers to dishes to linear mirrors to troughs, concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies reflect and collect solar heat to generate electricity. A single CSP plant can generate enough power...

  10. Physics and Astronomy Geophysics Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    Physics and Astronomy Geophysics Concentration Strongly recommended courses Credits Term Dept. to Geophysics 3 PHY 3230 Thermal Physics 3 CHE 1101 Introductory Chemistry - I 3 CHE 1110 Introductory Chemistry

  11. Optimal concentrations in transport systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Wonjung

    Many biological and man-made systems rely on transport systems for the distribution of material, for example matter and energy. Material transfer in these systems is determined by the flow rate and the concentration of ...

  12. Reversible concentric ring microfluidic interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn, 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reversible, Chip-to-Chip microfluidic interconnect was designed for use in high temperature, high pressure applications such as chemical microreactor systems. The interconnect uses two sets of concentric, interlocking ...

  13. Optimal concentrations in nectar feeding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Wonjung

    Nectar drinkers must feed quickly and efficiently due to the threat of predation. While the sweetest nectar offers the greatest energetic rewards, the sharp increase of viscosity with sugar concentration makes it the most ...

  14. Concentrated solar power on demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Codd, Daniel Shawn

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes a new concentrating solar power central receiver system with integral thermal storage. Hillside mounted heliostats direct sunlight into a volumetric absorption molten salt pool, which also functions ...

  15. Sulfuryl fluoride in the global atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muhle, J.

    The first calibrated high-frequency, high-precision, in situ atmospheric and archived air measurements of the fumigant sulfuryl fluoride (SO[subscript 2]F[subscript 2]) have been made as part of the Advanced Global Atmospheric ...

  16. 1997 Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul H. Wine

    1998-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE's Atmospheric Chemistry Program is providing partial funding for the Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists (ACCESS) and FY 1997 Gordon Research Conference in Atmospheric Chemistry

  17. atmospheric nitrogen fluorescence: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: Greenhouse Effect and Atmospheric Warming Atmosphere absorbs heat energy A real greenhouse traps heatCh4. Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances...

  18. atmospheric energy redistribution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    16 Ch4. Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances Geosciences Websites Summary: Greenhouse Effect and Atmospheric Warming Atmosphere absorbs heat energy A real greenhouse traps...

  19. atmospheric pressure surface: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K. 27 Ch4. Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances Geosciences Websites Summary: Greenhouse Effect and Atmospheric Warming Atmosphere absorbs heat energy A real greenhouse traps...

  20. Radar range measurements in the atmosphere.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The earth's atmosphere affects the velocity of propagation of microwave signals. This imparts a range error to radar range measurements that assume the typical simplistic model for propagation velocity. This range error is a function of atmospheric constituents, such as water vapor, as well as the geometry of the radar data collection, notably altitude and range. Models are presented for calculating atmospheric effects on radar range measurements, and compared against more elaborate atmospheric models.

  1. THE FORMATION OF CONCENTRIC VORTICITY STRUCTURES IN TYPHOONS Department of Atmospheric Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Chih-Pei

    the interaction between a small and strong inner vortex (the tropical cyclone core) and neighboring weak vortices (the vorticity induced by the moist convection outside the central vortex of a tropical cyclone) a separation distance between the neighboring vorticity field and the core vortex that is within three to four

  2. Atmospheric Environment 36 (2002) 41594171 Simulations of monthly mean nitrate concentrations in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1990 and 2030 (Klimont et al., 2001). The resulting environmental impacts, including acid rain , Xinjin Chengb a Acid Deposition and Oxidant Research Center (ADORC), 1182 Sowa, Niigata-shi 950 (Kurita et al., 1985; Huang et al., 1995; *Corresponding author. Acid Deposition and Oxidant Research

  3. 1. The Challenge Concentrations of atmospheric CO2 have increased by more than 35% since industrialisation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    mechanisms: structural trapping (under caprock anticline), stratigraphic trapping (under impermeable layers), solubility trapping (CO2 dissolving in pore water), mineral trapping (CO2 trapped by chemical reactions, Grant Institute, The King's Buildings, Edinburgh. EH9 3JW 5. Answers! Assessment of the risks

  4. The effect of various atmospheric oxygen concentrations upon peripheral lymphocytes during whole-body gamma irradiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vanek, Kenneth Norman

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    taken from the tail at 1 hr, 2 hv, 4 hv, and 24 hv post-irradiation. The samples consisted of 10) of blood mixed witi. 25 ml of diluting fluid. The diluting flu-'d used was that devised by D'Angelo and lacombe (31). A whiLe blood cell (WBC) -zuni... ? 1457, Excerpta Yedica Foundation& N. Y. , 1967. 31. G. D'Angelo and lb Lacombe, A practical diluent for electronic wni e cell counts. An. J. Clin. Path. 38, 658-662 (1962). R. C. D. "teel a!. d J. 'I. Torrie, Principles a-!d procedure- of statistic...

  5. Proof of the Atmospheric Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Arthur P

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A recently advanced argument against the atmospheric greenhouse effect is refuted. A planet without an infrared absorbing atmosphere is mathematically constrained to have an average temperature less than or equal to the effective radiating temperature. Observed parameters for Earth prove that without infrared absorption by the atmosphere, the average temperature of Earth's surface would be at least 33 K lower than what is observed.

  6. Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scherer, Norbert F.

    Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

  7. Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium...

  8. Impact of realistic hourly emissions profiles on air pollutants concentrations modelled with CHIMERE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    Impact of realistic hourly emissions profiles on air pollutants concentrations modelled Keywords: Atmospheric composition European air quality Anthropogenic emissions a b s t r a c t Regional inputs data like anthropogenic surface emissions of NOx, VOCs and particulate matter. These emissions

  9. Heating and jet formation by colliding shocks in solar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarbell, T.; Ryutova, M.P.; Covington, J. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Ryutova, M.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory/IGPP, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Fludra, A. [Space Science Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (United States)

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that ubiquitous small-scale magnetic flux {open_quotes}tubes{close_quotes} constantly emerging from subsurface layers, may cause the formation of plasma jets and a sporadic excess of temperature near the solar surface. Photospheric network magnetic elements collide and reconnect, creating a sling-shot effect which generates complex 3D shock waves with the curved surface. Self-focusing of these shocks occurs as they propagate upward in the rarefied atmosphere. Depending on the geometry of the shock collision, highly concentrated energy may be either converted entirely into heat or into strong jets, or be distributed between the two. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma as an antifungal therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Peng; Wu Haiyan [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Sun Yi; Liu Wei; Li Ruoyu [Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Peking Univ. 1st Hospital and Research Center for Medical Mycology, Peking Univ., Beijing 100034 (China); Zhu Weidong; Lopez, Jose L. [Department of Applied Science and Technology and Center for Microplasma Science and Technology, Saint Peter's College, Jersey City, New Jersey 07306 (United States); Zhang Jue; Fang Jing [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A microhollow cathode based, direct-current, atmospheric pressure, He/O{sub 2} (2%) cold plasma microjet was used to inactive antifungal resistants Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Candida glabrata in air and in water. Effective inactivation (>90%) was achieved in 10 min in air and 1 min in water. Antifungal susceptibility tests showed drastic reduction of the minimum inhibitory concentration after plasma treatment. The inactivation was attributed to the reactive oxygen species generated in plasma or in water. Hydroxyl and singlet molecular oxygen radicals were detected in plasma-water system by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. This approach proposed a promising clinical dermatology therapy.

  11. An advanced open-path atmospheric pollution monitor for large areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, L.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Large amounts of toxic waste materials, generated in manufacturing fuel for nuclear reactors, are stored in tanks buried over large areas at DOE sites. Flammable and hazardous gases are continually generated by chemical reactions in the waste materials. To prevent explosive concentrations of these gases, the gases are automatically vented to the atmosphere when the pressure exceeds a preset value. Real-time monitoring of the atmosphere above the tanks with automatic alarming is needed to prevent exposing workers to unsafe conditions when venting occurs. This project is to design, develop, and test an atmospheric pollution monitor which can measure concentrations of DOE-specified and EPA-specified hazardous gases over ranges as long as 4km. A CO{sub 2} laser to measure absorption spectra and to determine the distance over which the measurements are made, is combined with an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) to measure thermal emission spectra.

  12. Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    From towers to dishes to linear mirrors to troughs, concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies reflect and collect solar heat to generate electricity. A single CSP plant can generate enough power for about 90,000 homes. This video explains what CSP is, how it works, and how systems like parabolic troughs produce renewable power. For more information on the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's CSP research, see the Solar Energy Technology Program's Concentrating Solar Power Web page at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/csp_program.html.

  13. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental study of the effect of atmospheric pressure on the ice point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey, A. H. [Thermophysical Properties Division National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado (United States)] [Thermophysical Properties Division National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado (United States); McLinden, M. O. [Thermophysical Properties Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado (United States)] [Thermophysical Properties Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Tew, W. L. [Sensor Science Division National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States)] [Sensor Science Division National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States)

    2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed thermodynamic analysis of the temperature of the ice point as a function of atmospheric pressure. This analysis makes use of accurate international standards for the properties of water and ice, and of available high-accuracy data for the Henry's constants of atmospheric gases in liquid water. The result is an ice point of 273.150 019(5) K at standard atmospheric pressure, with higher ice-point temperatures (varying nearly linearly with pressure) at lower pressures. The effect of varying ambient CO{sub 2} concentration is analyzed and found to be significant in comparison to other uncertainties in the model. The thermodynamic analysis is compared with experimental measurements of the temperature difference between the ice point and the triple point of water performed at elevations ranging from 145 m to 4302 m, with atmospheric pressures from 101 kPa to 60 kPa.

  14. Observations and simulations of synoptic, regional, and local variations in atmospheric CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    Observations and simulations of synoptic, regional, and local variations in atmospheric CO2 Jih] Synoptic events may play an important role in determining the CO2 spatial distribution and temporal 2001, which had the most significant CO2 concentration variation in our case pool. The CO2

  15. Home Atmosphere Sea Ice Ocean Land Greenland Biology , L.-S. Bai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Box, Jason E.

    Home Atmosphere Sea Ice Ocean Land Greenland Biology Greenland J. E. Box 1 , L.-S. Bai 1 , R across the southern half of Greenland led to substantially higher west coast sea ice thickness and concentration. Even so, record-setting summer temperatures around Greenland, combined with an intense melt

  16. Mercury in the Atmosphere, Snow and Melt Water Ponds in the North

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    . Introduction Compared to most heavy metals, mercury behaves excepMercury in the Atmosphere, Snow and Melt Water Ponds in the North Atlantic Ocean during Arctic dominant species, with a northern hemispheric back- ground concentration of 1.7 ng/m3 (3). Under these same

  17. MODELLING MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING FOR FRUITS AND VEGETABLES USING MEMBRANE SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinze, Thomas

    of polymeric film in or- der to modify the O2 and CO2 concentrations inside the package, reducing metabolic are not fully under- stood. As examples we can refer to the little knowl- edge about the effect of CO2MODELLING MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING FOR FRUITS AND VEGETABLES USING MEMBRANE SYSTEMS Gabi

  18. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, January-December 1980. Atmospheric physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contained are twenty-six abstracts of on-going research programs at Argonne National Laboratory concerning the modeling of environmental air pollutants concentration and transport for January-December 1980. Studies on pollutant transport modeling, fluid flow models, and atmospheric precipitations chemistry are included. (DLS)

  19. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 40 (2008) 978985 Belowground nematode herbivores are resistant to elevated atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wall, Diana

    of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA c Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie of belowground grassland herbivores have rarely been investigated. Here, we report the response of a range are resistant to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. r 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords

  20. How does the atmospheric variability drive the aerosol residence time in the Arctic region?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    for enhanced cloud evaporation and hence a decrease in the fraction of solar radiation reflected by the cloud cover. This strong climatic retroaction is referred to as the `semi-direct effect' of BC aerosols. BC of the atmospheric aerosol concentration is paramount to assess its radiative effects in the Arctic, a region

  1. An Infrared Spectral Library for Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Infrared Spectral Library for Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring. An Infrared Spectral Library for Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring. Abstract: Infrared (IR) spectroscopy...

  2. atmospheric research community: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Geosciences Websites Summary: University Corporation for Atmospheric Research CIGNA DENTAL PREFERRED PROVIDER INSURANCE EFFECTIVE...

  3. Images reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    You, Yuan; Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Hanna, Sarah; Hiranuma, Naruki; Kamal, Saeid; Smith, Mackenzie L.; Zhang, Xiaolu; Weber, Rodney; Shilling, John E.; Dabdub, Donald; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A large fraction of submicron atmospheric particles contains both organic material and inorganic salts. As the relative humidity cycles in the atmosphere, these mixed particles can undergo a range of phase transitions, possibly including liquid-liquid phase separation. If liquid-liquid phase separation occurs, the gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric semi-volatile organic compounds, the scattering and absorption of solar radiation, and the uptake of reactive gas species on atmospheric particles will be affected, with important implications for climate predictions. The actual occurrence of these types of phase transitions within individual atmospheric particles has been considered uncertain, in large part because of the absence of observations for real-world samples. Here, using optical and fluorescence microscopy, we observe the coexistence of two non-crystalline phases in particles generated from real-world samples collected on multiple days in Atlanta, Georgia, and in particles generated in the laboratory using atmospheric conditions. These results reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations. Using a box model, we show that liquid-liquid phase separation can result in increased concentrations of gas-phase NO3 and N2O5 in the Atlanta region, due to decreased particle uptake of N2O5.

  4. Determination of Uranium Metal Concentration in Irradiated Fuel Storage Basin Sludge Using Selective Dissolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Welsh, Terri L.; Pool, Karl N.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium metal corroding in water-saturated sludges now held in the US Department of Energy Hanford Site K West irradiated fuel storage basin can create hazardous hydrogen atmospheres during handling, immobilization, or subsequent transport and storage. Knowledge of uranium metal concentration in sludge thus is essential to safe sludge management and process design, requiring an expeditious routine analytical method to detect uranium metal concentrations as low as 0.03 wt% in sludge even in the presence of 30 wt% or higher total uranium concentrations.

  5. Pulse atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the program is the development of a pulsed atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (PAFBC) technology to burn coal and to provide heat and steam to commercial, institutional, and small industrial applications at a reasonable price in an environmentally acceptable manner. During this reporting period, a total of eight shakedown and debugging coal combustion tests were performed in the AFBC. A start-up procedure was established, system improvements implemented, and preliminary material and heat balances made based on these tests. The pulse combustor for the AFBC system was fabricated and installed and a series of tests was conducted on the system. 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. NETL SOFC: Atmospheric Pressure Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Saleshttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gif Directorate -AdvancedMIRTBD525AdaptingWaterTerryAtmospheric

  7. Development of concentrator solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A limited pilot production run on PESC silicon solar cells for use at high concentrations (200 to 400 suns) is summarized. The front contact design of the cells was modified for operation without prismatic covers. The original objective of the contract was to systematically complete a process consolidation phase, in which all the, process improvements developed during the contract would be combined in a pilot production run. This pilot run was going to provide, a basis for estimating cell costs when produced at high throughput. Because of DOE funding limitations, the Photovoltaic Concentrator Initiative is on hold, and Applied Solar`s contract was operated at a low level of effort for most of 1993. The results obtained from the reduced scope pilot run showed the effects of discontinuous process optimization and characterization. However, the run provided valuable insight into the technical areas that can be optimized to achieve the original goals of the contract.

  8. Cylindrical acoustic levitator/concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaduchak, Gregory (Los Alamos, NM); Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-power, inexpensive acoustic apparatus for levitation and/or concentration of aerosols and small liquid/solid samples having particulates up to several millimeters in diameter in air or other fluids is described. It is constructed from a commercially available, hollow cylindrical piezoelectric crystal which has been modified to tune the resonance frequency of the breathing mode resonance of the crystal to that of the interior cavity of the cylinder. When the resonance frequency of the interior cylindrical cavity is matched to the breathing mode resonance of the cylindrical piezoelectric transducer, the acoustic efficiency for establishing a standing wave pattern in the cavity is high. The cylinder does not require accurate alignment of a resonant cavity. Water droplets having diameters greater than 1 mm have been levitated against the force of gravity using; less than 1 W of input electrical power. Concentration of aerosol particles in air is also demonstrated.

  9. ARM - Measurement - Particle number concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowband upwelling irradiancenumber concentration ARM Data

  10. Experiential Component Approval Form Concentration in Nanotechnology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Bennett

    Experiential Component Approval Form Concentration in Nanotechnology Return completed form to ENG Plan to complete the experiential component as a requirement for the concentration in Nanotechnology to complete the experiential component for the Nanotechnology Concentration by: Research Experience in Lab

  11. Atmospheric neutrino flux at INO site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honda, Morihiro [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

    2011-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    To illustrate the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux, we briefly explain our calculation scheme and important components, such as primary cosmic ray spectra, interaction model, and geomagnetic model. Then, we calculate the atmospheric neutrino flux at INO site in our calculation scheme. We compare the calculated atmospheric neutrino fluxes predicted at INO with those at other major neutrino detector sites, especially that at SK site.

  12. Toxicity of atmospheric aerosols on marine phytoplankton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    metals added from these aerosols to the bioassay incubationsreleased to seawater from the aerosol filters after Author4605 CHEMISTRY Atmospheric aerosol deposition CHEMISTRY

  13. Urban Atmospheres captures a unique, synergistic moment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulos, Eric

    Urban Atmospheres captures a unique, synergistic moment ­ expanding urban populations, rapid EDITORS Eric Paulos Intel Research eric@paulos.net Tom Jenkins Royal College of Art thomas

  14. Characterizing orbit uncertainty due to atmospheric uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkins, Matthew Paul

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is implemented to model errors in the atmospheric density model. This study shows that the Kalman filter computes a believable and more realistic covariance....

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    improving our understanding of how clouds and atmospheric moisture interact with solar radiation and the effects of these interactions on climate. Photo courtesy Argonne National...

  16. Physics Potential of Future Atmospheric Neutrino Searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schwetz

    2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential of future high statistics atmospheric neutrino experiments is considered, having in mind currently discussed huge detectors of various technologies (water Cerekov, magnetized iron, liquid Argon). I focus on the possibility to use atmospheric data to determine the octant of $\\theta_{23}$ and the neutrino mass hierarchy. The sensitivity to the $\\theta_{23}$-octant of atmospheric neutrinos is competitive (or even superior) to long-baseline experiments. I discuss the ideal properties of a fictitious atmospheric neutrino detector to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  17. Super-Kamiokande atmospheric neutrino results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toshiyuki Toshito; the Super-Kamiokande collaboration

    2001-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present atmospheric neutrino results from a 79 kiloton year (1289 days) exposure of the Super-Kamiokande detector. Our data are well explained by $\

  18. atmospheres: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to optical depth perturbations. In Earth-type atmospheres sustained planetary greenhouse effect with a stable ground surface temperature can only exist at a particular...

  19. atmosphere: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to optical depth perturbations. In Earth-type atmospheres sustained planetary greenhouse effect with a stable ground surface temperature can only exist at a particular...

  20. atmospherics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to optical depth perturbations. In Earth-type atmospheres sustained planetary greenhouse effect with a stable ground surface temperature can only exist at a particular...

  1. Automated micro-tracking planar solar concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallas, Justin Matthew

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    System from Concentrix Solar," in Concentrator Photovoltaics,CPV systems that use arrays of optics and photovoltaics,system so that arrays of paired concentrators and photovoltaics

  2. Energy Secretary Moniz Dedicates World's Largest Concentrating...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Dedicates World's Largest Concentrating Solar Power Project Energy Secretary Moniz Dedicates World's Largest Concentrating Solar Power Project February 13, 2014 - 5:00am Addthis...

  3. Automated micro-tracking planar solar concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallas, Justin Matthew

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar," in Concentrator Photovoltaics, A.L. Luque, and V.M.in concentrating photovoltaics using laterally movingUsing optics to boost photovoltaics,” Optics and Photonics

  4. Concentrating Solar Power Resources and Technologies | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power Resources and Technologies Concentrating Solar Power Resources and Technologies Photo of a CSP dish glistening in the sun. Multiple solar mirrors reflect...

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power National Solar Thermal Testing Facility Beam Profiling On November 2, 2012, in Concentrating Solar Power, News, Renewable Energy, Solar On Thursday, June...

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: multiscale concentrated solar power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    concentrated solar power Solar Energy Research Institute for India and the United States Kick-Off On November 27, 2012, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, National Solar Thermal...

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power Systems Air Force Research Laboratory Testing On November 2, 2012, in Concentrating Solar Power, Facilities, National Solar Thermal Test Facility, News,...

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power Sandia Wins Funding for High-Temperature Falling-Particle Solar-Energy Receiver On August 8, 2012, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Facilities,...

  9. Atmospheric dispersion estimates in the vicinity of buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.; Fosmire, C.J.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model describing atmospheric dispersion in the vicinity of buildings was developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the late 1980s. That model has recently undergone additional peer review. The reviewers identified four areas of concern related to the model and its application. This report describes revisions to the model in response to the reviewers concerns. Model revision involved incorporation of explicit treatment of enhanced dispersion at low wind speeds in addition to explicit treatment of enhanced dispersion at high speeds resulting from building wakes. Model parameters are evaluated from turbulence data. Experimental diffusion data from seven reactor sites are used for model evaluation. Compared with models recommended in current NRC guidance to licensees, the revised model is less biased and shows more predictive skill. The revised model is also compared with two non-Gaussian models developed to estimate maximum concentrations in building wakes. The revised model concentration predictions are nearly the same as the predictions of the non-Gaussian models. On the basis of these comparisons of the revised model concentration predictions with experimental data and the predictions of other models, the revised model is found to be an appropriate model for estimating concentrations in the vicinity of buildings.

  10. Response of global soil consumption of atmospheric methane to changes in atmospheric climate and nitrogen deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai

    Soil consumption of atmospheric methane plays an important secondary role in regulating the atmospheric CH4 budget, next to the dominant loss mechanism involving reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Here we used a ...

  11. Parallization of Stellar Atmosphere Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Hoeflich

    2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Parallel computing has turned out to be the enabling technology to solve complex physical systems. However, the transition from shared memory, vector computers to massively parallel, distributed memory systems and, recently, to hybrid systems poses new challenges to the scientist. We want to present a cook-book (with a very strong, personal bias) based on our experience with parallization of our existing codes. Some of the general tools and communication libraries are discussed. Our approach includes a mixture of algorithm, domain and physical module based parallization. The advantages, scalability and limitations of each are discussed at some examples. We want show that it becomes easier to write parallel code with increasing complexity of the physical problem making stellar atmosphere codes beyond the classical assumptions very suitable.

  12. Limits to the lunar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, T.H. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. (USA)); Shemansky, D.E. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of sodium and potassium on the Moon implies that other more abundant species should be present. Volatile molecules like H{sub 2}O are significantly more abundant than sodium in any of the proposed external atmospheric sources. Source mechanisms which derive atoms from the surface should favor abundant elements in the regolith. It is therefore puzzling that the Apollo ultraviolet spectrometer experiment set limits on the density of oxygen of N{sub O} < 5 {times} 10{sup 2} cm{sup {minus}3}, and that the Apollo Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment data imply N{sub O} < 50 cm{sup {minus}3} above the subsolar point. These limits are surprisingly small relative to the measured value for sodium. A simple consideration of sources and sinks predicts significantly greater densities of oxygen. It is possible but doubtful that the Apollo measurements occur ed during an epoch in which source rates were small. A preferential loss process for oxygen on the darkside of the Moon is considered in which ionization by electron capture in surface collisions leads to escape through acceleration in the local electric field. Cold trapping in permanently shadowed regions as a net sink is considered and discounted, but the episodic nature of cometary insertion may allow formation of ice layers which act as a stablized source of OH. On the basis of an assumed meteoroid impact source, the authors predict a possible emission brightness of {approximately} 50 R in the OH(A {minus} X)(0,0) band above the lunar bright limb. A very uncertain small comet source of H{sub 2}O could raise this value by more than two orders of magnitude.

  13. Concentrator Optics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovationinConcentrating Solar Power Basics (The following text

  14. Simulation of Aerosol Behavior in a Saturated Atmosphere With the CONTAIN Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kljenak, Ivo; Mavko, Borut [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments on aerosol behavior in an atmosphere containing saturated vapor, which were performed in the KAEVER experimental facility and proposed for the OECD International Standard Problem No. 44, were simulated with the CONTAIN thermal-hydraulic computer code. The purpose of the work was to assess the capability of the CONTAIN code to model aerosol condensation and deposition in a containment of a light-water-reactor nuclear power plant at severe accident conditions. Results of dry and wet aerosol concentrations in the test vessel atmosphere are presented and analyzed. (authors)

  15. Doctoral Programs Atmospheric, Oceanic & Space Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eustice, Ryan

    University of Michigan Space Research Building 2455 Hayward Street Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 aoss Katherine E. White, Ann Arbor ©The Regents of the University of Michigan Research areas Atmospheric Science Atmospheric Dynamics Climate, Climate Modeling & Climate Change Clouds & Precipitation Paleoclimate, Ice

  16. Human effects on the global atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, H.S.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This review considers whether human activities can significantly change important functions of the global atmosphere by altering the amount or distribution of certain trace species. It deals with three specific topics: stratopheric ozone, the role of species other than carbon dioxide on the greenhouse effect, and certain recently recognized atmospheric consequences of a large scale nuclear war. 64 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  17. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2013)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Sukyoung

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2013) Published online in Wiley Online Library Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea *Correspondence to: C. Yoo, Center for Atmosphere). A number of studies have shown that the MJO plays an important role in modulating the extratropical cir

  18. ATOMIC IONIZATION AND OPACITIES IN PULSAR ATMOSPHERES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ATOMIC IONIZATION AND OPACITIES IN PULSAR ATMOSPHERES Hydrogen Atmospheres J. VENTURA Physics.g. Pavlov et al., 1995; Zavlin et al., 1995, 1996; #12; 2 J. VENTURA ET AL. Rajagopal and Romani, 1996 the past three years. As is well known (Canuto and Ventura, 1977; Ruder et al., 1994), the external strong

  19. Atmospheric neutrino flux calculation using the NRLMSISE00 atmospheric model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honda, M; Kajita, T; Kasahara, K; Midorikawa, S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we extend the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux~\\cite{hkkm2004,hkkms2006,hkkm2011} to the sites in polar and tropical regions. In our earliest full 3D-calculation~\\cite{hkkm2004}, we used DPMJET-III~\\cite{dpm} for the hadronic interaction model above 5~GeV, and NUCRIN~\\cite{nucrin} below 5~GeV. We modified DPMJET-III as in Ref.~\\cite{hkkms2006} to reproduce the experimental muon spectra better, mainly using the data observed by BESS group~\\cite{BESSTeVpHemu}. In a recent work~\\cite{hkkm2011}, we introduced JAM interaction model for the low energy hadronic interactions. JAM is a nuclear interaction model developed with PHITS (Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System)~\\cite{phits}. In Ref.~\\cite{hkkm2011}, we could reproduce the observed muon flux at the low energies at balloon altitude with DPMJET-III above 32 GeV and JAM below that better than the combination of DPMJET-III above 5~GeV and NUCRIN below that. Besides the interaction model, we have also improved the calculation sche...

  20. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L.

    1989-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above. 3 figs.

  1. Scale-free Universal Spectrum for Atmospheric Aerosol Size Distribution for Davos, Mauna Loa and Izana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Selvam

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric flows exhibit fractal fluctuations and inverse power law form for power spectra indicating an eddy continuum structure for the selfsimilar fluctuations. A general systems theory for fractal fluctuations developed by the author is based on the simple visualisation that large eddies form by space-time integration of enclosed turbulent eddies, a concept analogous to Kinetic Theory of Gases in Classical Statistical Physics. The ordered growth of atmospheric eddy continuum is in dynamical equilibrium and is associated with Maximum Entropy Production. The model predicts universal (scale-free) inverse power law form for fractal fluctuations expressed in terms of the golden mean. Atmospheric particulates are held in suspension in the fractal fluctuations of vertical wind velocity. The mass or radius (size) distribution for homogeneous suspended atmospheric particulates is expressed as a universal scale-independent function of the golden mean, the total number concentration and the mean volume radius. Model predicted spectrum is in agreement (within two standard deviations on either side of the mean) with total averaged radius size spectra for the AERONET (aerosol inversions) stations Davos and Mauna Loa for the year 2010 and Izana for the year 2009 daily averages. The general systems theory model for aerosol size distribution is scale free and is derived directly from atmospheric eddy dynamical concepts. At present empirical models such as the log normal distribution with arbitrary constants for the size distribution of atmospheric suspended particulates are used for quantitative estimation of earth-atmosphere radiation budget related to climate warming/cooling trends. The universal aerosol size spectrum will have applications in computations of radiation balance of earth-atmosphere system in climate models.

  2. The Rheology of Concentrated Suspensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreas Acrivos

    2004-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Research program on the rheological properties of flowing suspensions. The primary purpose of the research supported by this grant was to study the flow characteristics of concentrated suspensions of non-colloidal solid particles and thereby construct a comprehensive and robust theoretical framework for modeling such systems quantitatively. At first glance, this seemed like a modest goal, not difficult to achieve, given that such suspensions were viewed simply as Newtonian fluids with an effective viscosity equal to the product of the viscosity of the suspending fluid times a function of the particle volume fraction. But thanks to the research findings of the Principal Investigator and of his Associates, made possible by the steady and continuous support which the PI received from the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the subject is now seen to be more complicated and therefore much more interesting in that concentrated suspensions have been shown to exhibit fascinating and unique rheological properties of their own that have no counterpart in flowing Newtonian or even non-Newtonian (polymeric) fluids. In fact, it is generally acknowledged that, as the result of these investigations for which the PI received the 2001 National Medal of Science, our understanding of how suspensions behave under flow is far more detailed and comprehensive than was the case even as recently as a decade ago. Thus, given that the flow of suspensions plays a crucial role in many diverse physical processes, our work has had a major and lasting impact in a subject having both fundamental as well as practical importance.

  3. Production of fullerenes using concentrated solar flux

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fields, Clark L. (Greeley, CO); Pitts, John Roland (Lakewood, CO); King, David E. (Lakewood, CO); Hale, Mary Jane (Golden, CO); Bingham, Carl E. (Denver, CO); Lewandowski, Allan A. (Evergreen, CO)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing soot containing high amounts of fullerenes comprising: providing a primary concentrator capable of impingement of a concentrated beam of sunlight onto a carbon source to cause vaporization of carbon and subsequent formation of fullerenes, or providing a solar furnace having a primary concentrator with a focal point that concentrates a solar beam of sunlight; providing a reflective secondary concentrator having an entrance aperture and an exit aperture at the focal point of the solar furnace; providing a carbon source at the exit aperture of the secondary concentrator; supplying an inert gas over the carbon source to keep the secondary concentrator free from vaporized carbon; and impinging a concentrated beam of sunlight from the secondary concentrator on the carbon source to vaporize the carbon source into a soot containing high amounts of fullerenes.

  4. The Upper Atmosphere of HD17156b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. T. Koskinen; A. D. Aylward; S. Miller

    2008-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    HD17156b is a newly-found transiting extrasolar giant planet (EGP) that orbits its G-type host star in a highly eccentric orbit (e~0.67) with an orbital semi-major axis of 0.16 AU. Its period, 21.2 Earth days, is the longest among the known transiting planets. The atmosphere of the planet undergoes a 27-fold variation in stellar irradiation during each orbit, making it an interesting subject for atmospheric modelling. We have used a three-dimensional model of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere for extrasolar gas giants in order to simulate the progress of HD17156b along its eccentric orbit. Here we present the results of these simulations and discuss the stability, circulation, and composition in its upper atmosphere. Contrary to the well-known transiting planet HD209458b, we find that the atmosphere of HD17156b is unlikely to escape hydrodynamically at any point along the orbit, even if the upper atmosphere is almost entirely composed of atomic hydrogen and H+, and infrared cooling by H3+ ions is negligible. The nature of the upper atmosphere is sensitive to to the composition of the thermosphere, and in particular to the mixing ratio of H2, as the availability of H2 regulates radiative cooling. In light of different simulations we make specific predictions about the thermosphere-ionosphere system of HD17156b that can potentially be verified by observations.

  5. Mass spectrometric approaches for chemical characterisation of atmospheric aerosols: critical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Mass spectrometric approaches for chemical characterisation of atmospheric aerosols: critical. Atmospheric aerosols have profound effects on the environment through several physicochemical processes on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Understanding aerosol atmospheric chemistry and its environmental

  6. Dynamics of CO2 fluxes and concentrations during a shallow subsurface CO2 release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, J.L.; Hilley, G.E.; Dobeck, L.; Spangler, L.

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A field facility located in Bozeman, Montana provides the opportunity to test methods to detect, locate, and quantify potential CO2 leakage from geologic storage sites. From 9 July to 7 August 2008, 0.3 t CO2 d{sup -1} were injected from a 100-m long, {approx}2.5 m deep horizontal well. Repeated measurements of soil CO2 fluxes on a grid characterized the spatio-temporal evolution of the surface leakage signal and quantified the surface leakage rate. Infrared CO2 concentration sensors installed in the soil at 30 cm depth at 0 to 10 m from the well and at 4 cm above the ground at 0 and 5 m from the well recorded surface breakthrough of CO2 leakage and migration of CO2 leakage through the soil. Temporal variations in CO2 concentrations were correlated with atmospheric and soil temperature, wind speed, atmospheric pressure, rainfall, and CO2 injection rate.

  7. Atmospheric science encompasses meteorology and climatology, as well as fields such as atmospheric chemistry and remote sensing.Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oceanography and Meteorology Building.The Doppler weather radar on the roof of the building is a campus Mobile Atmospheric Research and Teaching Radar (SMART-R).This radar is used in national and international

  8. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to verify the technical feasibility of the MTCI Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor technology, a laboratory-scale system was designed, built and tested. Important aspects of the operational and performance parameters of the system were established experimentally. A considerable amount of the effort was invested in the initial task of constructing an AFBC that would represent a reasonable baseline against which the performance of the PAFBC could be compared. A summary comparison of the performance and emissions data from the MTCI 2 ft {times} 2 ft facility (AFBC and PAFBC modes) with those from conventional BFBC (taller freeboard and recycle operation) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) units is given in Table ES-1. The comparison is for typical high-volatile bituminous coals and sorbents of average reactivity. The values indicated for BFBC and CFBC were based on published information. The AFBC unit that was designed to act as a baseline for the comparison was indeed representative of the larger units even at the smaller scale for which it was designed. The PAFBC mode exhibited superior performance in relation to the AFBC mode. The higher combustion efficiency translates into reduced coal consumption and lower system operating cost; the improvement in sulfur capture implies less sorbent requirement and waste generation and in turn lower operating cost; lower NO{sub x} and CO emissions mean ease of site permitting; and greater steam-generation rate translates into less heat exchange surface area and reduced capital cost. Also, the PAFBC performance generally surpasses those of conventional BFBC, is comparable to CFBC in combustion and NO{sub x} emissions, and is better than CFBC in sulfur capture and CO emissions even at the scaled-down size used for the experimental feasibility tests.

  9. atmospheric pressure ionization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Atmospheric Pressure, in Vivo, and Imaging Mass. For example, atmospheric pressure infrared MALDI (AP IR-MALDI), capable of producing ions from small ionization (DESI),5...

  10. atmospheric carbon emissions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oxide (N2O) 13 Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 13 Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Geosciences Websites Summary: Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon...

  11. atmospheric oxygenation recorded: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cores may contain high quality records of atmospheric deposition. The qualitative Short, Daniel 3 Bistability of atmospheric oxygen and the Great Oxidation Geosciences Websites...

  12. atmospheric optical turbulence: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Atmospheric Turbulence and its Influence on Adaptive Optics Physics Websites Summary: Atmospheric Turbulence and its Influence on Adaptive Optics...

  13. atmospheric ion measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Atmospheric CERN Preprints Summary: We report the first observation in a high energy neutrino telescope of cascades induced by atmospheric electron neutrinos and by...

  14. Comparative Analysis of Urban Atmospheric Aerosol by Particle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of Urban Atmospheric Aerosol by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Proton Elastic Scattering Analysis Comparative Analysis of Urban Atmospheric Aerosol by...

  15. Atmospheric Solids Analysis Probe Mass Spectrometry: A New Approach...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Solids Analysis Probe Mass Spectrometry: A New Approach for Airborne Particle Analysis. Atmospheric Solids Analysis Probe Mass Spectrometry: A New Approach for Airborne...

  16. A Volcanologist'S Review Of Atmospheric Hazards Of Volcanic Activity...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    atmospheric hazards caused by explosive volcanic activity. The hazard posed by fine silicate ash with long residence time in the atmosphere is probably much less serious than...

  17. Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characterization of Atmosphere Composition and Health Responses to Inhaled Emissions Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere Composition and Health...

  18. Fehner and Gosling, Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951-1963. Battlefield of the Cold War: The Nevada Test Site, Volume I Fehner and Gosling, Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951-1963....

  19. atmospheric global electric: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    global atmospheric iron cycle, and combustion this paper. Key Words aerosol deposition, climate change, deserts Abstract Atmospheric inputs of iron sources of iron are...

  20. atmospheric dispersion coefficient: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the earth surface. In general, the atmospheric motion is driven by the intense solar energy arriving at the equator 3 A GIS-based atmospheric dispersion model Computer...

  1. atmospheric dispersion calculations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the earth surface. In general, the atmospheric motion is driven by the intense solar energy arriving at the equator 4 A GIS-based atmospheric dispersion model Computer...

  2. atmospheric dispersion experiment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the earth surface. In general, the atmospheric motion is driven by the intense solar energy arriving at the equator 2 A GIS-based atmospheric dispersion model Computer...

  3. atmospheric climate model: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Curry & Webster Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ch1 Composition Ch2 Laws Ch3 Transfers Ch12 Energy Russell, Lynn 10 Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Environmental...

  4. atmosphere box model: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GloveBoxes Glove boxes allow the user to perform operations in an atmosphere 8 University Corporation for Atmospheric Research PO Box 3000 Boulder, Colorado 80307 Geosciences...

  5. Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Scientists and an international research team have announced discovery of...

  6. atmospheric modeling system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 Causes and implications of persistent atmospheric carbon dioxide biases in Earth System Models University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: Atmosphere and Ocean...

  7. atmospheric co2 content: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  8. atmospheric chemistry simulations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , nitrogen and oxygen The Greenhouse Effect Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric chemical kinetics including and oral reports to...

  9. atmospheric sciences exposure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    annual reviews of faculty performance in accordance 8 Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Physics Websites Summary: Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a...

  10. atmospheric chemistry project: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , nitrogen and oxygen The Greenhouse Effect Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric chemical kinetics including and oral reports to...

  11. atmospheric co2 laser: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  12. atmospheric loading effects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    large solar proton Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 7 Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Physics Websites Summary: Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a...

  13. atmospheric chemistry programme: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , nitrogen and oxygen The Greenhouse Effect Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric chemical kinetics including and oral reports to...

  14. atmospheric co2 measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  15. atmospheric co2 variations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  16. atmospheric chemistry experiment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , nitrogen and oxygen The Greenhouse Effect Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric chemical kinetics including and oral reports to...

  17. atmospheric science people: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    annual reviews of faculty performance in accordance 9 Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Physics Websites Summary: Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a...

  18. atmospheric chemistry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , nitrogen and oxygen The Greenhouse Effect Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric chemical kinetics including and oral reports to...

  19. atmospheric sciences: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    annual reviews of faculty performance in accordance 8 Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Physics Websites Summary: Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a...

  20. atmospheric co2 mixing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  1. atmospheric aerosols basic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of atmospheric aerosol. Aplin, KL 2012-01-01 13 1. Introduction The atmospheric greenhouse effect is the basic mechanism Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: 1....

  2. atmospheric deposition microbial: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mercury in the Global Atmosphere: Chemistry, deposition, and land-atmosphere interactions Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: Mercury in the Global...

  3. atmospheric deposition nutrient: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mercury in the Global Atmosphere: Chemistry, deposition, and land-atmosphere interactions Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: Mercury in the Global...

  4. Visualizing Storms from NCAR's Atmosphere Model at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmosphere Model Visualizing Storms from NCAR's Atmosphere Model CCSM-sprabhat.png Global warming will likely change the statistics of tropical cyclones and hurricanes. In this...

  5. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Clement J. (New Brunswick, NJ)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.

  6. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, C.J.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor. 5 figs.

  7. Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) offers a utility-scale, firm, dispatchable renewable energy option that can help meet the nation's goal of making solar energy cost competitive with other energy sources by the end of the decade. The DOE SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national initiative to make solar energy technologies cost-competitive with other forms of energy by reducing the cost of solar energy systems by about 75% by the end of the decade. Reducing the total installed cost for utility-scale solar electricity to roughly 6 cents per kilowatt hour without subsidies will result in rapid, large-scale adoption of solar electricity across the United States. Reaching this goal will re-establish American technological leadership, improve the nation's energy security, and strengthen U.S. economic competitiveness in the global clean energy race. SunShot will work to bring down the full cost of solar - including the costs of solar cells and installation by focusing on four main pillars: (1) Technologies for solar cells and arrays that convert sunlight to energy; (2) Electronics that optimize the performance of the installation; (3) Improvements in the efficiency of solar manufacturing processes; and (4) Installation, design, and permitting for solar energy systems.

  8. Modelling the settling of suspended sediments for concentrations close to the gelling concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modelling the settling of suspended sediments for concentrations close to the gelling concentration the sedimentation phase. In the case of cohesive sediments, the estimation of the gelling concentration, although and consolidation behaviour for concentrations close to the gelling concentration. Key words: sedimentation

  9. Modeling of concentrating solar thermoelectric generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng

    The conversion of solar power into electricity is dominated by non-concentrating photovoltaics and concentrating solar thermal systems. Recently, it has been shown that solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) are a viable ...

  10. Indoor-Atmospheric Radon-Related Radioactivity Affected by a Change of Ventilation Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, T

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present author has kept observation for concentrations of atmospheric radon, radon progeny and thoron progeny for several years at the campus of Fukushima Medical University. Accidentally, in the midst of an observation term, i.e., February 2005, the facility management group of the university changed a strategy for the manner of ventilation, probably because of a recession: (I) tidy everyday ventilation of 7:30-24:00 into (II) shortened weekday ventilation of 8:00-21:00 with weekend halts. This change of ventilation manner brought a clear alteration for the concentrations of radon-related natural radioactivity in indoor air. The present paper concerns an investigation of the effect of the ventilation strategy on the indoor-atmospheric radon-related radioactivity.

  11. Simultaneous gas-chromatographic determination of four toxic gases generally present in combustion atmospheres. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Endecott, B.R.; Sanders, D.C.; Chaturvedi, A.K.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement of combustion gases produced by burning aircraft cabin materials poses a continuing limitation for smoke toxicity research. Since toxic effects of gases depend on both their concentrations and duration of exposures, frequent atmosphere sampling is necessary to define the concentration-time curve. A gas chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous analyses of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The method utilized an MTI M200 dual-column gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with 4-m molecular sieve-5A and 8-m PoraPlot-U capillary columns and two low-volume, high-sensitivity thermal conductivity detectors. Detectability (ppm)/retention times (seconds) for the gases were: CO (100/28); H2S (50/26); SO2 (125/76); HCN (60/108). The method was effective for determining these gases in mixtures and in the combustion atmospheres generated by burning wool (CO, HCN, and H2S) and modacrylic (CO and HCN) fabrics. Common atmospheric gaseous or combustion products (oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, water vapor, and other volatiles) did not interfere with the analyses. However, filtration of the combustion atmospheres was necessary to prevent restriction of the GC sampling inlet by smoke particulates. The speed, sensitivity, and selectivity of this method make it suitable for smoke toxicity research and for evaluating performance of passenger protective breathing equipment.

  12. Adaptive control for Mars atmospheric flight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Restrepo, Carolina Isabel

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    landing accuracy requirements for a manned space vehicle make it necessary to ?y a controlled entry trajectory rather than a more robust ballistic entry trajectory used for some robotic missions. The large variations in Mars atmospheric properties make a...

  13. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    large portion of the microscopic particles floating in the air originate from incomplete combustion of coal and oil and from dust storms. Once in the atmosphere, they can have...

  14. HYPERsensarium : an archive of atmospheric conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Kelly E. (Kelly Evelyn)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HYPERsensarium proposes a tangible interface of atmospheres for public experience through an archive of historical and projected weathers. While architecture's purpose has long been to act as the technical boundary between ...

  15. The porous atmosphere of eta Carinae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nir J. Shaviv

    2000-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the wind generated by the great 20 year long super-Eddington outburst of eta-Carinae. We show that using classical stellar atmospheres and winds theory, it is impossible to construct a consistent wind model in which a sufficiently small amount of mass, like the one observed, is shed. One expects the super-Eddington luminosity to drive a thick wind with a mass loss rate substantially higher than the observed one. The easiest way to resolve the inconsistency is if we alleviate the implicit notion that atmospheres are homogeneous. An inhomogeneous atmosphere, or "porous", allows more radiation to escape while exerting a smaller average force. Consequently, such an atmosphere yields a considerably lower mass loss rate for the same total luminosity. Moreover, all the applications of the Eddington Luminosity as a strict luminosity limit should be revised, or at least reanalyzed carefully.

  16. Space Science: Atmospheres Evolution of planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    ;Atmospheres / Evolution Heat Sources Compressional Energy Trapped Radioactive Material Tidal Interactions, same A) the surface temperature,Tg, increases. WOW! Simple #12;Temperature vs. time in an Early Epoch

  17. MIDDLE ATMOSPHERE DYNAMICS AT707 (3 credits)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ., Holton, J. R., Leovy, C. B., Academic Press, 489 pp. · Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics, 2006 Review Articles: · Haynes, P. H., 2005: Stratospheric Dynamics. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 37, 263­ 293

  18. Lookup tables to compute high energy cosmic ray induced atmospheric ionization and changes in atmospheric chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitra Atri; Adrian L. Melott; Brian C. Thomas

    2010-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of events such as gamma-ray bursts and supernovae may expose the Earth to an increased flux of high-energy cosmic rays, with potentially important effects on the biosphere. Existing atmospheric chemistry software does not have the capability of incorporating the effects of substantial cosmic ray flux above 10 GeV . An atmospheric code, the NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center two-dimensional (latitude, altitude) time-dependent atmospheric model (NGSFC), is used to study atmospheric chemistry changes. Using CORSIKA, we have created tables that can be used to compute high energy cosmic ray (10 GeV - 1 PeV) induced atmospheric ionization and also, with the use of the NGSFC code, can be used to simulate the resulting atmospheric chemistry changes. We discuss the tables, their uses, weaknesses, and strengths.

  19. Air Activation Following an Atmospheric Explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In addition to thermal radiation and fission products, nuclear explosions result in a very high flux of unfissioned neutrons. Within an atmospheric nuclear explosion, these neutrons can activate the various elemental components of natural air, potentially adding to the radioactive signature of the event as a whole. The goal of this work is to make an order-of-magnitude estimate of the total amount of air activation products that can result from an atmospheric nuclear explosion.

  20. Trace analysis of atmospheric organic bases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Dwayne C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chromatographic fractions for NS analyses ( 121) and its use as a thin layer chromatography (TLC) adsorbent ( 122). The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends its use in the analysis of many industrial vapors ( 113 - 120... analysis of atmospheric organic bases were investigated; the study included (1) the analysis of submarine charcoal filter bed samples for nitrogen bases and (2) the use of metallic tetraphenylporphines (TPP) as specific adsorbents for atmospheric...

  1. Quantum light in the turbulent atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Semenov; W. Vogel

    2009-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonclassical properties of light propagating through the turbulent atmosphere are studied. We demonstrate by numerical simulation that the probability distribution of the transmission coefficient, which characterizes the effects of the atmosphere on the quantum state of light, can be reconstructed by homodyne detection. Nonclassical photon-statistics and, more generally, nonclassical Glauber-Sudarshan functions appear to be more robust against turbulence for weak light fields rather than for bright ones.

  2. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  3. NUCLEAR POWERED CO2 CAPTURE FROM THE ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, S

    2008-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for capturing CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere was recently proposed. This process uses a closed cycle of sodium and calcium hydroxide, carbonate, and oxide transformations to capture dilute CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere and to generate a concentrated stream of CO{sub 2} that is amenable to sequestration or subsequent chemical transformations. In one of the process steps, a fossil-fueled lime kiln is needed, which reduces the net CO{sub 2} capture of the process. It is proposed to replace the fossil-fueled lime kiln with a modified kiln heated by a high-temperature nuclear reactor. This will have the effect of eliminating the use of fossil fuels for the process and increasing the net CO{sub 2} capture. Although the process is suitable to support sequestration, the use of a nuclear power source for the process provides additional capabilities, and the captured CO{sub 2} may be combined with nuclear-produced hydrogen to produce liquid fuels via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or other technologies. Conceivably, such plants would be carbon-neutral, and could be placed virtually anywhere without being tied to fossil fuel sources or geological sequestration sites.

  4. Summary of Dissolved Concentration Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yueting Chen

    2001-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the Technical Work Plan titled Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR (CRWMS M&O 2000a), the purpose of this study is to perform abstractions on solubility limits of radioactive elements based on the process-level information and thermodynamic databases provided by Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO) and Waste Package Operations (WPO). The scope of this analysis is to produce solubility limits as functions, distributions, or constants for all transported radioactive elements identified by the Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) radioisotope screening. Results from an expert elicitation for solubility limits of most radioactive elements were used in the previous Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs). However, the elicitation conducted in 1993 does not meet the criteria set forth by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) due to lack of documentation and traceability (Kotra et al. 1996, Section 3). Therefore, at the Waste Form Abstraction Workshop held on February 2-4, 1999, at Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) decided to develop geochemical models to study solubility for the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository. WPO/NEPO is to develop process-level solubility models, including review and compilation of relevant thermodynamic data. PAO's responsibility is to perform abstractions based on the process models and chemical conditions and to produce solubility distributions or response surfaces applicable to the proposed repository. The results of this analysis and conceptual model will feed the performance assessment for Total System Performance Assessment--Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and Total System Performance Assessment--License Application (TSPA-LA), and to the Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report section on concentration limits.

  5. Nanofluidic Concentration Device for Biomolecules Utilizing Ion Concentration Polarization: Theory, Fabrication, and Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sung Jae

    Recently, a new type of electrokinetic concentration devices has been developed in a microfluidic chip format, which allows efficient trapping and concentration of biomolecules by utilizing ion concentration polarization ...

  6. The response of soil CO2 ux to changes in atmospheric CO2, nitrogen supply and plant diversity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    The response of soil CO2 ¯ux to changes in atmospheric CO2, nitrogen supply and plant diversity J O. Paul, MN 55108 USA Abstract We measured soil CO2 ¯ux over 19 sampling periods that spanned two growing three major anthropogenic global changes: atmos- pheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, nitrogen (N

  7. Measurements of Atmospheric O2 Variations at the WLEF Tall-tower Site Figure 4. Comparison to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Britton B.

    adapted a commercially available fuel-cell detector to make the first atmospheric O2 measurements from. The fuel-cell instrument has successfully measured O2 concentrations at the WLEF tall-tower research site in Environmental Sciences, CU, Boulder, Colorado, 2 NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, Boulder

  8. &p.1:Abstract Previous study of Cupressaceae pollen in the Tulsa atmosphere during December and January suggest-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levetin, Estelle

    &p.1:Abstract Previous study of Cupressaceae pollen in the Tulsa atmosphere during December outside of the local season at Tulsa. Pollen concentrations are intermittent and correspond to days that pollen is being trans- ported over long distances from the mountain cedar popu- lations to Tulsa

  9. Typical atmospheric aerosol behavior at the Cherenkov Telescope Array candidate sites in Argentina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piacentini, Rubén D; Micheletti, María I; Salum, Graciela M; Maya, Javier; Mancilla, Alexis; García, Beatriz

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerosols from natural and antropogenic sources are one of the atmospheric components that have the largest spacial-temporal variability, depending on the type (land or ocean) surface, human activity and climatic conditions (mainly temperature and wind). Since Cherenkov photons generated by the incidence of a primary ultraenergetic cosmic gamma photon have a spectral intensity distribution concentrated in the UV and visible ranges [Hillas AM. Space Science Reviews, 75, 17-30, 1996], it is important to know the aerosol concentration and its contribution to atmospheric radiative transfer. We present results of this concentration measured in typical rather calm (not windy) days at San Antonio de los Cobres (SAC) and El Leoncito/CASLEO proposed Argentinean Andes range sites for the placement of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). In both places, the aerosol concentration has a peak in the 2.5-5.0$\\mu$m range of the mean aerosol diameter and a very low mean total concentration of 0.097$\\mu$g/m$^3$ (0.365$\\mu$g/m$^...

  10. Development of an Implementation Plan for Atmospheric Carbon Monitoring in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Marc L.; Riley, William J.; Tonse, Shaheen

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the design of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration measurements that, in combination with other measurements and models, would be used to quantify regionally distributed CO{sub 2} exchanges from California's terrestrial ecosystems and CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Using models of net ecosystem CO{sub 2} exchange (NEE), fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions, and regional meteorology, we predict CO{sub 2} concentration ''signals'' in the atmosphere. The predictions of NEE exhibit spatial and temporal variations that are controlled by land cover and climate. Fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions from metropolitan areas are the strongest localized sources of CO{sub 2} while weaker but spatially extensive fossil emissions are present throughout the Central Valley. We subdivide the CO{sub 2} sources into four components: NEE inside and outside CA, and fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inside and outside CA. Maps of predicted atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration signals from these four sources largely mirror the instantaneous emissions near strong sources but plumes of CO{sub 2} enriched or depleted air are predicted to advect far from their sources. We then identify a baseline set of observing stations from existing and possible future sites that could be used to characterize in-state and out-of-state ecosystem and fossil fuel contributions to atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. For each of the stations we calculate mean midday concentration signals with standard deviation for each month and source. We also calculate the covariance of the signal due to NEE inside CA with each of the other signals to quantify how much of the signal from NEE inside CA might be readily separable from the other signals. On the basis of these predictions, we identify new observing stations and a measurement protocol that, in combination with existing stations, would provide data to estimate NEE within CA. Although beyond the scope of this project, future work should estimate the uncertainties in estimating California's NEE that would be obtained using atmospheric concentration data from the stations identified herein.

  11. New nonlinear mechanisms of midlatitude atmospheric low-frequency variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht, The Netherlands Abstract

  12. Savannah River Site radioiodine atmospheric releases and offsite maximum doses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marter, W.L.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioisotopes of iodine have been released to the atmosphere from the Savannah River Site since 1955. The releases, mostly from the 200-F and 200-H Chemical Separations areas, consist of the isotopes, I-129 and 1-131. Small amounts of 1-131 and 1-133 have also been released from reactor facilities and the Savannah River Laboratory. This reference memorandum was issued to summarize our current knowledge of releases of radioiodines and resultant maximum offsite doses. This memorandum supplements the reference memorandum by providing more detailed supporting technical information. Doses reported in this memorandum from consumption of the milk containing the highest I-131 concentration following the 1961 1-131 release incident are about 1% higher than reported in the reference memorandum. This is the result of using unrounded 1-131 concentrations of I-131 in milk in this memo. It is emphasized here that this technical report does not constitute a dose reconstruction in the same sense as the dose reconstruction effort currently underway at Hanford. This report uses existing published data for radioiodine releases and existing transport and dosimetry models.

  13. Syngas Production from Propane Using Atmospheric Non-thermal Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ouni, Fakhreddine; Cormier, Jean Marie; 10.1007/s11090-009-9166-2

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Propane steam reforming using a sliding discharge reactor was investigated under atmospheric pressure and low temperature (420 K). Non-thermal plasma steam reforming proceeded efficiently and hydrogen was formed as a main product (H2 concentration up to 50%). By-products (C2-hydrocarbons, methane, carbon dioxide) were measured with concentrations lower than 6%. The mean electrical power injected in the discharge is less than 2 kW. The process efficiency is described in terms of propane conversion rate, steam reforming and cracking selectivity, as well as by-products production. Chemical processes modelling based on classical thermodynamic equilibrium reactor is also proposed. Calculated data fit quiet well experimental results and indicate that the improvement of C3H8 conversion and then H2 production can be achieved by increasing the gas fraction through the discharge. By improving the reactor design, the non-thermal plasma has a potential for being an effective way for supplying hydrogen or synthesis gas.

  14. Stageverslag Modelling of Birch pollen concentrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    to know more about air quality, atmosphere and climate change. Mikail Sofiev from FMI for sharing his au sein du mod`ele car il ne fait pas appel `a certains processus tels que la nucl´eation, la co

  15. Magnetized Atmospheres around Accreting Neutron Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Zane; R. Turolla; A. Treves

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed investigation of atmospheres around accreting neutron stars with high magnetic field ($B\\gtrsim 10^{12}$ G) and low luminosity ($L\\lesssim 10^{33}$ erg/s). We compute the atmospheric structure, intensity and emergent spectrum for a plane-parallel, pure hydrogen medium by solving the transfer equations for the normal modes coupled to the hydrostatic and energy balance equations. The hard tail found in previous investigations for accreting, non-magnetic neutron stars with comparable luminosity is suppressed and the X-ray spectrum, although still harder than a blackbody at the star effective temperature, is nearly planckian in shape. Spectra from accreting atmospheres, both with high and low fields, are found to exhibit a significant excess at optical wavelengths above the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the X-ray continuum.

  16. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

  17. Super Kamiokande results: atmospheric and solar neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Ishitsuka; for the Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    2004-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric neutrino and solar neutrino data from the first phase of Super-Kamiokande (SK-I) are presented. The observed data are used to study atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillations. Zenith angle distributions from various atmospheric neutrino data samples are used to estimate the neutrino oscillation parameter region. In addition, a new result of the $L/E$ measurement is presented. A dip in the $L/E$ distribution was observed in the data, as predicted from the sinusoidal flavor transition probability of neutrino oscillation. The energy spectrum and the time variation such as day/night and seasonal differences of solar neutrino flux are measured in Super-Kamiokande. The neutrino oscillation parameters are strongly constrained from those measurements.

  18. Funding Opportunity Announcement: CSP: Concentrating Optics for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the 2012 SunShot CSP Research and Development funding program, the CSP: Concentrating Optics for Lower Levelized Energy Costs (COLLECTS) funding program seeks to further CSP...

  19. Concentrating Solar Power (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia-AREVA Commission Solar ThermalMolten Salt Energy-Storage Demonstration On May 21, 2014, in Capabilities, Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Energy Storage, Facilities,...

  1. A combined microfluidic/dielectrophoretic microorganism concentrator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gadish, Nitzan

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents the development of a high-throughput microfluidic microorganism concentrator for pathogen detection applications. Interdigitated electrodes lining the bottom of the channel use positive dielectrophoretic ...

  2. Microtracking and Self-Adaptive Solar Concentration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  3. Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diver, Richard B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia and EMCORE: Solar Photovoltaics, Fiber Optics, MODE, and Energy Efficiency On March 29, 2013, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Renewable...

  5. Concentrating aqueous acetate solutions with tertiary amines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Champion

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    concentrations. ) 73 FIGURE Page 47 Correlation between Kd and water concentration in the organic phase for the calcium acetate/water/amine system. (TEA:DEME mL:1 mL, initial calcium acetate= 1%(w/w)) 48 Correlation between Kd and water concentration... in the organic phase for the calcium acetate/water/amine system. (TEA;DEMAW mL:1 mL, initial calcium acetate= 2%(w/w)) 49 Correlation between Kd and water concentration in the organic phase for the calcium acetate/water/amine system. (TEA:DEMAW mL:1 m...

  6. Planar micro-optic solar concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Jason Harris

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    35), "Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications1 GW of concentrator photovoltaics using multijunction solarG. , “Technology Focus: Photovoltaics”, Nature Photonics, 2,

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SolarReserve Is Testing Prototype Heliostats at NSTTF On March 3, 2015, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Facilities, National Solar Thermal Test Facility, News, News &...

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Concentrating Solar Power, Customers & Partners, Energy, News, Partnership, Renewable Energy, Solar Areva Solar is collaborating with Sandia National Laboratories on a new...

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Molten Salt Test Loop Pump Installed On August 30, 2012, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Energy Storage Systems, News, Renewable Energy, Solar The pump was delivered and...

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heat can also be efficiently and cheaply stored to produce electricity when the sun ... Solar Energy On February 3, 2011, in Solar Programs Photovoltaics Concentrating Solar...

  11. Planar micro-optic solar concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Jason Harris

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    waveguides to form a „bowtie?, joined by a SOE in thewe see visually depict the bowtie configuration and theb). As described, the bowtie concentrator no longer complies

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Funding Award On June 4, 2014, in Advanced Materials Laboratory, Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Energy Storage, Facilities, National Solar Thermal Test Facility,...

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gas Sectors in the United States View all EC Publications Related Topics Concentrating Solar Power CRF CSP EFRC Energy Energy Efficiency Energy Security National Solar Thermal...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    measuring the effects of aerodynamicheating on radar transmissions ... Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) On April 13, 2011, in CSP R&D at Sandia Testing Facilities Software &...

  15. Concentrating Solar Power Resources and Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides a brief overview of concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies supplemented by specific information to apply CSP within the Federal sector.

  16. A Community Atmosphere Model with Superparameterized Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall, David; Branson, Mark; Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.; Craig, Cheryl; Gettelman, A.; Edwards, Jim

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1999, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) scientists Wojciech Grabowski and Piotr Smolarkiewicz created a "multiscale" atmospheric model in which the physical processes associated with clouds were represented by running a simple high-resolution model within each grid column of a lowresolution global model. In idealized experiments, they found that the multiscale model produced promising simulations of organized tropical convection, which other models had struggled to produce. Inspired by their results, Colorado State University (CSU) scientists Marat Khairoutdinov and David Randall created a multiscale version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). They removed the cloud parameterizations of the CAM, and replaced them with Khairoutdinov's high-resolution cloud model. They dubbed the embedded cloud model a "super-parameterization," and the modified CAM is now called the "SP-CAM." Over the next several years, many scientists, from many institutions, have explored the ability of the SP-CAM to simulate tropical weather systems, the day-night changes of precipitation, the Asian and African monsoons, and a number of other climate processes. Cristiana Stan of the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions found that the SP-CAM gives improved results when coupled to an ocean model, and follow-on studies have explored the SP-CAM's utility when used as the atmospheric component of the Community Earth System Model. Much of this research has been performed under the auspices of the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes, a National Science Foundation (NSF) Science and Technology Center for which the lead institution is CSU.

  17. Rare earth element components in atmospheric particulates in the Bayan Obo mine region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lingqing, E-mail: wanglq@igsnrr.ac.cn; Liang, Tao, E-mail: liangt@igsnrr.ac.cn; Zhang, Qian; Li, Kexin

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bayan Obo mine, located in Inner Mongolia, China, is the largest light rare earth body ever found in the world. The research for rare earth elements (REEs) enrichment in atmospheric particulates caused by mining and ore processing is fairly limited so far. In this paper, atmospheric particulates including total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 ?m (PM{sub 10}) were collected around the Bayan Obo mine region, in August 2012 and March 2013, to analyze the levels and distributions of REEs in particles. The total concentrations of REEs for TSP were 149.8 and 239.6 ng/m{sup 3}, and those for PM{sub 10} were 42.8 and 68.9 ng/m{sup 3}, in August 2012 and March 2013, respectively. Enrichment factor was calculated for all 14 REEs in the TSP and PM{sub 10} and the results indicated that REEs enrichment in atmosphere particulates was caused by anthropogenic sources and influenced by the strong wind in springtime. The spatial distribution of REEs in TSP showed a strong gradient concentration in the prevailing wind direction. REE chondrite normalized patterns of TSP and PM{sub 10} were similar and the normalized curves inclined to the right side, showing the conspicuous fractionation between the light REEs and heavy REE, which supported by the chondrite normalized concentration ratios calculated for selected elements (La{sub N}/Yb{sub N}, La{sub N}/Sm{sub N}, Gd{sub N}/Yb{sub N}). - Highlights: • TSP and PM{sub 10} samples were collected to analyze the levels and distributions of REE. • Enrichment factors indicated that REE enrichment was caused by anthropogenic sources. • The distribution of REEs showed a strong gradient in the prevailing wind direction. • Obvious fractionation between LREEs and HREEs is observed in atmospheric particulates.

  18. Oil and gas exploration system and method for detecting trace amounts of hydrocarbon gases in the atmosphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wamsley, Paula R. (Littleton, CO); Weimer, Carl S. (Littleton, CO); Nelson, Loren D. (Evergreen, CO); O'Brien, Martin J. (Pine, CO)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oil and gas exploration system and method for land and airborne operations, the system and method used for locating subsurface hydrocarbon deposits based upon a remote detection of trace amounts of gases in the atmosphere. The detection of one or more target gases in the atmosphere is used to indicate a possible subsurface oil and gas deposit. By mapping a plurality of gas targets over a selected survey area, the survey area can be analyzed for measurable concentration anomalies. The anomalies are interpreted along with other exploration data to evaluate the value of an underground deposit. The system includes a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system with a spectroscopic grade laser light and a light detector. The laser light is continuously tunable in a mid-infrared range, 2 to 5 micrometers, for choosing appropriate wavelengths to measure different gases and avoid absorption bands of interference gases. The laser light has sufficient optical energy to measure atmospheric concentrations of a gas over a path as long as a mile and greater. The detection of the gas is based on optical absorption measurements at specific wavelengths in the open atmosphere. Light that is detected using the light detector contains an absorption signature acquired as the light travels through the atmosphere from the laser source and back to the light detector. The absorption signature of each gas is processed and then analyzed to determine if a potential anomaly exists.

  19. Measuring Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations with Neutrino Telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivone F. M. Albuquerque; George F. Smoot

    2001-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutrino telescopes with large detection volumes can demonstrate that the current indications of neutrino oscillation are correct or if a better description can be achieved with non-standard alternatives. Observations of contained muons produced by atmospheric neutrinos can better constrain the allowed region for oscillations or determine the relevant parameters of non-standard models. We analyze the possibility of neutrino telescopes measuring atmospheric neutrino oscillations. We suggest adjustments to improve this potential. An addition of four densely-instrumented strings to the AMANDA II detector makes observations feasible. Such a configuration is competitive with current and proposed experiments.

  20. Controlled atmosphere for fabrication of cermet electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, S.P.; Woods, R.W.

    1998-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for making an inert electrode composite wherein a metal oxide and a metal are reacted in a gaseous atmosphere at an elevated temperature of at least about 750 C. The metal oxide is at least one of the nickel, iron, tin, zinc and zirconium oxides and the metal is copper, silver, a mixture of copper and silver or a copper-silver alloy. The gaseous atmosphere has an oxygen content that is controlled at about 5--3000 ppm in order to obtain a desired composition in the resulting composite. 2 figs.

  1. Controlled atmosphere for fabrication of cermet electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for making an inert electrode composite wherein a metal oxide and a metal are reacted in a gaseous atmosphere at an elevated temperature of at least about 750.degree. C. The metal oxide is at least one of the nickel, iron, tin, zinc and zirconium oxides and the metal is copper, silver, a mixture of copper and silver or a copper-silver alloy. The gaseous atmosphere has an oxygen content that is controlled at about 5-3000 ppm in order to obtain a desired composition in the resulting composite.

  2. Apparatus for the field determination of concentration of radioactive constituents in a medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perkins, R.W.; Schilk, A.J.; Warner, R.A.; Wogman, N.A.

    1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The instant invention is an apparatus for determining the concentration of radioactive constituents in a test sample; such as surface soils, via rapid real-time analyses, and direct readout on location utilizing a probe made up of multiple layers of detection material used in combination with an analyzer and real-time readout unit. This is accomplished by comparing the signal received from the probe, which can discriminate between types of radiation and energies with stored patterns that are based upon experimental results. This comparison can be used in the calibration of a readout display that reads out in real-time the concentrations of constituents per given volume. For example, the concentration of constituents such as Cs-137, Sr-90, U-238 in the soil, and noble gas radionuclides such as Kr-85 in the atmosphere, can be measured in real-time, on location, without the need for laboratory analysis of samples. 14 figs.

  3. Concentrating Solar Power Commercial Application Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    Concentrating Solar Power Commercial Application Study: Reducing Water Consumption of Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation Report to Congress U.S. Department of Energy This report is being of the Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2001 (Public Law 106

  4. EFFECTS OF VARIOUS CONCENTRATIONS OF DDT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EFFECTS OF VARIOUS CONCENTRATIONS OF DDT ON SEVERAL SPECIES OF FISH OF DIFFERENT SIZES Marine Biiii OF VARIOUS CONCENTRATIONS OF DDT ON SEVERAL SPECIES OF FISH OF DIFFERENT SIZES Marine Binlo^'i., i i Report - Fisheries No. U EFFECTS OF VARIOUS 0ONCENTRATI)^S OF DDT ON SEVEKAL SPECIES OF FISH OF DIFFERENT

  5. Design of wetted wall bioaerosol concentration cyclones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Youngjin

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    wall bioaerosol cyclone concentrators that consume very low power and are capable of delivering very small liquid effluent flow rate of highly-concentrated hydrosol. The aerosol-to-aerosol penetration cutpoint for the cyclones is about 1µm. The aerosol...

  6. UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM CODES MAJORS AND CONCENTRATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Economics BS-ECON-3 BS Economics BS-FINM-3 BS Financial Management E132 Corporate Finance Emphasis E146 Quantitative Biology Emphasis E080 Toxicology Emphasis BS-ENR-1 BS Environmental and Natural Resources COBI Resources Management Concentration BS-FDSC-1 BS Food Science FDST Food Science and Technology Concentration

  7. Highly concentrated foam formulation for blast mitigation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM); Gao, Huizhen (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly concentrated foam formulation for blast suppression and dispersion mitigation for use in responding to a terrorism incident involving a radiological dispersion device. The foam formulation is more concentrated and more stable than the current blast suppression foam (AFC-380), which reduces the logistics burden on the user.

  8. Spatial Inference of Nitrate Concentrations in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Mike

    Spatial Inference of Nitrate Concentrations in Groundwater DAWN B. WOODARD, ROBERT L. WOLPERT in groundwater over the mid-Atlantic states, using measurements gathered during a pe- riod of ten years. A map- trations in air, pesticide concentrations in groundwater, or any other quantity that varies over

  9. Nuclear Emergency and the Atmospheric Dispersion of Nuclear Aerosols: Discussion of the Shared Nuclear Future - 13163

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rana, Mukhtar A. [Science-Admin Coherence Cell (SACC), PINSTECH Admin Blk, PAEC, Islamabad (Pakistan)] [Science-Admin Coherence Cell (SACC), PINSTECH Admin Blk, PAEC, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, Nawab [Physics Division, Directorate of Science, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)] [Physics Division, Directorate of Science, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Akhter, Parveen [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Islamabad (Pakistan)] [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Islamabad (Pakistan); Khan, E.U. [Department of Physics, International Islamic University (IIU), Kettle Fields, Kashmir Highways, Islamabad (Pakistan)] [Department of Physics, International Islamic University (IIU), Kettle Fields, Kashmir Highways, Islamabad (Pakistan); Mathieson, John [International Relations, Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), Building 587, Curie Avenue, Harwell, Didcot, Oxon, OX11 0RH (United Kingdom)] [International Relations, Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), Building 587, Curie Avenue, Harwell, Didcot, Oxon, OX11 0RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper has a twofold objective. One is to analyze the current status of high-level nuclear waste disposal along with presentation of practical perspectives about the environmental issues involved. Present disposal designs and concepts are analyzed on a scientific basis and modifications to existing designs are proposed from the perspective of environmental safety. Other is to understand the aerosol formation in the atmosphere for the case of the leakage from the nuclear waste containers or a nuclear accident. Radio-nuclides released from the waste will attach themselves to the existing aerosols in the atmosphere along with formation of new aerosols. Anticipating the nuclear accident when a variety of radioactive aerosols will form and exist in the atmosphere, as a simple example, measurement of naturally existing radioactive aerosols are made in the atmosphere of Islamabad and Murree. A comparison with similar measurements in 3 cities of France is provided. Measurement of radionuclides in the atmosphere, their attachment to aerosols and follow up transport mechanisms are key issues in the nuclear safety. It is studied here how {sup 7}Be concentration in the atmospheric air varies in the capital city of Islamabad and a Himalaya foothill city of Murree (Pakistan). Present results are compared with recent related published results to produce a {sup 7}Be concentration versus altitude plot up to an altitude of 4000 m (a.s.l.). Origin and variance of {sup 7}Be concentration at different altitudes is discussed in detail. The relevance of results presented here with the evaluation of implications of Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear disasters has been discussed in a conclusive manner. It is the first international report of a joint collaboration/project. The project is being generalized to investigate and formulate a smooth waste storage and disposal policy. The project will address the fission and fusion waste reduction, its storage, its recycling, air, water and soil quality monitoring, and the final disposal with the major foci of dealing with related chemical, biogical, physical, geophysical, engineering, management and administration aspects. (authors)

  10. Causes and Implications of Persistent Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Biases in Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL] [ORNL; Randerson, James T. [University of California, Irvine] [University of California, Irvine; Arora, Vivek K. [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Meteorological Service of Canada] [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Meteorological Service of Canada; Bao, Qing [State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics] [State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics; Cadule, Patricia [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environment] [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environment; Ji, Duoying [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing] [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing; Jones, Chris D. [Hadley Centre, U.K. Met Office] [Hadley Centre, U.K. Met Office; Kawamiya, Michio [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC)] [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC); Khatiwala, Samar [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY] [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY; Lindsay, Keith [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)] [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Obata, Atsushi [Meteorological Research Institute, Japan] [Meteorological Research Institute, Japan; Shevliakova, Elena [Princeton University] [Princeton University; Six, Katharina D. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany] [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany; Tjiputra, Jerry F. [Uni Climate, Uni Research] [Uni Climate, Uni Research; Volodin, Evgeny M. [Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow] [Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow; Wu, Tongwen [China Meteorological Administration (CMA), Beijing] [China Meteorological Administration (CMA), Beijing

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The strength of feedbacks between a changing climate and future CO2 concentrations are uncertain and difficult to predict using Earth System Models (ESMs). We analyzed emission-driven simulations--in which atmospheric CO2 levels were computed prognostically--for historical (1850-2005) and future periods (RCP 8.5 for 2006-2100) produced by 15 ESMs for the Fifth Phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Comparison of ESM prognostic atmospheric CO2 over the historical period with observations indicated that ESMs, on average, had a small positive bias in predictions of contemporary atmospheric CO2. Weak ocean carbon uptake in many ESMs contributed to this bias, based on comparisons with observations of ocean and atmospheric anthropogenic carbon inventories. We found a significant linear relationship between contemporary atmospheric CO2 biases and future CO2 levels for the multi-model ensemble. We used this relationship to create a contemporary CO2 tuned model (CCTM) estimate of the atmospheric CO2 trajectory for the 21st century. The CCTM yielded CO2 estimates of 600 {plus minus} 14 ppm at 2060 and 947 {plus minus} 35 ppm at 2100, which were 21 ppm and 32 ppm below the multi-model mean during these two time periods. Using this emergent constraint approach, the likely ranges of future atmospheric CO2, CO2-induced radiative forcing, and CO2-induced temperature increases for the RCP 8.5 scenario were considerably narrowed compared to estimates from the full ESM ensemble. Our analysis provided evidence that much of the model-to-model variation in projected CO2 during the 21st century was tied to biases that existed during the observational era, and that model differences in the representation of concentration-carbon feedbacks and other slowly changing carbon cycle processes appear to be the primary driver of this variability. By improving models to more closely match the long-term time series of CO2 from Mauna Loa, our analysis suggests uncertainties in future climate projections can be reduced.

  11. Microlensing Effects in Atmospheres of Substars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. A. Berdina; A. A. Minakov

    2007-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the present work is the study of focusing properties of atmospheres of substars that is necessary for adequate interpreting of observational data and for solving the inverse problem consisting in recovery parameters of 'microlenses' (substars) and sources (quasars). Amplification factor for a quasar image as projected onto the field of microlenses-substars was computed for optical and radio wavelengths.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF CLOUDS IN TITAN'S TROPICAL ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.; Penteado, Paulo [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Rodriguez, Sebastien [Laboratoire AIM, Universite Paris 7/CNRS/CEA-Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SAp (France); Le Mouelic, Stephane [Laboratoire de Planetologie et Geodynamique, CNRS, UMR-6112, Universite de Nantes, 44000 Nantes (France); Baines, Kevin H.; Buratti, Bonnie; Sotin, Christophe [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Clark, Roger [U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Nicholson, Phil [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Jaumann, Ralf [Institute of Planetary Exploration, Deutsche Zentrum, fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (Germany)

    2009-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Images of Titan's clouds, possible over the past 10 years, indicate primarily discrete convective methane clouds near the south and north poles and an immense stratiform cloud, likely composed of ethane, around the north pole. Here we present spectral images from Cassini's Visual Mapping Infrared Spectrometer that reveal the increasing presence of clouds in Titan's tropical atmosphere. Radiative transfer analyses indicate similarities between summer polar and tropical methane clouds. Like their southern counterparts, tropical clouds consist of particles exceeding 5 {mu}m. They display discrete structures suggestive of convective cumuli. They prevail at a specific latitude band between 8 deg. - 20 deg. S, indicative of a circulation origin and the beginning of a circulation turnover. Yet, unlike the high latitude clouds that often reach 45 km altitude, these discrete tropical clouds, so far, remain capped to altitudes below 26 km. Such low convective clouds are consistent with the highly stable atmospheric conditions measured at the Huygens landing site. Their characteristics suggest that Titan's tropical atmosphere has a dry climate unlike the south polar atmosphere, and despite the numerous washes that carve the tropical landscape.

  13. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ventilation rate'' of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  14. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ``ventilation rate`` of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  15. 1999 Gordon Research Conference on Atmospheric Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storm, C.

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Atmospheric Chemistry was held at Salve Regina University in Newport, Rhode Island, June 13-18, 1999. The conference was well attended with 151 participants. The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both US and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students.

  16. Ocean Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil User's Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OASIS3 Ocean Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil User's Guide oasis3 prism 2­2, June 2004 Sophie Valcke 1 to realize a coupled simulation with OASIS3. The aim of OASIS3 is to provide a flexible and user friendly. OASIS3 synchronizes the exchanges of coupling fields between the models being coupled, and performs 2D

  17. Ocean Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil User's Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OASIS3 Ocean Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil User's Guide oasis3 prism 2­3, August 2004 Sophie Valcke 1 to realize a coupled simulation with OASIS3. The aim of OASIS3 is to provide a flexible and user friendly. OASIS3 synchronizes the exchanges of coupling fields between the models being coupled, and performs 2D

  18. Ocean Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil User's Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OASIS 2.0 Ocean Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil User's Guide and Reference Manual November 1995 Laurent for the straightforward use of OASIS 2.0. As far as we know, it is the best way to use it! The aim of OASIS is to provide been particularly emphasized in the OASIS design. The use of OASIS does not change the way the models

  19. Analysis methods for Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu de Naurois

    2006-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Three different analysis techniques for Atmospheric Imaging System are presented. The classical Hillas parameters based technique is shown to be robust and efficient, but more elaborate techniques can improve the sensitivity of the analysis. A comparison of the different analysis techniques shows that they use different information for gamma-hadron separation, and that it is possible to combine their qualities.

  20. Ch.6 Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    ;Learning Objective Four: Driving forces of wind #12;Driving Forces within the Atmosphere Gravity. #12;Pressure gradient determines wind speed #12; The Coriolis force is an effect of Earth's rotation direction due to the pressure gradient force alone #12;Geostrophic Wind Pressure gradient force + Coriolis

  1. Exploring the Deep... Ocean-Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    Climate oscillations 97 #12;Storing energy To understand how solar radiation affects large-scale processes), and biosphere (living organisms) that are driven by solar energy. The ocean and the atmosphere have the greatest on the others. To fully understand the dynamics of our climate, we must examine the global energy balance

  2. Atmospheric Data Package for the Composite Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Ramsdell, James V.

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this data package is to summarize our conceptual understanding of atmospheric transport and deposition, describe how this understanding will be simplified for numerical simulation as part of the Composite Analysis (i.e., implementation model), and finally to provide the input parameters needed for the simulations.

  3. The mean molecular mass of Titan's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    , Mars, Mars #12;Science Questions · Mean molecular mass (µ) -> Chemical composition · How did Titan form? · Current reservoirs of volatiles · Ethane/methane puddles/ocean · Thermal structure of atmosphere #12, delicate, etc ­ T/p sensors are simple, cheap, reliable · Is it possible to know µ based on simple

  4. Characterizing Titan's Upper Atmosphere Using the Titan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    methane chemical losses. INMS Data T-GITM Bell et al. [2010b] #12;Constraints on Escape · Parameter Sweep-Thermosphere Model (GITM) · 3-D, non-hydrostatic, altitude-based atmospheric model ­ Compressible Navier (TVD) MUSCL Scheme. ­ Block-based Massively Parallel Framework ­ Updating with 4th order Runge

  5. MIDDLE ATMOSPHERE DYNAMICS ATS 708 (3 credits)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Academic Integrity Policy as found in the General Catalog (http://www.catalog.colostate.edu/FrontPDF/1, 1987, Andrews, Holton, Leovy, Academic Press. · Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics, 2006, Vallis Articles (alphabetically): · Baldwin et al., 2001: The quasi-biennial oscillation. Rev. Geophys., 39, 1979

  6. THE LOWER SOLAR ATMOSPHERE ROBERT J. RUTTEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutten, Rob

    THE LOWER SOLAR ATMOSPHERE ROBERT J. RUTTEN Sterrekundig Instituut, Postbus 80 000, NL­3508 TA, Utrecht, The Netherlands Abstract. This "rapporteur" report discusses the solar photosphere and low does not seem to jeopardize precise determination of solar abundances in classical fashion. It is still

  7. Connectivity To Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish DOE and NNSA connectivity to Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) for sites and facilities that have the potential for releasing hazardous materials sufficient to generate certain emergency declarations and to promote efficient use of resources for consequence assessment activities at DOE sites, facilities, operations, and activities in planning for and responding to emergency events. No cancellations.

  8. Propagation of strangelets in the Earth's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fei Wu; Ren-Xin Xu; Bo-Qiang Ma

    2007-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A new model for the description of the behaviour of strangelets in the Earth's atmosphere is presented. Strangelet fission induced by collision with air nuclei is included. It is shown that strangelets with certain parameters of initial mass and energy may reach depths near sea level, which can be examined by ground-based experiments.

  9. JournalofGeophysicalResearch: Atmospheres RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Folkins, Ian

    convection to start from more levels · Simple modification of convective parameterization Correspondence to of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4), we show that the overall accuracy in the diurnal simulation of convective rise to diurnal cycles in cloud amount [May et al., 2012] and relative humidity [Soden, 2000] which

  10. Land and Atmospheric Science GRAD STUDENT HANDBOOK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    , transport, and fate of pollutants in soil, air, and water; improving and protecting land, air, and water, Policy and Management Agricultural Industries and Marketing The Department occupies the entire Soil are predominantly occupied by Soil Morphology and Genesis, Environmental Biophysics, and Atmospheric Sciences, plus

  11. Plants, Weathering, and the Evolution of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berner, Robert A

    2008-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past six years we have published 24 papers that can be divided into three sections: (1) Study of plants and weathering, (2) modeling the evolution of atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic time (past 550 million years). (3) Modeling of atmospheric O2 over Phanerozoic time. References to papers published acknowledging this grant can be found at the end of this report and almost all are supplied in pdf form. (1) In the temperate forests of the Cascade Mountains, USA, calcium and magnesium meet vastly different fates beneath angiosperms vs gymnosperms. Calcium is leached beneath both groves of trees, but leached 20-40% more beneath the angiosperms. Magnesium is retained in the forest system beneath the angiosperms and leached from beneath the gymnosperms. (2) We have shown that climate and CO2, based on both carbon cycle modeling and hundreds of independent proxies for paleo-CO2, correlate very well over the past 550 million year. In a recent paper we use this correlation to deduce the sensitivity of global mean temperature to a doubling of atmospheric CO2, and results are in excellent agreement with the results of climatologists based on the historical record and on theoretical climate models (GCM’s).(3) We have shown that concentrations of atmospheric oxygen, calculated by a combined carbon-sulfur cycle model, over the past 550 million years have varied with and influenced biological evolution.

  12. CFD Simulations of Joint Urban Atmospheric Dispersion Field Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, R; Humphreys III, T; Chan, S

    2004-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to the understanding of urban wind flow and dispersion processes has gained increasing attention over recent years. While many of the simpler dispersion models are based on a set of prescribed meteorology to calculate dispersion, the CFD approach has the ability of coupling the wind field to dispersion processes. This has distinct advantages when very detailed results are required, such as for the case where the releases occur around buildings and within urban areas. CFD also has great flexibility as a testbed for turbulence models, which has important implications for atmospheric dispersion problems. In the spring of 2003, a series of dispersion field experiments (Joint Urban 2003) were conducted at Oklahoma City (Allwine, et. al, 2004). These experiments were complimentary to the URBAN 2000 field studies at Salt Lake City (Shinn, et. al, 2000) in that they will provide a second set of comprehensive field data for evaluation of CFD as well as for other dispersion models. In contrast to the URBAN 2000 experiments that were conducted entirely at night, these new field studies took place during both daytime and nighttime thus including the possibility of convective as well as stable atmospheric conditions. Initially several CFD modeling studies were performed to provide guidance for the experimental team in the selection of release sites and in the deployment of wind and concentration sensors. Also, while meteorological and concentration measurements were taken over the greater Oklahoma City urban area, our CFD calculations were focused on the near field of the release point. The proximity of the source to a large commercial building and to the neighboring buildings several of which have multistories, present a significant challenge even for CFD calculations involving grid resolutions as fine as 1 meter. A total of 10 Intensive Observations Periods (IOP's) were conducted within the 2003 field experiments. SF6 releases in the form of puffs or continuous sources were disseminated over 6 daytime and 4 nighttime episodes. Many wind and concentration sensors were used to provide wind and SF6 data over both long and short time-averaging periods. In addition to the usual near surface measurements, data depicting vertical profiles of wind and concentrations adjacent to the outside walls of several buildings were also taken. Also of interest were observations of the trajectory of balloons that were deployed close to the tracer release area. Many of the balloons released exhibit extremely quick ascents up from ground level to the top of buildings, thus implying highly convective conditions. In this paper we will present some simulations that were performed during the planning of the field experiments. The calculations were based on two possible release sites at the intersections of Sheridan and Robinson, and Broadway and Sheridan. These results provided initial information on flow and dispersion patterns, which could be used to guide optimal placement of sensors at appropriate locations. We will also discuss results of more recent simulations for several releases in which reliable data is available. These simulations will be compared with the near field data taken from the wind sensors as well as the time-averaged data from the concentration sensors. Among the other topics discussed are initial and boundary conditions used in the simulations, adaptation of building GIS data for CFD modeling and analysis of field data.

  13. Requirements for Statistics Concentration The Statistics concentration or major may be tailored in accordance with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stine, Robert A.

    Requirements for Statistics Concentration 6/9/11 The Statistics concentration or major are required, with at least 3 credit units from Statistics. STAT 621 may contribute in Statistics The following courses offered by the Department of Statistics are eligible

  14. Mercury concentrations in Maine sport fishes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stafford, C.P. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States)] [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Haines, T.A. [Geological Survey, Orono, ME (United States)] [Geological Survey, Orono, ME (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To assess mercury contamination of fish in Maine, fish were collected from 120 randomly selected lakes. The collection goal for each lake was five fish of the single most common sport fish species within the size range commonly harvested by anglers. Skinless, boneless fillets of fish from each lake were composited, homogenized, and analyzed for total mercury. The two most abundant species, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, were also analyzed individually. The composite fish analyses indicate high concentrations of mercury, particularly in large and long-lived nonsalmonid species. Chain pickerel Esox niger, smallmouth bass, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, and white perch Morone americana had the highest average mercury concentrations, and brook trout and yellow perch Perca flavescens had the lowest. The mean species composite mercury concentration was positively correlated with a factor incorporating the average size and age of the fish. Lakes containing fish with high mercury concentrations were not clustered near known industrial or population centers but were commonest in the area within 150 km of the seacoast, reflecting the geographical distribution of species that contained higher mercury concentrations. Stocked and wild brook trout were not different in length or weight, but wild fish were older and had higher mercury concentrations. Fish populations maintained by frequent introductions of hatchery-produced fish and subject to high angler exploitation rates may consist of younger fish with lower exposure to environmental mercury and thus contain lower concentrations than wild populations.

  15. Calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux using the interaction model calibrated with atmospheric muon data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honda, M.; Kajita, T.; Kasahara, K.; Midorikawa, S.; Sanuki, T

    2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the 'modified DPMJET-III' model explained in the previous paper [T. Sanuki et al., preceding Article, Phys. Rev. D 75, 043005 (2007).], we calculate the atmospheric neutrino flux. The calculation scheme is almost the same as HKKM04 [M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, and S. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. D 70, 043008 (2004).], but the usage of the 'virtual detector' is improved to reduce the error due to it. Then we study the uncertainty of the calculated atmospheric neutrino flux summarizing the uncertainties of individual components of the simulation. The uncertainty of K-production in the interaction model is estimated using other interaction models: FLUKA'97 and FRITIOF 7.02, and modifying them so that they also reproduce the atmospheric muon flux data correctly. The uncertainties of the flux ratio and zenith angle dependence of the atmospheric neutrino flux are also studied.

  16. Efficiency enhancement of luminescent solar concentrations for photovoltaic technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunhua

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LSCs in concentration solar radiation without tracking. TheLSCs in concentration solar radiation without tracking. Thesolar concentrators based on lens and mirrors with tracking

  17. Uniform flux dish concentrators for photovoltaic application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgensen, G; Wendelin, T

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have designed a unique and innovative molded dish concentrator capable of producing a uniform flux profile on a flat target plane. Concentration levels of 100--200 suns, which are uniform over an area of several square inches, can be directly achieved for collection apertures of a reasonable size ({approximately}1.5-m diameter). Such performance would be immediately applicable to photovoltaic (PV) use. Economic concerns have shown that the proposed approach would be less expensive thatn Fresnel lens concepts or other dish concentrator designs that require complicated and costly receivers to mix the flux to obtain a uniform distribution. 12 refs.

  18. Seasonal formaldehyde concentrations in an office building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konopinski, V.J.

    1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this investigation was to determine if there was a seasonal effect on formaldehyde emissions from paneling and shelving in a one story office building. Measurement of formaldehyde was done by standard impinger sampling techniques using 1% bisulfite absorbing solution and by using a dry diffusional formaldehyde monitor. Results show a definite seasonal trend for formaldehyde concentrations by either monitoring method. The formaldehyde concentrations for warm weather are about twice as great as those in cold weather. In addition the dry diffusional monitor concentrations determined were consistently low compared to impinger sampling.

  19. Concentric ring flywheel without expansion separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A concentric ring flywheel wherein the adjacent rings are configured to eliminate the need for differential expansion separators between the adjacent rings. This is accomplished by forming a circumferential step on an outer surface of an inner concentric ring and forming a matching circumferential step on the inner surface of an adjacent outer concentric ring. During operation the circumferential steps allow the rings to differentially expand due to the difference in the radius of the rings without the formation of gaps therebetween, thereby eliminating the need for expansion separators to take up the gaps formed by differential expansion.

  20. Concentric ring flywheel without expansion separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A concentric ring flywheel wherein the adjacent rings are configured to eliminate the need for differential expansion separators between the adjacent rings. This is accomplished by forming a circumferential step on an outer surface of an inner concentric ring and forming a matching circumferential step on the inner surface of an adjacent outer concentric ring. During operation the circumferential steps allow the rings to differentially expand due to the difference in the radius of the rings without the formation of gaps therebetween, thereby eliminating the need for expansion separators to take up the gaps formed by differential expansion. 3 figs.

  1. EAS/CEE 6795 Atmospheric Aerosols Fall 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Rodney

    EAS/CEE 6795 Atmospheric Aerosols Fall 2011 Mon Wed Fri ­ 11 concepts of aerosol physics with applications to atmospheric aerosols. Text Book: Hinds, Aerosol Technology: Properties, behavior and measurement of airborne particles

  2. iDirector with Alex Laskin: Atmospheric aerosols | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alex Laskin: Atmospheric aerosols iDirector with Alex Laskin: Atmospheric aerosols Released: September 03, 2014 iDirector with Alex Laskin iDirector interview with EMSL scientist...

  3. Planetary, Atmospheric, and Environmental Applications of Physics Frank Mills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ying

    Planetary, Atmospheric, and Environmental Applications of Physics Frank Mills Atomic and Molecular solar energy production Evaluating, forecasting, and managing suburb-scale distributed solar electricity production My research applies physics to a range of problems in planetary, atmospheric, and environmental

  4. atmospheric water transport: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stenzel, Oliver J 2009-01-01 2 Atmospheric Water Vapor Transport and the Water Balance of North America: Part I CiteSeer Summary: The atmospheric water vapor flux divergence and...

  5. CollegeofEarth,Ocean, andAtmosphericSciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Chemistry for Environmental Sciences 490 Environmental Conservation & Sustainability 577 Environmental, and Atmospheric Sciences Environmental Sciences Earth Sciences Geology Option Geography Option Earth Systems Sciences or Environmental Sciences** The new College of Earth Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences (CEOAS) has

  6. Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres, Part 0: General introduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IEC Technical Committee

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Recommendation has been prepared by IEC Technical Committee No. 31, Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Atmospheres; It forms one of a series of publications dealing with electrical apparatus for use in explosive gas atmospheres. This particular...

  7. Mesoscale coupled ocean-atmosphere feedbacks in boundary current systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Putrasahan, Dian Ariyani

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isolating Mesoscale Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere in the KuroshioSST coupler . . . . Chapter 3 Mesoscale Ocean-Atmosphere4.2 Impact of Mesoscale SST on Precipitation Chapter 4 vi

  8. A Temperature and Abundance Retrieval Method for Exoplanet Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madhusudhan, Nikku

    We present a new method to retrieve molecular abundances and temperature profiles from exoplanet atmosphere photometry and spectroscopy. We run millions of one-dimensional (1D) atmosphere models in order to cover the large ...

  9. Land-atmosphere interaction and radiative-convective equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Timothy (Timothy Wallace)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I present work on several topics related to land-atmosphere interaction and radiative-convective equilibrium: the first two research chapters invoke ideas related to land-atmosphere interaction to better understand ...

  10. Trends and inferred emissions of atmospheric high molecular weight perfluorocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivy, Diane Jean

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric observations and atmospheric observation-based global emission estimates are presented for the five high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs): decafluorobutane (C 4 F 1 0 ), dodecafluoropentane (C5 F1 2 ), ...

  11. Concentrator E-F11 water test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ethington, P.R.

    1994-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the Process Test Report for performing operation testing with water of the modified E-F11 concentrator in PUREX on water. The test was performed to determine the effects of the following concentrator modifications; routing concentrator off-gasses via the PUREX air tunnel to the main stack, blanking of condenser cooling water, blanking of process condensate route to a crib, restricting flow to steam tube bundles, and routing of steam condensate to TK-F12. The test was successful. Concentrator boil-off rates of 6--7 gpm were achieved while the overheads exited the PUREX plant in vapor form. With minor recommended modifications, this process is recommended for use in processing PUREX deactivation flush solutions and other miscellaneous wastes accumulated during the completion of the deactivation project.

  12. Physics and Astronomy Engineering Electronics Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    Physics and Astronomy Engineering Electronics Concentration Strongly recommended courses Credits PHY 3230 Thermal Physics 2 PHY 4330 Digital Electronics 3 PHY 4635 Advanced Microprocessors Grade PHY 4020 Computational Methods in Physics & Engineering 3 PHY 4620 Optics 4 PHY 4735

  13. Gas concentration cells for utilizing energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salomon, R.E.

    1987-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for utilizing energy, in which the apparatus may be used for generating electricity or as a heat pump. When used as an electrical generator, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first gas concentration cell is heated and generates electricity. The second gas concentration cell repressurizes the gas which travels between the cells. The electrical energy which is generated by the first cell drives the second cell as well as an electrical load. When used as a heat pump, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first cell is supplied with electrical energy from a direct current source and releases heat. The second cell absorbs heat. The apparatus has no moving parts and thus approximates a heat engine. 4 figs.

  14. Gas concentration cells for utilizing energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salomon, Robert E. (Philadelphia, PA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for utilizing energy, in which the apparatus may be used for generating electricity or as a heat pump. When used as an electrical generator, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first gas concentration cell is heated and generates electricity. The second gas concentration cell repressurizes the gas which travels between the cells. The electrical energy which is generated by the first cell drives the second cell as well as an electrical load. When used as a heat pump, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first cell is supplied with electrical energy from a direct current source and releases heat. The second cell absorbs heat. The apparatus has no moving parts and thus approximates a heat engine.

  15. Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide scientific, engineering, and analytical expertise to help advance innovation in concentrating solar power (CSP). This fact sheet summarizes how NREL is advancing CSP research.

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2012, in CSP Images & Videos On September 26, 2012, in Image Gallery Videos Concentrating Solar Power Image Gallery A picture says a thousand words, especially on the World Wide...

  17. atmosphere research launch: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 research staff and postdoctoral scientists More than 5M per, climate change, radar meteorology, tropical meteorology Atmospheric Chemistry - fundamental...

  18. atmospheric sciences program: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Certification for Atmospheric Sciences Undergraduate Students The Computational Science and Engineering certificate program is designed to provide ATMS under- graduate...

  19. antioxidant impacting atmospheric: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    impacts on marine biogeochemistry Zender, Charles 13 Impacts of herbaceous bioenergy crops on atmospheric volatile organic composition and potential consequences...

  20. On the suitability of partially clathrated ice for analysis of concentration and 13 palaeo-atmospheric CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappellaz, Jérôme

    dioxide stable carbon isotope ratio ice core bubble clathrate transformation EPICA Dome C Berkner Island form 3 May 2011 Accepted 4 May 2011 Available online 28 May 2011 Editor: P. DeMenocal Keywords: carbon The stable carbon isotopic signature of carbon dioxide (13 CO2) measured in the air occlusions of polar ice

  1. Summary Human activities are increasing the concentra-tions of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and tropospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to forest soils. Because the quality and quantity of labile and recalcitrant carbon (C) com- pounds, soluble phenolics and condensed tannins. Elevated [CO2] significantly increased lit- ter biomass] and tropospheric [O3] that we observed, combined with changes in litter biomass production, could significantly

  2. The Seasonal Cycle of Atmospheric Heating and Temperature AARON DONOHOE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Battisti, David

    The Seasonal Cycle of Atmospheric Heating and Temperature AARON DONOHOE Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts DAVID S. BATTISTI Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University) ABSTRACT The seasonal cycle of the heating of the atmosphere is divided into a component due to direct

  3. Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Learned, John

    Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects Within The Frame Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3 Contents Abstract 2 1 Introduction 6 1.1 Problem background

  4. School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Georgia Institute of Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Rodney

    School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Georgia Institute of Technology Strategic Plan March 1 opportunities. Vision The vision of the School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences is: To lead in innovative research and educate the future leaders in earth and atmospheric sciences for the 21st century, within

  5. Atmospheric perturbations of large-scale nuclear war

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malone, R.C.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computer simulation of the injection into the atmosphere of a large quantity of smoke following a nuclear war are described. The focus is on what might happen to the smoke after it enters the atmosphere and what changes, or perturbations, could be induced in the atmospheric structure and circulation by the pressure of a large quantity of smoke. 4 refs., 7 figs. (ACR)

  6. ANNOUNCEMENT Project Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) 2006 TRAINING SCHOOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    composition, radiative effects and transport of atmospheric aerosols and related atmospheric pollutanANNOUNCEMENT Project Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) 2006 TRAINING SCHOOL Project ABC Science consequences of the haze involve regional and global climate change, impacts on ecosystem, the water cycle

  7. Performance of the STACEE Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STACEE Collaboration; D. A. Williams; D. Bhattacharya; L. M. Boone; M. C. Chantell; Z. Conner; C. E. Covault; M. Dragovan; P. Fortin; D. Gingrich; D. T. Gregorich; D. S. Hanna; G. Mohanty; R. Mukherjee; R. A. Ong; S. Oser; K. Ragan; R. A. Scalzo; D. R. Schuette; C. G. Theoret; T. O. Tumer; F. Vincent; J. A. Zweerink

    2000-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is located at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The field of solar tracking mirrors (heliostats) around a central receiver tower is used to direct Cherenkov light from atmospheric showers onto secondary mirrors on the tower, which in turn image the light onto cameras of photomultiplier tubes. The STACEE Collaboration has previously reported a detection of the Crab Nebula with approximately 7 standard deviation significance, using 32 heliostats (STACEE-32). This result demonstrates both the viability of the technique and the suitability of the site. We are in the process of completing an upgrade to 48 heliostats (STACEE-48) en route to an eventual configuration using 64 heliostats (STACEE-64) in early 2001. In this paper, we summarize the results obtained on the sensitivity of STACEE-32 and our expectations for STACEE-48 and STACEE-64.

  8. Performance of the STACEE Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, D A; Boone, L M; Chantell, M C; Conner, Z; Covault, C E; Dragovan, M; Fortin, P; Gingrich, D M; Gregorich, D T; Hanna, D S; Mohanty, G B; Mukherjee, R; Ong, R A; Oser, S M; Ragan, K; Scalzo, R A; Schütte, D R; Theoret, C G; Tümer, T O; Vincent, F; Zweerink, J A

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is located at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The field of solar tracking mirrors (heliostats) around a central receiver tower is used to direct Cherenkov light from atmospheric showers onto secondary mirrors on the tower, which in turn image the light onto cameras of photomultiplier tubes. The STACEE Collaboration has previously reported a detection of the Crab Nebula with approximately 7 standard deviation significance, using 32 heliostats (STACEE-32). This result demonstrates both the viability of the technique and the suitability of the site. We are in the process of completing an upgrade to 48 heliostats (STACEE-48) en route to an eventual configuration using 64 heliostats (STACEE-64) in early 2001. In this paper, we summarize the results obtained on the sensitivity of STACEE-32 and our expectations for STACEE-48 and STACEE-64.

  9. Improved detection of atmospheric turbulence with SLODAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Goodwin; Charles Jenkins; Andrew Lambert

    2007-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss several improvements in the detection of atmospheric turbulence using SLOpe Detection And Ranging (SLODAR). Frequently, SLODAR observations have shown strong ground-layer turbulence, which is beneficial to adaptive optics. We show that current methods which neglect atmospheric propagation effects can underestimate the strength of high altitude turbulence by up to ~ 30%. We show that mirror and dome seeing turbulence can be a significant fraction of measured ground-layer turbulence, some cases up to ~ 50%. We also demonstrate a novel technique to improve the nominal height resolution, by a factor of 3, called Generalized SLODAR. This can be applied when sampling high-altitude turbulence, where the nominal height resolution is the poorest, or for resolving details in the important ground-layer.

  10. Atmospheric rivers as Lagrangian coherent structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garaboa, Daniel; Huhn, Florian; Perez-Muñuzuri, Vicente

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that filamentous Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) over the Northern Atlantic Ocean are closely linked to attracting Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) in the large scale wind field. LCSs represent lines of attraction in the evolving flow with a significant impact on all passive tracers. Using Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponents (FTLE), we extract LCSs from a two-dimensional flow derived from water vapor flux of atmospheric reanalysis data and compare them to the three-dimensional LCS obtained from the wind flow. We correlate the typical filamentous water vapor patterns of ARs with LCSs and find that LCSs bound the filaments on the back side. Passive advective transport of water vapor from tropical latitudes is potentially possible.

  11. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

    1993-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed reactor system is disclosed and claimed along with a process for utilization of same for the combustion of, e.g. high sulfur content coal. The system affords a economical, ecologically acceptable alternative to oil and gas fired combustors. The apparatus may also be employed for endothermic reaction, combustion of waste products, e.g., organic and medical waste, drying materials, heating air, calcining and the like.

  12. Extraction of Freshwater and Energy from Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Author offers and researches a new, cheap method for the extraction of freshwater from the Earth atmosphere. The suggected method is fundamentally dictinct from all existing methods that extract freshwater from air. All other industrial methods extract water from a saline water source (in most cases from seawater). This new method may be used at any point in the Earth except Polar Zones. It does not require long-distance freshwater transportation. If seawater is not utilized for increasing its productivity, this inexpensive new method is very environment-friendly. The author method has two working versions: (1) the first variant the warm (hot) atmospheric air is lifted by the inflatable tube in a high altitude and atmospheric steam is condenced into freswater: (2) in the second version, the warm air is pumped 20-30 meters under the sea-surface. In the first version, wind and solar heating of air are used for causing air flow. In version (2) wind and propeller are used for causing air movment. The first method does not need energy, the second needs a small amount. Moreover, in variant (1) the freshwater has a high pressure (>30 or more atm.) and can be used for production of energy such as electricity and in that way the freshwater cost is lower. For increasing the productivity the seawater is injected into air and solar air heater may be used. The solar air heater produces a huge amount of electricity as a very powerful electricity generation plant. The offered electricity installation in 100 - 200 times cheaper than any common electric plant of equivalent output. Key words: Extraction freshwater, method of getting freshwater, receiving energy from atmosphere, powerful renewal electric plant.

  13. Geochemistry of Surface-Atmosphere Interactions on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    state of the surface? #12;Carbonates on Venus ¥ CaCO3+SiO2 = CaSiO3+CO2(g) ¥ Psurface = Pbuffer. ¥ S in lower atmosphere is kinetically controlled ¥ CaCO3 + SO2 = CaSO4 + CO removes SO2 , deposits CaSO4 ¥ Fe rates ¥ Need more data, new spacecraft instruments #12;Handy Minerals ¥ SiO2 Quartz ¥ CaCO3 Calcite ¥ Ca

  14. Atmospheric Neutrinos at Super-Kamiokande

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Scholberg; for the Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    1999-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1998, the Super-Kamiokande announced evidence for the observation of neutrino oscillations based on measurements of the atmospheric neutrino flux. This paper presents the updated results for fully and partially-contained events with 736 days of data, as well as upward-going muon results and a global analysis. Preliminary interpretations of the results in terms of various two-flavor oscillation hypotheses are presented.

  15. ATMOSPHERIC CO2 A GLOBAL LIMITING RESOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    Carbondioxideatmosphericburden,PgC Land use Fossil CO2 from land use emissions ­ not fossil fuel combustion ­ was the dominant CO2 Comparison of CO2 mixing ratio from fossil fuel combustion and land use changes 400 380 360 340 cores 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 Forcing,Wm -2 #12;ATMOSPHERIC CO2 EMISSIONS Time series 1700

  16. Clustering of Aerosols in Atmospheric Turbulent Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Elperin; N. Kleeorin; M. A. Liberman; V. L'vov; I. Rogachevskii

    2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A mechanism of formation of small-scale inhomogeneities in spatial distributions of aerosols and droplets associated with clustering instability in the atmospheric turbulent flow is discussed. The particle clustering is a consequence of a spontaneous breakdown of their homogeneous space distribution due to the clustering instability, and is caused by a combined effect of the particle inertia and a finite correlation time of the turbulent velocity field. In this paper a theoretical approach proposed in Phys. Rev. E 66, 036302 (2002) is further developed and applied to investigate the mechanisms of formation of small-scale aerosol inhomogeneities in the atmospheric turbulent flow. The theory of the particle clustering instability is extended to the case when the particle Stokes time is larger than the Kolmogorov time scale, but is much smaller than the correlation time at the integral scale of turbulence. We determined the criterion of the clustering instability for the Stokes number larger than 1. We discussed applications of the analyzed effects to the dynamics of aerosols and droplets in the atmospheric turbulent flow.

  17. Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM); Henins, Ivars (Los Alamos, NM); Babayan, Steve E. (Huntington Beach, CA); Hicks, Robert F. (Los Angeles, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two planar, parallel electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the volume therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly spacing the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, there is a negligible density of ions surviving for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike the situation for low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  18. High concentrations of trace metals in oysters from the Patuxent River, Maryland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riedel, G.; Sanders, J.; Abbe, G. [Academy of Natural Sciences, St. Leonard, MD (United States). Benedict Estuarine Research Center

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) populations from the Patuxent River have been analyzed for trace metals by a number of organizations over at least the past 19 years. During that period, high concentrations of Cu (200--500 {micro}g/g dry weight), Cd (3--7 {micro}g/g) and Ag (2--8 /{micro}g/g) have been found in oysters from the oyster bars furthest up river. In particular, Cd values in oysters from this region have had concentrations approaching or exceeding current FDA warning levels throughout the period. In previous studies it was suggested that a coal-burning power plant located in that region, Chalk Point Steam Electric Station, was responsible for the copper enrichment due to the corrosion of Cu/Ni alloy condenser tubes. However, a monthly survey of trace elements in the nearby oyster populations from 1986 to the present showed only a small decline in copper concentrations after the plant switched from Cu/Ni to Ti alloy condenser tubes in 1987. Other potential sources for trace metals in the region include municipal and industrial discharges, atmospheric deposition, and biocides (anti-fouling paint in particular). The very rapid rise in trace element concentrations in oysters with position up river, and the lack of such a response by another local bivalve, the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum), suggests that a physiological effect of low salinity stress on oysters may be in part responsible for the high concentrations of trace metals in oysters in this region.

  19. Measurements of particulate matter concentrations at a landfill site (Crete, Greece)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chalvatzaki, E.; Kopanakis, I. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Kontaksakis, M. [Municipal Company of Solid Waste Management, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Glytsos, T.; Kalogerakis, N. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Lazaridis, M., E-mail: lazaridi@mred.tuc.g [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Large amounts of solid waste are disposed in landfills and the potential of particulate matter (PM) emissions into the atmosphere is significant. Particulate matter emissions in landfills are the result of resuspension from the disposed waste and other activities such as mechanical recycling and composting, waste unloading and sorting, the process of coating residues and waste transport by trucks. Measurements of ambient levels of inhalable particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) were performed in a landfill site located at Chania (Crete, Greece). Elevated PM{sub 10} concentrations were measured in the landfill site during several landfill operations. It was observed that the meteorological conditions (mainly wind velocity and temperature) influence considerably the PM{sub 10} concentrations. Comparison between the PM{sub 10} concentrations at the landfill and at a PM{sub 10} background site indicates the influence of the landfill activities on local concentrations at the landfill. No correlation was observed between the measurements at the landfill and the background sites. Finally, specific preventing measures are proposed to control the PM concentrations in landfills.

  20. Spatial and seasonal variations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the arctic atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Yushan; Hung, Hayley; Blanchard, Pierrette; Patton, Gregory W.; Kallenborn, Roland; Konoplev, Alexei V.; Fellin, Phil; Li, Henrik; Geen, Charles; Stern, Gary; Rosenburg, Bruno; Barrie, Leonard A.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Weekly high volume air samples were concurrently collected between 2000 and 2003 at six arctic sites, namely Alert, Little Fox Lake, Kinngait in Canada; Point Barrow in Alaska, USA; Zeppelin in Norway; and Valkarkai in Russia. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were quantified in all samples. Data comparison showed that ?-HCH and HCB were relatively homogeneously distributed in the circumpolar atmosphere and fairly uniform throughout the seasons. However, significantly high atmospheric ?-HCH and HCB concentrations and strong seasonality of ?-HCH and ?-HCH were found at the low arctic site of Little Fox Lake. Stronger temperature dependence of ?-HCH and ?-HCH at this location suggests that secondary emissions (or re-evaporation from surface environmental media) were more important at this site than others. Tendency of the secondary emissions also appeared increased compared to a decade ago in this region. It is thus hypothesized that higher precipitation rate at this topographically elevated station facilitated the transfer of ?-HCH from the atmosphere to surface media when technical HCH was still being used worldwide. On the other hand, relatively higher temperature at this southerly station enhanced re-evaporation to the atmosphere after the global ban of technical HCH. In contrast, larger spatial and seasonal discrepancies were apparent for ''current-use'' ?-HCH than ?-HCH and HCB in the arctic atmosphere. It likely reflected different influences of primary contaminant sources on various arctic locations. Calculations of fugacity ratio suggest slight net deposition potential of HCB from air to seawater in the circumpolar environment, whereas air/seawater exchange direction of ?-HCH varied from location to location in this region.

  1. Coupled Vadose Zone and Atmospheric Surface-Layer Transport of CO2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Unger, Andre J.A.

    2004-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration is being considered as a way to offset fossil-fuel-related CO{sub 2} emissions to reduce the rate of increase of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. The accumulation of vast quantities of injected carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in geologic sequestration sites may entail health and environmental risks from potential leakage and seepage of CO{sub 2} into the near-surface environment. We are developing and applying a coupled subsurface and atmospheric surface-layer modeling capability built within the framework of the integral finite difference reservoir simulator TOUGH2. The overall purpose of modeling studies is to predict CO{sub 2} concentration distributions under a variety of seepage scenarios and geologic, hydrologic, and atmospheric conditions. These concentration distributions will provide the basis for determining above-ground and near-surface instrumentation needs for carbon sequestration monitoring and verification, as well as for assessing health, safety, and environmental risks. A key feature of CO{sub 2} is its large density ({rho} = 1.8 kg m{sup -3}) relative to air ({rho} = 1.2 kg m{sup -3}), a property that may allow small leaks to cause concentrations in air above the occupational exposure limit of 4 percent in low-lying and enclosed areas such as valleys and basements where dilution rates are low. The approach we take to coupled modeling involves development of T2CA, a TOUGH2 module for modeling the multicomponent transport of water, brine, CO{sub 2}, gas tracer, and air in the subsurface. For the atmospheric surface-layer advection and dispersion, we use a logarithmic vertical velocity profile to specify constant time-averaged ambient winds, and atmospheric dispersion approaches to model mixing due to eddies and turbulence. Initial simulations with the coupled model suggest that atmospheric dispersion quickly dilutes diffuse CO{sub 2} seepage fluxes to negligible concentrations, and that rainfall infiltration causes CO{sub 2} to return to the subsurface as a dissolved component in infiltrating rainwater.

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackerman, T

    2004-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years. Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square. Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds. Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations. Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites. Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale. Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote facilities at ARM's Tropical Western Pacific and the North Slope of Alaska sites. Over time, this new facility will extend ARM science to a much broader range of conditions for model testing.

  3. Photochemistry in Terrestrial Exoplanet Atmospheres II: H2S and SO2 Photochemistry in Anoxic Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Renyu; Bains, William

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur gases are common components in the volcanic and biological emission on Earth, and are expected to be important input gases for atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets. We study the atmospheric composition and the spectra of terrestrial exoplanets with sulfur compounds (i.e., H2S and SO2) emitted from their surfaces. We use a comprehensive one-dimensional photochemistry model and radiative transfer model to investigate the sulfur chemistry in atmospheres ranging from reducing to oxidizing. The most important finding is that both H2S and SO2 are chemically short-lived in virtually all types of atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets, based on models of H2, N2, and CO2 atmospheres. This implies that direct detection of surface sulfur emission is unlikely, as their surface emission rates need to be extremely high (>1000 times Earth's volcanic sulfur emission) for these gases to build up to a detectable level. We also find that sulfur compounds emitted from the surface lead to photochemical formation of element...

  4. Flammability limits of dusts: Minimum inerting concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dastidar, A.G.; Amyotte, P.R. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Going, J.; Chatrathi, K. [Fike Corp., Blue Springs, MO (United States)] [Fike Corp., Blue Springs, MO (United States)

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new flammability limit parameter has been defined as the Minimum Inerting Concentration (MIC). This is the concentration of inertant required to prevent a dust explosion regardless of fuel concentration. Previous experimental work at Fike in a 1-m{sup 3} spherical chamber has shown this flammability limit to exist for pulverized coal dust and cornstarch. In the current work, inerting experiments with aluminum, anthraquinone and polyethylene dusts as fuels were performed, using monoammonium phosphate and sodium bicarbonate as inertants. The results show that an MIC exists only for anthraquinone inerted with sodium bicarbonate. The other combustible dust and inertant mixtures did not show a definitive MIC, although they did show a strong dependence between inerting level and suspended fuel concentration. As the fuel concentration increased, the amount of inertant required to prevent an explosion decreased. Even though a definitive MIC was not found for most of the dusts an effective MIC can be estimated from the data. The use of MIC data can aid in the design of explosion suppression schemes.

  5. On detecting biospheres from thermodynamic disequilibrium in planetary atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krissansen-Totton, Joshua; Catling, David C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric chemical disequilibrium has been proposed as a method for detecting extraterrestrial biospheres from exoplanet observations. Chemical disequilibrium is potentially a generalized biosignature since it makes no assumptions about particular biogenic gases or metabolisms. Here, we present the first rigorous calculations of the thermodynamic chemical disequilibrium in the atmospheres of Solar System planets, in which we quantify the difference in Gibbs free energy of an observed atmosphere compared to that of all the atmospheric gases reacted to equilibrium. The purely gas phase disequilibrium in Earth's atmosphere, as measured by this available Gibbs free energy, is not unusual by Solar System standards and smaller than that of Mars. However, Earth's atmosphere is in contact with a surface ocean, which means that gases can react with water, and so a multiphase calculation that includes aqueous species is required. We find that the disequilibrium in Earth's atmosphere-ocean system (in joules per mole o...

  6. Point-focus spectral splitting solar concentrator for multiple cells concentrating photovoltaic system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maragliano, Carlo; Stefancich, Marco

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present and experimentally validate a low-cost design of a spectral splitting concentrator for the efficient conversion of solar energy. The optical device consists of a dispersive prismatic lens made of polycarbonate designed to simultaneously concentrate the solar light and split it into its spectral components. With respect to our previous implementation, this device concentrates the light along two axes and generates a light pattern compatible with the dimensions of a set of concentrating photovoltaic cells while providing a higher concentration ratio. The mathematical framework and the constructive approach used for the design are presented and the device performance is simulated using ray-tracing software. We obtain spectral separation in the visible range within a 3x1 cm2 area and a maximum concentration of 210x for a single wavelength. The device is fabricated by injection molding and its performance is experimentally investigated. We measure an optical transmissivity above 90% in the...

  7. Wide range radioactive gas concentration detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wide range radioactive gas concentration detector and monitor which is capable of measuring radioactive gas concentrations over a range of eight orders of magnitude. The device of the present invention is designed to have an ionization chamber which is sufficiently small to give a fast response time for measuring radioactive gases but sufficiently large to provide accurate readings at low concentration levels. Closely spaced parallel plate grids provide a uniform electric field in the active region to improve the accuracy of measurements and reduce ion migration time so as to virtually eliminate errors due to ion recombination. The parallel plate grids are fabricated with a minimal surface area to reduce the effects of contamination resulting from absorption of contaminating materials on the surface of the grids. Additionally, the ionization chamber wall is spaced a sufficient distance from the active region of the ionization chamber to minimize contamination effects.

  8. International Union of Air Pollution Prevention and Environmental Protection Associations (IUAPPA) Symposium and Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment (KOSAE) Symposium, 12th

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    International Union of Air Pollution Prevention and Environmental Protection Associations (IUAPPA, REMOTE SENSING AND POLLUTANTS DISTRIBUTION: AN APPLICATION TO THE CITY OF STRASBOURG, FRANCE. C. WEBER1 of Earth Observation data for the knowledge of the atmospheric pollutants concentration fields over

  9. Evaluation of Near Field Atmospheric Dispersion Around Nuclear Facilities Using a Lorentzian Distribution Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gavin Hawkley

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract: Atmospheric dispersion modeling within the near field of a nuclear facility typically applies a building wake correction to the Gaussian plume model, whereby a point source is modeled as a plane source. The plane source results in greater near field dilution and reduces the far field effluent concentration. However, the correction does not account for the concentration profile within the near field. Receptors of interest, such as the maximally exposed individual, may exist within the near field and thus the realm of building wake effects. Furthermore, release parameters and displacement characteristics may be unknown, particularly during upset conditions. Therefore, emphasis is placed upon the need to analyze and estimate an enveloping concentration profile within the near field of a release. This investigation included the analysis of 64 air samples collected over 128 wk. Variables of importance were then derived from the measurement data, and a methodology was developed that allowed for the estimation of Lorentzian-based dispersion coefficients along the lateral axis of the near field recirculation cavity; the development of recirculation cavity boundaries; and conservative evaluation of the associated concentration profile. The results evaluated the effectiveness of the Lorentzian distribution methodology for estimating near field releases and emphasized the need to place air-monitoring stations appropriately for complete concentration characterization. Additionally, the importance of the sampling period and operational conditions were discussed to balance operational feedback and the reporting of public dose.

  10. Accelerated Stress Testing of Hydrocarbon-Based Encapsulants for Medium-Concentration CPV Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, M. D.; Moricone, T. J.; Kilkenny, M.; Zhang, J. Z.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems have great potential to reduce photovoltaic (PV) electricity costs because of the relatively low cost of optical components as compared to PV cells. A transparent polymeric material is used to optically couple the PV cell to optical components and is thus exposed to the concentrated light source at elevated temperatures. In this work polymeric encapsulant materials are positioned close to a Xenon arc lamp to expose them to ultraviolet radiation (UV) that is about 42 times as intense as sunlight. Furthermore, different glass types are used as filters to modify the spectral distribution of light in the UV range. A strong sensitivity of non-silicone-based encapsulants to light below ~350 nm is demonstrated. Of all the materials examined in this study, the polydimethyl silicone samples performed the best. The next best material was an ionomer which maintained optical transmission but became photo-oxidized where exposed to the atmosphere.

  11. Resonance-shifting luminescent solar concentrators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Giebink, Noel Christopher; Wiederrecht, Gary P; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical system and method to overcome luminescent solar concentrator inefficiencies by resonance-shifting, in which sharply directed emission from a bi-layer cavity into a glass substrate returns to interact with the cavity off-resonance at each subsequent reflection, significantly reducing reabsorption loss en route to the edges. In one embodiment, the system comprises a luminescent solar concentrator comprising a transparent substrate, a luminescent film having a variable thickness; and a low refractive index layer disposed between the transparent substrate and the luminescent film.

  12. Habitability of waterworlds: runaway greenhouses, atmospheric expansion and multiple climate states of pure water atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldblatt, Colin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are four different stable climate states for pure water atmospheres, as might exist on so-called "waterworlds". I map these as a function of solar constant for planets ranging in size from Mars size to 10 Earth-mass. The states are: globally ice covered (Tsnet absorption of sunlight. Across the range of planet sizes, I account for the atmospheres expanding to high altitudes as they warm. The emitting and absorbing surfaces (optical depth of unity) move to high altitude, making their area larger than the planet surfa...

  13. Physics and Astronomy Radiation Safety Physics Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    Physics and Astronomy Radiation Safety Physics Concentration Strongly recommended courses Credits Environucleonics Lab 1 PHY 3211 Modern Physics II 3 PHY 3230 Thermal Physics 3 PHY 4330 Digital Electronics 3 PHY 4820 Medical Physics 3 CHE 1101 Intro. Chemistry I 3 CHE 1110 Intro. Chemistry I Lab 1 CHE 1102 Intro

  14. Physics and Astronomy Engineering/Physics Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    Physics and Astronomy Engineering/Physics Concentration Strongly recommended courses Credits Term Electromagnetic Fields & Waves 3 PHY 3230 Thermal Physics 3 PHY 4020 Computational Methods in Physics.) taken Grade PHY 4620 Optics 4 PHY 3211 Modern Physics II 3 PHY 4730 Analog Circuits 3 PHY 4640 Quantum

  15. Physics and Astronomy Chemical Physics Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    Physics and Astronomy Chemical Physics Concentration Strongly recommended courses Credits Term Dept Fields & Waves 3 PHY 3230 Thermal Physics 3 PHY 4640 Quantum Mechanics 3 PHY 4020 Computational Methods in Physics & Engineering 3 PHY 4330 Digital Electronics 3 CHE 1101 Intro. Chemistry I 3 CHE 1110 Intro

  16. Nuclear Engineering Catalog 2013 Radiological Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    Nuclear Engineering Catalog 2013 Radiological Concentration Fall Math 141 or 147 (4) FA, SP, SU-approved by the department. Courses in Nuclear Engineering other than 500, 502 or 598 may also be used as technical electives on academic performance. Factors considered include overall grade point average, performance in selescted

  17. Business of Fashion Concentration & Minor -Newark Description

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xiaodong

    Business of Fashion Concentration & Minor - Newark Description The Business of Fashion program was designed to bridge the gap between creativity and business acumen. It is for artistic individuals who want to solidify their understanding of business, as well as for business students who want to learn how to apply

  18. Ideal light concentrators with reflector gaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cylindrical or trough-like radiant energy concentration and collection device is provided. The device includes an energy absorber, a glazing enveloping the absorber and a reflective wall. The ideal contour of the reflective wall is determined with reference to a virtual absorber and not the actual absorber cross section.

  19. BME ERGONOMICS AND REHABILITATION ENGINEERING CONCENTRATION1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eustice, Ryan

    BME ERGONOMICS AND REHABILITATION ENGINEERING CONCENTRATION1 ­ F10 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum Advisor: Thomas J. Armstrong, Ph.D. (tja@umich.edu) Ergonomics /Rehabilitation Engineering: IOE 463 Measurement and Design of Work (3) (I, II) (Prerequisite: IOE 333 Ergonomics) BIOMED E 534

  20. Lasers and Optical Engineering Concentration Technical Electives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schumacher, Russ

    Lasers and Optical Engineering Concentration Technical Electives Course Number Course Title Credits495¹ Independent Study 1-3 n/a F,S,SS ECE503 Ultrafast Optics 3 ECE 342 S ECE504 Physical Optics 3 ECE 353 F ECE506 Optical Interferometry and Laser Metrology ECE 341; ECE 342; ECE 441 F ECE507 Plasma

  1. Nonimaging light concentrator with uniform irradiance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Gee, Randy C. (Arvada, CO)

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nonimaging light concentrator system including a primary collector of light, an optical mixer disposed near the focal zone for collecting light from the primary collector, the optical mixer having a transparent entrance aperture, an internally reflective housing for substantially total internal reflection of light, a transparent exit aperture and an array of photovoltaic cells disposed near the transparent exit aperture.

  2. Measuring overall emittance of concentrator receiver pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerich, J.W.; Reitter, T.A.; Merriam, M.F.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple and accurate method for measuring the overall emittance of receiver pipes used with cylindrical concentrators is described. Experimental measurements obtained for steel pipes with a black chrome over nickel selective surface are presented. The observed strong temperature dependence of emittance indicates that the use of room temperature emittance data will substantially overestimate collector efficiency. (SPH)

  3. Ideal light concentrators with reflector gaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winston, R.

    1980-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A cylindrical or trough-like radiant energy concentration and collection device is provided. The device includes an energy absorber, a glazing enveloping the absorber and a reflective wall. The ideal contour of the reflective wall is determined with reference to a virtual absorber and not the actual absorber cross section.

  4. Low chemical concentrating steam generating cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mangus, James D. (Greensburg, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam cycle for a nuclear power plant having two optional modes of operation. A once-through mode of operation uses direct feed of coolant water to an evaporator avoiding excessive chemical concentration buildup. A recirculation mode of operation uses a recirculation loop to direct a portion of flow from the evaporator back through the evaporator to effectively increase evaporator flow.

  5. Low-Cost Installation of Concentrating Photovoltaic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .5 megawatt power plant for the Pacific Gas and Electric Company near Tracy, CA ­ the first solar related with system components, and traditional solar designs that limit installation locations. Many offerings. Currently, no solar company provides a complete photovoltaic or concentrating photovoltaic

  6. Master of Arts Concentration: School Leadership

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Master of Arts Concentration: School Leadership Program of Study (39 credits) Effective January: EDSL 718: Organization and Control of American Schools (3) EDSL 719: Leadership in Educational Leadership (3) EDSL 823: School Finance (3) EDSL 849: The Principalship (3) Prerequisites: EDSL 718 & 719

  7. Master of Arts Concentration: School Leadership

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Master of Arts Concentration: School Leadership Program of Study (39 credits) Effective August 2012: Organization and Control of American Schools (3) EDSL 719: Leadership in Educational Organizations (3) EDSL 727 825: Schools and the Law (3) EDSL 840: Supervision and Instructional Leadership (3) EDSL 823: School

  8. Testing the atmospheric dispersion model of CSA N288.1 with site-specific data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chouhan, S L

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The atmospheric dispersion component of CSA Standard N288. 1, which provides guidelines for calculating derived release limits, has been tested. Long-term average concentrations of tritium in air were predicted using site-specific release rates and meteorological data and compared with measured concentrations at 43 monitoring sites at all CANDU stations in Canada. The predictions correlate well with the observations but were found to be conservative, overestimating by about 50% on average. The model overpredicted 84% of the time, with the highest prediction lying a factor of 5.5 above the corresponding observation. The model underpredicted the remaining 16% of the time, with the lowest prediction about one-half of the corresponding measurement. Possible explanations for this bias are discussed but no single reason appears capable of accounting for the discrepancy. Rather, the tendency to overprediction seems to result from the cumulative effects of a number of small conservatisms in the model. The model predi...

  9. Purdue extension CAFOsConcentrated Animal Feeding OperationsConcentrated Animal Feeding Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Operations using the Web soil survey to investigate Potential Concentrated Animal Feeding operation Locations Operation (CAFO) permit application requires a location description that includes USDA-NRCS Soil Survey data and interpretations. #12;Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation Locations Using the Web Soil Survey to Investigate

  10. Decarbonization and the time-delay between peak CO2 emissions and concentrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seshadri, Ashwin K

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon-dioxide (CO2) is the main contributor to anthropogenic global warming, and the timing of its peak concentration in the atmosphere is likely to govern the timing of maximum radiative forcing. While dynamics of atmospheric CO2 is governed by multiple time-constants, we idealize this by a single time-constant to consider some of the factors describing the time-delay between peaks in CO2 emissions and concentrations. This time-delay can be understood as the time required to bring CO2 emissions down from its peak to a small value, and is governed by the rate of decarbonizaton of economic activity. This decarbonization rate affects how rapidly emissions decline after having achieved their peak, and a rapid decline in emissions is essential for limiting peak radiative forcing. Long-term mitigation goals for CO2 should therefore consider not only the timing of peak emissions, but also the rate of decarbonization. We discuss implications for mitigation of the fact that the emissions peak corresponds to small bu...

  11. Atmospheric Feedbacks over the Tropical Pacific in Observations and Atmospheric General Circulation Models: An Extended

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Dezheng

    that the bias is likely linked to a weaker relationship between the short-wave cloud forcing is a long-standing tropical bias in the CGCMs. The early hypotheses attribute this problem to the errors;4 errors may induce excessive equatorial upwelling upon coupling. The surface heating from the atmospheric

  12. Levitating atmospheres of Eddington-luminosity neutron stars I. Optically thin Thomson-scattering atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wielgus, M; S?dowski, A; Narayan, R; Abramowicz, M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In general relativity static gaseous atmospheres may be in hydrostatic balance in the absence of a supporting stellar surface, provided that the luminosity is close to the Eddington value. We construct analytic models of optically thin, spherically symmetric shells supported by the radiation pressure of a luminous central body in the Schwarzschild metric.

  13. Levitating atmospheres of Eddington-luminosity neutron stars I. Optically thin Thomson-scattering atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Wielgus; W. Klu?niak; A. S?dowski; R. Narayan; M. Abramowicz

    2015-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In general relativity static gaseous atmospheres may be in hydrostatic balance in the absence of a supporting stellar surface, provided that the luminosity is close to the Eddington value. We construct analytic models of optically thin, spherically symmetric shells supported by the radiation pressure of a luminous central body in the Schwarzschild metric.

  14. Understanding biases in shortwave cloud radiative forcing in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Guang Jun

    in response to El Nin~o warming. The vast cloud cover in the region leads to much stronger cloud greenhouse effect in longwave radiation (longwave cloud radiative forcing) and cloud shielding effect in shortwaveUnderstanding biases in shortwave cloud radiative forcing in the National Center for Atmospheric

  15. Effects of atmospheric parameters on radon measurements using alpha-track detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, C.; Zhuo, W., E-mail: whzhuo@fudan.edu.cn; Fan, D.; Yi, Y.; Chen, B. [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, 2094 Xietu Road, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, 2094 Xietu Road, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The calibration factors of alpha-track radon detectors (ATDs) are essential for accurate determination of indoor radon concentrations. In this paper, the effects of atmospheric parameters on the calibration factors were theoretically studied and partially testified. Based on the atmospheric thermodynamics theory and detection characteristics of the allyl diglycol carbonate (CR-39), the calibration factors for 5 types of ATDs were calculated through Monte Carlo simulations under different atmospheric conditions. Simulation results showed that the calibration factor increased by up to 31% for the ATDs with a decrease of air pressure by 35.5 kPa (equivalent to an altitude increase of 3500 m), and it also increased by up to 12% with a temperature increase from 5?°C to 35?°C, but it was hardly affected by the relative humidity unless the water-vapor condensation occurs inside the detectors. Furthermore, it was also found that the effects on calibration factors also depended on the dimensions of ATDs. It indicated that variations of the calibration factor with air pressure and temperature should be considered for an accurate radon measurement with a large dimensional ATD, and water-vapor condensation inside the detector should be avoided in field measurements.

  16. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionizataion and triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry for explosives vapor detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Asano, K.G.; Hart, K.J.; Glish, G.L.; Grant, B.C.; Chambers, D.M.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The detection and identification of trace vapors of hidden high explosives is an excellent example of a targeted analysis problem. It is desirable to push to ever lower levels the quantity or concentration of explosives material that provides an analytical signal, while at the same time discriminating against all other uninteresting material. The detection system must therefore combine high sensitivity with high specificity. This report describes the philosophy behind the use of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization, which is a sensitive, rugged, and convenient means for forming anions from explosives molecules, with tandem mass spectrometry, which provides unparalleled specificity in the identification of explosives-related ions. Forms of tandem mass spectrometry are compared and contrasted to provide a summary of the characteristics to be expected from an explosives detector employing mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. The instrument developed for the FAA, an atmospheric sampling glow discharge/triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, is described in detail with particular emphasis on the ion source/spectrometer interface and on the capabilities of the spectrometer. Performance characteristics of the system are also described as they pertain to explosives of interest including a description of an automated procedure for the detection and identification of specific explosives. A comparison of various tandem mass spectrometers mated with atmospheric sampling glow discharge is then described and preliminary studies with a vapor preconcentration system provided by the FAA will be described.

  17. The dayside atmosphere of the hot-Neptune GJ 436b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madhusudhan, N

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed analysis of the day-side atmosphere of the hot Neptune GJ~436b, based on recent Spitzer observations. We report statistical constraints on the thermal and chemical properties of the planet atmosphere, study correlations between the various molecular species, and discuss scenarios of equilibrium and non-equilibrium chemistry in GJ~436b. We model the planet atmosphere with a 1-D line-by-line radiative transfer code with parametrized molecular abundances and temperature structure. We explore the model parameter space with 10^6 models, using a Markov chain Monte Carlo scheme. Our results encompass previous findings, indicating a paucity of methane, an over-abundance of CO and CO2, and a slight under-abundance of H2O, as compared to equilibrium chemistry with solar metallicity. The concentrations of the species are highly correlated. Our best-fit constraints require a methane (CH4) mixing ratio between 1.0e-7 - 1.0e-6, with CO > 1.0E-3, CO2 between 1.0e-6 - 1.0e-4, and H2O < 1.0E-4; higher...

  18. The electrodeless discharge at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laroussi, M.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently the generation and applications of atmospheric pressure plasmas received increased interest in the plasma research community. Applications such as the surface modification of materials, and the decontamination of matter have been under investigation. In this context, the authors introduce a new means of generating an atmospheric pressure discharge, which is suitable for use in the above-mentioned applications, and in the treatment of undesirable or polluting gases, such as VOC's. This device is a capacitively coupled discharge. It is basically made of a non-conducting tube with two independent loops of wire wrapped around it, and separated by a distance d. A stable discharge is generated inside the tube when an AC voltage of few hundred volts to few kilovolts, at a frequency of few kilohertz, is applied between the loops. One end of the tube is completely open to the outside air, and a seed gas (generally a noble gas such as Helium) is introduced in the tube. The plasma generated with this method is weakly ionized, cold, and is maintained by a relatively low input power (few tens of watts, depending on the size of the tube). In this paper, the discharge electrical characteristics, its radiation emission characteristics, and the measurement of relevant plasma parameters will be presented.

  19. Cold atmospheric plasma in cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keidar, Michael; Shashurin, Alex; Volotskova, Olga [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, George Washington University, Washington DC 20052 (United States)] [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, George Washington University, Washington DC 20052 (United States); Ann Stepp, Mary [Medical School, George Washington University, Washington DC 20052 (United States)] [Medical School, George Washington University, Washington DC 20052 (United States); Srinivasan, Priya; Sandler, Anthony [Childrens National Medical Center, Washington DC 20010 (United States)] [Childrens National Medical Center, Washington DC 20010 (United States); Trink, Barry [Head and Neck Cancer Research Division, Department of Otolaryngology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States)] [Head and Neck Cancer Research Division, Department of Otolaryngology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent progress in atmospheric plasmas has led to the creation of cold plasmas with ion temperature close to room temperature. This paper outlines recent progress in understanding of cold plasma physics as well as application of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) in cancer therapy. Varieties of novel plasma diagnostic techniques were developed recently in a quest to understand physics of CAP. It was established that the streamer head charge is about 10{sup 8} electrons, the electrical field in the head vicinity is about 10{sup 7} V/m, and the electron density of the streamer column is about 10{sup 19} m{sup ?3}. Both in-vitro and in-vivo studies of CAP action on cancer were performed. It was shown that the cold plasma application selectively eradicates cancer cells in-vitro without damaging normal cells and significantly reduces tumor size in-vivo. Studies indicate that the mechanism of action of cold plasma on cancer cells is related to generation of reactive oxygen species with possible induction of the apoptosis pathway. It is also shown that the cancer cells are more susceptible to the effects of CAP because a greater percentage of cells are in the S phase of the cell cycle.

  20. Atmospheric Results from Super-Kamiokande

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent results from a 282 kiloton-year exposure of the Super-Kamiokande detector to atmospheric neutrinos are presented. The data when fit both by themselves and in conjunction with constraints from the T2K and reactor neutrino experiments show a weak, though insignificant, preference for the normal mass hierarchy at the level of ~1 sigma. Searches for evidence of oscillations into a sterile neutrino have resulted in limits on the parameters governing their mixing, |U_mu4}|^2 <0.041 and |U_tau4|^2 < 0.18 at 90% C.L. A similar search for an indication of Lorentz-invariance violating oscillations has yielded limits three to seven orders of magnitude more stringent than existing measurements. Additionally, analyses searching for an excess of neutrinos in the atmospheric data produced from the annihilation of dark matter particles in the galaxy and sun have placed tight limits on the cross sections governing their annihilation and scattering.

  1. Vapor scavenging by atmospheric aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, E.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle growth due to vapor scavenging was studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Vapor scavenging by particles is an important physical process in the atmosphere because it can result in changes to particle properties (e.g., size, shape, composition, and activity) and, thus, influence atmospheric phenomena in which particles play a role, such as cloud formation and long range transport. The influence of organic vapor on the evolution of a particle mass size distribution was investigated using a modified version of MAEROS (a multicomponent aerosol dynamics code). The modeling study attempted to identify the sources of organic aerosol observed by Novakov and Penner (1993) in a field study in Puerto Rico. Experimentally, vapor scavenging and particle growth were investigated using two techniques. The influence of the presence of organic vapor on the particle`s hydroscopicity was investigated using an electrodynamic balance. The charge on a particle was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A prototype apparatus--the refractive index thermal diffusion chamber (RITDC)--was developed to study multiple particles in the same environment at the same time.

  2. Black holes, cuspy atmospheres, and galaxy formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Binney

    2004-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In cuspy atmospheres, jets driven by supermassive black holes (BHs) offset radiative cooling. The jets fire episodically, but often enough that the cuspy atmosphere does not move very far towards a cooling catastrophe in the intervals of jet inactivity. The ability of energy released on the sub-parsec scale of the BH to balance cooling on scales of several tens of kiloparsecs arises through a combination of the temperature sensitivity of the accretion rate and the way in which the radius of jet disruption varies with ambient density. Accretion of hot gas does not significantly increase BH masses, which are determined by periods of rapid BH growth and star formation when cold gas is briefly abundant at the galactic centre. Hot gas does not accumulate in shallow potential wells. As the Universe ages, deeper wells form, and eventually hot gas accumulates. This gas soon prevents the formation of further stars, since jets powered by the BH prevent it from cooling, and it mops up most cold infalling gas before many stars can form. Thus BHs set the upper limit to the masses of galaxies. The formation of low-mass galaxies is inhibited by a combination of photo-heating and supernova-driven galactic winds. Working in tandem these mechanisms can probably explain the profound difference between the galaxy luminosity function and the mass function of dark halos expected in the cold dark matter cosmology.

  3. A General Systems Theory for Atmospheric Flows and Atmospheric Aerosol Size Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Selvam

    2011-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover pattern and inverse power law form for power spectra of meteorological parameters such as windspeed, temperature, rainfall etc. Inverse power law form for power spectra indicate long-range spacetime correlations or non-local connections and is a signature of selforganised criticality generic to dynamical systems in nature such as river flows, population dynamics, heart beat patterns etc. The author has developed a general systems theory which predicts the observed selforganised criticality as a signature of quantumlike chaos in dynamical systems. The model predictions are (i) The fractal fluctuations can be resolved into an overall logarithmic spiral trajectory with the quasiperiodic Penrose tiling pattern for the internal structure. (ii) The probability distribution represents the power (variance) spectrum for fractal fluctuations and follows universal inverse power law form incorporating the golden mean. Such a result that the additive amplitudes of eddies when squared represent probability distribution is observed in the subatomic dynamics of quantum systems such as the electron or photon. Therefore the irregular or unpredictable fractal fluctuations exhibit quantumlike chaos. (iii) Atmospheric aerosols are held in suspension by the vertical velocity distribution (spectrum). The atmospheric aerosol size spectrum is derived in terms of the universal inverse power law characterizing atmospheric eddy energy spectrum. Model predicted spectrum is in agreement with the following two experimentally determined atmospheric aerosol data sets, (i) SAFARI 2000 CV-580 Aerosol Data, Dry Season 2000 (CARG) (ii) World Data Centre Aerosols data sets for the three stations Ny {\\AA}lesund, Pallas and Hohenpeissenberg.

  4. Prediction of rainwater acidity using trace element concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vong, R.J.; Peterson, R.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is of interest to be able to estimate the contribution of an anthropogenic emission source to downwind rainwater chemistry. The authors here consider the closure of a large copper smelter which operated in a region where background and other emission sources should contribute smaller amounts of atmospheric sulfur than the smelter. An additional simplification existed in that meteorology associated with rain was relatively well known and consistent. A field experiment was conducted in the winters of 1985 and 1986 to collect rainwater at sites upwind and downwind of the Tacoma, Washington smelter. The smelters SO{sub 2} emissions, their conversion to SO{sub 4}= via three oxidants (O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} - Fe catalyzed reactions), diffusion, transport, and aerosol/gas scavenging previously have been estimated while adjusting model parameters until the predictions fit the rainwater data. To take advantage of the unique experimental design afforded by the closure of the smelter, statistical analysis was performed on NO{sub 3}-, SO{sub 4}(xs)= (excess of seasalt), and pH data; analysis of variance (ANOVA) confirmed that the smelter had a significant (p < .01) influence on rainwater pH and SO{sub 4}(xs). The analysis presented here extends the ANOVA by applying a multivariate regression technique to new data for trace element concentrations for the same rain samples. To predict rainwater acidity, they derive fingerprints from trace element data, identify a source or process related to that fingerprint, and compare the predicted contributions for pre- and post- closure samples.

  5. Can we learn something more on oscillations from atmospheric neutrinos?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schwetz

    2006-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that for long-baseline experiments using a Mt water Cerenkov detector atmospheric neutrino data provide a powerful method to resolve parameter degeneracies. In particular, the combination of long-baseline and atmospheric data increases significantly the sensitivity to the neutrino mass hierarchy and the octant of $\\theta_{23}$. Furthermore, we discuss the possibility to use $\\mu$-like atmospheric neutrino data from a big magnetized iron calorimeter to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  6. Recent Atmospheric Neutrino Results from Super-Kamiokande

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Himmel, Alexander

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Super-Kamiokande experiment has collected more than 11 live-years of atmospheric neutrino data. Atmospheric neutrinos cover a wide phase space in both energy and distance travelled, the parameters relevant for studying neutrino oscillations. We present here recent measurements of the three-flavor neutrino oscillation parameters using this atmospheric neutrino data, as well as new limits on mixing with a fourth sterile neutrino state.

  7. SRNL EMERGENCY RESPONSE CAPABILITY FOR ATMOSPHERIC CONTAMINANT RELEASES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koffman, L; Chuck Hunter, C; Robert Buckley, R; Robert Addis, R

    2006-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Emergency response to an atmospheric release of chemical or radiological contamination is enhanced when plume predictions, field measurements, and real-time weather information are integrated into a geospatial framework. The Weather Information and Display (WIND) System at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) utilizes such an integrated framework. The rapid availability of predictions from a suite of atmospheric transport models within this geospatial framework has proven to be of great value to decision makers during an emergency involving an atmospheric contaminant release.

  8. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the l

  9. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  10. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  11. Thermal regeneration of an electrochemical concentration cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Bates, John K. (Plainfield, IL)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for thermally regenerating an electrochemical concentration cell having first and second aluminum electrodes respectively positioned in contact with first and second electrolytes separated by an ion exchange member, the first and second electrolytes being composed of different concentrations of an ionic solvent and a salt, preferably an aluminum halide. The ionic solvent may be either organic or inorganic with a relatively low melting point, the ionic solvent and the salt form a complex wherein the free energy of formation of said complex is less than about -5 Kcal/mole. A distillation column using solar heat or low grade industrial waste heat receives the first and second electrolytes and thermally decomposes the salt-solvent complex to provide feed material for the two half cells.

  12. Thermal regeneration of an electrochemical concentration cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, M.; Bates, J.K.

    1980-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method are described for thermally regenerating an electrochemical concentration cell having first and second aluminum electrodes respectively positioned in contact with first and second electrolytes separated by an ion exchange member, the first and second electrolytes being composed of different concentrations of an ionic solvent and a salt, preferably an aluminum halide. The ionic solvent may be either organic or inorganic with a relatively low melting point, the ionic solvent and the salt form a complex wherein the free energy of formation of said complex is less than about -5 kcal/mole. A distillation column using solar heat or low grade industrial waste heat receives the first and second electrolytes and thermally decomposes the salt-solvent complex to provide feed material for the two half cells.

  13. Big Crunch-based omnidirectional light concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor I. Smolyaninov; Yu-Ju Hung

    2014-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Omnidirectional light concentration remains an unsolved problem despite such important practical applications as design of efficient mobile photovoltaic cells. Optical black hole designs developed recently offer partial solution to this problem. However, even these solutions are not truly omnidirectional since they do not exhibit a horizon, and at large enough incidence angles light may be trapped into quasi-stationary orbits around such imperfect optical black holes. Here we propose and realize experimentally another gravity-inspired design of a broadband omnidirectional light concentrator based on the cosmological Big Crunch solutions. By mimicking the Big Crunch spacetime via corresponding effective optical metric we make sure that every photon world line terminates in a single point.

  14. Measurement of phenol concentrations using hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodward, J.; Allen, B.F.; Scott, M.A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major pollutant found in coal conversion wastewaters is phenol. Its removal by methods such as gravity separation, steam stripping, solvent extraction, biotreatment, and carbon adsorption must be monitored in order to determine that the water has been made safe for release back into the environment. Monitoring phenol concentrations in aqueous waste solutions is usually by the aminoantipyrine method. Other methods described for phenol determination include the use of enzyme electrodes based on immobilized tyrosinase and immobilized phenol hydroxylase. The authors present preliminary data upon which a new assay for phenols could be based. It concerns the peroxidatic activity of hemoglobin. When phenol, hemoglobin, and hydrogen peroxide are incubated together, there is an increase in absorbance at 260 nm which is proportional to the concentration of phenol. 5 references, 2 figures.

  15. Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in Atmospheric Aerosols: Recycling of Nitric Acid and Formation of Organic Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric particles often include a complex mixture of nitrate and secondary organic materials accumulated within the same individual particles. Nitrate as an important inorganic component can be chemically formed in the atmosphere. For instance, formation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2 when nitrogen oxide and nitric acid (HNO3) species react with sea salt and calcite, respectively. Organic acids contribute a significant fraction of photochemically formed secondary organics that can condense on the preexisting nitrate-containing particles. Here, we present a systematic microanalysis study on chemical composition of laboratory generated particles composed of water soluble organic acids and nitrates (i.e. NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2) investigated using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (micro-FTIR). The results show that water-soluble organic acids can react with nitrates releasing gaseous HNO3 during dehydration process. These reactions are attributed to acid displacement of nitrate with weak organic acids driven by the evaporation of HNO3 into gas phase due to its relatively high volatility. The reactions result in significant nitrate depletion and formation of organic salts in mixed organic acids/nitrate particles that in turn may affect their physical and chemical properties relevant to atmospheric environment and climate. Airborne nitrate concentrations are estimated by thermodynamic calculations corresponding to various nitrate depletions in selected organic acids of atmospheric relevance. The results indicate a potential mechanism of HNO3 recycling, which may further affect concentrations of gas- and aerosol-phase species in the atmosphere and the heterogeneous reaction chemistry between them.

  16. Material for a luminescent solar concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, L.J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A material for use in a luminescent solar concentrator, formed by ceramitizing the luminescent ion Cr/sup 3 +/ with a transparent ceramic glass containing mullite. The resultant material has tiny Cr/sup 3 +/-bearing crystallites dispersed uniformly through an amorphous glass. The invention combines the high luminescent efficiency of Cr/sup 3 +/ in the crystalline phase with the practical and economical advantages of glass technology.

  17. Photovoltaic concentrator assembly with optically active cover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plesniak, Adam P

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic concentrator assembly that includes a housing that defines an internal volume and includes a rim, wherein the rim defines an opening into the internal volume, a photovoltaic cell positioned in the internal volume, and an optical element that includes an optically active body and a flange extending outward from the body, wherein the flange is sealingly engaged with the rim of the housing to enclose the internal volume.

  18. DOE High Performance Concentrator PV Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Much in demand are next-generation photovoltaic (PV) technologies that can be used economically to make a large-scale impact on world electricity production. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the High-Performance Photovoltaic (HiPerf PV) Project to substantially increase the viability of PV for cost-competitive applications so that PV can contribute significantly to both our energy supply and environment. To accomplish such results, the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) directs in-house and subcontracted research in high-performance polycrystalline thin-film and multijunction concentrator devices with the goal of enabling progress of high-efficiency technologies toward commercial-prototype products. We will describe the details of the subcontractor and in-house progress in exploring and accelerating pathways of III-V multijunction concentrator solar cells and systems toward their long-term goals. By 2020, we anticipate that this project will have demonstrated 33% system efficiency and a system price of $1.00/Wp for concentrator PV systems using III-V multijunction solar cells with efficiencies over 41%.

  19. Development of a prototype lignin concentration sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malito, M.L.; Jeffers, L.A.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, is sponsoring a research and development program for the development of a real-time, in-situ sensor to measure the concentration of lignin in wood pulp. The program is composed of phase I showing feasibility which is now complete, phase II for development and testing of a Field Prototype, in progress, Phase III commercialization. Phase I work (funded entirely by B W) demonstrated a correlation between the fluorescence intensity and lignin concentration (as measured by TAPPI procedure, T 236 hm-85 Kappa Number of Pulp) for undiluted wood pulp samples. In Phase II, a laboratory test program directed at characterizing the fluorescence of wood pulp has been conducted as a prelude to the design of a prototype sensor. The current report summarizes the testing completed in Phase I and documents the Phase II laboratory testing completed through December 1991. Future Phase II efforts include additional laboratory testing, design and fabrication of a prototype sensor, and field testing of the prototype sensor. Phase III of the program will concentrate on the incorporation of the sensor into a control system and commercialization of the sensor.

  20. Development of a prototype lignin concentration sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malito, M.L.; Jeffers, L.A.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, is sponsoring a research and development program for the development of a real-time, in-situ sensor to measure the concentration of lignin in wood pulp. The program is composed of phase I showing feasibility which is now complete, phase II for development and testing of a Field Prototype, in progress, Phase III commercialization. Phase I work (funded entirely by B&W) demonstrated a correlation between the fluorescence intensity and lignin concentration (as measured by TAPPI procedure, T 236 hm-85 Kappa Number of Pulp) for undiluted wood pulp samples. In Phase II, a laboratory test program directed at characterizing the fluorescence of wood pulp has been conducted as a prelude to the design of a prototype sensor. The current report summarizes the testing completed in Phase I and documents the Phase II laboratory testing completed through December 1991. Future Phase II efforts include additional laboratory testing, design and fabrication of a prototype sensor, and field testing of the prototype sensor. Phase III of the program will concentrate on the incorporation of the sensor into a control system and commercialization of the sensor.

  1. atmospheric transparency studies: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pressures lower than 0.1 bar, transparency to thermal radiation allows shortwave heating to dominate, creating a stratosphere. At higher pressures, atmospheres become...

  2. atmosphere model validation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    predictability over eastern Australia in JJASON This research aims to improve intra Marshall, Andrew 3 Early validation analyses of atmospheric profiles from CiteSeer...

  3. atmospheric aerosol characteristics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  4. atmospheric aerosol aggregates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  5. atmospheric aerosol processes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  6. atmospheric aerosol size: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  7. affect atmospheric aerosols: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  8. atmospheric aerosol characterisation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  9. atmospheric aerosols apports: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  10. aerosol atmospheric interactions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  11. atmospheric aerosol samples: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  12. atmospheric aerosol particle: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    suspension in the fractal fluctuations of vertical wind velocity. The mass or radius (size) distribution for homogeneous suspended atmospheric particulates is expressed as a...

  13. atmospheric aerosol particles: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    suspension in the fractal fluctuations of vertical wind velocity. The mass or radius (size) distribution for homogeneous suspended atmospheric particulates is expressed as a...

  14. atmospheric aerosol properties: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  15. atmospheric aerosol optical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  16. aerosols influencing atmospheric: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and other anthropogenic influences have substantially altered the composition and size-distribution of atmospheric aerosol particles over the last century. This, in turn,...

  17. atmospheric corrected satellite: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DENSITY ESTIMATION USING SATELLITE PRECISION ORBIT EPHEMERIDES University of Kansas - KU ScholarWorks Summary: The current atmospheric density models are not capable...

  18. atmospheric pressure phenomena: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and structure compared well by atmospheric bores and solitons strongly depend upon the life cycle of these phenomena. 1. Introduction One Geerts, Bart 344 Flight Path Planning...

  19. atmospheric electrical activity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    we review the literature on calculations of atmospheric neutrinos over the full range of energy, but with particular attention to the aspects important for neutrino oscillations....

  20. atmospheric deposition studies: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Explosion At The Polar Arctic Sunrise Physics (arXiv) Summary: We attempt is to provide accumulated evidence and qualitative understanding of the associated atmospheric phenomena...

  1. atmospheric pressure study: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Explosion At The Polar Arctic Sunrise Physics (arXiv) Summary: We attempt is to provide accumulated evidence and qualitative understanding of the associated atmospheric phenomena...

  2. atmospheric deposition study: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Explosion At The Polar Arctic Sunrise Physics (arXiv) Summary: We attempt is to provide accumulated evidence and qualitative understanding of the associated atmospheric phenomena...

  3. atmospheric dispersion study: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: -resting global circulation of air masses is the unequal distribution of solar heat flux to the earth surface. In general, the atmospheric motion is...

  4. DESCRIPTION OF A SPECTRAL ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION MONITORING NETWORK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    spectral atmospheric radiation data. The large cylindricalexisting integrated net radiation data is of impor- tance,infrared radiation intensities. The data is permanently

  5. atmospheric wind sensor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sensor Chaudhuri, Surajit 6 ATMOSPHERIC TURBULENCE MODELING AND IMPLICATIONS FOR WIND ENERGY Geosciences Websites Summary: Introduction Wind turbines sit at the very...

  6. atmospheric infrared sounder: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR Li, Jun 4 Ozone Profile Retrieval from an Advanced Infrared Sounder:...

  7. atmospheric observatory uao: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a 1 kiloton heavy water Cherenkov detector able to detect and reconstruct high-energy muons created from cosmic ray showers and atmospheric neutrino interactions. By...

  8. atmospheric sound: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Applications of Atmospheric Soundings from Geostationary Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: products can help nowcasting, an improved clear-sky physical...

  9. atmospheric radiocarbon monitoring: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Comparison of the predicted to observed scattered light intensity by the fluorescence detector measuresAtmospheric Monitoring with Tunable UV Lasers John A.J. Matthews University...

  10. atmospheric modeling based: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar activity. The upward- and downward-moving component of the atmospheric neutron flux are considered separately. The energy spectra calculated using these equations were...

  11. atmospheric electrons due: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Atmospheric Electrons Compared with Data from HEAT CiteSeer Summary: The GEANTFLUKA detector simulation and particle interaction package was used to develop a Monte Carlo...

  12. atmospheric physical chemistry: Topics by E-print Network

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    1999, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI Ph.D. in Chemistry 8 Course Syllabus ATMO 613: Advanced Atmospheric Chemistry (Spring 2014) Geosciences Websites Summary:...

  13. NSRD-2015-TD01, Technical Report for Calculations of Atmospheric...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    NSRD-2015-TD01, Technical Report for Calculations of Atmospheric Dispersion at Onsite Locations for DOE Nuclear Facilities NSRD-2015-TD01, Technical Report for Calculations of...

  14. atmospheric cherenkov effect: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric Cherenkov telescope for gamma-ray astronomy. STACEE uses the large mirror area of a solar heliostat facility to achieve a low energy threshold. A prototype...

  15. atmospheric control systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to optical depth perturbations. In Earth-type atmospheres sustained planetary greenhouse effect with a stable ground surface temperature can only exist at a particular...

  16. atmospheric administration key: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    warming, ocean chemistry, carbon cycle Abstract CO2 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere Matsumoto,...

  17. atmospheric sulfur budget: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shongwe R. G. Graversen G, the energy-budget for Autumn 2006 in Europe is estimated. Atmospheric energy- transport convergence over Haak, Hein 79 Exploring the...

  18. atmospheric sampling program: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integrated Water, Atmosphere, Ecosystems, Education and Research Program 12;I-WATER Funding I-WATER is funded by the National Science Foundation IGERT program IGERT is...

  19. ON THE STABILITY OF SUPER-EARTH ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heng, Kevin [ETH Zuerich, Institute for Astronomy, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093, Zuerich (Switzerland); Kopparla, Pushkar [ETH Zuerich, Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the stability of super-Earth atmospheres around M stars using a seven-parameter, analytical framework. We construct stability diagrams in the parameter space of exoplanetary radius versus semimajor axis and elucidate the regions in which the atmospheres are stable against the condensation of their major constituents, out of the gas phase, on their permanent nightside hemispheres. We find that super-Earth atmospheres that are nitrogen-dominated (Earth-like) occupy a smaller region of allowed parameter space, compared to hydrogen-dominated atmospheres, because of the dual effects of diminished advection and enhanced radiative cooling. Furthermore, some super-Earths which reside within the habitable zones of M stars may not possess stable atmospheres, depending on the mean molecular weight and infrared photospheric pressure of their atmospheres. We apply our stability diagrams to GJ 436b and GJ 1214b, and demonstrate that atmospheric compositions with high mean molecular weights are disfavored if these exoplanets possess solid surfaces and shallow atmospheres. Finally, we construct stability diagrams tailored to the Kepler data set, for G and K stars, and predict that about half of the exoplanet candidates are expected to harbor stable atmospheres if Earth-like conditions are assumed. We include 55 Cancri e and CoRoT-7b in our stability diagram for G stars.

  20. atmospheric general circulation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    II. THE CLIMATIC SYSTEM Climate is defined is the basic engine which transforms solar heating into the energy of the atmospheric motions and determines Lucarini, Valerio...