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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric carbon monoxide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

reservoirs (storages, especially the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans... emissions trading and the control of greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon monoxide a chemical...

2

Impact of emissions, chemistry, and climate on atmospheric carbon monoxide : 100-year predictions from a global chemistry-climate model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The possible trends for atmospheric carbon monoxide in the next 100 yr have been illustrated using a coupled atmospheric chemistry and climate model driven by emissions predicted by a global economic development model. ...

Wang, Chien.; Prinn, Ronald G.

3

SENSITIVE OPTOACOUSTIC DETECTION OF CARBON MONOXIDE BY RESONANCE ABSORPTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Monoxide by Resonance Absorption Robert Gerlach and Nabil M.MONOXIDE BY RESONANCE ABSORPTION Robert Gerlach and Nabil M.the context of atmospheric absorption. The carbon monoxide

Gerlach, R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Carbon Monoxide Safety Tips  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Protect yourself and your family from the deadly effects of carbon monoxide--a colorless, odorless poisonous gas. This publication describes the warning signs of carbon monoxide exposure and includes a home safety checklist....

Shaw, Bryan W.; Garcia, Monica L.

1999-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

5

Carbon monoxide absorbing liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present disclosure is directed to a carbon monoxide absorbing liquid containing a cuprous ion, hydrochloric acid and titanum trichloride. Titanium trichloride is effective in increasing the carbon monoxide absorption quantity. Furthermore, titanium trichloride remarkably increases the oxygen resistance. Therefore, this absorbing liquid can be used continuously and for a long time.

Arikawa, Y.; Horigome, S.; Kanehori, K.; Katsumoto, M.

1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

6

Simultaneous Detection of Water, Methane and Carbon Monoxide in the Atmosphere of Exoplanet HR8799b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Absorption lines from water, methane and carbon monoxide are detected in the atmosphere of exoplanet HR8799b. A medium-resolution spectrum presented here shows well-resolved and easily identified spectral features from all three molecules across the K band. The majority of the lines are produced by CO and H2O, but several lines clearly belong to CH4. Comparisons between these data and atmosphere models covering a range of temperatures and gravities yield log mole fractions of H2O between -3.09 and -3.91, CO between -3.30 and -3.72 and CH4 between -5.06 and -5.85. More precise mole fractions are obtained for each temperature and gravity studied. A reanalysis of H-band data, previously obtained at similar spectral resolution, results in a nearly identical water abundance as determined from the K-band spectrum. The methane abundance is shown to be sensitive to vertical mixing and indicates an eddy diffusion coefficient in the range of 10^6 to 10^8 cm^2 s^-1, comparable to mixing in the deep troposphere of Jupite...

Barman, Travis S; Macintosh, Bruce; Marois, Christian

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Carbon monoxide in the solar atmosphere I. Numerical method and two-dimensional models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The radiation hydrodynamic code CO5BOLD has been supplemented with the time-dependent treatment of chemical reaction networks. Advection of particle densities due to the hydrodynamic flow field is also included. The radiative transfer is treated frequency-independently, i.e. grey, so far. The upgraded code has been applied to two-dimensional simulations of carbon monoxide (CO) in the non-magnetic solar photosphere and low chromosphere. For this purpose a reaction network has been constructed, taking into account the reactions which are most important for the formation and dissociation of CO under the physical conditions of the solar atmosphere. The network has been strongly reduced to 27 reactions, involving the chemical species H, H2, C, O, CO, CH, OH, and a representative metal. The resulting CO number density is highest in the cool regions of the reversed granulation pattern at mid-photospheric heights and decreases strongly above. There, the CO abundance stays close to a value of 8.3 on the usual logarithmic abundance scale with [H]=12 but is reduced in hot shock waves which are a ubiquitous phenomenon of the model atmosphere. For comparison, the corresponding equilibrium densities have been calculated, based on the reaction network but also under assumption of instantaneous chemical equilibrium by applying the Rybicki & Hummer (RH) code by Uitenbroek (2001). Owing to the short chemical timescales, the assumption holds for a large fraction of the atmosphere, in particular the photosphere. In contrast, the CO number density deviates strongly from the corresponding equilibrium value in the vicinity of chromospheric shock waves. Simulations with altered reaction network clearly show that the formation channel via hydroxide (OH) is the most important one under the conditions of the solar atmosphere.

S. Wedemeyer-Boehm; I. Kamp; J. Bruls; B. Freytag

2005-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

8

Top-down estimate of a large source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion in Asia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

modeling methodology, we find that the source of carbon monoxide from fossil-fuel and biofuel combustion-fuel and- biofuel combustion sources in North America, Europe, Asia (including Indonesia and the Middle

Palmer, Paul

9

(Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

Not Available

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Poster presented at the 16th Directions...

11

Desorption of carbon monoxide from nickel using mercaptans  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An IR spectroscopic study on the displacement of carbon monoxide with 1-propyl, 2-propyl-, 1-butyl-, 2-butyl-, and tert.-butyl mercaptan from nickel foil and silica-supported nickel showed that at low carbon monoxide coverage on supported nickel, mercaptan adsorption initially converted bridged to linear carbon monoxide surface species. At higher mercaptan pressures, carbon monoxide desorbed into the gas phase. A small amount of carbon monoxide remained on the surface when the poisoned sample was evacuated, and additional carbon monoxide adsorbed when 5 mm Hg of carbon monoxide was added to the evacuated sample.

Neff, L.D.; Sturdivant, A.E.; Wallace, J.L.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Avoided Through Weatherization | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

systems in recipients' homes. "We had a chain -- one right after another," says Debbie Biggs, weatherization director for C-SCDC. "One had carbon monoxide levels so high we told...

13

[Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria]. Progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

Not Available

1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

14

Sandia National Laboratories: carbon monoxide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1development Sandia, NREL Release Wavearc-faultbest

15

Isotopic equilibration of carbon monoxide catalyzed by supported ruthenium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isotopic equilibration of carbon monoxide catalyzed by supported ruthenium was studied with oxygen-18 and carbon-13 labeled carbon monoxide in the presence and absence of hydrogen. The results showed that carbon monoxide was present on commercial alumina-supported ruthenium in a reactive undissociated form at 373/sup 0/K; that it adsorbed as a single carbonyl and in a geminal dicarbonyl form; and that hydrogen inhibited the exchange reaction by competitive adsorption and by stabilizing the carbonyl bond. The results elucidate the carbon monoxide methanation and Fischer-Tropsch reactions on this catalyst.

Bossi, A. (Cent. Ric. Novara); Zanderighi, L.; Carnisio, G.; Garbassi, F.; Giunchi, G.; Petrini, G.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Analysis of black carbon and carbon monoxide observed over the Indian Ocean: Implications for emissions and photochemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and known emission factors for black carbon (BC) from South Asia yields 0.7 Tg yrÃ?1 (upper limit of about 1 Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325); KEYWORDS: Soot, black carbon, CO, emissions, India Citation of black carbon and carbon monoxide observed over the Indian Ocean: Implications for emissions

Dickerson, Russell R.

17

Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Poster Location P-19 Gregory K. Lilik, Andr L. Boehman Department of Energy & Mineral Engineering EMS Energy...

18

Mechanistical studies on the formation of carbon dioxide in extraterrestrial carbon monoxide ice analog samples  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be produced via radiolysis of carbon monoxide ices.5 Indeed, the effects of ionizing radiation on pure carbonMechanistical studies on the formation of carbon dioxide in extraterrestrial carbon monoxide ice901220f Binary ice mixtures of two carbon monoxide isotopomers, 13 C16 O and 12 C18 O, were subjected

Kaiser, Ralf I.

19

Carbon and carbon monoxide hydrogenation on nickel: support effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogenation of carbon, deposited on nickel catalysts by CO disproportionation, was investigated by temperature-programmed surface reaction (TPSR) for four oxide supports, alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/), silica (SiO/sub 2/), titanium oxide (TiO/sub 2/), and SiO/sub 2/.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The rate of carbon monoxide hydrogenation was measured by temperature-programmed reaction (TPR) for comparison. The rate of carbon hydrogenation to methane was found to be independent of the support and an average activation energy of 42 kJ/mol was estimated. In contrast, the rate of carbon monoxide hydrogenation was very sensitive to the catalyst support. Nickel (Ni) supported on TiO/sub 2/ exhibited the highest specific activity, and two distinct sites for methanation were observed on Ni/TiO/sub 2/ and Ni/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The lowest specific activities were observed for Ni/SiO/sub 2/ and Ni/SiO/sub 2/.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. For all catalysts, carbon hydrogenation occurred at a lower temperature than carbon monoxide hydrogenation. For both TPR and TPSR, small amounts of ethane were formed and at a lower temperature than methane. The amount of less-active, ..beta..-carbon observed in TPSR experiments was very small on all catalysts. These results indicate that at high coverages, carbon hydrogenation does not depend on the support, and thus it is not rate-determining for CO hydrogenation in excess hydrogen. The support is also shown to change the specific rate of carbon monoxide methanation; activity differences seen in steady-state experiments are not just due to differences in site densities. 5 figures, 5 tables.

Ozdogan, S.Z.; Gochis, P.D.; Falconer, J.L.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient carbon monoxide Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

FACT SHEET Carbon monoxide (CO), known as the Invisible Killer... , propane, oil, wood, coal, and gasoline. Exposure to carbon monoxide can cause flu-like symptoms and can... .)...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Process for producing carbon monoxide and hydrogen from methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for producing carbon monoxide and hydrogen which comprises contacting methanol vapor at a temperature of 200 degrees to 300 degrees C with an indirectly heated zinc containing catalyst to obtain an effluent gas in which the components of carbon monoxide and hydrogen constitute at least 90% by volume of said gas. At least a part of the impurities from said effluent gas are removed and said effluent gas is deparated into its carbon monoxide and hydrogen components by adsorption. The effluent gas can be separated into its carbon monoxide and hydrogen components by use of a plurality of adsorbers containing zeolite-type molecular sieve material where the zeolite is substantially permeable to hydrogen but sorbs carbon monoxide.

Jockel, H.; Marschner, F.; Moller, F.W.; Mortel, H.

1982-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

22

Carbon monoxide exposure of subjects with documented cardiac arrhythmias  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The impact of low-level carbon monoxide exposure on ventricular arrhythmia frequency in patients with ischemic heart disease has not been thoroughly studied. The issue is of concern because of the potential proarrhythmic effect of carbon monoxide in patients with ischemic heart disease. We studied 30 subjects with well-documented coronary artery disease who had an average of at least 30 ventricular ectopic beats per hour over a 20-hour monitoring interval. By using appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria, subjects were selected and enrolled in a randomized double-blind study to determine the effects of carbon monoxide exposure on ventricular arrhythmia frequency at rest, during exercise, and during ambulatory activities. The carbon monoxide exposure was designed to result in 3% or 5% carboxyhemoglobin levels, as measured by gas chromatography. The carbon monoxide exposure protocol produced target levels in 60 minutes, and the levels were maintained for an additional 90 minutes to provide adequate time to assess the impact of carbon monoxide on the frequency of ventricular ectopic beats. The data on total and repetitive ventricular arrhythmias were analyzed for seven specific time intervals: (1) two hours before carbon monoxide exposure; (2) during the two-hour carbon monoxide or air exposure; (3) during a two-hour rest period; (4) during an exercise period; (5) during an exercise recovery period; (6) six hours after carbon monoxide or air exposure; and (7) approximately 10 hours after exposure, or the remaining recording interval on the Holter monitor. There was no increase in ventricular arrhythmia frequency after carbon monoxide exposure, regardless of the level of carboxyhemoglobin or the type of activity.

Chaitman, B.R.; Dahms, T.E.; Byers, S.; Carroll, L.W.; Younis, L.T.; Wiens, R.D. (St. Louis Univ. School of Medicine, MO (United States))

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Carbon monoxide sensor and method of use thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Carbon monoxide sensors suitable for use in hydrogen feed streams and methods of use thereof are disclosed. The sensors are palladium metal/insulator/semiconductor (Pd-MIS) sensors which may possess a gate metal layer having uniform, Type 1, or non-uniform, Type 2, film morphology. Type 1 sensors display an increased sensor response in the presence of carbon monoxide while Type 2 sensors display a decreased response to carbon monoxide. The methods and sensors disclosed herein are particularly suitable for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs).

McDaniel; Anthony H. (Livermore, CA), Medlin; J. Will (Boulder, CO), Bastasz; Robert J. (Livermore, CA)

2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

24

Carbon monoxide sensor for PEM fuel cell systems Christopher T. Holta,*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reforming) or with air and water (autothermal reforming). In the second step, carbon monoxide is reduced

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

25

Carbon monoxide-assisted growth of carbon nanotubes Y.H. Tang a,b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon monoxide-assisted growth of carbon nanotubes Y.H. Tang a,b , Y.F. Zheng a , C.S. Lee a , N was used to synthesize carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a hot-®lament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system in the formation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT)s. The CNTs synthesized from carbon monoxide validate

Zheng, Yufeng

26

Carbon Monoxide Sensor - Energy Innovation Portal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation Sites Proposed Route BTRICGEGR-N-CapturePortal CarbonCarbon

27

Titanium dioxide based high temperature carbon monoxide selective sensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Titanium dioxide based high temperature carbon monoxide selective sensor Nancy O. Savagea , Sheikh as a trap for the oxidation products of CO and CH4. Upon oxidation of CO on ALC, carbonate species were detected, whereas the reaction of CH4 produced negligible carbonate species. The insensitivity of the ALC

Dutta, Prabir K.

28

Determination of the atherogenic potential of inhaled carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

he effects of chronic exposure to moderate levels of carbon monoxide upon the augmentation of arteriosclerotic plaque development were investigated in a series of in vivo studies in the cockerel (young rooster). This animal model has been well characterized, especially regarding the role of environmental agents in exacerbating early stages of plaque development. Cockerels injected with subtumorigenic doses of carcinogens exhibit markedly accelerated development of aortic arteriosclerotic plaques. Inhalation of mainstream smoke from two packs of cigarettes (100 minutes/day for 16 weeks) causes small but statistically significant increases in plaque size. As is the case with many animal models of plaque development, raised fat-proliferative plaques also appear in these animals following cholesterol feeding. Carbon monoxide is a ubiquitous pollutant in urban environments, where it is derived largely from mobile sources and cigarette smoke. Exposure to chronically elevated carbon monoxide levels has been implicated in a number of health-related problems. Whether such exposure plays a role in the development of arteriosclerosis has not been determined conclusively. In the present study, three questions were posed: 1. Will inhaled carbon monoxide at levels of 50 to 200 parts per million (ppm)* (two hours/day for 16 weeks) be sufficient to augment arteriosclerotic plaque development in cockerels, in the absence of other plaque-promoting agents 2. Will the inhalation of 100 ppm carbon monoxide (two hours/day for 16 weeks), concomitant with the feeding of low levels (0.1%) of cholesterol, yield larger plaques than those obtained with either of these agents administered alone 3. Will inhalation of 100 ppm carbon monoxide (two hours/day for 11 or 22 weeks), by cockerels in whom plaques have already appeared, further augment plaque development Cockerels were exposed to carefully regulated levels of carbon monoxide in stainless-steel and Plexiglas dynamic exposure chambers.

Penn, A. (New York Univ. Medical Center, NY (United States))

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Disproportionation of carbon monoxide on supported nickel catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The disproportionation of carbon monoxide was investigated mainly on a 5.5% Ni/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst by infrared spectroscopy and temperature-programmed desorption. The reaction was found to be of first order with respect to the surface concentration of CO below 200/sup 0/C, while at 450/sup 0/C the reaction proceeded as a second order reaction for the pressure of CO. Results obtained with predeposited carbon indicated that the disproportionation reaction requires an ensemble of several nickel atoms. In agreement with this result, the disproportionation did not take place readily on a 1.1% Ni/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst on which a high dispersion of the metal was indicated by both infrared spectroscopy and the chemisorption of hydrogen. In the temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) carbon monoxide desorbed in a single peak before 300/sup 0/C. Some of the carbon monoxide, however, underwent disproportionation during TPD and a carbon dioxide peak appeared at about 220/sup 0/C. Furthermore, carbon thus deposited on the surface was oxidized to carbon monoxide by oxygen supplied from the catalysts and gave a second peak of CO in TPD at temperatures higher than 300/sup 0/C. Possible sources of the oxygen were discussed.

Galuszka, J.; Chang, J.R.; Amenomiya, Y.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute carbon monoxide Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

28, 2007 Summary: OSHAReproToxin AcutelyHazardousWaste Carbon monoxide CalOSHAReproToxin Carbon Tetrachloride IARC-2BNTP Carbonic... toxins, biotoxins and acutely toxic...

31

Kinetic model of catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide on nickel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A mechanism is proposed for describing the previous disclosed multiplicity of equilibrium states in the oxidation of carbon monoxide on metallic nickel. In contrast to the known mechanism for oxidation of CO on platinum metals it includes a nonlinear stage of carbon monoxide adsorption and a linear stage of oxygen adsorption. A kinetic model has been obtained and stage velocity constants have been found, providing a basis for obtaining a quantitative agreement between the calculated and experimental relations between the reaction velocity and the reagent concentrations. Opinions are stated in relation to the causes for evolution of the CO oxidation reaction from platinum metals to nickel.

Pyatnitskii, Yu.I.; Ostapyuk, V.A.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Photobiogeochemical cycling of carbon monoxide in the southeastern Beaufort Sea in spring and autumn  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photobiogeochemical cycling of carbon monoxide in the southeastern Beaufort Sea in spring the distribution, photoproduction, microbial uptake, and air­sea exchange of carbon monoxide (CO), a key that in warmer seas. Carbon monoxide (CO) is the dominant sink for hydroxyl radicals in the troposphere, thus

Vincent, Warwick F.

33

Infrared spectra of carbon monoxide adsorbed on palladium black  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors investigate the heterogeneous adsorption of carbon monoxide and the concurrent catalytic and sorptive properties of palladium black from the standpoint of a comprehensive analysis of the infrared spectra of the reaction pathways and their various products as well as the pressure dependence of the line behavior at various wavelengths.

Vozdvizhenskii, V.F.; Levintova, T.D.; Sokol'skii, D.V.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Quantitative analysis of SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide total column measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, SCIAMACHY CO total column retrievals are of sufficient quality to provide useful new information]. Ground-based FTIR measurements provide high quality total column measurements but have very limitedQuantitative analysis of SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide total column measurements A. T. J. de Laat,1,2 A

Laat, Jos de

35

Catalytic activation of carbon monoxide on metal surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In discussing the important basic aspects of carbon monoxide chemistry, this review covers the adsorption and reaction of CO with H/sub 2/O and H/sub 2/ on reduced metal surfaces. Carbon monoxide adsorption of the Group VIII metals exhibits certain patterns. Typically, as coverages exceed one-half, compression occurs in the monolayer and the molecules lose registry with the surface metal atoms. Particular sites associated with rough surfaces facilitate CO dissociation to the surface carbon; these sites may have a significant effect on selectivity in the CO hydrogenation reaction. The support used and the metal crystallite size both affect the catalyst activity and product selectivity. Indications are strong that a better knowledge of metal-support interactions combined with a more complete understanding of the surface chemistry involved will lead to improved catalyst systems in the future.

Vannice, M.A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Catalyst for the methanation of carbon monoxide in sour gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention involves the synergistic effect of the specific catalytic constituents on a specific series of carriers for the methanation of carbon monoxide in the presence of sulfur at relatively high temperatures and at low steam to gas ratios in the range of 0.2:1 or less. This effect was obtained with catalysts comprising the mixed sulfides and oxides of nickel and chromium supported on carriers comprising magnesium aluminate and magnesium silicate. Conversion of carbon monoxide to methane was in the range of from 40 to 80%. Tests of this combination of metal oxides and sulfides on other carriers and tests of other metal oxides and sulfides on the same carrier produced a much lower level of conversion.

Kustes, William A. (Louisville, KY); Hausberger, Arthur L. (Louisville, KY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and composition for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdnum, copper, cobalt, maganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

Liu, Wei (Cambridge, MA); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and composition are disclosed for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, copper, cobalt, manganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

1996-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

39

Sandia National Laboratories: carbon monoxide pollutants  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1development Sandia, NREL Release Wavearc-faultbestmonoxide pollutants Sandia Maps

40

TEXIN2: a model for predicting carbon monoxide concentrations near intersections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reduction caused by congestion 49 10 Application of impedance factors Carbon monoxide emissions for vehicular speed changes 59 12 Pasquill stability classes, A-G, as related to wind speed and incoming solar radiation 77 13 Regression lines... The prediction of carbon monoxide concentrations near roadway intersections represents a serious and challenging problem in air pollution research. In many geographical regions, the major portion of carbon monoxide in the environment is attributable...

Korpics, J. J

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON NICKEL FILMS: A LOW TEMPERATURE THERMAL DETECTION TECHNIQUE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A. B. Optical System Absorption Signal C. Small SignalNoise . Sensitivity of Absorption Spectroscopy EXPERIMENTSINFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON

Bailey, Robert Brian

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

An experimental investigation of the ignition properties of hydrogen and carbon monoxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for syngas turbine applications S.M. Walton *, X. He, B.T. Zigler, M.S. Wooldridge Department of Mechanical of simulated syngas mixtures of hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2), and carbon. Keywords: Carbon monoxide; Hydrogen; Syngas; Ignition; Rapid compression facility 1. Introduction Syngas

Wooldridge, Margaret S.

43

Transient PrOx carbon monoxide measurement, control, and optimization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuel processing systems for low temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems require control of the carbon monoxide concentration to less than 100 ppm to 10 ppm in the anode feed. Conventional hydrocarbon fuel processors use a water-gas shift (WGS) reactor to react CO with water to form H2 and reduce the CO concentration. The CO conversion is limited by equilibrium at the outlet temperature of the WGS reactor. The WGS outlet CO concentration can range from over 1% to 2000 ppm depending on the system and its operating parameters. At these concentrations, CO poisons low temperature PEM fuel cells and the concentrations needs to be reduced further.

Inbody, M. A. (Michael A.); Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.); Tafoya, J. (Jose I.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Methanation of gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having a relatively high concentration of hydrogen are pretreated so as to remove the hydrogen in a recoverable form for use in the second step of a cyclic, essentially two-step process for the production of methane. The thus-treated streams are then passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. This active carbon is reacted with said hydrogen removed from the feed gas stream to form methane. The utilization of the CO in the feed gas stream is appreciably increased, enhancing the overall process for the production of relatively pure, low-cost methane from CO-containing waste gas streams.

Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Removal of carbon monoxide. Physical adsorption on natural and synthetic zeolites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The utilization of natural zeolite materials in the elimination of polluting gases is investigated. Carbon monoxide pollution is emphasized because its concentration may reach dangerous levels in places such as vehicle tunnels, underground parking lots, etc. The elimination of carbon monoxide is also of interest in some industrial processes relating to the production of pure gases.

Alfani, F.; Greco, G. Jr.; Iroio, G.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Submitted to the Annals of Applied Statistics INTERPOLATING FIELDS OF CARBON MONOXIDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and transport. CO AMS 2000 subject classifications: Carbon monoxide; satellite data; Bayesian hierarchi- cal models; interpolation; data assimilation 1 imsart-aoas ver. 2007/04/13 file: COpaper.tex date: March 24Submitted to the Annals of Applied Statistics INTERPOLATING FIELDS OF CARBON MONOXIDE DATA USING

Nychka, Douglas

47

Interaction of carbon monoxide with supported platinum catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction of carbon monoxide with Pt/..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ containing 0.5-5% Pt by weight has been investigated by means of thermal desorption and IR spectroscopy. It has been shown that CO is adsorbed in three different forms, corresponding to the desorption temperature intervals 25-250/sup 0/C (I), and 250-700/sup 0/C (II), and 550-850/sup 0/C (III). In the adsorption of CO in the first two forms, the metal takes part (absorption band at 2080 cm/sup -1/), and also the support (1800, 1260, 1390, 1470, 1550, and 1640 cm/sup -1/). The adsorption in form III probably takes place on oxidized platinum centers with the formation of strong surface carbonate structures. High temperatures tend to increase the adsorption of CO in forms II and III.

Savel'eva, G.A.; Galeev, T.K.; Popova, N.M.; Vozdvizhenskii, V.F.; Mishchenko, V.M.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Some observations on the kinetics of the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the hydrogenation of CO a positive order of hydrogen and a slightly negative or a zero order in carbon monoxide are generally reported. The negative (or zero) order in carbon monoxide is often explained by assuming a strong adsorption of carbon monoxide on the same sites as used by the hydrogen. It is then assumed that the surface is ''almost totally'' covered by carbon monoxide. From experiments in which the surface products on an unsupported cobalt catalyst after the reaction were stripped off by a hydrogen treatment it was concluded that more than 95% of the surface (as determined from the adsorption of carbon monoxide at room temperature) was covered by carbon-containing species. This paper illustrates that ''zero order in carbon monoxide'' can be obtained with much lower coverage of carbon-containing species in equilibrium with gas-phase carbon monoxide than indicated above. Equations for reaction rates are presented, and data is calculated on the fraction of the catalyst surface covered by active carbon-containing species when the reaction is zero order in CO. The results suggest that only a small fraction of the catalyst surface is actively engaged in the hydrogenation of CO. This further suggests that the low turnover frequencies found for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis could be caused by a small number of sites which are active in the rate-determining step. (MWF)

Rautavuoma, A.O.I.; van der Baan, H.S.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Influence of the electrode material on carbon monoxide adsorption and electroreduction in aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon monoxide electroreduction was studied at rotating disk electrodes made of different materials (Cu, Au, Zn, Cd; amalgamated Cu; Al, Ga, In, glassy carbon, Sn, Pb, Mo, Fe, Ni, and certain binary systems). Positive partial currents which are evidence for a direct electroreduction of CO have been observed only at Zn, Ga, and Cd. The observation that CO is less susceptible to electroreduction than carbon dioxide is explained by the stronger chemisorption of carbon monoxide on the electrodes.

Osetrova, N.V.; Vasil'ev, Yu.B.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Population based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a Carbon Monoxide Passive Sampler and Occupational Dosimeter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Monoxide in Seatde Ice Skating Rinks." American Journal ofHockey Players in Ice Skating Rinks." Veterinary and Human

Apte, Michael G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Yang, Chang-lee (Spring Valley, NY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Production of carbon monoxide-free hydrogen and helium from a high-purity source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides vacuum swing adsorption processes that produce an essentially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen or helium gas stream from, respectively, a high-purity (e.g., pipeline grade) hydrogen or helium gas stream using one or two adsorber beds. By using physical adsorbents with high heats of nitrogen adsorption, intermediate heats of carbon monoxide adsorption, and low heats of hydrogen and helium adsorption, and by using vacuum purging and high feed stream pressures (e.g., pressures of as high as around 1,000 bar), pipeline grade hydrogen or helium can purified to produce essentially carbon monoxide -free hydrogen and helium, or carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane-free hydrogen and helium.

Golden, Timothy Christopher (Allentown, PA); Farris, Thomas Stephen (Bethlehem, PA)

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

53

A Micro-Computer-Based Fuel Optimization System Utilizing In-Situ Measurement of Carbon Monoxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas analyzer that mounts directly in the flue or stack to continuously measure carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, opacity and temperature. The control console interfaces directly with the boiler's existing analog control system to provide precise...

DeVivo, D. G.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Crystallographic Snapshots of Cyanide- and Water-Bound C-Clusters from Bifunctional Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase/Acetyl-CoA Synthase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nickel-containing carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (CODHs) reversibly catalyze the oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and are of vital importance in the global carbon cycle. The unusual catalytic CODH C-cluster ...

Kung, Yan

55

Reformer-pressure swing adsorption process for the production of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An improved process for the production of carbon monoxide by the steam reforming of hydrocarbons is described comprising: (a) catalytically reacting a fluid hydrocarbon feed stream with steam in a steam reformer; (b) passing the reformer effluent containing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from the steam reformer, without scrubbing to remove the carbon dioxide content thereof, to a pressure swing adsorption system having at least four adsorbent beds, each bed of which, on a cyclic basis, undergoes a processing sequence; (c) recycling the carbon dioxide-rich stream to the steam reformer for reaction with additional quantities of the hydrocarbon feed stream being passed to the stream reformer to form additional quantities of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, with product recovery being enhanced and the need for employing a carbon dioxide wash system being obviated.

Fuderer, A.

1988-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

56

Carbon Monoxide Tolerant Electrocatalyst with Low Platinum Loading and a  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation Sites Proposed Route BTRICGEGR-N-CapturePortal CarbonCarbonProcess

57

Coadsorption of hydrogen and ethylene, and carbon monoxide and ethylene on the Ru(001) surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed investigation of the coadsorption of ethylene with both preadsorbed hydrogen and preadsorbed carbon monoxide on the Ru(001) surface is reported here. Both preadsorbed hydrogen and carbon monoxide reduce the saturation coverage of subsequently chemisorbed ethylene. The coadsorption of hydrogen with ethylene results in detectable hydrogenation of ethylene to ethane below 250 K, whereas no self-hydrogenation of ethylene to ethane is observed. High-resolution electron energy loss spectra show that ethylene coadsorbed with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide decomposes to ethylidyne (CCH/sub 3/) and acetylide (CCH), as it does on the clean surface. Carbon monoxide preadsorption enhances the stability of the ethylidyne such that it decomposes at approximately 420 K, rather than 355 K as on the initially clean Ru(001) surface. Preadsorbed carbon monoxide also reduces the ratio of ethylidyne to acetylide that is formed from ethylene, compared to the ratio observed from an equivalent coverage of ethylene on the clean surface; hydrogen preadsorption, on the other hand, increases this ratio.

Hills, M.M.; Parmeter, J.E.; Weinberg, W.H.

1986-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

58

A population-based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a carbon monoxide passive sampler and occupational dosimeter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two devices, an occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), and an indoor air quality (IAQ) passive sampler were developed for use in population-based CO exposure assessment studies. CO exposure is a serious public health problem in the U.S., causing both morbidity and mortality (lifetime mortality risk approximately 10{sup -4}). Sparse data from population-based CO exposure assessments indicate that approximately 10% of the U.S. population is exposed to CO above the national ambient air quality standard. No CO exposure measurement technology is presently available for affordable population-based CO exposure assessment studies. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested in the laboratory and field. The palladium-molybdenum based CO sensor was designed into a compact diffusion tube sampler that can be worn. Time-weighted-average (TWA) CO exposure of the device is quantified by a simple spectrophotometric measurement. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested over an exposure range of 40 to 700 ppm-hours and 200 to 4200 ppm-hours, respectively. Both devices were capable of measuring precisely (relative standard deviation <20%), with low bias (<10%). The LOCD was screened for interferences by temperature, humidity, and organic and inorganic gases. Temperature effects were small in the range of 10{degrees}C to 30{degrees}C. Humidity effects were low between 20% and 90% RH. Ethylene (200 ppm) caused a positive interference and nitric oxide (50 ppm) caused a negative response without the presence of CO but not with CO.

Apte, M.G.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Carbon monoxide annealed TiO2 nanotube array electrodes for efficient biosensor applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon monoxide annealed TiO2 nanotube array electrodes for efficient biosensor applications by anodic oxidation of titanium foil followed with O2 and CO annealing were employed as matrices consisted of Ti3+ defects with carbon-doping and exhibited well defined quasi-reversible cyclic voltammetric

Cao, Guozhong

60

Attosecond Control of Electron Dynamics in Carbon Monoxide I. Znakovskaya,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Attosecond Control of Electron Dynamics in Carbon Monoxide I. Znakovskaya,1 P. von den Hoff,2 S by manipulating the laser frequency, phase and polarization in closed loop experiments [1]. Control- faces in the observed control? We describe experiments, where control of electron dynamics in carbon

Kling, Matthias

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Mechanism of methanol synthesis from carbon monoxide and hydrogen on copper catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors examine possible mechanisms of methanol synthesis from carbon monoxide and hydrogen on supported copper catalysts. Two broad categories of reaction mechanism can be identified: (a) Type I: Carbon monoxide, adsorbed on the copper surface, is hydrogenated by the addition of hydrogen atoms while the C-O bond remains intact. A second C-O bond is neither formed nor broken. (b) Type II: Carbon monoxide (or a partially hydrogenated intermediate, e.g., HCO) reacts with an oxygen atom on the catalyst surface to give an intermediate, typically a formate, which contains two C-O bonds. Subsequent reaction leads overall to methanol and the reformation of the surface oxygen atom. Both mechanisms are discussed.

Fakley, M.E.; Jennings, J.R.; Spencer, M.S. (ICI Chemicals and Polymers Ltd, Billingham, Cleveland (England))

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Process for producing methane from gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst capable of catalyzing the disproportionation of carbon monoxide so as to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon on the catalyst essentially without formation of inactive coke thereon. The surface layer is contacted with steam and is thus converted to methane and CO.sub.2, from which a relatively pure methane product may be obtained. While carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having hydrogen or water present therein can be used only the carbon monoxide available after reaction with said hydrogen or water is decomposed to form said active surface carbon. Although hydrogen or water will be converted, partially or completely, to methane that can be utilized in a combustion zone to generate heat for steam production or other energy recovery purposes, said hydrogen is selectively removed from a CO--H.sub.2 -containing feed stream by partial oxidation thereof prior to disproportionation of the CO content of said stream.

Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Solar Carbon Monoxide, Thermal Profiling, and the Abundances of C, O, and their Isotopes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A solar photospheric "thermal profiling" analysis is presented, exploiting the infrared rovibrational bands of carbon monoxide (CO) as observed with the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at Kitt Peak, and from above the Earth's atmosphere by the Shuttle-borne ATMOS experiment. Visible continuum intensities and center-limb behavior constrained the temperature profile of the deep photosphere, while CO center-limb behavior defined the thermal structure at higher altitudes. The oxygen abundance was self consistently determined from weak CO absorptions. Our analysis was meant to complement recent studies based on 3-D convection models which, among other things, have revised the historical solar oxygen (and carbon) abundance downward by a factor of nearly two; although in fact our conclusions do not support such a revision. Based on various considerations, an oxygen abundance of 700+/-100 ppm (parts per million relative to hydrogen) is recommended; the large uncertainty reflects the model sensitivity of CO. New solar isotopic ratios also are reported for 13C, 17O, and 18O.

Thomas R. Ayres; Claude Plymate; Christoph U. Keller

2006-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

64

Crystallization and mutational studies of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from moorella thermoacetica  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase (CODH), also known as Acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS), is one of seven known Ni containing enzymes. CODH/ACS is a bifunctional enzyme which oxidizes CO to CO2 reversibly and synthesizes acetyl-CoA. Recently, X-ray crystal...

Kim, Eun Jin

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

65

Effect of redox potential, sulfide ions and a persulfide forming cysteine residue on carbon monoxide dehydrogenase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Ni-Fe-S C-cluster of carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (CODH), which catalyzes the reversible oxidation of CO to CO2, can be stabilized in four redox states: Cox, Cred1, Cint, and Cred2. The best-supported mechanism of catalysis involves a one...

Feng, Jian

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

66

Study of hydrogen and carbon monoxide adsorption on modified Zn/Cr catalysts by adsorption calorimetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Differential heat of adsorption (q) of hydrogen (a) and carbon monoxide (b) as a function of the adsorbed amount (a) on Zn/Cr catalysts at 463/sup 0/K; 1) unpromoted catalyst, 2) catalyst promoted with 2.5% of K/sub 2/O.

Yoshin, S.V.; Klyacho, A.L.; Kondrat'ev, L.T.; Leonov, V.E.; Skripchenko, G.B.; Sushchaya, L.E.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Effects of exogenous carbon monoxide on radiation-induced bystander effect in zebrafish embryos in vivo  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the dose-response of radiation in the low-dose regime deviated from the LNT model. A notable example radiation are linearly proportional to the absorbed dose, evidence accumulated in the past decades showed as a pharmaceutical agent to release a low dose of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) to attenuate the effect on bystander

Yu, K.N.

68

Observations of rotating jets of carbon monoxide in comet Hale-Bopp with the IRAM interferometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Observations of rotating jets of carbon monoxide in comet Hale-Bopp with the IRAM interferometer the projection of the jet mean velocity on the line of sight. As the jet rotates with the nucleus, the velocity, an interesting feature is to be noted. We have computed the mean photometric centre from the peak intensity

Demoulin, Pascal

69

Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

70

Atmospheric Trace Gases from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication, Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. The collections under the CDIAC heading of Atmospheric Trace Gases include: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Atmospheric Methane, Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide, Atmospheric Hydrogen, Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases, Radionuclides, Aerosols, and Other Trace Gases.

71

A Study of Vibrational Relaxation of B-State Carbon Monoxide in the Heme Pocket of Photolyzed Carboxymyoglobin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Massachusetts 02215 ABSTRACT The vibrational energy relaxation of dissociated carbon monoxide in the heme pocket for the two CO substate frequencies, T1(B1) 335 115 ps and T1(B2) 330 145 ps. These simulation results

Straub, John E.

72

Relative and kinetic properties of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide on a graphite surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) results after chemisorption of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) on polycrystalline graphite are presented. CO adsorbs onto graphite with a very low sticking coefficient. After CO chemisorption CO (mass 28 amu) desorbs in two temperature regions, between 400 and 700 K and between 1000 and 1300 K, and CO/sub 2/ (mass 44 amu) desorbs below 950 K. The intensity of the CO/sub 2/ signal is less than 1 order of magnitude lower than the CO intensity. After CO/sub 2/ adsorption the major desorption product is CO at high temperatures (1000 < T (K) < 1300), whereas a small amount of CO/sub 2/ desorbs around 450 K. The adsorption of C/sup 16/O/sub 2/ and C/sup 18/O/sub 2/ mixture leads to a nearly total oxygen scrambling of the CO/sub 2/ desorbed. A mechanism for CO and CO/sub 2/ interconversion on the graphite surface is presented in terms of surface oxide species, mainly lactones and semiquinones, and their relative stability. Assignments of the TPD features are proposed accordingly. Reaction studies on the CO/sub 2/ gasification of clean graphite and the CO disproportionation (Boudouard reaction) have been performed. A good agreement is found between the activation energies obtained and the desorption energies calculated from the analysis of the TPD results.

Marchon, B.; Tysoe, W.T.; Carrazza, J.; Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A.

1988-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

73

Catalytic reactions on well-characterized vanadium oxide catalysts. 1. Oxidation of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation of carbon monoxide over unsupported and supported vanadium oxide catalysts was investigated from the standpoint of structure sensitivity. The activity of unsupported V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ markedly decreased the turnover frequency, while the reduction-oxidation treatment of the fused catalyst increased it. The turnover frequency of V/sub 2/O/sub 5//TiO/sub 2/ with low V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ content was much smaller than that of the V/sub 2/O/sub 5//TiO/sub 2/ with high V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ content or the unsupported V/sub 2/O/sub 5/. Such a retarding effect of the TiO/sub 2/ support on the activity of the oxidation of carbon monoxide is in contrast to the known promoting effect of TiO/sub 2/ for the oxidations of various hydrocarbons. From these results coupled with the characterization of the catalysts, it was concluded that the oxidation of carbon monoxide on vanadium oxide catalysts is a structure-sensitive reaction and that the activity of surface defects such as steps, kinks, and vacancies is much higher than that of the surface V=O species in the smooth (010) face of V/sub 2/O/sub 5/. 39 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

Mori, K.; Miyamoto, A.; Murakami, Y.

1984-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

74

Gravimetric study of adsorbed intermediates in methanation of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to more fully elucidate the adsorbed intermediates and mechanism involved in catalytic methanation of CO on a typical nickel methanation catalyst. Rates of adsorption and desorption of surface species and of gasification of carbon were measured gravimetrically to determine their kinetics and possible roles in methanation. 19 refs.

Gardner, D.C.; Bartholomew, C.H.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Thermal device and method for production of carbon monoxide and hydrogen by thermal dissociation of hydrocarbon gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Carbon monoxide is produced in a fast quench reactor. The production of carbon monoxide includes injecting carbon dioxide and some air into a reactor chamber having a high temperature at its inlet and a rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Carbon dioxide and other reactants such as methane and other low molecular weight hydrocarbons are injected into the reactor chamber. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.

Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Low-Temperature Carbon Monoxide Oxidation Catalysed by Regenerable  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and InterfacesAdministration - RockyTemperature 65Atomically Dispersed

77

Studies of carbon monoxide diffusion in an urban area  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Major. Sub]ect: Meteorology STnDIBS 0. " CAtIBO:t;IONOXI!IR DIN!iUSION IN AN URBAN ARSA A Thc. si s By JOHN Gifted!, !! S Tt!O:!AS Approved ss to s tyi e and content by: (Che '. rr an of Co@tt &e) Mz. ! n F. Grifffths (Mieia er) Dr. Robert C..., Ihiiniels (Head of Lepcrtnie ) Dr. Vance K. Moyer (Men'. ber) I'Ir, Bill C. Moore J-nue;y 1S7O APSTRACT Studies of Carbon Ilonox de Diffusion in an Urban Area. (January 1970) John C. Thoaias, E. S. , Texas A&'~i University Directcd1 by: Professor...

Thomas, John Charles

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Solubility of carbon monoxide in 1,4-dioxane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solubility of CO in 1,4-dioxane was determined as a function of pressure (7-70 atm) and temperature (80-173/sup 0/C). An expression is given for solubility that relates the mole fraction and partial pressure of CO (in atmospheres) and the temperature in degrees Kelvin. The results, analyzed in terms of the Krichevsky-Ilinskaya equation, showed that the partial molar volume of CO was independent of pressure and that the isobaric Henry's law was obeyed in the ranges studied. Comparisons with other solvents showed that, on the basis of CO dissolution characteristics, 1,4-dioxane can be classified better with polar than with nonpolar solvents.

Veleckis, E.; Hacker, D.S.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Mechanism of iron catalysis of carbon monoxide decomposition in refractories  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors discuss the catalytic effects of selected iron phases (metals, oxides, sulfides, and carbides) on the Boudouard reaction studied in an effort to more fully understand the disintegration of refractories when exposed to CO for long periods of time. It was found that active Fe atoms generated from the reduction of the iron oxides, especially {alpha}-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, are the actual catalysts for the Boudouard reaction. The catalytic process confirmed by thermodynamic calculations, kinetic data, and X-ray diffraction data, consists of adsorption and decomposition of CO simultaneously forming carbides of iron. The chemisorption and subsequent decomposition of the iron carbides, rather than diffusion, constitute the rate-controlling process for carbon deposition.

Xu, M.W.P.; Brown, J.J. Jr. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (USA). Dept. of Materials Engineering)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

Scherer, Norbert F.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Adsorption and desorption of hydrogen and carbon monoxide were studied on alumina-supported iridium catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The adsorption and desorption of hydrogen and carbon monoxide were studied on alumina-supported iridium catalysts which were examined by a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The metal particle size and number of particles per area of catalyst increased with increasing metal loading. The particles were approx. 10 A. in diameter, cubo-octahedral shaped, and approx. 80-90% disperse. The STEM electron beam caused negligible damage to the samples. Hydrogen adsorption measurements showed that the hydrogen-iridium atom ratio was 1.2:1-1.3:1 and increased with decreasing metal loading. Temperature-programed desorption showed four types of adsorbed hydrogen desorbing at -90/sup 0/C (I), 15/sup 0/C (IV), 115/sup 0/C (II), and 245/sup 0/C (III). Types II and IV desorb from single atom sites and Types I and III from multiple atom sites. Type I is in rapid equilibrium with the gas phase. All desorption processes appear to be first order. Carbon monoxide adsorbed nondissociatively at 25/sup 0/C with approx. 0.7:1 CO/Ir atom ratio. It adsorbed primarily in linear forms at low coverage, but a bridged form appeared at high coverage.

Etherton, B.P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopic study of the interaction of potassium with carbon monoxide and benzene on the Pt(111) surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction of potassium with carbon monoxide and benezene has been studied on the Pt(111) crystal surface by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The adsorptive changes reported in previous studies for carbon monoxide and benzene when potassium is coadsorbed are correlated with the UPS results presented here and are explained with the aid of a molecular orbital analysis. The authors find that the valence molecular orbitals increase their binding energy slightly when the potassium is coadsorbed, implying a model in which the adsorbates sense the potassium-induced changes in dipole field at the surface. 36 references, 11 figures.

Kudo, M.; Garfunkel, E.L.; Somorjai, G.A.

1985-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

83

Observation of two-dimensional compositional ordering of a carbon monoxide and argon monolayer mixture physisorbed on graphite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Commensurate monolayers of a mixture of 70% carbon monoxide and 30% argon on graphite are studied by neutron and low-energy-electron diffraction. A 2 x 2 superstructure due to 3:1 compositional ordering is observed below 25 K. The compositional ordering is most likely due to molecular-axis ordering of carbon monoxide molecules into a pinwheel pattern with argon atoms at the central sites of each pinwheel. Such a pinwheel structure has been predicted by Harris, Mouritsen, and Berlinsky for planar rotors with anisotropic interactions on a triangular lattice with vacancies.

You, H.; Fain, S.C. Jr.; Satija, S.; Passell, L.

1986-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

84

Methane and carbon monoxide emissions from asphalt pavement: Measurements and estimates of their important to global budgets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors measured emissions of methane from asphalt surfaces used in pavement for roadways. Maximum emissions were 22 mg/m{sup 2}/hr for 1- to 4-week-old pavement during maximum sunlight intensity. Emissions were much smaller at low sunlight intensity and dropped off to negligible amounts at night. Smaller emissions were observed for asphalt pavement of 2.5 to 3 years approximate age under similar conditions. Comparison measurements of carbon monoxide emissions resulted in maximum emissions of about 2.6 mg/m{sup 2}hr for 1-week-old pavement. These findings indicate that emissions of CH{sub 4} and CO are a function of both sunlight and temperature. Based on these results, methane emissions from asphalt pavement cannot be a significant source of atmospheric methane as compared to other identified methane sources. Therefore, although asphalt methane emissions are a form of fossil fuel methane, they cannot explain the relatively high fraction of {sup 14}C-depleted methane in the atmosphere.

Tyler, S.C.; Dlugokencky, E.; Zimmerman, P.R.; Cicerone, R.J. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (USA)); Lowe, D.C. (Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Lower Hutt (New Zealand))

1990-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

85

Design and Development of a Mid-Infrared Carbon Monoxide Sensor for a High-Pressure Combustor Rig  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A sensor for carbon monoxide measurement has been developed using a mid-infrared quantum-cascade (QC) laser operating in the fundamental band (?v= 1) of CO near 4.5 ?m. The fundamental band was chosen due to its stronger absorption line...

Camou, Alejandro

2014-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

86

Chemisorption of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides on highly dispersed technetium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this work is to study, in infrared spectroscopy, the surface compounds formed on adsorption of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides on Tc/SiO/sub 2/. The samples were prepared by soaking Aerosil with aqueous solution of ammonium pertechnetate containing 10 wt.% of Tc. Reduction with hydrogen to the metal was carried out at 700-800/sup 0/C. Results indicated that chemisorption of CO on highly dispersed technetium gives rise to a single type of linear and several types of multicentered adsorption forms. Occurrence of bridge form of adsorbed CO was also suggested on the basis of the data on chemisorption stoichiometry. Formation of a structure characterizable by absorption at 1790 cm/sup -1/ may indicate, only after protracted analysis, that the surface of the technetium introduced gradually suffers significant rearrangement facilitating formation of this type of complexes.

Serebryakova, N.V.; Sokolova, N.P.; Spitsyn, V.S.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Transformation of carbon monoxide dimer surface structures on yttrium oxide modified by silver  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been established that introducing ions of silver(II) in yttrium(III) oxide leads to the formation of a significant concentration of a paramagnetic dimer species (CO)/sub 2/-in the course of the adsorption of carbon monoxide, and that these dimers exhibit high thermal stability and reactivity. Reactions are proposed for the formation of the dimer species (CO)/sub 2//sup 2 -/ and (CO)/sub 2//sup -/ on the surface of the Ag/Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst that involve the reduction of the anion vacancies and a change in the oxidation state of the silver ions. Modifying the yttrium oxide with ionic silver leads to a marked decrease in the strength of the oxidative ability of the surface of the catalyst for CO, while the nature of the active sites of the yttrium oxide, which adsorbs CO in three forms, remains unchanged.

Vydrin, S.N.; Bobolev, A.V.; Loginov, A.Yu.

1987-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

88

Infrared spectroscopic study of the adsorption of carbon monoxide on silica-supported copper oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Adsorption of carbon monoxide at room temperature (0.1 to 50 Torr) on silica-supported copper oxide was studied by infrared spectroscopy. Catalysts were prepared by deposition-precipitation or impregnation. After calcination two types of adsorbed CO were identified showing absorption bands at 2136 +- 3 and 2204 +- 1 cm/sup -1/, which are ascribed to CO adsorbed on copper(II) oxide and on isolated copper(II) ions in the silica surface, respectively. Reduction and reoxidation removed the band at 2204 cm/sup -1/ with all samples and raised the intensity of the 2136-cm/sup -1/ band with the precipitated catalysts but not with the impregnation catalyst. Evidence is brought forward that the isolated copper ions are mobilized during reduction and generate new copper (oxide) surface. The change in background transmission of the samples could be used to obtain further information about the interaction of O/sub 2/ and CO with copper oxide.

De Jong, K.P.; Geus, J.W.; Joziasse, J.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Prediction of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrocarbon Emissions in Isooctane HCCI Engine Combustion Using Multi-Zone Simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignitions (HCCI) engines show promise as an alternative to Diesel engines, yet research remains: development of practical HCCI engines will be aided greatly by accurate modeling tools. A novel detailed chemical kinetic model that incorporates information from a computational fluid mechanics code has been developed to simulate HCCI combustion. This model very accurately predicts many aspects of the HCCI combustion process. High-resolution computational grids can be used for the fluid mechanics portion of the simulation, but the chemical kinetics portion of the simulation can be reduced to a handful of computational zones (for all previous work 10 zones have been used). While overall this model has demonstrated a very good predictive capability for HCCI combustion, previous simulations using this model have tended to underpredict carbon monoxide emissions by an order of magnitude. A factor in the underprediction of carbon monoxide may be that all previous simulations have been conducted with 10 chemical kinetic zones. The chemistry that results in carbon monoxide emissions is very sensitive to small changes in temperature within the engine. The resolution in temperature is determined directly by the number of zones. This paper investigates how the number of zones (i.e. temperature resolution) affects the model's prediction of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions in an HCCI engine. Simulations with 10, 20, and 40 chemical kinetic zones have been conducted using a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism (859 species, 3606 reactions) to simulate an isooctane fueled HCCI engine. The results show that 10-zones are adequate to resolve the hydrocarbon emissions, but a greater numbers of zones are required to resolve carbon monoxide emissions. Results are also presented that explore spatial sources of the exhaust emissions within the HCCI engine combustion chamber.

Flowers, D; Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Dibble, R

2002-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

90

Carbon monoxide adsorption/desorption processes over NaX zeolite and supported ruthenium catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The binding states of CO on NaX zeolite and RuNaX were investigated by thermal desorption spectroscopy. Desorption peaks centered at around 390, 430, 490, and 520 K were observed from NaX following room-temperature adsorption of CO. The activation energy values corresponding to these peaks were calculated to be 41.4, 45.7, 53.8, and 57.7 kJ mol{sup {minus}1}, respectively. These peaks were also observed in desorption profiles from RuNaX although their temperatures were higher by 10 to 20 K. In addition, the desorption spectra from RuNaX also comprise two high-temperature peaks at around 575 and 640 K. With both the RuNaX and the NaX samples the temperature and relative intensities of the desorption peaks depended on pretreatment conditions and on the lapsed time between CO exposure to the sample and the commencement of programmed heating. Mass spectral analysis revealed that the gas desorbed at 300-500 K consisted mainly of CO while at higher temperatures CO{sub 2} was the main component. The desorption peaks below 500 K are attributed to the release of carbon monoxide from structural and intragranular or intergranular zeolitic pores. Lewis sites on the zeolite surface are found to facilitate activation of CO, resulting in its transformation to CO{sub 2}. The initial adsorption of carbon monoxide in zeolite pores and subsequent diffusion to metal sites leading to its disproportionation/oxidation is found to play an important role in the CO adsorption/desorption process on RuNaX.

Kamble, V.S.; Gupta, N.M.; Iyer, R.M. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Spectroscopic detection of Carbon Monoxide in the Young Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the detection of carbon monoxide (CO) emission from the young supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A) at wavelengths corresponding to the fundamental vibrational mode at 4.65 micron. We obtained AKARI Infrared Camera spectra towards 4 positions which unambiguously reveal the broad characteristic CO ro-vibrational band profile. The observed positions include unshocked ejecta at the center, indicating that CO molecules form in the ejecta at an early phase. We extracted a dozen spectra across Cas A along the long 1 arcmin slits, and compared these to simple CO emission models in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium to obtain first-order estimates of the excitation temperatures and CO masses involved. Our observations suggest that significant amounts of carbon may have been locked up in CO since the explosion 330 years ago. Surprisingly, CO has not been efficiently destroyed by reactions with ionized He or the energetic electrons created by the decay of the radiative nuclei. Our CO detection thus implies that...

Rho, Jeonghee; Cami, Jan; Reach, William

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Kinetics of the Reduction of Wüstite by Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide for the Chemical Looping Production of Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

produced could be stored, e.g. by geological sequestration, making the overall process “carbon-neutral”, or “carbon-negative” when biomass is used as fuel. In addition, the hydrogen produced during the oxidation of FexO and metallic Fe in steam can be kept... Kinetics of the reduction of wüstite by hydrogen and carbon monoxide for the chemical looping production of hydrogen Wen Liu a,n, Jin Yang Lim b, Marco A. Saucedo a, Allan N. Hayhurst b, Stuart A. Scott a, J.S. Dennis b a Department of Engineering...

Liu, Wen; Lim, Jin Yang; Saucedo, Marco A.; Hayhurst, Allan N.; Scott, Stuart A.; Dennis, J. S.

2014-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

93

Oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons on platinum and palladium catalysts in the presence of sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors report on a study of the effect of sulfur dioxide on the activity of platinum and palladium catalysts with respect to oxidation of the principal toxic components in the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines: carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons (propylene (C/sub 3/H/sub 6/) and propane (C/sub 3/H/sub 8/)). The experiments were carried out in a flow system equipped with Beckman infrared analyzers to monitor the concentrations of CO and hydrocarbons and of sulfur dioxide. A series of thermal desorption experiments was carried out in a low-pressure flow system with mass spectrometric analysis of the gas phase. The results indicate that the low-temperature adsorption of sulfur dioxide on platinum (and also palladium) catalysts inhibits the oxidation of carbon monoxide and propylene. The poisoning effect of O/sub 2/ is due to blockage of the platinum centers for adsorption of the oxidizable compounds and oxygen.

Panchishnyi, V.I.; Bondareva, N.K.; Sklyarov, A.V.; Rozanov, V.V.; Chadina, G.P.

1988-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

94

Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global carbon cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This state-of-the-art volume presents discussions on the global cycle of carbon, the dynamic balance among global atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

Trabalka, J R [ed.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Total oxidation of carbon monoxide and methane over transition metal-fluorite oxide composite catalysts. I. Catalyst composition and activity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel metal oxide composite catalyst for the total oxidation of carbon monoxide and methane was prepared by combining fluorite oxides with active transition metals. The fluorite oxides, such as ceria and zirconia, are oxygen-ion-conducting materials having catalytic properties usually at high temperatures. Active base metal catalysts, such as copper, were used as additives to promote the catalytic properties of these oxides. The contact of the two types of materials gave rise to a high active oxidation catalyst. At a space velocity of about 42,000 h{sup {minus}1}, complete carbon monoxide oxidation in air occurred at room temperature on the Au{sub 0.05}[Ce(La)]{sub 0.95}L{sub x} catalyst and at ca. 100{degrees}C on Cu-Ce-O composite catalysts. At the same space velocity, total oxidation of methane on the Cu-Ce-O catalyst doped with La{sub 2}O{sub 3} or SrO took place at ca. 550{degrees}C. The specific carbon monoxide oxidation activity of the Cu-Ce-O catalyst was several orders of magnitude higher than that of conventional copper-based catalysts and comparable or superior to platinum catalysts. This type of composite catalyst also showed excellent resistance to water vapor poisoning. The enhanced catalyst activity and stability resulted from strong interaction of the transition metal and fluorite oxide materials. 44 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, F. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)] [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by rhenium and manganese polypyridyl catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon electrode in acetonitrile. The two reductions arepseudo-reference electrode, acetonitrile with 0.1 M TBAH asyield of 94%. 1 H NMR (acetonitrile-d 3 ): ? 2.33 (s, 6H, CH

Smieja, Jonathan Mark

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Adsorption of carbon monoxide on a smooth palladium electrode: an in-situ infrared spectroscopic study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Adsorption of carbon monoxide on a smooth palladium electrode in 1 M HClO/sub 4/ saturated with CO was studied by two in-situ IR reflectance spectroscopic methods: EMIRS (electrochemically modulated infrared reflectance spectroscopy) and LPSIRS (linear potential sweep infrared reflectance spectroscopy). Two types of adsorbed CO, linear and bridged, were identified from the observed IR spectra, the latter being the predominant surface species. The C-O stretching frequency of the linear CO shifts to higher frequencies at more positive potentials with a slope of 48 cm/sup -1//V. The frequency of the bridged CO increases by 63 cm/sup -1/ between -0.5 and 0.9 V(NHE) and its integrated band intensity decreases continuously in the same potential region while the intensity of the linear CO is almost constant up to 0.1 V and then decreases gradually with increasing positive potential. The surface selection rule of the IR reflection absorption spectroscopy was tested for the present system by using the p- and s-polarized light. It was found that only p-polarized light gave the IR spectra of CO adsorbed on the palladium electrode thus proving the selection rule at the electrode/solution interface.

Kunimatsu, K.

1984-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

98

Relationship of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yield of cigarettes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The data from consecutive surveys of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study (1981-1988) were used to evaluate the relationship in cigarette smokers of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) yields of the cigarette. There were 690 subjects who reported smoking regularly in at least one survey, over age 15. After adjustment for intensity and duration of smoking and for depth of inhalation, the risk of chronic phlegm, cough, and dyspnea were not related to the tar and nicotine yields. In 414 subjects with pulmonary function tested in at least one of the three surveys the spirometric indices used were significantly related to the daily dose of tar, nicotine, and CO (product of the cigarette yield and daily number of cigarettes smoked). The effects were more pronounced for past than for current doses. However, the differentiation of pulmonary function due to various yields of cigarettes was small in comparison to the difference in pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers.

Krzyzanowski, M.; Sherrill, D.L.; Paoletti, P.; Lebowitz, M.D. (National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland))

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Carbon monoxide oxidation over three different states of copper: Development of a model metal oxide catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon monoxide oxidation was performed over the three different oxidation states of copper -- metallic (Cu), copper (I) oxide (Cu{sub 2}O), and copper (II) oxide (CuO) as a test case for developing a model metal oxide catalyst amenable to study by the methods of modern surface science and catalysis. Copper was deposited and oxidized on oxidized supports of aluminum, silicon, molybdenum, tantalum, stainless steel, and iron as well as on graphite. The catalytic activity was found to decrease with increasing oxidation state (Cu > Cu{sub 2}O > CuO) and the activation energy increased with increasing oxidation state (Cu, 9 kcal/mol < Cu{sub 2}O, 14 kcal/mol < CuO, 17 kcal/mol). Reaction mechanisms were determined for the different oxidation states. Lastly, NO reduction by CO was studied. A Cu and CuO catalyst were exposed to an equal mixture of CO and NO at 300--350 C to observe the production of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. At the end of each reaction, the catalyst was found to be Cu{sub 2}O. There is a need to study the kinetics of this reaction over the different oxidation states of copper.

Jernigan, G.G. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Materials and Chemical Sciences Div.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

A Study of the Adsorption of Some Atmospheric Gases on Soils of the Willamette Valley River Basin.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Recent work indicates that microorganisms present in soils can remove carbon monoxide from the atmosphere and as such constitutes a major sink. B.E.T. adsorption… (more)

Quale, Thomas R.

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Interaction of copper oxides with reaction medium in heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide by molecular oxygen. IV. IR spectroscopic study of carbon monoxide interaction with copper oxide surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An IR spectroscopic study has been made of the interaction of CO with CuO prepared in different ways, and the interaction of O/sub 2/ with carbon monoxide preadsorbed on CuO. A number of Cu/sup +/CO surface complexes have been detected (2114-2148 cm/sup -1/) with a heat of adsorption about 79.5-180 kJ/mole. From an analysis of the nature of these complexes, we have evaluated the processes taking place on the CuO surface when it interacts with CO and have compared the properties of massive CuO with those of CuO on oxide supports. The data are interpreted on the assumption that extended defects - dislocations - exist and play an important role, determining to a considerable degree the properties of the massive CuO in the reaction of CO oxidation.

Lokhov, Y.A.; Popovskii, V.V.; Sadykov, V.A.; Tikhov, S.F.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Process for the production of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a metal boride, nitride, carbide and/or silicide catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contacting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a metal boride, carbide, nitride and/or silicide catalyst, such as titanium carbide, vanadium boride, manganese nitride or molybdenum silicide.

McGuiggan, M.F.; Kuch, P.L.

1984-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

103

J. Phys. Chem. 1994, 98, 11213-11219 11213 Vibrational Dynamics of Carbon Monoxide at the Active Site of Myoglobin: Picosecond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. Phys. Chem. 1994, 98, 11213-11219 11213 Vibrational Dynamics of Carbon Monoxide at the Active Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, Califomia 94305 Received: April 27, 1994: In Final Form at Urbana-Champaign. Deparlment of Chemistry, Sfanford University. Hansen ExperimentaJ Physics Laboratory

Fayer, Michael D.

104

Resilience of gas-phase anharmonicity in the vibrational response of adsorbed carbon monoxide and breakdown under electrical conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In surface catalysis, the adsorption of carbon monoxide on transition-metal electrodes represents the prototype of strong chemisorption. Notwithstanding significant changes in the molecular orbitals of adsorbed CO, spectroscopic experiments highlight a close correlation between the adsorbate stretching frequency and equilibrium bond length for a wide range of adsorption geometries and substrate compositions. In this work, we study the origins of this correlation, commonly known as Badger's rule, by deconvoluting and examining contributions from the adsorption environment to the intramolecular potential using first-principles calculations. Noting that intramolecular anharmonicity is preserved upon CO chemisorption, we show that Badger's rule for adsorbed CO can be expressed solely in terms of the tabulated Herzberg spectroscopic constants of isolated CO. Moreover, although it had been previously established using finite-cluster models that Badger's rule is not affected by electrical conditions, we find here th...

Dabo, Ismaila

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Adsorbate effects on a mixed-valence compound: Carbon monoxide chemisorption on CeIr/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have studied the effects of stoichiometry change and CO chemisorption on the surface electronic structure of the mixed-valence compound CeIr/sub 2/. We show that the surface iridium to cerium ratio can be varied by changing sample temperature while sputtering. Carbon monoxide is found to adsorb 80% molecularly on the surface and cause a mild surface oxidation which induces a shift of electron density into available cerium f orbitals. Peaks due to the 4sigma, 1..pi.., and 5sigma CO molecular orbitals appear at different binding energies than those due to molecular CO on the pure iridium surface. This binding-energy shift as well as the high percentage of molecular CO on the surface (CO adsorption on pure cerium is completely dissociative) points toward a surface which has lost much of the elemental character of its two constituents upon compound formation.

Lindquist, J.M.; Hemminger, J.C.; Lawrence, J.

1987-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

106

Auger electron spectroscopy, electron loss spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction of oxygen and carbon monoxide adsorption of Pd films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The adsorption of oxygen and carbon monoxide at room temperature on polycrystalline and (111) monocrystalline thin films of Pd vapor deposited on mice was investigated by AES, ELS, and LEED. The results show that adsorbate coverage depends strongly on surface microstructure, composition, and topography. Polycrystalline or Cl contaminated surfaces adsorb large amounts of the gases, while flat, monocrystalline surfaces will adsorb almost none. These results are quite different from those observed earlier using sputter etched and annealed bulk single cyrstals where adsorbate superlattices formed after rather low gaseous exposures. In the present work no superlattices were observed after exposures ranging up to several thousand langmuirs. The contradictory results obtained in the two cases are attributed to probable differences in surface microtopography and microstructure.

Vook, R.W.; De Cooman, B.C.; Vankar, V.D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Remarkable catalytic activity of cobalt tetraphenylporphyrin modified on a titania for the oxidation of carbon monoxide below room temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CoTPP on TiO/sub 2/-120s modified at 250 /sup 0/C under vacuum catalytically oxidized carbon monoxide rapidly with oxygen even at -79/sup 0/C. Its catalytic activity was incomparably higher than that of commercial Hopcalite. Comparison of its catalytic performance with those of the same catalyst or different TiO/sub 2/ supporting catalyst both evacuated at 200 /sup 0/C revealed unique features of the present catalyst in terms of its oxygen adsorption, the poisoning of adsorbed oxygen, and the insolubility of the complex in benzene. Both significant structural modification of the complex and its strong interaction with properly dehydrated TiO/sub 2/-120s brought about by evacuation at 250 /sup 0/C may induce such extraordinary activity. 14 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

Mochida, I.; Iwai, Y.; Kamo, T.; Fujitsu, H.

1985-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

108

Adsorbate effects on a mixed-valence compound: carbon monoxide chemisorption on CeIr/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors studied the effects of stoichiometry change and CO chemisorption on the surface electronic structure of the mixed-valence compound CeIr/sub 2/. It is shown that the surface iridium to cerium ratio can be varied by changing sample temperature while sputtering. Carbon monoxide is found to adsorb 80% molecularly on the surface and cause a mild surface oxidation which induces a shift of electron density into available cerium f orbitals. Peaks due to the 4 sigma, 1 pi, and 5 sigma CO molecular orbitals appear at different binding energies than those due to molecular CO on the pure iridium surface. This binding-energy shift as well as the high percentage of molecular CO on the surface (CO adsorption on pure cerium is completely dissociative) points toward a surface which has lost much of the elemental character of its two constituents upon compound formation.

Lindquist, J.M.; Hemminger, J.C.

1987-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

109

The oxidation of soot and carbon monoxide in hydrocarbon diffusion flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quantitative hydroxyl radical concentrations and primary soot particle sizes have been determined in the soot oxidation regions of axisymmetric diffusion flames burning methane, methane/butane, and methane/1-butene in air at atmospheric pressure. The total carbon flow rate was held constant in these flames while the maximum amount of soot varied by a factor of seven along the centerline. Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of OH were placed on an absolute basis by calibration against earlier absorption results. The primary size measurements of the soot particles were made using thermophoretic sampling and transmission electron microscopy. OH concentrations are greatly reduced in the presence of soot particles. Whereas large super-equilibrium ratios are observed in the high-temperature reaction zones in the absence of soot, the OH concentrations approach equilibrium values when the soot loading is high. The diminished OH concentrations are found to arise from reactions with the soot particles and only to a minor degree from lower temperatures due to soot radiation losses. Analysis of the soot oxidation rates computed from the primary particle size profiles as a function of time along the flame centerlines shows that OH is the dominant oxidizer of soot, with O[sub 2] making only a small contribution. Higher collision efficiencies of OH reactions with soot particles are found for the flames containing larger soot concentrations at lower temperatures. A comparison of the soot and CO oxidation rates shows that although CO is inherently more reactive than soot, the soot successfully competes with CO for OH and hence suppresses CO oxidation for large soot concentrations.

Puri, R.; Santoro, R.J. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Smyth, K.C. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Building and Fire Research Lab.)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to an increase in atmospheric CO2 are partly offset by the carbon uptake by the oceans and the restAnalytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes 2008; accepted 18 June 2008; published 12 September 2008. [1] Carbon perturbations leading

Follows, Mick

111

E-Print Network 3.0 - accidental carbon monoxide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Health Collection: Biology and Medicine 33 Assessing and Modeling Exposure to Indoor Air Pollution among Rural Women in Guatemala Summary: pollution exposures to carbon...

112

E-Print Network 3.0 - accelerates carbon monoxide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Health Collection: Biology and Medicine 31 Assessing and Modeling Exposure to Indoor Air Pollution among Rural Women in Guatemala Summary: pollution exposures to carbon...

113

Thermal Infrared Radiation and Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dioxide Water vapor #12;Atmospheric composition (parts per million by volume) · Nitrogen (N2) 780Thermal Infrared Radiation and Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere Bill Satzer 3M Company #12;Outline,840 · Oxygen (O2) 209,460 · Argon (Ar) 9340 · Carbon dioxide (CO2) 394 · Methane (CH4) 1.79 · Ozone (O3) 0

Olver, Peter

114

States of cobalt and iron in catalysts supported in TiO{sub 2} from data of diffuse reflectance IR spectra of adsorbed carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The variations in the oxidation states of cobalt and iron atoms in pure and mixed Co- and Fe-containing catalysts supported on TiO{sub 2} as a function of the conditions in which the catalysts were prepared and preliminarily treated were studied by analysis of the IR spectra of carbon monoxide adsorbed on these catalysts. A mutual influence of the components was discovered; iron was found to promote reduction of cobalt.

Davydov, A.A. [G.K. Boreskov Inst. of Catalysis, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Coville, N. [Univ. of the Wiswatersrand Wits, Johannesburg (South Africa)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Relation between surface adsorption states and emf in a solid electrolyte concentration cell during carbon monoxide oxidation on platinum studied by local current measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The importance of measuring adsorption during surface catalysis has been emphasized often. This is true for the oxidation of carbon monoxide on a platinum surface. Surface adsorption states during the reaction under steady states can be learned from electromotive force (emf) measurement with appropriate assumptions. Two mechanisms for emf generation have been proposed, one is that only oxygen activity generates emf, the other is that both oxygen and CO adsorption generates emf.

Okamoto, H.; Kawamura, G.; Kudo, T.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Effect of the type of carrier on the properties of cobalt catalysts in the synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The properties of catalysts used in the synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO and H/sub 2/ are determined to a significant degree by the carriers used in their preparation. This paper deals with a study of the effect of the type of carrier on the properties of cobalt-based catalysts in the synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons from CO and H/sub 2/. Co catalysts that are active in the synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO and H/sub 2/ are those on which the adsorption of H/sub 2/ exceeds 3.10/sup -2/ mmole/g Co and the adsorptin of carbon monoxide exceeds 7.10/sup -2/ mmole/g Co. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen are adsorbed on active catalysts in weakly bound forms. A mechanism is proposed for the formatin of an active center and the adsorption of carbon monoxide on Co-catalysts which includes the appearance of a partial positive charge on the cobalt atom.

Lapidus, A.L.; Jem, H.C.; Krylova, A.Y.

1983-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

117

Kinetics and mechanisms of interactions of nitrogen and carbon monoxide with liquid niobium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics and mechanisms of interactions of N{sub 2} and CO with liquid niobium were investigated in the temperature range of 2,700 to 3,000 K in samples levitated in N{sub 2}/Ar and CO/Ar streams. The nitrogen absorption and desorption processes were found to be second-order with respect to nitrogen concentration, indicating that the rate controlling step is either the adsorption of nitrogen molecules on the liquid surface or dissociation of absorbed nitrogen molecules into adsorbed atoms. The carbon and oxygen dissolution in liquid niobium from CO gas is an exothermic process and the solubilities of carbon and oxygen (C{sub Ce}, C{sub Oe} in at%) are related to the temperature and the partial pressure of CO. The reaction CO {yields} (C) + (O) along with the evaporation of niobium oxide takes place during C and O dissolution, whereas C and O desorption occurs via CO evolution only.

Park, H.G.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

PAST RESEARCH SUMMARY REDUCTION OF CARBON MONOXIDE DOE/ER/04949--1  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006 The 2002OpticsPeriodical: Volume 5, Issue 32012)J TOCPAST RESEARCH

119

Time dependences of atmospheric Carbon dioxide fluxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Understanding the lifetime of CO2 in the atmosphere is critical for predictions regarding future climate changes. A simple mass conservation analysis presented here generates tight estimations for the atmosphere's retention time constant. The analysis uses a leaky integrator model that combines the observed deficit (only less than 40% of CO2 produced from combustion of fossil fuels is actually retained in the atmosphere, while more than 60% is continuously shed) with the exponential growth of fossil fuel burning. It reveals a maximum characteristic time of less than 23 year for the transfer of atmospheric CO2 to a segregation sink. This time constant is further constrained by the rapid disappearance of 14C after the ban of atmospheric atomic bomb tests, which provides a lower limit of 18 years for this transfer. The study also generates evaluations of other CO2 fluxes, exchange time constants and volumes exchanged. Analysis of large harmonic oscillations of atmospheric CO2 concentration, often neglected in th...

DeSalvo, Riccardo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Catalysts for the production of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of converting low H.sub.2 /CO ratio syngas to carbonaceous products comprising reacting the syngas with water or steam at 200.degree. to 350.degree. C. in the presence of a metal catalyst supported on zinc oxide. Hydrocarbons are produced with a catalyst selected from cobalt, nickel or ruthenium and alcohols are produced with a catalyst selected from palladium, platinium, ruthenium or copper on the zinc oxide support. The ratio of the reactants are such that for alcohols and saturated hydrocarbons: (2n+1).gtoreq.x.gtoreq.O and for olefinic hydrocarbons: 2n.gtoreq.x.gtoreq.O where n is the number of carbon atoms in the product and x is the molar amount of water in the reaction mixture.

Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); Goldberg, Robert I. (Selden, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Catalysts for the production of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of converting low H/sub 2//CO ratio syngas to carbonaceous products comprising reacting the syngas with water or steam at 200 to 350/sup 0/C in the presence of a metal catalyst supported on zinc oxide. Hydrocarbons are produced with a catalyst selected from cobalt, nickel or ruthenium and alcohols are produced with a catalyst selected from palladium, platinum, ruthenium or copper on the zinc oxide support. The ratio of the reactants are such that for alcohols and saturated hydrocarbons: (2n + 1) greater than or equal to x greater than or equal to O and for olefinic hydrocarbons: 2n greater than or equal to x greater than or equal to O where n is the number of carbon atoms in the product and x is the molar amount of water in the reaction mixture.

Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; Goldberg, R.I.

1985-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

122

Carbon monoxide alleviates ethanol-induced oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stress-inducible protein heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) is well-appreciative to counteract oxidative damage and inflammatory stress involving the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). The potential role and signaling pathways of HO-1 metabolite carbon monoxide (CO), however, still remained unclear. To explore the precise mechanisms, ethanol-dosed adult male Balb/c mice (5.0 g/kg.bw.) or ethanol-incubated primary rat hepatocytes (100 mmol/L) were pretreated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimmer (CORM-2, 8 mg/kg for mice or 20 ?mol/L for hepatocytes), as well as other pharmacological reagents. Our data showed that CO released from HO-1 induction by quercetin prevented ethanol-derived oxidative injury, which was abolished by CO scavenger hemoglobin. The protection was mimicked by CORM-2 with the attenuation of GSH depletion, SOD inactivation, MDA overproduction, and the leakage of AST, ALT or LDH in serum and culture medium induced by ethanol. Moreover, CORM-2 injection or incubation stimulated p38 phosphorylation and suppressed abnormal Tnfa and IL-6, accompanying the alleviation of redox imbalance induced by ethanol and aggravated by inflammatory factors. The protective role of CORM-2 was abolished by SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) but not by PD98059 (ERK inhibitor) or SP600125 (JNK inhibitor). Thus, HO-1 released CO prevented ethanol-elicited hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway, suggesting a potential therapeutic role of gaseous signal molecule on ALD induced by naturally occurring phytochemicals. - Highlights: • CO alleviated ethanol-derived liver oxidative and inflammatory stress in mice. • CO eased ethanol and inflammatory factor-induced oxidative damage in hepatocytes. • The p38 MAPK is a key signaling mechanism for the protective function of CO in ALD.

Li, Yanyan; Gao, Chao; Shi, Yanru; Tang, Yuhan; Liu, Liang; Xiong, Ting; Du, Min [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Ministry of Education Lab of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Xing, Mingyou [Department of Infectious Diseases, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Liu, Liegang [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Ministry of Education Lab of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Yao, Ping, E-mail: yaoping@mails.tjmu.edu.cn [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Ministry of Education Lab of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

123

Carbon monoxide line emission as a CMB foreground: tomography of the star-forming universe with different spectral resolutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The rotational lines of carbon monoxide and the fine structure lines of CII and of the most abundant metals, emitted during the epoch of enhanced star formation in the universe, are redshifted in the frequency channels where the present-day and future CMB experiments are sensitive. We estimate the contribution to the CMB angular power spectrum by the emission in such lines in merging star-forming galaxies. We used the Lacey-Cole approach to characterize the distribution of the merging halos, together with a parametrization for the star formation rate in each of them. Using observational data from a sample of local, low-redshift, and high-redshift objects, we calibrated the luminosity in each line as a function of the star formation rate. We show that the correlation term arising from CO line emission is a significant source of foreground for CMB in a broad range of frequencies (in particular in the 20-60 GHz band) and for 1000

Mattia Righi; Carlos Hernandez-Monteagudo; Rashid Sunyaev

2008-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

124

Infrared spectroscopic studies of carbon monoxide adsorbed on a series of silica-supported copper catalysts in different oxidation states  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Infrared spectroscopy has been used to study the adsorption of carbon monoxide (358-493 K, 0.1-20 kPa) on four copper-on-silica (2-10 wt% Cu) catalysts prepared by the ion-exchange technique. The measurements are made for each sample in three different states: unreduced (predominantly Cu{sup 2+}), and reduced (Cu{sup 0}), and partially reoxidized in nitrous oxide (Cu{sup +}). On unreduced samples, a major absorption band between 2127 and 2132 cm{sup {minus}1} due to CO adsorbed on small CuO particles and a weak band at 2199 cm{sup {minus}1} due to CO on isolated Cu{sup 2+} ions incorporated in the silica surface have been identified. The former adsorption obeys a Langmuir isotherm with a heat of adsorption of 29 kJ/mol independent of CuO particle size and surface coverage. After catalyst reduction, the major absorption band lies between 2090 and 2113 cm{sup {minus}1} and arises from CO linearly bound to very small (1- to 5-nm) copper metal clusters. The observed frequency shifts indicate the presence of steps and terraces similar to low index Cu planes in very small particles (1- to 2-nm), and the presence of similar higher index Cu planes on larger clusters (2- to 5-nm). The absorption is described by a Freundlich isotherm with the heat of CO adsorption decreasing with coverage from 50 to 22 kJ/mol on bigger particles but more constant (27 to 22 kJ/mol) on small particles. A surface copper/CO atomic ratio increasing from 5 to 12 is established at equilibrium saturation between 358 and 493 K using extinction coefficients determined in this study. In the reduced catalysts, a weakly adsorbed ({Delta}H{sub a} = {minus}20 kJ/mol) species assigned to CO bound to isolated Cu{sup +} ions is also found and absorbs at 2175 cm{sup {minus}1}. The frequency of this band does not vary with catalyst loading and is not affected by reoxidation of the catalyst in nitrous oxide.

Kohler, M.A.; Wainwright, M.S.; Trimm, D.L.; Cant, N.W. (Macquarie Univ., New South Wales (Australia) Univ. of South Wales (Australia))

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

The lifetime of excess atmospheric carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the beginning of the industrial revolution human activity has significantly altered biogeochemical cycling on a global scale. The uncertainties of future climate change rests partly on issues of physical-climate system dynamics and their representation in general circulation models. However understanding the carbon cycle is a key to comprehending the changing terrestrial biosphere and to developing a reasonable range of future concentrations of greenhouse gases. The authors look at correction of model uncertainties in the examination of the lifetime of carbon dioxide. The two difficulties analysed are as follows: (1) most model-derived estimates of the relaxation of the concentration of CO2 reveal a function which is not always well approximated by weighted sums of exponentials; (2) the function c(t) is quite sensitive to assumptions about the terrestrial biosphere and the relaxation experiment. 51 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

Moore, B. III; Braswell, B.H. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States))

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Infrared spectra of carbon monoxide adsorbed on SiO sub 2 -supported lanthanide-Ni bimetallic catalysts and their catalytic properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently the surface properties of the lanthanide (rare earth) - transition metal intermetallics and lanthanide metal overlayers have attracted a growing interest from the point of view of technical applications in catalyst and hydrogen storage. However, despite the intrinsic interest and considerable potential of these novel materials, very little detailed work has been carried out with a view to unveiling the specific properties upon interactions of lanthanides with transition metals. It has been shown that Eu and Yb metals dissolve in liquid ammonia to yield homogeneous solutions containing the ammoniated electrons. When the transition metal powders are added to this solution, the metal powders react with the dissolved lanthanide metals in liquid ammonia to form novel bimetallic catalysts. Such a system can be used as a catalyst probe for studying the catalytic actions induced by interactions between the lanthanide and transition metals. The present investigation was extended to include a SiO{sub 2}-supported bimetallic systems obtained when Eu or Yb dissolved in liquid ammonia reacts with silica-supported Ni. Using Fourier transform (FT)-IR studies of adsorbed carbon monoxide the authors provided information about the way the surface components were disposed in this bimetallic system. Adsorbed carbon monoxide was used as a molecular probe for the nature of bimetallic surface since the IR spectra of adsorbed probe molecules directly reflected variations in the surface.

Imamura, Hayao; Sugimoto, Hiromi; Sakata, Yoshihisa; Tsuchiya, Susumu (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Application of an all-solid-state diode-laser-based sensor for carbon monoxide detection by optical absorption in the 4.4 ? 4.8 µm spectral region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

APPLICATION OF AN ALL-SOLID-STATE DIODE-LASER-BASED SENSOR FOR CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTION BY OPTICAL ABSORPTION IN THE 4.4 ? 4.8 ?m SPECTRAL REGION A Dissertation by RODOLFO BARRON JIMENEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate... FOR CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTION BY OPTICAL ABSORPTION IN THE 4.4 ? 4.8 ?m SPECTRAL REGION A Dissertation by RODOLFO BARRON JIMENEZ Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY...

Rodolfo, Barron Jimenez

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

128

Phase relation between global temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause for temperature variations. In this paper we discuss this assumption and analyze it on basis of bi-centenary measurements and using a relaxation model which causes phase shifts and delays.

Stallinga, Peter

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Final Technical Report "Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide and Olefin Oxidation" Grant number : DE-FG02-86ER13615  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Title: Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide and Olefin Oxidation Grant No. DE-FG02-86ER13615 PI: Wayland, B. B. (wayland@sas.upenn.edu) Abstract Development of new mechanistic strategies and catalyst materials for activation of CO, H2, CH4, C2H4, O2, and related substrates relevant to the conversion of carbon monoxide, alkanes, and alkenes to organic oxygenates are central objectives encompassed by this program. Design and synthesis of metal complexes that manifest reactivity patterns associated with potential pathways for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide through metallo-formyl (M-CHO), dimetal ketone (M-C(O)-M), and dimetal dionyl (M-C(O)-C(O)-M) species is one major focus. Hydrocarbon oxidation using molecular oxygen is a central goal for methane activation and functionalization as well as regioselective oxidation of olefins. Discovery of new reactivity patterns and control of selectivity are pursued through designing new metal complexes and adjusting reaction conditions. Variation of reaction media promotes distinct reaction pathways that control both reaction rates and selectivities. Dimetalloradical diporphyrin complexes preorganize transition states for substrate reactions that involve two metal centers and manifest large rate increases over mono-metalloradical reactions of hydrogen, methane, and other small molecule substrates. Another broad goal and recurring theme of this program is to contribute to the thermodynamic database for a wide scope of organo-metal transformations in a range of reaction media. One of the most complete descriptions of equilibrium thermodynamics for organometallic reactions in water and methanol is emerging from the study of rhodium porphyrin substrate reactions in aqueous and alcoholic media. Water soluble group nine metalloporphyrins manifest remarkably versatile substrate reactivity in aqueous and alcoholic media which includes producing rhodium formyl (Rh-CHO) and hydroxy methyl (Rh-CH2OH) species. Exploratory directions for this program include expending new strategies for anti-Markovnikov addition of water, alcohols, and amines with olefins, developing catalytic reactions of CO to give formamides and formic esters, and evaluating the potential for coupling reactions of CO to produce organic building blocks.

Wayland, B.B.

2009-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

130

Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas, which method comprises: (a) contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate of the formula: ##STR1## wherein the water-soluble organic compound is selected from compounds of the formula: ##STR2## wherein: R is selected from hydrogen or an organic moiety having at least one polar functional group; Z is selected from oxygen, sulfur, or --N--A wherein N is nitrogen and A is hydrogen or lower alkyl having from one to four carbon atoms; and M is selected from hydrogen, sodium or potassium; and n is 1 or 2, in a contacting zone for a time and at a temperature effective to reduce the nitrogen monoxide. These mixtures are useful to provide an unexpensive method of removing NO from gases, thus reducing atmospheric pollution from flue gases.

Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Quantum-chemical investigation of the interaction of nitrogen and carbon monoxide molecules with the Lewis acid sites of aluminium oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Within the framework of the cluster approximation, using covalent and ionic models of Lewis acid sites of aluminumoxide, their electronic structure, as well as that of complexes of nitrogen and carbon monoxide molecules with them, was calculated. It was shown that the Lewis acid sites, representing a truncated tetrahedron, exhibit stronger electron-acceptor properties than the corresponding sites in the form of a truncated octahedron. For both molecules, the linear form of adsorption is energetically more profitable than the T-shaped form. The results obtained by the nonempirical SCF MO LCAO method in the STO-3GF basis and by semiempirical methods in CNDO/2 and INDO approximatations, are qualitatively the same.

Senchenya, I.N.; Chuvylkin, N.D.; Kazanskii, V.B.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Studies on the sulfur poisoning of Ru-RuO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst for the adsorption and methanation of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of sulfur poisoning on the chemisorption and on the methanation of carbon monoxide over Ru/TiO{sub 2} catalyst were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy and volumetric gas adsorption measurements. The CS{sub 2} molecules are {eta}` bonded to Ru sites through one of the sulfur atoms and decompose to the constituent elements on thermal activation. Each S atom may deactivate 3 to 10 metal sites even at low coverages, the effect being more pronounced on the chemisorption of hydrogen. The deposited sulfur (and possibly carbon also) sterically hinders the formation of certain multicarbonyl and monocarbonyl species (vCO in 2055-2140 cm{sup -1} region), which otherwise transform to methane via surface methylene groups in the presence of chemisorbed hydrogen and are found to play an important role in the low-temperature methanation activity of the studied catalyst. The Ru-CO species giving rise to lower frequency vibrational bands are affected to a lesser extent. The presence of sulfur also results in the development of some new CO binding states which are weak and are identified with the CO and S coadsorbed at Ru sites of different oxidation states or of varying crystallographic nature. The CO adsorbed in these states is not reactive to hydrogen. 45 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Kamble, V.S.; Londhe, V.P.; Gupta, N.M. [Bhambha Atomic Research centre, Bombay (India)] [and others] [Bhambha Atomic Research centre, Bombay (India); and others

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

FTIR study of carbon monoxide oxidation and scrambling at room temperature over copper supported on ZnO and TiO{sub 2} No. 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An FTIR and quadrupole mass spectroscopic study of CO adsorption and oxidation with {sup 16}O{sub 2} and {sup 18}O{sub 2} on copper supported on ZnO and TiO{sub 2} is presented. The experimental results indicate that CO is adsorbed on the metallic particles dispersed on both oxides on two kinds of sites, on the normal terrace sites and on sites at the borderline of the particles. Moreover, on titania, a band at 2126 cm{sup -1}, assigned to CO adsorbed on isolated Cu atoms and/or on two-dimensional small clusters, is detected. A frequency shift of the bands of CO adsorbed on the metallic particles observed in the CO-O{sub 2} coadsorption experiments and the occurrence of a scrambling reaction between CO and {sup 18}O{sub 2} reveal that on all these samples, there are metallic sites which are able to adsorb at the same time oxygen atoms and carbon monoxide. Carbon dioxide and carbonate-like species are formed: the asymmetric stretching frequencies of CO{sub 2} and the quadrupole mass spectroscopic analysis reveal that with {sup 18}O{sub 2}, different isotopic molecular CO{sub 2}`s are formed, while the carbonate-like species have the same frequencies of those produced in {sup 16}O{sub 2}. Moreover, these species are completely lacking in the absence of oxygen in the gas phase. The experimental results indicate the there are, on these samples, two independent pathways for the CO oxidation, a direct oxidation of CO at the surface of the metallic particles and an induced oxidation with the surface lattice oxygen species of the supports. 46 refs., 8 figs.

Baccuzzi, F.; Chiorino, A. [Universita di Torino (Italy)] [Universita di Torino (Italy)

1996-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

134

ATMOSPHERIC CO2 --A GLOBAL LIMITING RESOURCE: HOW MUCH FOSSIL CARBON CAN WE BURN?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of emissions from fossil fuel combustion. An increase in atmospheric CO2 would enhance Earth's naturalATMOSPHERIC CO2 -- A GLOBAL LIMITING RESOURCE: HOW MUCH FOSSIL CARBON CAN WE BURN? S. E. Schwartz, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Carbon dioxide (CO2) is building up in the atmosphere, largely because

135

Constraint of the CO2 rise by new atmospheric carbon isotopic measurements during the last deglaciation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Click Here for Full Article Constraint of the CO2 rise by new atmospheric carbon isotopic increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) during the last glacialinterglacial climatic transition remain debated. We analyzed the parallel evolution of CO2 and its stable carbon isotopic ratio (d13 CO2

Chappellaz, Jérôme

136

Estimation of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Surface Fluxes using a 3-D Global Atmospheric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimation of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Surface Fluxes using a 3-D Global Atmospheric Chemical@mit.edu Website: http://mit.edu/cgcs/ Printed on recycled paper #12;Estimation of Methane and Carbon Dioxide of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Surface Fluxes using a 3-D Global Atmospheric Chemical Transport Model by Yu

137

Design and implementation of Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen emissions measurement in swirl-stabilized oxy-fuel combustion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxy-fuel combustion in natural gas power generation is a technology of growing interest as it provides the most efficient means of carbon capture. Since all the emissions from these power plants are sequestered, there are ...

Sommer, Andrew (Andrew Zhang)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Seaweeds and halophytes to remove carbon from the atmosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The utility industry and other interested parties have investigated strategies to mitigate the buildup of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. One option that has been considered is the planting of trees on a massive scale to absorb carbon through photosynthesis. A dilemma of using tree plantations, however, is that they might occupy land that will be needed for food production or other needs for an expected doubling of human population in the tropical regions. We evaluated seaweeds and salt-tolerant terrestrial plants (halophytes) to be grown on the coastal shelves and salt deserts of the world as possible alternatives to tree plantations. An estimated 1.3 {times} 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of continental shelf and 1.3 {times} 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of salt desert may be usable for seaweed and halophyte plantations. The production rates of managed seaweed and halophyte plantings are similar to managed tree plantations. Seaweeds and halophytes could conceivably absorb 10--20% of annual fossil fuel carbon emissions through biomass production, similar to estimates made for tree plantations. Present costs of halophyte biomass production are similar to costs of tree biomass production, whereas seaweed biomass is much more expensive to produce using existing technologies. Storage of seaweed carbon might be accomplished by allowing it to enter the sediment detritus chain whereas halophyte carbon might be sequestered in the soil, or used as biomass fuel. As has been concluded for reforestation, these saline biomass crops could at best help delay rather than solve the carbon dioxide build-up problem. 1 fig., 13 tabs.

Glenn, E.P.; Kent, K.J.; Thompson, T.L.; Frye, R.J. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA). Environmental Research Lab.)

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Integrated Removal of NOx with Carbon Monoxide as Reductant, and Capture of Mercury in a Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal will likely continue to be a dominant component of power generation in the foreseeable future. This project addresses the issue of environmental compliance for two important pollutants: NO{sub x} and mercury. Integration of emission control units is in principle possible through a Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor (LTSCAR) in which NO{sub x} removal is achieved in a traditional SCR mode but at low temperature, and, uniquely, using carbon monoxide as a reductant. The capture of mercury is integrated into the same process unit. Such an arrangement would reduce mercury removal costs significantly, and provide improved control for the ultimate disposal of mercury. The work completed in this project demonstrates that the use of CO as a reductant in LTSCR is technically feasible using supported manganese oxide catalysts, that the simultaneous warm-gas capture of elemental and oxidized mercury is technically feasible using both nanostructured chelating adsorbents and ceria-titania-based materials, and that integrated removal of mercury and NO{sub x} is technically feasible using ceria-titania-based materials.

Neville Pinto; Panagiotis Smirniotis; Stephen Thiel

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

140

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric black carbon Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 32 (1997) 401--407 Carbon blackhigh density polyethylene Summary: . The carbon black was then heated to 900 C in a nitrogen atmosphere and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric carbon isotope Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of terrestrial ecosystems to rising Summary: to rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ), and the resulting global changes,are still... from the...

142

Atmosphere-crust coupling and carbon sequestration on the young Mars Professor Martin R. Lee1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmosphere-crust coupling and carbon sequestration on the young Mars Professor Martin R. Lee1 *, Dr the idea that CO2 was `scrubbed' by precipitation of carbonate minerals within the planet's crust - a reaction termed `carbonation'. This project will seek evidence for carbonation by analysis of martian

Guo, Zaoyang

143

Extending surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to transition-metal surfaces: carbon monoxide adsorption and electrooxidation on platinum- and palladium-coated gold electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin (ca. one to three monolayers) films of platinum and palladium electrodeposited on electrochemically roughened gold are observed to yield surface-enhanced Raman (SER) spectra for adsorbed carbon monoxide. The major vibrational band(s) on these surfaces are diagnosed from their frequencies as arising from C-O stretching vibrations, nu/sub CO/ bound to the transition-metal overlayers rather than to residual gold sites. The observed SFR nu/sub CO/ frequencies are closely similar to (within ca. 10 cm/sup -1/ of) those obtained for these systems from potential-difference infrared (PDIR) spectra. The major SERS and PDIR nu/sub CO/ features for the platinum and palladium surfaces appear at 2060-2090 and 1965-1985 cm/sup -1/, respectively, consistent with the presence of terminal and bridging CO on these two electrodes. The infrared as well as electrochemical properties of these systems are closely similar to those for the corresponding polycrystalline bulk electrodes. A difference between the SER- and IR-active adsorbed CO, however, is that the former undergoes electrooxidation on both surfaces at 0.2-0.3 V higher overpotentials than the latter form. Examination of the potential-dependent SERS bands for metal oxide vibrations, nu/sub PtO/, on the platinum surface shows that the electrooxidation potential for the SERS-active adsorbed CO coincides with that for the appearance of the nu/sub PtO/ band. Some broader implications to the utilization of SERS for examining transition-metal surfaces are pointed out.

Leung, L.W.H.; Weaver, M.J.

1987-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

144

Chemisorption and catalysis by metal clusters. II. Chemisorption of carbon monoxide and of oxygen by supported osmium clusters derived from Os/sub 3/(CO)/sub 12/ and from Os/sub 6/(CO)/sub 18/  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon monoxide and oxygen have been chemisorbed at 293 K on the high-nuclearity carbonyl-protected clusters (the various species A) obtained by heating in vacuo to 523 K Os/sub 3/(CO)/sub 12/ or Os/sub 6/(CO)/sub 18/ impregnated on silica, alumina, or titania. The adsorption isotherms have a conventional appearance, but most are composed of a primary and a secondary region. Material adsorbed in the secondary region is removed by evacuation at room temperature whereas that adsorbed in the primary region is removed by evacuation at elevated temperatures. For species A/alumina and the species A/titania the primary region is complete and the secondary region commences when the pressure over the adsorbent is 0.2 Torr. Species A/silica gave no secondary region in oxygen adsorption. Adsorption and subsequent temperature-programmed desorption of (/sup 18/O)CO occurred without any dilution by (/sup 16/O)CO, indicating that ligand-(/sup 16/O)CO and adsorbed-(/sup 18/O)CO do not exchange even at elevated temperatures. The two species A/aluminas catalyzed oxygen isotope exchange at 293 K. From the experimental evidence it is deduced that carbon monoxide and oxygen each adsorbs molecularly in both the primary and the secondary regions. In the primary region carbon monoxide adsorption occurs at osmium sites on the cluster framework, whereas in the secondary region it occurs at ligand-carbon bonded to osmium. For oxygen, adsorption in the primary region is again at osmium sites on the cluster framework but that in the secondary region is at osmium sites of the cluster framework suitably modified as a result of the support-cluster interaction.

Hunt, D.J.; Jackson, S.D.; Moyes, R.B.; Wells, P.B.; Whyman, R.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere of anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere such as CO2, CH4, N2O and CFCs. The CO2 emissions to reflect, adsorb and emit the solar energy. However, the continuous emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere

Montes-Hernandez, German

146

Atmospheric chemistry impacts and feedbacks on the global carbon cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

prediction. Issues to be addressed include the quantification of the impact of the atmospheric oxidation and the oxidative state of the atmosphere. The end goal is to create a model that can quantitatively predict is required to: Predict 3-D atmospheric CO2 production as a function of the CCSM3 atmospheric chemistry module

147

Conversion of carbon monoxide on membrane catalysts of palladium alloys. I. Reaction between CO and H/sub 2/ on binary palladium alloys with ruthenium and nickel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation of saturated and unsaturated C/sub 1/ and C/sub 2/ hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and water is observed during reaction CO and H/sub 2/ on binary palladium alloys with 10 wt. % of Ru and 5.5 wt. % Ni at atmospheric pressure and 523-683 K. The introduction of hydrogen into the reaction zone by different methods, bu diffusion through a membrane catalyst or in a mixture with CO, influences the activity and selectivity of the catalysts investigated.

Gur'yanova, O.S.; Serov, Yu.M.; Gyl'yanova, S.G.; Gryaznov, V.M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Daily and 3-hourly variability in global fire emissions and consequences for atmospheric model predictions of carbon monoxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of biomass burning in South?America, Int. J. Remote Sens. ,D24303 fire season in South America, J. Geophys. Res. , 103(across North, South and Central America, Remote Sens.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Studies of the coadsorption of deuterium and carbon monoxide with silver on rhodium and the adsorption of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene on clean and carbon covered platinum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ag adsorbed on Rh(100) is presented as a model of the corresponding bimetallic catalyst. Ag overlayer growth follows the Frank-Van der Merwe growth mechanism at 300 K and the Stranski-Krastanov growth mechanism at 640 K. Ag(3d) binding energies are found to track the vacuum level rather than the Fermi level. The results of D/sub 2/ and CO adsorption studies on Ag/Rh(100) show that adsorbed Ag does not significantly alter the properties of adjacent D/sub 2/ or CO adsorption sites on the Rh(100) surface. The desorption and decomposition of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) on clean and carbon covered Pt(111) is also reported. No evidence for TNT decomposition on the carbon covered surface is found. Molecular TNT desorption kinetics at low coverage are first order, yielding an activation energy of 16.7 +/- 1 Kcal/mol and a preexponential factor of 2.3 x 10/sup 11/ (x e/sup - + 0.5/) sec/sup -1/. TNT adsorbed on the clean Pt(111) surface at submonolayer coverages undergoes almost complete decomposition during heating. The major decomposition products are H/sub 2/O, NO, CO/sub 2/, CO, HCN, and a carbon residue left on the surface. TNT adsorbed in the second and higher monolayers desorbs molecularly. The significance of these results in understanding the performance of a commercial explosive vapor preconcentrator is discussed.

Peebles, H.C.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Responses of primary production and total carbon storage to changes in climate and atmospheric CO? concentration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The authors used the terrestrial ecosystem model (TEM, version 4.0) to estimate global responses of annual net primary production (NPP) and total carbon storage to changes in climate and atmospheric CO2, driven by the ...

Xiao, Xiangming.; Kicklighter, David W.; Melillo, Jerry M.; McGuire, A. David.; Stone, Peter H.; Sokolov, Andrei P.

151

Might Carbon-Atmosphere White Dwarfs Harbour a New Type of Pulsating Star?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the light of the recent and unexpected discovery of a brand new type of white dwarfs, those with carbon-dominated atmospheres, we examine the asteroseismological potential of such stars. The motivation behind this is based on the observation that past models of carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs have partially ionized outer layers that bear strong resemblance with those responsible for mode excitation in models of pulsating DB (helium-atmosphere) and pulsating DA (hydrogen-atmosphere) white dwarfs. Our exciting main result is that, given the right location in parameter space, some carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs are predicted to show pulsational instability against gravity modes. We are eagerly waiting the results of observational searches for luminosity variations in these stars.

G. Fontaine; P. Brassard; P. Dufour

2008-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

152

Method for producing carbon nanotubes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method for producing carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes were prepared using a low power, atmospheric pressure, microwave-generated plasma torch system. After generating carbon monoxide microwave plasma, a flow of carbon monoxide was directed first through a bed of metal particles/glass beads and then along the outer surface of a ceramic tube located in the plasma. As a flow of argon was introduced into the plasma through the ceramic tube, ropes of entangled carbon nanotubes, attached to the surface of the tube, were produced. Of these, longer ropes formed on the surface portion of the tube located in the center of the plasma. Transmission electron micrographs of individual nanotubes revealed that many were single-walled.

Phillips, Jonathan (Santa Fe, NM); Perry, William L. (Jemez Springs, NM); Chen, Chun-Ku (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

153

FTIR study of hydrogen and carbon monoxide adsorption on Pt/TiO{sub 2}, Pt/ZrO{sub 2}, and Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pt/TiO{sub 2}, Pt/ZrO{sub 2}, and Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts submitted to low-temperature reduction (LTR,200 C) and high-temperature reduction (HTR, 500 C) and exposed to hydrogen and carbon monoxide at room temperature were studied by infrared spectroscopy. There is a strong loss of transmission in the entire infrared spectra on Pt/TiO{sub 2} after its exposure to hydrogen, which is related to the reducibility of the support. A typical SMSI behavior (strong metal-support interaction), such as the decrease in carbon monoxide adsorption capacity, was detected on Pt/TiO{sub 2} and Pt/ZrO{sub 2} after exposure to hydrogen, even for the catalysts submitted to LTR treatment. Also a carbonyl band shift to lower wavenumber was observed on LTR-treated Pt/TiO{sub 2}, Pt/ZrO{sub 2}, and Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} after exposure to hydrogen. The authors interpreted this SMSI behavior as an electronic rather than morphological effect, which was induced by the presence of hydrogen spillover.

Benvenutti, E.V.; Franken, L.; Moro, C.C.; Davanzo, C.U.

1999-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

154

Contrasting Regional Responses to Increasing Leaf-Level Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide over Australia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Contrasting Regional Responses to Increasing Leaf-Level Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide over Australia, New South Wales, Australia JOHN L. MCGREGOR Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, and CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Victoria, Australia JASON P. EVANS Climate Change

Evans, Jason

155

Methane present in an extrasolar planet atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molecules present in exoplanetary atmospheres are expected to strongly influence the atmospheric radiation balance, trace dynamical and chemical processes, and indicate the presence of disequilibrium effects. Since molecules have the potential to reveal the exoplanet atmospheric conditions and chemistry, searching for them is a high priority. The rotational-vibrational transition bands of water, carbon monoxide, and methane are anticipated to be the primary sources of non-continuum opacity in hot-Jovian planets. Since these bands overlap in wavelength, and the corresponding signatures from them are weak, decisive identification requires precision infrared spectroscopy. Here we report on a near-infrared transmission spectrum of the planet HD 189733b showing the presence of methane. Additionally, a resolved water-vapour band at 1.9 microns confirms the recent claim of water in this object. On thermochemical grounds, carbon-monoxide is expected to be abundant in the upper atmosphere of hot-Jovian exoplanets; thus the detection of methane rather than carbon-monoxide in such a hot planet could signal the presence of a horizontal chemical gradient away from the permanent dayside, or it may imply an ill-understood photochemical mechanisms that leads to an enhancement of methane.

Mark R. Swain; Gautam Vasisht; Giovanna Tinetti

2008-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

156

Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis: Selective Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Carbon Monoxide by a Nickel N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Isoquinoline Complex  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solar-driven reduction of carbon dioxide to value-added chemical fuels is a longstanding challenge in the fields of catalysis, energy science, and green chemistry. In order to develop effective CO2 fixation, several key considerations must be balanced, including (1) catalyst selectivity for promoting CO2 reduction over competing hydrogen generation from proton reduction, (2) visible-light harvesting that matches the solar spectrum, and (3) the use of cheap and earth-abundant catalytic components. In this report, we present the synthesis and characterization of a new family of earth-abundant nickel complexes supported by N-heterocyclic carbene amine ligands that exhibit high selectivity and activity for the electrocatalytic and photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to CO. Systematic changes in the carbene and amine donors of the ligand have been surveyed, and [Ni(Prbimiq1)]2+ (1c, where Prbimiq1 = bis(3-(imidazolyl)isoquinolinyl)propane) emerges as a catalyst for electrochemical reduction of CO2 with the lowest cathodic onset potential (Ecat = 1.2 V vs SCE). Using this earth-abundant catalyst with Ir(ppy)3 (where ppy = 2-phenylpyridine) and an electron donor, we have developed a visible-light photoredox system for the catalytic conversion of CO2 to CO that proceeds with high selectivity and activity and achieves turnover numbers and turnover frequencies reaching 98,000 and 3.9 s1, respectively. Further studies reveal that the overall efficiency of this solar-to-fuel cycle may be limited by the formation of the active Ni catalyst and/or the chemical reduction of CO2 to CO at the reduced nickel center and provide a starting point for improved photoredox systems for sustainable carbon-neutral energy conversion.

Thoi, VanSara; Kornienko, Nick; Margarit, C; Yang, Peidong; Chang, Christopher

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

157

The structure of adsorbed sulfur and carbon on molybdenum and rhenium single crystal surfaces, and their influence on carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon chemisorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An ultra-high vacuum (10/sup -10/ Torr) study was performed on the chemisorption and structures of S and C adsorbates on Mo(100), Re(0001), and Re(1010) single crystal surfaces. Both S and C adsorb strongly on Mo(100), Re(0001), and Re(1010), with adsorption energies >70 kcal/mol for coverages less than saturation. S was proposed to adsorb in the highest symmetry sites on all surfaces except for theta/sub s/ > 0.75 on Mo(100), where studies suggest two different adsorption sites. C adsorbs in a ''carbidic'' or active phase on Mo(100), where it is also proposed to adsorb in the highest symmetry sites. However, C adsorbs in a ''graphitic'' or inactive phase on Re(0001) and Re(1010). CO chemisorption on the S and C overlayers was found to be blocked (except for C on Mo(100)), with S blocking adsorption more efficiently than C. Changes in adsorption energy were determined to be caused by local crowding of CO molecules by S or C, rather than a long-range electronic interaction. Unsaturated hydrocarbons decomposed completely on Mo(100), Re(0001), and Re(1010). Similar to the results for CO chemisorption, strong adsorption of unsaturated hydrocarbons (leading to decomposition) was blocked by pre-adsorbed S, allowing only physisorption to occur (adsorption energies < 11 kcal/mol). The effect of pre-adsorbed ''graphitic'' C on Re(0001) and Re(1010) on unsaturated hydrocarbon chemisorption was the same; strong adsorption (leading to decomposition) was blocked allowing only physisorption. However, Mo(100) with pre-adsorbed ''carbidic'' carbon blocks only decomposition while allowing strong reversible molecular chemisorption (12 to 23 kcal/mol). Differences in inhibition efficiency of S and C are proposed to be caused by differences in bond distances of the adsorbates to the surface. Greater distance from the metal surface causes more interaction with neighboring metal atoms. These differences also suggest explanations for catalytic hydrodesulfurization of thiophene.

Kelly, D.G.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Exhaust-catalyst development for methanol-fueled vehicles. II. Synergism between palladium and silver in methanol and carbon monoxide oxidation over an alumina-supported palladium-silver catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methanol and carbon monoxide oxidation were examined over 0.01 Pd, 5% Ag, and 0.01% Pd/5% Ag catalysts - all supported on ..gamma..-alumina. The bimetallic catalyst showed greater CO and CH/sub 3/OH oxidation activity than either of the single-component catalysts; moreover, the Pd and Ag interacted synergistically in the bimetallic catalyst to produce greater CO and CH/sub 3/OH oxidation rates and lower yields of methanol partial oxidation products than expected from a mixture of the single-component catalysts. Temperature-programmed oxidation experiments and reactivity experiments involving changes in O/sub 2/ partial pressure both provided evidence that the Pd-Ag synergism results from Pd promoting the rate of O/sub 2/ adsorption and reaction with CO and CH/sub 3/OH on Ag. The data also indicate that virtually all of the Pd in the bimetallic catalyst is present in Pd-Ag crystallites.

McCabe, R.W.; Mitchell, P.J.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Carbon-nitrogen interactions regulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks: results from an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

forests indi- cates that the model representation of competition between plants and microbes for new mineral nitrogen resources is reasonable. Our results suggest a weaker dependence of net land carbon flux on soil moisture changes in tropical regions... National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6335, USA 2Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543-1543, USA 3Climate and Global Dynamics Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research...

Thornton, P. E.; Doney, S. C.; Lindsay, Keith; Moore, J. K.; Mahowald, N. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Fung, I.; Lamarque, J. F.; Feddema, Johannes J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Carbon oxidation state as a metric for describing the chemistry of atmospheric organic aerosol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed understanding of the sources, transformations, and fates of organic species in the environment is crucial because of the central roles that organics play in human health, biogeochemical cycles, and Earth's climate. However, such an understanding is hindered by the immense chemical complexity of environmental mixtures of organics; for example, atmospheric organic aerosol consists of at least thousands of individual compounds, all of which likely evolve chemically over their atmospheric lifetimes. Here we demonstrate the utility of describing organic aerosol (and other complex organic mixtures) in terms of average carbon oxidation state (OSC), a quantity that always increases with oxidation, and is readily measured using state-of-the-art analytical techniques. Field and laboratory measurements of OSC , using several such techniques, constrain the chemical properties of the organics and demonstrate that the formation and evolution of organic aerosol involves simultaneous changes to both carbon oxidation state and carbon number (nC).

Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Kroll, Jesse H.; Donahue, Neil M.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Kessler, Sean H.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Altieri, Katye E.; Mazzoleni, Lynn R.; Wozniak, Andrew S.; Bluhm, Hendrik; Mysak, Erin R.; Smith, Jared D.; Kolb, Charles E.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

2010-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Preparation, characterization and applications of novel carbon and nitrogen codoped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles from annealing TiN under CO atmosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: Carbon and nitrogen codoped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were firstly fabricated by calcining TiN powder under CO atmosphere at different temperatures between 400 and 600 °C, both the improved photocatalytic activity for degradation of methylene blue and enhanced photovoltaic performance for dye sensitized solar cells were demonstrated. - Highlights: • CN-codoped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were prepared by calcining TiN under CO atmosphere. • More visible light response was confirmed by UV–vis DRS and photocatalytic results. • Enhanced conversion efficiency was observed for the DSSCs from CN-TiO{sub 2} photoanode. • CN-codoping played an important role to improve the photocatalytic performance. - Abstract: Carbon and nitrogen codoped titania (CN-TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were fabricated by calcining titanium nitride (TiN) nanoparticles under carbon monoxide (CO) atmosphere at four different temperatures in a range of 400–600 °C. The as-prepared samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Enhanced light absorption in both the UV and visible light region was observed for the resulted CN-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS). Improved photocatalytic activity toward the degradation of methylene blue by the CN-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was demonstrated under UV and visible light, respectively. The highest degradation rate was achieved for CN-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (13%) compared to N-TiO{sub 2} (10%) and the commercial P25 (5%) under visible light illumination for 40 min. Furthermore, the improved photocatalytic activity of CN-TiO{sub 2} was also confirmed by the degradation of colorless resorcinol under UV–vis light irradiation. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using P25, N-TiO{sub 2} and CN-TiO{sub 2} photoanodes, respectively. The highest conversion efficiency of 3.31% was achieved by the DSSCs based on the CN-TiO{sub 2} photoanodes in comparison with the commercial P25 (1.61%) and N-TiO{sub 2} (2.44%) photoanodes. This work demonstrates that thermal treatment of TiN nanoparticles under CO atmosphere has shown to be a rapid, direct and clean approach to synthesize photocatalysts with enhanced photocatalytic and photovoltaic performance.

Sun, Mingxuan; Song, Peng; Li, Jing; Cui, Xiaoli, E-mail: xiaolicui@fudan.edu.cn

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

162

Iron, Manganese and Ruthenium Metal Carbonyls as Photoactive Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecules (photoCORMS): Ligand Design Strategies, Syntheses and Structure Characterizations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

15 , components of dye-sensitized solar cells 16 and ion-components in dye-sensitized solar cells. 2-4 When carbon

Gonzales, Margarita Andal

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the distribution of atmospheric CO2: Implications for inversion analyses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the distribution of atmospheric CO2 carbon emissions. We used TransCom3 annual mean simulations from three transport models to evaluate carbon emission and oxidation processes in deriving inversion estimates of CO2 surface fluxes. Citation

Krakauer, Nir Y.

164

Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

Remick, Robert J. (Naperville, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Causes and Implications of Persistent Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Biases in Earth System Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The strength of feedbacks between a changing climate and future CO2 concentrations are uncertain and difficult to predict using Earth System Models (ESMs). We analyzed emission-driven simulations--in which atmospheric CO2 levels were computed prognostically--for historical (1850-2005) and future periods (RCP 8.5 for 2006-2100) produced by 15 ESMs for the Fifth Phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Comparison of ESM prognostic atmospheric CO2 over the historical period with observations indicated that ESMs, on average, had a small positive bias in predictions of contemporary atmospheric CO2. Weak ocean carbon uptake in many ESMs contributed to this bias, based on comparisons with observations of ocean and atmospheric anthropogenic carbon inventories. We found a significant linear relationship between contemporary atmospheric CO2 biases and future CO2 levels for the multi-model ensemble. We used this relationship to create a contemporary CO2 tuned model (CCTM) estimate of the atmospheric CO2 trajectory for the 21st century. The CCTM yielded CO2 estimates of 600 {plus minus} 14 ppm at 2060 and 947 {plus minus} 35 ppm at 2100, which were 21 ppm and 32 ppm below the multi-model mean during these two time periods. Using this emergent constraint approach, the likely ranges of future atmospheric CO2, CO2-induced radiative forcing, and CO2-induced temperature increases for the RCP 8.5 scenario were considerably narrowed compared to estimates from the full ESM ensemble. Our analysis provided evidence that much of the model-to-model variation in projected CO2 during the 21st century was tied to biases that existed during the observational era, and that model differences in the representation of concentration-carbon feedbacks and other slowly changing carbon cycle processes appear to be the primary driver of this variability. By improving models to more closely match the long-term time series of CO2 from Mauna Loa, our analysis suggests uncertainties in future climate projections can be reduced.

Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL] [ORNL; Randerson, James T. [University of California, Irvine] [University of California, Irvine; Arora, Vivek K. [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Meteorological Service of Canada] [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Meteorological Service of Canada; Bao, Qing [State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics] [State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics; Cadule, Patricia [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environment] [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environment; Ji, Duoying [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing] [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing; Jones, Chris D. [Hadley Centre, U.K. Met Office] [Hadley Centre, U.K. Met Office; Kawamiya, Michio [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC)] [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC); Khatiwala, Samar [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY] [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY; Lindsay, Keith [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)] [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Obata, Atsushi [Meteorological Research Institute, Japan] [Meteorological Research Institute, Japan; Shevliakova, Elena [Princeton University] [Princeton University; Six, Katharina D. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany] [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany; Tjiputra, Jerry F. [Uni Climate, Uni Research] [Uni Climate, Uni Research; Volodin, Evgeny M. [Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow] [Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow; Wu, Tongwen [China Meteorological Administration (CMA), Beijing] [China Meteorological Administration (CMA), Beijing

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Detection of iodine monoxide in the tropical free troposphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

19, 2012) Atmospheric iodine monoxide (IO) is a radical that catalytically destroys heat trapping in the remote tropical marine boundary layer (MBL) (2­4). IO further affects the oxidative capacity iodine species over the remote ocean remain poorly understood (11, 14) but are currently thought

167

Use of carbon monoxide and third-derivative EPR spectra to probe the coordination of surface V/sup 4 +/ ions on reduced V/sub 2/O/sub 5//SiO/sub 2/ catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The coordination properties of surface V/sup 4 +/ ions of reduced V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ supported on silica have been studied by EPR using the adsorption of various probe molecules. The spectrum resolution, greatly enhanced with the third-derivative presentation, indicates an orthorhombic symmetry for the V/sup 4 +/ ions after CO adsorption (g/sub 1/ approx. g/sub 2/ = 1.985, g/sub 3/ = 1.931, A/sub 1/ approx. A/sub 2/ 71.4 G, A/sub 3/ = 191.4 G). The use of /sup 13/C-enriched carbon monoxide allows us to observe that the V/sup 4 +/ surface ions can coordinate two CO molecules from the gas phase to form, together with four lattice oxide ions, a distorted octahedron with one pronounced vanadyl character bond. The /sup 13/C superhyperfine coupling constant is found to be about 7 G. The influence of the adsorbed molecules (CO, H/sub 2/O, C/sub 2/H/sub 4/) on the properties of the V/sup 4 +/ ions at the surface is further discussed. 33 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

Che, M.; Canosa, B.; Gonzalez-Elipe, A.R.

1986-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

168

Atmospheric three-dimensional inverse modeling of regional industrial emissions and global oceanic uptake of carbon tetrachloride  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has substantial stratospheric ozone depletion potential and its consumption is controlled under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. We implement a Kalman filter using atmospheric CCl4 ...

Xiao, X.

169

Interaction of carbon monoxide with oxygen in the adsorbed layer on Pd, Ce, Pd-Ce catalysts supported on /gamma/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The adsorption of CO and the interaction of CO/sub ads/ with O/sub 2/ on Pd, Ce, and Pd-Ce//gamma/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (0.5 wt. % Pd, 2.0 wt. % Ce) has been studied using the methods of IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The identity of the adsorbed CO complexes, the temperature ranges over which they desorb, and their reactivity with O/sub 2/ have been established. The interaction of bridging and carbonate - carboxylate CO complexes and carbon (disproportionation and dissociation products) with O/sub 2/ on Pd and Pd-Ce catalysts is preceded by the coadsorption of oxygen and the evolution of heat. During the oxidation of CO, autooscillation, heat evolution, and the concentration of oxygen in the flow are observed.

Savel'eva, G.A.; Sass, A.S.; Speranskaya, G.V.; Tenchev, K.K.; Petrov, L.A.; Vozdvizhenskii, V.F.; Galeev, T.K.; Popova, N.M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric sulfur dioxide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: (O3), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) will be measured... Ren...

171

Atmospheric Chemistry, Carbon Cycle, and Climate (AC4): Observational Constraints on Sources and Sinks of Aerosols and Greenhouse Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and gas extraction can also inform future energy choices. In FY 2014, Atmospheric Chemistry, Carbon Cycle anthropogenic-biogenic emission intense regions 3. Deposition processes controlling atmospheric concentrations of aerosols and greenhouse gases Projects that quantify sources and sinks via new measurements and/or modeling

172

Carbon-nitrogen interactions regulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks: results from an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2009 P. E. Thornton et al. : Carbon-nitrogen interactionsregulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks Monfray, P. ,T. H. : A global ocean carbon climatology: Results from

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Limits Soil Storage | U.S. DOE Office  

Office of Science (SC) Website

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched5 Industrial CarbonArticlesHumanJuneDocumentingFermiGeorgeHerbert J.Impactof Science

174

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric carbon diooxide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

it in a form unable to influence the climate. Carbon storage in trees... is a form of carbon sequestration. During photosynthesis, trees remove carbon dioxide from the...

175

Mechanistic studies of carbon monoxide reduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The progress made during the current grant period (1 January 1988--1 April 1990) in three different areas of research is summarized. The research areas are: (1) oxidatively-induced double carbonylation reactions to form {alpha}-ketoacyl complexes and studies of the reactivity of the resulting compounds, (2) mechanistic studies of the carbonylation of nitroaromatics to form isocyanates, carbamates, and ureas, and (3) studies of the formation and reactivity of unusual metallacycles and alkylidene ligands supported on binuclear iron carbonyl fragments. 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Geoffroy, G.L.

1990-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

176

Is the basinwide warming in the North Atlantic Ocean related to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming? Chunzai Wang1 and Shenfu Dong1,2 Received 31 January 2010 is controversial. Some studies argued that the warming is due to global warming in association with the secular sea surface temperature. Here we show that both global warming and AMO variability make a contribution

Wang, Chunzai

177

Seasonal cycle of carbon dioxide and its isotopic composition in an urban atmosphere: Anthropogenic and biogenic effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and summer. The effects of gasoline combustion, natural gas combustion, and biogenic respiration of plants isotopic tracers. The calculations showed large contributions of natural gas combustion in the winter burning, and fossil fuel combustion impart carbon and oxygen isotope signals to the atmosphere that can

Ehleringer, Jim

178

Carbon dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center: A for Atmospheric trace gases. Annual progress report, FY 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments made by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases during the fiscal year 1994. Topics discussed in this report include; organization and staff, user services, systems, communications, Collaborative efforts with China, networking, ocean data and activities of the World Data Center-A.

Burtis, M.D. [comp.] [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Jones, S.B.; Nelson, T.R.; Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Carbon Flux to the Atmosphere fromCarbon Flux to the Atmosphere from Land-Use Changes: 1850 to 1990Land-Use Changes: 1850 to 1990  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the Environmental Sciences Division Office of Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy Budget Hole Research Center Woods Hole, Massachusetts Prepared by Robert M. Cushman Carbon Dioxide Information Activity Number KP 12 04 01 0 Prepared by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Environmental

180

Carbon Flux to the Atmosphere fromCarbon Flux to the Atmosphere from Land-Use Changes: 1850 to 1990Land-Use Changes: 1850 to 1990  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy Budget Activity Number KP 12 04 01 0 Prepared by the Carbon. Cushman Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 5054 Date Published: February 2001 Prepared for the Environmental Sciences Division Office of Biological

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Carbon Dynamics in Aquatic Ecosystems in Response to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Altered Nutrients Availability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Our results show that elevated CO2 led to enhanced photosynthetic carbon uptake and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) production. DOC occupied larger percentage in total organic carbon production in high CO2 environment. N addition stimulated biomass...

Song, Chao

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

182

Response of tundra ecosystems to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide. [Annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our past research shows that arctic tussock tundra responds to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} with marked increases in net ecosystem carbon flux and photosynthetic rates. However, at ambient temperatures and nutrient availabilities, homeostatic adjustments result in net ecosystem flux rates dropping to those found a contemporary CO{sub 2} levels within three years. Evidence for ecosystem-level acclimation in the first season of elevated CO{sub 2} exposure was found in 1987. Photosynthetic rates of Eriophorum vaginatum, the dominant species, adjusts to elevated CO{sub 2} within three weeks. Past research also indicates other changes potentially important to ecosystem structure and function. Elevated CO{sub 2} treatment apparently delays senescence and increases the period of positive photosynthetic activity. Recent results from the 1987 field season verify the results obtained in the 1983--1986 field seasons: Elevated CO{sub 2} resulted in increased ecosystem-level flux rates. Regressions fitted to the seasonal flux rates indicate an apparent 10 d extension of positive CO{sub 2} uptake reflecting a delay of the onset of plant dormancy. This delay in senescence could increase the frost sensitivity of the system. Major end points proposed for this research include the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and the interaction of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} with elevated soil temperature and increased nutrient availability on: (1) Net ecosystem CO{sub 2} flux; (2) Net photosynthetic rates; (3) Patterns and resource controls on homeostatic adjustment in the above processes to elevated CO{sub 2}; (4) Plant-nutrient status, litter quality, and forage quality; (5) Soil-nutrient status; (6) Plant-growth pattern and shoot demography.

Oechel, W.C.; Grulke, N.E.

1988-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

183

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric carbon exchange Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

200802055 Enhancing Cation-Exchange Capacity of Biochar for Soil Amendment... and Global Carbon Sequestration Technology Summary Photosynthesis captures more carbon dioxide...

184

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric carbon dioxide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sunday, June 10, 2007 Ecofocus: Even older forests help control CO2 Summary: is a form of carbon sequestration. During photosynthesis, trees remove carbon dioxide from the...

185

Long-Term, Autonomous Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Using an Ormosil Nanocomposite-Based Optical Sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to construct a prototype carbon dioxide sensor that can be commercialized to offer a low-cost, autonomous instrument for long-term, unattended measurements. Currently, a cost-effective CO2 sensor system is not available that can perform cross-platform measurements (ground-based or airborne platforms such as balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)) for understanding the carbon sequestration phenomenon. The CO2 sensor would support the research objectives of DOE-sponsored programs such as AmeriFlux and the North American Carbon Program (NACP). Global energy consumption is projected to rise 60% over the next 20 years and use of oil is projected to increase by approximately 40%. The combustion of coal, oil, and natural gas has increased carbon emissions globally from 1.6 billion tons in 1950 to 6.3 billion tons in 2000. This figure is expected to reach 10 billon tons by 2020. It is important to understand the fate of this excess CO2 in the global carbon cycle. The overall goal of the project is to develop an accurate and reliable optical sensor for monitoring carbon dioxide autonomously at least for one year at a point remote from the actual CO2 release site. In Phase I of this project, InnoSense LLC (ISL) demonstrated the feasibility of an ormosil-monolith based Autonomous Sensor for Atmospheric CO2 (ASAC) device. All of the Phase I objectives were successfully met.

Kisholoy Goswami

2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

186

Fiscal Year 1998 Annual Report, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, World Data Center -- A for Atmospheric Trace Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Once again, the most recent fiscal year was a productive one for the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), as well as a year for change. The FY 1998 in Review section in this report summarizes quite a few new and updated data and information products, and the ''What's Coming in FY 1999'' section describes our plans for this new fiscal year. During FY 1998, CDIAC began a data-management system for AmeriFlux, a long-term study of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere of the Western Hemisphere and the atmosphere. The specific objectives of AmeriFlux are to establish an infrastructure for guiding, collecting, synthesizing, and disseminating long-term measurements of CO{sub 2}, water, and energy exchange from a variety of ecosystems; collect critical new information to help define the current global CO{sub 2} budget; enable improved predictions of future concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2}; and enhance understanding of carbon fluxes. Net Ecosystem Production (NEP), and carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere. The data-management system, available from CDIAC'S AmeriFlux home page (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/programs/ameriflux/ ) is intended to provide consistent, quality-assured, and documented data across all AmeriFlux sites in the US, Canada, Costa Rica, and Brazil. It is being developed by Antoinette Brenkert and Tom Boden, with assistance from Susan Holladay (who joined CDIAC specifically to support the AmeriFlux data-management effort).

Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Hook, L.A.; Jones, S.B.; Kaiser, D.P.; Nelson, T.R.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Variability in the Community Earth System Model: Evaluation and Transient Dynamics during the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Variability in the Community Earth System Model: Evaluation pathways (RCPs 4.5 and 8.5) using the Community Earth System Model­Biogeochemistry (CESM1- BGC). CO2

Hoffman, Forrest M.

188

A Three-Dimensional Ocean-Seaice-Carbon Cycle Model and its Coupling to a Two-Dimensional Atmospheric Model: Uses in Climate Change Studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe the coupling of a three-dimensional ocean circulation model, with explicit thermodynamic seaice and ocean carbon cycle representations, to a two-dimensional atmospheric/land model. This coupled system has been ...

Dutkiewicz, Stephanie.

189

Alternations of Structure and Functional Activity of Below Ground Microbial Communities at Elevated Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The global atmospheric concentration of CO2 has increased by more than 30percent since the industrial revolution. Although the stimulating effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) on plant growth and primary productivity have been well studied, its influences on belowground microbial communities are poorly understood and controversial. In this study, we showed a significant change in the structure and functional potential of soil microbial communities at eCO2 in a grassland ecosystem, the BioCON (Biodiversity, CO2 and Nitrogen) experimental site (http://www.biocon.umn.edu/) using a comprehensive functional gene array, GeoChip 3.0, which contains about 28,0000 probes and covers approximately 57,000 gene variants from 292 functional gene families involved in carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur cycles as well as other functional processes. GeoChip data indicated that the functional structure of microbial communities was markedly different between ambient CO2 (aCO2) and eCO2 by detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) of all 5001 detected functional gene probes although no significant differences were detected in the overall microbial diversity. A further analysis of 1503 detected functional genes involved in C, N, P, and S cycles showed that a considerable portion (39percent) of them were only detected under either aCO2 (14percent) or eCO2 (25percent), indicating that the functional characteristics of the microbial community were significantly altered by eCO2. Also, for those shared genes (61percent) detected, some significantly (p<0.05) changed their abundance at eCO2. Especially, genes involved in labile C degradation, such as amyA, egl, and ara for starch, cellulose, and hemicelluloses, respectively, C fixation (e.g., rbcL, pcc/acc), N fixation (nifH), and phosphorus utilization (ppx) were significantly increased under eCO2, while those involved in decomposing recalcitrant C, such as glx, lip, and mnp for lignin degradation remained unchanged. This study provides insights into our understanding of belowground microbial communities and their feedbacks to terrestrial ecosystems at eCO2.

He, Zhili; Xu, Meiying; Deng, Ye; Kang, Sanghoon; Wu, Liyou; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Hobbie, Sarah E.; Reich, Peter B.; Zhou, Jizhong

2010-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

190

Chemical Bonding and Structural Information of Black CarbonReference Materials and Individual Carbonaceous AtmosphericAerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The carbon-to-oxygen ratios and graphitic nature of a rangeof black carbon standard reference materials (BC SRMs), high molecularmass humic-like substances (HULIS) and atmospheric particles are examinedusing scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) coupled with nearedge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. UsingSTXM/NEXAFS, individual particles with diameter>100 nm are studied,thus the diversity of atmospheric particles collected during a variety offield missions is assessed. Applying a semi-quantitative peak fittingmethod to the NEXAFS spectra enables a comparison of BC SRMs and HULIS toparticles originating from anthropogenic combustion and biomass burns,thus allowing determination of the suitability of these materials forrepresenting atmospheric particles. Anthropogenic combustion and biomassburn particles can be distinguished from one another using both chemicalbonding and structural ordering information. While anthropogeniccombustion particles are characterized by a high proportion ofaromatic-C, the presence of benzoquinone and are highly structurallyordered, biomass burn particles exhibit lower structural ordering, asmaller proportion of aromatic-C and contain a much higher proportion ofoxygenated functional groups.

Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Marten, Bryan D.; Gilles, Mary K.

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

191

Coupled Vadose Zone and Atmospheric Surface-Layer Transport of CO2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration is being considered as a way to offset fossil-fuel-related CO{sub 2} emissions to reduce the rate of increase of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. The accumulation of vast quantities of injected carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in geologic sequestration sites may entail health and environmental risks from potential leakage and seepage of CO{sub 2} into the near-surface environment. We are developing and applying a coupled subsurface and atmospheric surface-layer modeling capability built within the framework of the integral finite difference reservoir simulator TOUGH2. The overall purpose of modeling studies is to predict CO{sub 2} concentration distributions under a variety of seepage scenarios and geologic, hydrologic, and atmospheric conditions. These concentration distributions will provide the basis for determining above-ground and near-surface instrumentation needs for carbon sequestration monitoring and verification, as well as for assessing health, safety, and environmental risks. A key feature of CO{sub 2} is its large density ({rho} = 1.8 kg m{sup -3}) relative to air ({rho} = 1.2 kg m{sup -3}), a property that may allow small leaks to cause concentrations in air above the occupational exposure limit of 4 percent in low-lying and enclosed areas such as valleys and basements where dilution rates are low. The approach we take to coupled modeling involves development of T2CA, a TOUGH2 module for modeling the multicomponent transport of water, brine, CO{sub 2}, gas tracer, and air in the subsurface. For the atmospheric surface-layer advection and dispersion, we use a logarithmic vertical velocity profile to specify constant time-averaged ambient winds, and atmospheric dispersion approaches to model mixing due to eddies and turbulence. Initial simulations with the coupled model suggest that atmospheric dispersion quickly dilutes diffuse CO{sub 2} seepage fluxes to negligible concentrations, and that rainfall infiltration causes CO{sub 2} to return to the subsurface as a dissolved component in infiltrating rainwater.

Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Unger, Andre J.A.

2004-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

192

Modification of Glassy Carbon Surfaces by an Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma H. Mortensen 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at optimising the strength of carbon fibre reinforced composite materials. In order to form a strong and durable adhesive bond between any two objects, e.g., a fibre and the matrix in a composite material, pretreatment be used to increase the strength of fibre/matrix adhesion in carbon fibre composites. We have studied

193

The tropical cyclone-induced flux of carbon between the ocean and the atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tropical cyclones are known to cause phytoplankton blooms in regions of the ocean that would otherwise support very little life; it is also known that these storms entrain carbon-rich deep water, which can cause ...

Zimmerman, Neil L

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Enhanced transfer of terrestrially derived carbon to the atmosphere in a flooding event  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

November 2012; revised 14 October 2012; accepted 21 November 2012. [1] Rising CO2 concentration the adjacent shelf contributed to northern Gulf shelf waters changing from a net sink to a net source of CO2 in the water can be exchanged with the atmosphere with approximately ~100 Tg of CO2 degassed from U.S. streams

Grossman, Ethan L.

195

THE EFFECTS OF SNOWLINES ON C/O IN PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The C/O ratio is predicted to regulate the atmospheric chemistry in hot Jupiters. Recent observations suggest that some exoplanets, e.g., Wasp 12-b, have atmospheric C/O ratios substantially different from the solar value of 0.54. In this Letter, we present a mechanism that can produce such atmospheric deviations from the stellar C/O ratio. In protoplanetary disks, different snowlines of oxygen- and carbon-rich ices, especially water and carbon monoxide, will result in systematic variations in the C/O ratio both in the gas and in the condensed phases. In particular, between the H{sub 2}O and CO snowlines most oxygen is present in icy grains-the building blocks of planetary cores in the core accretion model-while most carbon remains in the gas phase. This region is coincidental with the giant-planet-forming zone for a range of observed protoplanetary disks. Based on standard core accretion models of planet formation, gas giants that sweep up most of their atmospheres from disk gas outside of the water snowline will have a C/O {approx} 1, while atmospheres significantly contaminated by evaporating planetesimals will have a stellar or substellar C/O when formed at the same disk radius. The overall metallicity will also depend on the atmosphere formation mechanism, and exoplanetary atmospheric compositions may therefore provide constraints on where and how a specific planet formed.

Oeberg, Karin I.; Murray-Clay, Ruth [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bergin, Edwin A., E-mail: koberg@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

2011-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

196

Coupled Vadose Zone and Atmospheric Surface-Layer Transport of CO2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1999. Reichle, D. et al. , Carbon sequestration research andfrom geologic carbon sequestration sites: unsaturated zoneof CO 2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites Curtis M.

Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Unger, Andre J.A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Modeling the effects of topography and wind on atmospheric dispersion of CO2 surface leakage at geologic carbon sequestration sites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CO 2 from geologic carbon sequestration sites, Vadose Zoneleakage at geologic carbon sequestration sites Fotini K.assessment for geologic carbon sequestration sites. We have

Chow, Fotini K.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the distribution of atmospheric CO 2 : Implications for inversion analyses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on thedescription of reduced carbon emission and oxidationInfluence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the

Suntharalingam, Parvadha; Randerson, James T; Krakauer, Nir; Logan, Jennifer A; Jacob, Daniel J

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Development of an Implementation Plan for Atmospheric Carbon Monitoring in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the design of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration measurements that, in combination with other measurements and models, would be used to quantify regionally distributed CO{sub 2} exchanges from California's terrestrial ecosystems and CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Using models of net ecosystem CO{sub 2} exchange (NEE), fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions, and regional meteorology, we predict CO{sub 2} concentration ''signals'' in the atmosphere. The predictions of NEE exhibit spatial and temporal variations that are controlled by land cover and climate. Fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions from metropolitan areas are the strongest localized sources of CO{sub 2} while weaker but spatially extensive fossil emissions are present throughout the Central Valley. We subdivide the CO{sub 2} sources into four components: NEE inside and outside CA, and fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inside and outside CA. Maps of predicted atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration signals from these four sources largely mirror the instantaneous emissions near strong sources but plumes of CO{sub 2} enriched or depleted air are predicted to advect far from their sources. We then identify a baseline set of observing stations from existing and possible future sites that could be used to characterize in-state and out-of-state ecosystem and fossil fuel contributions to atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. For each of the stations we calculate mean midday concentration signals with standard deviation for each month and source. We also calculate the covariance of the signal due to NEE inside CA with each of the other signals to quantify how much of the signal from NEE inside CA might be readily separable from the other signals. On the basis of these predictions, we identify new observing stations and a measurement protocol that, in combination with existing stations, would provide data to estimate NEE within CA. Although beyond the scope of this project, future work should estimate the uncertainties in estimating California's NEE that would be obtained using atmospheric concentration data from the stations identified herein.

Fischer, Marc L.; Riley, William J.; Tonse, Shaheen

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Modelled Black Carbon Radiative Forcing and Atmospheric Lifetime in AeroCom Phase II Constrained by Aircraft Observations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb solar radiation, and are generally held to exacerbate global warming through exerting a positive radiative forcing1. However, the total contribution of BC to the ongoing changes in global climate is presently under debate2-8. Both anthropogenic BC emissions and the resulting spatial and temporal distribution of BC concentration are highly uncertain2,9. In particular, long range transport and processes affecting BC atmospheric lifetime are poorly understood, leading to large estimated uncertainty in BC concentration at high altitudes and far from emission sources10. These uncertainties limit our ability to quantify both the historical, present and future anthropogenic climate impact of BC. Here we compare vertical profiles of BC concentration from four recent aircraft measurement campaigns with 13 state of the art aerosol models, and show that recent assessments may have overestimated present day BC radiative forcing. Further, an atmospheric lifetime of BC of less than 5 days is shown to be essential for reproducing observations in transport dominated remote regions. Adjusting model results to measurements in remote regions, and at high altitudes, leads to a 25% reduction in the multi-model median direct BC forcing from fossil fuel and biofuel burning over the industrial era.

Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.; Herber, Andreas; Kondo, Yutaka; Li, Shao-Meng; Moteki, N.; Koike, Makoto; Oshima, N.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T.; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, M.; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Lin, Guang; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, Joyce E.; Schulz, M.; Seland, O.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Zhang, Kai

2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for atmospheric trace gases: FY 1993 activities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provide technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC (including World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases) during the period October 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of NDPS, CMPS, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints are provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also presented.

Cushman, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment, and Resources Center

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular Composition of Laboratory Proxies of Atmospheric Brown Carbon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sources, optical properties, and chemical composition of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) aerosol are uncertain, making it challenging to estimate its contribution to radiative forcing. Furthermore, optical properties of BrC may change significantly during its atmospheric aging. We examined the effect of solar photolysis on the molecular composition, mass absorption coefficient, and fluorescence of secondary organic aerosol prepared by high-NOx photooxidation of naphthalene (NAP SOA). The aqueous solutions of NAP SOA was observed to photobleach with an effective half-time of ?15 hours (with sun in its zenith) for the loss of the near-UV (300 -400 nm) absorbance. The molecular composition of NAP SOA was significantly modified by photolysis, with the average SOA formula changing from C14.1H14.5O5.1N0.08 to C11.8H14.9O4.5N0.02 after 4 hours of irradiation. The average O/C ratio did not change significantly, however, suggesting that it is not a good metric for assessing the extent of photolysis-driven aging in NAP SOA (and in BrC in general). In contrast to NAP SOA, the photolysis of BrC material produced by aqueous reaction of limonene+O3 SOA (LIM/O3 SOA) with ammonium sulfate was much faster, but it did not result in a significant change in the molecular level composition. The characteristic absorbance of the aged LIM/O3 SOA in the 450-600 nm range decayed with an effective half-time of <0.5 hour. This result emphasizes the highly variable and dynamic nature of different types of atmospheric BrC.

Lee, Hyun Ji; Aiona, Paige K.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

203

EXTRACTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE FROM THE ATMOSPHERE THROUGH ENGINEERED CHEMICAL SINKAGE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the case for CO{sub 2} extraction from air as a means of sustaining fossil energy use by avoiding climate change. Our concept harnesses atmospheric circulation to transport CO{sub 2} to sites where the CO{sub 2} is extracted by binding it to an adsorbent. As a proof of concept, we show that an aqueous Ca(OH){sub 2} solution efficiently converts CO{sub 2} to a CaCO{sub 3} solid that can be heated to obtain pure CO{sub 2} and recover the CaO. Even with recycling costs, CO{sub 2} extraction from air blown by wind through a 1 m{sup 2} aperture could eliminate the greenhouse gas impact of 100 kW gasoline engine, making it more favorable than renewable sources as solar, wind, or bio-mass. In addition it collects CO{sub 2} from dispersed sources, preserves the energy infrastructure, can yield negative emissions, and provide free CO{sub 2} transport to sequestration sites. We report economic and scaling arguments, atmospheric simulations and experiments that support pursuing air-extraction as an advanced CO{sub 2} capture technology. This method could process today's world output of CO{sub 2} with many collection units with a net area of 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} km{sup 2} at costs of {approx} 5{cents}/liter of gasoline, a manageable scale for this massive undertaking.

M. K. DUBEY; H. ZIOCK; ET AL

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

EXTRACTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE FROM THE ATMOSPHERE THROUGH ENGINEERED CHEMICAL SINKAGE.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the case for C02 extraction from air as a means of sustaining fossil energy use by avoiding climate change. Our concept harnesses atmospheric circulation to transport C02 to sites where the C02 is extracted by binding it to an adsorbent. As a proof of concept, we show that an aqueous Ca(OH)2 solution efficiently converts C02 to a CaC03 solid that can be heated to obtain pure C02 and recover the CaO. Even with recycling costs, C02 extraction from air blown by wind through a 1 m2 aperture could eliminate the greenhouse gas impact of 100 kW gasoline engine, making it more favorable than renewable sources as solar, wind, or bio-mass. In addition it collects C02 from dispersed sources, preserves the energy infrastructure, can yield negative emissions, and provide free C02 transport to sequestration sites. We report economic and scaling arguments, atmospheric simulations and experiments that support pursuing air-extraction as an advanced C02 capture technology. This method could process today's world output of C02 with many collection units with a net area of 103-104 km2 at costs of -5/liter of gasoline, a manageable scale for this massive undertaking.

Dubey, M. K. (Manvendra K.); Ziock, H. J. (Hans-Joachim); Rueff, G. (Gordon); Elliott, S. M. (Scott M.); Smith, W. S. (William S.); Lackner, K. S. (Klaus S.); Johnston, N. A.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Ultraviolet pulsed laser irradiation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in nitrogen atmosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser irradiation of randomly oriented multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) networks has been carried out using a pulsed Nd:YAG UV laser in nitrogen gas environment. The evolution of the MWCNT morphology and structure as a function of laser fluence and number of accumulated laser pulses has been studied using electron microscopies and Raman spectroscopy. The observed changes are discussed and correlated with thermal simulations. The obtained results indicate that laser irradiation induces very fast, high temperature thermal cycles in MWCNTs which produce the formation of different nanocarbon forms, such as nanodiamonds. Premelting processes have been observed in localized sites by irradiation at low number of laser pulses and low fluence values. The accumulation of laser pulses and the increase in the fluence cause the full melting and amorphization of MWCNTs. The observed structural changes differ from that of conventional high temperature annealing treatments of MWCNTs.

Pérez del Pino, Ángel, E-mail: aperez@icmab.es; Cabana, Laura; Tobias, Gerard [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); György, Enikö [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P. O. Box MG 36, 76900 Bucharest V (Romania); Ballesteros, Belén [ICN2—Institut Catala de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

206

FINAL REPORT: A Study of the Abundance and 13C/12C Ratio of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide to Advance the Scientific Understanding of Terrestrial Processes Regulating the GCC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objective of this project was to continue research to develop carbon cycle relationships related to the land biosphere based on remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 concentration and its isotopic composition. The project continued time-series observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and isotopic composition begun by Charles D. Keeling at remote sites, including Mauna Loa, the South Pole, and eight other sites. The program also included the development of methods for measuring radiocarbon content in the collected CO2 samples and carrying out radiocarbon measurements in collaboration with Tom Guilderson of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LLNL). The radiocarbon measurements can provide complementary information on carbon exchange rates with the land and oceans and emissions from fossil-fuel burning. Using models of varying complexity, the concentration and isotopic measurements were used to establish estimates of the spatial and temporal variations in the net CO2 exchange with the atmosphere, the storage of carbon in the land and oceans, and variable isotopic discrimination of land plants.

Keeling, R. F.; Piper, S. C.

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

207

Classification of Multiple Types of Organic Carbon Composition in Atmospheric Particles by Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscopy Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A scanning transmission X-ray microscope at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is used to measure organic functional group abundance and morphology of atmospheric aerosols. We present a summary of spectra, sizes, and shapes observed in 595 particles that were collected and analyzed between 2000 and 2006. These particles ranged between 0.1 and 12 mm and represent aerosols found in a large range of geographical areas, altitudes, and times. They include samples from seven different field campaigns: PELTI, ACE-ASIA, DYCOMS II, Princeton, MILAGRO (urban), MILAGRO (C-130), and INTEX-B. At least 14 different classes of organic particles show different types of spectroscopic signatures. Different particle types are found within the same region while the same particle types are also found in different geographical domains. Particles chemically resembling black carbon, humic-like aerosols, pine ultisol, and secondary or processed aerosol have been identified from functional group abundance and comparison of spectra with those published in the literature.

Kilcoyne, Arthur L; Takahama, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Russell, L.M.; Kilcoyne, A.L.D.

2007-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

208

Response of a tundra ecosystem to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and CO{sub 2}-induced climate change. Annual technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Northern ecosystems contain up to 455 Gt of C in the soil active layer and upper permafrost. The soil carbon in these layers is equivalent to approximately 60% of the carbon currently in the atmosphere as CO{sub 2}. Much of this carbon is stored in the soil as dead organic matter. Its fate is subject to the net effects of global change on the plant and soil systems of northern ecosystems. The arctic alone contains about 60 Gt C, 90% of which is present in the soil active layer and upper permafrost. The arctic is assumed to have been a sink for CO{sub 2} during the historic and recent geologic past. The arctic has the potential to be a very large, long-term source or sink of CO{sub 2} with respect to the atmosphere. In situ experimental manipulations of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, indicated that there is little effect of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} on leaf level photosynthesis or whole-ecosystem CO{sub 2} flux over the course of weeks to years, respectively. However, there may be longer- term ecosystem responses to elevated CO{sub 2} that could ultimately affect ecosystem CO{sub 2} balance. In addition to atmospheric CO{sub 2}, climate may affect net ecosystem carbon balance. Recent results indicate that the arctic has become a source of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere. This change coincides with recent climatic variation in the arctic, and suggests a positive feedback of arctic ecosystems on atmospheric CO{sub 2} and global change. The research proposed in this application has four principal aspects: (A) Long-term response of arctic plants and ecosystems to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}; (B) Circumpolar patterns of net ecosystem CO{sub 2} flux; (C) In situ controls by temperature and moisture on net ecosystem CO{sub 2} flux; (D) Scaling of CO{sub 2} flux from plot, to landscape, to regional scales (In conjunction with research proposed for NSF support).

Oechel, W.C.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

ORIGINAL PAPER Conceptual design of carbon nanotube processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of carbon fibers. Keywords Carbon nanotubes Á Conceptual design Á Carbon monoxide disproportionation graphite fiber (Ajayan 2000). Discovered in 1991, carbon nanotubes have caught the attention of scientistsORIGINAL PAPER Conceptual design of carbon nanotube processes Adedeji E. Agboola � Ralph W. Pike �

Pike, Ralph W.

210

Computational fluid dynamics simulations of oxy-coal combustion for carbon capture at atmospheric and elevated pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxy-fuel combustion of solid fuels, often performed in a mixture of oxygen and wet or dry recycled carbon dioxide, has gained significant interest in the last two decades as one of the leading carbon capture technologies ...

Chen, Lei, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Study of the Role of Terrestrial Processes in the Carbon Cycle Based on Measurements of the Abundance and Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric CO2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objective of this project was to continue research to develop carbon cycle relationships related to the land biosphere based on remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 concentration and its isotopic ratios 13C/12C, 18O/16O, and 14C/12C. The project continued time-series observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and isotopic composition begun by Charles D. Keeling at remote sites, including Mauna Loa, the South Pole, and eight other sites. Using models of varying complexity, the concentration and isotopic measurements were used to study long-term change in the interhemispheric gradients in CO2 and 13C/12C to assess the magnitude and evolution of the northern terrestrial carbon sink, to study the increase in amplitude of the seasonal cycle of CO2, to use isotopic data to refine constraints on large scale changes in isotopic fractionation which may be related to changes in stomatal conductance, and to motivate improvements in terrestrial carbon cycle models. The original proposal called for a continuation of the new time series of 14C measurements but subsequent descoping to meet budgetary constraints required termination of measurements in 2007.

Stephen C. Piper; Ralph F. Keeling

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

212

THE CARBON-LAND MODEL INTERCOMPARISON PROJECT (C-LAMP): A PROTOTYPE FOR COUPLED BIOSPHERE-ATMOSPHERE MODEL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

often referred to as Earth System Models (ESMs). While a number of terrestrial and ocean carbon models

Hoffman, Forrest M.

213

The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP): A Model-Data Comparison System for Evaluation of Coupled Biosphere-Atmosphere Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The need to capture important climate feebacks in general circulation models (GCMs) has resulted in new efforts to include atmospheric chemistry and land and ocean biogeochemistry into the next generation of production climate models, now often referred to as Earth System Models (ESMs). While many terrestrial and ocean carbon models have been coupled to GCMs, recent work has shown that such models can yield a wide range of results, suggesting that a more rigorous set of offline and partially coupled experiments, along with detailed analyses of processes and comparisons with measurements, are warranted. The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP) provides a simulation protocol and model performance metrics based upon comparisons against best-available satellite- and ground-based measurements (Hoffman et al., 2007). C-LAMP provides feedback to the modeling community regarding model improvements and to the measurement community by suggesting new observational campaigns. C-LAMP Experiment 1 consists of a set of uncoupled simulations of terrestrial carbon models specifically designed to examine the ability of the models to reproduce surface carbon and energy fluxes at multiple sites and to exhibit the influence of climate variability, prescribed atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrogen (N) deposition, and land cover change on projections of terrestrial carbon fluxes during the 20th century. Experiment 2 consists of partially coupled simulations of the terrestrial carbon model with an active atmosphere model exchanging energy and moisture fluxes. In all experiments, atmospheric CO{sub 2} follows the prescribed historical trajectory from C{sup 4}MIP. In Experiment 2, the atmosphere model is forced with prescribed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and corresponding sea ice concentrations from the Hadley Centre; prescribed CO{sub 2} is radiatively active; and land, fossil fuel, and ocean CO{sub 2} fluxes are advected by the model. Both sets of experiments have been performed using two different terrestrial biogeochemistry modules coupled to the Community Land Model version 3 (CLM3) in the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3): The CASA model of Fung, et al., and the carbon-nitrogen (CN) model of Thornton. Comparisons against Ameriflus site measurements, MODIS satellite observations, NOAA flask records, TRANSCOM inversions, and Free Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) site measurements, and other datasets have been performed and are described in Randerson et al. (2009). The C-LAMP diagnostics package was used to validate improvements to CASA and CN for use in the next generation model, CLM4. It is hoped that this effort will serve as a prototype for an international carbon-cycle model benchmarking activity for models being used for the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report. More information about C-LAMP, the experimental protocol, performance metrics, output standards, and model-data comparisons from the CLM3-CASA and CLM3-CN models are available at http://www.climatemodeling.org/c-lamp.

Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Randerson, Jim [University of California, Irvine; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Mahowald, Natalie [Cornell University; Bonan, Gordon [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Running, Steven [University of Montana, Missoula; Fung, Inez [University of California, Berkeley

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Response of a tundra ecosystem to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and CO{sub 2}-induced climate change  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A proposal for continuation of research on net ecosystem carbon dioxide and methane flux and sampling and analysis of soil samples from arctic tundra regions is presented.

Oechel, W.

1990-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

215

Black Carbon’s Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Keywords: soil carbon sequestration; carbon budget;of an energy efficient carbon sequestration mechanism, asin the later section on carbon sequestration. In atmospheric

Shrestha, Gyami

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

CARBON MONOXIDE IN THE COLD DEBRIS OF SUPERNOVA 1987A  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report spectroscopic and imaging observations of rotational transitions of cold CO and SiO in the ejecta of SN1987A, the first such emission detected in a supernova remnant. In addition to line luminosities for the CO J = 1-0, 2-1, 6-5, and 7-6 transitions, we present upper limits for all other transitions up to J = 13-12, collectively measured from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment, and the Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver. Simple models show the lines are emitted from at least 0.01 M{sub Sun} of CO at a temperature >14 K, confined within at most 35% of a spherical volume expanding at {approx}2000 km s{sup -1}. Moreover, we locate the emission within 1'' of the central debris. These observations, along with a partial observation of SiO, confirm the presence of cold molecular gas within supernova remnants and provide insight into the physical conditions and chemical processes in the ejecta. Furthermore, we demonstrate the powerful new window into supernova ejecta offered by submillimeter observations.

Kamenetzky, J.; McCray, R.; Glenn, J. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, UCB 391, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Indebetouw, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Barlow, M. J.; Matsuura, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Baes, M. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Decin, L. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D BUS 2401, B-2001 Leuven (Belgium); Bolatto, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Dunne, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8410 (New Zealand); Fransson, C. [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Gomez, H. L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Groenewegen, M. A. T. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Hopwood, R. [Physics Department, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Kirshner, R. P. [Harvard College Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lakicevic, M. [Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Marcaide, J. [Universidad de Valencia, C/Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain); Marti-Vidal, I. [Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Meixner, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

217

Hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane in the marine environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

! amp powered by a Hamamaisu poccer upply. One beam was directed into a flow-through cel], and then onto a quartz phatodiode. Another beam was projected directly onto a reference photodiode, A potential of approximately 185 volts DC wns applied... CARRIFR PURIFICATION Y ~mce 6 PORT VALVE INJECT63N PORT HEATED Hqo COLUMN SAMPLE LOOP CHROhlATOGRAPI. IIC COLUMN REFERFNCE PHOTODIODE hlERCURY LAMP SIGNAL PHOTQDIODE ~~1 CT flow throuah cell RCA 935 HAAIAMATSU L927 RCA 935 Fig. la...

Bullister, John Logan

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

218

ILENR/RE-AQ-ON-ROAD CARBON MONOXIDE AND HYDROCARBON  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. McVey, and Stuart P. Beaton Prepared for: Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources Office A. Witter Director State of Illinois Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources #12;NOTE This report has been reviewed by the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources (ENR) and approved

Denver, University of

219

Computer simulation of the dispersion of carbon monoxide from roadways  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and that the transport of material in the x-direction is due mainly to the mean wind, one can reduce equation (1) to BB B BV B BB u ? = ? (K ? ) + ? (K ? ) Bx By y By Bz z Bz (4) with the following boundary conditions, 1) I ~ 0 as x -+ 2) V~ asx-+0 (5) 3... are illustrated in Figures 5 and 6. Using equations (24) and (25) with n = 1 and equation (21), the concentration equations (19) and (20) become Q 1 v 21 r&(x, y, z, h) 2rra a u exp P- ? (~) J L2 ~ z z-h) 1 z+h)2 a az 'z (28) t(x, z, h) = exp /2rr a u z...

Maldonado, Cesar

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartment of EnergyAdministrative RecordsBiofuelseffort toACESTIFofEmissions

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Response of a tundra ecosystem to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and CO{sub 2}-induced climate change. Annual technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Northern ecosystems contain up to 455 Gt of C in the soil active layer and upper permafrost, which is equivalent to approximately 60% of the carbon currently in the atmosphere as CO{sub 2}. Much of this carbon is stored in the soil as dead organic matter. Its fate is subject to the net effects of global change on the plant and soil systems of northern ecosystems. The arctic alone contains about 60 Gt C, 90% of which is present in the soil active layer and upper permafrost, and is assumed to have been a sink for CO{sub 2} during the historic and recent geologic past. Depending on the nature, rate, and magnitude of global environmental change, the arctic may have a positive or negative feedback on global change. Results from the DOE- funded research efforts of 1990 and 1991 indicate that the arctic has become a source of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere. Measurements made in the Barrow, Alaska region during 1992 support these results. This change coincides with recent climatic variation in the arctic, and suggests a positive feedback of arctic ecosystems on atmospheric CO{sub 2} and global change. There are obvious potential errors in scaling plot level measurements to landscape, mesoscale, and global spatial scales. In light of the results from the recent DOE-funded research, and the remaining uncertainties regarding the change in arctic ecosystem function due to high latitude warming, a revised set of research goals is proposed for the 1993--94 year. The research proposed in this application has four principal aspects: (A) Long- term response of arctic plants and ecosystems to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}. (B) Circumpolar patterns of net ecosystem CO{sub 2} flux. (C) In situ controls by temperature and moisture on net ecosystem CO{sub 2} flux. (D) Scaling of CO{sub 2} flux from plot, to landscape, to regional scales.

Oechel, W.C.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Control of carbon balance in a silicon smelting furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a process for the carbothermic reduction of silicon dioxide to form elemental silicon. Carbon balance of the process is assessed by measuring the amount of carbon monoxide evolved in offgas exiting the furnace. A ratio of the amount of carbon monoxide evolved and the amount of silicon dioxide added to the furnace is determined. Based on this ratio, the carbon balance of the furnace can be determined and carbon feed can be adjusted to maintain the furnace in carbon balance.

Dosaj, V.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B.; Oleson, J.D.

1992-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

223

Population based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a Carbon Monoxide Passive Sampler and Occupational Dosimeter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

monitoring for nitrogen dioxide exposure: methodologyB.G. , Jr. (1983) Nitrogen dioxide inside and outside 137Personal Sampler for Nitrogen Dioxide. American Industrial

Apte, Michael G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Population based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a Carbon Monoxide Passive Sampler and Occupational Dosimeter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

levels of internal combustion engine emission. It may beemissions from a blast furnace and exhaust from internal combustion engine

Apte, Michael G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Estimation of methane and carbon dioxide surface fluxes using a 3-D global atmospheric chemical transport model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane (CH?) and carbon dioxide (CO?) are the two most radiatively important greenhouse gases attributable to human activity. Large uncertainties in their source and sink magnitudes currently exist. We estimate global ...

Chen, Yu-Han, 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

RESPONSES OF PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND TOTAL CARBON STORAGE TO CHANGES IN CLIMATE AND ATMOSPHERIC CO2 CONCENTRATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model (TEM, version 4.0) to estimate global responses of annual net primary production (NPP) and total. For contemporary climate with 315 ppmv CO2, TEM estimated that global NPP is 47.9 PgC/yr and global total carbon-q climate and +20.6% (9.9 PgC/yr) for the GISS climate. The responses of global total carbon storage are +17

227

Metal catalyzed copolymerization processes involving carbon oxides as substrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

backbone and electron donating tert-butyl groups in the phenolate rings. This catalyst was used to investigate the effect of altering the nature of the cocatalyst and its concentration. The coupling of carbon monoxide and aziridines has been shown...

Phelps, Andrea Lee

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

The identification of HCN and HNC in Carbon Stars: Model Atmospheres, Synthetic Spectra and Fits to Observations in the 2.7-4.0 micron Region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model carbon star atmospheres and synthetic spectra have been calculated using the recent HCN/HNC vibration rotation linelist of Harris et al. (2002) ApJ, 578, 657. The calculations are repeated using only HCN lines and show that HNC has a significant effect upon the temperature, density and optical depth of a stellar atmosphere. We fit synthetic spectra in the 2.7-4.0 micron region to observed ISO spectra of the carbon stars WZ Cas and TX Psc obtained by Aoki et al. (1998), A&A, 340, 222. These fits allow us to identify absorption by HNC in the spectrum of WZ Cas at 2.8-2.9 microns, and to determine new independent estimates of effective temperature and log(Nc)/log(No). The findings reported here indicate that absorption by both HCN and HNC is needed to fully explain the observed stellar spectra and represent the first identification of HNC in a star. Q branch absorption by the HCN $\\Delta v_2=1$, $\\Delta v_3=1$ and $\\Delta v_1=1$, $\\Delta v_2=-1$ bands at 3.55 and 3.86 microns respectively, are identified in the spectrum of WZ Cas.

G. J. Harris; Ya. V. Pavlenko; H. R. A. Jones; J. Tennyson

2003-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

229

Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

clean CO 2 for storage and a hydrogen stream to be recycledand storage ? Flexibility to make CO 2 -free hydrogen forand storage computational fluid dynamics carbon monoxide carbon dioxide direct reduced iron electric arc furnace gram gigajoules hour diatomic hydrogen

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

New methodology for estimating biofuel consumption for cooking: Atmospheric emissions of black carbon and sulfur dioxide from India  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New methodology for estimating biofuel consumption for cooking: Atmospheric emissions of black; accepted 8 June 2004; published 30 July 2004. [1] The dominance of biofuel combustion emissions in the Indian region, and the inherently large uncertainty in biofuel use estimates based on cooking energy

Dickerson, Russell R.

231

Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas1 emissions into the atmosphere2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ppm in the pre-industrial revolution to 37942 ppm in 2005, rising faster in the last 10 years (average atmospheric CO2 concentration doubles the pre-industrial revolution concentration (IPCC,49 2007a 36 insu-00351929,version1-12Jan2009 #12;1. Introduction37 38 Coal caused the first industrial

Boyer, Edmond

232

Summary Human activities are increasing the concentra-tions of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and tropospheric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to forest soils. Because the quality and quantity of labile and recalcitrant carbon (C) com- pounds, soluble phenolics and condensed tannins. Elevated [CO2] significantly increased lit- ter biomass] and tropospheric [O3] that we observed, combined with changes in litter biomass production, could significantly

233

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?1° distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Final technical report: Atmospheric emission analysis for the Hanford Waste Vitrification plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is an assessment of chemical and radiological effluents that are expected to be released to the atmosphere from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The report is divided into two sections. In the first section, the impacts of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides as NO{sub 2} have been estimated for areas within the Hanford Site boundary. A description of the dispersion model used to-estimate CO and NO{sub 2} average concentrations and Hanford Site meteorological data has been included in this section. In the second section, calculations were performed to estimate the potential radiation doses to a maximally exposed off-site individual. The model used to estimate the horizontal and vertical dispersion of radionuclides is also discussed.

Andrews, G.L.; Rhoads, K.C.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Trace gas contaminant control in a space station atmosphere using adsorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Trace contaminants enter spacecraft atmospheres through offgassing of spacecraft materials and as products of crew metabolism. The consequences of fire or accidental release of toxic vapors from onboard systems is also a crew safety concern. The purpose of this work was to determine how these contaminants could be limited to safe concentrations in the atmosphere of the proposed space station. Contaminant source models were developed from spacecraft material offgassing and human metabolic production rate measurements. Contaminants were represented with a simplified model of 30 compounds by grouping similar species together. A trace contaminant control process, which consists of chemisorption of ammonia on phosphoric acid-impregnated activated carbon, ambient temperature catalytic oxidation of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, catalytic conversion of the sulfur in hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans to elemental sulfur, and adsorption of the other contaminants in a regenerable activated carbon adsorber, was proposed. Trace contaminant adsorption rate and equilibrium equations were derived. Various adsorbents were evaluated to determine the optimum sorbents for this application. Removal system performance limits were established, and optimum design ranges for process parameters were developed. Trace gas contaminants can be limited to safe concentrations by the process proposed under normal conditions using as little as 1 Kg/man-year of ammonia chemisorbent. The most likely accidental contaminant releases can be removed in {approximately}20 hours using frequent adsorber regenerations.

Winter, J.D.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

A multiresolution spatial parametrization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. To that end, we construct a multiresolution spatial parametrization for fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2), to be used in atmospheric inversions. Such a parametrization does not currently exist. The parametrization uses wavelets to accurately capture the multiscale, nonstationary nature of ffCO2 emissions and employs proxies of human habitation, e.g., images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas to reduce the dimensionality of the multiresolution parametrization. The parametrization is used in a synthetic data inversion to test its suitability for use in atmospheric inverse problem. This linear inverse problem is predicated on observations of ffCO2 concentrations collected at measurement towers. We adapt a convex optimization technique, commonly used in the reconstruction of compressively sensed images, to perform sparse reconstruction of the time-variant ffCO2 emission field. We also borrow concepts from compressive sensing to impose boundary conditions i.e., to limit ffCO2 emissions within an irregularly shaped region (the United States, in our case). We find that the optimization algorithm performs a data-driven sparsification of the spatial parametrization and retains only of those wavelets whose weights could be estimated from the observations. Further, our method for the imposition of boundary conditions leads to a 10computational saving over conventional means of doing so. We conclude with a discussion of the accuracy of the estimated emissions and the suitability of the spatial parametrization for use in inverse problems with a significant degree of regularization.

Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; Michalak, Anna M. [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; McKenna, Sean Andrew [IBM Research, Mulhuddart, Dublin 15, Ireland

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Test 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 PEL* Time: % of Oxygen >19.5% and <23.5% % of LEL ** <10% Carbon Monoxide... Lifeline Gloves Protective Clothing Safety Harness Emergency Retrieval...

238

Thermochemical cyclic system for splitting water and/or carbon dioxide by means of cerium compounds and reactions useful therein  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermochemical cyclic process for producing hydrogen from water comprises reacting ceric oxide with monobasic or dibasic alkali metal phosphate to yield a solid reaction product, oxygen and water. The solid reaction product, alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonate, and water, are reacted to yield hydrogen, ceric oxide, carbon dioxide and trialkali metal phosphate. Ceric oxide is recycled. Trialkali metal phosphate, carbon dioxide and water are reacted to yield monobasic or dibasic alkali metal phosphate and alkali metal bicarbonate, which are recycled. The cylic process can be modified for producing carbon monoxide from carbon dioxide by reacting the alkali metal cerous phosphate and alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonate in the absence of water to produce carbon monoxide, ceric oxide, carbon dioxide and trialkali metal phosphate. Carbon monoxide can be converted to hydrogen by the water gas shift reaction.

Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Robinson, Paul R. (Knoxville, TN)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Investigation of the Atmospheric Ozone Impacts of Methyl Iodide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. R. Holmes (1977): “Nitrogen Dioxide Photolysis in the LosO3 Ozone NO Nitric Oxide NO2 Nitrogen Dioxide NO3 NitrateNitrogen Pentoxide HONO Nitrous Acid HNO3 Nitric Acid HNO4 Peroxynitric Acid HO2H Hydrogen Peroxide CO Carbon Monoxide SO2 Sulfur Dioxide

Carter, W P L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Methane emission by termites: Impacts on the self-cleansing mechanisms of the atmosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Termites are reported to emit large quantities of methane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen and dimethyl sulfide. The emission of other trace gases, namely C{sub 2} to C{sub 10} hydrocarbons, is also documented. We have carried out, both in the field and in the laboratory, measurements of methane emissions by Macrotermes subhyalinus (Macrotermitinae), Trinervitermes bettonianus (Termitinae), and unidentified Cubitermes and Microcerotermes species. Measured CH{sub 4} field flux rates ranged from 3.66 to 98.25g per m{sup 2} of termite mound per year. Laboratory measurements gave emission rates that ranged from 14.61 to 165.05 mg CH{sub 4} per termite per year. Gaseous production in all species sampled varied both within species and from species to species. Recalculated global emission of methane from termites was found to be 14.0 x 10{sup 12} g CH{sub 4}, per year. From our study, termites contribution to atmospheric methane content is between 1.11% and 4.25% per year. This study discusses the greenhouse effects as well as photochemical disposal of methane in the lower atmosphere in the tropics and the impacts on the chemistry of HO{sub x} systems and CL{sub x} cycles.

Mugedo, J.Z.A. [Maseno Univ. College (Kenya)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Generation and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Carbon Sequestration in Northwest Indiana  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the project is to develop the technology capable of capturing all carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from natural gas fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system. In addition, the technology to electrochemically oxidize any remaining carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide will be developed. Success of this R&D program would allow for the generation of electrical power and thermal power from a fossil fuel driven SOFC system without the carbon emissions resulting from any other fossil fueled power generationg system.

Kevin Peavey; Norm Bessette

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

242

atmospheric administration key: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

warming, ocean chemistry, carbon cycle Abstract CO2 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere Matsumoto,...

243

atmospheric sulphur dioxide: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

carbon dioxide CERN Preprints Summary: The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause...

244

The Woodland Carbon Code  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Woodland Carbon Code While society must continue to make every effort to reduce greenhouse gas a role by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The potential of woodlands to soak up carbon to help compensate for their carbon emissions. But before investing in such projects, people want to know

245

Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.

1993-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

246

Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by rhenium and manganese polypyridyl catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

graph displays not only the shift in energy from wood to fossil fuels but also shows that total energy usagegraph displays not only the shift in energy from wood to fossil fuels, but also shows that total energy usage

Smieja, Jonathan Mark

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by rhenium and manganese polypyridyl catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

compressed air and hydrogen production are all frequently discussed as viable options for future energy storage.

Smieja, Jonathan Mark

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

ARM - Sources of Atmospheric Carbon  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC :ProductsSCM Forcing DataScience QuestionsInactiveInstruments TWPSources of

249

ARM - Destination of Atmospheric Carbon  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcal Documentation DataDatastreamswacrspeccmaskcopolDatastreamsxsacrslrAlaskaDefensive Shotgun - RemingtonDestination

250

Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Hoffman, James S. (Library, PA)

2002-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

251

Short-term effects of air pollution: a panel study of blood markers in patients with chronic pulmonary disease  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

monoxide [NO], nitrogen dioxide [NO 2 ], carbon monoxide [monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), carbon monoxide (dioxide; NO 2 , nitrogen dioxide; CO, carbon monoxide; NO,

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Carbon abundances of early B-type stars in the solar vicinity. Non-LTE line-formation for C II/III/IV and self-consistent atmospheric parameters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Precise determinations of the chemical composition in early B-type stars consitute fundamental observational constraints on stellar and galactochemical evolution. Carbon is one of the most abundant metals in the Universe but analyses in early-type stars show inconclusive results, like large discrepancies between analyses of different lines in C II, a failure to establish the C II/III ionization balance and the derivation of systematically lower abundances than from other objects. We present a comprehensive and robust C II/III/IV model for non-LTE line-formation calculations based on carefully selected atomic data. The model is calibrated with high-S/N spectra of six apparently slow-rotating early B-type dwarfs and giants, which cover a wide parameter range and are randomly distributed in the solar neighbourhood. A self-consistent quantitative spectrum analysis is performed using an extensive iteration scheme to determine stellar atmospheric parameters and to select the appropriate atomic data used for the derivation of chemical abundances. We establish the carbon ionization balance for all sample stars based on a unique set of input atomic data, achieving consistency for all modelled lines. Highly accurate atmospheric parameters and a homogeneous carbon abundance with reduced systematic errors are derived. This results in a present-day stellar carbon abundance in the solar neighbourhood, which is in good agreement with recent determinations of the solar value and with the gas-phase abundance of the Orion H II region. The homogeneous present-day carbon abundance also conforms with predictions of chemical-evolution models for the Galaxy. The present approach allows us to constrain the effects of systematic errors on fundamental parameters and abundances. (abridged)

M. F. Nieva; N. Przybilla

2007-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

253

Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Smit, Berend

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

254

Carbon capture by sorption-enhanced water-gas shift reaction process using hydrotalcite-based material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel route for precombustion decarbonization is the sorption-enhanced water-gas shift (SEWGS) process. In this process carbon dioxide is removed from a synthesis gas at elevated temperature by adsorption. Simultaneously, carbon monoxide is converted to carbon dioxide by the water-gas shift reaction. The periodic adsorption and desorption of carbon dioxide is induced by a pressure swing cycle, and the cyclic capacity can be amplified by purging with steam. From previous studies is it known that for SEWGS applications, hydrotalcite-based materials are particularly attractive as sorbent, and commercial high-temperature shift catalysts can be used for the conversion of carbon monoxide. Tablets of a potassium promoted hydrotalcite-based material are characterized in both breakthrough and cyclic experiments in a 2 m tall fixed-bed reactor. When exposed to a mixture of carbon dioxide, steam, and nitrogen at 400{sup o}C, the material shows a breakthrough capacity of 1.4 mmol/g. In subsequent experiments the material was mixed with tablets of promoted iron-chromium shift catalyst and exposed to a mixture of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, steam, hydrogen, and nitrogen. It is demonstrated that carbon monoxide conversion can be enhanced to 100% in the presence of a carbon dioxide sorbent. At breakthrough, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide simultaneously appear at the end of the bed. During more than 300 cycles of adsorption/reaction and desorption, the capture rate, and carbon monoxide conversion are confirmed to be stable. Two different cycle types are investigated: one cycle with a CO{sub 2} rinse step and one cycle with a steam rinse step. The performance of both SEWGS cycles are discussed.

van Selow, E.R.; Cobden, P.D.; Verbraeken, P.A.; Hufton, J.R.; van den Brink, R.W. [Energy research Center of the Netherlands, Petten (Netherlands)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

255

amorphous diamond-like carbon: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 Atmospheric plasma deposition of diamond-like carbon coatings Angela M. Ladwig a,b, Materials Science Websites Summary: Atmospheric plasma deposition of diamond-like carbon...

256

adherent diamond-like carbon: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 Atmospheric plasma deposition of diamond-like carbon coatings Angela M. Ladwig a,b, Materials Science Websites Summary: Atmospheric plasma deposition of diamond-like carbon...

257

Carbon Cycle Discussion After the warm-up quiz, discuss the carbon cycle.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Cycle Discussion After the warm-up quiz, discuss the carbon cycle. Carbon is one is without carbon. Where else is carbon on our Earth? In rocks, living organisms, the atmosphere, oceans Does carbon stay in one place? What processes include moving carbon? Introduce residence time: How long does

Carrington, Emily

258

Carbon sequestration and carbon management policy effects on production agriculture in the Texas High Plains.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Increased concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially of carbon dioxide, has led to attempts to implement carbon policies in order to limit and… (more)

Zivkovic, Sanja

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Reconciling estimates of the contemporary North American carbon balance among terrestrial biosphere models, atmospheric inversions and a new approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange from inventory-based data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We develop an approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange (NEE) using inventory-based information over North America (NA) for a recent 7-year period (ca. 2000 2006). The approach notably retains information on the spatial distribution of NEE, or the vertical exchange between land and atmosphere of all non-fossil fuel sources and sinks of CO2, while accounting for lateral transfers of forest and crop products as well as their eventual emissions. The total NEE estimate of a 327 252 TgC yr1 sink for NA was driven primarily by CO2 uptake in the Forest Lands sector (248 TgC yr1), largely in the Northwest and Southeast regions of the US, and in the Crop Lands sector (297 TgC yr1), predominantly in the Midwest US states. These sinks are counteracted by the carbon source estimated for the Other Lands sector (+218 TgC yr1), where much of the forest and crop products are assumed to be returned to the atmosphere (through livestock and human consumption). The ecosystems of Mexico are estimated tobe a small net source (+18 TgC yr1) due to land use change between 1993 and 2002. We compare these inventorybased estimates with results from a suite of terrestrial biosphere and atmospheric inversion models, where the mean continental-scale NEE estimate for each ensemble is 511 TgC yr1 and 931 TgC yr1, respectively. In the modeling approaches, all sectors, including Other Lands, were generally estimated to be a carbon sink, driven in part by assumed CO2 fertilization and/or lack of consideration of carbon sources from disturbances and product emissions. Additional fluxes not measured by the inventories, although highly uncertain, could add an additional 239 TgC yr1 to the inventory-based NA sink estimate, thus suggesting some convergence with the modeling approaches.

Hayes, Daniel J [ORNL; Turner, David P [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Stinson, Graham [Pacific Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service; Mcguire, David [University of Alaska; Wei, Yaxing [ORNL; West, Tristram O. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, PNNL; Heath, Linda S. [USDA Forest Service; De Jong, Bernardus [ECOSUR; McConkey, Brian G. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada; Birdsey, Richard A. [U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service; Kurz, Werner [Canadian Forest Service; Jacobson, Andrew [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Huntzinger, Deborah [University of Michigan; Pan, Yude [U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Cook, Robert B [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a Solar + Earth Spectrum IR Absorbers Grey Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect #12;Radiation: Solar and Earth Surface B"(T) Planck Ideal Emission Integrate at the carbon cycle #12;However, #12;Greenhouse Effect is Complex #12;PLANETARY ENERGY BALANCE G+W fig 3-5

Johnson, Robert E.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Intro to Carbon Sequestration  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

None

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

262

Intro to Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

2008-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

263

Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

264

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

independent budgeting of fossil fuel CO 2 over Europe by (CO2008), Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from2004), Estimates of annual fossil-fuel CO 2 emitted for each

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

independent budgeting of fossil fuel CO 2 over Europe by (CO2008 Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions frompatterns and mixing of fossil fuel-derived CO 2 is important

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Clathration of Volatiles in the Solar Nebula and Implications for the Origin of Titan's atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe a scenario of Titan's formation matching the constraints imposed by its current atmospheric composition. Assuming that the abundances of all elements, including oxygen, are solar in the outer nebula, we show that the icy planetesimals were agglomerated in the feeding zone of Saturn from a mixture of clathrates with multiple guest species, so-called stochiometric hydrates such as ammonia hydrate, and pure condensates. We also use a statistical thermodynamic approach to constrain the composition of multiple guest clathrates formed in the solar nebula. We then infer that krypton and xenon, that are expected to condense in the 20-30 K temperature range in the solar nebula, are trapped in clathrates at higher temperatures than 50 K. Once formed, these ices either were accreted by Saturn or remained embedded in its surrounding subnebula until they found their way into the regular satellites growing around Saturn. In order to explain the carbon monoxide and primordial argon deficiencies of Titan's atmosphere, we suggest that the satellite was formed from icy planetesimals initially produced in the solar nebula and that were partially devolatilized at a temperature not exceeding 50 K during their migration within Saturn's subnebula. The observed deficiencies of Titan's atmosphere in krypton and xenon could result from other processes that may have occurred both prior or after the completion of Titan. Thus, krypton and xenon may have been sequestrated in the form of XH3+ complexes in the solar nebula gas phase, causing the formation of noble gas-poor planetesimals ultimately accreted by Titan. Alternatively, krypton and xenon may have also been trapped efficiently in clathrates located on the satellite's surface or in its atmospheric haze.

Olivier Mousis; Jonathan I. Lunine; Caroline Thomas; Matthew Pasek; Ulysse Marboeuf; Yann Alibert; Vincent Ballenegger; Daniel Cordier; Yves Ellinger; Francoise Pauzat; Sylvain Picaud

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated carbon felts Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sible strategy also means actively withdrawing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere2 . Such carbon... sequestration faces multi-faceted chal- lenges: the net withdrawal of carbon...

268

Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitions in southern Amazonia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2008 Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitionscontribute to atmospheric carbon emissions, including forest2008), Fire-related carbon emissions from land use

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Impacts of Atmospheric Anthropogenic Nitrogen on the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

anthropogenic carbon dioxide may result from this atmospheric nitrogen fertilization, leading to a decreaseImpacts of Atmospheric Anthropogenic Nitrogen on the Open Ocean R. A. Duce,1 * J. LaRoche,2 K quantities of atmospheric anthropogenic fixed nitrogen entering the open ocean could account for up to about

Ward, Bess

270

Mechanistical studies on the formation and destruction of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon trioxide (CO3)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) in extraterrestrial, low temperature ices. Reactants and products were analyzed on line and in situ via absorption with a 1/r2 dependence, r being the distance from the sun, and thus becomes less important when the outer% H+ , 2% He2+ , and few heavier nuclei; the energy distribution maximum peaks at around 10 MeV where

Kaiser, Ralf I.

271

Contribution of Ocean, Fossil Fuel, Land Biosphere and Biomass Burning Carbon1 Fluxes to Seasonal and Interannual Variability in Atmospheric CO22  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Contribution of Ocean, Fossil Fuel, Land Biosphere and Biomass Burning Carbon1 Fluxes to Seasonal et al., 1989].18 Anthropogenic fossil fuel combustion and cement manufacture drive most of the recent by deforestation, discussed below) over the last 50 years. The fossil fuel plus4 cement input, in contrast

Mahowald, Natalie

272

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmosphere part ii Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

particles (Duce, 2005). Atmospheric... and thus influence atmospheric carbon dioxide con- centrations and climate. As a result, studies of aerosol... in surface waters of...

273

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric pressure cvd Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

atmospheric pressure cvd Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Growth Termination of Carbon Nanotubes at Millimeter Thickness Due to Structural Change in Catalyst Summary: at atmospheric...

274

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric lead fall-out Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of decades, adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere will lead... to an enhanced greenhouse effect by trapping additional heat in the lower atmosphere, leading to increases... and...

275

Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an urban and a suburban area of Korea from 2002 to 2004  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric bulk samples (wet and dry) were collected monthly during 2002 to 2004 from an urban and a suburban area in Korea for assessment of depositional flux and seasonal variations in the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAH depositional flux ranged from 64.1 to 610 {mu} g/m{sup 2}/y for the urban area and from 65 to 460 {mu} g/m{sup 2}/y for the suburban area. The fluxes of PAHs measured in this study were comparable with those reported for urban and suburban areas in other countries. The fluxes of particulates and PAHs were higher in winter than in summer, consistent with the greater per capita consumption of fossil fuel in winter than in summer. Ambient temperature played a major role in the seasonal variability in PAH fluxes. Photochemical degradation of PAHs appears to occur during the summer months. The relationship of PAH depositional fluxes with major air pollutants, such as ozone, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and presence of particulate matter up to 10 {mu} m in size (PM10), was also investigated. Dominant PAH compounds in both the urban and the suburban locations were benzo(g,h,i)perylene, pyrene, and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene. Based on the PAH diagnostic ratios and a factor analysis, the major sources of PAHs in the urban and the suburban regions were found to be similar. Diesel exhaust, coal combustion, and gasoline emissions contributed predominantly to atmospheric PAH contamination.

Moon, H.B.; Kannan, K.; Lee, S.J.; Ok, G. [National Fisheries Research & Development Institute, Pusan (Republic of Korea)

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

276

Developing Model Constraints on Northern Extra-Tropical Carbon Cycling Based on measurements of the Abundance and Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric CO2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to perform CO2 data syntheses and modeling activities to address two central questions: 1) how much has the seasonal cycle in atmospheric CO2 at northern high latitudes changed since the 1960s, and 2) how well do prognostic biospheric models represent these changes. This project also supported the continuation of the Scripps time series of CO2 isotopes and concentration at ten baseline stations distributed globally.

Keeling, Ralph [UCSD-SIO

2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

277

Atmospheric Neutrinos  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper is a brief overview of the theory and experimental data of atmospheric neutrino production at the fiftieth anniversary of the experimental discovery of neutrinos.

Thomas K. Gaisser

2006-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

278

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Characterizing flow patterns and mixing of fossil fuel-derived CO{sub 2} is important for effectively using atmospheric measurements to constrain emissions inventories. Here we used measurements and a model of atmospheric radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) to investigate the distribution and fluxes of atmospheric fossil fuel CO{sub 2} across the state of California. We sampled {sup 14}C in annual C{sub 3} grasses at 128 sites and used these measurements to test a regional model that simulated anthropogenic and ecosystem CO{sub 2} fluxes, transport in the atmosphere, and the resulting {sup 14}C of annual grasses ({Delta}{sub g}). Average measured {Delta}{sub g} in Los Angeles, San Francisco, the Central Valley, and the North Coast were 27.7 {+-} 20.0, 44.0 {+-} 10.9, 48.7 {+-} 1.9, and 59.9 {+-} 2.5{per_thousand}, respectively, during the 2004-2005 growing season. Model predictions reproduced regional patterns reasonably well, with estimates of 27.6 {+-} 2.4, 39.4 {+-} 3.9, 46.8 {+-} 3.0, and 59.3 {+-} 0.2{per_thousand} for these same regions and corresponding to fossil fuel CO{sub 2} mixing ratios (Cf) of 13.7, 6.1, 4.8, and 0.3 ppm. {Delta}{sub g} spatial heterogeneity in Los Angeles and San Francisco was higher in the measurements than in the predictions, probably from insufficient spatial resolution in the fossil fuel inventories (e.g., freeways are not explicitly included) and transport (e.g., within valleys). We used the model to predict monthly and annual transport patterns of fossil fuel-derived CO{sub 2} within and out of California. Fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emitted in Los Angeles and San Francisco was predicted to move into the Central Valley, raising Cf above that expected from local emissions alone. Annually, about 21, 39, 35, and 5% of fossil fuel emissions leave the California airspace to the north, east, south, and west, respectively, with large seasonal variations in the proportions. Positive correlations between westward fluxes and Santa Ana wind conditions were observed. The southward fluxes over the Pacific Ocean were maintained in a relatively coherent flow within the marine boundary layer, while the eastward fluxes were more vertically dispersed. Our results indicate that state and continental scale atmospheric inversions need to consider areas where concentration measurements are sparse (e.g., over the ocean to the south and west of California), transport within and across the marine boundary layer, and terrestrial boundary layer dynamics. Measurements of {Delta}{sub g} can be very useful in constraining these estimates.

Riley, W.J.; Hsueh, D.Y.; Randerson, J.T.; Fischer, M.L.; Hatch, J.G.; Pataki, D.E.; Wang, W.; Goulden, M.L.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Formation of Carbon Dwarfs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the formation of dwarf carbon stars via accretion from a carbon AGB companion in light of the new 107 object sample of Downes et al. (2004). This sample is now large enough to allow good mass determination via comparison of a composite spectrum to theoretical atmospheric models. Carbon dwarfs of spectral type M are indeed main sequence M dwarfs with enhanced metallicity and carbon abundance. We also calculate the predicted abundance of both M and of F/G carbon dwarfs, and show that the latter should be falsifiable in the near future.

Charles L. Steinhardt; Dimitar D. Sasselov

2012-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

280

atmospheric emissions produced: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of alkaline paper mill...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Titanium monoxide spectroscopy following laser-induced optical breakdown  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work investigates Titanium Monoxide (TiO) in ablation-plasma by employing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with 1 to 10 TW/cm{sup 2} irradiance, pulsed, 13 nanosecond, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser radiation at the fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. The analysis of TiO is based on our first accurate determination of transition line strengths for selected TiO A-X, B-X, and E-X transitions, particularly TiO A-X {gamma} and B-X {gamma} Prime bands. Electric dipole line strengths for the A{sup 3}{Phi}-X{sup 3}{delta} and B{sup 3}{Pi}-X{sup 3}{delta} bands of TiO are computed. The molecular TiO spectra are observed subsequent to laser-induced breakdown (LIB). We discuss analysis of diatomic molecular spectra that may occur simultaneously with spectra originating from atomic species. Gated detection is applied to investigate the development in time of the emission spectra following LIB. Collected emission spectra allow one to infer micro-plasma parameters such as temperature and electron density. Insight into the state of the micro-plasma is gained by comparing measurements with predictions of atomic and molecular spectra. Nonlinear fitting of recorded and computed diatomic spectra provides the basis for molecular diagnostics, while atomic species may overlap and are simultaneously identified. Molecular diagnostic approaches similar to TiO have been performed for diatomic molecules such as AlO, C{sub 2}, CN, CH, N{sub 2}, NH, NO and OH.

Parigger, Christian G.; Woods, Alexander C.; Keszler, Anna; Nemes, Laszlo; Hornkohl, James O. [The University of Tennessee/UT Space Institute, Center for Laser Applications, 411 B.H. Goethert Parkway, Tullahoma, TN 37388-9700 (United States); Chemical Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Pusztaszeri ut 59-67, H-1025 Budapest (Hungary); Chemical Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, Pusztaszeri ut 59-67, H-1025 Budapest (Hungary); Hornkohl Consulting, Tullahoma, TN 37388 (United States)

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

282

E-Print Network 3.0 - acetone cyclic diperoxide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

acp31709 Atmospheric Summary: and Physics On the relationship between acetone and carbon monoxide in different air masses M. de Reus1, H... and acetone measurements are...

283

Future climate trends from a first-difference atmospheric carbon dioxide regression model involving emissions scenarios for business as usual and for peak fossil fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper investigates the implications of the future continuation of the demonstrated past (1960-2012) strong correlation between first-difference atmospheric CO2 and global surface temperature. It does this, for the period from the present to 2050, for a comprehensive range of future global fossil fuel energy use scenarios. The results show that even for a business-as-usual (the mid-level IPCC) fossil fuel use estimate, global surface temperature will rise at a slower rate than for the recent period 1960-2000. Concerning peak fossil fuel, for the most common scenario the currently observed (1998-2013)temperature plateau will turn into a decrease. The observed trend to date for temperature is compared with that for global climate disasters: these peaked in 2005 and are notably decreasing. The temperature and disaster results taken together are consistent with either a reduced business-as-usual fossil fuel use scenario into the future, or a peak fossil fuel scenario, but not with the standard business-as-usu...

Leggett, L M W

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

High Performance Silicon Monoxide (SiO) Electrode for Next Generation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinement plasmas in the Madison SymmetricHigh Carbon|1-3,Lithium Ion

285

PREFERENTIAL OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN A THIN-FILM CATALYTIC MICROREACTOR: ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-PBR's favor the reverse water-gas-shift (r-WGS) reaction, thus causing a much narrower range of permissible stream after hydrocarbon fuel reforming and water-gas-shift reactions. This process, referred to as CO;2 ABSTRACT Silicon microreactors with thin-film wall catalyst were adopted for kinetic studies of CO

Besser, Ronald S.

286

Test results of a ceramic-based carbon monoxide sensor in the automotive exhaust manifold  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A prototype CO sensor based on the anatase phase of TiO{sub 2} was fabricated and tested in a Ford V6 engine. Fuel combustion was programmed to be near stoichiometric conditions, and emissions were monitored with an FT-IR analytical instrument. The sensor, positioned near the oxygen sensor in the exhaust manifold, was successfully tested for 50 cycles of revving and idling, and was observed to respond quickly and reproducibly. The sensor response was correlated to the CO concentration at specific engine temperatures and was found to vary systematically with increasing concentrations. The results are promising and the sensor shows potentials to monitor the efficiency of the catalytic converter.

Azad, A.M.; Younkman, L.B.; Akbar, S.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

287

Sensing mechanism of a carbon monoxide sensor based on anatase titania  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports results on a TiO{sub 2} (anatase)-based CO sensor and proposes a possible surface-controlled sensing mechanism. The complex plane analysis of the ac electrical data provides quantitative evidence supporting the mechanism. The grain-boundary capacitance and conductance, extracted from the impedance plane, were observed to increase with the CO concentration. This effect is attributed to a change in the depletion region thickness and barrier height at the TiO{sub 2} intergranular contact. The analysis of the electrical data combined with x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observations support the proposed sensing mechanism involving CO adsorption and ionization on the titania surface, and not an oxidation-reduction type reaction as observed in most oxide-based sensors.

Akbar, S.A.; Younkman, L.B. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Adsorption effects during temperature-programmed desorption of carbon monoxide from supported platinum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To investigate the effects of CO adsorption, we develop a mathematical model and use it to compute desorption spectra for the TPD of CO from Pt dispersed over a porous support into (a) an inert carrier gas and (b) a vacuum. Over the realistic parameter range considered, our model predicts that adsorption effects, caused by high concentrations of gaseous CO in the system, are always an important feature, broadening the desorption peaks and shifting them to higher temperatures. Indeed, we find that adsorption competes with desorption to the extent that adsorption equilibrium is always approached closely within the porous supported Pt samples. For desorption into a carrier gas, the adsorption effects result from limitations to the flow of CO from the sample cell, whereas for desorption into a vacuum, the adsorption effects result from limitations to the diffusion of CO from the porous sample. Our results suggest that significant adsorption effects will also be present during the TPD of CO from other Group VIII precious metals dispersed over porous supports. 4 figures, 2 tables.

Herz, R.K.; Kiela, J.B.; Marin, S.P.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Some general laws of the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide on metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The catalytic properties of supported transition metals in the hydrogenation of CO to hydrocarbons have been studied. A kinetic model interpreting the unusual dependence of the activation energy on temperature is proposed. It is shown that the catalytic activity (r) decreases and the selectivity with respect to methane (SCH/sub 4/) increases with an increase in the heat of adsorption of CO.

Golodets, G.I.; Pavlenko, N.V.; Tripol'skii, A.I.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Kinetic study of the reaction between nitric oxide and carbon monoxide catalyzed by clean polycrystalline platinum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics of the platinum catalyzed reaction between NO and CO has been studied under conditions chosen to approximate those observed during operation of catalysts in automotive exhaust gas treatment applications. The catalysts were polycrystalline platinum foils and wires. The reaction was studied over a range of reactant partial pressures of 10 V Torr to 1 Torr and catalyst temperatures of 500 to 1500K. The steady-state kinetics results could not be fit by a simple Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model over all experimental conditions studied. The kinetics at high coverage were most consistent with Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics assuming a bimolecular reaction between NO and CO as the rate-limiting step. At high temperature, the Langmuir-Hinshelwood assumption of fast adsorption-desorption equilibrium relative to the surface reaction rate was no longer appropriate and the mechanism of adsorption of NO had to be considered explicitly.

Klein, R.L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Dissociation and oxidation of carbon monoxide over Rh/Al sub 2 O sub 3 catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The activity of Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts for CO oxidation was investigated by transient isotopic pulse experiments using packed-bed reactor. This transient experimental scheme revealed significant CO dissociation activity during CO oxidation over Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. Results indicate that the oxidation of CO proceeds via dissociative oxidation by its own oxygen as well as via direct oxidation by gas-phase oxygen on well-dispersed Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. The rate of CO dissociation is on the same order of magnitude as the rate of CO oxidation; under steady-state conditions at 300{degree}C, the rate of CO dissociation is approximately half that of direct oxidation. Differences in CO dissociation activity between single-crystal Rh surfaces and well-dispersed supported Rh particles are explained in terms of the molecular bonding and adsorption characteristics on these two different surfaces. The importance of CO dissociation kinetics in the overall CO oxidation activity of Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts is further discussed in view of the reaction lightoff behavior.

Cho, Byong K.; Stock, C.J. (General Motors Research Labs., Warren, MI (USA))

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Adsorption of carbon monoxide on ZSM-5 zeolites. Infrared spectroscopic study and quantum-chemical calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low temperature adsorption of CO was studied on H-ZSM-5 zeolites modified by dehydroxylation, ionic exchange with Al/sup 3 +/, and impregnation with Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and on Na-ZSM-5 and CaH-ZSM-5 zeolites. It was found that interaction of CO with framework OH groups results in the formation of a hydrogen-bonded CO complex whose OH bond frequency is decreased by 310-320 cm/sup -1/ compared with that of free hydroxyls. For the less acidic framework hydroxyls in large cavities of H/sub 70/Na/sub 30/-Y zeolite the observed shift is 275 cm/sup -1/. With ZSM-5 zeolites, at least six types of electron-accepting sites are observed originating from nonframework Al species (band of CO in the interaction complex: 2132, 2222, 2202, 2195, and 2198 cm/sup -1/) and the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ microcrystalline phase (CO band at 2153 cm/sup -1/). The CO bond orders calculated by the CNDO/2 method for the CO interaction complexes with models of surface sites increase in the following order: > O-CO < > OH-CO approx. ..-->.. Al-CO approx. = Na-CO < alumina-CO approx. = Ca-CO < ..-->.. Si-CO < Al(cationic)-CO. A correlation between the calculated bond orders of CO and the observed vibrational frequencies of CO-forming interaction complexes is drawn.

Kustov, L.M.; Kazansky, V.B.; Beran, S.; Kubelkova, L.; Jiru, P.

1987-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

293

Sulfur adsorption on nickel(100) and its effect on carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, and deuterium chemisorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The adsorption of CO, NO, and D/sub 2/ was studied on clean and sulfided Ni(100) near 100K using Auger electron spectroscopy, thermal desorption spectroscopy, X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies, and work function change measurements. The evidence suggests that sulfur's effects are predominantly steric in nature. Weak, short-range (approx.4 angstrom) electrostatic effects are also present, due to charge transfer of about 0.04 of an electron from nickel to sulfur. The blocking effect of S on the adsorption of each gas at various temperatures is discussed.

Hardegree, E.L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Free-radical reactions in glow and explosion of carbon monoxide-oxygen mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Examination of published compilations of rate coefficients of free-radical reactions yields reactions that are associated with chain branching in mixtures of CO and O/sub 2/ and small quantities of hydrogen or water vapor. The complete mechanism included diffusion of HO/sub 2/ radicals to the vessel wall and their adsorption and reaction at the surface. This mechanism is applied to the data of E.J. Buckler and R.G.W. Norrish on the branched-chain explosion of CO-O/sub 2/ mixtures containing H/sub 2/ in the order of 1 mm Hg. Substantial agreement is found between theory and experiment. Further, the mechanism is applied to experiments of Bond, Gray, and Griffiths with an H/sub 2/ content of 0.01-0.05 mm Hg. By specifying details of the adsorption and surface reaction of HO/sub 2/ on the basis of Langmuir's adsorption the phenomenon of flow is explained and the regions of slow reaction, glow, and explosion are described in accord with the experimental data. It is confirmed that the reaction between CO and O/sub 2/ requires the presence of a hydrogenous compound such as H/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O, CH/sub 4/, etc., and that ''dry'' homogenous reaction is not possible except at very high temperatures.

Von Elbe, G.; Lewis, B.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Multimodel simulations of carbon monoxide: Comparison with observations and projected near-future changes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

development of a gridded climatology for tropospheric ozone,et al. , 2000] O 3 climatology based on satellite and sondeO 3 nudged toward climatology above 380 K zonal mean O 3

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Coherent Resonances Observed in the Dissociative Electron Attachments to Carbon Monoxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Succeeding our previous finding about coherent interference of the resonant states of CO^- formed by the low-energy electron attachment [Phys. Rev. A 88, 012708 (2013)], here we provide more evidences of the coherent interference, in particular, we find the state configuration change in the interference with the increase of electron attachment energy by measuring the completely backward distributions of the O^- fragment ion of the temporary CO^- in an energy range 11.3-12.6 eV. Therefore, different pure states, namely, coherent resonances, can be formed when the close-lying resonant states are coherently superposed by a broad-band electron pulse.

Wang, Xu-Dong; Luo, Yi; Tian, Shan Xi

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Continuous Measurement of Carbon Monoxide Improves Combustion Efficiency of CO Boilers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The paper describes the application of in-situ flue gas CO measurement in the operation of CO Boilers and details the steps needed to optimize combustion efficiency....

Gilmour, W. A.; Pregler, D. N.; Branham, R. L.; Prichard, J. J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Influence of solid fuel on the carbon-monoxide and nitrogen-oxide emissions on sintering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory and industrial research now underway at the sintering plant of AO Mittal Steel Temirtau is focusing on the preparation of fuel of optimal granulometric composition, the replacement of coke fines, and the adaptation of fuel-input technology so as to reduce fuel consumption and toxic emissions without loss of sinter quality.

M.F. Vitushchenko; N.L. Tatarkin; A.I. Kuznetsov; A.E. Vilkov [AO Mittal Steel Temirtau, Temirtau (Kazakhstan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Detection of carbon monoxide (CO) as a furnace byproduct using a rotating mask spectrometer.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories, in partnership with the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), has developed an optical-based sensor for the detection of CO in appliances such as residential furnaces. The device is correlation radiometer based on detection of the difference signal between the transmission spectrum of the sample multiplied by two alternating synthetic spectra (called Eigen spectra). These Eigen spectra are derived from a priori knowledge of the interferents present in the exhaust stream. They may be determined empirically for simple spectra, or using a singular value decomposition algorithm for more complex spectra. Data is presented on the details of the design of the instrument and Eigen spectra along with results from detection of CO in background N{sub 2}, and CO in N{sub 2} with large quantities of interferent CO{sub 2}. Results indicate that using the Eigen spectra technique, CO can be measured at levels well below acceptable limits in the presence of strongly interfering species. In addition, a conceptual design is presented for reducing the complexity and cost of the instrument to a level compatible with consumer products.

Sinclair, Michael B.; Flemming, Jeb Hunter; Blair, Raymond (Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies, Albuqueruque, NM); Pfeifer, Kent Bryant

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Related Emission Requirements (Ohio)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This chapter defining the roles of the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency gives specific detail on the regulation point-source air pollution for a variety of industries and pollutants.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Effect of Sodium Sulfide on Ni-Containing Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

OAK-B135 The structure of the active-site C-cluster in CO dehydrogenase from Carboxythermus hydrogenoformans includes a {mu}{sup 2}-sulfide ion bridged to the Ni and unique Fe, while the same cluster in enzymes from Rhodospirillum rubrum (CODH{sub Rr}) and Moorella thermoacetica (CODH{sub Mt}) lack this ion. This difference was investigated by exploring the effects of sodium sulfide on activity and spectral properties. Sulfide partially inhibited the CO oxidation activity of CODH{sub Rr} and generated a lag prior to steady-state. CODH{sub Mt} was inhibited similarly but without a lag. Adding sulfide to CODH{sub Mt} in the C{sub red1} state caused the g{sub av} = 1.82 EPR signal to decline and new features to appear, including one with g = 1.95, 1.85 and (1.70 or 1.62). Removing sulfide caused the g{sub av} = 1.82 signal to reappear and activity to recover. Sulfide did not affect the g{sub av} = 1.86 signal from the C{sub red2} state. A model was developed in which sulfide binds reversibly to C{sub red1}, inhibiting catalysis. Reducing this adduct causes sulfide to dissociate, C{sub red2} to develop, and activity to recover. Using this model, apparent K{sub I} values are 40 {+-} 10 nM for CODH{sub Rr} and 60 {+-} 30 {micro}M for CODH{sub Mt}. Effects of sulfide are analogous to those of other anions, including the substrate hydroxyl group, suggesting that these ions also bridge the Ni and unique Fe. This proposed arrangement raises the possibility that CO binding labilizes the bridging hydroxyl and increases its nucleophilic tendency towards attacking Ni-bound carbonyl.

Jian Feng; Paul A. Lindahl

2004-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

302

Synthesis of higher alcohols from carbon monoxide and hydrogen in a slurry reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Higher, i.e. C{sub 2{sup +}}, alcohols are desired as gasoline additives, feedstocks for producing ethers and as alternative fuels for automobiles. In all cases, the backbone branching of an alcohol improves octane rating, which is essential for good engine performance. These types of branched, higher alcohols are the desired products for a process converting synthesis gas, a CO and H{sub 2} mixture, often generated from coal gasification. Based on this premise, promoted ZnCr oxide catalysts appear to be as one of the best avenues for further investigation. Once this investigation is complete, a natural extension is to replace the Cr in the ZnCr oxide catalyst with Mo and W, both in the same elemental triad with Cr. Mo has already been shown as an active HAS catalyst, both on a SiO{sub 2} support and in the MoS{sub 2} form. The three catalyst combinations, ZnMo, ZnW, and MnCr oxides will be tested in the stirred autoclave system. However, if none of the three indicate any comparable activity and/or selectivity toward higher alcohols as compared with other HAS catalysts, then an investigation of the effects of Cs promotion on the ZnCr oxide methanol catalysts will be executed.

McCutchen, M.S.

1992-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

303

REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon fuels must be reformed in a series of steps to provide hydrogen for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Preferential oxidation (PROX) is one method to reduce the CO concentration to less than 10 ppm in the presence of {approx}40% H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and steam. This will prevent CO poisoning of the PEMFC anode. Structured supports, such as ceramic monoliths, can be used for the PROX reaction. Alternatively, metal foams offer a number of advantages over the traditional ceramic monolith.

Paul Chin; Xiaolei Sun; George W. Roberts; Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Sourabh Pansare; James G. Goodwin Jr; Richard W. Rice; James J. Spivey

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Elevated Carbon Monoxide in the Exhaled Breath of Mice during a Systemic Bacterial Infection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

without recourse to anesthesia and intubation of the mice [carried out under terminal anesthesia with isofluorane; all34]. During terminal anesthesia, blood was obtained with or

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke in the development of cardiorespiratory disease in smokers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

" Collt9t 01 Ph~/dlns Rmortl on Smc:t/ng Ind Hullh J All M.lnuf,cturt6 CI9HI'IIes / f"l" "''''''" -1' / / l()w 1M lo...-M'OOI, 1" ClgHrt1t1 ~~--~~--~~--~~ 1900 1910 1910 19)0 IQ.lO 1950 1%0 1970 1980 1,2, and 3 refer to the first , ~C... and materials 14 Latin square design for first ten cigarette brGnds 15 Analysis of Latin square of first ten brands 16 ' (Juenching' due to CO 2 17 N0 2 in sl:,oke and effic Lency of converter 18 NO yields of cigarette brands 19 Comparison of yields...

Borland, Colin David Ross

1988-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

306

Oxygen isotope fractionation in the vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation of carbon monoxide: Wavelength, pressure and temperature dependency.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen isotope fractionation in the vacuum ultravioletmeasurement of the associated oxygen isotopic composition ofwavelength dependency of the oxygen isotopic composition in

Chakraborty, Subrata

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Carbon Monoxide Pollution Promotes Cardiac Remodeling and Ventricular Arrhythmia in Healthy Rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

worldwide by outdoor air pollution caused by vehicles and industrial emissions (http://www.who.int; http:// www.infoforhealth.org). Notably, air pollution increases the risk of mortality from cardiovascular investigating the effects of urban air pollution in humans are mainly restricted to epide- miological studies

Boyer, Edmond

308

Carbon monoxide oxidation on Rh(111): Velocity and angular distributions of the CO2 product  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and 700 K. Surprisal analysis proves useful in condensing and interpreting these data. © 1995 American Institute of Physics. I. INTRODUCTION The energy disposal into the final gas phase products of a surface

Sibener, Steven

309

Multimodel simulations of carbon monoxide: Comparison with observations and projected near-future changes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of TRACE-P emission inventories from China using a regionalunderestimated in current inventories such as IIASA andHistorical emissions inventories indicate that anthro-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Preferential oxidation of methanol and carbon monoxide for gas cleanup during methanol fuel processing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methanol fuel processing generates hydrogen for low-temperature, PEM fuel cell systems now being considered for transportation and other applications. Although liquid methanol fuel is convenient for this application, existing fuel processing techniques generate contaminants that degrade fuel cell performance. Through mathematical models and laboratory experiments chemical processing is described that removes CO and other contaminants from the anode feed stream.

Birdsell, S.A.; Vanderborgh, N.E.; Inbody, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Electrochimica Acta 49 (2004) 23332341 Transient carbon monoxide poisoning of a polymer electrolyte  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Engine Center, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University an appreciable effect on cell polarization, in the presence of trace amounts of CO, hydrogen dilution amplifies Increasing awareness regarding environmental issues and depleting energy reserves has prompted research

312

INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON NICKEL FILMS: A LOW TEMPERATURE THERMAL DETECTION TECHNIQUE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

excess noise from the thermometer element and the digitizingXBL 78/2-6334 Fig. 14. Noise spectra of sample thermometer.noise spectrum of the thermometer signal for two different

Bailey, Robert Brian

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Adsorption and methanation of carbon dioxide on a nickel/silica catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Temperature-programed desorption and reaction studies showed that increasing amounts of CO/sub 2/ adsorbed on silica-supported 6.9% nickel with increasing temperature to a maximum adsorption at approx. 443/sup 0/K, i.e., that the adsorption was activated; that CO/sub 2/ desorbed partly as CO/sub 2/ with the peak at 543/sup 0/K, and partly as CO with several peaks; that in the presence of hydrogen, nearly all adsorbed CO/sub 2/ desorbed as methane, and a small amount as CO; and that the methane desorption peaks from adsorbed CO and CO/sub 2/ both occurred at 473/sup 0/K. These results suggested that carbon dioxide adsorbed dissociatively as a carbon monoxide and an oxygen species. An observed absence of higher hydrocarbons in the methanation products of carbon dioxide was attributed to a high hydrogen/carbon monoxide surface ratio caused by the activated carbon dioxide adsorption.

Falconer, J.L.; Zagli, A.E.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Consequences of Considering Carbon/Nitrogen Interactions on the Feedbacks between Climate and the Terrestrial Carbon Cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A number of observational studies indicate that carbon sequestration by terrestrial ecosystems in a world with an atmosphere richer in carbon dioxide and a warmer climate depends on the interactions between the carbon and ...

Sokolov, Andrei P.

315

A nanochemomechanical investigation of carbonated cement paste  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Concrete, and in particular its principal component, cement paste, has an interesting relation with carbon dioxide. Concrete is a carbon dioxide generator-- it is estimated that 5-10% of atmospheric CO? comes from this ...

Vanzo, James (James F.)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Mixed uranium dicarbide and uranium dioxide microspheres and process of making same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nuclear fuel microspheres are made by sintering microspheres containing uranium dioxide and uncombined carbon in a 1 mole percent carbon monoxide/99 mole percent argon atmosphere at 1550.degree. C. and then sintering the microspheres in a 3 mole percent carbon monoxide/97 mole percent argon atmosphere at the same temperature.

Stinton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon Composites(T300 & SWB): Crush Resistance, Bend StrengthCARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite · C-C supplied in two forms · T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine

Rollins, Andrew M.

318

Reaction of titanium polonides with carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been ascertained that heating titanium and tantalum in carbon dioxide to temperatures of 500 or 800/sup 0/C alters the composition of the gas phase, causing the advent of carbon monoxide and lowering the oxygen content. Investigation of the thermal stability of titanium polonides in a carbon dioxide medium has shown that titanium mono- and hemipolonides are decomposed at temperatures below 350/sup 0/C. The temperature dependence of the vapor pressure of polonium produced in the decomposition of these polonides in a carbon dioxide medium have been determined by a radiotensimetric method. The enthalpy of the process, calculated from this relationship, is close to the enthalpy of vaporization of elementary polonium in vacuo.

Abakumov, A.S.; Malyshev, M.L.; Reznikova, N.F.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Relative Permeability Experiments of Carbon Dioxide Displacing Brine and Their Implications for Carbon Sequestration.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??To continue running our civilization on fossil fuels while avoiding global warming and ocean acidification, anthropogenic carbon dioxide must be diverted from atmospheric release. For… (more)

Levine, Jonathan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Litter-Carbon Dynamics: The Importance of Decomposition, Accretion, and Sequestration in Understanding Ecosystem Carbon Cycling.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The atmospheric CO2 concentration has been increasing since the industrial revolution. A proposed mitigation strategy is sequestering carbon (C) in terrestrial ecosystems, either in plant… (more)

Kochsiek, Amy

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Microbially induced magnesium carbonation reactions as a strategy for carbon sequestration in ultramafic mine tailings.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has increased due to anthropogenic fossil fuel combustion, causing higher global temperatures and other negative environmental effects. CO2 sequestration… (more)

McCutcheon, Jenine

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION UNDER CATASTROPHIC RISK AND PRICE UNCERTAINTY IN KENTUCKY.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Internalizing carbon value for forest landowners has the potential to increase carbon supply in forest and mitigate CO2 in the atmosphere. In this study, we… (more)

Hu, Lijiao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitions in southern Amazonia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2008 Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitionsto atmospheric carbon emissions, including forest conversionthe major sources of emissions from fires in this region.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Carbon Dioxide: Threat or Opportunity?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

catastrophic long term effects on world climate. An alternative to discharging carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is to find new uses. One possible use is in 'Biofactories'. Biofactories may be achieved by exploiting two new developing technologies: Solar...

McKinney, A. R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Effect of potassium carbonate on char gasification by carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A differential packed-bed reactor has been employed to study the gasification of 7.5 wt% K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-catalyzed Saran char in carbon dioxide/carbon monoxide mixtures at a total pressure near 1 atm (101.3 kPa) and temperatures between 922 and 1046 K. The rate data were tested with a model which involves two-site adsorption and subsequent dissociation of CO/sub 2/ on the char surface. The results indicate that this model adequately explains the catalyzed gasification data. Moreover, the activation energy for desorption of carbon-oxygen complex is lower for the catalyzed case than for the uncatalyzed case. Adsorption of CO and CO/sub 2/ on both catalyzed and uncatalyzed chars was also followed with a volumetric adsorption apparatus at pressures between 1 and 100 kPa and temperatures from 273 to 725 K. The catalyzed char adsorbed an order of magnitude more CO/sub 2/ at 560 K than the uncatalyzed char. Subsequent dissociation of CO/sub 2/ on the carbon surface does not appear to be catalyzed by potassium. Thus, the catalyst's role is to enhance CO/sub 2/ adsorption, thereby creating more oxygen on the surface, and lowering the activation energy for desorption of the resultant carbon-oxygen species.

Koenig, P.C.; Squires, R.G.; Laurendeau, N.M.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Atmosphere Model  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmesApplication2ArgonneAssemblyDemandPlasma4 Medicare5Dust

327

Environmental control technology for atmospheric carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The impact of fossil fuel use in the United States on worldwide CO/sub 2/ emissions and the impact of increased coal utilization on CO/sub 2/ emission rates are assessed. The aspects of CO/sub 2/ control are discussed as well as the available CO/sub 2/ control points (CO/sub 2/ removal sites). Two control scenarios are evaluated, one based on the absorption of CO/sub 2/ contained in power plant flue gas by seawater; the other, based on absorption of CO/sub 2/ by MEA (Mono Ethanol Amine). Captured CO/sub 2/ is injected into the deep ocean in both cases. The analyses indicate that capture and disposal by seawater is energetically not feasible, whereas capture and disposal using MEA is a possibility. However, the economic penalities of CO/sub 2/ control are significant. The use of non-fossil energy sources, such as hydroelectric, nuclear or solar energy is considered as an alternative for limiting and controlling CO/sub 2/ emissions resulting from fossil energy usage.

Steinberg, M; Albanese, A S

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Atmospheric Aerosol Systems | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Science Themes Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Overview Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Biosystem Dynamics & Design Energy Materials & Processes Terrestrial & Subsurface Ecosystems...

329

Vacancies in ordered and disordered titanium monoxide: Mechanism of B1 structure stabilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electronic structure and stability of three phases of titanium monoxide TiO{sub y} with B1 type of the basic structure have been studied. Cubic phase without structural vacancies, TiO, and two phases with structural vacancies, monoclinic Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} and cubic disordered TiO{sub 1.0}, was treated by means of first-principles calculations within the density functional theory with pseudo-potential approach based on the plane wave's basis. The ordered monoclinic phase Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} was found to be the most stable and the cubic TiO without vacancies the less stable one. The role of structural vacancies in the titanium sublattice is to decrease the Fermi energy, the role of vacancies in the oxygen sublattice is to contribute to the appearance of Ti–Ti bonding interactions through these vacancies and to reinforce the Ti–Ti interactions close to them. Listed effects are significantly pronounced if the vacancies in the titanium and oxygen sublattices are associated in the so called “vacancy channels” which determine the formation of vacancy ordered structure of monoclinic Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5}-type. - Graphical abstract: Changes in total DOS of titanium monoxide when going from vacancy-free TiO to TiO with disordered structural vacancies and to TiO with ordered structural vacancies. Highlights: • Ordered monoclinic Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} is the most stable phase of titanium monoxide. • Vacancy-free TiO is the less stable phase of the titanium monoxide. • Ordering of oxygen vacancies leads to the appearance of Ti–Ti bonding interactions. • Titanium vacancies contribute significantly to the decreasing of the Fermi energy.

Kostenko, M.G. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, The Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pervomayskaya 91, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Lukoyanov, A.V. [Institute of Metal Physics, The Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, S. Kovalevskoy 18, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University named after First President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Mira 19, Ekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation); Zhukov, V.P. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, The Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pervomayskaya 91, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Rempel, A.A., E-mail: rempel@ihim.uran.ru [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, The Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pervomayskaya 91, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University named after First President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Mira 19, Ekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

330

High surface area silicon carbide-coated carbon aerogel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust. Carbon aerogels can be coated with sol-gel silica and the silica can be converted to silicone carbide, improved the thermal stability of the carbon aerogel.

Worsley, Marcus A; Kuntz, Joshua D; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr, Joe H

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

331

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric plasma sources Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon surface Activation using Atmospheric Pressure Plasma (CAAP) System 12;2 Editor's note Thermal... requirements, characteristics of the plasma source and reactor design are...

332

Geologic Carbon Sequestration and Biosequestration (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Don DePaolo, Director of LBNL's Earth Sciences Division, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

DePaolo, Don [Director, LBNL Earth Sciences Division

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

333

atmospheric brown cloud: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

I.; Burrows, Adam 2003-01-01 3 II. Black Carbon, Atmospheric Brown Clouds and Greenhouse Effect: Background CiteSeer Summary: satellite. The optical depth is a good index for...

334

atmospheric brown clouds: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

I.; Burrows, Adam 2003-01-01 3 II. Black Carbon, Atmospheric Brown Clouds and Greenhouse Effect: Background CiteSeer Summary: satellite. The optical depth is a good index for...

335

Carbon sequestration research and development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Predictions of global energy use in the next century suggest a continued increase in carbon emissions and rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere unless major changes are made in the way we produce and use energy--in particular, how we manage carbon. For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts in its 1995 ''business as usual'' energy scenario that future global emissions of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere will increase from 7.4 billion tonnes of carbon (GtC) per year in 1997 to approximately 26 GtC/year by 2100. IPCC also projects a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration by the middle of next century and growing rates of increase beyond. Although the effects of increased CO{sub 2} levels on global climate are uncertain, many scientists agree that a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations could have a variety of serious environmental consequences. The goal of this report is to identify key areas for research and development (R&D) that could lead to an understanding of the potential for future use of carbon sequestration as a major tool for managing carbon emissions. Under the leadership of DOE, researchers from universities, industry, other government agencies, and DOE national laboratories were brought together to develop the technical basis for conceiving a science and technology road map. That effort has resulted in this report, which develops much of the information needed for the road map.

Reichle, Dave; Houghton, John; Kane, Bob; Ekmann, Jim; and others

1999-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

336

INDOOR AIR QUALITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, radon, andcarbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (N0 ), formaldehyde (

Hollowell, C.D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Nonadiabatic calculations of ultraviolet absorption cross section of sulfur monoxide: Isotopic effects on the photodissociation reaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of the main and substituted sulfur monoxide (SO) isotopologues were calculated using R-Matrix expansion technique. Energies, transition dipole moments, and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements were calculated at MRCI/AV6Z level. The calculated absorption cross section of {sup 32}S{sup 16}O was compared with experimental spectrum; the spectral feature and the absolute value of photoabsorption cross sections are in good agreement. Our calculation predicts a long lived photoexcited SO* species which causes large non-mass dependent isotopic effects depending on the excitation energy in the ultraviolet region.

Danielache, Sebastian O.; Tomoya, Suzuki; Nanbu, Shinkoh [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, Chiyoda Ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan)] [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, Chiyoda Ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Kondorsky, Alexey [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Science, Leninsky pr., 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation) [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Science, Leninsky pr., 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Institutsky per., 9, Dolgoprudny Moscow region, 141700 (Russian Federation); Tokue, Ikuo [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

338

Introduction In the past two centuries, atmospheric methane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

90 Introduction In the past two centuries, atmospheric methane (Ch4) concentrations have more than doubled. Despite the about 20o times smaller atmospheric burden of methane compared to carbon dioxide (CO2 ; IPCC 4th assessment report, 2007), because on a per molecule basis methane is a much more effective

Haak, Hein

339

Carbon Capture  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Capture Pre-Combustion Post-Combustion CO2 Compression Systems Analysis Regulatory Drivers Program Plan Capture Handbook Carbon capture involves the separation of CO2 from...

340

Method for making carbon films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area ([approx equal]1000 m[sup 2] /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160 C for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750 C in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750--850 C for between 1--6 hours. 2 figs.

Tan, M.X.

1999-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Paul Alivisatos, LBNL Director speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 4, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Alivisatos, Paul

2011-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

342

Carbon fiber manufacturing via plasma technology  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosed invention introduces a novel method of manufacturing carbon and/or graphite fibers that avoids the high costs associated with conventional carbonization processes. The method of the present invention avoids these costs by utilizing plasma technology in connection with electromagnetic radiation to produce carbon and/or graphite fibers from fully or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors. In general, the stabilized or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors are placed under slight tension, in an oxygen-free atmosphere, and carbonized using a plasma and electromagnetic radiation having a power input which is increased as the fibers become more carbonized and progress towards a final carbon or graphite product. In an additional step, the final carbon or graphite product may be surface treated with an oxygen-plasma treatment to enhance adhesion to matrix materials.

Paulauskas, Felix L. (Knoxville, TN); Yarborough, Kenneth D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Activated carbon to the rescue  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article describes the response to pipeline spill of ethylene dichloride (EDC) on the property of an oil company. Activated carbon cleanup proceedure was used. During delivery, changeout, transport, storage, thermal reactivation, and return delivery to the site, the carbon never came into direct contact with operating personnel or the atmosphere. More than 10,000 tones of dredge soil and 50 million gallons of surface water were processed during the emergency response.

Sen, S. [Calgon Carbon Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Storage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks for Clean Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and carbon dioxide. Introduction Carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels 20 metric tons of carbon dioxide per capita are released annually into the atmosphere.1a,b CarbonStorage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks

Yaghi, Omar M.

345

Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

Jeffrey Long

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

346

Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

Jeffrey Long

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol. 3 figs.

Steinberg, M.; Grohse, E.W.

1995-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

348

Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol.

Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY); Grohse, Edward W. (Port Jefferson, NY)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Carbon nanotube coatings as chemical absorbers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Airborne or aqueous organic compound collection using carbon nanotubes. Exposure of carbon nanotube-coated disks to controlled atmospheres of chemical warefare (CW)-related compounds provide superior extraction and retention efficiencies compared to commercially available airborne organic compound collectors. For example, the carbon nanotube-coated collectors were four (4) times more efficient toward concentrating dimethylmethyl-phosphonate (DMMP), a CW surrogate, than Carboxen, the optimized carbonized polymer for CW-related vapor collections. In addition to DMMP, the carbon nanotube-coated material possesses high collection efficiencies for the CW-related compounds diisopropylaminoethanol (DIEA), and diisopropylmethylphosphonate (DIMP).

Tillotson, Thomas M.; Andresen, Brian D.; Alcaraz, Armando

2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

350

Topic T4 Claudia Hildenbrand #274 EDLC electrodes from cellulose-based carbon aerogels: influence of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Topic T4 Claudia Hildenbrand #274 EDLC electrodes from cellulose-based carbon aerogels: influence performance if used as EDLC electrode material. Carbon aerogels were synthesized by crosslinking cellulose atmosphere (1000°C, nitrogen atmosphere). Subsequently, the surface chemistry of the carbon aerogels

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

351

Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http://aerosol.ucsd.edu/courses.html Text: Curry & Webster Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ch1 Composition Ch2 Laws Ch3 Transfers Ch12 Energy Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http

Russell, Lynn

352

5, 60416076, 2005 Atmospheric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

opportunity to examine atmospheric oxidation in a megacity that has more pollution than typical USACPD 5, 6041­6076, 2005 Atmospheric oxidation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area T. R. Shirley et.atmos-chem-phys.org/acpd/5/6041/ SRef-ID: 1680-7375/acpd/2005-5-6041 European Geosciences Union Atmospheric Chemistry

Boyer, Edmond

353

Copyright 2007, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology) A History of Atmospheric CO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Copyright © 2007, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology) A History of Atmospheric CO2 and Its.00, ISBN 978-0-387- 22069-7. Atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2 ]) concentrations have varied considerably through time. Some estimates suggest extraordinarily high concentrations of atmospheric CO2 (~ 4000

Springer, Clint J.

354

Gasification kinetics of six eastern shales in steam and synthesis gas atmospheres  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasification reactivities have been determined for six Eastern shales with conversions described by a model incorporating fast and slow gasification reactions. A simple model, based on Indiana New Albany shale, was developed to describe the fast and slow weight loss as well as the slow sulfur and organic carbon gasification rates. The slow sulfur and organic carbon reactions are described by rate equations that are first order in sulfur and organic carbon and include the steam pressure. Terms in the organic carbon rate expression account for hydrogen and carbon monoxide inhibition of the steam-carbon reaction. The fraction of shale species lost by fast and slow gasification and the rate of slow sulfur gasification are similar (and assumed to be equal) for the six Eastern shales studied. Eastern shale organic carbon reactivities are different and have been described with different kinetic parameters in the slow organic carbon gasification rate equation. The kinetic expressions developed for Eastern shale gasification are valid in steam and steam; synthesis gas mixtures and for residence times of more than 3 minutes. Gasification is described for temperature and pressure ranges of 1144 to 1311 K and 0.20 to 3.55 MPa, respectively.

Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA))

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

A Semi-Empirical Two Step Carbon Corrosion Reaction Model in PEM Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cathode CL of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was exposed to high potentials, 1.0 to 1.4 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), that are typically encountered during start up/shut down operation. While both platinum dissolution and carbon corrosion occurred, the carbon corrosion effects were isolated and modeled. The presented model separates the carbon corrosion process into two reaction steps; (1) oxidation of the carbon surface to carbon-oxygen groups, and (2) further corrosion of the oxidized surface to carbon dioxide/monoxide. To oxidize and corrode the cathode catalyst carbon support, the CL was subjected to an accelerated stress test cycled the potential from 0.6 VRHE to an upper potential limit (UPL) ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 VRHE at varying dwell times. The reaction rate constants and specific capacitances of carbon and platinum were fitted by evaluating the double layer capacitance (Cdl) trends. Carbon surface oxidation increased the Cdl due to increased specific capacitance for carbon surfaces with carbon-oxygen groups, while the second corrosion reaction decreased the Cdl due to loss of the overall carbon surface area. The first oxidation step differed between carbon types, while both reaction rate constants were found to have a dependency on UPL, temperature, and gas relative humidity.

Young, Alan; Colbow, Vesna; Harvey, David; Rogers, Erin; Wessel, Silvia

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Mathematical Analysis of High-Temperature Co-electrolysis of CO2 and O2 Production in a Closed-Loop Atmosphere Revitalization System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NASA has been evaluating two closed-loop atmosphere revitalization architectures based on Sabatier and Bosch carbon dioxide, CO2, reduction technologies. The CO2 and steam, H2O, co-electrolysis process is another option that NASA has investigated. Utilizing recent advances in the fuel cell technology sector, the Idaho National Laboratory, INL, has developed a CO2 and H2O co-electrolysis process to produce oxygen and syngas (carbon monoxide, CO and hydrogen, H2 mixture) for terrestrial (energy production) application. The technology is a combined process that involves steam electrolysis, CO2 electrolysis, and the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. A number of process models have been developed and analyzed to determine the theoretical power required to recover oxygen, O2, in each case. These models include the current Sabatier and Bosch technologies and combinations of those processes with high-temperature co-electrolysis. The cases of constant CO2 supply and constant O2 production were evaluated. In addition, a process model of the hydrogenation process with co-electrolysis was developed and compared. Sabatier processes require the least amount of energy input per kg of oxygen produced. If co-electrolysis replaces solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) electrolysis within the Sabatier architecture, the power requirement is reduced by over 10%, but only if heat recuperation is used. Sabatier processes, however, require external water to achieve the lower power results. Under conditions of constant incoming carbon dioxide flow, the Sabatier architectures require more power than the other architectures. The Bosch, Boudouard with co-electrolysis, and the hydrogenation with co-electrolysis processes require little or no external water. The Bosch and hydrogenation processes produce water within their reactors, which aids in reducing the power requirement for electrolysis. The Boudouard with co-electrolysis process has a higher electrolysis power requirement because carbon dioxide is split instead of water, which has a lower heat of formation. Hydrogenation with co-electrolysis offers the best overall power performance for two reasons: it requires no external water, and it produces its own water, which reduces the power requirement for co-electrolysis.

Michael G. McKellar; Manohar S. Sohal; Lila Mulloth; Bernadette Luna; Morgan B. Abney

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Thermodesorption studies of catalytic systems. 16. The carbon monoxide-water vapor conversion on copper-containing catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermodesorption studies have shown the presence of several types of centers: centers for the firm irreversible adsorption of CO, centers for the adsorption of H/sub 2/O, centers for the competitive adsorption of CO and H/sub 2/O, and centers for the CO-H/sub 2/O conversion, on the surface of the skeletal copper catalyst. It is suggested that CO adsorbs in bridged form on the competitive adsorption centers, and in linear form on the reaction centers. The conversion reaction involves CO and H/sub 2/O molecules adsorbed on a small fraction (approx. 1%) of centers, the H/sub 2/O molecules in question being in the associative adsorbed form.

Gel'man, V.N.; Varlamova, A.M.; Sobolevskii, V.S.; Golosman, E.Z.; Yakerson, V.I.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

An infrared spectroscopy study of carbon monoxide adsorption on. alpha. -chromia surfaces: Probing oxidation states of coordinatively unsaturated surface cations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CO adsorption on thermoevacuated, H{sub 2}-reduced and O{sub 2}-treated {alpha}-chromia surfaces was studied by IR spectroscopy in the temperature range 77-298 K. Coordinatively unsaturated (cus) Cr{sup 3+} cation sites, probably in 3-coordinate and to a much lesser extent 5-coordinate states, are the adsorption sites on H{sub 2}-reduced {alpha}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The surface containing excess oxygen also exposes cus Cr{sup 4+} and Cr{sup 5+} sites. An empirical procedure is described which permits the determination of oxidation state and coordination number of the cus surface sites. This procedure is based on a correlation between C-O stretching frequency and electric field strength exerted by the cation. The latter is calculated from Pauling's strength of the electrostatic bond and effective ionic radii, both of which take the cation coordination into account.

Zaki, M.I.; Knoezinger, H. (Universitaet Muenchen (West Germany))

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over Ir/SiO/sub 2/. An in situ infrared and kinetic study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation of CO on a highly dispersed Ir/SiO/sub 2/ catalyst has been studied both in a Pyrex microreactor and by using an in situ infrared cell-reactor. Multiple steady states obtained under conditions of increasing and decreasing CO partial pressure were observed to lead to reaction rate hysteresis. The area under the hysteresis loop is strongly dependent on reaction temperature. This is explained by invoking competitive adsorption between CO and O/sub 2/ as a function of temperature. Self-sustained oscillations were obtained when certain conditions of partial pressure and temperature were met. Quantitative estimates of fluctuations in surface coverage and temperature during these oscillations were 10% and 3K, respectively. CO islands of reactivity were not observed under the conditions of this study. The presence of higher oxidation states of IR could not be unequivocally determined by using infrared spectroscopy. 29 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.

Saymeh, R.A.; Gonzalez, R.D.

1986-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

360

Spectroscopic study of a Cu/CeO{sub 2} catalyst subjected to redox treatments in carbon monoxide and oxygen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Redox processes induced by interaction of a calcined Cu/CeO{sub 2} catalyst with CO and reoxidation with O{sub 2} have been investigated by CO-TPR, EPR, FTIR of adsorbed CO, and XPS. The initial calcined samples shows the presence of dispersed Cu{sup 2+} species, which give rise in the EPR spectrum to signals due to isolated entities, a somewhat more aggregated Cu{sup 2+}-containing phase, and copper ionic pairs, in coexistence with an EPR-silent CuO-type phase, revealed by XPS. A significant reduction of copper is produced already by contact with CO at room temperature, EPR results suggesting that reducibility of Cu{sup 2+} species decreases with their aggregation degree. Simultaneously, the ceria surface is also reduced by this interaction, copper acting as a strong promoter of this process. A singular consequence of the synergistic reduction of both components is observed by subjecting the catalyst to CO at T{sub r} {ge} 473 K, at which the CO adsorption capability of copper is apparently suppressed, in view of the absence of copper carbonyls in the FTIR spectrum. This is attributed to the establishment of electronic interactions between reduced ceria and small metallic copper particles generated by the reduction process. Contact of the CO-reduced sample with O{sub 2} at room or higher temperature produces an important reoxidation of both copper and ceria, revealed by FTIR and EPR. The synergetic effects between copper and ceria in the reduction process and the easy reoxidation of deeply reduced ceria are thought to be crucial to explaining the high catalytic activity shown by this system for CO oxidation.

Martinez-Arias, A.; Fernandez-Garcia, M.; Soria, J.; Conesa, J.C. [CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica] [CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica

1999-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Effect of Organic Capping Layers over Monodisperse Platinum Nanoparticles upon Activity for Ethylene Hydrogenation and Carbon Monoxide Oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The influence of oleylamine (OA), trimethyl tetradecyl ammonium bromide (TTAB), and polyvinlypyrrolidone (PVP) capping agents upon the catalytic properties of Pt/silica catalysts was evaluated. Pt nanoparticles that were 1.5 nm in size were synthesized by the same procedure (ethylene glycol reduction under basic conditions) with the various capping agents added afterward for stabilization. Before examining catalytic properties for ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation, the Pt NPs were deposited onto mesoporous silica (SBA-15) supports and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), H{sub 2} chemisorption, and elemental analysis (ICP-MS). PVP- and TTAB-capped Pt yielded mass-normalized reaction rates that decreased with increasing pretreatment temperature, and this trend was attributed to the partial coverage of the Pt surface with decomposition products from the organic capping agent. Once normalized to the Pt surface area, similar intrinsic activities were obtained regardless of the pretreatment temperature, which indicated no influence on the nature of the active sites. Consequently, a chemical probe technique using intrinsic activity for ethylene hydrogenation was demonstrated as an acceptable method for estimating the metallic surface areas of Pt. Amine (OA) capping exhibited a detrimental influence on the catalytic properties as severe deactivation and low activity were observed for ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation, respectively. These results were consistent with amine groups being strong poisons for Pt surfaces, and revealed the need to consider the effects of capping agents on the catalytic properties.

Kuhn, John N.; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

362

REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE BY CARBON MONOXIDE OVER A SILICA SUPPORTED PLATINUM CATALYST: INFRARED AND KINETIC STUDIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

These parts were electroless nickel plated to remove surfaceere cleaned and electroless nickel plated to help smooth any

Lorimer, D.H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Multi-phase Multi-dimensional Analysis of PEM Fuel Cells with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Oxygen Bleeding.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are promising alternative green power source for mobile, portable and stationary applications. However, their cost, durability, and performance are… (more)

Li, Yaqun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Seasonal variation of carbon monoxide in northern Japan: Fourier transform IR measurements and source-labeled model calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

doi:10.1029/2002JD003093. Stricker, N. C. M. , A. Hahne, D.satellite measurements [ Stricker et al . , 1995] are shown

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Seasonal variation of carbon monoxide in northern Japan: Fourier transform IR measurements and source-labeled model calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions, fossil and bio- fuel burning and biomass burningof contributions from fossil and bio- fuel burning (FF) and

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

GALLIUM NITRIDE INTEGRATED GAS/TEMPERATURE SENSORS FOR FUEL CELL SYSTEM MONITORING FOR HYDROGEN AND CARBON MONOXIDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on field effect devices using catalytic metal gates on silicon carbide substrates has been reviewed (Spetz-10%) of transition metals such as copper, silver, and chromium (Feinstein et al 1997 and Pyke 1993). High temperature. Introduction Gas sensing and analysis based on gas adsorption on a catalytic metal surface has been extensively

367

GLOBAL CHANGE ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL PAPER Atmospheric change alters foliar quality of host trees  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract This study examined the independent and interactive effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2 on aspen than birch. Interestingly, elevated CO2 largely offset decreased herbivore performance under of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3) (IPCC 2007). Concentrations of carbon dioxide

368

Introduction The Atmospheric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

it is hoped that this species can be retrieved from ACE. Carbon tetrachloride Since the discovery of the ozone has had an impact. The first near global distribution of carbon tetrachloride [1] was obtained from ACE occultation measurements (see below). Low altitude carbon tetrachloride VMRs (volume mixing ratios

369

Method for making carbon super capacitor electrode materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for making near-net-shape, monolithic carbon electrodes for energy storage devices. The method includes the controlled pyrolysis and activation of a pressed shape of methyl cellulose powder with pyrolysis being carried out in two stages; pre-oxidation, preferably in air at a temperature between 200.degree.-250.degree. C., followed by carbonization under an inert atmosphere. An activation step to adjust the surface area of the carbon shape to a value desirable for the application being considered, including heating the carbon shape in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 300.degree. C., follows carbonization.

Firsich, David W. (Dayton, OH); Ingersoll, David (Albuquerque, NM); Delnick, Frank M. (Dexter, MI)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Method for making carbon super capacitor electrode materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for making near-net-shape, monolithic carbon electrodes for energy storage devices. The method includes the controlled pyrolysis and activation of a pressed shape of methyl cellulose powder with pyrolysis being carried out in two stages; pre-oxidation, preferably in air at a temperature between 200--250 C, followed by carbonization under an inert atmosphere. An activation step to adjust the surface area of the carbon shape to a value desirable for the application being considered, including heating the carbon shape in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 300 C, follows carbonization. 1 fig.

Firsich, D.W.; Ingersoll, D.; Delnick, F.M.

1998-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

371

Carbon Cycle 2.0: Nitash Balsara: Energy Storage  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

Nitash Balsara

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Carbon Cycle 2.0: Jay Keasling: Biofuels  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

Jay Keasling

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Carbon Cycle 2.0: Robert Cheng and Juan Meza  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

Robert Cheng and Juan Meza

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

AtmosphericAtmospheric Composition Introduction The division investigates the atmospheric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

development on observation side was the installation of an ozone observation station in Surinam in close co-operation with the Surinam Meteorological Service. Processes in the tropical regions are important for the global climate and the global atmospheric composition. The participation in Indoex (Indian Ocean Experiment) and this Surinam

Haak, Hein

375

Carbon dioxide and climate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

Not Available

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Starting with an historical review, I summarize the status of calculations of the flux of atmospheric neutrinos and how they compare to measurements.

Thomas K. Gaisser

2005-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

377

E-Print Network 3.0 - annual carbon balance Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

rate in Virginia (metric tons... ;8 Table 6. Estimate the gross value of your carbon offset Year Rate1 Acres Annual tonnage Estimated annual... in our atmosphere are...

378

Regional characterization of a carbon sequestration pilot site with implications for enhanced oil recovery.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Since the occurrence of the Industrial Revolution, the burning of fossil fuels has steadily increased global atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. Today with the increasing demand… (more)

Carpenter, William O.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Gas-phase energies of actinide oxides -- an assessment of neutral and cationic monoxides and dioxides from thorium to curium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An assessment of the gas-phase energetics of neutral and singly and doubly charged cationic actinide monoxides and dioxides of thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium is presented. A consistent set of metal-oxygen bond dissociation enthalpies, ionization energies, and enthalpies of formation, including new or revised values, is proposed, mainly based on recent experimental data and on correlations with the electronic energetics of the atoms or cations and with condensed-phase thermochemistry.

Marcalo, Joaquim; Gibson, John K.

2009-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

380

Old-field Community, Climate and Atmospheric Manipulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We are in the process of finishing a number of laboratory, growth chamber and greenhouse projects, analyzing data, and writing papers. The projects reported addressed these subjects: How do climate and atmospheric changes alter aboveground plant biomass and community structure; Effects of multiple climate changes factors on plant community composition and diversity: what did we learn from a 5-year open-top chamber experiment using constructed old-field communities; Do atmospheric and climatic change factors interact to alter woody seedling emergence, establishment and productivity; Soil moisture surpasses elevated CO{sub 2} and temperature in importance as a control on soil carbon dynamics; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter belowground root and fungal biomass; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter soil microarthropod and microbial communities; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter belowground microbial function; Linking root litter diversity and microbial functioning at a micro scale under current and projected CO{sub 2} concentrations; Multifactor climate change effects on soil ecosystem functioning depend on concurrent changes in plant community composition; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter aboveground insect populations; How do climate and atmospheric changes alter festuca endophyte infection; How do climate and atmospheric changes soil carbon stabilization.

Aimee Classen

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Summary Much attention is focused today on predicting how plants will respond to anticipated changes in atmospheric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, such as methane, became oxidized to form an early CO2-rich atmosphere. Over time, the concentration of carbon the atmosphere. Burial and lithification of carbonates and organic matter to limestone, coal or keragen the detailed history of CO2 is not well known for the whole of earth's history, some periods are reasonably

Ehleringer, Jim

382

The response of soil CO2 ux to changes in atmospheric CO2, nitrogen supply and plant diversity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

three major anthropogenic global changes: atmos- pheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, nitrogen (N atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentra- tions, increasing rates of nitrogen (N) deposition, and decliningThe response of soil CO2 ¯ux to changes in atmospheric CO2, nitrogen supply and plant diversity J O

Minnesota, University of

383

anagin Forests because Carbon Matters: In grating Energy, Products, and Land  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the atmosphere. The value of carbon credits generated by forest carbon offset projects differs dramatically and relatively high transaction costs needed for forest carbon offsets warrant consideration of other policiesanagin Forests because Carbon Matters: In grating Energy, Products, and Land Management Policy

Fried, Jeremy S.

384

Carbon Cycle 2.0: Ashok Gadgil: global impact  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Ashok Gadgil speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Ashok Gadgi

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Energy Demand in China (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Lynn Price, LBNL scientist, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Price, Lynn

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

386

Biofuels Science and Facilities (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Jay D. Keasling speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Keasling, Jay D

2011-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

387

Atmospheric Thermodynamics Composition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ch1 Composition Ch2 Laws Ch3 Transfers Ch12 EnergyBalance Ch4 Water Ch Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http #12;2 Review from Ch. 1 · Thermodynamic quantities · Composition · Pressure · Density · Temperature

Russell, Lynn

388

Atmospheric Dynamics II Instructor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AT602 Atmospheric Dynamics II 2 credits Instructor: David W. J. Thompson davet: An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, 5th Edition, Academic Press (recommended) · Marshall, J., and Plumb, R. A., 2008: Atmosphere, Ocean, and Climate Dynamics: An Introductory Text, Academic Press. · Vallis, G. K

389

Capturing carbon | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation Sites Proposed Route BTRICGEGR-N-Capture of Carbon Dioxide

390

Carbon Capture FAQs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation Sites Proposed Route BTRICGEGR-N-Capture of CarbonLangmuircarbon

391

Global Impacts (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Ashok Gadgil, Faculty Senior Scientist and Acting Director, EETD, also Professor of Environmental Engineering, UC Berkeley, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Gadgil, Ashok [EETD and UC Berkeley

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

392

Search for the electric dipole moment of the electron with thorium monoxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM) is a signature of CP-violating physics beyond the Standard Model. We describe an ongoing experiment to measure or set improved limits to the eEDM, using a cold beam of thorium monoxide (ThO) molecules. The metastable $H {}^3\\Delta_1$ state in ThO has important advantages for such an experiment. We argue that the statistical uncertainty of an eEDM measurement could be improved by as much as 3 orders of magnitude compared to the current experimental limit, in a first-generation apparatus using a cold ThO beam. We describe our measurements of the $H$ state lifetime and the production of ThO molecules in a beam, which provide crucial data for the eEDM sensitivity estimate. ThO also has ideal properties for the rejection of a number of known systematic errors; these properties and their implications are described.

Amar C. Vutha; Wesley C. Campbell; Yulia V. Gurevich; Nicholas R. Hutzler; Maxwell Parsons; David Patterson; Elizabeth Petrik; Benjamin Spaun; John M. Doyle; Gerald Gabrielse; David DeMille

2010-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

393

Degradation of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}} in carbon dioxide and water atmospheres  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mixed ionic-electronic conductor La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}} (LSCF) is a candidate for use as the membrane material in the pressure-driven air separator. However the long-term stability of these materials is a major concern for the commercial realization of these devices. In an attempt to assess the stability of the material under realistic operating conditions for such a system, samples of LSCF were exposed to atmospheres of H{sub 2}O/CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} at 750 C. Degradation of the material was studied using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Oxygen isotope exchange combined with secondary ion mass spectrometry was used to observe the effect of the presence of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O on the oxygen diffusivity and surface exchange. It was observed that oxygen surface exchange was actually enhanced in the presence of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, during the duration of the study, although the oxygen diffusivity remained the same. The presence of volatile chromia species was found to significantly increase the rate of degradation of the ceramic.

Benson, S.J.; Waller, D.; Kilner, J.A. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials] [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Carbon Nanotubes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Carbon nanotubes have extraordinary mechanical, electrical, thermal andoptical properties. They are harder than diamond yet exible, have betterelectrical conductor than copper, but can also… (more)

Fredriksson, Tore

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Fixation of atmospheric CO[sub 2] by a series of hydroxo complexes of divalent metal ions and the implication for the catalytic role of metal ion in carbonic anhydrase. Synthesis, characterization, and molecular structure of [LM(OH)][sub n] (n = 1 or 2) and LM([mu]-CO[sub 3])ML (M(II) = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn; L = HB(3,5-iPr[sub 2]pz)[sub 3])  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

By using the hindered tris(pyrazoly)borate ligand HB(3,5-iPr[sub 2]pz)[sub 3], (hydrotris(3,5-diisopropyl-1-pyrazolyl)-borate), a series of hydroxo complexes of first-row divalent metal ions (Mn (1), Fe (2), Co (3), Ni (4), Cu (5), Zn (6)) was synthesized. X-ray crystallography was applied to 1-5, establishing that all these hydroxo complexes have a dinuclear structure solely bridged with a bis(hydroxo) unit. The structure of 6 was characterized by spectroscopy, which indicates that 6 is monomeric. All these hydroxo complexes were found to react with CO[sub 2], even atmospheric CO[sub 2], to afford [mu]-carbonato dinuclear complexes of Mn (7), Fe (8), Co (9), Ni (10), Cu (11), and Zn (12). The molecular structures of the complexes 8-12 were determined. A variety of coordination modes of the carbonate group was seen. In 10 and 11, the carbonate group is bound to both metal centers bidentately in a symmetric fashion, while in 8 and 9, the carbonate coordination modes are described as an unsymmetric bidentate. The carbonate group in 12 is coordinated to one zinc ion bidentately, but it is bound to the other zinc ion unidentately. From IR data, the coordination mode of the carbonate group in 7 was suggested to be similar to those found in 8 and 9. Thus, the order of the coordination distortions of the carbonate groups in this series of [mu]-carbonato dinuclear complexes is determined. 40 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Kitajima, Nobumasa; Hikichi, Shiro; Tanaka, Masako; Moro-oka, Yoshihiko (Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Yokohama (Japan))

1993-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

396

Carbon dioxide adsorption and methanation on ruthenium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The adsorption and methanation of carbon dioxide on a ruthenium-silica catalyst were studied using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and temperature-programmed reaction (TPR). Carbon dioxide adsorption was found to be activated; CO/sub 2/ adsorption increased significantly as the temperature increased from 298 to 435 K. During adsorption, some of the CO/sub 2/ dissociated to carbon monoxide and oxygen; upon hydrogen exposure at room temperature, the oxygen reacted to water. Methanation of adsorbed CO and of adsorbed CO/sub 2/, using TPR in flowing hydrogen, yielded a CH/sub 4/ peak with a peak temperature of 459 K for both adsorbates, indicating that both reactions follow the same mechanism after adsorption. This peak temperature did not change with initial surface coverage of CO, indicating that methanation is first order in CO coverage. The desorption and reaction spectra for Ru/SiO/sub 2/ were similar to those previously obtained for Ni/SiO/sub 2/, but both CO/sub 2/ formation and CH/sub 4/ formation proceeded faster on Ru. Also, the details of CO desorption and the changes in CO/sub 2/ and CO desorptions with initial coverage were different on the two metals. 5 figures, 3 tables.

Zagli, E.; Falconer, J.L.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Atmospheric Pollution Research 1 (2010) 220228 Atmospheric Pollution Research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric Pollution Research 1 (2010) 220228 Atmospheric Pollution Research www in modeling of the associated multiphase processes. Iron redox species are important pollutants. The oxidative capacity of the atmospheric cloud water decreases when dissolution is included

Boyer, Edmond

398

Enhancement of CO2/N2 selectivity in a metal-organic framework by cavity modification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

electricity is a major source of CO2 in the atmosphere, but the capture and sequestration of CO2 from flue gas two-thirds), CO2, water vapor, oxygen, and minor components such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides

399

Simple ocean carbon cycle models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simple ocean carbon cycle models can be used to calculate the rate at which the oceans are likely to absorb CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. For problems involving steady-state ocean circulation, well calibrated ocean models produce results that are very similar to results obtained using general circulation models. Hence, simple ocean carbon cycle models may be appropriate for use in studies in which the time or expense of running large scale general circulation models would be prohibitive. Simple ocean models have the advantage of being based on a small number of explicit assumptions. The simplicity of these ocean models facilitates the understanding of model results.

Caldeira, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hoffert, M.I. [New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Earth System Sciences; Siegenthaler, U. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Total Organic Carbon Analyzer | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Total Organic Carbon Analyzer Total Organic Carbon Analyzer The carbon analyzer is used to analyze total carbon (TC), inorganic carbon (IC), total organic carbon (TOC), purgeable...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Atmospheric optical calibration system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

1988-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

402

Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere Volume 35, Summer 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and Glen Liston. 1 CIRA Director 2 Researcher Spotlight 4 Solar Irradiance Forecasting 6 CIRA Founder. of Atmospheric Science with the Carbon Tracker activity led by Pieter Tans at NOAA. Linking the academic research

Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

403

Mechanisms for mechanical trapping of geologically sequestered carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) sequestration in subsurface reservoirs is important for limiting atmospheric CO[subscript 2] concentrations. However, a complete physical picture able to predict the structure developing ...

Cohen, Yossi

404

A Call to Action: Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Berkeley Lab Director Paul Alivisatos speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 1, 2010. Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences.Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Alivisatos, Paul

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

405

A Future with (out) Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Bill Collins, Head of LBNL's Climate Sciences Department, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 1, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Collins, Bill

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

406

Carbon Fiber  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

McGetrick, Lee

2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

407

Carbon Fiber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

McGetrick, Lee

2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

408

Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon Sequestration- the process of capturing the CO2 released by the burning of fossil fuels and storing it deep withing the Earth, trapped by a non-porous layer of rock.

None

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

409

Growth direction of oblique angle electron beam deposited silicon monoxide thin films identified by optical second-harmonic generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oblique angle deposited (OAD) silicon monoxide (SiO) thin films forming tilted columnar structures have been characterized by second-harmonic generation. It was found that OAD SiO leads to a rotationally anisotropic second-harmonic response, depending on the optical angle of incidence. A model for the observed dependence of the second-harmonic signal on optical angle of incidence allows extraction of the growth direction of OAD films. The optically determined growth directions show convincing agreement with cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy images. In addition to a powerful characterization tool, these results demonstrate the possibilities for designing nonlinear optical devices through SiO OAD.

Vejling Andersen, Søren; Lund Trolle, Mads; Pedersen, Kjeld [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4A, DK-9220 Aalborg Øst (Denmark)] [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4A, DK-9220 Aalborg Øst (Denmark)

2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

410

Implications of "peak oil" for atmospheric CO2 and climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Peaking of global oil production may have a large effect on future atmospheric CO2 amount and climate change, depending upon choices made for subsequent energy sources. We suggest that, if estimates of oil and gas reserves by the Energy Information Administration are realistic, it is feasible to keep atmospheric CO2 from exceeding approximately 450 ppm, provided that future exploitation of the huge reservoirs of coal and unconventional fossil fuels incorporates carbon capture and sequestration. Existing coal-fired power plants, without sequestration, must be phased out before mid-century to achieve this limit on atmospheric CO2. We also suggest that it is important to "stretch" oil reserves via energy efficiency, thus avoiding the need to extract liquid fuels from coal or unconventional fossil fuels. We argue that a rising price on carbon emissions is probably needed to keep CO2 beneath the 450 ppm ceiling.

Kharecha, P A

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Analysis and optimization of the Graz cycle : a coal fired power generation scheme with near-zero carbon dioxide emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Humans are releasing record amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere through the combustion of fossil fuels in power generation plants. With mounting evidence that this carbon dioxide is a leading cause of global ...

Alexander, Brentan R

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

NATURE |VOL 414 |8 NOVEMBER 2001 |www.nature.com 169 Recent patterns and mechanisms of carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a carbon sink that offset emissions due to tropical deforestation. The evolution of the terrestrial carbon of carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems D. S. Schimel1,21 , J. I. House1 , K. A. Hibbard2 , P. Bousquet ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Knowledge of carbon exchange between the atmosphere, land and the oceans is important, given

Haak, Hein

413

Long-term effects of soil warming on labile carbon availability and microbial community respiration and composition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a positive feedback loop if this carbon were to enter the atmosphere. Much of the carbon that entersLong-term effects of soil warming on labile carbon availability and microbial community respiration of warming on the microbial community and soil organic carbon pool. Soils were incubated at various

Vallino, Joseph J.

414

On carbon footprints and growing energy use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Could fractional reductions in the carbon footprint of a growing organization lead to a corresponding real reduction in atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions in the next ten years? Curtis M. Oldenburg, head of the Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program of LBNL’s Earth Sciences Division, considers his own organization's carbon footprint and answers this critical question? In addressing the problem of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change, it is essential that we understand which activities are producing GHGs and the scale of emission for each activity, so that reduction efforts can be efficiently targeted. The GHG emissions to the atmosphere of an individual or group are referred to as the ‘carbon footprint’. This terminology is entirely appropriate, because 85% of the global marketed energy supply comes from carbon-rich fossil fuel sources whose combustion produces CO{sub 2}, the main GHG causing global climate change. Furthermore, the direct relation between CO2 emissions and fossil fuels as they are used today makes energy consumption a useful proxy for carbon footprint. It would seem to be a simple matter to reduce energy consumption across the board, both individually and collectively, to help reduce our carbon footprints and therefore solve the energyclimate crisis. But just how much can we reduce carbon footprints when broader forces, such as growth in energy use, cause the total footprint to simultaneously expand? In this feature, I present a calculation of the carbon footprint of the Earth Sciences Division (ESD), the division in which I work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and discuss the potential for reducing this carbon footprint. It will be apparent that in terms of potential future carbon footprint reductions under projections of expected growth, ESD may be thought of as a microcosm of the situation of the world as a whole, in which alternatives to the business-as-usual use of fossil fuels are needed if absolute GHG emission reductions are to be achieved.

Oldenburg, C.M.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Research Object and Plan Center for Renewable Carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

9/29/2010 1 Research Object and Plan Center for Renewable Carbon Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries industrial l tirevolution. *Natural factors *Human activities *Industrial pollutions Background Atmospheric Oceanic and Atmospheric administration #12;9/29/2010 2 Background CO2 is essential to photosynthesis

Gray, Matthew

416

Combustion of biomass as a global carbon sink  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This note is intended to highlight the important role of black carbon produced from biomass burning in the global carbon cycle, and encourage further research in this area. Consideration of the fundamental physical chemistry of cellulose thermal decomposition suggests that suppression of biomass burning or biasing burning practices to produce soot-free flames must inevitably transfer more carbon to the atmosphere. A simple order-of-magnitude quantitative analysis indicates that black carbon may be a significant carbon reservoir that persists over geological time scales.

Ball, Rowena

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear" Bert W. Rust Mathematical- tioned the connection between global warming and increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide by pointing out of these plots to global warming have spilled over to the real world, inviting both praise [4, 17] and scorn [15

Rust, Bert W.

418

Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

Magdalena Pelc; Radoslaw Osuch

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

419

Dynamics of Atmospheres  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transfer ­ Solar heating of surface, and atmosphere via dust absorption ­ Infrared CO2 band cooling (especially around 667 cm-1) ­ nonLTE near-infrared heating of CO2 and nonLTE cooling effects above ~60-80 km. Baroclinic waves, scales, heat and momentum transport, seasonal occurrence. Qualitative treatment

Read, Peter L.

420

Dynamics of Planetary Atmospheres  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pressure (bars) N2 82%; Ar 12%; CH4 6%CO2 96.5%; N2 3.5%Atmospheric composition 26177Orbital inclination (1992) orbiter ­ Winds from cloud-tracking and probe drifts ­ IR temperatures, solar-fixed tides, polar-Huygens mission (from 2005) ­ Doppler wind descent profile ­ IR temperature and composition maps ­ Visible, IR

Read, Peter L.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Low Carbon Fuel Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas, or even coal with carbon capture and sequestration. Afuels that facilitate carbon capture and sequestration. Forenergy and could capture and sequester carbon emissions.

Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Carbon supercapacitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon supercapacitors are represented as distributed RC networks with transmission line equivalent circuits. At low charge/discharge rates and low frequencies these networks approximate a simple series R{sub ESR}C circuit. The energy efficiency of the supercapacitor is limited by the voltage drop across the ESR. The pore structure of the carbon electrode defines the electrochemically active surface area which in turn establishes the volume specific capacitance of the carbon material. To date, the highest volume specific capacitance reported for a supercapacitor electrode is 220F/cm{sup 3} in aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (10) and {approximately}60 F/cm{sup 3} in nonaqueous electrolyte (8).

Delnick, F.M.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Calorific and porosity development in carbonized wood  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wood of four species (red oak, southern yellow pine, black cherry, and hybrid poplar) were carbonized in a flowing nitrogen atmosphere at an average heating rate of 3 degrees Centigrade/minute to selected final temperatures up to 700 degrees Centigrade. The effects of final carbonization temperature on selected properties of the char were obtained using an adiabatic oxygen bomb calorimeter to investigate heat of combustion and a mercury porosimeter to investigate total porosity, real density, apparent density, and pore size distribution. Pore characteristics of carbonized wood developed before 300 degrees Centigrade in southern yellow pine and before 400 degrees Centigrade in red oak, black cherry, and hybrid poplar. Statistical analysis established linear relationships between heat of combustion versus final carbonization temperature in the carbonization temperature ranges investigated. The results of this study will aid in understanding optimum pryrolysis conditions for the development of calorific and porosity values. (Refs. 22).

Baileys, R.T.; Blankenhorn, P.R.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Carbon microtubes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A carbon microtube comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the microtube has a diameter of from about 10 .mu.m to about 150 .mu.m, and a density of less than 20 mg/cm.sup.3. Also described is a carbon microtube, having a diameter of at least 10 .mu.m and comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the porous wall comprises a plurality of voids, said voids substantially parallel to the length of the microtube, and defined by an inner surface, an outer surface, and a shared surface separating two adjacent voids.

Peng, Huisheng (Shanghai, CN); Zhu, Yuntian Theodore (Cary, NC); Peterson, Dean E. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

425

Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 62, pp. 887 to 902, 2006 Ocean carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, anthropogenic carbon, sequestration, numerical model, biogeochemistry. * E-mail address: katsumi@umn.edu Copyright©The Oceanographic Society of Japan/TERRAPUB/Springer Model Simulations of Carbon Sequestration from the atmosphere into the oceans. The chain of events amounts to carbon sequestration, because

Matsumoto, Katsumi

426

Fuel moisture influences on fire-altered carbon in masticated fuels: An experimental study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

] Biomass burning is a significant contributor to atmospheric carbon emissions but may also provide mastication (mechanical forest thinning) and fire convert biomass to black carbon is essential moisture and its role in dictating both the quantity and quality of the carbon produced in masticated fuel

427

Chronic water stress reduces tree growth and the carbon sink of deciduous hardwood forests  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

have the potential to offset gains in carbon (C) uptake from phenology trends, rising atmospheric CO2Chronic water stress reduces tree growth and the carbon sink of deciduous hardwood forests E D W Institute of Technology, IMK-IFU, Garmisch-Partenkirchen 82467, Germany, 4 USDA Forest Service ­ SilvaCarbon

Phillips, Richard P.

428

The role of carbon in climate change: a lifecyclethinking approach to a complex issue  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;Exchange pool: · The primary source of carbon to the atmosphere is outgassing from the Earth's interior carbonate rock forma>on (largely biogenic) The Carbon Cycle 6 UNESCO Chair in Life Cycle Chair in Life Cycle and Climate Change Climate records #12;Source: J.R. Petit, J. Jouzel. et. al

429

Impact of climate change on the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea pelagic planktonic ecosystem and associated carbon cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the microbial loop intensifies as the small-sized plankton biomass increases. Carbon net fixation and deep and associated carbon cycle M. Herrmann, C. Estournel, F. Diaz, F. Adloff ; LEGOS, LA, MIO, CNRM The northwestern and associated carbon cycle to the long-term evolution of oceanic and atmospheric circulations. For that we

430

Carbon Cycle 2.0: Ramamoorthy Ramesh: Low-cost Solar  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

Ramamoorthy Ramesh:

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Carbon Cycle 2.0: Don DePaolo: Geo and Bio Sequestration  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

Don DePaolo:

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Carbon sequestration in leaky reservoirs Alain Jean-Marie, INRIA and UMR LIRMM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon sequestration in leaky reservoirs Alain Jean-Marie, INRIA and UMR LIRMM Michel Moreaux, February 2, 2011 Abstract We propose in this paper a model of optimal Carbon Capture and Storage in which the reservoir of sequestered carbon is leaky, and pollution eventually is released into the atmosphere. We

Boyer, Edmond

433

Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide by Jérémy, which releases nearly six billion tons of carbon per year into the atmosphere. These fuels will continue development. Since power plants are the largest point sources of CO2 emissions, capturing the carbon dioxide

434

CARBON SEQUESTRATION VIA DIRECT INJECTION Howard J. Herzog, Ken Caldeira, and Eric Adams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CARBON SEQUESTRATION VIA DIRECT INJECTION Howard J. Herzog, Ken Caldeira, and Eric Adams and sequestration. Carbon sequestration is often associated with the planting of trees. As they mature, the trees INTRODUCTION The build-up of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere has

435

Pre-site Characterization Risk Analysis for Commercial-Scale Carbon Sequestration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pre-site Characterization Risk Analysis for Commercial-Scale Carbon Sequestration Zhenxue Dai a probability framework to evaluate subsurface risks associated with commercial-scale carbon sequestration to the atmosphere.1-3 The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP) is one of seven partnerships tasked

Lu, Zhiming

436

Carbon Cycle 2.0: Don DePaolo: Geo and Bio Sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

Don DePaolo:

2010-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

437

Predicting the net carbon exchanges of crop rotations in Europe with an agro-ecosystem model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Predicting the net carbon exchanges of crop rotations in Europe with an agro-ecosystem model S.Lehuger@art.admin.ch. Fax: (+41) 44 377 72 01. Phone: (+41) 44 377 75 13. hal-00414342,version2-1Sep2010 #12;Abstract Carbon and measuring land-atmosphere carbon exchanges from arable lands are important tasks to predict the influence

Boyer, Edmond

438

Differential atmospheric tritium sampler  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The moisture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H/sub 2/ or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

Griesbach, O.A.; Stencel, J.R.

1987-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

439

Differential atmospheric tritium sampler  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The mixture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H.sub.2 or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

Griesbach, Otto A. (Langhorne, PA); Stencel, Joseph R. (Skillman, NJ)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Carbon Storage Program  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Sequestration Partnership MSU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Montana State University MVA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monitoring,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Carbon project-atmosphere "BL meteorology along route  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the ocean surface #12;Goal: - A better quantification of the global air-sea exchange of CO2 - A better of surface wind heteogenity #12;The input side of the CO2 cycle Wind turbines and energy production Energy production from windturbines does cover 20% of the the total energy production in Denmark Energy from a wind

442

The changing atmosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemistry of the atmosphere is changing, in large measure because of gases emitted by such human activities as farming, manufacturing, and the combustion of fossil fuels. The deleterious effects are increasingly evident; they may well become worse in the years ahead. This paper discusses the pollutants and the environmental perturbations with which they are associated. The authors believe the solution to the earth's environmental problems lies in a truly global effort.

Graedel, T.E.; Crutzen, P.J.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

ChEAS Data: The Chequamegon Ecosystem Atmosphere Study  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The Chequamegon Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (ChEAS) is a multi-organizational research effort studying biosphere/atmosphere interactions within a northern mixed forest in Northern Wisconsin. A primary goal is to understand the processes controlling forest-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide and the response of these processes to climate change. Another primary goal is to bridge the gap between canopy-scale flux measurements and the global CO2 flask sampling network. The ChEAS flux towers participate in AmeriFlux, and the region is an EOS-validation site. The WLEF tower is a NOAA-CMDL CO2 sampling site. ChEAS sites are primarily located within or near the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest in northern Wisconsin, with one site in the Ottawa National Forest in the upper peninsula of Michigan. Current studies observe forest/atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide at canopy and regional scales, forest floor respiration, photosynthesis and transpiration at the leaf level and use models to scale to canopy and regional levels. EOS-validation studies quantitatively assess the land cover of the area using remote sensing and conduct extensive ground truthing of new remote sensing data (i.e. ASTER and MODIS). Atmospheric remote sensing work is aimed at understanding atmospheric boundary layer dynamics, the role of entrainment in regulating the carbon dioxide mixing ratio profiles through the lower troposphere, and feedback between boundary layer dynamics and vegetation (especially via the hydrologic cycle). Airborne studies have included include balloon, kite and aircraft observations of the CO2 profile in the troposphere.

Davis, Kenneth J.(Penn State)

444

Environmental Chemistry II (Atmospheric Chemistry)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Seinfeld, J. H. and Pandis, S. N. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate ChangeSYLLABUS FOR Environmental Chemistry II (Atmospheric Chemistry) FCH 511 Fall 2013 Theodore S

Dibble, Theodore

445

Pluto's Atmosphere Does Not Collapse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combining stellar occultation observations probing Pluto's atmosphere from 1988 to 2013 and models of energy balance between Pluto's surface and atmosphere, we conclude that Pluto's atmosphere does not collapse at any point in its 248-year orbit. The occultation results show an increasing atmospheric pressure with time in the current epoch, a trend present only in models with a high thermal inertia and a permanent N2 ice cap at Pluto's north rotational pole.

Olkin, C B; Borncamp, D; Pickles, A; Sicardy, B; Assafin, M; Bianco, F B; Buie, M W; de Oliveira, A Dias; Gillon, M; French, R G; Gomes, A Ramos; Jehin, E; Morales, N; Opitom, C; Ortiz, J L; Maury, A; Norbury, M; Ribas, F B; Smith, R; Wasserman, L H; Young, E F; Zacharias, M; Zacharias, N

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Carbon Additionality: Discussion Paper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ahead, and identifying the carbon pools and other green house gas emissions sources and savings coveredCarbon Additionality: A review Discussion Paper Gregory Valatin November 2009 Forest Research. Voluntary Carbon Standards American Carbon Registry Forest Carbon Project Standard (ACRFCPS) 27 Carbon

447

Carbon dioxide sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dramatic increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide since the Industrial Revolution has caused concerns about global warming. Fossil-fuel-fired power plants contribute approximately one third of the total human-caused emissions of carbon dioxide. Increased efficiency of these power plants will have a large impact on carbon dioxide emissions, but additional measures will be needed to slow or stop the projected increase in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. By accelerating the naturally occurring carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals it is possible to sequester carbon dioxide in the geologically stable mineral magnesite (MgCO3). The carbonation of two classes of magnesium silicate minerals, olivine (Mg2SiO4) and serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4), was investigated in an aqueous process. The slow natural geologic process that converts both of these minerals to magnesite can be accelerated by increasing the surface area, increasing the activity of carbon dioxide in the solution, introducing imperfections into the crystal lattice by high-energy attrition grinding, and in the case of serpentine, by thermally activating the mineral by removing the chemically bound water. The effect of temperature is complex because it affects both the solubility of carbon dioxide and the rate of mineral dissolution in opposing fashions. Thus an optimum temperature for carbonation of olivine is approximately 185 degrees C and 155 degrees C for serpentine. This paper will elucidate the interaction of these variables and use kinetic studies to propose a process for the sequestration of the carbon dioxide.

Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.; O'Connor, William K.; Penner, Larry R.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

E-Print Network 3.0 - acetylene isotopomers calculated Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mechanistical studies on the formation of carbon dioxide in extraterrestrial carbon monoxide ice analog samples Summary: 901220f Binary ice mixtures of two carbon monoxide...

449

Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower carbon dioxide emissions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing liquid fuels includes the steps of gasifying a starting material selected from a group consisting of coal, biomass, carbon nanotubes and mixtures thereof to produce a syngas, subjecting that syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a hyrdrocarbon product stream, separating that hydrocarbon product stream into C1-C4 hydrocarbons and C5+ hydrocarbons to be used as liquid fuels and subjecting the C1-C4 hydrocarbons to catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen produced by CDH is recycled to be mixed with the syngas incident to the FTS reactor in order to raise the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the syngas to values of 2 or higher, which is required to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This is accomplished with little or no production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The carbon is captured in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), while huge emissions of carbon dioxide are avoided and very large quantities of water employed for the water-gas shift in traditional FTS systems are saved.

Huffman, Gerald P

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

450

Gasification behavior of carbon residue in bed solids of black liquor gasifier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam gasification of carbon residue in bed solids of a low-temperature black liquor gasifier was studied using a thermogravimetric system at 3 bar. Complete gasification of the carbon residue, which remained unreactive at 600 C, was achieved in about 10 min as the temperature increased to 800 C. The rate of gasification and its temperature dependence were evaluated from the non-isothermal experiment results. Effects of particle size and adding H{sub 2} and CO to the gasification agent were also studied. The rate of steam gasification could be taken as zero order in carbon until 80% of carbon was gasified, and for the rest of the gasification process the rate appeared to be first order in carbon. The maximum rate of carbon conversion was around 0.003/s and the activation energy was estimated to be in the range of 230-300 kJ/mol. The particle size did not show significant effect on the rate of gasification. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide appeared to retard the onset of the gasification process. (author)

Preto, Fernando; Zhang, Xiaojie (Frank); Wang, Jinsheng [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Natural Resources (Canada)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

451

Atmospheric Aerosol Systems | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformationCenterResearch HighlightsTools PrintableCARIBU ProposalBeamAtmospheric

452

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmesApplication2ArgonneAssemblyDemandPlasma4August 1999 ARM

453

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmesApplication2ArgonneAssemblyDemandPlasma4August 1999

454

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmesApplication2ArgonneAssemblyDemandPlasma4August 1999July

455

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmesApplication2ArgonneAssemblyDemandPlasma4August

456

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmesApplication2ArgonneAssemblyDemandPlasma4August3 ARM 2003

457

Atmospheric Particulates | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone byDear Friend,Arthur J. Nozik -GrownAn overheadAtmospheric

458

Carbon Trading, Carbon Taxes and Social Discounting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Trading, Carbon Taxes and Social Discounting Elisa Belfiori belf0018@umn.edu University of Minnesota Abstract This paper considers the optimal design of policies to carbon emissions in an economy, such as price or quantity controls on the net emissions of carbon, are insufficient to achieve the social

Weiblen, George D

459

Time-dependent release of iron from soot particles by acid extraction and the reduction of fe3+ by elemental carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Elemental carbon reduces Fe3+ to Fe2+ in aqueous solutions. This process has potential implications in the adverse health effects of fine particles in air pollution, because both elemental carbon and iron are major components in atmospheric...

Drake, Stephen James

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

460

Federal Control of Geological Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States has economically recoverable coal reserves of about 261 billion tons, which is in excess of a 250-­?year supply based on 2009 consumption rates. However, in the near future the use of coal may be legally restricted because of concerns over the effects of its combustion on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy is making significant efforts to help develop and implement a commercial scale program of geologic carbon sequestration that involves capturing and storing carbon dioxide emitted from coal-­?burning electric power plants in deep underground formations. This article explores the technical and legal problems that must be resolved in order to have a viable carbon sequestration program. It covers the responsibilities of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Departments of Energy, Transportation and Interior. It discusses the use of the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the National Environmental Policy Act, the Endangered Species Act, and other applicable federal laws. Finally, it discusses the provisions related to carbon sequestration that have been included in the major bills dealing with climate change that Congress has been considering in 2009 and 2010. The article concludes that the many legal issues that exist can be resolved, but whether carbon sequestration becomes a commercial reality will depend on reducing its costs or by imposing legal requirements on fossil-­?fired power plants that result in the costs of carbon emissions increasing to the point that carbon sequestration becomes a feasible option.

Reitze, Arnold

2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Carbon Ion Pump for Carbon Dioxide Removal - Energy Innovation Portal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation Sites Proposed Route BTRICGEGR-N-CapturePortal Carbon

462

Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, have caused a substantial increase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil-caused CO2 emissions and to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. 2.0 What is carbon sequestration? The term "carbon sequestration" is used to describe both natural and deliberate CARBON,INGIGATONSPERYEAR 1.5 Fossil

463

Carbon Cycle 2.0: Mary Ann Piette: Impact of efficient buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mary Ann Piette speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Mary Ann Piette

2010-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

464

Energy Storage: Breakthrough in Battery Technologies (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Nitash Balsara speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Balsara, Nitash

2011-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

465

Carbon Cycle 2.0: Mary Ann Piette: Impact of efficient buildings  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Mary Ann Piette speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Mary Ann Piette

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Carbon Cycle 2.0: Bill Collins: A future without CC2.0  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Bill Collins speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 1, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Bill Collins

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Carbon Fiber Consortium | Partnerships | ORNL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation Sites Proposed Route BTRICGEGR-N-Capture ofCaptureIndustrialCarbon

468

Carbon Joins the Magnetic Club  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation Sites Proposed Route BTRICGEGR-N-CapturePortal Carbon Press

469

First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicyFeasibilityField OfficeFirmFirst Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

470

Geologic Carbon Storage Archived Projects  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Big Sky Learning FunNeuTel2011 Venezia, Italia ResultsGeography ofCarbon

471

Sandia National Laboratories: Carbon Management  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared0Energy AdvancedEnergy Commission Linde,Capabilities WhatCarbon

472

Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon Sequestration, and Greenhouse, and Zhu, Zhiliang, 2010, Public review draft; A method for assessing carbon stocks, carbon sequestration

473

Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Li, M. Daskin. 2009. Carbon Footprint and the Management ofThe Importance of Carbon Footprint Estimation Boundaries.Carbon accounting and carbon footprint - more than just

Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

An evaluation of atmospheric evaporation for treating wood preserving wastes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

i. hat a constant rate of total organi carbon and chemical oxygen demand removal occurred as the wastewai. r was evaporated. A procedure for designing atmospheric evaporation ponds was developed and applied to a hypothetical wood preserving plant.... From this example design estimates of equivalent hydrocarbon concentrations in the air downwind of the pond are made. Various other design con- siderations such as the input data, modifications to the design pro- cedure, solids accumulation...

Shack, Pete A

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Low Cost Solar Energy Conversion (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Ramamoorthy Ramesh from LBNL's Materials Science Division speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

476

Carbon Cycle 2.0: Paul Alivisatos: Introduction  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Berkeley Lab Director Paul Alivisatos speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 1, 2010. Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences.Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Paul Alivisatos

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Toxicity of atmospheric aerosols on marine phytoplankton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fertilization on carbon sequestration in the Southern Ocean.production, and carbon sequestration (4–7). In areas whereproductivity and carbon sequestration and thus influence

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Formation of Carbon Nanostructures in Cobalt- and Nickel-Doped Carbon Aerogels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have prepared carbon aerogels (CAs) doped with cobalt or nickel through sol-gel polymerization of formaldehyde with the potassium salt of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, followed by ion-exchange with M(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} (where M = Co{sup 2+} or Ni{sup 2+}), supercritical drying with liquid CO{sub 2} and carbonization at temperatures between 400 C and 1050 C under an N{sub 2} atmosphere. The nanostructures of these metal-doped carbon aerogels were characterized by elemental analysis, nitrogen adsorption, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Metallic nickel and cobalt nanoparticles are generated during the carbonization process at about 400 C and 450 C, respectively, forming nanoparticles that are {approx}4 nm in diameter. The sizes and size dispersion of the metal particles increase with increasing carbonization temperatures for both materials. The carbon frameworks of the Ni- and Co-doped aerogels carbonized below 600 C mainly consist of interconnected carbon particles with a size of 15 to 30 nm. When the samples are pyrolyzed at 1050 C, the growth of graphitic nanoribbons with different curvatures is observed in the Ni and Co-doped carbon aerogel materials. The distance of graphite layers in the nanoribbons is about 0.38 nm. These metal-doped CAs retain the overall open cell structure of metal-free CAs, exhibiting high surface areas and pore diameters in the micro and mesoporic region.

Fu, R; Baumann, T F; Cronin, S; Dresselhaus, G; Dresselhaus, M; Satcher, Jr., J H

2004-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

479

Exploiting simultaneous observational constraints on mass and absorption to estimate the global direct radiative forcing of black carbon and brown carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric black carbon (BC) is a leading climate warming agent, yet uncertainties on the global direct radiative forcing (DRF) remain large. Here we expand a global model simulation (GEOS-Chem) of BC to include the ...

Schwarz, J. P.

480

Combustion and Carbon Cycle 2.0 and Computation in CC 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Robert Cheng and Juan Meza provide two presentations in one session at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Cheng, Robert K; Meza, Juan

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "atmospheric carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Chemical sensing and imaging in microfluidic pore network structures relevant to natural carbon cycling and industrial carbon sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy and climate change represent significant factors in global security. Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, while global in scope, are influenced by pore-scale phenomena in the subsurface. We are developing tools to visualize and investigate processes in pore network microfluidic structures with transparent covers as representations of normally-opaque porous media. In situ fluorescent oxygen sensing methods and fluorescent cellulosic materials are being used to investigate processes related to terrestrial carbon cycling involving cellulytic respiring microorganisms. These structures also enable visualization of water displacement from pore spaces by hydrophobic fluids, including carbon dioxide, in studies related to carbon sequestration.

Grate, Jay W.; Zhang, Changyong; Wilkins, Michael J.; Warner, Marvin G.; Anheier, Norman C.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Oostrom, Martinus

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

482

Atmospheric propagation of THz radiation.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this investigation, we conduct a literature study of the best experimental and theoretical data available for thin and thick atmospheres on THz radiation propagation from 0.1 to 10 THz. We determined that for thick atmospheres no data exists beyond 450 GHz. For thin atmospheres data exists from 0.35 to 1.2 THz. We were successful in using FASE code with the HITRAN database to simulate the THz transmission spectrum for Mauna Kea from 0.1 to 2 THz. Lastly, we successfully measured the THz transmission spectra of laboratory atmospheres at relative humidities of 18 and 27%. In general, we found that an increase in the water content of the atmosphere led to a decrease in the THz transmission. We identified two potential windows in an Albuquerque atmosphere for THz propagation which were the regions from 1.2 to 1.4 THz and 1.4 to 1.6 THz.

Wanke, Michael Clement; Mangan, Michael A.; Foltynowicz, Robert J.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Carbon Ionic Conductors for use in Novel Carbon-Ion Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon-consuming fuel cells have many potential advantages, including increased efficiency and reduced pollution in power generation from coal. A large amount of work has already been done on coal fuel cells that utilize yttria-stabilized zirconium carbide as an oxygen-ion superionic membrane material. But high-temperature fuel cells utilizing yttria-stabilized zirconium require partial combustion of coal to carbon monoxide before final oxidation to carbon dioxide occurs via utilization of the oxygen- ion zirconia membrane. A carbon-ion superionic membrane material would enable an entirely new class of carbon fuel cell to be developed, one that would use coal directly as the fuel source, without any intervening combustion process. However, a superionic membrane material for carbon ions has not yet been found. Because no partial combustion of coal would be required, a carbon-ion superionic conductor would allow the direct conversion of coal to electricity and pure CO{sub 2} without the formation of gaseous pollutants. The objective of this research was to investigate ionic lanthanide carbides, which have an unusually high carbon-bond ionicity as potential superionic carbide-ion conductors. A first step in this process is the stabilization of these carbides in the cubic structure, and this stabilization has been achieved via the preparation of pseudobinary lanthanide carbides. The diffusion rates of carbon have been measured in these carbides as stabilized to preserve the high temperature cubic structure down to room temperature. To prepare these new compounds and measure these diffusion rates, a novel, oxide-based preparation method and a new C{sup 13}/C{sup 12} diffusion technique have been developed. The carbon diffusion rates in La{sup 0.5}Er{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, Ce{sup 0.5}Er{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, and La{sup 0.5}Y{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, and Ce{sup 0.5}Tm0.5C{sub 2} modified by the addition of 5 wt %Be{sub 2}C, have been determined at temperatures from 850 C to 1150 C. The resulting diffusion constants as measured were all less than 10{sup -11} cm{sup 2}/sec, and therefore these compounds are not superionic. However, there remain a large number of potentially superionic pseudobinary lanthanide compounds and a number of alternate ionic carbides which might act as dopants to produce vacancies on the carbon-ion sublattice and thereby increase carbon-ion diffusion rates. The discovery of a superionic carbon conductor would usher in a truly revolutionary new coal technology, and could dramatically improve the way in which we generate electricity from coal. The work completed to date is a promising first step towards this end.

Franklin H. Cocks; W. Neal Simmons; Paul A. Klenk

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Triboemission and wear of hydrogenated carbon films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is suggested that perfluoropolyether lubricating oil coatings applied to the carbon overcoat film of magnetic recording layers become decomposed by electrons emitted from frictional surfaces. However, no work has as yet been reported as to triboemission of electrons from frictional carbon films. This paper describes the behavior of triboemission of electrons and the friction coefficient during wear of sputtered hydrogenated carbon films (with various hydrogen contents on the glass substrate). The triboemission of electrons, together with friction coefficient, was measured in a frictional system of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sliding on carbon films in a reduced dry air atmosphere. The worn surfaces of the carbon films were then observed using both a SEM and an AFM. The results showed that intense triboemission of electrons were observed during wear of hydrogenated carbon films. The electron emission intensity and friction coefficient transit from low to high with hydrogen content in the film. These results are discussed including physical properties of the carbon films such as internal stress and surface wettability.

Nakayama, Keiji [Mechanical Engineering Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

ATMOSPHERIC ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 44 (1997) 231-241  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 44 (1997) 231-241 Error analysis of backscatter;accepted 14 February 1997 Abstract Ice sphere backscatter has been calculated using both Mie theory as a reasonable approximation for rv 1997 Elsevier Science B.V. 1. Introduction Cirrus clouds play

Reading, University of

486

ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 38 (1995) 207-235 ATMOSPHERIC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 38 (1995) 207-235 ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH On the parameterization of ice and water substance mixing ratio fields were only strongly altered by turning off the ice phase of these schemes includes ice processes. But in mid- latitudes and also in tropics the ice phase is an important

Moelders, Nicole

487

Photophysics of carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis reviews the recent advances made in optical studies of single-wall carbon nanotubes. Studying the electronic and vibrational properties of carbon nanotubes, we find that carbon nanotubes less than 1 nm in ...

Samsonidze, Georgii G

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

CALIFORNIA CARBON SEQUESTRATION THROUGH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CARBON SEQUESTRATION THROUGH CHANGES IN LAND USE IN WASHINGTON. Carbon Sequestration Through Changes in Land Use in Washington: Costs and Opportunities. California for Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in Oregon. Report to Winrock International. #12;ii #12;iii Preface

489

Global Carbon Budget from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The Global Carbon Project (GCP) was established in 2001 in recognition of the scientific challenge and critical importance of the carbon cycle for Earth's sustainability. The growing realization that anthropogenic climate change is a reality has focused the attention of the scientific community, policymakers and the general public on the rising concentration of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, and on the carbon cycle in general. Initial attempts, through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol, are underway to slow the rate of increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These societal actions require a scientific understanding of the carbon cycle, and are placing increasing demands on the international science community to establish a common, mutually agreed knowledge base to support policy debate and action. The Global Carbon Project is responding to this challenge through a shared partnership between the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP), the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and Diversitas. This partnership constitutes the Earth Systems Science Partnership (ESSP). This CDIAC collection includes datasets, images, videos, presentations, and archived data from previous years.

490

Carbon dioxide and methane in karst systems Supervisors: Prof Dave Mattey, Dr Dave Lowry and Dr. Rebecca Fisher  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon dioxide and methane in karst systems Supervisors: Prof Dave Mattey, Dr Dave Lowry and Dr in the carbon cycle and very little is known about the behavior of methane in karst systems. Methane carbon isotopic evidence for oxidation of atmospheric methane in a dynamically ventilated cave

Royal Holloway, University of London

491

The Human Carbon Budget: An Estimate of the Spatial Distribution of Metabolic Carbon Consumption and Release in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide is taken up by agricultural crops and released soon after during the consumption of agricultural commodities. The global net impact of this process on carbon flux to the atmosphere is negligible, but impact on the spatial distribution of carbon dioxide uptake and release across regions and continents is significant. To estimate the consumption and release of carbon by humans over the landscape, we developed a carbon budget for humans in the United States. The budget was derived from food commodity intake data for the US and from algorithms representing the metabolic processing of carbon by humans. Data on consumption, respiration, and waste of carbon by humans were distributed over the US using geospatial population data with a resolution of approximately 450 x 450 m. The average adult in the US contains about 21 kg C and consumes about 67 kg C yr-1 which is balanced by the annual release of about 59 kg C as expired CO2, 7 kg C as feces and urine, and less than 1 kg C as flatus, sweat, and aromatic compounds. In 2000, an estimated 17.2 Tg C were consumed by the US population and 15.2 Tg C were expired to the atmosphere as CO2. Historically, carbon stock in the US human population has increased between 1790-2006 from 0.06 Tg to 5.37 Tg. Displacement and release of total harvested carbon per capita in the US is nearly 12% of per capita fossil fuel emissions. Humans are using, storing, and transporting carbon about the Earth s surface. Inclusion of these carbon dynamics in regional carbon budgets can improve our understanding of carbon sources and sinks.

West, Tristram O. [ORNL; Singh, Nagendra [ORNL; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Method of making carbon-carbon composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for making 2D and 3D carbon-carbon composites having a combined high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizible woven cloth are infiltrated with carbon material to form green composites. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnant step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3100.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced. pressure.

Engle, Glen B. (16716 Martincoit Rd., Poway, CA 92064)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward

Narasayya, Vivek

494

Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Woodland Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects ® Version 1.2 July trademark 10 3. Carbon sequestration 11 3.1 Units of carbon calculation 11 3.2 Carbon baseline 11 3.3 Carbon leakage 12 3.4 Project carbon sequestration 12 3.5 Net carbon sequestration 13 4. Environmental quality 14

495

Low Carbon Fuel Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in 1990. These many alternative-fuel initiatives failed tolow-cost, low-carbon alternative fuels would thrive. Theto introduce low-carbon alternative fuels. Former Federal

Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Polyport atmospheric gas sampler  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An atmospheric gas sampler with a multi-port valve which allows for multi, sequential sampling of air through a plurality of gas sampling tubes mounted in corresponding gas inlet ports. The gas sampler comprises a flow-through housing which defines a sampling chamber and includes a gas outlet port to accommodate a flow of gases through the housing. An apertured sample support plate defining the inlet ports extends across and encloses the sampling chamber and supports gas sampling tubes which depend into the sampling chamber and are secured across each of the inlet ports of the sample support plate in a flow-through relation to the flow of gases through the housing during sampling operations. A normally closed stopper means mounted on the sample support plate and operatively associated with each of the inlet ports blocks the flow of gases through the respective gas sampling tubes. A camming mechanism mounted on the sample support plate is adapted to rotate under and selectively lift open the stopper spring to accommodate a predetermined flow of gas through the respective gas sampling tubes when air is drawn from the housing through the outlet port.

Guggenheim, S. Frederic (Teaneck, NJ)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

DOE research on atmospheric aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric aerosols are the subject of a significant component of research within DOE`s environmental research activities, mainly under two programs within the Department`s Environmental Sciences Division, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP). Research activities conducted under these programs include laboratory experiments, field measurements, and theoretical and modeling studies. The objectives and scope of these programs are briefly summarized. The ARM Program is the Department`s major research activity focusing on atmospheric processes pertinent to understanding global climate and developing the capability of predicting global climate change in response to energy related activities. The ARM approach consists mainly of testing and improving models using long-term measurements of atmospheric radiation and controlling variables at highly instrumented sites in north central Oklahoma, in the Tropical Western Pacific, and on the North Slope of Alaska. Atmospheric chemistry research within DOE addresses primarily the issue of atmospheric response to emissions from energy-generation sources. As such this program deals with the broad topic known commonly as the atmospheric source-receptor sequence. This sequence consists of all aspects of energy-related pollutants from the time they are emitted from their sources to the time they are redeposited at the Earth`s surface.

Schwartz, S.E.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials for Carbon Dioxide Capture.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Given the rapid increase in atmospheric concentration of CO2, the development of efficient CO2 capture technologies is critical for the future of carbon-based energy. Currently,… (more)

Lin, Kun-Yi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Theoretical and Experimental Aspects of Carbon Formation in Thermal Plasma K. A. Fglein1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

circumstances such as very high temperature, intensive heat and mass transfer, very rapid cooling of reaction or reactive atmosphere led to for- mation of different solid carbon species [3-5]. These find- ings may open

Gubicza, Jenõ

500

Composite carbon foam electrode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z