National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for atmosphere experimental techniques

  1. Experimental Design for Comparing Static Concurrency Analysis Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Experimental Design for Comparing Static Concurrency Analysis Techniques A.T. Chamillard Lori A concurrency analysis techniques. Essentially, we found that designing such an experiment requires a series that seems well suited to empirical investigation, comparing the performance of several static analysis tools

  2. Experimental studies on atmospheric Stirling engine NAS-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watanabe, Hiroichi; Isshiki, Naotsugu; Ohtomo, Michihiro

    1996-12-31

    Atmospheric hot air Stirling engine NAS-1 and 2 have a simple flat rubber sheet diaphragm as their power piston, and they have been experimentally studied at Nihon University for several years continuously, with the target of to get more than 100 watts shaft power by atmospheric air with simple construction and cheap material. The first NAS-1 was intended to be a solar heated engine using television glass and wood for cheap cost, but it failed by thermal break of glass, so the improved NAS-2 is changed to be heated by gas burner, using metallic materials in all parts except rubber power piston. Other than this rubber sheet diaphragm, NAS-2 has many features as using James Watt crank mechanism, high finny copper tube for conventional commercial heat exchanger, and two kinds of hot gas heaters, etc. About the rubber sheet for the power piston, the thickness of the sheet was changed from 2 mm to 6 mm gradually to known what thickness is best, and it is found that about 5 mm is best for this engine. After trying many improvements on this engine, NAS-2 has produced about 130 watt shaft power with indicated power of 350 watt at 1994. In this paper detail of many features, history, results and experiments of these NAS engines are reported.

  3. New experimental techniques with the split Hopkinson pressure bar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frantz, C.E.; Follansbee, P.S.; Wright, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    The split Hopkinson pressure bar or Kolsky bar has provided for many years a technique for performing compression tests at strain rates approaching 10/sup 4/ s/sup -1/. At these strain rates, the small dimensions possible in a compression test specimen give an advantage over a dynamic tensile test by allowing the stress within the specimen to equilibrate within the shortest possible time. The maximum strain rates possible with this technique are limited by stress wave propagation in the elastic pressure bars as well as in the deforming specimen. This subject is reviewed in this paper, and it is emphasized that a slowly rising excitation is preferred to one that rises steeply. Experimental techniques for pulse shaping and a numerical procedure for correcting the raw data for wave dispersion in the pressure bars are presented. For tests at elevated temperature a bar mover apparatus has been developed which effectively brings the cold pressure bars into contact with the specimen, which is heated with a specially designed furnace, shortly before the pressure wave arrives. This procedure has been used successfully in tests at temperatures as high as 1000/sup 0/C.

  4. Energy estimation of UHE cosmic rays using the atmospheric uorescence technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy estimation of UHE cosmic rays using the atmospheric ¯uorescence technique C. Song a,*, Z University, New York, NY 10027, USA b High Energy Astrophysics Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City use the CORSIKA air shower simulation program to review the method for assigning energies to ultra

  5. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental study of the effect of atmospheric pressure on the ice point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey, A. H. [Thermophysical Properties Division National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado (United States)] [Thermophysical Properties Division National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado (United States); McLinden, M. O. [Thermophysical Properties Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado (United States)] [Thermophysical Properties Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Tew, W. L. [Sensor Science Division National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States)] [Sensor Science Division National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States)

    2013-09-11

    We present a detailed thermodynamic analysis of the temperature of the ice point as a function of atmospheric pressure. This analysis makes use of accurate international standards for the properties of water and ice, and of available high-accuracy data for the Henry's constants of atmospheric gases in liquid water. The result is an ice point of 273.150 019(5) K at standard atmospheric pressure, with higher ice-point temperatures (varying nearly linearly with pressure) at lower pressures. The effect of varying ambient CO{sub 2} concentration is analyzed and found to be significant in comparison to other uncertainties in the model. The thermodynamic analysis is compared with experimental measurements of the temperature difference between the ice point and the triple point of water performed at elevations ranging from 145 m to 4302 m, with atmospheric pressures from 101 kPa to 60 kPa.

  6. Infrastructure Support for Controlled Experimentation with Software Testing and Regression Testing Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Do, Hyunsook

    Infrastructure Support for Controlled Experimentation with Software Testing and Regression Testing@cse.unl.edu January 18, 2004 Abstract Where the development, understanding, and assessment of software testing infrastructure to support controlled experimentation with software testing and regression testing techniques

  7. Infrastructure Support for Controlled Experimentation with Software Testing and Regression Testing Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Do, Hyunsook

    Infrastructure Support for Controlled Experimentation with Software Testing and Regression Testing@cse.unl.edu April 13, 2005 Abstract Where the development, understanding, and assessment of software testing infrastructure to support controlled experimentation with software testing and regression testing techniques

  8. Experimental study on the emission spectra of microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Boya; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Guixin, E-mail: guixin@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liao, Shanshan [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shenzhen Power Supply Co. Ltd., Shenzhen 518000, Guangdong (China)

    2014-01-28

    An experimental study on microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure was conducted by employing optical emission spectroscopy. Based on a microwave plasma generation device developed for nanoparticle synthesis, we studied the influence of input microwave power and gas flow rate on the optical emission behaviors and electron temperature of plasma using Ar, He, and N{sub 2} as working gas, respectively. The physics behind these behaviors was discussed. The results are useful in characterizing microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure and can be used for improving nanoparticle synthesis system for commercial use in the future.

  9. An Experimental Comparison of Physical Mobile Interaction Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    work has shown that mobile devices can act as universal remote controls for interaction with smart as selection techniques in smart environments. 1 Introduction Mobile devices have become pervasive; most people they are mostly used for interaction between a user, mobile device and a service. In such situations the context

  10. Radiative transfer in the earth's atmosphere-ocean system using Monte Carlo techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradley, Paul Andrew

    1987-01-01

    TRANSFER PROBLEM MONTE CARLO METHOD Assumptions of the Model Photon Pathlength Emulation Techniques Sampling Scattering Functions: Angles and Probabilities Emulation of an Interface Computing the Radiance by Statistical Estimation Determination... radiance values in both the atmosphere and the ocean from the scattering functions and other input data, with a Monte Carlo computer code. The polarization ot the radiation was taken into account by Kattawar et al. s in their computation...

  11. Experimental thin film deposition and surface analysis techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, W.E.; Rambabu, B.

    1986-01-01

    An attempt has been made to present some of the thin-film deposition and surface analysis techniques which may be useful in growing superionic conducting materials. Emphasis is made on the importance of being careful in selecting process parameters and materials in order to produce films with properties outlined in this article. Also, special care should be given to proper consideration of grain boundary effects.

  12. Comparison of Various Structural Damage Tracking Techniques Based on Experimental Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Jann

    Comparison of Various Structural Damage Tracking Techniques Based on Experimental Data Hongwei identification based on measured vibration data have received considerable attention, including the least identification of structures based on experimental data. A series of experimental tests using a small-scale 3

  13. Experimental techniques for deflection and radiation studies with bent crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasan, Said

    2011-01-01

    What happens when a high energy charged particle crosses an amorphous material? It loses energy by ionization and its trajectory is affected by the multiple Coulomb scattering, being these phenomena originated by uncorrelated collisions with the atoms. If the atoms of the target were distributed according to an ordered scheme, the uncorrelated collisions would turn into a coherent interaction with the whole atomic structure. This is the case of an aligned crystal that, depending on the orientation, is seen as a set of atomic planes or strings by the impinging particles. Planes and strings produce potential wells able to confine the charged particles in a transversal region of the crystal, in the so called channeling condition, so that, bending the crystal, particles are forced to follow the curvature, being deflected. This simple and powerful idea, dating 1979, is at the basis of many theoretical and experimental studies that have proven bent crystals effectiveness, described their possible applications and ...

  14. Time-resolved UPS: a new experimental technique for the study of surface chemical reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, Michael

    Time-resolved UPS: a new experimental technique for the study of surface chemical reactions the dynamics of surface chemical reactions using photoemission spectroscopy. In this paper we describe details. Keywords: Visible and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy; Surface chemical reaction; Oxygen; Platinum 1

  15. An experimental study of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in argon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subedi, D. P.; Tyata, R. B.; Shrestha, R.; Wong, C. S.

    2014-03-05

    In this paper, experimental results on atmospheric pressure argon dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) have been presented. The discharge was generated using a high voltage (0 to 20 kV) power supply operating at frequency of 10 to 30 kHz and was studied by means of electrical and optical measurements. A homogeneous and steady discharge was observed between the electrodes with gap spacing from 1 mm to 3 mm and with a dielectric barrier of thickness 1.5 mm while argon gas is fed at a controlled flow rate of 2liter per min. The electron temperature (T{sub e}) and electron density (n{sub e}) of the plasma have been determined by means of optical emission spectroscopy. Our results show that the electron density is of the order of 10{sup 16} cm{sup ?3} while the electron temperature is estimated to be ? 1 eV. The homogeneity and non-thermal nature of the discharge were utilized in the investigation of the change in wettabilty of a polymer sample subjected to the treatment by the discharge. Contact angle analysis showed that the discharge was effective in improving the wettability of low density Polyethylene (LDPE) polymer sample after the treatment.

  16. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Gaisser

    2006-12-11

    This paper is a brief overview of the theory and experimental data of atmospheric neutrino production at the fiftieth anniversary of the experimental discovery of neutrinos.

  17. Feasibility of VHE gamma ray detection by an array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes using the fluorescence technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Contreras, J L; Arqueros, F; López, M; Barrio, J A; Nievas, M

    2015-01-01

    The last 20 years have seen the development of new techniques in Astroparticle Physics providing access to the highest end of the electromagnetic spectrum. It has been shown that some sources emit photons up to energies close to 100 TeV. Yet the fluxes of these photons are incredibly low and new detection techniques are needed to go higher in energy. A new technique that would use the new generation of Cherenkov Telescopes, i.e., the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), is proposed to push further the energy frontier. It is based on the detection of the fluorescence radiation emitted in extensive air showers, a successful method used in ultra-high-energy cosmic ray experiments, like the Pierre Auger Observatory. It would complement the standard imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique with only minor modifications of the hardware currently being developed for the CTA and would not imply significant extra costs during its planned operation.

  18. Lunar Outgassing, Transient Phenomena and The Return to The Moon, III: Observational and Experimental Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arlin P. S. Crotts

    2007-06-27

    In Papers II and III we show that Transient Lunar Phenomena (TLPs) are likely related to lunar outgassing, albeit in ways not fully understood. Here we propose a path forward, in which current and forthcoming technologies provide a more controlled, sensitive probe of lunar outgassing. Many of these techniques are being realized for the first time. Given the optical transient/outgassing connection, progress can be made by remote sensing, and we suggest programs of imaging, spectroscopy and combinations thereof. However, as found in Paper II, many aspects of lunar outgassing seem covert in nature. TLPs betray outgassing, but not all outgassing produces TLPs. Some outgassing may never appear at the surface, but remain trapped in the regolith. We also suggest more intrusive techniques, from radar mapping to in-situ probes. Understanding these volatiles seems promising in terms of a resource for humans on the Moon and beyond, and offers an interesting scientific goal in its own right. Hence this paper is a series of proposed techniques, some in practice, some which might be soon, and some requiring significant future investment, some of which may prove unwise pending results from predecessor investigations. These point towards enhancement of our knowledge of lunar outgassing, its relation to other lunar processes, and an increase in our understanding of how volatiles are involved in the evolution of the Moon. We emphasize certain ground-based observations in time for flights of SELENE, LRO and other robotic missions, and others before extensive human xploration. We discuss how study of the pristine lunar atmosphere pertains to understanding the role of anthropogenic volatiles, an important confusing signal

  19. Development of experimental verification techniques for non-linear deformation and fracture.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moody, Neville Reid; Bahr, David F. (Washington State University, Pullman, WA)

    2003-12-01

    This project covers three distinct features of thin film fracture and deformation in which the current experimental technique of nanoindentation demonstrates limitations. The first feature is film fracture, which can be generated either by nanoindentation or bulge testing thin films. Examples of both tests will be shown, in particular oxide films on metallic or semiconductor substrates. Nanoindentations were made into oxide films on aluminum and titanium substrates for two cases; one where the metal was a bulk (effectively single crystal) material and the other where the metal was a 1 pm thick film grown on a silica or silicon substrate. In both cases indentation was used to produce discontinuous loading curves, which indicate film fracture after plastic deformation of the metal. The oxides on bulk metals fractures occurred at reproducible loads, and the tensile stress in the films at fracture were approximately 10 and 15 GPa for the aluminum and titanium oxides respectively. Similarly, bulge tests of piezoelectric oxide films have been carried out and demonstrate film fracture at stresses of only 100's of MPa, suggesting the importance of defects and film thickness in evaluating film strength. The second feature of concern is film adhesion. Several qualitative and quantitative tests exist today that measure the adhesion properties of thin films. A relatively new technique that uses stressed overlayers to measure adhesion has been proposed and extensively studied. Delamination of thin films manifests itself in the form of either telephone cord or straight buckles. The buckles are used to calculate the interfacial fracture toughness of the film-substrate system. Nanoindentation can be utilized if more energy is needed to initiate buckling of the film system. Finally, deformation in metallic systems can lead to non-linear deformation due to 'bursts' of dislocation activity during nanoindentation. An experimental study to examine the structure of dislocations around indentations has been carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness in evaluating cross slip and dislocation behavior around nanoindentation impressions in bulk engineering alloys.

  20. Novel technique to extract experimental symmetry free energy information of nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mabiala, J; Bonasera, A; Cammarata, P; Hagel, K; Heilborn, L; Kohley, Z; May, L W; McIntosh, A B; Youngs, M D; Zarrella, A; Yennello, S J

    2015-01-01

    A new method of accessing information on the symmetry free energy from yields of fragments produced in Fermi-energy heavy-ion collisions is proposed. Furthermore, by means of quantum fluctuation analysis techniques, correlations between extracted symmetry free-energy coefficients with temperature and density were studied. The obtained results are consistent with those of commonly used isoscaling techniques.

  1. Pool boiling heat transfer enhancement over cylindrical tubes with water at atmospheric pressure, Part I: Experimental results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Pool boiling heat transfer enhancement over cylindrical tubes with water at atmospheric pressure online 4 May 2013 Keywords: Pool boiling Heat transfer enhancement Open microchannels Cylindrical tube boiling heat transfer over enhanced cylindrical microchannel test surfaces with water at atmospheric

  2. Experimental hydrodynamics of spherical projectiles impacting on a free surface using high speed imaging techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laverty, Stephen Michael

    2005-01-01

    This thesis looks at the hydrodynamics of spherical projectiles impacting the free surface using a unique experimental WebLab facility. Experiments were performed to determine the force impact coefficients of spheres and ...

  3. Experimental Techniques to Study the Effects of Nanoparticle Additives on Heterogeneous Monopropellant Combustion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCown, Kenneth Woodrow

    2014-04-01

    This thesis presents the development of techniques used to investigate the combustion behavior of liquid monopropellants with or without additives, with a focus on nano-scale particles as burning rate modifiers in nitromethane. The linear burning...

  4. EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF FINITE ELEMENT TECHNIQUES FOR BUCKLING AND POSTBUCKLING OF COMPOSITE SANDWICH SHELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the support of Dr. Doug Cairns and Dr. John Mandell for their guidance, advice and patience throughout of the panels; Dr. Ladean McKittrick with the nuts and bolts of the FEA code and techniques; Jon Skramstad parents, Dr. John and Carolyn Sears, for their love and support. I would have never finished without them

  5. Experimental techniques for subnanosecond resolution of laser-launched plates and impact studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.; Warnes, R.H.; Stahl, D.B.

    1994-09-01

    Miniature laser-launched plates have applications in shock wave physics, studying dynamic properties of materials and can be used to generate experimental data in a manner similar to a laboratory gas gun for one-dimensional impact experiments. Laser-launched plates have the advantage of small size, low kinetic energy, and can be launched with ubiquitous laboratory lasers. Because of the small size and high accelerations (10{sup 7}--10{sup 10} g`s), improved temporal resolution and optical non-contact methods to collect data are required. Traditional mechanical in-situ gauges would significantly impair the data quality and do not have the required time response.

  6. X-Ray Spectroscopy: An Experimental Technique to Measure Charge State Distribution Right at the Ion-Solid Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Charge state distributions of $^{56}$Fe and $^{58}$Ni projectile ions passing through thin carbon foils have been studied in the energy range of 1.44 - 2.69 MeV/u using a novel method from the x-ray spectroscopy technique. Interestingly the charge state distribution in the bulk show Lorentzian behavior instead of usual Gaussian distribution. Further, different parameters of charge state distribution like mean charge state, distribution width and asymmetric parameter are determined and compared with the empirical calculations and ETACHA predictions. It is found that the x-ray measurement technique is appropriate to determine the mean charge state right at the interaction zone or in the bulk. Interestingly, empirical formalism predicts much lower projectile mean charge states compare to x-ray measurements which clearly indicate multi-electron capture from the target surface. The ETACHA predictions and experimental results are found to be comparable for energies $\\geq$ 2 MeV/u.

  7. Development of experimental verification techniques for non-linear deformation and fracture on the nanometer scale.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moody, Neville Reid; Bahr, David F.

    2005-11-01

    This work covers three distinct aspects of deformation and fracture during indentations. In particular, we develop an approach to verification of nanoindentation induced film fracture in hard film/soft substrate systems; we examine the ability to perform these experiments in harsh environments; we investigate the methods by which the resulting deformation from indentation can be quantified and correlated to computational simulations, and we examine the onset of plasticity during indentation testing. First, nanoindentation was utilized to induce fracture of brittle thin oxide films on compliant substrates. During the indentation, a load is applied and the penetration depth is continuously measured. A sudden discontinuity, indicative of film fracture, was observed upon the loading portion of the load-depth curve. The mechanical properties of thermally grown oxide films on various substrates were calculated using two different numerical methods. The first method utilized a plate bending approach by modeling the thin film as an axisymmetric circular plate on a compliant foundation. The second method measured the applied energy for fracture. The crack extension force and applied stress intensity at fracture was then determined from the energy measurements. Secondly, slip steps form on the free surface around indentations in most crystalline materials when dislocations reach the free surface. Analysis of these slip steps provides information about the deformation taking place in the material. Techniques have now been developed to allow for accurate and consistent measurement of slip steps and the effects of crystal orientation and tip geometry are characterized. These techniques will be described and compared to results from dislocation dynamics simulations.

  8. Direct Experimental Evaluation of the Grain Boundaries Gas Content in PWR fuels: New Insight and Perspective of the ADAGIO Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pontillon, Y.; Noirot, J.; Caillot, L.

    2007-07-01

    Over the last decades, many analytical experiments (in-pile and out-of-pile) have underlined the active role of the inter-granular gases on the global fuel transient behavior under accidental conditions such as RIA and/or LOCA. In parallel, the improvement of fission gas release modeling in nuclear fuel performance codes needs direct experimental determination/validation regarding the local gas distribution inside the fuel sample. In this context, an experimental program, called 'ADAGIO' (French acronym for Discriminating Analysis of Accumulation of Inter-granular and Occluded Gas), has been initiated through a joint action of CEA, EDF and AREVA NP in order to develop a new device/technique for quantitative and direct measurement of local fission gas distribution within an irradiated fuel pellet. ADAGIO technique is based on the fact that fission gas inventory (intra and inter-granular parts) can be distinguished by controlled fuel oxidation, since grain boundaries oxidize faster than the bulk. The purpose of the current paper is to present both the methodology and the associated results of the ADAGIO program performed at CEA. It has been divided into two main parts: (i) feasibility (UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels), (ii) application on high burn up UO{sub 2} fuel. (authors)

  9. Quantifying sources of black carbon in Western North America using observationally based analysis and an emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, R.; Wang, H.; Hegg, D. A.; Qian, Y.; Doherty, S. J.; Dang, C.; Ma, P.-L.; Rasch, P. J.; Fu, Q.

    2015-05-04

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5), equipped with a technique to tag black carbon (BC) emissions by source regions and types, has been employed to establish source-receptor relationships for atmospheric BC and its deposition to snow over Western North America. The CAM5 simulation was conducted with meteorological fields constrained by reanalysis for year 2013 when measurements of BC in both near-surface air and snow are available for model evaluation. We find that CAM5 has a significant low bias in predicted mixing ratios of BC in snow but only a small low bias in predicted atmospheric concentrations over the Northwest USA andmore »West Canada. Even with a strong low bias in snow mixing ratios, radiative transfer calculations show that the BC-in-snow darkening effect is substantially larger than the BC dimming effect at the surface by atmospheric BC. Local sources contribute more to near-surface atmospheric BC and to deposition than distant sources, while the latter are more important in the middle and upper troposphere where wet removal is relatively weak. Fossil fuel (FF) is the dominant source type for total column BC burden over the two regions. FF is also the dominant local source type for BC column burden, deposition, and near-surface BC, while for all distant source regions combined the contribution of biomass/biofuel (BB) is larger than FF. An observationally based Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis of the snow-impurity chemistry is conducted to quantitatively evaluate the CAM5 BC source-type attribution. While CAM5 is qualitatively consistent with the PMF analysis with respect to partitioning of BC originating from BB and FF emissions, it significantly underestimates the relative contribution of BB. In addition to a possible low bias in BB emissions used in the simulation, the model is likely missing a significant source of snow darkening from local soil found in the observations.« less

  10. Quantifying sources of black carbon in western North America using observationally based analysis and an emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, R.; Wang, H.; Hegg, D. A.; Qian, Y.; Doherty, S. J.; Dang, C.; Ma, P.-L.; Rasch, P. J.; Fu, Q.

    2015-11-18

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5), equipped with a technique to tag black carbon (BC) emissions by source regions and types, has been employed to establish source–receptor relationships for atmospheric BC and its deposition to snow over western North America. The CAM5 simulation was conducted with meteorological fields constrained by reanalysis for year 2013 when measurements of BC in both near-surface air and snow are available for model evaluation. We find that CAM5 has a significant low bias in predicted mixing ratios of BC in snow but only a small low bias in predicted atmospheric concentrations over northwestern USA and westernmore »Canada. Even with a strong low bias in snow mixing ratios, radiative transfer calculations show that the BC-in-snow darkening effect is substantially larger than the BC dimming effect at the surface by atmospheric BC. Local sources contribute more to near-surface atmospheric BC and to deposition than distant sources, while the latter are more important in the middle and upper troposphere where wet removal is relatively weak. Fossil fuel (FF) is the dominant source type for total column BC burden over the two regions. FF is also the dominant local source type for BC column burden, deposition, and near-surface BC, while for all distant source regions combined the contribution of biomass/biofuel (BB) is larger than FF. An observationally based positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the snow-impurity chemistry is conducted to quantitatively evaluate the CAM5 BC source-type attribution. While CAM5 is qualitatively consistent with the PMF analysis with respect to partitioning of BC originating from BB and FF emissions, it significantly underestimates the relative contribution of BB. In addition to a possible low bias in BB emissions used in the simulation, the model is likely missing a significant source of snow darkening from local soil found in the observations.« less

  11. Experimental Characterization Of The Asymmetry And The Dip Form Of The H{sub {beta}}-Line Profiles In Microwave-Produced Plasmas At Atmospheric Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palomares, J. M.; Torres, J.; Gamero, A.; Sola, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Cordoba. Campus Universitario de Rabanales C2. E-14071 Cordoba (Spain); Gigosos, M. A. [Departamento de Optica, Universidad de Valladolid. Campus Universitario de la Merced. E-47072 Valladolid Spain (Spain); Mullen, J. J. A. M. van der [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology. P.O. Box 513. 5600 MD Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2008-10-22

    An experimental study on the asymmetry of the Balmer H{sub {beta}} profile in plasmas produced by microwaves at atmospheric pressure is presented. The asymmetry of the whole profile is studied with the help of one function that quantified this characteristic. The asymmetry and shape of the central valley is also studied with the definition of several parameters. The study shows the presence of the Stark asymmetry in plasmas with electron density of the order of 10{sup 21}m{sup -3}.

  12. Analysis and experimental study on formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse atmospheric pressure air plasmas in repetitive pulse mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Lee Liu, Lun; Liu, Yun-Long; Bin, Yu; Ge, Ya-Feng; Lin, Fo-Chang

    2014-01-14

    Atmospheric air diffuse plasmas have enormous application potential in various fields of science and technology. Without dielectric barrier, generating large-scale air diffuse plasmas is always a challenging issue. This paper discusses and analyses the formation mechanism of cold homogenous plasma. It is proposed that generating stable diffuse atmospheric plasmas in open air should meet the three conditions: high transient power with low average power, excitation in low average E-field with locally high E-field region, and multiple overlapping electron avalanches. Accordingly, an experimental configuration of generating large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas is designed. Based on runaway electron theory, a low duty-ratio, high voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator is chosen as a discharge excitation source. Using the wire-electrodes with small curvature radius, the gaps with highly non-uniform E-field are structured. Experimental results show that the volume-scaleable, barrier-free, homogeneous air non-thermal plasmas have been obtained between the gap spacing with the copper-wire electrodes. The area of air cold plasmas has been up to hundreds of square centimeters. The proposed formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas are proved to be reasonable and feasible.

  13. Modeling of Non-Homogeneous Containment Atmosphere in the ThAI Experimental Facility Using a CFD Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babic, Miroslav; Kljenak, Ivo; Mavko, Borut [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-07-01

    The CFD code CFX4.4 was used to simulate an experiment in the ThAI facility, which was designed for investigation of thermal-hydraulic processes during a severe accident inside a Light Water Reactor containment. In the considered experiment, air was initially present in the vessel, and helium and steam were injected during different phases of the experiment at various mass flow rates and at different locations. The main purpose of the simulation was to reproduce the non-homogeneous temperature and species concentration distributions in the ThAI experimental facility. A three-dimensional model of the ThAI vessel for the CFX4.4 code was developed. The flow in the simulation domain was modeled as single-phase. Steam condensation on vessel walls was modeled as a sink of mass and energy using a correlation that was originally developed for an integral approach. A simple model of bulk phase change was also introduced. The calculated time-dependent variables together with temperature and concentration distributions at the end of experiment phases are compared to experimental results. (authors)

  14. Adequacy of the Heat-Mass Transfer Analogy to Simulate Containment Atmospheric Cooling in the New Generation of Advanced Nuclear Reactors: Experimental Confirmation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herranz, Luis E. [CIEMAT (Spain); Campo, Antonio [Idaho State University (United States)

    2002-09-15

    Driving forces of passive cooling systems of advanced reactor containments are substantially weaker than those brought in by active systems of operating power plants. This fact along with the new geometries being used suggest the need either to develop new reliable simulation techniques or to adapt and validate traditional approaches. Suitability of the heat-mass transfer analogy for this purpose is investigated based on previous authors' experience. Major analogy drawbacks are identified and overcome by supplementing it with analytically derived factors. By comparing against experimental data available, the heat-mass transfer analogy is demonstrated to be a sound, configuration-independent, and accurate-enough theoretical approximation.

  15. The productive unconscious : architecture, experimental psychology and the techniques of subjectivity in Soviet Russia, 1919-1935

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vronskaya, Alla

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examines how Soviet architecture employed the achievements of experimental psychology in order to transform human subjectivity during the Interwar period, particularly in the years defined by the First ...

  16. AIR INFILTRATION MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    serious study of research problems in infiltration. THEORYInfiltration Measurement Techniques REFERENCES J .B. Dick, "Experimental Studies

  17. Experimental comparison of various techniques for spot size measurement of high-energy x-ray source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yi; Chen, Nan; Cheng, Jinming; Li, Chenggang; Dai, Wenhua; Li, Hong; Long, Quanhong; Shi, Jinshui; Deng, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    In the experiment of flash-radiography, the quality of acquired image strongly depends on the focal size of the x-ray source spot. A variety of techniques based on imaging of pinhole, slit and rollbar are adopted to measure the focal spot size of the Dragon-I linear induction accelerator. The image of pinhole provides a two-dimensional distribution of the x-ray spot, while those of slit and rollbar give a line-spread distribution and an edge-spread distribution, respectively. The spot size characterized by full-width at half-maximum and that characterized by the LANL definition are calculated for comparison.

  18. Atmospheric Environment ] (

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raman, Sethu

    that the influence of the urban region on wind patterns and atmospheric stability could be studied. HeightAtmospheric Environment ] (

  19. Centrifuge Techniques and Apparatus for Transport Experiments in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earl D. Mattson; Carl D. Paler; Robert W. Smith; Markus Flury

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes experimental approaches and apparatus that we have developed to study solute and colloid transport in porous media using Idaho National Laboratory's 2-m radius centrifuge. The ex-perimental techniques include water flux scaling with applied acceleration at the top of the column and sub-atmospheric pressure control at the column base, automation of data collection, and remote experimental con-trol over the internet. These apparatus include a constant displacement piston pump, a custom designed liquid fraction collector based on switching valve technology, and modified moisture monitoring equipment. Suc-cessful development of these experimental techniques and equipment is illustrated through application to transport of a conservative tracer through unsaturated sand column, with centrifugal acceleration up to 40 gs. Development of such experimental equipment that can withstand high accelerations enhances the centrifuge technique to conduct highly controlled unsaturated solute/colloid transport experiments and allows in-flight liquid sample collection of the effluent.

  20. Chemical Imaging Analysis of Environmental Particles Using the Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscopy Technique: Microanalysis Insights into Atmospheric Chemistry of Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Haihan; Grassian, Vicki H.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Laskin, Alexander

    2013-01-21

    Airborne fly ash from coal combustion may represent a source of bioavailable iron (Fe) in the open ocean. However, few studies have been made focusing on Fe speciation and distribution in coal fly ash. In this study, chemical imaging of fly ash has been performed using a dual-beam FIB/SEM (focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope) system for a better understanding of how simulated atmospheric processing modify the morphology, chemical compositions and element distributions of individual particles. A novel approach has been applied for cross-sectioning of fly ash specimen with a FIB in order to explore element distribution within the interior of individual particles. Our results indicate that simulated atmospheric processing causes disintegration of aluminosilicate glass, a dominant material in fly ash particles. Aluminosilicate-phase Fe in the inner core of fly ash particles is more easily mobilized compared with oxide-phase Fe present as surface aggregates on fly ash spheres. Fe release behavior depends strongly on Fe speciation in aerosol particles. The approach for preparation of cross-sectioned specimen described here opens new opportunities for particle microanalysis, particular with respect to inorganic refractive materials like fly ash and mineral dust.

  1. Ensemble Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Addis, R.P.

    2002-06-24

    Prognostic atmospheric dispersion models are used to generate consequence assessments, which assist decision-makers in the event of a release from a nuclear facility. Differences in the forecast wind fields generated by various meteorological agencies, differences in the transport and diffusion models, as well as differences in the way these models treat the release source term, result in differences in the resulting plumes. Even dispersion models using the same wind fields may produce substantially different plumes. This talk will address how ensemble techniques may be used to enable atmospheric modelers to provide decision-makers with a more realistic understanding of how both the atmosphere and the models behave.

  2. A Method for energy estimation and mass composition determination of primary cosmic rays at Chacaltaya observation level based on atmospheric Cerenkov light technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Mavrodiev; A. Mishev; J. Stamenov

    2003-10-23

    A new method for energy and mass composition estimation of primary cosmic ray radiation based on atmospheric Cerenkov light flux in extensive air showers (EAS) analysis is proposed. The Cerenkov light flux in EAS initiated by primary protons and iron nuclei is simulated with CORSIKA 5.62 code for Chacaltaya observation level (536 g/cm2) in the energy range 10 TeV - 10 PeV. An adequate model, approximation of lateral distribution of Cerenkov light in showers is obtained. Using the proposed model and solution of overdetermined system of nonlinear equations based on Gauss Newton method with autoregularization, two different array detector arrangements are compared. The detector response for the detector sets is simulated. The accuracies in energy and shower axis determination are studied and the corresponding selection criteria are proposed. An approximation with nonlinear fit is obtained and the energy dependence of the proposed model function parameters is studied. The approximation of model parameters as function of the primary energy is carried out. This permits, taking into account the properties of the proposed method and model, to distinguish proton primaries from iron primaries. The detector response for the detector sets is simulated and the accuracies in energy determination are calculated. Moreover the accuracies in shower axis determination are studied and criteria in shower axis position estimation are proposed.

  3. Secondary Cosmic Ray Particles Due to GCR Interactions in the Earth's Atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battistoni, G.; /Milan U. /INFN, Milan; Cerutti, F.; /CERN; Fasso, A.; /SLAC; Ferrari, A.; /CERN; Garzelli, M.V.; /Milan U. /INFN, Milan; Lantz, M.; /Goteborg, ITP; Muraro, S. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan; Pinsky, L.S.; /Houston U.; Ranft, J.; /Siegen U.; Roesler, S.; /CERN; Sala, P.R.; /Milan U. /INFN, Milan; ,

    2009-06-16

    Primary GCR interact with the Earth's atmosphere originating atmospheric showers, thus giving rise to fluxes of secondary particles in the atmosphere. Electromagnetic and hadronic interactions interplay in the production of these particles, whose detection is performed by means of complementary techniques in different energy ranges and at different depths in the atmosphere, down to the Earth's surface. Monte Carlo codes are essential calculation tools which can describe the complexity of the physics of these phenomena, thus allowing the analysis of experimental data. However, these codes are affected by important uncertainties, concerning, in particular, hadronic physics at high energy. In this paper we shall report some results concerning inclusive particle fluxes and atmospheric shower properties as obtained using the FLUKA transport and interaction code. Some emphasis will also be given to the validation of the physics models of FLUKA involved in these calculations.

  4. Laser Atmospheric Studies with VERITAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. M. Hui; for the VERITAS collaboration

    2007-09-25

    As a calibrated laser pulse propagates through the atmosphere, the amount of Rayleigh-scattered light arriving at the VERITAS telescopes can be calculated precisely. This technique was originally developed for the absolute calibration of ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray fluorescence telescopes but is also applicable to imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). In this paper, we present two nights of laser data taken with the laser at various distances away from the VERITAS telescopes and compare it to Rayleigh scattering simulations.

  5. Quasi-experimental and experimental approaches to environmental economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenstone, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that an increased application of quasi-experimental and experimental techniques will improve understanding about core environmental economics questions. This argument is supported by a review of the ...

  6. Quasi-experimental and experimental approaches to environmental economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenstone, Michael

    This paper argues that an increased application of quasi-experimental and experimental techniques will improve understanding about core environmental economics questions. This argument is supported by a review of the ...

  7. Computational and experimental techniques for coupled acoustic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and shown to be an effective means of testing acoustic loading on simple test structures. The tube is capable of creating a semi-infinite acoustic field due to nonreflecting...

  8. Experimental study of restructurable VLSI techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fanini, Otto Nilson

    1982-01-01

    available a design methodology that gives the designer great flexibility and product per- formance at low costs [2]. In order to make this This thesis follows the format of the PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE. possible, additional equipment such as a laser, X... the maximum current of a connected link which has a given width (0. 2, 0. 3 or 0. 4 mil). Manufacturers of large memories (256-Kb) have re- cently used metal silicides (polycides, disilicides) in their designs (58). The laser beam can be used to 44 AV...

  9. RESULTS FROM THE PHOENIX ATMOSPHERIC STRUCTURE PAUL WITHERS*,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    RESULTS FROM THE PHOENIX ATMOSPHERIC STRUCTURE EXPERIMENT PAUL WITHERS*,a AND DAVID C. CATLINGb through the atmosphere of Mars, Phoenix recorded acceleration and angular velocity data using the Experimental Data Records (EDRs) of the Phoenix Atmospheric Structure Experiment (ASE), are available from

  10. Optical Intensity Interferometry through Atmospheric Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng Kian Tan; Aik Hui Chan; Christian Kurtsiefer

    2015-12-29

    Conventional ground-based astronomical observations suffer from image distortion due to atmospheric turbulence. This can be minimized by choosing suitable geographic locations or adaptive optical techniques, and avoided altogether by using orbital platforms outside the atmosphere. One of the promises of optical intensity interferometry is its independence from atmospherically induced phase fluctuations. By performing narrowband spectral filtering on sunlight and conducting temporal intensity interferometry using actively quenched avalanche photon detectors (APDs), the Solar $g^{(2)}(\\tau)$ signature was directly measured. We observe an averaged photon bunching signal of $g^{(2)}(\\tau) = 1.693 \\pm 0.003$ from the Sun, consistently throughout the day despite fluctuating weather conditions, cloud cover and elevation angle. This demonstrates the robustness of the intensity interferometry technique against atmospheric turbulence and opto-mechanical instabilities, and the feasibility to implement measurement schemes with both large baselines and long integration times.

  11. Experimental Neutrino Physics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Walter, Chris [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States

    2010-01-08

    In this talk, I will review how a set of experiments in the last decade has given us our current understanding of neutrino properties.  I will show how experiments in the last year or two have clarified this picture, and will discuss how new experiments about to start will address remaining questions.  I will particularly emphasize the relationship between various experimental techniques.

  12. Evapotranspiration studies for protective barriers: Experimental plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Link, S.O.; Waugh, W.J.

    1989-11-01

    This document describes a general theory and experimental plans for predicting evapotranspiration in support of the Protective Barrier Program. Evapotranspiration is the combined loss of water from plants and soil surfaces to the atmosphere. 45 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  13. Atmospheric Transport of Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, T.V.

    2003-03-03

    The purpose of atmospheric transport and diffusion calculations is to provide estimates of concentration and surface deposition from routine and accidental releases of pollutants to the atmosphere. This paper discusses this topic.

  14. Experimental Astronomy Astrophysical Instrumentation and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biggs, Juliet

    1 23 Experimental Astronomy Astrophysical Instrumentation and Methods ISSN 0922-6435 Exp Astron DOI available until 12 months after publication. #12;Exp Astron DOI 10.1007/s10686-011-9244-3 ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Three instrument suites will address specific surface, atmosphere and ionosphere science goals

  15. Investigating the Impacts of Atmospheric Aerosols on Cloud Formation Relevant to Weather and Climate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mckeown, Megan Alexandra

    2014-12-10

    on weather, climate, visibility, air quality, and human health. In this project, the impacts of aerosols on cloud formation potential in the atmosphere have been assessed using several laboratory experimental approaches. To study the effects of atmospheric...

  16. Atmospheric chemistry and global change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, MJ

    1999-01-01

    and particles. Thus Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Changethe future of atmospheric chemistry. BROWSINGS Tornadothe complexity of atmospheric chemistry well, but trips a

  17. Experimental Statistics NBS Handbook 91: Experimental Statistics [1] was

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Experimental Statistics NBS Handbook 91: Experimental Statistics [1] was first published in 1963 as a series of five Army Ordnance Pamphlets OSRDDP 20-110-114. The publication was prepared in the Statistical. Basic Statistical Concepts and Analysis and Inter- pretation of Measurement Data 2. Standard Techniques

  18. Exoplanet Detection Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Debra A; Laughlin, Greg P; Macintosh, Bruce; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Sahlmann, Johannes; Yee, Jennifer C

    2015-01-01

    We are still in the early days of exoplanet discovery. Astronomers are beginning to model the atmospheres and interiors of exoplanets and have developed a deeper understanding of processes of planet formation and evolution. However, we have yet to map out the full complexity of multi-planet architectures or to detect Earth analogues around nearby stars. Reaching these ambitious goals will require further improvements in instrumentation and new analysis tools. In this chapter, we provide an overview of five observational techniques that are currently employed in the detection of exoplanets: optical and IR Doppler measurements, transit photometry, direct imaging, microlensing, and astrometry. We provide a basic description of how each of these techniques works and discuss forefront developments that will result in new discoveries. We also highlight the observational limitations and synergies of each method and their connections to future space missions.

  19. Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Gaisser

    2005-02-18

    Starting with an historical review, I summarize the status of calculations of the flux of atmospheric neutrinos and how they compare to measurements.

  20. Teaching Techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, Jeff W.

    2005-05-10

    with others such as a small group discussion or the question-answer technique to al- low the 4-H?ers to express their opinion. 2. Illustrated talk This method is an offshoot of the lecture technique, in which the teacher supports the talk with such things... as drawings, posters, copies of articles and other materials. The drawings or posters need not be professional art pieces, they need only be interesting and clear. For ex- ample, in entomology, rather than just talking about the various shapes...

  1. Local Dynamics of Synoptic Waves in the Martian Atmosphere 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavulich, Michael J., Jr.

    2011-10-21

    The sources and sinks of energy for transient waves in the Martian atmosphere are investigated, applying diagnostic techniques developed for the analysis of terrestrial baroclinic waves to output from a Mars General Circulation Model...

  2. Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences 1959­2009 WayneBurt. #12;Oceanography and Atmospheric in Oceanography (TENOC). Wayne Burt immediately responds with proposal to President Strand of Oregon State College to start a graduate Department of Oceanography. 1959 Oregon State Board of Higher Education approves

  3. Experimental Conclusions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    Gasification is that any type of biomass (including low cost feedstocks like agricultural residues, forest) Objective Results Experimental Conclusions 1000°C 600°C 4s 30s A major advantage of Biomass waste, etc) can be converted to syngas. Pyrolysis and Char gasification proceed sequentially

  4. Electrochemical Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-07-20

    Sensitive and selective detection techniques are of crucial importance for capillary electrophoresis (CE), microfluidic chips, and other microfluidic systems. Electrochemical detectors have attracted considerable interest for microfluidic systems with features that include high sensitivity, inherent miniaturization of both the detection and control instrumentation, low cost and power demands, and high compatibility with microfabrication technology. The commonly used electrochemical detectors can be classified into three general modes: conductimetry, potentiometry, and amperometry.

  5. Measurement techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willis, W.L.

    1980-10-01

    The discussion will be restricted to measurements of voltage and current. Also, although the measurements themselves should be as quantitative as possible, the discussion is rather nonquantitative. Emphasis is on types of instruments, how they may be used, and the inherent advantages and limitations of a given technique. A great deal of information can be obtained from good, clean voltage and current data. Power and impedance are obviously inherent if the proper time relationships are preserved. Often an associated, difficult-to-determine, physical event can be evaluated from the V-I data, such as a time-varying load characteristic, or the time of light emission, etc. The lack of active high voltage devices, such as 50-kV operational amplifiers, restricts measurement devices to passive elements, primarily R and C. There are a few more exotic techniques that are still passive in nature. There are several well-developed techniques for voltage measurements. These include: spark gaps; electrostatic meters; capacitive dividers; mixed RC dividers; and the electro-optic effect. Current is measured by either direct measurement of charge flow or by measuring the resulting magnetic field.

  6. Atmospheric Neutrinos in the MINOS Far Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howcroft, Caius L.F.

    2004-12-01

    The phenomenon of flavour oscillations of neutrinos created in the atmosphere was first reported by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration in 1998 and since then has been confirmed by Soudan 2 and MACRO. The MINOS Far Detector is the first magnetized neutrino detector able to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations. Although it was designed to detect neutrinos from the NuMI beam, it provides a unique opportunity to measure the oscillation parameters for neutrinos and anti-neutrinos independently. The MINOS Far Detector was completed in August 2003 and since then has collected 2.52 kton-years of atmospheric data. Atmospheric neutrino interactions contained within the volume of the detector are separated from the dominant background from cosmic ray muons. Thirty seven events are selected with an estimated background contamination of less than 10%. Using the detector's magnetic field, 17 neutrino events and 6 anti-neutrino events are identified, 14 events have ambiguous charge. The neutrino oscillation parameters for {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} are studied using a maximum likelihood analysis. The measurement does not place constraining limits on the neutrino oscillation parameters due to the limited statistics of the data set analysed. However, this thesis represents the first observation of charge separated atmospheric neutrino interactions. It also details the techniques developed to perform atmospheric neutrino analyses in the MINOS Far Detector.

  7. Toxicity of atmospheric aerosols on marine phytoplankton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    address: Center for Atmospheric Chemistry Study, Departmenttween phytoplankton, atmospheric chemistry, and climate areno. 12 ? 4601– 4605 CHEMISTRY Atmospheric aerosol deposition

  8. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, Roland L. (Bloomfield, CO); Cannon, Theodore W. (Golden, CO)

    1988-01-01

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

  9. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

    1988-10-25

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

  10. Autumn 2014 Atmospheric Circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doty, Sharon Lafferty

    to perform atmospheric chemistry measurements in this remote region of ubiquitous oil and gas drilling 30 days they raised $12,000, enough to support Maria's travel to Utah and to cover the costs

  11. Experimental Highlights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you not find whatGasEnergy Technologies | Blandinenews Experimental

  12. Experimental unsaturated soil mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delage, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    In this general report, experimental systems and procedures of investigating the hydro-mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils are presented. The water retention properties of unsaturated soils are commented and linked to various physical parameters and properties of the soils. Techniques of controlling suction are described together with their adaptation in various laboratory testing devices. Some typical features of the mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils are presented within an elasto-plastic framework. An attempt to describe the numerous and significant recent advances in the investigation of the behaviour of unsaturated soils, including the contributions to this Conference, is proposed.

  13. 13, 1479714822, 2013 Atmospheric waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    .5194/acpd-13-14797-2013 © Author(s) 2013. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Sciences ss Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics OpenAccess Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics OpenAccess Discussions Atmospheric Measurement s Discussions This discussion paper is/has been under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

  14. The middle Martian atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaquin, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Profiles of scattered light above the planetary limb from 116 Viking Orbiter images are used to constrain the temporal and spatial behavior of aerosols suspended in the Martian atmosphere. The data cover a wide range of seasons, locations, and viewing geometry, providing information about the aerosol optical properties and vertical distribution. The typical atmospheric column contains one or more discrete, optically thin, ice-like haze layers between 30 and 90 km elevation whose composition is inferred to be water ice. Below the detached hazes, a continuous haze, interpreted to have a large dust component, extends from as much as 50 km to the surface. The haze distribution exhibits an annual variation that reflects a seasonally driven circulation in the middle atmosphere. The potential role of stationary gravity waves in modifying the middle atmosphere circulation is explored using a linear theory applied to a realistic Martian environment. Martian topography derived from radar observations is decomposed into Fourier harmonics and used to linearly superpose gravity waves arising from each component. The larger amplitude topography on Mars combined with the absence of extended regions of smooth topography like oceans generates larger wave amplitudes than on the Earth. The circulation of the middle atmosphere is examined using a two-dimensional, linearized, axisymmetric model successfully employed in the study of the terrestrial mesosphere. Illustrations of temperature and wind speeds are presented for the southern summer solstice and southern spring equinox.

  15. Observations of Exoplanet Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crossfield, Ian J M

    2015-01-01

    Detailed characterization of an extrasolar planet's atmosphere provides the best hope for distinguishing the makeup of its outer layers, and the only hope for understanding the interplay between initial composition, chemistry, dynamics & circulation, and disequilibrium processes. In recent years, some areas have seen rapid progress while developments in others have come more slowly and/or have been hotly contested. This article gives an observer's perspective on the current understanding of extrasolar planet atmospheres prior to the considerable advances expected from the next generation of observing facilities. Atmospheric processes of both transiting and directly-imaged planets are discussed, including molecular and atomic abundances, cloud properties, thermal structure, and planetary energy budgets. In the future we can expect a continuing and accelerating stream of new discoveries, which will fuel the ongoing exoplanet revolution for many years to come.

  16. Autumn 2012 Atmospheric Circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doty, Sharon Lafferty

    wind, and accumulated precipitation at a designated city. Forecasts are made over a two-week period Department 1 The UW Atmospheric Sciences spring forecast contest has been an annual tradition there will be a marine push or a convergence zone wrecking their forecast for maximum temperature and precipitation

  17. Laboratory for Atmospheric and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics Activity Report 2013 University of Colorado at Boulder from the Naval Research Center and the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory (now the Phillips Laboratory), the University of Colorado formed a research group called the Upper Air Laboratory (UAL

  18. Laboratory for Atmospheric and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics Activity Report 2012 University of Colorado at Boulder from the Naval Research Center and the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory (now the Phillips Laboratory), the University of Colorado formed a research group called the Upper Air Laboratory (UAL

  19. Laboratory for Atmospheric and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics Activity Report 2008 University of Colorado at Boulder, Jet Propulsion Laboratory) LASP: A Brief History In 1946-47, a handful of American universities joined Laboratory (now the Phillips Laboratory), the University of Colorado formed a research group called the Upper

  20. Laboratory for Atmospheric and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    1 Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics Activity Report 2010 University of Colorado from the Na- val Research Center and the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory (now the Phillips Laboratory), the University of Colorado formed a research group called the Upper Air Laboratory (UAL

  1. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandenburg, Axel

    of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic formats. For more information about Wiley products, visit our web site at www.wiley.com. Library of Congress Cataloging components of the atmosphere, nitrogen, oxygen, water, carbon dioxide, and the noble gases. In the late

  2. 5.301 Chemistry Laboratory Techniques, January IAP 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tabacco, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    This course is an intensive introduction to the techniques of experimental chemistry and gives first year students an opportunity to learn and master the basic chemistry lab techniques for carrying out experiments. Students ...

  3. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griesbach, O.A.; Stencel, J.R.

    1987-10-02

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The moisture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H/sub 2/ or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  4. Sampling, characterization, and remote sensing of aerosols formed in the atmospheric hydrolysis of uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostick, W.D.; McCulla, W.H.; Pickrell, P.W.

    1984-05-01

    When gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) is released into the atmosphere, it rapidly reacts with ambient moisture to form an aerosol of uranyl fluoride (UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/) and hydrogen fluoride (HF). As part of our Safety Analysis program, we have performed several experimental releases of HF/sub 6/ in contained volumes in order to investigate techniques for sampling and characterizing the aerosol materials. The aggregate particle morphology and size distribution have been found to be dependent upon several conditions, including the temperature of the UF/sub 6/ at the time of its release, the relative humidity of the air into which it is released, and the elapsed time after the release. Aerosol composition and settling rate have been investigated using stationary samplers for the separate collection of UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/ and HF and via laser spectroscopic remote sensing (Mie scatter and infrared spectroscopy). 25 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Sampling and characterization of aerosols formed in the atmospheric hydrolysis of UF/sub 6/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostick, W.D.; McCulla, W.H.; Pickrell, P.W.; Branam, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    When gaseous UF/sub 6/ is released into the atmosphere, it rapidly reacts with ambient moisture to form an aerosol of uranyl fluoride and HF. As part of our Safety Analysis program, we have performed several experimental releases of UF/sub 6/ (from natural uranium) in contained volumes in order to investigate techniques for sampling and characterizing the aerosol materials. The aggregrate particle morphology and size distribution have been found to be dependent upon several conditions, including the relative humidity at the time of the release and the elapse time after the release. Aerosol composition and settling rate have been investigated using isokinetic samplers for the separate collection of UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/ and HF, and via laser spectroscopic remote sensing (Mie scatter and infrared spectroscopy). 8 references.

  6. Rising atmospheric CO{sub 2} and crops: Research methodology and direct effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, H.; Acock, B.

    1993-12-31

    Carbon dioxide is the food of trees and grass. Our relentless pursuit of a better life has taken us down a traffic jammed road, past smoking factories and forests. This pursuit is forcing a rise in the atmospheric CO{sub 2} level, and no one know when and if flood stage will be reached. Some thinkers have suggested that this increase of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere will cause warming. No matter whether this prediction is realized or not, more CO{sub 2} will directly affect plants. Data from controlled observations have usually, but not always, shown benefits. Our choices of scientific equipment for gathering CO{sub 2} response data are critical since we must see what is happening through the eye of the instrument. The signals derived from our sensors will ultimately determine the truth of our conclusions, conclusion which will profoundly influence our policy decisions. Experimental gear is selected on the basis of scale of interest and problem to be addressed. Our imaginations and our budgets interact to set bounds on our objectives and approaches. Techniques run the gamut from cellular microprobes through whole-plant controlled environment chambers to field-scale exposure systems. Trade-offs exist among the various CO{sub 2} exposure techniques, and many factors impinge on the choice of a method. All exposure chambers are derivatives of three primary types--batch, plug flow, and continuous stirred tank reactor. Systems for the generation of controlled test atmospheres of CO{sub 2} vary in two basic ways--size and degree of control. Among the newest is free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment which allows tens of square meters of cropland to be studied.

  7. Atmospheric Chemistry Theodore S. Dibble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dibble, Theodore

    SYLLABUS FOR Atmospheric Chemistry FCH 511 Fall 2014 Theodore S. Dibble Professor of Chemistry 421 in Required Text Seinfeld, J. H. and Pandis, S. N. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution nineteenth year at ESF, and my seventeenth year teaching FCH 511 (Atmospheric Chemistry). I have done a lot

  8. Laboratory Studies of Processing of Carbonaceous Aerosols by Atmospheric Oxidants/Hygroscopicity and CCN Activity of Secondary & Processed Primary Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziemann, P.J.; Arey, J.; Atkinson, R.; Kreidenweis, S.M.; Petters, M.D.

    2012-06-13

    The atmosphere is composed of a complex mixture of gases and suspended microscopic aerosol particles. The ability of these particles to take up water (hygroscopicity) and to act as nuclei for cloud droplet formation significantly impacts aerosol light scattering and absorption, and cloud formation, thereby influencing air quality, visibility, and climate in important ways. A substantial, yet poorly characterized component of the atmospheric aerosol is organic matter. Its major sources are direct emissions from combustion processes, which are referred to as primary organic aerosol (POA), or in situ processes in which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are oxidized in the atmosphere to low volatility reaction products that subsequent condense to form particles that are referred to as secondary organic aerosol (SOA). POA and VOCs are emitted to the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and natural (biogenic) sources. The overall goal of this experimental research project was to conduct laboratory studies under simulated atmospheric conditions to investigate the effects of the chemical composition of organic aerosol particles on their hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nucleation (CCN) activity, in order to develop quantitative relationships that could be used to more accurately incorporate aerosol-cloud interactions into regional and global atmospheric models. More specifically, the project aimed to determine the products, mechanisms, and rates of chemical reactions involved in the processing of organic aerosol particles by atmospheric oxidants and to investigate the relationships between the chemical composition of organic particles (as represented by molecule sizes and the specific functional groups that are present) and the hygroscopicity and CCN activity of oxidized POA and SOA formed from the oxidation of the major classes of anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs that are emitted to the atmosphere, as well as model hydrocarbons. The general approach for this project was to carry out reactions of representative anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs and organic particles with ozone (O3), and hydroxyl (OH), nitrate (NO3), and chlorine (Cl) radicals, which are the major atmospheric oxidants, under simulated atmospheric conditions in large-volume environmental chambers. A combination of on-line and off-line analytical techniques were used to monitor the chemical and physical properties of the particles including their hygroscopicity and CCN activity. The results of the studies were used to (1) improve scientific understanding of the relationships between the chemical composition of organic particles and their hygroscopicity and CCN activity, (2) develop an improved molecular level theoretical framework for describing these relationships, and (3) establish a large database that is being used to develop parameterizations relating organic aerosol chemical properties and SOA sources to particle hygroscopicity and CCN activity for use in regional and global atmospheric air quality and climate models.

  9. Lifetimes and eigenstates in atmospheric chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, Michael J

    1994-01-01

    Perturbation dynamics in atmospheric chemistry. J. Geophys.isotopic variations in atmospheric chemistry. Geophys. Res.M. et al. 2001 Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases (

  10. Atmospheric chemistry of an Antarctic volcanic plume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    L. , et al. (2010), Atmospheric chemistry results from theI. , et al. (2006), Atmospheric chemistry of a 33 – 34 hourvolcanic eruptions on atmospheric chemistry, Chem. Geol. ,

  11. An Experimental Evaluation of Computer Graphics Imagery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Gary

    An Experimental Evaluation of Computer Graphics Imagery GARY W. MEYER, HOLLY E. RUSHMEIER, MICHAEL algorithms; 1.3.6 [Computer Graphics]: Methodology and Techniques-ergonomics; 1.3.7 [Computer Graphics Evaluation of Computer Graphics Imagery l 31 Early realistic image synthesis techniques and the lighting

  12. Performance of the STACEE Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STACEE Collaboration; D. A. Williams; D. Bhattacharya; L. M. Boone; M. C. Chantell; Z. Conner; C. E. Covault; M. Dragovan; P. Fortin; D. Gingrich; D. T. Gregorich; D. S. Hanna; G. Mohanty; R. Mukherjee; R. A. Ong; S. Oser; K. Ragan; R. A. Scalzo; D. R. Schuette; C. G. Theoret; T. O. Tumer; F. Vincent; J. A. Zweerink

    2000-10-17

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is located at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The field of solar tracking mirrors (heliostats) around a central receiver tower is used to direct Cherenkov light from atmospheric showers onto secondary mirrors on the tower, which in turn image the light onto cameras of photomultiplier tubes. The STACEE Collaboration has previously reported a detection of the Crab Nebula with approximately 7 standard deviation significance, using 32 heliostats (STACEE-32). This result demonstrates both the viability of the technique and the suitability of the site. We are in the process of completing an upgrade to 48 heliostats (STACEE-48) en route to an eventual configuration using 64 heliostats (STACEE-64) in early 2001. In this paper, we summarize the results obtained on the sensitivity of STACEE-32 and our expectations for STACEE-48 and STACEE-64.

  13. Improved detection of atmospheric turbulence with SLODAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Goodwin; Charles Jenkins; Andrew Lambert

    2007-06-19

    We discuss several improvements in the detection of atmospheric turbulence using SLOpe Detection And Ranging (SLODAR). Frequently, SLODAR observations have shown strong ground-layer turbulence, which is beneficial to adaptive optics. We show that current methods which neglect atmospheric propagation effects can underestimate the strength of high altitude turbulence by up to ~ 30%. We show that mirror and dome seeing turbulence can be a significant fraction of measured ground-layer turbulence, some cases up to ~ 50%. We also demonstrate a novel technique to improve the nominal height resolution, by a factor of 3, called Generalized SLODAR. This can be applied when sampling high-altitude turbulence, where the nominal height resolution is the poorest, or for resolving details in the important ground-layer.

  14. Experimental Techniques In The Recording And Display Of Archaeological Materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koepnick, Samuel

    2011-08-08

    Dreamweaver Web design and syntax highlighter $399.00 Adobe.com (January 2009) NVU1 Autodesk Maya Polygonal modeling and rendering $1,995.00 Autodesk.com (January 2009) Blender 3D2 Rhinoceros NURBS modeling and rendering $995.00 Rhino3d...

  15. Experimental Techniques for the Study of Liquid Monopropellant Combustion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, William

    2012-07-16

    , and experiments were performed between 28 atm and 130 atm. Burning rate data for nitromethane are calculated from experiments and a power correlation is established as r(mm/s) = 0.33[P(MPa)]^1.02. A comparison with available literature reveals this correlation...

  16. Transforming big data into knowledge : experimental techniques in dynamic visualization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Stephen James, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Information visualizations, especially those utilizing web-based platforms, are becoming an increasingly common medium for exchanging ideas. This emergent class of tools enabling web-based, interactive platforms for ...

  17. Experimental techniques to investigate the p process of nucleosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zilges, Andreas

    ) 127 #12;Activation measurement HPG Decay of 147,149Nd HPGe detector activated -: 147Nd147Pm -: 149Nd149Pm Shielding activated target : 149Nd149Pm Nd ­ X-rays Energy [keV] Reaction Yield: d

  18. Computational and experimental techniques for coupled acoustic/structure

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing BacteriaConnect Collider Tests ofO y (Journal(Journal Article)tailoredinteractions.

  19. Computational and experimental techniques for coupled acoustic/structure

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing BacteriaConnect Collider Tests ofO y (Journal(Journal

  20. ARM - Atmospheric Heat Budget

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016Study (CHAPS)Archive CampaignListAtmospheric Heat

  1. ARM - Atmospheric Pressure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016Study (CHAPS)Archive CampaignListAtmospheric

  2. Atmospheric PSF Interpolation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby a contractor ofvarDOE PAGES11 PPPL-Atmospheric PSF

  3. 3. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ABSTRACT 3. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Center for Experimental Study of Subsurface: A finite element computer program for analyzing water, vapor, air, and energy transport in porous media thermal boundary conditions: Experimental and modeling investigation to compare equilibrium

  4. Sandia Energy - Experimental Testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experimental Testing Home Stationary Power Nuclear Fuel Cycle Nuclear Energy Safety Technologies Experimental Testing Experimental TestingTara Camacho-Lopez2015-05-11T18:46:46+00:0...

  5. Stargate: Energy Management Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vijay Raghunathan; Mani Srivastava; Trevor Pering; Roy Want

    2004-01-01

    Stargate: Energy Management Techniques Vijay Raghunathan,Platform specific energy management is crucial for longSolution: System level energy management techniques and

  6. Strategies for measurement of atmospheric column means of carbon dioxide from aircraft using discrete sampling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Britton B.

    Strategies for measurement of atmospheric column means of carbon dioxide from aircraft using and Structure: Instruments and techniques; KEYWORDS: carbon dioxide, column mean, column integral, COBRA, flask, Strategies for measurement of atmospheric column means of carbon dioxide from aircraft using discrete

  7. Modeling of the optical properties of nonspherical particles in the atmosphere 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Guang

    2009-05-15

    The single scattering properties of atmospheric particles are fundamental to radiative simulations and remote sensing applications. In this study, an efficient technique, namely, the pseudo-spectral time-domain (PSTD) ...

  8. Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a Solar + Earth Spectrum IR Absorbers Grey Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect #12;Radiation: Solar and Earth Surface B"(T) Planck Ideal Emission Integrate and it emits Note: heat balance Fvis( = Fout = Te 4 z #12;(simple Greenhouse cont.) 0 1 2 3 4 Ground Space Top

  9. Atmospheric science encompasses meteorology and climatology, as well as fields such as atmospheric chemistry and remote sensing.Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    chemistry and remote sensing.Atmospheric scientists apply physics, mathematics, and chemistry to understandAtmospheric science encompasses meteorology and climatology, as well as fields such as atmospheric the atmosphere and its interactions with land and sea. One of the goals of atmospheric science is to understand

  10. Short ensembles: An Efficient Method for Discerning Climate-relevant Sensitivities in Atmospheric General Circulation Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Hui; Rasch, Philip J.; Zhang, Kai; Qian, Yun; Yan, Huiping; Zhao, Chun

    2014-09-08

    This paper explores the feasibility of an experimentation strategy for investigating sensitivities in fast components of atmospheric general circulation models. The basic idea is to replace the traditional serial-in-time long-term climate integrations by representative ensembles of shorter simulations. The key advantage of the proposed method lies in its efficiency: since fewer days of simulation are needed, the computational cost is less, and because individual realizations are independent and can be integrated simultaneously, the new dimension of parallelism can dramatically reduce the turnaround time in benchmark tests, sensitivities studies, and model tuning exercises. The strategy is not appropriate for exploring sensitivity of all model features, but it is very effective in many situations. Two examples are presented using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5. The first example demonstrates that the method is capable of characterizing the model cloud and precipitation sensitivity to time step length. A nudging technique is also applied to an additional set of simulations to help understand the contribution of physics-dynamics interaction to the detected time step sensitivity. In the second example, multiple empirical parameters related to cloud microphysics and aerosol lifecycle are perturbed simultaneously in order to explore which parameters have the largest impact on the simulated global mean top-of-atmosphere radiation balance. Results show that in both examples, short ensembles are able to correctly reproduce the main signals of model sensitivities revealed by traditional long-term climate simulations for fast processes in the climate system. The efficiency of the ensemble method makes it particularly useful for the development of high-resolution, costly and complex climate models.

  11. Particle physics---Experimental

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lord, J.J.; Boynton, P.E.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1991-08-21

    We are continuing a research program in particle astrophysics and high energy experimental particle physics. We have joined the DUMAND Collaboration, which is constructing a deep undersea astrophysical neutrino detector near Hawaii. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions using emulsion chamber techniques were also continued, using balloon flight exposures to ultra-high cosmic ray nuclei (JACEE) and accelerator beams. As members of the DUMAND Collaboration, we have responsibility for development a construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility. We have designed and developed the acoustical positioning system required to permit reconstruction of muon tracks with sufficient precision to meet the astrophysical goals of the experiment. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the database and triggering system to be used. Work has been continuing in other aspects of the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators, using balloon-borne emulsion chambers. On one of the flights we found two nuclear interactions of multiplicity over 1000 -- one with a multiplicity of over 2000 and pseudorapidity density {approximately} 800 in the central region. At the statistical level of the JACEE experiment, the frequency of occurrence of such events is orders of magnitude too large. We have continued our ongoing program to study hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams.

  12. DIVISION OF MARINE AND ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyu, Mei-Ling

    DIVISION OF MARINE AND ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY The missions of the Division of Marine and Atmospheric Chemistry (MAC) are to carry out broadly based research on the chemistry of the atmosphere and marine and stratosphere. Atmospheric Chemistry Research activities in atmospheric chemistry and modeling are diverse

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackerman, T

    2004-10-31

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years. Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square. Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds. Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations. Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites. Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale. Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote facilities at ARM's Tropical Western Pacific and the North Slope of Alaska sites. Over time, this new facility will extend ARM science to a much broader range of conditions for model testing.

  14. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY - RESPONSE TO HUMAN INFLUENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LOGAN, J; PRATHER, M; WOFSY, S; MCELROY, M

    1978-01-01

    Trans. II 70, 253. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY Clyne, M. A. A. &data for modelling atmospheric chemistry. NBS Technical NoteChem. 80, 2711. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY Sanadze, G. A. 1963 On

  15. IMPROVED QUASISTEADYSTATEAPPROXIMATION METHODS FOR ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY INTEGRATION #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jay, Laurent O.

    IMPROVED QUASI­STEADY­STATE­APPROXIMATION METHODS FOR ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY INTEGRATION # L. O. JAY QSSA are presented. Key words. atmospheric chemistry, sti# ordinary di#erential equations, quasi PII. S1064827595283033 1. Introduction. As our scientific understanding of atmospheric chemistry

  16. Global atmospheric chemistry: Integrating over fractional cloud cover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neu, Jessica L; Prather, Michael J; Penner, Joyce E

    2007-01-01

    trace gases and atmospheric chemistry, in Climate Change2007 Global atmospheric chemistry: Integrating over2007), Global atmospheric chemistry: Integrating over

  17. Assessor Training Assessment Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NVLAP Assessor Training Assessment Techniques: Communication Skills and Conducting an Assessment listener ·Knowledgeable Assessor Training 2009: Assessment Techniques: Communication Skills & Conducting, truthful, sincere, discrete · Diplomatic · Decisive · Selfreliant Assessor Training 2009: Assessment

  18. Infrared Observations of Exoplanet Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crossfield, Ian James Mills

    2012-01-01

    However, atmospheres of cool planets can still be studiedvia outgassing as the planet cools (Rogers & Seager 2010).at low resolution) and the cool, low-mass planet GJ 1214b (

  19. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion...

  20. Atmospheric science and power production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randerson, D.

    1984-07-01

    This is the third in a series of scientific publications sponsored by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the two later organizations, the US Energy Research and Development Adminstration, and the US Department of Energy. The first book, Meteorology and Atomic Energy, was published in 1955; the second, in 1968. The present volume is designed to update and to expand upon many of the important concepts presented previously. However, the present edition draws heavily on recent contributions made by atmospheric science to the analysis of air quality and on results originating from research conducted and completed in the 1970s. Special emphasis is placed on how atmospheric science can contribute to solving problems relating to the fate of combustion products released into the atmosphere. The framework of this book is built around the concept of air-quality modeling. Fundamentals are addressed first to equip the reader with basic background information and to focus on available meteorological instrumentation and to emphasize the importance of data management procedures. Atmospheric physics and field experiments are described in detail to provide an overview of atmospheric boundary layer processes, of how air flows around obstacles, and of the mechanism of plume rise. Atmospheric chemistry and removal processes are also detailed to provide fundamental knowledge on how gases and particulate matter can be transformed while in the atmosphere and how they can be removed from the atmosphere. The book closes with a review of how air-quality models are being applied to solve a wide variety of problems. Separate analytics have been prepared for each chapter.

  1. Atmospheric-pressure guided streamers for liposomal membrane disruption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svarnas, P.; Aleiferis, Sp.; Matrali, S. H.; Gazeli, K.; Clement, F.; Antimisiaris, S. G.

    2012-12-24

    The potential to use liposomes (LIPs) as a cellular model in order to study interactions of cold atmospheric-pressure plasma with cells is herein investigated. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma is formed by a dielectric-barrier discharge reactor. Large multilamellar vesicle liposomes, consisted of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, are prepared by the thin film hydration technique, to encapsulate a small hydrophilic dye, i.e., calcein. The plasma-induced release of calcein from liposomes is then used as a measure of liposome membrane integrity and, consequently, interaction between the cold atmospheric plasma and lipid bilayers. Physical mechanisms leading to membrane disruption are suggested, based on the plasma characterization including gas temperature calculation.

  2. Atmospheric pressure plasma analysis by modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aranda Gonzalvo, Y.; Whitmore, T.D.; Rees, J.A.; Seymour, D.L.; Stoffels, E.

    2006-05-15

    Fractional number density measurements for a rf plasma 'needle' operating at atmospheric pressure have been obtained using a molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) system designed for diagnostics of atmospheric plasmas. The MBMS system comprises three differentially pumped stages and a mass/energy analyzer and includes an automated beam-to-background measurement facility in the form of a software-controlled chopper mechanism. The automation of the beam modulation allows the neutral components in the plasma to be rapidly and accurately measured using the mass spectrometer by threshold ionization techniques. Data are reported for plasma generated by a needle plasma source operated using a helium/air mixture. In particular, data for the conversion of atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen into nitric oxide are discussed with reference to its significance for medical applications such as disinfecting wounds and dental cavities and for microsurgery.

  3. Cold atmospheric plasma in cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keidar, Michael; Shashurin, Alex; Volotskova, Olga; Ann Stepp, Mary; Srinivasan, Priya; Sandler, Anthony; Trink, Barry

    2013-05-15

    Recent progress in atmospheric plasmas has led to the creation of cold plasmas with ion temperature close to room temperature. This paper outlines recent progress in understanding of cold plasma physics as well as application of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) in cancer therapy. Varieties of novel plasma diagnostic techniques were developed recently in a quest to understand physics of CAP. It was established that the streamer head charge is about 10{sup 8} electrons, the electrical field in the head vicinity is about 10{sup 7} V/m, and the electron density of the streamer column is about 10{sup 19} m{sup ?3}. Both in-vitro and in-vivo studies of CAP action on cancer were performed. It was shown that the cold plasma application selectively eradicates cancer cells in-vitro without damaging normal cells and significantly reduces tumor size in-vivo. Studies indicate that the mechanism of action of cold plasma on cancer cells is related to generation of reactive oxygen species with possible induction of the apoptosis pathway. It is also shown that the cancer cells are more susceptible to the effects of CAP because a greater percentage of cells are in the S phase of the cell cycle.

  4. Estimation of stellar atmospheric parameters from SDSS/SEGUE spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Re Fiorentin; C. A. L. Bailer-Jones; Y. S. Lee; T. C. Beers; T. Sivarani; R. Wilhelm; C. Allende Prieto; J. E. Norris

    2007-03-13

    We present techniques for the estimation of stellar atmospheric parameters (Teff,logg,[Fe/H]) for stars from the SDSS/SEGUE survey. The atmospheric parameters are derived from the observed medium-resolution (R=2000) stellar spectra using non-linear regression models trained either on (1) pre-classified observed data or (2) synthetic stellar spectra. In the first case we use our models to automate and generalize parametrization produced by a preliminary version of the SDSS/SEGUE Spectroscopic Parameter Pipeline (SSPP). In the second case we directly model the mapping between synthetic spectra (derived from Kurucz model atmospheres) and the atmospheric parameters, independently of any intermediate estimates. After training, we apply our models to various samples of SDSS spectra to derive atmospheric parameters, and compare our results with those obtained previously by the SSPP for the same samples. We obtain consistency between the two approaches, with RMS deviations of 150K in Teff, 0.35dex in logg, and 0.22dex in [Fe/H]. The models are applied to pre-processed spectra, either via Principal Components Analysis or a Wavelength Range Selection method, which employs a subset of the full 3850-9000A spectral range. This is both for computational reasons, and because it delivers higher accuracy. From an analysis of cluster candidates with available SDSS spectroscopy (M15, M13, M2, and NGC2420), we find evidence for small systematic offsets in Teff and/or logg for the atmospheric parameter estimates from the model trained on real data with the SSPP. Thus, this model turns out to derive more precise, but less accurate, atmospheric parameters than the model trained on synthetic data.

  5. Chemistry of Atmospheric Brown Carbon Alexander Laskin,*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Chemistry of Atmospheric Brown Carbon Alexander Laskin,*, Julia Laskin,*, and Sergey A. Nizkorodov fraction of atmospheric aerosol and has profound effects on air quality, atmospheric chemistry, and climate of radiation through Earth's atmosphere. The cloud albedo effect, Special Issue: 2015 Chemistry in Climate

  6. Development of manufacturing technique for composite structures for robotic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dixon, Theresa, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    An experimental study was performed with the aim of developing a technique for manufacturing composite parts for use in dynamic robotic applications in lieu of heavy and expensive metal parts used in conventional robotic ...

  7. Robust Decoupling Techniques to Extend Quantum Coherence in Diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Colm A.

    We experimentally demonstrate over 2 orders of magnitude increase in the room-temperature coherence time of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond by implementing decoupling techniques. We show that equal pulse spacing ...

  8. FTN4 OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2012-01-01

    3 1st Edition FTN4 OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES November 1979O. INTRODUCTION 1. COt1PILER OPTIMIZATIONS 2. SOURCE CODEcode. Most of these optimizations decrease central processor

  9. Cumulant expansions for atmospheric flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Meyer, Bettina; Marston, J B

    2015-01-01

    The equations governing atmospheric flows are nonlinear, and consequently the hierarchy of cumulant equations is not closed. But because atmospheric flows are inhomogeneous and anisotropic, the nonlinearity may manifests itself only weakly through interactions of mean fields with disturbances such as thermals or eddies. In such situations, truncations of the hierarchy of cumulant equations hold promise as a closure strategy. We review how truncations at second order can be used to model and elucidate the dynamics of turbulent atmospheric flows. Two examples are considered. First, we study the growth of a dry convective boundary layer, which is heated from below, leading to turbulent upward energy transport and growth of the boundary layer. We demonstrate that a quasilinear truncation of the equations of motion, in which interactions of disturbances among each other are neglected but interactions with mean fields are taken into account, can successfully capture the growth of the convective boundary layer. Seco...

  10. Simulation and Theory of Ions at Atmospherically Relevant Aqueous Liquid-Air Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas J. Tobias; Abraham C. Stern; Marcel D. Baer; Yan Levin; Christopher J. Mundy

    2013-06-28

    Chemistry occurring at or near the surfaces of aqueous droplets and thin films in the atmosphere influences air quality and climate. Molecular dynamics simulations are becoming increasingly useful for gaining atomic-scale insight into the structure and reactivity of aqueous interfaces in the atmosphere. Here we review simulation studies of atmospherically relevant aqueous liquid-air interfaces, with an emphasis on ions that play important roles in the chemistry of atmospheric aerosols. In addition to surveying results from simulation studies, we discuss challenges to the refinement and experimental validation of the methodology for simulating ion adsorption to the air-water interface, and recent advances in elucidating the driving forces for adsorption. We also review the recent development of a dielectric continuum theory that is capable of reproducing simulation and experimental data on ion behavior at aqueous interfaces.

  11. 7.02 Introduction to Experimental Biology, Fall 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amon, Angelika

    7.02 and 7.021 require simultaneous registration. Application of experimental techniques in biochemistry, microbiology, and cell biology. Emphasizes integrating factual knowledge with understanding the design of experiments ...

  12. Observations of atmospheric tides on Mars at the season and latitude of the Phoenix atmospheric entry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    Observations of atmospheric tides on Mars at the season and latitude of the Phoenix atmospheric atmospheric entry of NASA's Phoenix Mars probe using Phoenix Atmospheric Structure Experiment (ASE) data atmospheric entry, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L24204, doi:10.1029/2010GL045382. 1. Introduction [2] Phoenix

  13. Contamination Control Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-05-16

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

  14. Experimental Economics: Where Next?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strien, Sebastian van

    Experimental Economics: Where Next? Ken Binmore Economics Dept University College Gower Street London WC1E 6BT United Kingdom Avner Shaked Economics Dept Bonn University Adenauerallee 24 53113 Bonn Germany Abstract: Where should experimental economics go next? This paper uses the literature on inequity

  15. Experimental and artificial neural network modeling study on soot formation in premixed hydrocarbon flamesq

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senkan, Selim M.

    Experimental and artificial neural network modeling study on soot formation in premixed hydrocarbon classical light scattering measurement techniques. The experimental data revealed that the soot properties rights reserved. Keywords: Soot; Hydrocarbon flames; Artificial neural networks 1. Introduction

  16. Evaluation of Loss Factor Estimation Techniques for Free Hanging Flat Panels Excited Mechanically

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dande, Himanshu Amol

    2013-05-31

    To establish the "best" technique to estimate a damping loss factor for mechanically-excited panels, three loss factor estimation techniques--PIM, IRDM, and RDT--are compared. In experimental and computational analyses, ...

  17. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The general specifications for a Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor Design Report (PAFBC) plant are presented. The design tasks for the PAFBC are described in the following areas: Coal/Limestone preparation and feed system; pulse combustor; fluidized bed; boiler parts; and ash handling system.

  18. Critical phenomena in atmospheric precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    LETTERS Critical phenomena in atmospheric precipitation OLE PETERS1,2,3 * AND J. DAVID NEELIN3 1 convection and precipitation (the order parameter)--with correlated regions on scales of tens to hundreds the climatological mean by an order of magnitude or more. Moist convection and the accompanying precipitation have

  19. Instrumented tube burns: theoretical and experimental observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarrington, Cole Davis; Obrey, Stephen J; Foley, Timothy J; Son, Steven F

    2009-01-01

    The advent of widely available nanoscale energetic composites has resulted in a flurry of novel applications. One of these applications is the use of nanomaterials in energetic compositions. In compositions that exhibit high sensitivity to stimulus, these materials are often termed metastable intermolecular composites (MIC). More generally, these compositions are simply called nanoenergetics. Researchers have used many different experimental techniques to analyze the various properties of nanoenergetic systems. Among these various techniques, the confined tube burn is a simple experiment that is capable of obtaining much data related to the combustion of these materials. The purpose of this report is to review the current state of the confined tube burn experiment, including the drawbacks of the technique and possible remedies. As this report is intended to focus on the specific experimental technique, data from many different energetic materials, and experimental configurations will be presented. The qualitative and quantitative data that can be gathered using confined tube burn experiments include burning rates, total impulse, pressure rise rate, and burning rate differences between different detector types. All of these measurements lend insight into the combustion properties and mechanisms of specific nanoenergetics. Finally, certain data indicates a more complicated flow scenario which may need to be considered when developing burn tube models.

  20. ARESE (ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment) Science Plan [Atmospheric Radiation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valero, F.P.J.; Schwartz, S.E.; Cess, R.D.; Ramanathan, V.; Collins, W.D.; Minnis, P.; Ackerman, T.P.; Vitko, J.; Tooman, T.P.

    1995-09-27

    Several recent studies have indicated that cloudy atmospheres may absorb significantly more solar radiation than currently predicted by models. The magnitude of this excess atmospheric absorption, is about 50% more than currently predicted and would have major impact on our understanding of atmospheric heating. Incorporation of this excess heating into existing general circulation models also appears to ameliorate some significant shortcomings of these models, most notably a tendency to overpredict the amount of radiant energy going into the oceans and to underpredict the tropopause temperature. However, some earlier studies do not show this excess absorption and an underlying physical mechanism that would give rise to such absorption has yet to be defined. Given the importance of this issue, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is sponsoring the ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) to study the absorption of solar radiation by clear and cloudy atmospheres. The experimental results will be compared with model calculations. Measurements will be conducted using three aircraft platforms (ARM-UAV Egrett, NASA ER-2, and an instrumented Twin Otter), as well as satellites and the ARM central and extended facilities in North Central Oklahoma. The project will occur over a four week period beginning in late September, 1995. Spectral broadband, partial bandpass, and narrow bandpass (10nm) solar radiative fluxes will be measured at different altitudes and at the surface with the objective to determine directly the magnitude and spectral characteristics of the absorption of shortwave radiation by the atmosphere (clear and cloudy). Narrow spectral channels selected to coincide with absorption by liquid water and ice will help in identifying the process of absorption of radiation. Additionally, information such as water vapor profiles, aerosol optical depths, cloud structure and ozone profiles, needed to use as input in radiative transfer calculations, will be acquired using the aircraft and surface facilities available to ARESE. This document outlines the scientific approach and measurement requirements of the project.

  1. On the Cool Side: Modeling the Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs and Giant Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marley, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    The atmosphere of a brown dwarf or extrasolar giant planet controls the spectrum of radiation emitted by the object and regulates its cooling over time. While the study of these atmospheres has been informed by decades of experience modeling stellar and planetary atmospheres, the distinctive characteristics of these objects present unique challenges to forward modeling. In particular, complex chemistry arising from molecule-rich atmospheres, molecular opacity line lists (sometimes running to 10 billion absorption lines or more) multiple cloud-forming condensates, and disequilibrium chemical processes all combine to create a challenging task for any modeling effort. This review describes the process of incorporating these complexities into one-dimensional radiative-convective equilibrium models of sub-stellar objects. We discuss the underlying mathematics as well as the techniques used to model the physics, chemistry, radiative transfer, and other processes relevant to understanding these atmospheres. The revi...

  2. VERSATILE VACUUM PACKAGING FOR EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF RESONANT MEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, William C

    VERSATILE VACUUM PACKAGING FOR EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF RESONANT MEMS Adam R. Schofield, Alexander A a versatile sub-mTorr vacuum packaging approach ideally suited for R&D of high performance dynamic MEMS techniques and experimentally characterized to determine the sealed vacuum level. The combination of high

  3. CHALLENGES IN DATA INTENSIVE ANALYSIS AT SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENTAL USER FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Li, Dongsheng; Miller, Stephen D.; Cobb, John W.; Green, Mark L.; Ruby, Catherine L.

    2011-12-31

    This chapter will discuss the critical data intensive analysis and visualiza-tion challenges faced by the experimental science community at large scale and laboratory based facilities. The chapter will further highlight initial solutions under development through community efforts and lay out perspectives for the future, such as the potential of more closely linked experimental and computational science approaches, methods to achieve real time analysis capabilities and the challenges and opportunities of data integration across experimental scales, levels of theory and varying techniques.

  4. Computatonal and experimental study of laminar flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smooke, M.D.; Long, M.B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research has centered on an investigation of the effects of complex chemistry and detailed transport on the structure and extinction of hydrocarbon flames in counterflow, cylindrical and coflowing axisymmetric configurations. The authors have pursued both computational and experimental aspects of the research in parallel. The computational work has focused on the application of accurate and efficient numerical methods for the solution of the one and two-dimensional nonlinear boundary value problems describing the various reacting systems. Detailed experimental measurements were performed on axisymmetric coflow flames using two-dimensional imaging techniques. In particular, spontaneous Raman scattering and laser induced fluorescence were used to measure the temperature, major and minor species profiles.

  5. Universal Spectrum for Atmospheric Suspended Particulates: Comparison with Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Selvam

    2011-08-25

    Atmospheric flows exhibit self-similar fractal space-time fluctuations on all space-time scales in association with inverse power law distribution for power spectra of meteorological parameters such as wind, temperature, etc., and thus implies long-range correlations, identified as self-organized criticality generic to dynamical systems in nature. A general systems theory based on classical statistical physical concepts developed by the author visualizes the fractal fluctuations to result from the coexistence of eddy fluctuations in an eddy continuum, the larger scale eddies being the integrated mean of enclosed smaller scale eddies. The model satisfies the maximum entropy principle and predicts that the probability distributions of component eddy amplitudes and the corresponding variances (power spectra) are quantified by the same universal inverse power law distribution which is a function of the golden mean. Atmospheric particulates are held in suspension by the vertical velocity distribution (spectrum). The atmospheric particulate size spectrum is derived in terms of the model predicted universal inverse power law characterizing atmospheric eddy spectrum. Model predicted spectrum is in agreement with the following four experimentally determined data sets: (i) CIRPAS mission TARFOX_WALLOPS_SMPS aerosol size distributions (ii) CIRPAS mission ARM-IOP (Ponca City, OK) aerosol size distributions (iii) SAFARI 2000 CV-580 (CARG Aerosol and Cloud Data) cloud drop size distributions and (iv) TWP-ICE (Darwin, Australia) rain drop size distributions.

  6. NDE to Manage Atmospheric SCC in Canisters for Dry Storage of Spent Fuel: An Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Pardini, Allan F.; Cuta, Judith M.; Adkins, Harold E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Qiao, Hong; Larche, Michael R.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2013-09-01

    This report documents efforts to assess representative horizontal (Transuclear NUHOMS®) and vertical (Holtec HI-STORM) storage systems for the implementation of non-destructive examination (NDE) methods or techniques to manage atmospheric stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in canisters for dry storage of used nuclear fuel. The assessment is conducted by assessing accessibility and deployment, environmental compatibility, and applicability of NDE methods. A recommendation of this assessment is to focus on bulk ultrasonic and eddy current techniques for direct canister monitoring of atmospheric SCC. This assessment also highlights canister regions that may be most vulnerable to atmospheric SCC to guide the use of bulk ultrasonic and eddy current examinations. An assessment of accessibility also identifies canister regions that are easiest and more difficult to access through the ventilation paths of the concrete shielding modules. A conceivable sampling strategy for canister inspections is to sample only the easiest to access portions of vulnerable regions. There are aspects to performing an NDE inspection of dry canister storage system (DCSS) canisters for atmospheric SCC that have not been addressed in previous performance studies. These aspects provide the basis for recommendations of future efforts to determine the capability and performance of eddy current and bulk ultrasonic examinations for atmospheric SCC in DCSS canisters. Finally, other important areas of investigation are identified including the development of instrumented surveillance specimens to identify when conditions are conducive for atmospheric SCC, characterization of atmospheric SCC morphology, and an assessment of air flow patterns over canister surfaces and their influence on chloride deposition.

  7. Review of the theoretical and experimental status of dark matter identification with cosmic-ray antideuterons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Aramaki; S. Boggs; S. Bufalino; L. Dal; P. von Doetinchem; F. Donato; N. Fornengo; H. Fuke; M. Grefe; C. Hailey; B. Hamilton; A. Ibarra; J. Mitchell; I. Mognet; R. A. Ong; R. Pereira; K. Perez; A. Putze; A. Raklev; P. Salati; M. Sasaki; G. Tarle; A. Urbano; A. Vittino; S. Wild; W. Xue; K. Yoshimura

    2015-05-28

    Recent years have seen increased theoretical and experimental effort towards the first-ever detection of cosmic-ray antideuterons, in particular as an indirect signature of dark matter annihilation or decay. In contrast to indirect dark matter searches using positrons, antiprotons, or gamma-rays, which suffer from relatively high and uncertain astrophysical backgrounds, searches with antideuterons benefit from very suppressed conventional backgrounds, offering a potential breakthrough in unexplored phase space for dark matter. This article is based on the first dedicated cosmic-ray antideuteron workshop, which was held at UCLA in June 2014. It reviews broad classes of dark matter candidates that result in detectable cosmic-ray antideuteron fluxes, as well as the status and prospects of current experimental searches. The coalescence model of antideuteron production and the influence of antideuteron measurements at particle colliders are discussed. This is followed by a review of the modeling of antideuteron propagation through the magnetic fields, plasma currents, and molecular material of our Galaxy, the solar system, the Earth's geomagnetic field, and the atmosphere. Finally, the three ongoing or planned experiments that are sensitive to cosmic-ray antideuterons, BESS, AMS-02, and GAPS, are detailed. As cosmic-ray antideuteron detection is a rare event search, multiple experiments with orthogonal techniques and backgrounds are essential. Many theoretical and experimental groups have contributed to these studies over the last decade, this review aims to provide the first coherent discussion of the relevant dark matter theories that antideuterons probe, the challenges to predictions and interpretations of antideuteron signals, and the experimental efforts toward cosmic antideuteron detection.

  8. Nuclear test experimental science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Bucciarelli, G.; Carter, J.; Cherniak, J.; Donohue, M.L.; Kirvel, R.D.; MacGregor, P.; Reid, S.

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory under the following topics: prompt diagnostics; experimental modeling, design, and analysis; detector development; streak-camera data systems; weapons supporting research.

  9. A review of experimental results at the knee Jorg R. Horandel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the atmosphere. A wealth of information on potential cosmic-ray sources is provided by recent measurements of Te, information on the sources is derived from detailed measurements of the cosmic-ray composition. InvestigationsA review of experimental results at the knee J¨org R. H¨orandel Institute for Experimental Nuclear

  10. Space Science: Atmospheres Evolution of planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    ;Atmospheres / Evolution Heat Sources Compressional Energy Trapped Radioactive Material Tidal InteractionsSpace Science: Atmospheres Part- 7a Evolution of planets Out-Gassing/ Volcanoes Evolution Initial Species Solar abundance Solar wind composition? Carbonaceous chondrites? Variables Early sun

  11. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2012)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerber, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2012) Published online in Wiley Online Library using National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP) concentrations and sea- surface temperatures (SSTs). These integrations enable the relative role of ozone

  12. Equilibration of an atmosphere by geostrophic turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jansen, Malte F. (Malte Friedrich)

    2013-01-01

    A major question for climate studies is to quantify the role of turbulent eddy fluxes in maintaining the observed atmospheric mean state. It has been argued that eddy fluxes keep the mid-latitude atmosphere in a state that ...

  13. Land and Atmospheric Science GRAD STUDENT HANDBOOK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Land and Atmospheric Science GRAD STUDENT HANDBOOK 20142015 WELCOME Welcome to the Graduate Program in Land and Atmospheric Science at the University of Minnesota. It is a sciencebased interdisciplinary program focused on the fundamentals of Earth system processes related

  14. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozonemore »and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.« less

  15. Experimental and modeling investigation of aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in a premixed ethylene flame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castaldi, M.J.; Marinov, N.M.; Melius, C.F.

    1996-02-01

    Experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modeling has been performed to investigate aromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbon formation pathways in a rich, sooting, ethylene-oxygen-argon premixed flame. An atmospheric pressure, laminar flat flame operated at an equivalence ratio of 2.5 was used to acquire experimental data for model validation. Gas composition analysis was conducted by an on-line gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) technique. Measurements were made in the flame and post-flame zone for a number of low molecular weight species, aliphatics, aromatics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranging from two to five-aromatic fused rings. The modeling results show the key reaction sequences leading to aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon growth involve the combination of resonantly stabilized radicals. In particular, propargyl and 1-methylallenyl combination reactions lead to benzene and methyl substituted benzene formation, while polycyclic aromatics are formed from cyclopentadienyl radicals and fused rings that have a shared C{sub 5} side structure. Naphthalene production through the reaction step of cyclopentadienyl self-combination and phenanthrene formation from indenyl and cyclopentadienyl combination were shown to be important in the flame modeling study. The removal of phenyl by O{sub 2} leading to cyclopentadienyl formation is expected to play a pivotal role in the PAH or soot precursor growth process under fuel-rich oxidation conditions.

  16. Radar range measurements in the atmosphere.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-02-01

    The earth's atmosphere affects the velocity of propagation of microwave signals. This imparts a range error to radar range measurements that assume the typical simplistic model for propagation velocity. This range error is a function of atmospheric constituents, such as water vapor, as well as the geometry of the radar data collection, notably altitude and range. Models are presented for calculating atmospheric effects on radar range measurements, and compared against more elaborate atmospheric models.

  17. Earth and Atmospheric Sciences | More Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Nuclear Forensics Climate & Environment Sensors and Measurements Chemical & Engineering Materials Computational Earth Science Systems Modeling...

  18. Dynamic characteristic of intense short microwave propagation in an atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yee, J.H.; Alvarez, R.A.; Mayhall, D.J.; Madsen, N.K.; Cabayan, H.S.

    1983-07-01

    The dynamic behavior of an intense microwave pulse which propagates through the atmosphere will be presented. Our theoretical results are obtained by solving Maxwell's equations, together with the electron fluid equations. Our calculations show that although large portions of the initial energy are absorbed by the electrons that are created through the avalanche process, a significant amount of energy is still able to reach the earth's surface. The amount of energy that reaches the earth's surface as a function of initial energy and wave shape after having propagated through 100 km in the atmosphere are investigated. Results for the air breakdown threshold intensity as a function of the pressure for different pulse widths and different frequencies will also be presented. In addition, we will present a comparison between the theoretical and the experimental results for the pulse shape of a short microwave pulse after it has traveled through a rectangular wave guide which contains a section of air. 23 references, 9 figures.

  19. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A .gamma.-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the annular region therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly shaping the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, no ions survive for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  20. A Recognized Leader in Marine & Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    D/Masters Applied Marine Physics Marine & Atmospheric Chemistry Marine Affairs & Policy (Masters Only) MarineA Recognized Leader in Marine & Atmospheric Studies Our graduate program has over 250 students University of MiaMi rosenstiel school of Marine & atMospheric science #12;Miami Ranks #5: fDi Magazine's Top

  1. Atmospheric evolution on Venus Bruce Fegley, Jr.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Atmospheric evolution on Venus Bruce Fegley, Jr. Planetary Chemistry Laboratory Department by Hunten et al. (1983), of Magellan results by Bougher et al. (1997), and atmospheric chemistry on Venus and Ancient Environments Edited by Vivien Gornitz January 2004 #12;2 ATMOSPHERIC EVOLUTION ON VENUS Overview

  2. Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

  3. Proof of the Atmospheric Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Arthur P

    2008-01-01

    A recently advanced argument against the atmospheric greenhouse effect is refuted. A planet without an infrared absorbing atmosphere is mathematically constrained to have an average temperature less than or equal to the effective radiating temperature. Observed parameters for Earth prove that without infrared absorption by the atmosphere, the average temperature of Earth's surface would be at least 33 K lower than what is observed.

  4. Atmospheric composition change - global and regional air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    in urban air. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5, 2881–deep convective system. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 4,processes in atmospheric chemistry. Chemical Society Review

  5. Coupling of nitrous oxide and methane by global atmospheric chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, MJ; Hsu, J

    2010-01-01

    supported by NSF’s Atmospheric Chemistry program (grant ATM-Methane by Global Atmospheric Chemistry Michael J. Prathergas, through atmospheric chemistry that en- hances the

  6. Formation mechanisms and quantification of organic nitrates in atmospheric aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew Waite

    2010-01-01

    and J. Viidanoja, Atmospheric chemistry of c 3 -c 6organic nitrates, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9 (4),organic aerosol yields, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

  7. 1997 Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul H. Wine

    1998-11-23

    DOE's Atmospheric Chemistry Program is providing partial funding for the Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists (ACCESS) and FY 1997 Gordon Research Conference in Atmospheric Chemistry

  8. Improving the reproducibility of pyrolysis MS techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roussis, S.G.; Fedora, J.W. [Imperial Oil, Sarnia (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The analysis of the majority of volatile samples is primarily accomplished with established techniques (EI, CI). These techniques are based on the direct vapourization of the sample, upon heating, in the ionization source of a mass spectrometer. Typical analytical techniques, able to analyze non-volatile samples are those that allow the desorption of components from the solid or liquid phase directly to the gas phase. Field Desorption (FD) and Desorption Chemical Ionization (DCI) are two of these techniques. Fast Atom Bombardment (FAB) has been more successful in analyzing polar samples than non-volatile hydrocarbon samples. Limited information is available for the capabilities of the newer ionization techniques (Electrospray Ionization, ESI; Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization, MALDI) to characterize the non-volatile hydrocarbon samples. ESI of mixtures of compounds produces complex mass spectra, consisting of multiply charged ion species, that may be difficult to interpret. MALDI has the potential for ionization of non-volatile hydrocarbon samples, but extensive research is required to determine the appropriate matrix compounds that will permit the unbiased desorption of all sample components. An important requirement in the characterization of the non-volatile samples using direct desorption techniques without prior chromatographic separation, is the use of ultra high resolution (>50,000), for the separation of high molecular weight isobaric peaks. In the present work, the experimental parameters affecting reproducibility have been studied, optimum conditions have been determined that permit reproducible analysis.

  9. Experimental Mathematics and Computational Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, David H.

    2009-01-01

    moments. Experimental Mathematics, 17:223–230, 2008. [28]V.H. Moll. Experimental Mathematics in Action. A K Peters,integrals. Experimental Mathematics, 16(3):257–276, 2007. [

  10. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Design and Engineering of most components in the Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed System was completed prior to September 1992. The components remaining to be designed at that time were: Aerovalves for the Pulse Combustor; Gas and coal injectors for the Pulse Combustor; Lines for PC tailpipes; Air plenum and inlet silencer; Refractory lined hot gas duct connecting outlet hot cyclone to boiler; Structure and platforms, and ladders around PAFBC vessel access and major equipment. Design work is currently in progress on all of the above components. Items 1, 2, 3 and 4 are 50% completed, and items 5 6 are 75% complete.

  11. Query Optimization Techniques Class Hierarchies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mannheim, Universität

    Query Optimization Techniques Exploiting Class Hierarchies Sophie Cluet 1 Guido Moerkotte 2 1 INRIA Since the introduction of object base management systems (OBMS), many query optimization techniques tailored for object query languages have been proposed. They adapt known optimization techniques

  12. Stokes Inversion Techniques: Recent Advances and New Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. R. Bellot Rubio

    2006-09-27

    Inversion techniques (ITs) allow us to infer the magnetic, dynamic, and thermal properties of the solar atmosphere from polarization line profiles. In recent years, major progress has come from the application of ITs to state-of-the-art observations. This paper summarizes the main results achieved both in the photosphere and in the chromosphere. It also discusses the challenges facing ITs in the near future. Understanding the limitations of spectral lines, implementing more complex atmospheric models, and devising efficient strategies of data analysis for upcoming ground-based and space-borne instruments, are among the most important issues that need to be addressed. It is argued that proper interpretations of diffraction-limited Stokes profiles will not be possible without accounting for gradients of the atmospheric parameters along the line of sight. The feasibility of determining gradients in real time from space-borne observations is examined.

  13. Natalie Marie Mahowald Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahowald, Natalie

    in the Community Atmosphere Model: development of framework and impact on radiative forcing, Atmospheric Chemistry, Atmospheric Chemistry and 1 1 Natalie Marie Mahowald Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Professor Director

  14. Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 14171423 Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline and diesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Fangqun

    2004-01-01

    Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 1417­1423 Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline of a gasoline engine (K-car) and a diesel engine (diesel generator). Under the experimental set-up reported all of the ions smaller than 3 nm in the gasoline engine exhaust, and is above 2.7 Â 108 cmÀ3

  15. Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ASIPP Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) Design, Fabrication and Assembly Weng of the project is to develop an advanced superconducting tokamak · Explore and demonstrate of steady magnets Total weight 38.7 tons, Total flux swing 10 VS Magnet system Superconducting coils; CIC conductor

  16. Psychology 410 Experimental Psychology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallo, Linda C.

    Psychology 410 Experimental Psychology Fall 2008 Instructor: David A. Armor, Ph.D. Office: SSE 2307 of research methods in psychology. In this class, you will be asked to participate in psychological research Psychological Association. You also may have quite a bit of fun. This is a very demanding course

  17. Overview of the United States Department of Energy's ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stokes, G.M. ); Tichler, J.L. )

    1990-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is initiating a major atmospheric research effort, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM). The program is a key component of DOE's research strategy to address global climate change and is a direct continuation of DOE's decade-long effort to improve the ability of General Circulation Models (GCMs) to provide reliable simulations of regional, and long-term climate change in response to increasing greenhouse gases. The effort is multi-disciplinary and multi-agency, involving universities, private research organizations and more than a dozen government laboratories. The objective of the ARM Research is to provide an experimental testbed for the study of important atmospheric effects, particularly cloud and radiative processes, and to test parameterizations of these processes for use in atmospheric models. This effort will support the continued and rapid improvement of GCM predictive capability. 2 refs.

  18. Regional Ecosystem-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange Via Atmospheric Budgets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, K.J.; Richardson, S.J.; Miles, N.L.

    2007-03-07

    Inversions of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio measurements to determine CO2 sources and sinks are typically limited to coarse spatial and temporal resolution. This limits our ability to evaluate efforts to upscale chamber- and stand-level CO2 flux measurements to regional scales, where coherent climate and ecosystem mechanisms govern the carbon cycle. As a step towards the goal of implementing atmospheric budget or inversion methodology on a regional scale, a network of five relatively inexpensive CO2 mixing ratio measurement systems was deployed on towers in northern Wisconsin. Four systems were distributed on a circle of roughly 150-km radius, surrounding one centrally located system at the WLEF tower near Park Falls, WI. All measurements were taken at a height of 76 m AGL. The systems used single-cell infrared CO2 analyzers (Licor, model LI-820) rather than the siginificantly more costly two-cell models, and were calibrated every two hours using four samples known to within ± 0.2 ppm CO2. Tests prior to deployment in which the systems sampled the same air indicate the precision of the systems to be better than ± 0.3 ppm and the accuracy, based on the difference between the daily mean of one system and a co-located NOAA-ESRL system, is consistently better than ± 0.3 ppm. We demonstrate the utility of the network in two ways. We interpret regional CO2 differences using a Lagrangian parcel approach. The difference in the CO2 mixing ratios across the network is at least 2?3 ppm, which is large compared to the accuracy and precision of the systems. Fluxes estimated assuming Lagrangian parcel transport are of the same sign and magnitude as eddy-covariance flux measurements at the centrally-located WLEF tower. These results indicate that the network will be useful in a full inversion model. Second, we present a case study involving a frontal passage through the region. The progression of a front across the network is evident; changes as large as four ppm in one minute are captured. Influence functions, derived using a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion model driven by the CSU Regional Atmospheric Modeling System and nudged to NCEP reanalysis meteorological fields, are used to determine source regions for the towers. The influence functions are combined with satellite vegetation observations to interpret the observed trends in CO2 concentration. Full inversions will combine these elements in a more formal analytic framework.

  19. Resin infiltration transfer technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David V. (Pittsburgh, PA); Baranwal, Rita (Glenshaw, PA)

    2009-12-08

    A process has been developed for fabricating composite structures using either reaction forming or polymer infiltration and pyrolysis techniques to densify the composite matrix. The matrix and reinforcement materials of choice can include, but are not limited to, silicon carbide (SiC) and zirconium carbide (ZrC). The novel process can be used to fabricate complex, net-shape or near-net shape, high-quality ceramic composites with a crack-free matrix.

  20. Image compression technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fu, C.Y.; Petrich, L.I.

    1997-03-25

    An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace`s equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image. 16 figs.

  1. Image compression technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fu, Chi-Yung (San Francisco, CA); Petrich, Loren I. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace's equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image.

  2. Development of Atmospheric Monitoring System at Akeno Observatory for the Telescope Array Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Yamamoto; M. Teshima; M. Chikawa; N. Hayashida; S. Kawakami; N. Minagawa; Y. Morizane; M. Sasano; K. Yasui

    2002-08-09

    We have developed an atmospheric monitoring system for the Telescope Array experiment at Akeno Observatory. It consists of a Nd:YAG laser with an alt-azimuth shooting system and a small light receiver. This system is installed inside an air conditioned weather-proof dome. All parts, including the dome, laser, shooter, receiver, and optical devices are fully controlled by a personal computer utilizing the Linux operating system. It is now operated as a back-scattering LIDAR System. For the Telescope Array experiment, to estimate energy reliably and to obtain the correct shower development profile, the light transmittance in the atmosphere needs to be calibrated with high accuracy. Based on observational results using this monitoring system, we consider this LIDAR to be a very powerful technique for Telescope Array experiments. The details of this system and its atmospheric monitoring technique will be discussed.

  3. ATMOSPHERIC DUST AND MESOSCALE/MICROSCALE METEOROLOGY. A. Spiga1 , S.R. Lewis1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spiga, Aymeric

    ATMOSPHERIC DUST AND MESOSCALE/MICROSCALE METEOROLOGY. A. Spiga1 , S.R. Lewis1 , and F. For- get2 to advances in computational resources and modeling techniques. Note also that mesoscale modeling and Large: general circulation models, mesoscale models, microscale models [Large-Eddy Simulations]. Figure 1

  4. Proceedings of the 51st Anniversary Conference of KSME PHYSICAL MODELING OF ATMOSPHERIC FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Bruce

    a model house in a small wind tunnel to measure wind pressure against the model. Since then, many attempts over tall buildings. The temperature differences within the atmospheric boundary layer affect both wind is discussed with special emphasis on wind-tunnel simulation techniques. The governing equations of motion

  5. Chloride-catalyzed corrosion of plutonium in glovebox atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgess, M. [ed.; Haschke, J.M.; Allen, T.H.; Morales, L.A.; Jarboe, D.M.; Puglisi, C.V.

    1998-04-01

    Characterization of glovebox atmospheres and the black reaction product formed on plutonium surfaces shows that the abnormally rapid corrosion of components in the fabrication line is consistent with a complex salt-catalyzed reaction involving gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) and water. Analytical data verify that chlorocarbon and HCl vapors are presented in stagnant glovebox atmospheres. Hydrogen chloride concentrations approach 7 ppm at some locations in the glovebox line. The black corrosion product is identified as plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH), a product formed by hydrolysis of plutonium in liquid water and salt solutions at room temperature. Plutonium trichloride (PuCl{sub 3}) produced by reaction of HCl at the metal surface is deliquescent and apparently forms a highly concentrated salt solution by absorbing moisture from the glovebox atmosphere. Rapid corrosion is attributed to the ensuing salt-catalyzed reaction between plutonium and water. Experimental results are discussed, possible involvement of hydrogen fluoride (HF) is examined, and methods of corrective action are presented in this report.

  6. Experimental Quantum Process Discrimination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anthony Laing; Terry Rudolph; Jeremy L. O'Brien

    2008-07-01

    Discrimination between unknown processes chosen from a finite set is experimentally shown to be possible even in the case of non-orthogonal processes. We demonstrate unambiguous deterministic quantum process discrimination (QPD) of non-orthogonal processes using properties of entanglement, additional known unitaries, or higher dimensional systems. Single qubit measurement and unitary processes and multipartite unitaries (where the unitary acts non-separably across two distant locations) acting on photons are discriminated with a confidence of $\\geq97%$ in all cases.

  7. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The design of the Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor (PAFBC) as described in the Quarterly Report for the period April--June, 1992 was reviewed and minor modifications were included. The most important change made was in the coal/limestone preparation and feed system. Instead of procuring pre-sized coal for testing of the PAFBC, it was decided that the installation of a milling system would permit greater flexibility in the testing with respect to size distributions and combustion characteristics in the pulse combustor and the fluid bed. Particle size separation for pulse combustor and fluid bed will be performed by an air classifier. The modified process flow diagram for the coal/limestone handling system is presented in Figure 1. The modified process flow diagrams of the fluidized bed/steam cycle and ash handling systems are presented in Figures 2 and 3, respectively.

  8. Mesoscale coupled ocean-atmosphere interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Hyodae

    2007-01-01

    mesoscale oceanic features are current coarse resolutionmesoscale r current variability associated with oceanic ringthe TIW- currents. These mesoscale oceanic and atmospheric

  9. Mesoscale Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Hyodae

    2007-01-01

    mesoscale oceanic features are current coarse resolutionmesoscale r current variability associated with oceanic ringthe TIW- currents. These mesoscale oceanic and atmospheric

  10. Physics Potential of Future Atmospheric Neutrino Searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schwetz

    2008-12-12

    The potential of future high statistics atmospheric neutrino experiments is considered, having in mind currently discussed huge detectors of various technologies (water Cerekov, magnetized iron, liquid Argon). I focus on the possibility to use atmospheric data to determine the octant of $\\theta_{23}$ and the neutrino mass hierarchy. The sensitivity to the $\\theta_{23}$-octant of atmospheric neutrinos is competitive (or even superior) to long-baseline experiments. I discuss the ideal properties of a fictitious atmospheric neutrino detector to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  11. 4, 497545, 2011 atmosphere-wildland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandel, Jan

    by the coupling of a mesoscale weather 498 #12;GMDD 4, 497­545, 2011 Coupled atmosphere-wildland model WRF-Fire 3

  12. Impacts of Atmospheric Anthropogenic Nitrogen on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Bess

    discharges from wastewater treatment, atmospheric deposition, and so forth, resulting in increasing), including oxidized and reduced inorganic and organic forms. The availability of Nr limits primary pro

  13. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth...

  14. Atmospheric chemistry of an Antarctic volcanic plume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    ET AL. : EREBUS PLUME CHEMISTRY Horrocks, L. A. , C.et al. (2010), Atmospheric chemistry results from the ANTCI2007), Reactive halogen chemistry in volca- nic plumes, J.

  15. Applied ALARA techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-02-05

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work.

  16. Majorana Thermosyphon Prototype Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast, James E.; Reid, Douglas J.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao

    2010-12-17

    Objective The Majorana demonstrator will operate at liquid Nitrogen temperatures to ensure optimal spectrometric performance of its High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector modules. In order to transfer the heat load of the detector module, the Majorana demonstrator requires a cooling system that will maintain a stable liquid nitrogen temperature. This cooling system is required to transport the heat from the detector chamber outside the shield. One approach is to use the two phase liquid-gas equilibrium to ensure constant temperature. This cooling technique is used in a thermosyphon. The thermosyphon can be designed so the vaporization/condensing process transfers heat through the shield while maintaining a stable operating temperature. A prototype of such system has been built at PNNL. This document presents the experimental results of the prototype and evaluates the heat transfer performance of the system. The cool down time, temperature gradient in the thermosyphon, and heat transfer analysis are studied in this document with different heat load applied to the prototype.

  17. Applied Science/Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of raregovAboutRecovery ActTools to someone byApplied Science/Techniques

  18. An Efficient Technique for making maps from Observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Piccirillo; G. Romeo; R. K. Schaefer; M. Limon

    1996-08-12

    We describe a new technique for turning scans of the microwave sky into intensity maps. The technique is based on a Fourier series analysis and is inspired by the lock-in deconvolution used in experiments which typically sweep the sky continuously. We test the technique on computer generated microwave skies and compare it to the more standard map making technique based on linear algebra. We find that our technique is much faster than the usual technique and, in addition, does not suffer from the problem of memory limitations. Lastly we demonstrate that the technique works under real experimental conditions using observations of the moon.

  19. Response of global soil consumption of atmospheric methane to changes in atmospheric climate and nitrogen deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai

    Soil consumption of atmospheric methane plays an important secondary role in regulating the atmospheric CH4 budget, next to the dominant loss mechanism involving reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Here we used a ...

  20. Self-imaging-based laser collimation testing technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mudassar, Asloob A.; Butt, Saira

    2010-11-01

    Laser collimation is required in many experiments based on lasers. Some laser experiments demand a high quality of collimation, e.g., the optical coherent processor, image transformer, and Fourier transform generator. A device is required to test the collimation of lasers in such experiments. We have suggested a modification in existing collimation testing techniques by which sensitivity can be improved. Theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate twice the improvement in sensitivity when used with previous techniques.

  1. TOP 2014: Experimental Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Schwanenberger

    2015-03-05

    A summary of the experimental results of the TOP2014 International Workshop in Cannes, France, is presented. This inspiring conference clearly showed the richness and diversity of top-quark physics research. Results cover a very broad spectrum of analyses involving studies of the strong and electroweak interactions of the top quark, high-precision measurements of intrinsic top-quark properties, developments of new tools in top-quark analyses, observations of new Standard Model processes, the interaction between the top quark and the Higgs boson and sensitive searches for new physics beyond the Standard Model.

  2. Electrodeless Experimental Thruster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brainerd, Jerome J.; Reisz, Al [Reisz Engineers 2909 Johnson Rd. Huntsville, AL 35805 256-883-2531 (United States)

    2009-03-16

    An electrodeless experimental electric thruster has been built and tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The plasma is formed by Electron-Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) absorption of RF waves (microwaves). The RF source operates in the 1 to 2 kW range. The plasma is overdense and is confined radially by an applied axial dc magnetic field. The field is shaped by a strong magnetic mirror on the upstream end and a magnetic nozzle on the downstream end. Argon is used as the propellant. The velocity profile in the exhaust plume has been measured with Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF). An unusual bimodal velocity profile has been measured.

  3. Experimental Network Testbeds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you not find whatGasEnergy Technologies | Blandinenews Experimental 100G

  4. Experimental Highlights - 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesof Energy8)highlights Experimental Highlights - 2015

  5. Experimental Opportunities with LCLS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesof Energy8)highlights Experimental Highlights -

  6. Auto-ignition during instationary jet evolution of dimethyl ether (DME) in a high-pressure atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast, G.; Kuhn, D.; Class, A.G.; Maas, U.

    2009-01-15

    The auto-ignition process during transient injection of gaseous dimethyl ether (DME) in a constant high-pressure atmosphere is studied experimentally by laser-optical methods and compared with numerical calculations. With different non-intrusive measurement techniques jet properties and auto-ignition are investigated at high temporal and spatial resolution. The open jet penetrates a constant pressure oxidative atmosphere of up to 4 MPa. During the transient evolution, the fuel jet entrains air at up to 720 K. The subsequent auto-ignition of the ignitable part of the jet occurs simultaneously over a wide spatial extension. The ignition delay times are not affected by variation of the nozzle exit velocity. Thus, the low-temperature oxidation is slow compared with the shorter time scales of mixing, so that chemical kinetics is dominating the process. The typical two-stage ignition is resolved optically with high-speed shadowgraphy at a sampling rate of 10 kHz. The 2D fields of jet velocity and transient mixture fraction are measured phase-coupled with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Tracer Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) during the time-frame of ignition. The instationary Probability Density Functions (PDF) of mixture fraction are described very well by Beta functions within the complete area of the open jet. Additional 1D flamelet simulations of the auto-ignition process are computed with a detailed reaction mechanism for DME [S. Fischer, F. Dryer, H. Curran, Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 32 (12) (2000) 713-740; H. Curran, S. Fischer, F. Dryer, Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 32 (12) (2000) 741-759]. Calculated ignition delay times are in very good agreement with the measured mean ignition delay times of 3 ms. Supplemental flamelet simulations address the influence of DME and air temperature, pressure and strain. Underneath a critical strain rate the air temperature is identified to be the most sensitive factor on ignition delay time. (author)

  7. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2013)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Sukyoung

    2013-01-01

    ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2013) Published online in Wiley Online Library Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea *Correspondence to: C. Yoo, Center for Atmosphere). A number of studies have shown that the MJO plays an important role in modulating the extratropical cir

  8. Stellar Atmospheres, Ht 2007 Problem Set 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Korn, Andreas

    Stellar Atmospheres, Ht 2007 Problem Set 1 Due date: Monday, 24 September 2007 at 10.15 1. LTE of how temperature is defined. (b) Where in the solar atmosphere would you expect the strongest for the photosphere? (c) How does the relation between matter and radiation differ between LTE and NLTE? What must

  9. Results from the Phoenix Atmospheric Structure Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    Results from the Phoenix Atmospheric Structure Experiment Paul Withers1 and David Catling2 (1 and atmospheric structure reconstruction for Phoenix · Highlight selected aspects of Phoenix reconstruction reconstruction for Phoenix · Highlight selected aspects of Phoenix reconstruction that offer lessons for future

  10. Geochemistry of Surface-Atmosphere Interactions on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    , T, and atmospheric composition ¥ ...Kinetics ¥ What are the major minerals? ¥ What is the oxidation of terrestrial alkaline igneous rocks #12;Oxidation State of the Surface ¥ 2CO + O2 = 2CO2 controls O2 ¥ Lack. ¥ S in lower atmosphere is kinetically controlled ¥ CaCO3 + SO2 = CaSO4 + CO removes SO2 , deposits CaSO4 ¥ Fe

  11. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L.

    1989-07-18

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above. 3 figs.

  12. Simulation of Aerosol Behavior in a Saturated Atmosphere With the CONTAIN Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kljenak, Ivo; Mavko, Borut [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2002-07-01

    Experiments on aerosol behavior in an atmosphere containing saturated vapor, which were performed in the KAEVER experimental facility and proposed for the OECD International Standard Problem No. 44, were simulated with the CONTAIN thermal-hydraulic computer code. The purpose of the work was to assess the capability of the CONTAIN code to model aerosol condensation and deposition in a containment of a light-water-reactor nuclear power plant at severe accident conditions. Results of dry and wet aerosol concentrations in the test vessel atmosphere are presented and analyzed. (authors)

  13. The Development of Measurement Techniques to Identify and Characterize Dusts and Ice Nuclei in the Atmosphere 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glen, Andrew

    2014-01-15

    Mineral dusts and ice crystals directly influence the Earth's radiative budget through radiative scattering and absorption. The interaction of spherical particles on the radiative budget are well known, however mineral dusts and ice crystals...

  14. Advances and applications of mass spectral techniques for the characterization of atmospheric aerosol particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatch, Lindsay Erighn

    2012-01-01

    characterization experiments utilized gas-phase analytes that were introduced by flowing nitrogen over a reservoir

  15. Advances and applications of mass spectral techniques for the characterization of atmospheric aerosol particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatch, Lindsay Erighn

    2012-01-01

    1 Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, C 5 H 8 ) is an abundant4 Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, C 5 H 8 ) is the most

  16. Advances and applications of mass spectral techniques for the characterization of atmospheric aerosol particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatch, Lindsay Erighn

    2012-01-01

    and biomass burning. Combustion-related emissions areBiomass burning emissions include similar components as combustion

  17. New mass spectrometry techniques for studying physical chemistry of atmospheric heterogeneous processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    and chemical proper- ties of airborne particles, such as their ability to absorb and scatter solar radiation with the US Department of Energy. The US Government retains and the publisher, by accepting this article and outlook 162 Acknowledgements 163 References 164 1. Introduction Ambient particles are complex mixtures

  18. Advances and applications of mass spectral techniques for the characterization of atmospheric aerosol particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatch, Lindsay Erighn

    2012-01-01

    86. Sullivan, A. P. ; Peltier, R. E. ; Brock, C. A. ; deD. R. ; Snyder, D. C. ; Peltier, R. E. ; Weber, R. J. ;A. G. ; Brock, C. A. ; Peltier, R. ; Sullivan, A. P. ;

  19. Experimental Hall D | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    top-right bottom-left-corner bottom-right-corner Experimental Hall D Jefferson Lab's fourth experimental hall, known as Hall D, began receiving beam for calibration and...

  20. A Review of the Current Status of Follow-Up Techniques to Study Known Extrasolar Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Charbonneau

    2003-12-10

    I present a review of observational efforts to study known extrasolar planets by methods that are complementary to the radial velocity technique. I describe the current state of attempts to detect and characterize such planets by astrometry, by reflected light, by thermal emission, by transit photometry, by atmospheric transmission spectroscopy, by planet-induced chromospheric activity, and by long-wavelength radio emission. With a few exceptions,these efforts have yielded only upper limits. Nonetheless, the diversity and vivacity of these pursuits has rapidly pushed many of these techniques into the realm where realistic models of the planets and their atmospheres can now be confronted.

  1. Studying atmosphere-dominated hot Jupiter Kepler phase curves: Evidence that inhomogeneous atmospheric reflection is common

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shporer, Avi

    2015-01-01

    We identify 3 Kepler transiting planet systems, Kepler-7, Kepler-12, and Kepler-41, whose orbital phase-folded light curves are dominated by planetary atmospheric processes including thermal emission and reflected light, while the impact of non-atmospheric (i.e. gravitational) processes, including beaming (Doppler boosting) and tidal ellipsoidal distortion, is negligible. Therefore, those systems allow a direct view of their atmospheres without being hampered by the approximations used in the inclusion of both atmospheric and non-atmospheric processes when modeling the phase curve shape. Here we analyze Kepler-12b and Kepler-41b atmosphere based on their Kepler phase curve, while the analysis of Kepler-7b was presented elsewhere. The model we used efficiently computes reflection and thermal emission contributions to the phase curve, including inhomogeneous atmospheric reflection due to longitudinally varying cloud coverage. We confirm Kepler-12b and Kepler-41b show a westward phase shift between the brightest...

  2. Experimental and theoretical investigation of nucleation and growth of atmospheric aerosols 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Jun

    2009-05-15

    of strong hydrogen bonding between an organic acid and sulfuric acid is likely responsible for a reduction of the nucleation barrier by modifying the hydrophobic properties of the organic acid and allowing further addition of hydrophilic species (e.g., H2SO4...

  3. Elementary particle physics---Experimental

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lord, J.J.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1990-09-20

    We are continuing a research program in high energy experimental particle physics and particle astrophysics. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions were performed using several techniques, in addition, a high energy leptoproduction experiment was continued at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators. The data are being collected with ballon-borne emulsion chambers. The properties of nuclear interactions at these high energies will reveal whether new production mechanisms come into play due to the high nuclear densities and temperatures obtained. We carried out closely related studies of hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams. We are members of a large international collaboration which has exposed emulsion chamber detectors to beams of {sup 32}S and {sup 16}O with energy 60 and 200 GeV/n at CERN and 15 GeV/n at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The primary objectives of this program are to determine the existence and properties of the hypothesized quark-gluon phase of matter, and its possible relation to a variety of anomalous observations. Studies of leptoproduction processes at high energies involve two separate experiments, one using the Tevatron 500 GeV muon beam and the other exploring the >TeV regime. We are participants in Fermilab experiment E665 employing a comprehensive counter/streamer chamber detector system. During the past year we joined the DUMAND Collaboration, and have been assigned responsibility for development and construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility, to be deployed in 1991. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the triggering system to be used.

  4. Experimental Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenfeld, Carl; Mishra, Sanjib R.; Petti, Roberto; Purohit, Milind V.

    2014-08-31

    The high energy physics group at the University of South Carolina, under the leadership of Profs. S.R. Mishra, R. Petti, M.V. Purohit, J.R. Wilson (co-PI's), and C. Rosenfeld (PI), engaged in studies in "Experimental Particle Physics." The group collaborated with similar groups at other universities and at national laboratories to conduct experimental studies of elementary particle properties. We utilized the particle accelerators at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Illinois, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, and the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. Mishra, Rosenfeld, and Petti worked predominantly on neutrino experiments. Experiments conducted in the last fifteen years that used cosmic rays and the core of the sun as a source of neutrinos showed conclusively that, contrary to the former conventional wisdom, the "flavor" of a neutrino is not immutable. A neutrino of flavor "e," "mu," or "tau," as determined from its provenance, may swap its identity with one of the other flavors -- in our jargon, they "oscillate." The oscillation phenomenon is extraordinarily difficult to study because neutrino interactions with our instruments are exceedingly rare -- they travel through the earth mostly unimpeded -- and because they must travel great distances before a substantial proportion have made the identity swap. Three of the experiments that we worked on, MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE utilize a beam of neutrinos from an accelerator at Fermilab to determine the parameters governing the oscillation. Two other experiments that we worked on, NOMAD and MIPP, provide measurements supportive of the oscillation experiments. Good measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters may constitute a "low energy window" on related phenomena that are otherwise unobservable because they would occur only at energies way above the reach of conceivable accelerators. Purohit and Wilson participated in the BaBar experiment, which collected data at SLAC until 2008. They continued to analyze the voluminous BaBar data with an emphasis on precision tests of Quantum Chromodynamics and on properties of the "eta_B," a bottom quark paired in a meson with a strange quark. The ATLAS experiment became the principal research focus for Purohit. One of the world's largest pieces of scientific equipment, ATLAS observes particle collisions at the highest-energy particle accelerator ever built, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Our efforts on ATLAS included participation in the commissioning, calibration, and installation of components called "CSCs". The unprecedented energy of 14 TeV enabled the ATLAS and CMS collaborations to declare discovery of the famous Higgs particle in 2012.

  5. A Pulse Shape Analysis Technique for the MAJORANA Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Reynold J [ORNL; Radford, David C [ORNL; Lagergren, K. [Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge; Colaresi, James F. [Canberra Industries, Inc., Meriden, CT; Darken, Larry [Canberra Industries, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN; Henning, Reyco [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Marino, Michael [University of Washington, Seattle; Yocum, K. Michael [Canberra Industries, Inc., Meriden, CT

    2011-01-01

    In order to achieve background count rates sufficiently low as to allow the observation of rare events such as neutrinoless double beta (0 ) decay, background suppression techniques are routinely employed. In this paper we present details of a novel Pulse Shape Analysis algorithm which allows single-site events such as 0 decay to be distinguished from multi site background events. The algorithm, which is based on the event by event 2 fitting of experimental signals to a basis data set of unique single site pulse shapes, has been developed through simulation studies and tested experimentally using a Broad Energy Germanium detector. It is found experimentally that the technique is able to successfully identify and reject 99% of multi site events in the single escape peak associated with the gamma decay of 208Tl, whilst maintaining a survival probability of 98% for '0 like' double escape peak events.

  6. Dose Reduction Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  7. Experimental implementation of reverse time migration for nondestructive evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Experimental implementation of reverse time migration for nondestructive evaluation applications Geophysics Group (EES-17), Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS D443, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 pylb@lanl.gov, tju@lanl.gov Abstract: Reverse time migration (RTM) is a commonly employed imaging technique

  8. New wind input term consistent with experimental, theoretical and numerical considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. E. Zakharov; D. Resio; A. Pushkarev

    2012-12-05

    We offer a new method for determining the wind source term for energy and momentum fluxes transfer from the atmosphere to the wind-driven sea. This new source-term formulation is based on extensive analysis of experimental data collected at different sites around the world. It is shown that this new wind source term to be consistent both with numerical solution of exact equation for resonant four-wave interactions and available experimental data.

  9. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS...

  10. Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Aviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    Environment 44 (2010) 4678–4734 Brunner, D. , Staehelin,Environment 44 (2010) 4678–4734 Vedantham, A. , Wuebbles,Environment 44 (2010) 4678–4734 global atmosphere’. In:

  11. HYPERsensarium : an archive of atmospheric conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Kelly E. (Kelly Evelyn)

    2013-01-01

    HYPERsensarium proposes a tangible interface of atmospheres for public experience through an archive of historical and projected weathers. While architecture's purpose has long been to act as the technical boundary between ...

  12. Uraninite and Fullerene in Atmospheric Particulates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utsunomiya, Satoshi

    incineration, uranium mining, and atmospheric testing of nuclearweapons-burning power plants typically contain very small amounts of uranium ( concentrations, the form of the uranium has been unknown. Using a variety of advanced electron microscopy

  13. CO2 utilization and storage in shale gas reservoirs: Experimental results and economic impacts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schaef, Herbert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Owen, Antionette Toni; Miller, Quin R. S.; Loring, John S.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Bacon, Diana H.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-12-31

    Natural gas is considered a cleaner and lower-emission fuel than coal, and its high abundance from advanced drilling techniques has positioned natural gas as a major alternative energy source for the U.S. However, each ton of CO2 emitted from any type of fossil fuel combustion will continue to increase global atmospheric concentrations. One unique approach to reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions involves coupling CO2 based enhanced gas recovery (EGR) operations in depleted shale gas reservoirs with long-term CO2 storage operations. In this paper, we report unique findings about the interactions between important shale minerals and sorbing gases (CH4 and CO2) andmore »associated economic consequences. Where enhanced condensation of CO2 followed by desorption on clay surface is observed under supercritical conditions, a linear sorption profile emerges for CH4. Volumetric changes to montmorillonites occur during exposure to CO2. Theory-based simulations identify interactions with interlayer cations as energetically favorable for CO2 intercalation. Thus, experimental evidence suggests CH4 does not occupy the interlayer and has only the propensity for surface adsorption. Mixed CH4:CO2 gas systems, where CH4 concentrations prevail, indicate preferential CO2 sorption as determined by in situ infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Collectively, these laboratory studies combined with a cost-based economic analysis provide a basis for identifying favorable CO2-EOR opportunities in previously fractured shale gas reservoirs approaching final stages of primary gas production. Moreover, utilization of site-specific laboratory measurements in reservoir simulators provides insight into optimum injection strategies for maximizing CH4/CO2 exchange rates to obtain peak natural gas production.« less

  14. Fehner and Gosling, Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951-1963. Battlefield of the Cold War: The Nevada Test Site, Volume I Fehner and Gosling, Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951-1963....

  15. The faculty and students in the Atmospheric Sciences Department use physics, chemistry, and mathematics to better understand the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doty, Sharon Lafferty

    The faculty and students in the Atmospheric Sciences Department use physics, chemistry chemistry Atmospheric fluid dynamics Biosphere interactions Climate variability Clouds & storms Radiative, and mathematics to better understand the atmosphere and improve the prediction of its future state, both over

  16. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    2008-01-15

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  17. Air Activation Following an Atmospheric Explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2013-03-13

    In addition to thermal radiation and fission products, nuclear explosions result in a very high flux of unfissioned neutrons. Within an atmospheric nuclear explosion, these neutrons can activate the various elemental components of natural air, potentially adding to the radioactive signature of the event as a whole. The goal of this work is to make an order-of-magnitude estimate of the total amount of air activation products that can result from an atmospheric nuclear explosion.

  18. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  19. Basalt-Atmosphere Interactions on Venus -

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treiman, Allan H.

    Atmosphere? · CaAl2Si2O8 + SO3 CaSO4 + Al2SiO5 + SiO2 ­ Anhydrite + andalusite + quartz !!! · Does this reaction proceed? ­ Venus atmosphere est'd 0.2 - 0.3 ppt SO3. #12;Reaction Position · From this, very possible that SO3 is buffered! · But ... SO3 value is not known very well - who knows what is really going

  20. Lookup tables to compute high energy cosmic ray induced atmospheric ionization and changes in atmospheric chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitra Atri; Adrian L. Melott; Brian C. Thomas

    2010-05-03

    A variety of events such as gamma-ray bursts and supernovae may expose the Earth to an increased flux of high-energy cosmic rays, with potentially important effects on the biosphere. Existing atmospheric chemistry software does not have the capability of incorporating the effects of substantial cosmic ray flux above 10 GeV . An atmospheric code, the NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center two-dimensional (latitude, altitude) time-dependent atmospheric model (NGSFC), is used to study atmospheric chemistry changes. Using CORSIKA, we have created tables that can be used to compute high energy cosmic ray (10 GeV - 1 PeV) induced atmospheric ionization and also, with the use of the NGSFC code, can be used to simulate the resulting atmospheric chemistry changes. We discuss the tables, their uses, weaknesses, and strengths.

  1. Development of techniques for quantum-enhanced laser-interferometric gravitational-wave detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goda, Keisuke

    2007-01-01

    A detailed theoretical and experimental study of techniques necessary for quantum-enhanced laser- interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detectors was carried out. The basic theory of GWs and laser-interferometric GW ...

  2. Implementation of State Transfer Hamiltonians in Spin Chains with Magnetic Resonance Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappellaro, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear spin systems and magnetic resonance techniques have provided a fertile platform for experimental investigation of quantum state transfer in spin chains. From the first observation of polarization transfer, predating ...

  3. FACTS II (Aspen FACE) Facility and Harshaw Forest Experimental Farm Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Project Name: Forest Atmosphere Carbon Transfer and Storage (FACTS-II) The Aspen Free-air CO2 and O3 Enrichment (FACE) Project. Project Number: Site: Harshaw Forest Experimental Farm (HFEF) USDA Forest ServiceUniversity Brookhaven National Laboratory Proposed Dates Beginning Date: May 1998 of Project: Ending Date: October 15

  4. Diagnostic techniques used in AVLIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heestand, G.M.; Beeler, R.G.

    1992-12-01

    This is the second part of a general overview talk on the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. In this presentation the authors will discuss the diagnostic techniques used to measure key parameters in their atomic vapor including densities, temperature, velocities charge exchange rates and background ionization levels. Although these techniques have been extensively applied to their uranium program they do have applicability to other systems. Relevant data demonstrating these techniques will be shown.

  5. Rice straw burning in Southeast Asia as a source of CO and COS to the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, B.C.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Putaud, J.P. [Centre des Faibles Radioactivites, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1994-08-20

    This paper discusses the results of aerosol monitoring field tests conducted in four locations in Viet Nam during 1992 and 1993. Atmospheric samples were collected during the dry and wet seasons during the time when rice straw burning was taking place in the agricultural rangelands. The samples were analyzed for carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and carbonyl sulfide. Experimental methods and implications of the analytical results are described. 21 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Laser schlieren deflectometry for temperature analysis of filamentary non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaefer, J.; Foest, R.; Reuter, S.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Kewitz, T.; Sperka, J.

    2012-10-15

    The heat convection generated by micro filaments of a self-organized non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet in Ar is characterized by employing laser schlieren deflectometry (LSD). It is demonstrated as a proof of principle, that the spatial and temporal changes of the refractive index n in the optical beam path related to the neutral gas temperature of the plasma jet can be monitored and evaluated simultaneously. The refraction of a laser beam in a high gradient field of n(r) with cylindrical symmetry is given for a general real refraction index profile. However, the usually applied Abel approach represents an ill-posed problem and in particular for this plasma configuration. A simple analytical model is proposed in order to minimize the statistical error. Based on that, the temperature profile, specifically the absolute temperature in the filament core, the FWHM, and the frequencies of the collective filament dynamics are obtained for non-stationary conditions. For a gas temperature of 700 K inside the filament, the presented model predicts maximum deflection angles of the laser beam of 0.3 mrad which is in accordance to the experimental results obtained with LSD. Furthermore, the experimentally obtained FWHM of the temperature profile produced by the filament at the end of capillary is (1.5 {+-} 0.2) mm, which is about 10 times wider than the visual radius of the filament. The obtained maximum temperature in the effluent is (450 {+-} 30) K and is in consistence with results of other techniques. The study demonstrates that LSD represents a useful low-cost method for monitoring the spatiotemporal behaviour of microdischarges and allows to uncover their dynamic characteristics, e.g., the temperature profile even for challenging diagnostic conditions such as moving thin discharge filaments. The method is not restricted to the miniaturized and self-organized plasma studied here. Instead, it can be readily applied to other configurations that produce measurable gradients of refractive index by local gas heating and opens new diagnostics prospects particularly for microplasmas.

  7. Profiler Instrumentation Using Metaprogramming Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Jeffrey G.

    Profiler Instrumentation Using Metaprogramming Techniques Ritu Arora, Yu Sun, Zekai Demirezen, Jeff manipulation) before it enters into the available class pool of an executing application. Javassist [9] (see

  8. Low Temperature Material Bonding Technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-10-10

    A method of performing a lower temperature bonding technique to bond together two mating pieces of glass includes applying a sodium silicate aqueous solution between the two pieces.

  9. Low temperature material bonding technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-02-12

    A method of performing a lower temperature bonding technique to bond together two mating pieces of glass includes applying a sodium silicate aqueous solution between the two pieces.

  10. Water vapour in the atmosphere of a transiting extrasolar planet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giovanna Tinetti; Alfred Vidal-Madjar; Mao-Chang Liang; Jean-Philippe Beaulieu; Yuk Yung; Sean Carey; Robert J. Barber; Jonathan Tennyson; Ignasi Ribas; Nicole Allard; Gilda E. Ballester; David K. Sing; Franck Selsis

    2007-07-20

    Water is predicted to be among, if not the most abundant molecular species after hydrogen in the atmospheres of close-in extrasolar giant planets (hot-Jupiters) Several attempts have been made to detect water on an exoplanet, but have failed to find compelling evidence for it or led to claims that should be taken with caution. Here we report an analysis of recent observations of the hot-Jupiter HD189733b taken during the transit, where the planet passed in front of its parent star. We find that absorption by water vapour is the most likely cause of the wavelength-dependent variations in the effective radius of the planet at the infrared wavelengths 3.6, 5.8 and 8 microns. The larger effective radius observed at visible wavelengths may be due to either star variability or the presence of clouds/hazes. We explain the most recent thermal infrared observations of the planet during secondary transit behind the star, reporting a non-detection of water on HD189733b, as being a consequence of the nearly isothermal vertical profile of the planet.s atmosphere. Our results show that water is detectable on extrasolar planets using the primary transit technique and that the infrared should be a better wavelength region than the visible, for such searches.

  11. Zeroing and testing units developed for Gerdien atmospheric ion detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolarz, P.; Marinkovic, B.P.; Filipovic, D.M.

    2005-04-01

    Low current measurements in atmospheric ion detection using a Gerdien condenser are subjected to numerous sources of error. Zeroing and testing units described in this article, connected as modules to this type of detector, enable some of these errors to be found and eliminated. The zeroing unit provides digital compensation of the zero drift with a digital sample and hold circuit of 12-bit resolution. It overcomes difficulties related to zero drift and techniques used in the zero conductivity determination when the accelerating potential or airflow rate are zero. The testing unit is a current reference of nominally 10{sup -12} A intended for testing and correcting the system on current leakage and other measuring deviations due to changes in atmospheric parameters. This unit is an independent battery-powered module, which provides a charge of 10{sup -12} C per cycle (frequency of order 1 Hz) to the collecting electrode. The control of Gerdien devices is substantially simplified using the zeroing and testing units realized here. Both units are used during 'zero conductivity' regime only.

  12. Jefferson Lab Experimental Hall D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Hall D General Information Hall D Meetings Calendar (Regina) Hall D Civil - selected drawings (pdf) Hall D Basic Equipment Description on Hall D Wiki JLab Experimental...

  13. Experimental Mathematics and Mathematical Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Journal of Physics A: Mathematics and General, vol. 41 (Journal of Physics A: Mathematics and General, vol. 39 [9]Moll, Experimental Mathematics in Action, A. K. Peters,

  14. Direct measurement of the characteristic three-body electron attachment time in the atmospheric air in direct current electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shutov, A. V.; Smetanin, I. V.; Ionin, A. A.; Levchenko, A. O.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Ustinovskii, N. N.; Zvorykin, V. D.

    2013-07-15

    We report the results of theoretical and experimental study of the characteristic time for three-body attachment of electrons produced by 100 fs UV laser pulse in the atmosphere air in the external DC electric field ranged from 0.2 to 10 kV/cm.

  15. A simple technique for gamma ray and cosmic ray spectroscopy using plastic scintillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akhilesh P. Nandan; Sharmili Rudra; Himangshu Neog; S. Biswas; S. Mahapatra; B. Mohanty; P. K. Samal

    2015-04-10

    A new and simple technique has been developed using plastic scintillator detectors for gamma ray and cosmic ray spectroscopy without single channel analyzer (SCA) or multichannel analyzer (MCA). In these experiments only a leading edge discriminator (LED) and NIM scalers have been used. Energy calibration of gamma spectra in plastic scintillators has been done using Co$^{60}$ and Cs$^{137}$ sources. The details experimental technique, analysis procedure and experimental results has been presented in this article.

  16. The Geometric Design of Spherical Mechanical Linkages with Differential Task Specifications: Experimental Set Up and Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kapila Bala, Phani Neehar

    2012-10-19

    The thesis focuses on the development of an experimental set up for a recently developed failure recovery technique of spatial robot manipulators. Assuming a general configuration of the spatial robot arm, a task is specified. This task contains...

  17. Experimental Fluorescence Optical Tomography using Adaptive Finite Elements and Planar Illumination with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bangerth, Wolfgang

    Experimental Fluorescence Optical Tomography using Adaptive Finite Elements and Planar Illumination with Modulated Excitation Light Amit Joshia , Wolfgang Bangerthb , Alan B. Thompsona , and Eva M. Sevick adaptive discretization strategies. To date, the efficacy of adaptive mesh refinement techniques has yet

  18. Modeling fluid flow through single fracture using experimental, stochastic, and simulation approaches 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfred, Dicman

    2004-09-30

    This research presents an approach to accurately simulate flow experiments through a fractured core using experimental, stochastic, and simulation techniques. Very often, a fracture is assumed as a set of smooth parallel plates separated by a...

  19. New analysis indicates no thermal inversion in the atmosphere of HD 209458b

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diamond-Lowe, Hannah; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Bean, Jacob L.; Line, Michael R.; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2014-11-20

    An important focus of exoplanet research is the determination of the atmospheric temperature structure of strongly irradiated gas giant planets, or hot Jupiters. HD 209458b is the prototypical exoplanet for atmospheric thermal inversions, but this assertion does not take into account recently obtained data or newer data reduction techniques. We reexamine this claim by investigating all publicly available Spitzer Space Telescope secondary-eclipse photometric data of HD 209458b and performing a self-consistent analysis. We employ data reduction techniques that minimize stellar centroid variations, apply sophisticated models to known Spitzer systematics, and account for time-correlated noise in the data. We derive new secondary-eclipse depths of 0.119% ± 0.007%, 0.123% ± 0.006%, 0.134% ± 0.035%, and 0.215% ± 0.008% in the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 ?m bandpasses, respectively. We feed these results into a Bayesian atmospheric retrieval analysis and determine that it is unnecessary to invoke a thermal inversion to explain our secondary-eclipse depths. The data are well fitted by a temperature model that decreases monotonically between pressure levels of 1 and 0.01 bars. We conclude that there is no evidence for a thermal inversion in the atmosphere of HD 209458b.

  20. Nuclear Test-Experimental Science: Annual report, fiscal year 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Struble, G.L.; Donohue, M.L.; Bucciarelli, G.; Hymer, J.D.; Kirvel, R.D.; Middleton, C.; Prono, J.; Reid, S.; Strack, B.

    1988-01-01

    Fiscal year 1988 has been a significant, rewarding, and exciting period for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's nuclear testing program. It was significant in that the Laboratory's new director chose to focus strongly on the program's activities and to commit to a revitalized emphasis on testing and the experimental science that underlies it. It was rewarding in that revolutionary new measurement techniques were fielded on recent important and highly complicated underground nuclear tests with truly incredible results. And it was exciting in that the sophisticated and fundamental problems of weapons science that are now being addressed experimentally are yielding new challenges and understanding in ways that stimulate and reward the brightest and best of scientists. During FY88 the program was reorganized to emphasize our commitment to experimental science. The name of the program was changed to reflect this commitment, becoming the Nuclear Test-Experimental Science (NTES) Program.

  1. Electromagnetic Interrogation Techniques Damage Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electromagnetic Interrogation Techniques for Damage Detection H. T. Banks and M. L. Joyner Center.P. Winfree Nasa Langley Research Center Hampton, VA Plenary Lecture, Electromagnetic Nondestructive Evaluation 2001 (ENDE 2001), Kobe, Japan, May 18-19, 20001 #12;Electromagnetic Interrogation Techniques

  2. Probing the Atmospheres of Planets Orbiting Microlensed Stars via Polarization Variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geraint F. Lewis; Rodrigo A. Ibata

    2000-06-19

    We present a new method to identify and probe planetary companions of stars in the Galactic Bulge and Magellanic Clouds using gravitational microlensing. While spectroscopic studies of these planets is well beyond current observational techniques, monitoring polarization fluctuations during high magnification events induced by binary microlensing events will probe the composition of the planetary atmospheres, an observation which otherwise is currently unattainable even for nearby planetary systems.

  3. A TRANSMISSION SPECTRUM OF TITAN'S NORTH POLAR ATMOSPHERE FROM A SPECULAR REFLECTION OF THE SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Clark, Roger N.; Sotin, Christophe; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Ádámkovics, Máté; Appéré, Thomas; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Brown, Robert H.; Baines, Kevin H.; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Nicholson, Philip D.

    2013-11-10

    Cassini/VIMS T85 observations of a solar specular reflection off of Kivu Lacus (87.°4N 241.°1E) provide an empirical transmission spectrum of Titan's atmosphere. Because this observation was acquired from short range (33,000 km), its intensity makes it visible within the 2.0, 2.7, and 2.8 ?m atmospheric windows in addition to the 5 ?m window where all previous specular reflections have been seen. The resulting measurement of the total one-way normal atmospheric optical depth (corresponding to haze scattering plus haze and gas absorption) provides strong empirical constraints on radiative transfer models. Using those models, we find that the total haze column abundance in our observation is 20% higher than the Huygens equatorial value. Ours is the first measurement in the 2-5 ?m wavelength range that probes all the way to the surface in Titan's arctic, where the vast majority of surface liquids are located. The specular technique complements other probes of atmospheric properties such as solar occultations and the direct measurements from Huygens. In breaking the degeneracy between surface and atmospheric absorptions, our measured optical depths will help to drive future calculations of deconvolved surface albedo spectra.

  4. Experimental Investigation of Buoyancy Driven Mixing With and Without Shear at Different Atwood Numbers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akula, Bhanesh B

    2014-11-26

    ) applications [1, 2, 3]. RTI also plays an important role in supernovae explosions [4, 5], nebula [6], atmospheric sciences [7], and geophysical flows [8]. ICF is one of the confinement techniques which has been proposed to confine fuel for nuclear fusion...

  5. The coupling of winds, aerosols and chemistry in Titan's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hourdin, Chez Frédéric

    REVIEW The coupling of winds, aerosols and chemistry in Titan's atmosphere BY SEBASTIEN LEBONNOIS 1'Ae´ronomie, IPSL, CNRS, BP3, 91371 Verrie`res le Buisson, France The atmosphere of Titan is a complex system, where the observed atmospheric structure of Titan's lower atmosphere (mainly in the stratosphere and troposphere

  6. Phase of atmospheric secondary organic material affects its reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the reactivity of atmospheric SOM particles. atmospheric chemistry chemical aging organic aerosol collectionPhase of atmospheric secondary organic material affects its reactivity Mikinori Kuwata and Scot T of atmospheric organic particles among solid, semisolid, and liquid phases is of keen current scientific interest

  7. ATM401, ATM601, CHEM601 Introduction to Atmospheric Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moelders, Nicole

    as atmospheric chemistry. You should be able to read and analyze weather maps or climate diagrams, interpret as atmospheric chemistry. Fundamental goals are that you develop skills to think as an atmospheric scientistATM401, ATM601, CHEM601 Introduction to Atmospheric Sciences Fall 2013 Class time: TR 11:30am

  8. Simulation and Theory of Ions at Atmospherically Relevant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Yan

    Simulation and Theory of Ions at Atmospherically Relevant Aqueous Liquid-Air Interfaces Douglas J in the atmosphere influences air quality and climate. Molecular dy- namics simulations are becoming increasingly in the atmosphere. Here we review simulation studies of atmospherically relevant aqueous liquid-air interfaces

  9. Surface passivation of c-Si by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of Al2O3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    passivation has to date been mostly deposited by conventional atomic layer deposition (ALD), a technique-effect transistors subjected to on-state bias stress J. Appl. Phys. 111, 084504 (2012) Atomic imaging of atomic layerSurface passivation of c-Si by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of Al2O3 Lachlan E

  10. Chaotic characteristics of corona discharges in atmospheric air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan Xiangyu; Zhang Qiaogen; Wang Xiuhuan; Sun Fu; Zha Wei; Jia Zhijie [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 28 West Xianning Road, Xi'an 710049 (China)

    2008-11-15

    A point-plane electrode system in atmospheric air is established to investigate the mechanism of the corona discharge. By using this system, the current pulses of the corona discharges under the 50 Hz ac voltage are measured using partial discharge (PD) measurement instrument and constitute the point-plane voltage-current (V-I) characteristic equation together with the voltage. Then, this paper constructs the nonlinear circuit model and differential equations of the system in an attempt to give the underlying dynamic mechanism based on the nonlinear V-I characteristics of the point-plane corona discharges. The results show that the chaotic phenomenon is found in the corona circuit by the experimental study and nonlinear dynamic analysis. The basic dynamic characteristics, including the Lyapunov exponent, the existence of the strange attractors, and the equilibrium points, are also found and analyzed in the development process of the corona circuit. Moreover, the time series of the corona current pulses obtained in the experiment is used to demonstrate the chaotic characteristics of the corona current based on the nonlinear dynamic circuit theory and the experimental basis. It is pointed out that the corona phenomenon is not a purely stochastic phenomenon but a short term deterministic chaotic activity.

  11. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

    2006-09-01

    This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

  12. Magnetized Atmospheres around Accreting Neutron Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Zane; R. Turolla; A. Treves

    2000-02-01

    We present a detailed investigation of atmospheres around accreting neutron stars with high magnetic field ($B\\gtrsim 10^{12}$ G) and low luminosity ($L\\lesssim 10^{33}$ erg/s). We compute the atmospheric structure, intensity and emergent spectrum for a plane-parallel, pure hydrogen medium by solving the transfer equations for the normal modes coupled to the hydrostatic and energy balance equations. The hard tail found in previous investigations for accreting, non-magnetic neutron stars with comparable luminosity is suppressed and the X-ray spectrum, although still harder than a blackbody at the star effective temperature, is nearly planckian in shape. Spectra from accreting atmospheres, both with high and low fields, are found to exhibit a significant excess at optical wavelengths above the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the X-ray continuum.

  13. Stress-dependent surface reactions and implications for a stress measurement technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Stress-dependent surface reactions and implications for a stress measurement technique H. H. Yua stress, the elastic energy adds to the driving force of the reaction, and may cause the surface to roughen. This phenomenon has recently led to a novel experimental technique to determine the stress state

  14. Measurement of uranium enrichment by gamma spectroscopy: result of an experimental design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PAPER Measurement of uranium enrichment by gamma spectroscopy: result of an experimental design Gamma spectroscopy is commonly used in nuclear safeguards to measure uranium enrichment. An experimental design has been carried out for the measurement of uranium enrichment using this technique with different

  15. A Community Atmosphere Model with Superparameterized Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall, David; Branson, Mark; Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.; Craig, Cheryl; Gettelman, A.; Edwards, Jim

    2013-06-18

    In 1999, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) scientists Wojciech Grabowski and Piotr Smolarkiewicz created a "multiscale" atmospheric model in which the physical processes associated with clouds were represented by running a simple high-resolution model within each grid column of a lowresolution global model. In idealized experiments, they found that the multiscale model produced promising simulations of organized tropical convection, which other models had struggled to produce. Inspired by their results, Colorado State University (CSU) scientists Marat Khairoutdinov and David Randall created a multiscale version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). They removed the cloud parameterizations of the CAM, and replaced them with Khairoutdinov's high-resolution cloud model. They dubbed the embedded cloud model a "super-parameterization," and the modified CAM is now called the "SP-CAM." Over the next several years, many scientists, from many institutions, have explored the ability of the SP-CAM to simulate tropical weather systems, the day-night changes of precipitation, the Asian and African monsoons, and a number of other climate processes. Cristiana Stan of the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions found that the SP-CAM gives improved results when coupled to an ocean model, and follow-on studies have explored the SP-CAM's utility when used as the atmospheric component of the Community Earth System Model. Much of this research has been performed under the auspices of the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes, a National Science Foundation (NSF) Science and Technology Center for which the lead institution is CSU.

  16. Controlled atmosphere for fabrication of cermet electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA)

    1998-01-01

    A process for making an inert electrode composite wherein a metal oxide and a metal are reacted in a gaseous atmosphere at an elevated temperature of at least about 750.degree. C. The metal oxide is at least one of the nickel, iron, tin, zinc and zirconium oxides and the metal is copper, silver, a mixture of copper and silver or a copper-silver alloy. The gaseous atmosphere has an oxygen content that is controlled at about 5-3000 ppm in order to obtain a desired composition in the resulting composite.

  17. Controlled atmosphere for fabrication of cermet electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, S.P.; Woods, R.W.

    1998-08-11

    A process is disclosed for making an inert electrode composite wherein a metal oxide and a metal are reacted in a gaseous atmosphere at an elevated temperature of at least about 750 C. The metal oxide is at least one of the nickel, iron, tin, zinc and zirconium oxides and the metal is copper, silver, a mixture of copper and silver or a copper-silver alloy. The gaseous atmosphere has an oxygen content that is controlled at about 5--3000 ppm in order to obtain a desired composition in the resulting composite. 2 figs.

  18. Optical techniques for determining dynamic material properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.; Stahl, D.B.

    1996-12-31

    Miniature plates are laser-launched with a 10-Joule Nd:YAG for one-dimensional (1-D) impacts on to target materials much like gas gun experiments and explosive plane wave plate launch. By making the experiments small, flyer plates (3 mm diameter x 50 micron thick) and targets (10 mm diameter x 200 micron thick), 1-D impact experiments can be performed in a standard laser-optical laboratory with minimum confinement and collateral damage. The laser-launched plates do not require the traditional sabot on gas guns nor the explosives needed for explosive planewave lenses, and as a result are much more amenable to a wide variety of materials and applications. Because of the small size very high pressure gradients can be generated with relative ease. The high pressure gradients result in very high strains and strain rates that are not easily generated by other experimental methods. The small size and short shock duration (1 - 20 ns) are ideal for dynamically measuring bond strengths of micron-thick coatings. Experimental techniques, equipment, and dynamic material results are reported.

  19. Comparing and assessing different measurement techniques for mercury in coal systhesis gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, D.P.; Richardson, C.F. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Three mercury measurement techniques were performed on synthesis gas streams before and after an amine-based sulfur removal system. The syngas was sampled using (1) gas impingers containing a nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide solution, (2) coconut-based charcoal sorbent, and (3) an on-line atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with a gold amalgamation trap and cold vapor cell. Various impinger solutions were applied upstream of the gold amalgamation trap to remove hydrogen sulfide and isolate oxidized and elemental species of mercury. The results from these three techniques are compared to provide an assessment of these measurement techniques in reducing gas atmospheres.

  20. Transient data acquisition techniques under EDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Telford, S.

    1985-06-01

    This paper is the first of a series which describes the Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) developed for the MARS project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Although EDS was developed for use on AVLIS, the functional requirements, overall design, and specific techniques are applicable to any experimental data acquisition system involving large quantities of transient data. In particular this paper will discuss the techniques and equipment used to do the data acquisition. Included are what types of hardware are used and how that hardware (CAMAC, digital oscilloscopes) is interfaced to the HP computers. In this discussion the author will address the problems encountered and the solutions used, as well as the performance of the instrument/computer interfaces. The second topic the author will discuss is how the acquired data is associated to graphics and analysis portions of EDS through efficient real time data bases. This discussion will include how the acquired data is folded into the overall structure of EDS providing the user immediate access to raw and analyzed data. By example you will see how easily a new diagnostic can be added to the EDS structure without modifying the other parts of the system. 8 figs.

  1. Investigating High Field Gravity using Astrophysical Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloom, Elliott D.; /SLAC

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of these lectures is to introduce particle physicists to astrophysical techniques. These techniques can help us understand certain phenomena important to particle physics that are currently impossible to address using standard particle physics experimental techniques. As the subject matter is vast, compromises are necessary in order to convey the central ideas to the reader. Many general references are included for those who want to learn more. The paragraphs below elaborate on the structure of these lectures. I hope this discussion will clarify my motivation and make the lectures easier to follow. The lectures begin with a brief review of more theoretical ideas. First, elements of general relativity are reviewed, concentrating on those aspects that are needed to understand compact stellar objects (white dwarf stars, neutron stars, and black holes). I then review the equations of state of these objects, concentrating on the simplest standard models from astrophysics. After these mathematical preliminaries, Sec. 2(c) discusses 'The End State of Stars'. Most of this section also uses the simplest standard models. However, as these lectures are for particle physicists, I also discuss some of the more recent approaches to the equation of state of very dense compact objects. These particle-physics-motivated equations of state can dramatically change how we view the formation of black holes. Section 3 focuses on the properties of the objects that we want to characterize and measure. X-ray binary systems and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are stressed because the lectures center on understanding very dense stellar objects, black hole candidates (BHCs), and their accompanying high gravitational fields. The use of x-ray timing and gamma-ray experiments is also introduced in this section. Sections 4 and 5 review information from x-ray and gamma-ray experiments. These sections also discuss the current state of the art in x-ray and gamma-ray satellite experiments and plans for future experiments.

  2. National Mining Association Experimental Determination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    National Mining Association Experimental Determination of Radon Fluxes over Water #12;Introduction research funded by the National Mining Association (NMA) regarding radon fluxes from water surfaces surfaces at uranium recovery operations are insignificant and approximate background soil fluxes for most

  3. Introducing Research College of Oceanic & Atmospheric Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barth, Jack

    WECOMA Coll ege of Oceanic & Atmospheric Scie nces OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY in the O cean currents introduced by man (e.g., pollutants). Knowledge of upper-ocean currents is important for navigation and for search and rescue. The ocean currents off Oregon vary seasonally and can also vary from year to year

  4. Introducing Research College of Oceanic & Atmospheric Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Stephen

    .coas.oregonstate.edu WECOMA WECOMA Coll ege of Oceanic & Atmospheric Scie nces OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY in the O cean currents, to the south in summer and generally to the north in winter, create ocean currents. The strong summertime and the topography of the ocean floor influence the east-west cross-shelf currents. Understanding and being able

  5. Quantifying chaos in the atmosphere Richard Washington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington, Richard

    , Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TB, UK Abstract: The atmosphere is known to be forced by a variety of energy sources, including radiation and heat fluxes emanating from the boundary layer associated with sea as the competing champions controlling process in the physical world. With or without Einstein, there can

  6. The mean molecular mass of Titan's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    , Mars, Mars #12;Science Questions · Mean molecular mass (µ) -> Chemical composition · How did Titan form? · Current reservoirs of volatiles · Ethane/methane puddles/ocean · Thermal structure of atmosphere #12, delicate, etc ­ T/p sensors are simple, cheap, reliable · Is it possible to know µ based on simple

  7. Characterizing Titan's Upper Atmosphere Using the Titan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    methane chemical losses. INMS Data T-GITM Bell et al. [2010b] #12;Constraints on Escape · Parameter Sweep-Thermosphere Model (GITM) · 3-D, non-hydrostatic, altitude-based atmospheric model ­ Compressible Navier (TVD) MUSCL Scheme. ­ Block-based Massively Parallel Framework ­ Updating with 4th order Runge

  8. Methane present in an extrasolar planet atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark R. Swain; Gautam Vasisht; Giovanna Tinetti

    2008-02-07

    Molecules present in exoplanetary atmospheres are expected to strongly influence the atmospheric radiation balance, trace dynamical and chemical processes, and indicate the presence of disequilibrium effects. Since molecules have the potential to reveal the exoplanet atmospheric conditions and chemistry, searching for them is a high priority. The rotational-vibrational transition bands of water, carbon monoxide, and methane are anticipated to be the primary sources of non-continuum opacity in hot-Jovian planets. Since these bands overlap in wavelength, and the corresponding signatures from them are weak, decisive identification requires precision infrared spectroscopy. Here we report on a near-infrared transmission spectrum of the planet HD 189733b showing the presence of methane. Additionally, a resolved water-vapour band at 1.9 microns confirms the recent claim of water in this object. On thermochemical grounds, carbon-monoxide is expected to be abundant in the upper atmosphere of hot-Jovian exoplanets; thus the detection of methane rather than carbon-monoxide in such a hot planet could signal the presence of a horizontal chemical gradient away from the permanent dayside, or it may imply an ill-understood photochemical mechanisms that leads to an enhancement of methane.

  9. Connectivity To Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-02-26

    To establish DOE and NNSA connectivity to Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) for sites and facilities that have the potential for releasing hazardous materials sufficient to generate certain emergency declarations and to promote efficient use of resources for consequence assessment activities at DOE sites, facilities, operations, and activities in planning for and responding to emergency events. No cancellations.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF CLOUDS IN TITAN'S TROPICAL ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.; Penteado, Paulo; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Baines, Kevin H.; Buratti, Bonnie; Sotin, Christophe; Clark, Roger; Nicholson, Phil; Jaumann, Ralf

    2009-09-10

    Images of Titan's clouds, possible over the past 10 years, indicate primarily discrete convective methane clouds near the south and north poles and an immense stratiform cloud, likely composed of ethane, around the north pole. Here we present spectral images from Cassini's Visual Mapping Infrared Spectrometer that reveal the increasing presence of clouds in Titan's tropical atmosphere. Radiative transfer analyses indicate similarities between summer polar and tropical methane clouds. Like their southern counterparts, tropical clouds consist of particles exceeding 5 {mu}m. They display discrete structures suggestive of convective cumuli. They prevail at a specific latitude band between 8 deg. - 20 deg. S, indicative of a circulation origin and the beginning of a circulation turnover. Yet, unlike the high latitude clouds that often reach 45 km altitude, these discrete tropical clouds, so far, remain capped to altitudes below 26 km. Such low convective clouds are consistent with the highly stable atmospheric conditions measured at the Huygens landing site. Their characteristics suggest that Titan's tropical atmosphere has a dry climate unlike the south polar atmosphere, and despite the numerous washes that carve the tropical landscape.

  11. Atmospheric Chemistry, Modeling, and Biogeochemistry of Mercury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    activities that release mercury to the atmosphere include coal burning, industrial processes, waste incine and climate projections; critically and quantitatively analyze environmental management and policy proposals mercury research. Global Budget of Mercury Prior to the onset of human industrial activities, the amount

  12. Azores Global Atmosphere Monitoring Complex 1. INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honrath, Richard E.

    observations. Prior to the advent of satellite observations, they provided weather data critical to the accuracy of European weather forecasts. Today, they provide a unique base for studies of atmospheric Monitoring Complex (AGAMC) is a set of ground-based measurement stations for use in sampling the marine

  13. MIDDLE ATMOSPHERE DYNAMICS AT707 (3 credits)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    .8 Static Stability Structure 9.9 Gravity Wave Generation in Unbalanced Jet­Front Systems 10. Equatorial, T. G., 2007: Transport in the Middle Atmosphere. J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan, 85B, 165­191. 1 #12. Vertically Propagating Waves 2.1 Extratropical (Planetary) Rossby Waves 2.2 Extratropical Gravity Waves 2

  14. Atmospheric aerosol light scattering and polarization peculiarities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patlashenko, Zh I

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers environmental problems of natural and anthropogenic atmospheric aerosol pollution and its global and regional monitoring. Efficient aerosol investigations may be achieved by spectropolarimetric measurements. Specifically second and fourth Stokes parameters spectral dependencies carry information on averaged refraction and absorption indexes and on particles size distribution functions characteristics.

  15. THE LOWER SOLAR ATMOSPHERE ROBERT J. RUTTEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutten, Rob

    over large fields, long times and many wave- lengths (heights) simultaneously -- Judge and Peter (1998THE LOWER SOLAR ATMOSPHERE ROBERT J. RUTTEN Sterrekundig Instituut, Postbus 80 000, NL­3508 TA, Utrecht, The Netherlands Abstract. This "rapporteur" report discusses the solar photosphere and low

  16. Modeling of Alpine Atmospheric Dynamics II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gohm, Alexander

    Modeling of Alpine Atmospheric Dynamics II 707.424, VU 2, SS2005 Unit 7: Model code structure: mesoscale convective system 17-18 April 2004: Sierra hydraulic jump case 21 January 2005: the "Universiade) Introduction (brief description of the phenomenon and a description of the model and of the measurements

  17. Dynamics of Jupiter's Atmosphere Andrew P. Ingersoll

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Dowling University of Louisville Peter J. Gierasch Cornell University Glenn S. Orton Jet Propulsion no topography, i.e., no con- tinents or oceans; its atmosphere merges smoothly with the planet's fluid interior with falling ice and rain. On Jupiter, the separation mechanism is still to be determined. The winds of Jupiter

  18. JournalofGeophysicalResearch: Atmospheres RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raible, Christoph C.

    MAR 2015 The influence of absorbed solar radiation by Saharan dust on hurricane genesis Sebastian, Bern, Switzerland Abstract To date, the radiative impact of dust and the Saharan air layer (SAL the atmosphere due to absorption of solar radiation but thus shifts convection to regions more conducive

  19. INTRODUCTION Atmospheric aerosol particles influence the Earth's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wunderle, Stefan

    , scattering, and absorbing solar electromagnetic radiation and by modifying cloud properties due to their roleINTRODUCTION Atmospheric aerosol particles influence the Earth's radiation budget by reflecting to maximum cover a region once in the daytime. In contrary, up-to-date geostationary instruments like

  20. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2015)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    of the monsoon forecasting models, which many times do not represent the heat energy available to the atmosphere, have a great demand for accurate, long range forecast (LRF) of mon- soon rainfall, which has always. We studied the impacts of ocean mean temperature (OMT), representing the heat energy of the upper

  1. Exploring the Deep... Ocean-Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    and the transfer of energy among these systems. Global energy balance The Sun is the primary source of energy), and biosphere (living organisms) that are driven by solar energy. The ocean and the atmosphere have the greatest on the others. To fully understand the dynamics of our climate, we must examine the global energy balance

  2. SUPPLEMENTARY Submitted to: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    S1 SUPPLEMENTARY Submitted to: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Title: Quantifying/fuels/emission control devices for coal-fired power plants by province. Table S4. The uncertainties of unabated emission Ratio of biomass burning Normal (Province dependent) Questionnaire: Wang and Zhang (2008) B 1 A

  3. Boosted top: experimental tools overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emanuele Usai; for the ATLAS; CMS Collaborations

    2015-01-05

    An overview of tools and methods for the reconstruction of high-boost top quark decays at the LHC is given in this report. The focus is on hadronic decays, in particular an overview of the current status of top quark taggers in physics analyses is presented. The most widely used jet substructure techniques, normally used in combination with top quark taggers, are reviewed. Special techniques to treat pileup in large cone jets are described, along with a comparison of the performance of several boosted top quark reconstruction techniques.

  4. SU-F-BRE-07: Experimental Validation of a Lung SBRT Technique...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; LUNGS; PATIENTS; PHANTOMS; PLANNING; PLASTICS; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIATION...

  5. Analytical and experimental procedures in nonlinear viscoelastic parameter characterization using dynamic mechanical techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden, Peter Joseph

    1996-01-01

    Traditional methods of viscoelastic material characterization lack the ability to rapidly characterize nonlinear viscoelastic materials. A method of rapidly identifying linear viscoelastic material properties is Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA...

  6. Experimental techniques for measurement of available potential energy as applied to the Drake Passage region 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jessen, Paul Frederik

    1986-01-01

    - ergy contributions to APE are treated and in the method used to identify and calculate a reference field. The results of each method are compared to estimate the relative accuracy of APE estimates and investigate the differences between them... surfaces during the adiabatic lev- eling of the observed field. Differences between methods which calculate the reference field differently are greatest where displacements are large and in the deeper parts of the ocean basin. An APE anomaly...

  7. Experimental Study on the Subcooled Boiling Flow via Optical Measurement Techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, Jun Soo

    2015-04-16

    ............................................................................................... 183 xiii Figure V-12. Effects of inlet subcooling (?Tsub,in) on probability density function (PDF) for bubble size and its development in the upward flow direction .. 187 Figure V-13. Effects of liquid mass flux (G) on probability density... function (PDF) for bubble size and its development in the upward flow direction ............. 188 Figure V-14. Effects of wall heat flux (qw) on probability density function (PDF) for bubble size and its development in the upward flow direction...

  8. MODULATING PROTEIN FUNCTION WITH SMALL MOLECULES THROUGH COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN TECHNIQUES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xia, Yan

    2014-12-31

    , whereas inhibition of protein function contributes to the development of novel therapeutic agents. The discovery of small-molecule modulators of function is greatly aided by computational modeling methodologies. By utilizing structural information obtained...

  9. Experimental Observation and Measurements of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer using PIV, Shadowgraphy, RICM Techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di, Yuan 1988-

    2012-12-05

    This present study seeks to contribute detailed visualization data on a pool boiling experiments using HFE-7000. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the time resolved whole field liquid velocity. Bubble dynamic parameters...

  10. An experimental investigation of a periodic impingement technique for heat transfer enhancement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valant, Michael Eric

    1995-01-01

    and are oriented such that they deflect the flow of air toward the top and bottom primary walls alternately. The bottom wall of the channel is heated by passing electrical current through a thin Inconel foil that is attached to the inner surface. The temperature...

  11. SU-F-BRE-07: Experimental Validation of a Lung SBRT Technique Using a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLEDSpeeding FINAL2-4260Earth784216W1 Plastic

  12. ANALYTICAL MODELS OF EXOPLANETARY ATMOSPHERES. I. ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS VIA THE SHALLOW WATER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heng, Kevin; Workman, Jared E-mail: jworkman@coloradomesa.edu

    2014-08-01

    Within the context of exoplanetary atmospheres, we present a comprehensive linear analysis of forced, damped, magnetized shallow water systems, exploring the effects of dimensionality, geometry (Cartesian, pseudo-spherical, and spherical), rotation, magnetic tension, and hydrodynamic and magnetic sources of friction. Across a broad range of conditions, we find that the key governing equation for atmospheres and quantum harmonic oscillators are identical, even when forcing (stellar irradiation), sources of friction (molecular viscosity, Rayleigh drag, and magnetic drag), and magnetic tension are included. The global atmospheric structure is largely controlled by a single key parameter that involves the Rossby and Prandtl numbers. This near-universality breaks down when either molecular viscosity or magnetic drag acts non-uniformly across latitude or a poloidal magnetic field is present, suggesting that these effects will introduce qualitative changes to the familiar chevron-shaped feature witnessed in simulations of atmospheric circulation. We also find that hydrodynamic and magnetic sources of friction have dissimilar phase signatures and affect the flow in fundamentally different ways, implying that using Rayleigh drag to mimic magnetic drag is inaccurate. We exhaustively lay down the theoretical formalism (dispersion relations, governing equations, and time-dependent wave solutions) for a broad suite of models. In all situations, we derive the steady state of an atmosphere, which is relevant to interpreting infrared phase and eclipse maps of exoplanetary atmospheres. We elucidate a pinching effect that confines the atmospheric structure to be near the equator. Our suite of analytical models may be used to develop decisively physical intuition and as a reference point for three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of atmospheric circulation.

  13. Atmospheric Inverse Estimates of Methane Emissions from Central California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Chuanfeng; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Bianco, Laura; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Hirsch, Adam; MacDonald, Clinton; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Fischer, Marc L.

    2008-11-21

    Methane mixing ratios measured at a tall-tower are compared to model predictions to estimate surface emissions of CH{sub 4} in Central California for October-December 2007 using an inverse technique. Predicted CH{sub 4} mixing ratios are calculated based on spatially resolved a priori CH{sub 4} emissions and simulated atmospheric trajectories. The atmospheric trajectories, along with surface footprints, are computed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. An uncertainty analysis is performed to provide quantitative uncertainties in estimated CH{sub 4} emissions. Three inverse model estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions are reported. First, linear regressions of modeled and measured CH{sub 4} mixing ratios obtain slopes of 0.73 {+-} 0.11 and 1.09 {+-} 0.14 using California specific and Edgar 3.2 emission maps respectively, suggesting that actual CH{sub 4} emissions were about 37 {+-} 21% higher than California specific inventory estimates. Second, a Bayesian 'source' analysis suggests that livestock emissions are 63 {+-} 22% higher than the a priori estimates. Third, a Bayesian 'region' analysis is carried out for CH{sub 4} emissions from 13 sub-regions, which shows that inventory CH{sub 4} emissions from the Central Valley are underestimated and uncertainties in CH{sub 4} emissions are reduced for sub-regions near the tower site, yielding best estimates of flux from those regions consistent with 'source' analysis results. The uncertainty reductions for regions near the tower indicate that a regional network of measurements will be necessary to provide accurate estimates of surface CH{sub 4} emissions for multiple regions.

  14. Experimental

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesof Energy8) WignerEnergyAboutExperiment Safetyscaling

  15. Evaluating impacts of CO2 gas intrusion into a confined sandstone aquifer: Experimental results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Lawter, Amanda R.; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Guohui; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-12-31

    Deep subsurface storage and sequestration of CO2 has been identified as a potential mitigation technique for rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Sequestered CO2 represents a potential risk to overlying aquifers if the CO2 leaks from the deep storage reservoir. Experimental and modeling work is required to evaluate potential risks to groundwater quality and develop a systematic understanding of how CO2 leakage may cause important changes in aquifer chemistry and mineralogy by promoting dissolution/precipitation, adsorption/desorption, and redox reactions. Sediments from the High Plains aquifer in Kansas, United States, were used in this investigation, which is part of the National Risk Assessment Partnership Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy. This aquifer was selected to be representative of consolidated sand and gravel/sandstone aquifers overlying potential CO2 sequestration repositories within the continental US. In this paper, we present results from batch experiments conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure with four High Plains aquifer sediments. Batch experiments simulate sudden, fast, and short-lived releases of the CO2 gas as would occur in the case of well failure during injection. Time-dependent release of major, minor, and trace elements were determined by analyzing the contacting solutions. Characterization studies demonstrated that the High Plains aquifer sediments were abundant in quartz and feldspars, and contained about 15 to 20 wt% montmorillonite and up to 5 wt% micas. Some of the High Plains aquifer sediments contained no calcite, while others had up to about 7 wt% calcite. The strong acid extraction tests confirmed that in addition to the usual elements present in most soils, rocks, and sediments, the High Plains aquifer sediments had appreciable amounts of As, Cd, Pb, Cu, and occasionally Zn, which potentially may be mobilized from the solid to the aqueous phase during or after exposure to CO2. However, the results from the batch experiments showed that the High Plains sediments mobilized only low concentrations of trace elements (potential contaminants), which were detected occasionally in the aqueous phase during these experiments. Importantly, these occurrences were more frequent in the calcite-free sediment. Results from these investigations provide useful information to support site selection, risk assessment, and public education efforts associated with geological CO2 storage and sequestration.

  16. Evaluating Impacts of CO2 Gas Intrusion Into a Confined Sandstone aquifer: Experimental Results

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Lawter, Amanda R.; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Guohui; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-12-31

    Deep subsurface storage and sequestration of CO2 has been identified as a potential mitigation technique for rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Sequestered CO2 represents a potential risk to overlying aquifers if the CO2 leaks from the deep storage reservoir. Experimental and modeling work is required to evaluate potential risks to groundwater quality and develop a systematic understanding of how CO2 leakage may cause important changes in aquifer chemistry and mineralogy by promoting dissolution/precipitation, adsorption/desorption, and redox reactions. Sediments from the High Plains aquifer in Kansas, United States, were used in this investigation, which is part of the National Risk Assessment Partnershipmore »Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy. This aquifer was selected to be representative of consolidated sand and gravel/sandstone aquifers overlying potential CO2 sequestration repositories within the continental US. In this paper, we present results from batch experiments conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure with four High Plains aquifer sediments. Batch experiments simulate sudden, fast, and short-lived releases of the CO2 gas as would occur in the case of well failure during injection. Time-dependent release of major, minor, and trace elements were determined by analyzing the contacting solutions. Characterization studies demonstrated that the High Plains aquifer sediments were abundant in quartz and feldspars, and contained about 15 to 20 wt% montmorillonite and up to 5 wt% micas. Some of the High Plains aquifer sediments contained no calcite, while others had up to about 7 wt% calcite. The strong acid extraction tests confirmed that in addition to the usual elements present in most soils, rocks, and sediments, the High Plains aquifer sediments had appreciable amounts of As, Cd, Pb, Cu, and occasionally Zn, which potentially may be mobilized from the solid to the aqueous phase during or after exposure to CO2. However, the results from the batch experiments showed that the High Plains sediments mobilized only low concentrations of trace elements (potential contaminants), which were detected occasionally in the aqueous phase during these experiments. Importantly, these occurrences were more frequent in the calcite-free sediment. Results from these investigations provide useful information to support site selection, risk assessment, and public education efforts associated with geological CO2 storage and sequestration.« less

  17. Evaluating Impacts of CO2 Gas Intrusion Into a Confined Sandstone aquifer: Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Lawter, Amanda R.; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Guohui; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-12-31

    Deep subsurface storage and sequestration of CO2 has been identified as a potential mitigation technique for rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Sequestered CO2 represents a potential risk to overlying aquifers if the CO2 leaks from the deep storage reservoir. Experimental and modeling work is required to evaluate potential risks to groundwater quality and develop a systematic understanding of how CO2 leakage may cause important changes in aquifer chemistry and mineralogy by promoting dissolution/precipitation, adsorption/desorption, and redox reactions. Sediments from the High Plains aquifer in Kansas, United States, were used in this investigation, which is part of the National Risk Assessment Partnership Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy. This aquifer was selected to be representative of consolidated sand and gravel/sandstone aquifers overlying potential CO2 sequestration repositories within the continental US. In this paper, we present results from batch experiments conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure with four High Plains aquifer sediments. Batch experiments simulate sudden, fast, and short-lived releases of the CO2 gas as would occur in the case of well failure during injection. Time-dependent release of major, minor, and trace elements were determined by analyzing the contacting solutions. Characterization studies demonstrated that the High Plains aquifer sediments were abundant in quartz and feldspars, and contained about 15 to 20 wt% montmorillonite and up to 5 wt% micas. Some of the High Plains aquifer sediments contained no calcite, while others had up to about 7 wt% calcite. The strong acid extraction tests confirmed that in addition to the usual elements present in most soils, rocks, and sediments, the High Plains aquifer sediments had appreciable amounts of As, Cd, Pb, Cu, and occasionally Zn, which potentially may be mobilized from the solid to the aqueous phase during or after exposure to CO2. However, the results from the batch experiments showed that the High Plains sediments mobilized only low concentrations of trace elements (potential contaminants), which were detected occasionally in the aqueous phase during these experiments. Importantly, these occurrences were more frequent in the calcite-free sediment. Results from these investigations provide useful information to support site selection, risk assessment, and public education efforts associated with geological CO2 storage and sequestration.

  18. Ernest S. Colantonio College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    ) and document imaging and workflow processing system (Nolij); developed data warehouse queries; identifiedErnest S. Colantonio College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences Oregon State University State University, College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences Faculty Research Assistant Conduct

  19. BIOSIGNATURE GASES IN H?-DOMINATED ATMOSPHERES ON ROCKY EXOPLANETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seager, Sara

    Super-Earth exoplanets are being discovered with increasing frequency and some will be able to retain stable H2-dominated atmospheres. We study biosignature gases on exoplanets with thin H2 atmospheres and habitable surface ...

  20. Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, D. S.; Dutton, Bryan C.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. and furnace temperature versus timein air-based atmospheres and furnace temperature versus time2 -based atmospheres and furnace temperature versus time for

  1. Author's Accepted Manuscript ORBIT-CENTERED ATMOSPHERIC DENSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wohlberg, Brendt

    solar and geomagnetic activities and different prediction windows. Compar- ison with previouslyAuthor's Accepted Manuscript ORBIT-CENTERED ATMOSPHERIC DENSITY PREDICTION USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL Shoemaker, Riccardo Bevilacqua, ORBIT-CENTERED ATMOSPHERIC DENSITY PREDICTION USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL

  2. Mesoscale coupled ocean-atmosphere feedbacks in boundary current systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Putrasahan, Dian Ariyani

    2012-01-01

    Isolating Mesoscale Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere in the KuroshioSST coupler . . . . Chapter 3 Mesoscale Ocean-Atmosphere4.2 Impact of Mesoscale SST on Precipitation Chapter 4 vi

  3. A Temperature and Abundance Retrieval Method for Exoplanet Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madhusudhan, Nikku

    We present a new method to retrieve molecular abundances and temperature profiles from exoplanet atmosphere photometry and spectroscopy. We run millions of one-dimensional (1D) atmosphere models in order to cover the large ...

  4. U. S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U. S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Coastal Data Area Network) Project Description: The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA consists of four separate components, an administrative local area network (LAN) component; a public access

  5. EPS 22 The Fluid Earth: Oceans, Atmosphere, Climate & Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huybers, Peter

    . Students are requested not to use laptops or cell phones during class. Textbook: The Atmospheric Balance 02 Feb Atmospheric radiation. Demonstration: Invisibility at 1800 K. Spectra and Planck's Nobel

  6. ATMOS 5000: Intro to Atmospheric Science Fall Term 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, John Chun-Han

    allows: · Atmospheric boundary layer · Carbon cycle, CO2 · Ozone hole, stratospheric chemistry · Air on the atmospheric controls on the weather (beach volleyball versus a rainy day indoors, skiing on a sunny day

  7. Atmospheric rivers as Lagrangian coherent structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garaboa, Daniel; Huhn, Florian; Perez-Muñuzuri, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    We show that filamentous Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) over the Northern Atlantic Ocean are closely linked to attracting Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) in the large scale wind field. LCSs represent lines of attraction in the evolving flow with a significant impact on all passive tracers. Using Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponents (FTLE), we extract LCSs from a two-dimensional flow derived from water vapor flux of atmospheric reanalysis data and compare them to the three-dimensional LCS obtained from the wind flow. We correlate the typical filamentous water vapor patterns of ARs with LCSs and find that LCSs bound the filaments on the back side. Passive advective transport of water vapor from tropical latitudes is potentially possible.

  8. Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations for Earth Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winter, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Modern proposed atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments, such as PINGU in the Antarctic ice or or ORCA in Mediterranean sea water, aim for precision measurements of the oscillation parameters including the ordering of the neutrino masses. They can, however, go far beyond that: Since neutrino oscillations are affected by the coherent forward scattering with matter, neutrinos can provide a new view on the interior of the earth. We show that the proposed atmospheric oscillation experiments can robustly measure the lower mantle density of the earth with a precision at the level of 4-5 percent, including the uncertainties of the oscillation parameters and correlations among different density layers. While the earth's core is, in principle, accessible by the angular resolution, new technology would be required to extract degeneracy-free information.

  9. Measuring Magnetic Fields in the Solar Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Wijn, A G

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery by Hale in the early 1900s that sunspots harbor strong magnetic field, magnetism has become increasingly important in our understanding of processes on the Sun and in the Heliosphere. Many current and planned instruments are capable of diagnosing magnetic field in the solar atmosphere. Photospheric magnetometry is now well-established. However, many challenges remain. For instance, the diagnosis of magnetic field in the chromosphere and corona is difficult, and interpretation of measurements is harder still. As a result only very few measurements have been made so far, yet it is clear that if we are to understand the outer solar atmosphere we must study the magnetic field. I will review the history of solar magnetic field measurements, describe and discuss the three types of magnetometry, and close with an outlook on the future.

  10. Engine Combustion Network Experimental Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maintained by the Engine Combustion Department of Sandia National Laboratories, data currently available on the website includes reacting and non-reacting sprays in a constant-volume chamber at conditions typical of diesel combustion. The data are useful for model development and validation because of the well-defined boundary conditions and the wide range of conditions employed. A search utility displays data based on experimental conditions such as ambient temperature, ambient density, injection pressure, nozzle size, fuel, etc. Experiment-related visualizations are also available. The search utility for experimental data is located at http://public.ca.sandia.gov/ecn/cvdata/frameset.html (Specialized Interface)

  11. Thermalisation of electrons in a stellar atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Chevallier

    2006-01-23

    We are interested in electrons kinetics in a stellar atmosphere to validate or invalidate the usually accepted hypothesis of thermalisation of electrons. For this purpose, we calculate the velocity distribution function of electrons by solving the kinetic equation of these particles together with the equations of radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium. We note that this distribution can deviate strongly from a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution if non-LTE effects are important. Some results and astrophysical consequences are examined.

  12. Atmospheric structure determined from satellite data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knight, Keith Shelburne

    1978-01-01

    Subject: Meteorology ATM)SPHERIC STRUCTURE DETEiUIINED FRDM SATELLITE DATA A Thesis XEITH SHELBURNE KNIGHT Approved as to style and content. hyi (Chairman of Cor ' iee) C. (Head of Department) (Miemher) ABSTRACT Atmospheric Structure Determined... from Satellite Data. (August 1978) Keith Shelburne Knight, B. A. , University of California at Los Angeles Chairman of Advisory Conmittee: Dr. James R. Scoggins The capabilities of the Nimbus-6 satellite sounding data for use in synoptic analysis...

  13. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

    1993-10-26

    A pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed reactor system is disclosed and claimed along with a process for utilization of same for the combustion of, e.g. high sulfur content coal. The system affords a economical, ecologically acceptable alternative to oil and gas fired combustors. The apparatus may also be employed for endothermic reaction, combustion of waste products, e.g., organic and medical waste, drying materials, heating air, calcining and the like.

  14. Extraction of Freshwater and Energy from Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-04-19

    Author offers and researches a new, cheap method for the extraction of freshwater from the Earth atmosphere. The suggected method is fundamentally dictinct from all existing methods that extract freshwater from air. All other industrial methods extract water from a saline water source (in most cases from seawater). This new method may be used at any point in the Earth except Polar Zones. It does not require long-distance freshwater transportation. If seawater is not utilized for increasing its productivity, this inexpensive new method is very environment-friendly. The author method has two working versions: (1) the first variant the warm (hot) atmospheric air is lifted by the inflatable tube in a high altitude and atmospheric steam is condenced into freswater: (2) in the second version, the warm air is pumped 20-30 meters under the sea-surface. In the first version, wind and solar heating of air are used for causing air flow. In version (2) wind and propeller are used for causing air movment. The first method does not need energy, the second needs a small amount. Moreover, in variant (1) the freshwater has a high pressure (>30 or more atm.) and can be used for production of energy such as electricity and in that way the freshwater cost is lower. For increasing the productivity the seawater is injected into air and solar air heater may be used. The solar air heater produces a huge amount of electricity as a very powerful electricity generation plant. The offered electricity installation in 100 - 200 times cheaper than any common electric plant of equivalent output. Key words: Extraction freshwater, method of getting freshwater, receiving energy from atmosphere, powerful renewal electric plant.

  15. On-line coating of glass with tin oxide by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Sopko, J.F. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); Houf, William G.; Chae, Yong Kee; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Li, M. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); McCamy, J.W. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA)

    2006-11-01

    Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of tin oxide is a very important manufacturing technique used in the production of low-emissivity glass. It is also the primary method used to provide wear-resistant coatings on glass containers. The complexity of these systems, which involve chemical reactions in both the gas phase and on the deposition surface, as well as complex fluid dynamics, makes process optimization and design of new coating reactors a very difficult task. In 2001 the U.S. Dept. of Energy Industrial Technologies Program Glass Industry of the Future Team funded a project to address the need for more accurate data concerning the tin oxide APCVD process. This report presents a case study of on-line APCVD using organometallic precursors, which are the primary reactants used in industrial coating processes. Research staff at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA, and the PPG Industries Glass Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA collaborated to produce this work. In this report, we describe a detailed investigation of the factors controlling the growth of tin oxide films. The report begins with a discussion of the basic elements of the deposition chemistry, including gas-phase thermochemistry of tin species and mechanisms of chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of tin precursors. These results provide the basis for experimental investigations in which tin oxide growth rates were measured as a function of all major process variables. The experiments focused on growth from monobutyltintrichloride (MBTC) since this is one of the two primary precursors used industrially. There are almost no reliable growth-rate data available for this precursor. Robust models describing the growth rate as a function of these variables are derived from modeling of these data. Finally, the results are used to conduct computational fluid dynamic simulations of both pilot- and full-scale coating reactors. As a result, general conclusions are reached concerning the factors affecting the growth rate in on-line APCVD reactors. In addition, a substantial body of data was generated that can be used to model many different industrial tin oxide coating processes. These data include the most extensive compilation of thermochemistry for gas-phase tin-containing species as well as kinetic expressions describing tin oxide growth rates over a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and reactant concentrations.

  16. Atmospheric lifetimes and global warming potentials of hydrofluoroethers: Reactivity toward OH, UV spectra, and IR absorption cross sections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orkin, V.L.; Villenave, E.; Huie, R.E.; Kurylo, M.J.

    1999-12-02

    The rate constants for the reactions of OH radicals with the fluorinated ethers, CHF{sub 2}-O-CHF{sub 2} (HFOC-134) and CF{sub 3}CH{sub 2}-O-CH{sub 2}CF{sub 3} (HFOC-356mff), were measured using the flash photolysis resonance fluorescence technique over the temperature range 277--370 K to give the following Arrhenius expressions: k{sub HFOC-356mff}(T) = (2.32{sub {minus}0.41}{sup +0.46}) x 10{sup {minus}12} exp{l{underscore}brace}{minus}(790 {+-} 47)/T{r{underscore}brace} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}. On the basis of the analysis of the available experimental results, the following Arrhenius expression can be recommended for the rate constant of the reaction between OH and HFOC-134: k{sub HFOC-134}(T) = (0.82{sub {minus}0.24}{sup +0.34}) x 10{sup {minus}12} exp{l{underscore}brace}{minus}(1,730 {+-} 110)/T{r{underscore}brace} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}. Atmospheric lifetimes were estimated to be 24.8 years for HFOC-134 (23.8 years based on the results of this study alone) and 0.3 years for HFOC-356mff. Infrared absorption cross sections of HFOC-134, HFOC-356mff, and HFOC-125 (CHF{sub 2}-O-CF{sub 3}) were measured at T = 295 K from 500 to 1,600 cm{sup {minus}1} and the global warming potentials of the three compounds were estimated. Ultraviolet absorption spectra of the ethers were measured between 160 and 220 nm. The general pattern of reactivity of hydrofluoroethers toward OH is discussed.

  17. Shipboard Atmospheric O2 Measurements in the Southern Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Britton B.

    outgassing on the atmospheric gradients at this latitude and time of year. This CO2 outgassing is in contrast

  18. Extraction of Freshwater and Energy from Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Author offers and researches a new, cheap method for the extraction of freshwater from the Earth atmosphere. The suggected method is fundamentally dictinct from all existing methods that extract freshwater from air. All other industrial methods extract water from a saline water source (in most cases from seawater). This new method may be used at any point in the Earth except Polar Zones. It does not require long-distance freshwater transportation. If seawater is not utilized for increasing its productivity, this inexpensive new method is very environment-friendly. The author method has two working versions: (1) the first variant the warm (hot) atmospheric air is lifted by the inflatable tube in a high altitude and atmospheric steam is condenced into freswater: (2) in the second version, the warm air is pumped 20-30 meters under the sea-surface. In the first version, wind and solar heating of air are used for causing air flow. In version (2) wind and propeller are used for causing air movment. The first method...

  19. Study of atmospheric pollution scavenging. [Annotated bibligraphy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.L.

    1990-08-01

    Atmospheric scavenging research conducted by the Illinois State Water Survey under contract with the Department of Energy has been a significant factor in the historical development of the field of precipitation scavenging. Emphasis of the work during the 1980's became focused on the problem of acid rain problem with the Survey being chosen as the Central Analytical Laboratory for sample analysis of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). The DOE research was responsible for laying the groundwork from the standpoint of sampling and chemical analysis that has now become routine features of NADP/NTN. A significant aspect of the research has been the participation by the Water Survey in the MAP3S precipitation sampling network which is totally supported by DOE, is the longest continuous precipitation sampling network in existence, and maintains an event sampling protocol. The following review consists of a short description of each of the papers appearing in the Study of Atmospheric Scavenging progress reports starting with the Eighteenth Progress Report in 1980 to the Twenty- Third Progress Report in 1989. In addition a listing of the significant publications and interviews associated with the program are given in the bibliography.

  20. Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM); Henins, Ivars (Los Alamos, NM); Babayan, Steve E. (Huntington Beach, CA); Hicks, Robert F. (Los Angeles, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two planar, parallel electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the volume therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly spacing the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, there is a negligible density of ions surviving for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike the situation for low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  1. Rapid Fluctuations in the Lower Solar Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, J K; Christian, D J; Jess, D B; Mathioudakis, M

    2011-01-01

    The Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere (ROSA) instrument reveals solar atmospheric fluctuations at high frequencies. Spectra of variations of the G-band intensity (IG) and CaII K-line intensity (IK) show correlated fluctuations above white noise to frequencies beyond 300 mHz and 50 mHz, respectively. The noise-corrected G-band spectrum for f = 28 - 326 mHz shows a power law with exponent -1.21 \\pm, 0.02, consistent with the presence of turbulent motions. G-band spectral power in the 25 - 100 mHz ("UHF") range is concentrated at the locations of magnetic bright points in the intergranular lanes and is highly intermittent in time. The intermittence of the UHF G-band fluctuations, shown by a positive kurtosis {\\kappa}, also suggests turbulence. Combining values of IG, IK, UHF power, and {\\kappa}, reveals two distinct states of the solar atmosphere. State 1, including almost all the data, is characterized by low IG, IK, and UHF power and {\\kappa} \\approx 6. State 2, including only a very small fraction of...

  2. Atmospheric and combustion chemistry of dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielsen, O.J.; Egsgaard, H.; Larsen, E.; Sehested, J.; Wallington, T.J.

    1997-12-31

    It has been demonstrated that dimethyl ether (DME) is an ideal diesel fuel alternative. DME, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}, combines good fuel properties with low exhaust emissions and low combustion noise. Large scale production of this fuel can take place using a single step catalytic process converting CH{sub 4} to DME. The fate of DME in the atmosphere has previously been studied. The atmospheric degradation is initiated by the reaction with hydroxyl radicals, which is also a common feature of combustion processes. Spectrokinetic investigations and product analysis were used to demonstrate that the intermediate oxy radical, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 2}O, exhibits a novel reaction pathway of hydrogen atom ejection. The application of tandem mass spectrometry to chemi-ions based on supersonic molecular beam sampling has recently been demonstrated. The highly reactive ionic intermediates are sampled directly from the flame and identified by collision activation mass spectrometry and ion-molecule reactions. The mass spectrum reflects the distribution of the intermediates in the flame. The atmospheric degradation of DME as well as the unique fuel properties of a oxygen containing compound will be discussed.

  3. Electromagnetic Interrogation Techniques Damage Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electromagnetic Interrogation Techniques for Damage Detection H. T. Banks #3; and M. L. Joyner Wincheski and W.P. Winfree Nasa Langley Research Center Hampton, VA #3; Plenary Lecture, Electromagnetic Nondestructive Evaluation 2001 (ENDE 2001), Kobe, Japan, May 18­19, 20001 #12; Electromagnetic Interrogation

  4. Inorganic Materials and Assembly Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    a transformational set of capabilities for high performance flexible/stretchable electronics. KEYWORDS | Bio-integrated electronics; flexible electronics; inorganic materials; integrated systems; stretchable electron- icsINVITED P A P E R Inorganic Materials and Assembly Techniques for Flexible and Stretchable

  5. Atmospheric Chemistry of Venus-like Exoplanets Laura Schaefer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - Atmospheric Chemistry of Venus-like Exoplanets by Laura Schaefer and Bruce Fegley, Jr thermodynamic calculations to model atmospheric chemistry on terrestrial exoplanets that are hot enough for chemical equilibria between the atmosphere and lithosphere, as on Venus. The results of our calculations

  6. Isotopic evidence for Mesoarchaean anoxia and changing atmospheric sulphur chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaufman, Alan Jay

    LETTERS Isotopic evidence for Mesoarchaean anoxia and changing atmospheric sulphur chemistry James changes in pre-2.45-Gyr-ago atmospheric pathways for non-mass-dependent chemistry and in the ultraviolet J. Kaufman1 The evolution of the Earth's atmosphere is marked by a transition from an early

  7. Phase Transitions of Aqueous Atmospheric Particles Scot T. Martin*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transformations of Polar Stratospheric Cloud Particles," in 1995-1996 at MIT in Atmospheric Chemistry. He was an Assistant Professor in Aquatic and Atmospheric Chemistry in the Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineers in the Atmospheric Chemistry Program). His laboratory research group is currently active in two

  8. Renewed growth of atmospheric methane R. G. Prinn,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    use these data, along with an inverse method applied to a simple model of atmospheric chemistry this observation further using a simple model of atmospheric transport and chemistry to attempt to quantifyRenewed growth of atmospheric methane M. Rigby,1 R. G. Prinn,1 P. J. Fraser,2 P. G. Simmonds,3 R. L

  9. Photo: RSMAS The Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , marine geophysics, ocean acoustics, and marine and atmospheric chemistry. The school is also known as onePhoto: RSMAS The Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS) was founded in 1943 in Biscayne Bay near Miami. It is the only subtropical applied and basic marine and atmospheric research

  10. School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Georgia Institute of Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuhang

    in atmospheric chemistry/air quality and climate and a growing reputation in oceanography, geophysicsSchool of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Georgia Institute of Technology Strategic Plan March 1 opportunities. Vision The vision of the School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences is: To lead in innovative

  11. Usage Policies Notebook for Thermco Atmospheric Diffusion Furnace system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    Usage Policies Notebook for Thermco Atmospheric Diffusion Furnace system Revision date September 2014 #12;2 Emergency Plan for Diffusion Furnaces Standard Operating Procedures for Emergencies Contact;4 Usage Policies for Thermco Atmospheric Diffusion Furnace Standard policies for usage The Atmospheric

  12. High Altitude Unmanned Air System for Atmospheric Science Missions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    High Altitude Unmanned Air System for Atmospheric Science Missions A. S´obester , S. J. Johnston and processing atmospheric observations across a range of altitudes. We consider the aeronautical a specified block of airspace. I. The Need for Wide Altitude Range Atmospheric Observations The ability

  13. MEA 213 Introduction to Atmospheric Sciences I FALL Semester

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuter, Sandra

    and define the major terms that apply to meteorology. Structure of the atmosphere: Explain the chemical composition and vertical structure of the atmosphere. Weather maps: Read, interpret and plot station moisture parameter such as dew point, specific humidity, and mixing ratio from measured atmospheric

  14. Representative Atmospheric Plume Development for Elevated Releases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Prichard, Andrew W.

    2014-03-03

    An atmospheric explosion of a low-yield nuclear device will produce a large number of radioactive isotopes, some of which can be measured with airborne detection systems. However, properly equipped aircraft may not arrive in the region where an explosion occurred for a number of hours after the event. Atmospheric conditions will have caused the radioactive plume to move and diffuse before the aircraft arrives. The science behind predicting atmospheric plume movement has advanced enough that the location of the maximum concentrations in the plume can be determined reasonably accurately in real time, or near real time. Given the assumption that an aircraft can follow a plume, this study addresses the amount of atmospheric dilution expected to occur in a representative plume as a function of time past the release event. The approach models atmospheric transport of hypothetical releases from a single location for every day in a year using the publically available HYSPLIT code. The effective dilution factors for the point of maximum concentration in an elevated plume based on a release of a non-decaying, non-depositing tracer can vary by orders of magnitude depending on the day of the release, even for the same number of hours after the release event. However, the median of the dilution factors based on releases for 365 consecutive days at one site follows a power law relationship in time, as shown in Figure S-1. The relationship is good enough to provide a general rule of thumb for estimating typical future dilution factors in a plume starting at the same point. However, the coefficients of the power law function may vary for different release point locations. Radioactive decay causes the effective dilution factors to decrease more quickly with the time past the release event than the dilution factors based on a non-decaying tracer. An analytical expression for the dilution factors of isotopes with different half-lives can be developed given the power law expression for the non-decaying tracer. If the power-law equation for the median dilution factor, Df, based on a non-decaying tracer has the general form Df=a?×t?^(-b) for time t after the release event, then the equation has the form Df=e^(-?t)×a×t^(-b) for a radioactive isotope, where ? is the decay constant for the isotope.

  15. Reactive greenhouse gas scenarios: Systematic exploration of uncertainties and the role of atmospheric chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, Michael J; Holmes, Christopher D; Hsu, Juno

    2012-01-01

    and time scales in atmospheric chemistry, Philos. Trans. R.PRATHER ET AL. : ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND GREENHOUSE GASESet al. (2001), Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases,

  16. Environmental Chamber Study of Atmospheric Chemistry and Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation Using Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yingdi

    2011-01-01

    modelling: a review. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics,emerging issues. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2009. 9:aqueous phase. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2009. 9:

  17. A comparison of the chemical sinks of atmospheric organics in the gas and aqueous phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epstein, S. A; Nizkorodov, S. A

    2012-01-01

    cal data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume II – gas phaseAttribution 3.0 License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics AJ. and Pandis, S. : Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, John

  18. Time scales in atmospheric chemistry: Theory, GWPs for CH 4 and CO, and runaway growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, Michael J

    1996-01-01

    Program and NSF's Atmospheric Chemistry Program for supporteigenstates in atmospheric chemistry, (2) Exponential decaytracer gases and atmospheric chemistry, in steady-state

  19. Chemistry of atmospheric aerosol particles and their resulting warm cloud-nucleation properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Meagan Julia Kerry

    2011-01-01

    for CCN activation, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10,and precipitation, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9,dust particles. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2009, 9,

  20. Atmospheric chemistry results from the ANTCI 2005 Antarctic plateau airborne study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    2010 for Full Article Atmospheric chemistry results from theL. , et al. (2010), Atmospheric chemistry results from the2010), Plume chemistry and atmospheric impact of emissions

  1. Time scales in atmospheric chemistry: Theory, GWPs for CH4 and CO, and runaway growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, MJ; Prather, MJ

    1996-01-01

    Program and NSF's Atmospheric Chemistry Program for supporteigenstates in atmospheric chemistry, (2) Exponential decaytracer gases and atmospheric chemistry, in steady-state

  2. Real time in situ detection of organic nitrates in atmospheric aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew W.

    2011-01-01

    +NO 3 reaction. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2009, 9,radicals (NO 3 ). Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2008, 8,aerosol yields. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2009, 9,

  3. Chemistry of atmospheric aerosol particles and their resulting warm cloud-nucleation properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Meagan Julia Kerry

    2011-01-01

    CCN activation, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10, 5241-precipitation, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9, 3223-particles. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2009, 9, A. P.

  4. Experimental Astronomy Astrophysical Instrumentation and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 23 Experimental Astronomy Astrophysical Instrumentation and Methods ISSN 0922-6435 Volume 34 available until 12 months after publication. #12;Exp Astron (2012) 34:203­242 DOI 10.1007/s10686-012-9309-y. Barucci · B. Cecconi · L. Lamy Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique

  5. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2015-01-07

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  6. SELECTION EXPERIMENTS AND EXPERIMENTAL EVOLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saltzman, Wendy

    EVOLUTION OF MICE IN DIFFERENT THERMAL ENVIRONMENTS WIND TUNNEL FLIGHT IN DROSOPHILA ENDURANCE RUNNING OF THE RATE OF ENERGY METABOLISM IN RODENTS Selection on Basal Metabolic Rate Selection on Heat Loss Rate STRAINS OF MICE AND BREEDS OF DOG CONCLUSION Experimental Evolution: Concepts, Methods, and Applications

  7. Supplemental Information EXTENDED EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    Supplemental Information EXTENDED EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Animals SPF C57Bl/6J mice and SPF Slc6a4/ml) was provided ad libitum in drinking water. For antibiotic treatment at P0, drinking water was supplemented immediately after collection and homogenized in grants buffered saline solution (GBSS) supplemented with 5

  8. Experimental Neutrino Physics: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lane, Charles E.; Maricic, Jelena

    2012-09-05

    Experimental studies of neutrino properties, with particular emphasis on neutrino oscillation, mass and mixing parameters. This research was pursued by means of underground detectors for reactor anti-neutrinos, measuring the flux and energy spectra of the neutrinos. More recent investigations have been aimed and developing detector technologies for a long-baseline neutrino experiment (LBNE) using a neutrino beam from Fermilab.

  9. Hard Probes 2012: Experimental Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Schukraft

    2012-10-17

    The 5th international Conference on Hard and Electromagnetic Probes in High-Energy Nuclear Collisions was held in May 2012 in Cagliari, Italy. This contribution summarises some of the experimental highlights presented at the meeting, concentrating on new results from LHC and RHIC on parton energy loss ('jet-quenching') and heavy quark meson production ('quarkonia suppression').

  10. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2014-10-31

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  11. Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research | National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experimental Research Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research The JASPER gas gun at the Nevada National Security Site is used to fire a projectile at a plutonium...

  12. Physical Description and Experimental Characterization of the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Physical Description and Experimental Characterization of the Resistive Switching Filament. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Physical Description and Experimental...

  13. Accuracy of the Water Vapour Content Measurements in the Atmosphere Using Optical Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galkin, V D; Alekseeva, G A; Novikov, V V; Pakhomov, V P

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the accuracy and the errors of water vapour content measurements in the atmosphere using optical methods, especially starphotometer. After the general explanations of the used expressions for the star-magnitude observations of the water vapour absorption in section 3 the absorption model for the water vapour band will be discussed. Sections 4 and 5 give an overview on the technique to determine the model parameters both from spectroscopic laboratory and radiosonde observation data. Finally, the sections 6 and 7 are dealing with the details of the errors; that means errors of observable magnitude, of instrumental extraterrestrial magnitude, of atmospheric extinction determination and of water vapour content determination by radiosonde humidity measurements. The main conclusion is: Because of the high precision of the results the optical methods for water vapour observation are suited to validate and calibrate alternative methods (GPS, LIDAR, MICROWAVE) which are making constant progress wo...

  14. Free radicals induced in aqueous solution by non-contact atmospheric-pressure cold plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tani, Atsushi; Fukui, Satoshi; Ono, Yusuke; Kitano, Katsuhisa; Ikawa, Satoshi

    2012-06-18

    To understand plasma-induced chemical processing in liquids, we investigated the formation of free radicals in aqueous solution exposed to different types of non-contact atmospheric-pressure helium plasma using the spin-trapping technique. Both hydroxyl radical (OH{center_dot}) and superoxide anion radical (O{sub 2}{sup -}{center_dot}) adducts were observed when neutral oxygen gas was additionally supplied to the plasma. In particular, O{sub 2}{sup -}{center_dot} can be dominantly induced in the solution via oxygen flow into the afterglow gas of helium plasma. This type of plasma treatment can potentially be used in medical applications to control infectious diseases, because the O{sub 2}{sup -}{center_dot} is crucial for sterilization of liquids via atmospheric-pressure plasma.

  15. 2674 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 59, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2011 RFID Passive Gas Sensor Integrating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    2674 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 59, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2011 RFID or experimentally tested, include: temperature sensing [1], [2], solar powered and piezo- scavenging batteryless

  16. Syngas Production from Propane Using Atmospheric Non-thermal Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ouni, Fakhreddine; Cormier, Jean Marie; 10.1007/s11090-009-9166-2

    2009-01-01

    Propane steam reforming using a sliding discharge reactor was investigated under atmospheric pressure and low temperature (420 K). Non-thermal plasma steam reforming proceeded efficiently and hydrogen was formed as a main product (H2 concentration up to 50%). By-products (C2-hydrocarbons, methane, carbon dioxide) were measured with concentrations lower than 6%. The mean electrical power injected in the discharge is less than 2 kW. The process efficiency is described in terms of propane conversion rate, steam reforming and cracking selectivity, as well as by-products production. Chemical processes modelling based on classical thermodynamic equilibrium reactor is also proposed. Calculated data fit quiet well experimental results and indicate that the improvement of C3H8 conversion and then H2 production can be achieved by increasing the gas fraction through the discharge. By improving the reactor design, the non-thermal plasma has a potential for being an effective way for supplying hydrogen or synthesis gas.

  17. Innovative Exploration Techniques for Geothermal Assessment at...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Techniques for Geothermal Assessment at Jemez Pueblo, New Mexico Innovative Exploration Techniques for Geothermal Assessment at Jemez Pueblo, New Mexico Innovative Exploration...

  18. Chemistry of Silicate Atmospheres of Evaporating Super-Recommended short title: Silicate Atmospheres of Super-Earths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - Chemistry of Silicate Atmospheres of Evaporating Super- Earths Recommended short title: Silicate Atmospheres of Super-Earths Laura Schaefer1,2 Bruce Fegley, Jr.1,3 1 Planetary Chemistry through currently available methods. Keywords: atmosphere, silicate, exoplanet, chemistry #12;- 4 - 1

  19. Quantum Techniques for Reaction Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John C. Baez

    2013-06-14

    Reaction networks are a general formalism for describing collections of classical entities interacting in a random way. While reaction networks are mainly studied by chemists, they are equivalent to Petri nets, which are used for similar purposes in computer science and biology. As noted by Doi and others, techniques from quantum field theory can be adapted to apply to such systems. Here we use these techniques to study how the "master equation" describing stochastic time evolution for a reaction network reduces is related to the "rate equation" describing the deterministic evolution of the expected number of particles of each species in the large-number limit. We show that the relation is especially strong when a solution of master equation is a "coherent state", meaning that the numbers of entities of each kind are described by independent Poisson distributions.

  20. Data mining and visualization techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Pak Chung (Richland, WA); Whitney, Paul (Richland, WA); Thomas, Jim (Richland, WA)

    2004-03-23

    Disclosed are association rule identification and visualization methods, systems, and apparatus. An association rule in data mining is an implication of the form X.fwdarw.Y where X is a set of antecedent items and Y is the consequent item. A unique visualization technique that provides multiple antecedent, consequent, confidence, and support information is disclosed to facilitate better presentation of large quantities of complex association rules.

  1. Experimental study of turbulent flame kernel propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansour, Mohy [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Peters, Norbert; Schrader, Lars-Uve [Institute of Combustion Technology, Aachen (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    Flame kernels in spark ignited combustion systems dominate the flame propagation and combustion stability and performance. They are likely controlled by the spark energy, flow field and mixing field. The aim of the present work is to experimentally investigate the structure and propagation of the flame kernel in turbulent premixed methane flow using advanced laser-based techniques. The spark is generated using pulsed Nd:YAG laser with 20 mJ pulse energy in order to avoid the effect of the electrodes on the flame kernel structure and the variation of spark energy from shot-to-shot. Four flames have been investigated at equivalence ratios, {phi}{sub j}, of 0.8 and 1.0 and jet velocities, U{sub j}, of 6 and 12 m/s. A combined two-dimensional Rayleigh and LIPF-OH technique has been applied. The flame kernel structure has been collected at several time intervals from the laser ignition between 10 {mu}s and 2 ms. The data show that the flame kernel structure starts with spherical shape and changes gradually to peanut-like, then to mushroom-like and finally disturbed by the turbulence. The mushroom-like structure lasts longer in the stoichiometric and slower jet velocity. The growth rate of the average flame kernel radius is divided into two linear relations; the first one during the first 100 {mu}s is almost three times faster than that at the later stage between 100 and 2000 {mu}s. The flame propagation is slightly faster in leaner flames. The trends of the flame propagation, flame radius, flame cross-sectional area and mean flame temperature are related to the jet velocity and equivalence ratio. The relations obtained in the present work allow the prediction of any of these parameters at different conditions. (author)

  2. Role of secondary emission on discharge dynamics in an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tay, W. H.; Kausik, S. S.; Yap, S. L.; Wong, C. S.

    2014-04-15

    The discharge dynamics in an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is studied in a DBD reactor consisting of a pair of stainless steel parallel plate electrodes. The DBD discharge has been generated by a 50?Hz ac high voltage power source. The high-speed intensified charge coupled device camera is used to capture the images of filaments occurring in the discharge gap. It is observed that frequent synchronous breakdown of micro discharges occurs across the discharge gap in the case of negative current pulse. The experimental results reveal that secondary emissions from the dielectric surface play a key role in the synchronous breakdown of plasma filaments.

  3. Wind Energy and the Turbulent Nature of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wächter, Matthias; Hölling, Michael; Morales, Allan; Milan, Patrick; Mücke, Tanja; Peinke, Joachim; Reinke, Nico; Rinn, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The challenge of developing a sustainable and renewable energy supply within the next decades requires collaborative efforts as well as new concepts in the fields of science and engineering. Here we give an overview on the impact of small-scale properties of atmospheric turbulence on the wind energy conversion process. Special emphasis is given to the noisy and intermittent structure of turbulence and its outcome for wind energy conversion and utilization. Experimental, theoretical, analytical, and numerical concepts and methods are presented. In particular we report on new aspects resulting from the combination of basic research, especially in the field of turbulence and complex stochastic systems, with engineering applications.

  4. On detecting biospheres from thermodynamic disequilibrium in planetary atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krissansen-Totton, Joshua; Catling, David C

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric chemical disequilibrium has been proposed as a method for detecting extraterrestrial biospheres from exoplanet observations. Chemical disequilibrium is potentially a generalized biosignature since it makes no assumptions about particular biogenic gases or metabolisms. Here, we present the first rigorous calculations of the thermodynamic chemical disequilibrium in the atmospheres of Solar System planets, in which we quantify the difference in Gibbs free energy of an observed atmosphere compared to that of all the atmospheric gases reacted to equilibrium. The purely gas phase disequilibrium in Earth's atmosphere, as measured by this available Gibbs free energy, is not unusual by Solar System standards and smaller than that of Mars. However, Earth's atmosphere is in contact with a surface ocean, which means that gases can react with water, and so a multiphase calculation that includes aqueous species is required. We find that the disequilibrium in Earth's atmosphere-ocean system (in joules per mole o...

  5. Experimental determination of Ramsey numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhengbing Bian; Fabian Chudak; William G. Macready; Lane Clark; Frank Gaitan

    2013-08-14

    Ramsey theory is a highly active research area in mathematics that studies the emergence of order in large disordered structures. Ramsey numbers mark the threshold at which order first appears and are extremely difficult to calculate due to their explosive rate of growth. Recently, an algorithm that can be implemented using adiabatic quantum evolution has been proposed that calculates the two-color Ramsey numbers $R(m,n)$. Here we present results of an experimental implementation of this algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and $R(m,2)$ for $4\\leq m\\leq 8$. The R(8,2) computation used 84 qubits of which 28 were computational qubits. This computation is the largest experimental implementation of a scientifically meaningful adiabatic evolution algorithm that has been done to date.

  6. Experimental lithium system. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1985-04-01

    A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m/sup 3/ lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion.

  7. Nonlinear symmetric stability of planetary atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, J.C.; Shepherd, T.G.

    1994-11-01

    The energy-Casimir method is applied to the problem of symmetric stability in the context of a compressible, hydrostatic planetary atmosphere with a general equation of state. Linear stability criteria for symmetric disturbances to a zonally symmetric baroclinic flow are obtained. In the special case of a perfect gas the results of Stevens (1983) are recovered. Nonlinear stability conditions are also obtained that, in addition to implying linear stability, provide an upper bound on a certain positive-definite measure of disturbance amplitude.

  8. Atmospheric fogging in underground mine airways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillies, A.D.S.; Schimmelpfennig

    1983-04-01

    Loss of visibility due to the occurrence of atmospheric fogging in underground mine airways can lead to longer travel times and loss of production efficiency, an increase in the frequency of vehicular and foot traffic accidents and difficulty in checking rock surfaces for instability and loose material. Where hot and humid surface air meets colder underground air, conditions for fog formation may be present. Further, suspended particulate matter from diesel exhausts or stoping operations together with slow movement of air along passageways may contribute to formation. This study describes an investigation being undertaken with the cooperation of Kennecott's Ozark Lead Co. to identify causes of the problem.

  9. SECURITY TECHNIQUES Chris J Mitchell1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Chris

    SECURITY TECHNIQUES Chris J Mitchell1 Introduction In this paper we consider the range of security security has been exerted. However, the techniques described are of general applicability by a security technique; in doing so we will distinguish between security features and security techniques (or

  10. Curvature aided long range propagation of short laser pulses in the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yedierler, Burak [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-03-15

    The pre-filamentation regime of propagation of a short and intense laser pulse in the atmosphere is considered. Spatiotemporal self-focusing dynamics of the laser beam are investigated by calculating the coupled differential equations for spot size, pulse length, phase, curvature, and chirp functions of a Gaussian laser pulse via a variational technique. The effect of initial curvature parameter on the propagation of the laser pulse is taken into consideration. A method relying on the adjustment of the initial curvature parameter can expand the filamentation distance of a laser beam of given power and chirp is proposed.

  11. Experimental mathematics meets gravitational self-force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson-McDaniel, Nathan K; Whiting, Bernard F

    2015-01-01

    It is now possible to compute linear in mass-ratio terms in the post-Newtonian (PN) expansion for compact binaries to very high orders using black hole perturbation theory applied to various invariants. For instance, a computation of the redshift invariant of a point particle in a circular orbit about a black hole in linear perturbation theory gives the linear-in-mass-ratio portion of the binding energy of a circular binary with arbitrary mass ratio. This binding energy, in turn, encodes the system's conservative dynamics. We give a method for extracting the analytic forms of these PN coefficients from high-accuracy numerical data using experimental mathematics techniques, notably an integer relation algorithm. Such methods should be particularly important when the calculations progress to the considerably more difficult case of perturbations of the Kerr metric. As an example, we apply this method to the redshift invariant in Schwarzschild. Here we obtain analytic coefficients to 12.5PN, and higher-order term...

  12. Particle physics---Experimental. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lord, J.J.; Boynton, P.E.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1991-08-21

    We are continuing a research program in particle astrophysics and high energy experimental particle physics. We have joined the DUMAND Collaboration, which is constructing a deep undersea astrophysical neutrino detector near Hawaii. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions using emulsion chamber techniques were also continued, using balloon flight exposures to ultra-high cosmic ray nuclei (JACEE) and accelerator beams. As members of the DUMAND Collaboration, we have responsibility for development a construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility. We have designed and developed the acoustical positioning system required to permit reconstruction of muon tracks with sufficient precision to meet the astrophysical goals of the experiment. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the database and triggering system to be used. Work has been continuing in other aspects of the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators, using balloon-borne emulsion chambers. On one of the flights we found two nuclear interactions of multiplicity over 1000 -- one with a multiplicity of over 2000 and pseudorapidity density {approximately} 800 in the central region. At the statistical level of the JACEE experiment, the frequency of occurrence of such events is orders of magnitude too large. We have continued our ongoing program to study hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams.

  13. Measurement of atmospheric neutrino oscillations with very large volume neutrino telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. P. Yañez; A. Kouchner

    2015-09-28

    Neutrino oscillations have been probed during the last few decades using multiple neutrino sources and experimental set-ups. In the recent years, very large volume neutrino telescopes have started contributing to the field. First ANTARES and then IceCube have relied on large and sparsely instrumented volumes to observe atmospheric neutrinos for combinations of baselines and energies inaccessible to other experiments. Using this advantage, the latest result from IceCube starts approaching the precision of other established technologies, and is paving the way for future detectors, such as ORCA and PINGU. These new projects seek to provide better measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters, and eventually determine the neutrino mass ordering. The results from running experiments and the potential from proposed projects are discussed in this review, emphasizing the experimental challenges involved in the measurements.

  14. Measurement of atmospheric neutrino oscillations with very large volume neutrino telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yañez, J P

    2015-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations have been probed during the last few decades using multiple neutrino sources and experimental set-ups. In the recent years, very large volume neutrino telescopes have started contributing to the field. First ANTARES and then IceCube have relied on large and sparsely instrumented volumes to observe atmospheric neutrinos for combinations of baselines and energies inaccessible to other experiments. Using this advantage, the latest result from IceCube starts approaching the precision of other established technologies, and is paving the way for future detectors, such as ORCA and PINGU. These new projects seek to provide better measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters, and eventually determine the neutrino mass ordering. The results from running experiments and the potential from proposed projects are discussed in this review, emphasizing the experimental challenges involved in the measurements.

  15. Statistical modelling of discharge behavior of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tay, W. H.; Kausik, S. S.; Wong, C. S. Yap, S. L.; Muniandy, S. V.

    2014-11-15

    In this work, stochastic behavior of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has been investigated. The experiment is performed in a DBD reactor consisting of a pair of stainless steel parallel plate electrodes powered by a 50?Hz ac high voltage source. Current pulse amplitude distributions for different space gaps and the time separation between consecutive current pulses are studied. A probability distribution function is proposed to predict the experimental distribution function for the current pulse amplitudes and the occurrence of the transition regime of the pulse distribution. Breakdown voltage at different positions on the dielectric surface is suggested to be stochastic in nature. The simulated results based on the proposed distribution function agreed well with the experimental results and able to predict the regime of transition voltage. This model would be useful for the understanding of stochastic behaviors of DBD and the design of DBD device for effective operation and applications.

  16. Experimental study of internal wave generation by convection in water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bars, Michael Le; Perrard, Stéphane; Ribeiro, Adolfo; Rodet, Laetitia; Aurnou, Jonathan M; Gal, Patrice Le

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the dynamics of water cooled from below at 0^oC and heated from above. Taking advantage of the unusual property that water's density maximum is at about 4^oC, this set-up allows us to simulate in the laboratory a turbulent convective layer adjacent to a stably stratified layer, which is representative of atmospheric and stellar conditions. High precision temperature and velocity measurements are described, with a special focus on the convectively excited internal waves propagating in the stratified zone. Most of the convective energy is at low frequency, and corresponding waves are localized to the vicinity of the interface. However, we show that some energy radiates far from the interface, carried by shorter horizontal wavelength, higher frequency waves. Our data suggest that the internal wave field is passively excited by the convective fluctuations, and the wave propagation is correctly described by the dissipative linear wave theory.

  17. Foil cycling technique for the VESUVIO spectrometer operating in the resonance detector configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schooneveld, E. M.; Mayers, J.; Rhodes, N. J.; Pietropaolo, A.; Andreani, C.; Senesi, R.; Gorini, G.; Perelli-Cippo, E.; Tardocchi, M.

    2006-09-15

    This article reports a novel experimental technique, namely, the foil cycling technique, developed on the VESUVIO spectrometer (ISIS spallation source) operating in the resonance detector configuration. It is shown that with a proper use of two foils of the same neutron absorbing material it is possible, in a double energy analysis process, to narrow the width of the instrumental resolution of a spectrometer operating in the resonance detector configuration and to achieve an effective subtraction of the neutron and gamma backgrounds. Preliminary experimental results, obtained from deep inelastic neutron scattering measurements on lead, zirconium hydride, and deuterium chloride samples, are presented.

  18. Repositioning of Covered Stents: The Grip Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, John Martin; Guo Xiaofeng; Midia, Mehran

    2011-06-15

    Introduction: Retrieval and repositioning of a stent deployed beyond its intended target region may be a difficult technical challenge. Materials and Methods: A balloon-mounted snare technique, a variant of the coaxial loop snare technique, is described. Results: The technique is described for the repositioning of a covered transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt stent and a covered biliary stent. Conclusion: The balloon-mounted snare technique is a useful technique for retrieval of migrated stents.

  19. Techniques for Automated Performance Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marcus, Ryan C.

    2014-09-02

    The performance of a particular HPC code depends on a multitude of variables, including compiler selection, optimization flags, OpenMP pool size, file system load, memory usage, MPI configuration, etc. As a result of this complexity, current predictive models have limited applicability, especially at scale. We present a formulation of scientific codes, nodes, and clusters that reduces complex performance analysis to well-known mathematical techniques. Building accurate predictive models and enhancing our understanding of scientific codes at scale is an important step towards exascale computing.

  20. Geochemical Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: EnergyGateway EditOpenTechniques Jump to: navigation,

  1. Downhole Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (UtilityInstrumentsArea (DOEDixmont,Missouri:Dow ChemicalDownersTechniques Jump

  2. Seismic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS Report UrlNM-bRenewableSMUDSectional Model FlumeSeeoTechniques Jump

  3. Geophysical Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdistoWhiskeyFootprintGEXAGeminiEnergyHawaii |Methods JumpTechniques Jump

  4. Levitating atmospheres of Eddington-luminosity neutron stars I. Optically thin Thomson-scattering atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wielgus, M; S?dowski, A; Narayan, R; Abramowicz, M

    2015-01-01

    In general relativity static gaseous atmospheres may be in hydrostatic balance in the absence of a supporting stellar surface, provided that the luminosity is close to the Eddington value. We construct analytic models of optically thin, spherically symmetric shells supported by the radiation pressure of a luminous central body in the Schwarzschild metric.

  5. Atmospheric Environment 40 (2006) 17431758 Impact of urban heat island on regional atmospheric pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    pollution C. Sarrata,Ã, A. Lemonsub , V. Massona , D. Guedaliac a CNRM-GAME Me´te´o-France 42, avenue and spatial distribution of atmospheric pollutants over the Paris region. One anticyclonic episode from urban effects have an important impact on the primary and secondary regional pollutants, more

  6. Levitating atmospheres of Eddington-luminosity neutron stars I. Optically thin Thomson-scattering atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Wielgus; W. Klu?niak; A. S?dowski; R. Narayan; M. Abramowicz

    2015-05-22

    In general relativity static gaseous atmospheres may be in hydrostatic balance in the absence of a supporting stellar surface, provided that the luminosity is close to the Eddington value. We construct analytic models of optically thin, spherically symmetric shells supported by the radiation pressure of a luminous central body in the Schwarzschild metric.

  7. SYNTHETIC SPECTRA AND COLORS OF YOUNG GIANT PLANET ATMOSPHERES: EFFECTS OF INITIAL CONDITIONS AND ATMOSPHERIC METALLICITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , as giant planets should be warmest, largest, and brightest when they are young, but will cool, contractSYNTHETIC SPECTRA AND COLORS OF YOUNG GIANT PLANET ATMOSPHERES: EFFECTS OF INITIAL CONDITIONS 2008 March 17; accepted 2008 May 7 ABSTRACT We examine the spectra and infrared colors of the cool

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the DOE (Department of Energy) Office of Energy Research - Part 3: Atmospheric Sciences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This 1989 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment, safety, and health conducted during fiscal year 1989. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. This volume contains research in the atmospheric sciences. Currently, the broad goals of atmospheric research at PNL are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, continental, and global scales in the air, in clouds, and on the surface. The redistribution and long-range transport of transformed contaminants passing through clouds is recognized as a necessary extension of our research to even larger scales in the future. Eventually, large-scale experiments on cloud processing and redistribution of contaminants will be integrated into the national program on global change, investigating how energy pollutants affect aerosols and clouds and the transfer of radiant energy through them. As the significance of this effect becomes clear, its global impact on climate will be studied through experimental and modeling research. The description of ongoing atmospheric research at PNL is organized in terms of the following study areas: atmospheric studies in complex terrain, large-scale atmospheric transport and processing of emissions, and climate change. This report describes the progress in FY 1989 in each of these areas. A divider page summarizes the goals of each area and lists project titles that support research activities. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hisham Kamal Sayed

    2011-05-31

    Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design.

  10. Experimental tests of paleoclassical transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesof Energy8)highlights ExperimentalExperimentaltests of

  11. Characterization of microstructure with low frequency electromagnetic techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cherry, Matthew R.; Sathish, Shamachary [University of Dayton Research Institute, Structural Integrity Division, 300 College Park, Dayton, OH 45469-0020 (United States); Pilchak, Adam L.; Blodgett, Mark P. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate (AFRL/RXCM), 2230 10th St., WPAFB, OH 45433 (United States); Cherry, Aaron J. [Southwest Ohio Council for Higher Education, 3155 Research Blvd., Suite 204, Dayton, OH 45420-4015 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    A new computational method for characterizing the relationship between surface crystallography and electrical conductivity in anisotropic materials with low frequency electromagnetic techniques is presented. The method is discussed from the standpoint of characterizing the orientation of a single grain, as well as characterizing statistical information about grain ensembles in the microstructure. Large-area electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data was obtained and used in conjunction with a synthetic aperture approach to simulate the eddy current response of beta annealed Ti-6Al-4V. Experimental eddy current results are compared to the computed eddy current approximations based on electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data, demonstrating good agreement. The detectability of notches in the presence of noise from microstructure is analyzed with the described simulation method and advantages and limitations of this method are discussed relative to other NDE techniques for such analysis.

  12. A study of discrete and continuum joint modeling techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, J.; Brown, S.R.

    1992-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a numerical and experimental study in which finite element and discrete element techniques were used to analyze a layered polycarbonate plate model subjected to uniaxial compression. Also, the two analysis techniques were used to compute the response of an eight meter diameter drift in jointed-rock. The drift was subjected to in-situ and far-field induced thermal stresses. The finite element analyses used a continuum rock model to represent the jointed-rock. A comparison of the analyses showed that the finite element continuum joint model consistently predicted less joint slippage than did the discrete element analyses, although far-field displacements compared well.

  13. Electron Beam Polarization Measurement Using Touschek Lifetime Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Changchun; /Duke U., DFELL; Li, Jingyi; /Duke U., DFELL; Mikhailov, Stepan; /Duke U., DFELL; Popov, Victor; /Duke U., DFELL; Wu, Wenzhong; /Duke U., DFELL; Wu, Ying; /Duke U., DFELL; Chao, Alex; /SLAC; Xu, Hong-liang; /Hefei, NSRL; Zhang, Jian-feng; /Hefei, NSRL

    2012-08-24

    Electron beam loss due to intra-beam scattering, the Touschek effect, in a storage ring depends on the electron beam polarization. The polarization of an electron beam can be determined from the difference in the Touschek lifetime compared with an unpolarized beam. In this paper, we report on a systematic experimental procedure recently developed at Duke FEL laboratory to study the radiative polarization of a stored electron beam. Using this technique, we have successfully observed the radiative polarization build-up of an electron beam in the Duke storage ring, and determined the equilibrium degree of polarization and the time constant of the polarization build-up process.

  14. Accelerator-mode-based technique for studying quantum chaos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Arcy, M.B.; Godun, R.M.; Cassettari, D. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Summy, G.S. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078-3072 (United States)

    2003-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a method for selecting small regions of phase space for kicked rotor quantum chaos experiments with cold atoms. Our technique uses quantum accelerator modes to selectively accelerate atomic wave packets with localized spatial and momentum distributions. The potential used to create the accelerator mode and subsequently realize the kicked rotor system is formed by a set of off-resonant standing-wave light pulses. We also propose a method for testing whether a selected region of phase space exhibits chaotic or regular behavior using a Ramsey type separated field experiment.

  15. Can we learn something more on oscillations from atmospheric neutrinos?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schwetz

    2006-10-04

    We show that for long-baseline experiments using a Mt water Cerenkov detector atmospheric neutrino data provide a powerful method to resolve parameter degeneracies. In particular, the combination of long-baseline and atmospheric data increases significantly the sensitivity to the neutrino mass hierarchy and the octant of $\\theta_{23}$. Furthermore, we discuss the possibility to use $\\mu$-like atmospheric neutrino data from a big magnetized iron calorimeter to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  16. The Atmospheric and Terrestrial Mobile Laboratory (ATML).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zak, Bernard Daniel; Rahn, Thom (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Nitschke, Kim (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Ivey, Mark D.; Mora, Claudia (Los Alamos National Laboratory); McDowell, Nate (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Love, Steve (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Dubey, M. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Michelsen, Hope A.; Guilderson, Tom (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); Schubert, William Kent; Costigan, Keeley (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Chylek, Petr (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Bambha, Ray P.; Roskovensky, John K.

    2010-04-01

    The ionospheric disturbance dynamo signature in geomagnetic variations is investigated using the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model. The model results are tested against reference magnetically quiet time observations on 21 June 1993, and disturbance effects were observed on 11 June 1993. The model qualitatively reproduces the observed diurnal and latitude variations of the geomagnetic horizontal intensity and declination for the reference quiet day in midlatitude and low-latitude regions but underestimates their amplitudes. The patterns of the disturbance dynamo signature and its source 'anti-Sq' current system are well reproduced in the Northern Hemisphere. However, the model significantly underestimates the amplitude of disturbance dynamo effects when compared with observations. Furthermore, the largest simulated disturbances occur at different local times than the observations. The discrepancies suggest that the assumed high-latitude storm time energy inputs in the model were not quantitatively accurate for this storm.

  17. Emulation to simulate low resolution atmospheric data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hebbur Venkata Subba Rao, Vishwas [ORNL; Archibald, Richard K [ORNL; Evans, Katherine J [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    Climate simulations require significant compute power, they are complex and therefore it is time consuming to simulate them. We have developed an emulator to simulate unknown climate datasets. The emulator uses stochastic collocation and multi-dimensional in- terpolation to simulate the datasets. We have used the emulator to determine various physical quantities such as temperature, short and long wave cloud forcing, zonal winds etc. The emulation gives results which are very close to those obtained by simulations. The emulator was tested on 2 degree atmospheric datasets. The work evaluates the pros and cons of evaluating the mean first and inter- polating and vice versa. To determine the physical quantities, we have assumed them to be a function of time, longitude, latitude and a random parameter. We have looked at parameters that govern high stable clouds, low stable clouds, timescale for convection etc. The emulator is especially useful as it requires negligible compute times when compared to the simulation itself.

  18. Atmospheric lead in downtown Guatemala City

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durando, M.L.; Aragon, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    Atomic absorption (AA) analysis was employed to determine, for the first time in this country, lead concentrations in aerosols collected in Nuclepore filter media during the months of February and March (1980) in Guatemala City, Guatemala. In particular, the lead in the atmospheric fine particulate was measured in different downtown locations around noontime and in a single location at 1-h intervals throughout the day. The first was used to study short-term variations from one location to the other, and the second one was used to correlate parameters such as traffic density and wind velocity with the levels of airborne lead on the same day. In addition, this paper presents a brief discussion of the lead content in Guatemalan gasoline, the lead levels in street dusts, and the total suspended particulate matter in downtown Guatemala City.

  19. Atmospheric transmittance model for photosynthetically active radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulescu, Marius; Stefu, Nicoleta; Gravila, Paul; Paulescu, Eugenia; Boata, Remus; Pacurar, Angel; Mares, Oana; Pop, Nicolina; Calinoiu, Delia

    2013-11-13

    A parametric model of the atmospheric transmittance in the PAR band is presented. The model can be straightforwardly applied for calculating the beam, diffuse and global components of the PAR solar irradiance. The required inputs are: air pressure, ozone, water vapor and nitrogen dioxide column content, Ångström's turbidity coefficient and single scattering albedo. Comparison with other models and ground measured data shows a reasonable level of accuracy for this model, making it suitable for practical applications. From the computational point of view the calculus is condensed into simple algebra which is a noticeable advantage. For users interested in speed-intensive computation of the effective PAR solar irradiance, a PC program based on the parametric equations along with a user guide are available online at http://solar.physics.uvt.ro/srms.

  20. Thermodynamics of atmospheric circulation on hot Jupiters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Goodman

    2008-10-07

    Atmospheric circulation on tidally-locked exoplanets is driven by the absorption and reradiation of heat from the host star. They are natural heat engines, converting heat into mechanical energy. A steady state is possible only if there is a mechanism to dissipate mechanical energy, or if the redistribution of heat is so effective that the Carnot efficiency is driven to zero. Simulations based on primitive, equivalent-barotropic, or shallow-water equations without explicit provision for dissipation of kinetic energy and for recovery of that energy as heat, violate energy conservation. More seriously perhaps, neglect of physical sources of drag may overestimate wind speeds and rates of advection of heat from the day to the night side.

  1. Aeras: A next generation global atmosphere model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Spotz, William F.; Smith, Thomas M.; Demeshko, Irina P.; Fike, Jeffrey A.

    2015-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing a new global atmosphere model named Aeras that is performance portable and supports the quantification of uncertainties. These next-generation capabilities are enabled by building Aeras on top of Albany, a code base that supports the rapid development of scientific application codes while leveraging Sandia's foundational mathematics and computer science packages in Trilinos and Dakota. Embedded uncertainty quantification (UQ) is an original design capability of Albany, and performance portability is a recent upgrade. Other required features, such as shell-type elements, spectral elements, efficient explicit and semi-implicit time-stepping, transient sensitivity analysis, and concurrent ensembles, were not componentsmore »of Albany as the project began, and have been (or are being) added by the Aeras team. We present early UQ and performance portability results for the shallow water equations.« less

  2. Estimating atmospheric parameters and reducing noise for multispectral imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conger, James Lynn

    2014-02-25

    A method and system for estimating atmospheric radiance and transmittance. An atmospheric estimation system is divided into a first phase and a second phase. The first phase inputs an observed multispectral image and an initial estimate of the atmospheric radiance and transmittance for each spectral band and calculates the atmospheric radiance and transmittance for each spectral band, which can be used to generate a "corrected" multispectral image that is an estimate of the surface multispectral image. The second phase inputs the observed multispectral image and the surface multispectral image that was generated by the first phase and removes noise from the surface multispectral image by smoothing out change in average deviations of temperatures.

  3. Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere Composition and Health Responses to Inhaled Emissions Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of...

  4. Investigation of the Atmospheric Ozone Impacts of Methyl Iodide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, W P L

    2007-01-01

    comparable to that for ethane. It is concluded that methylmethyl iodide and ethane. 32 Table A-of methyl iodide and ethane in the atmospheric reactivity

  5. A Volcanologist'S Review Of Atmospheric Hazards Of Volcanic Activity...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    hazards caused by explosive volcanic activity. The hazard posed by fine silicate ash with long residence time in the atmosphere is probably much less serious than...

  6. Simulation and Theory of Ions at Atmospherically Relevant Aqueous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Theory of Ions at Atmospherically Relevant Aqueous Liquid-Air Interfaces Chemistry occurring at or near the surfaces of aqueous droplets and thin films in the...

  7. A New Photochemistry Code for Terrestrial Exoplanet Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    A New Photochemistry Code for Terrestrial Exoplanet Atmospheres Renyu Hu, Sara Seager Massachusetts-transport equation for 111 molecules and aerosols · Eddy diffusion · Chemical kinetics · Photolysis · Boundary

  8. Application of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma in Polymer and Composite Adhesion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Hang

    2015-01-01

    oxidation of selected polymers using an atmospheric pressuremorphological modification of polymers under a helium-oxygenand dicyclopentadiene polymer, Submitted to Carbon for

  9. Atmospheric Dispersion Effects in Weak Lensing Measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Plazas, Andrés Alejandro; Bernstein, Gary

    2012-10-01

    The wavelength dependence of atmospheric refraction causes elongation of finite-bandwidth images along the elevation vector, which produces spurious signals in weak gravitational lensing shear measurements unless this atmospheric dispersion is calibrated and removed to high precision. Because astrometric solutions and PSF characteristics are typically calibrated from stellar images, differences between the reference stars' spectra and the galaxies' spectra will leave residual errors in both the astrometric positions (dr) and in the second moment (width) of the wavelength-averaged PSF (dv) for galaxies.We estimate the level of dv that will induce spurious weak lensing signals in PSF-corrected galaxy shapes that exceed themore »statistical errors of the DES and the LSST cosmic-shear experiments. We also estimate the dr signals that will produce unacceptable spurious distortions after stacking of exposures taken at different airmasses and hour angles. We also calculate the errors in the griz bands, and find that dispersion systematics, uncorrected, are up to 6 and 2 times larger in g and r bands,respectively, than the requirements for the DES error budget, but can be safely ignored in i and z bands. For the LSST requirements, the factors are about 30, 10, and 3 in g, r, and i bands,respectively. We find that a simple correction linear in galaxy color is accurate enough to reduce dispersion shear systematics to insignificant levels in the r band for DES and i band for LSST,but still as much as 5 times than the requirements for LSST r-band observations. More complex corrections will likely be able to reduce the systematic cosmic-shear errors below statistical errors for LSST r band. But g-band effects remain large enough that it seems likely that induced systematics will dominate the statistical errors of both surveys, and cosmic-shear measurements should rely on the redder bands.« less

  10. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    ThermoChem, under contract to the Department of Energy, conducted extensive research, development and demonstration work on a Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor (PAFBC) to confirm that advanced technology can meet these performance objectives. The ThermoChem/MTCI PAFBC system integrates a pulse combustor with an atmospheric bubbling-bed type fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) In this modular configuration, the pulse combustor burns the fuel fines (typically less than 30 sieve or 600 microns) and the fluidized bed combusts the coarse fuel particles. Since the ThermoChem/MTCI PAFBC employs both the pulse combustor and the AFBC technologies, it can handle the full-size range of coarse and fines. The oscillating flow field in the pulse combustor provides for high interphase and intraparticle mass transfer rates. Therefore, the fuel fines essentially burn under kinetic control. Due to the reasonably high temperature (>1093 C but less than the temperature for ash fusion to prevent slagging), combustion of fuel fines is substantially complete at the exit of the pulse combustor. The additional residence time of 1 to 2 seconds in the freeboard of the PAFBC unit then ensures high carbon conversion and, in turn, high combustion efficiency. A laboratory unit was successfully designed, constructed and tested for over 600 hours to confirm that the PAFBC technology could meet the performance objectives. Subsequently, a 50,000 lb/hr PAFBC demonstration steam boiler was designed, constructed and tested at Clemson University in Clemson, South Carolina. This Final Report presents the detailed results of this extensive and successful PAFBC research, development and demonstration project.

  11. Atmospheric Dispersion Effects in Weak Lensing Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plazas, Andrés Alejandro; Bernstein, Gary

    2012-10-01

    The wavelength dependence of atmospheric refraction causes elongation of finite-bandwidth images along the elevation vector, which produces spurious signals in weak gravitational lensing shear measurements unless this atmospheric dispersion is calibrated and removed to high precision. Because astrometric solutions and PSF characteristics are typically calibrated from stellar images, differences between the reference stars' spectra and the galaxies' spectra will leave residual errors in both the astrometric positions (dr) and in the second moment (width) of the wavelength-averaged PSF (dv) for galaxies.We estimate the level of dv that will induce spurious weak lensing signals in PSF-corrected galaxy shapes that exceed the statistical errors of the DES and the LSST cosmic-shear experiments. We also estimate the dr signals that will produce unacceptable spurious distortions after stacking of exposures taken at different airmasses and hour angles. We also calculate the errors in the griz bands, and find that dispersion systematics, uncorrected, are up to 6 and 2 times larger in g and r bands,respectively, than the requirements for the DES error budget, but can be safely ignored in i and z bands. For the LSST requirements, the factors are about 30, 10, and 3 in g, r, and i bands,respectively. We find that a simple correction linear in galaxy color is accurate enough to reduce dispersion shear systematics to insignificant levels in the r band for DES and i band for LSST,but still as much as 5 times than the requirements for LSST r-band observations. More complex corrections will likely be able to reduce the systematic cosmic-shear errors below statistical errors for LSST r band. But g-band effects remain large enough that it seems likely that induced systematics will dominate the statistical errors of both surveys, and cosmic-shear measurements should rely on the redder bands.

  12. Subranging technique using superconducting technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gupta, Deepnarayan (Hawthorne, NY)

    2003-01-01

    Subranging techniques using "digital SQUIDs" are used to design systems with large dynamic range, high resolution and large bandwidth. Analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) embodying the invention include a first SQUID based "coarse" resolution circuit and a second SQUID based "fine" resolution circuit to convert an analog input signal into "coarse" and "fine" digital signals for subsequent processing. In one embodiment, an ADC includes circuitry for supplying an analog input signal to an input coil having at least a first inductive section and a second inductive section. A first superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is coupled to the first inductive section and a second SQUID is coupled to the second inductive section. The first SQUID is designed to produce "coarse" (large amplitude, low resolution) output signals and the second SQUID is designed to produce "fine" (low amplitude, high resolution) output signals in response to the analog input signals.

  13. Estimating Bacteria Emissions from Inversion of Atmospheric Transport: Sensitivity to Modelled Particle Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrows, Susannah M.; Rayner, Perter; Butler, T.; Lawrence, M.

    2013-06-04

    Model-simulated transport of atmospheric trace components can be combined with observed concentrations to obtain estimates of ground-based sources using various inversion techniques. These approaches have been applied in the past primarily to obtain source estimates for long-lived trace gases such as CO2. We consider the application of similar techniques to source estimation for atmospheric aerosols, by using as a case study the estimation of bacteria emissions from different ecosystem regions in the global atmospheric chemistry and climate model ECHAM5/MESSy-Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC). Simulated particle concentrations in the tropopause region and at high latitudes, as well as transport of particles to tundra and land ice regions are shown to be highly sensitive to scavenging in mixed-phase clouds, which is poorly characterized in most global climate models. This may be a critical uncertainty in correctly simulating the transport of aerosol particles to the Arctic. Source estimation via Monte Carlo Markov Chain is applied to a suite of sensitivity simulations and the global mean emissions are estimated. We present an analysis of the partitioning of uncertainties in the global mean emissions that are attributable to particle size, CCN activity, the ice nucleation scavenging ratios for mixed-phase and cold clouds, and measurement error. Uncertainty due to CCN activity or to a 1 um error in particle size is typically between 10% and 40% of the uncertainty due to data uncertainty, as measured by the 5%-ile to 95%-ile range of the Monte Carlo ensemble. Uncertainty attributable to the ice nucleation scavenging ratio in mized-phase clouds is as high as 10% to 20% of the data uncertainty. Taken together, the four model 20 parameters examined contribute about half as much to the uncertainty in the estimated emissions as do the measurements. This was a surprisingly large contribution from model uncertainty in light of the substantial data uncertainty, which ranges from 81% to 870% for each of ten ecosystems for this case study. The effects of these and other model parameters in contributing to the uncertainties in the transport of atmospheric aerosol particles should be treated explicitly and systematically in both forward and inverse modelling studies.

  14. Experimental Study of Thermodiffusion and Thermoelectricity in Charged Colloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. T. Huang; M. Roger; M. Bonetti; T. J. Salez; C. Wiertel-Gasquet; E. Dubois; R. Cabreira Gomes; G. Demouchy; G. Mériguet; V. Peyre; M. Kouyaté; C. L. Filomeno; J. Depeyrot; F. A. Tourinho; R. Perzynski; S. Nakamae

    2015-03-30

    The Seebeck and Soret coefficients of ionically stabilized suspension of maghemite nanoparticles in dimethyl sulfoxide are experimentally studied as a function of nanoparticle volume fraction. In the presence of a temperature gradient, the charged colloidal nanoparticles experience both thermal drift due to their interactions with the solvent molecules and electric forces proportional to the internal thermoelectric field. The resulting thermodiffusion of nanoparticles is observed through Forced Rayleigh scattering, while the thermoelectric field is accessed through voltage measurements in a thermocell. Both techniques provide independent estimates of nanoparticle's entropy of transfer as high as 75 meV/K. Such a property may be used to improve the thermoelectric coefficients in liquid thermocells.

  15. Experimental studies of reactions relevant for ?-process nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scholz, P.; Endres, J.; Hennig, A.; Mayer, J.; Netterdon, L.; Zilges, A. [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Cologne (Germany); Sauerwein, A. [Institute for Applied Physics, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany and Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Cologne (Germany)

    2014-05-09

    We report on our recent experimental studies of reactions relevant for the ? process nucleosynthesis. Applying the activation method using the Cologne Clover Counting Setup total cross sections of the reactions {sup 168}Yb(?,?), {sup 168}Yb(?,n), and {sup 187}Re(?,n) could be obtained. Furthermore, the reaction {sup 89}Y(p,?) was investigated via the in-beam technique with HPGe detectors at the high-efficiency g-ray spectrometer HORUS in Cologne in order to determine partial and total cross sections.

  16. Sulfur capture by oil shale ashes under atmospheric and pressurized FBC conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yrjas, K.P.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kuelaots, I.; Ots, A. [Tallinn Technical Univ. (Estonia). Thermal Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31

    When oil shale contains large quantities of limestone, a significant auto-absorption of sulfur is possible under suitable conditions. The sulfur capture by oil shale ashes has been studied using a pressurized thermogravimetric apparatus. The chosen experimental conditions were typical for atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed combustion. The Ca/S molar ratios in the two oil shales studied were 8 (Estonian) and 10 (Israeli). The samples were first burned in a gas atmosphere containing O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} (and CO{sub 2} if pressurized). After the combustion step, SO{sub 2} was added and sulfation started. The results with the oil shales were compared to those obtained with an oil shale cyclone ash from the Narva power plant in Estonia. In general, the results from the sulfur capture experiments under both atmospheric and pressurized conditions showed that the oil shale cannot only capture its own sulfur but also significant amounts of additional sulfur of another fuel if the fuels are mixed together. For example from the runs at atmospheric pressure, the conversion of CaO to CaSO{sub 4} was about 70% for Israeli oil shale and about 55% for Estonian oil shale (850 C). For the cyclone ash the corresponding conversion was about 20%. In comparison it could be mentioned that under the same conditions the conversions of natural limestones are about 30%. The reason the cyclone ash was a poor sulfur absorbent was probably due to its temperature history. In Narva the oil shale was burned at a significantly higher temperature (1,400 C) than was used in the experiments (750 C and 850 C). This caused the ash to sinter and the reactive surface area of the cyclone ash was therefore decreased.

  17. Essays in experimental and development economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Healy, Andrew J

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is a collection of three essays on economic development and experimental economics. In Chapter 1, I present experimental evidence about how Thais treat information from domestic and foreign sources. Thai students ...

  18. Experimental Tests of Special Relativity

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Roberts, Tom [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois, United States

    2009-09-01

    Over the past century Special Relativity has become a cornerstone of modern physics, and its Lorentz invariance is a foundation of every current fundamental theory of physics. So it is crucial that it be thoroughly tested experimentally. The many tests of SR will be discussed, including several modern high-precision measurements. Several experiments that appear to be in conflict with SR will also be discussed, such as claims that the famous measurements of Michelson and Morley actually have a non-null result, and the similar but far more extensive measurements of Dayton Miller that 'determined the absolute motion of the earth'. But the errorbars for these old experiments are huge, and are larger than their purported signals. In short, SR has been tested extremely well and stands un-refuted today, but current thoughts about quantum gravity suggest that it might not truly be a symmetry of nature.

  19. The UA9 experimental layout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scandale, W.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Arduini, G.; Assmann, R.; Bracco, C.; et al

    2011-10-13

    The UA9 experimental equipment was installed in the CERN-SPS in March '09 with the aim of investigating crystal assisted collimation in coasting mode. Its basic layout comprises silicon bent crystals acting as primary collimators mounted inside two vacuum vessels. A movable 60 cm long block of tungsten located downstream at about 90 degrees phase advance intercepts the deflected beam. Scintillators, Gas Electron Multiplier chambers and other beam loss monitors measure nuclear loss rates induced by the interaction of the beam halo in the crystal. Two Roman pots installed in the path of the deflected particles are equipped with a Medipix detector to reconstruct the transverse distribution of the impinging beam. Finally UA9 takes advantage of an LHC-collimator prototype installed close to the first Roman pot to help in setting the beam conditions and to analyze the efficiency to deflect the beam. This paper describes in details the hardware installed to study the crystal collimation during 2010.

  20. The UA9 experimental layout

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scandale, W; Assmann, R; Bracco, C; Cerutti, F; Christiansen, J; Gilardoni, S; Laface, E; Losito, R; Masi, A; Metral, E; Mirarchi, D; Montesano, S; Previtali, V; Redaelli, S; Valentino, G; Schoofs, P; Smirnov, G; Tlustos, L; Bagli, E; Baricordi, S; Dalpiaz, P; Guidi, V; Mazzolari, A; Vincenzi, D; Dabagov, S; Murtas, F; Carnera, A; Della Mea, G; De Salvador, D; Lombardi, A; Lytovchenko, O; Tonezzer, M; Cavoto, G; Ludovici, L; Santacesaria, R; Valente, P; Galluccio, F; Afonin, A G; Bulgakov, M K; Chesnokov, Yu A; Maisheev, V A; Yazynin, I A; Kovalenko, A D; Taratin, A M; Gavrikov, Yu A; Ivanov, Yu M; Lapina, L P; Skorobogatov, V V; Ferguson, W; Fulcher, J; Hall, G; Pesaresi, M; Raymond, M; Rose, A; Ryan, M; Zorba, O; Robert-Demolaize, G; Markiewicz, T; Oriunno, M; Wienands, U

    2011-01-01

    The UA9 experimental equipment was installed in the CERN-SPS in March '09 with the aim of investigating crystal assisted collimation in coasting mode. Its basic layout comprises silicon bent crystals acting as primary collimators mounted inside two vacuum vessels. A movable 60 cm long block of tungsten located downstream at about 90 degrees phase advance intercepts the deflected beam. Scintillators, Gas Electron Multiplier chambers and other beam loss monitors measure nuclear loss rates induced by the interaction of the beam halo in the crystal. Roman pots are installed in the path of the deflected particles and are equipped with a Medipix detector to reconstruct the transverse distribution of the impinging beam. Finally UA9 takes advantage of an LHC-collimator prototype installed close to the Roman pot to help in setting the beam conditions and to analyze the efficiency to deflect the beam. This paper describes in details the hardware installed to study the crystal collimation during 2010.

  1. Hyperon polarization: An experimental overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lach, J.

    1992-12-01

    The fact that inclusively produced hyperons are produced with significant polarization was first discovered at Fermilab about seventeen years ago. This and subsequent experiments showed that {Lambda}{degree} were produced polarized while {bar {Lambda} {degree}} had no polarization in the same kinematical region. This set the stage for many experiments which showed that most hyperons are produced polarized. Recent Fermilab experiments have showed that this phenomena is even more complex than previously thought and theoretical understanding is still lacking. Nevertheless polarized hyperon beams have been an extremely useful experimental tool in measuring hyperon magnetic moments and hyperon {beta}-decay. Recently, hyperon radiative decays have been studied and magnetic moment precession of channeled particles in bent crystals has been observed.

  2. Integrating Experimental Design Into Your Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, given through the DOE's Technical Assitance Program (TAP), exaplin how you can integrate experimental design into your program.

  3. Integrating Experimental Design Into Your Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This presentation, given through the DOE's Technical Assistance Program (TAP), explain how you can integrate experimental design into your program.

  4. Techniques for Foundry Identification James B. Wendt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Techniques for Foundry Identification James B. Wendt Computer Science Department, University of California, Los Angeles miodrag@cs.ucla.edu ABSTRACT Foundry identification is essential for many tasks introduce statistical techniques for foundry detection, specifically for identifying from which foundry

  5. Modeling techniques for simulating well behavior 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rattu, Bungen Christina

    2002-01-01

    This thesis is a catalog of modeling techniques useful in simulating well behavior in certain types of reservoirs that are often encountered in petroleum reservoirs. Emphasis has been placed on techniques that can be used with any conventional...

  6. EERE's Usability and Analysis Techniques Guidebook

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    For more information on the usability techniques associated with the templates, see EERE's Usability and Analysis Techniques Guidebook, which is a collection of best practices for creating and running different kinds of user-centered design projects.

  7. Disposal phase experimental program plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility comprises surface and subsurface facilities, including a repository mined in a bedded salt formation at a depth of 2,150 feet. It has been developed to safely and permanently isolate transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes in a deep geological disposal site. On April 12, 1996, the DOE submitted a revised Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The DOE anticipates receiving an operating permit from the NMED; this permit is required prior to the start of disposal operations. On October 29, 1996, the DOE submitted a Compliance Certification Application (CCA) to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in accordance with the WIPP land Withdrawal Act (LWA) of 1992 (Public Law 102-579) as amended, and the requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR) Parts 191 and 194. The DOE plans to begin disposal operations at the WIPP in November 1997 following receipt of certification by the EPA. The disposal phase is expected to last for 35 years, and will include recertification activities no less than once every five years. This Disposal Phase Experimental Program (DPEP) Plan outlines the experimental program to be conducted during the first 5-year recertification period. It also forms the basis for longer-term activities to be carried out throughout the 35-year disposal phase. Once the WIPP has been shown to be in compliance with regulatory requirements, the disposal phase gives an opportunity to affirm the compliance status of the WIPP, enhance the operations of the WIPP and the national TRU system, and contribute to the resolution of national and international nuclear waste management technical needs. The WIPP is the first facility of its kind in the world. As such, it provides a unique opportunity to advance the technical state of the art for permanent disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes.

  8. Accurate atmospheric parameters at moderate resolution using spectral indices: Preliminary application to the marvels survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghezzi, Luan; Da Costa, Luiz N.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Dutra-Ferreira, Letícia; Lorenzo-Oliveira, Diego; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Santiago, Basílio X.; De Lee, Nathan; Lee, Brian L.; Ge, Jian; Wisniewski, John P.; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip; Pepper, Joshua; Fleming, Scott W.; Schneider, Donald P.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Wang, Ji; and others

    2014-12-01

    Studies of Galactic chemical, and dynamical evolution in the solar neighborhood depend on the availability of precise atmospheric parameters (effective temperature T {sub eff}, metallicity [Fe/H], and surface gravity log g) for solar-type stars. Many large-scale spectroscopic surveys operate at low to moderate spectral resolution for efficiency in observing large samples, which makes the stellar characterization difficult due to the high degree of blending of spectral features. Therefore, most surveys employ spectral synthesis, which is a powerful technique, but relies heavily on the completeness and accuracy of atomic line databases and can yield possibly correlated atmospheric parameters. In this work, we use an alternative method based on spectral indices to determine the atmospheric parameters of a sample of nearby FGK dwarfs and subgiants observed by the MARVELS survey at moderate resolving power (R ? 12,000). To avoid a time-consuming manual analysis, we have developed three codes to automatically normalize the observed spectra, measure the equivalent widths of the indices, and, through a comparison of those with values calculated with predetermined calibrations, estimate the atmospheric parameters of the stars. The calibrations were derived using a sample of 309 stars with precise stellar parameters obtained from the analysis of high-resolution FEROS spectra, permitting the low-resolution equivalent widths to be directly related to the stellar parameters. A validation test of the method was conducted with a sample of 30 MARVELS targets that also have reliable atmospheric parameters derived from the high-resolution spectra and spectroscopic analysis based on the excitation and ionization equilibria method. Our approach was able to recover the parameters within 80 K for T {sub eff}, 0.05 dex for [Fe/H], and 0.15 dex for log g, values that are lower than or equal to the typical external uncertainties found between different high-resolution analyses. An additional test was performed with a subsample of 138 stars from the ELODIE stellar library, and the literature atmospheric parameters were recovered within 125 K for T {sub eff}, 0.10 dex for [Fe/H], and 0.29 dex for log g. These precisions are consistent with or better than those provided by the pipelines of surveys operating with similar resolutions. These results show that the spectral indices are a competitive tool to characterize stars with intermediate resolution spectra.

  9. Inference of ICF implosion core mix using experimental data and theoretical mix modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherrill, Leslie Welser [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Haynes, Donald A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cooley, James H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sherrill, Manolo E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mancini, Roberto C [UNR; Tommasini, Riccardo [LLNL; Golovkin, Igor E [PRISM COMP. SCIENCES; Haan, Steven W [LLNL

    2009-01-01

    The mixing between fuel and shell materials in Inertial Confinement Fusion (lCF) implosion cores is a current topic of interest. The goal of this work was to design direct-drive ICF experiments which have varying levels of mix, and subsequently to extract information on mixing directly from the experimental data using spectroscopic techniques. The experimental design was accomplished using hydrodynamic simulations in conjunction with Haan's saturation model, which was used to predict the mix levels of candidate experimental configurations. These theoretical predictions were then compared to the mixing information which was extracted from the experimental data, and it was found that Haan's mix model predicted trends in the width of the mix layer as a function of initial shell thickness. These results contribute to an assessment of the range of validity and predictive capability of the Haan saturation model, as well as increasing confidence in the methods used to extract mixing information from experimental data.

  10. Evaluating atmospheric CO2 inversions at multiple scales over a highly-inventoried agricultural landscape.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuh, Andrew E.; Lauvaux, Thomas; West, Tristram O.; Denning, A.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Miles, Natasha; Richardson, S. J.; Uliasz, Marek; Lokupitiya, Erandathie; Cooley, Dan; Andrews, Arlyn; Ogle, Stephen

    2013-05-01

    An intensive regional research campaign was conducted by the North American Carbon Program (NACP) in 2005 to study the carbon cycle of the highly productive agricultural regions of the Midwestern United States. Forty-_ve di_erent associated projects were spawned across _ve U.S. agencies over the course of nearly a decade involving hundreds of researchers. The primary objective of the project was to investigate the ability of atmospheric inversion techniques to use highly calibrated CO2 mixing ratio data to estimate CO2 exchange over the major croplands of the U.S. Statistics from densely monitored crop production, consisting primarily corn and soybeans, provided the backbone of a well-studied\\bottom up"flux estimate that was used to evaluate the atmospheric inversion results. Three different inversion systems, representing spatial scales varying from high resolution mesoscale, to continental, to global, coupled to different transport models and optimization techniques were compared to the bottom up" inventory estimates. The mean annual CO2-C sink for 2007 from the inversion systems ranged from 120 TgC to 170 TgC, when viewed across a wide variety of inversion setups, with the best" point estimates ranging from 145 TgC to 155 TgC. Inversion-based mean C sink estimates were generally slightly stronger, but statistically indistinguishable,from the inventory estimate whose mean C sink was 135 TgC. The inversion results showed temporal correlations at seasonal lengths while week to week correlations remained low. Comparisons were made between atmospheric transport yields of the two regional inversion systems, which despite having different influence footprints in space and time due to differences in underlying transport models and external forcings, showed similarity when aggregated in space and time.

  11. A moist aquaplanet variant of the Held–Suarez test for atmospheric model dynamical cores

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thatcher, D. R.; Jablonowski, C.

    2015-09-29

    A moist idealized test case (MITC) for atmospheric model dynamical cores is presented. The MITC is based on the Held–Suarez (HS) test that was developed for dry simulations on a flat Earth and replaces the full physical parameterization package with a Newtonian temperature relaxation and Rayleigh damping of the low-level winds. This new variant of the HS test includes moisture and thereby sheds light on the non-linear dynamics-physics moisture feedbacks without the complexity of full physics parameterization packages. In particular, it adds simplified moist processes to the HS forcing to model large-scale condensation, boundary layer mixing, and the exchange ofmore »latent and sensible heat between the atmospheric surface and an ocean-covered planet. Using a variety of dynamical cores of NCAR's Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), this paper demonstrates that the inclusion of the moist idealized physics package leads to climatic states that closely resemble aquaplanet simulations with complex physical parameterizations. This establishes that the MITC approach generates reasonable atmospheric circulations and can be used for a broad range of scientific investigations. This paper provides examples of two application areas. First, the test case reveals the characteristics of the physics-dynamics coupling technique and reproduces coupling issues seen in full-physics simulations. In particular, it is shown that sudden adjustments of the prognostic fields due to moist physics tendencies can trigger undesirable large-scale gravity waves, which can be remedied by a more gradual application of the physical forcing. Second, the moist idealized test case can be used to intercompare dynamical cores. These examples demonstrate the versatility of the MITC approach and suggestions are made for further application areas. The new moist variant of the HS test can be considered a test case of intermediate complexity.« less

  12. Sampling Techniques for Probabilistic Roadmap Planners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Sampling Techniques for Probabilistic Roadmap Planners Roland Geraerts Mark H. Overmars institute;Sampling Techniques for Probabilistic Roadmap Planners Roland Geraerts Mark H. Overmars Institute,markov}@cs.uu.nl. Abstract The probabilistic roadmap approach is a commonly used motion planning technique. A crucial

  13. Sampling Techniques for Probabilistic Roadmap Planners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Sampling Techniques for Probabilistic Roadmap Planners Roland Geraerts Mark H. Overmars institute; Sampling Techniques for Probabilistic Roadmap Planners Roland Geraerts Mark H. Overmars Institute,markov}@cs.uu.nl. Abstract The probabilistic roadmap approach is a commonly used motion planning technique. A crucial

  14. Experimental mathematics meets gravitational self-force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathan K. Johnson-McDaniel; Abhay G. Shah; Bernard F. Whiting

    2015-07-27

    It is now possible to compute linear in mass-ratio terms in the post-Newtonian (PN) expansion for compact binaries to very high orders using black hole perturbation theory applied to various invariants. For instance, a computation of the redshift invariant of a point particle in a circular orbit about a black hole in linear perturbation theory gives the linear-in-mass-ratio portion of the binding energy of a circular binary with arbitrary mass ratio. This binding energy, in turn, encodes the system's conservative dynamics. We give a method for extracting the analytic forms of these PN coefficients from high-accuracy numerical data using experimental mathematics techniques, notably an integer relation algorithm. Such methods should be particularly important when the calculations progress to the considerably more difficult case of perturbations of the Kerr metric. As an example, we apply this method to the redshift invariant in Schwarzschild. Here we obtain analytic coefficients to 12.5PN, and higher-order terms in mixed analytic-numerical form to 21.5PN, including analytic forms for the complete 13.5PN coefficient, and all the logarithmic terms at 13PN. At these high orders, an individual coefficient can have over 30 terms, including a wide variety of transcendental numbers, when written out in full. We are still able to obtain analytic forms for such coefficients from the numerical data through a careful study of the structure of the expansion. The structure we find also allows us to predict certain "leading logarithm"-type contributions to all orders. The additional terms in the expansion we obtain improve the accuracy of the PN series for the redshift observable, even in the very strong-field regime inside the innermost stable circular orbit, particularly when combined with exponential resummation.

  15. Input Power Measurement Techniques for Single-Phase Digitally Controlled PFC Rectifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . 1. Experimental digitally controlled PFC boost rectifier implementing either DACM or DNLC control-DC converter, C =22O/LF,L-=1.5mH, V.,omanaZ 390V, f.- 65kHZ te output current measurement is freely available from a downstream DC-DC converter. Table I provides an overview of the three considered techniques

  16. Foliar Lead Uptake by Lettuce Exposed to Atmospheric Fallouts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailhes, Corinne

    Foliar Lead Uptake by Lettuce Exposed to Atmospheric Fallouts G A ¨E L L E U Z U , S O P H I E S O gardens near industrial plants. The mechanisms of foliar uptake of lead by lettuce (Lactuca sativa) exposed to the atmospheric fallouts of a lead-recycling plant were studied. After43daysofexposure

  17. Lecture(s) 9 Slides from atmosphere-ocean lectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the required energy poleward. the atmosphere is a heat engine, with Hadley convection cells driven moisture: both the `sensible' and `latent' heat fuels the vigorous overturning of the cloud visible albedo and ice can insulate the ocean from the atmosphere above. When the ocean surface freezes

  18. Investigating jets in the lower-to-mid solar atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , in the lower-to-mid solar atmosphere, remains one of the biggest unanswered questions in solar physics today reconnection driven processes. Spicules are one of the most common features in the lower-to-mid solarInvestigating jets in the lower-to-mid solar atmosphere: Observations & Numerical Simulations Eamon

  19. WAVE-VORTEX INTERACTIONS IN THE ATMOSPHERE, AND CLIMATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    WAVE-VORTEX INTERACTIONS IN THE ATMOSPHERE, AND CLIMATE PREDICTION Onno Bokhove Numerical Analysis, The Netherlands o.bokhove@math.utwente.nl Abstract Can we construct an accurate atmospheric climate model parcel dynamics, linear modes, balan- ced models, gravity waves, weather and climate prediction

  20. Non-equilibrium Chemistry in Brown Dwarf Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metchev, Stanimir

    Non-equilibrium Chemistry in Brown Dwarf Atmospheres PHY688 Aaron Jackson April 27, 2009 #12 and convection #12;Non-equilibrium Chemistry In the context of Brown Dwarf Atmospheres, the relevant chemical;Outline What is non-equilibrium chemistry in the context of Brown Dwarfs? What is the observational

  1. ORIGINAL PAPER The influence of plants on atmospheric methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    ORIGINAL PAPER The influence of plants on atmospheric methane in an agriculture-dominated landscape on atmospheric methane (CH4) in an agriculture-dominated landscape in the Upper Mid- west of the United States role in the landscape-scale CH4 budget. Keywords Methane . Corn . Soybean . Agriculture . Land surface

  2. Understanding oxygen photochemistry in CO2-dominated planetary atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strong, Kimberly

    of confidence in forecasting the temperature profile for the Martian atmosphere over the aerobraking region temperature, dust load, water concentrations, etc., on the vertical ii #12;structure of the emissions the NO airglow emission in the Mars atmosphere from the SPICAM instrument. The method is tested with one year

  3. FUNDAMENTALS OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE COURSE: ...................................................................................... EAS B9014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolberg, George

    and Physics 20700 and 20800 Textbook (required): Atmospheric Science: An Introductory Survey (2nd editionFUNDAMENTALS OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE COURSE% Students will write a term paper, linking a topic learned in class with either (a) their own research or (b

  4. North-Atlantic atmospheric dynamics and climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North-Atlantic atmospheric dynamics and climate change Julien Cattiaux1 with Christophe Cassou2 weather and global warming J. Cattiaux - North-Atlantic atmospheric dynamics and climate change AMA & LEFE the climate change affect the dynamics? The midlatitude dynamics is driven by the equator-to-pole T gradient

  5. Destruction mechanisms for formaldehyde in atmospheric temperature plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushner, Mark

    Destruction mechanisms for formaldehyde in atmospheric temperature plasmas Daniel G. Starch, Illinois 61801 (Received 4 June 1992; accepted for publication 15 September 1992) Formaldehyde (CH of formaldehyde from atmospheric pressure gas streams using plasmas generated by a dielectric barrier dis- charge

  6. Data assimilation for the coupled ocean-atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    is vacillating between a normal year (lasts from ~3-8 years) and an El Nino (lasts about a 1 year) #12;Time atmosphere slow ocean fast extratropical atmosphere t=0.01 We do OSSEs with this simple coupled model "El

  7. Author's personal copy Solar modulation in surface atmospheric electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    Author's personal copy Solar modulation in surface atmospheric electricity R. Giles Harrison a is the major source of air's electrical conductivity over the oceans and well above the continents atmospheric electrical circuit, including the local vertical current density and the related surface potential

  8. MEET THE PEER COUNSELORS Marine and Atmospheric Science Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    MEET THE PEER COUNSELORS Marine and Atmospheric Science Program Welcome all incoming at the University of Miami and the Rosenstiel School for Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS). Incoming students as possible, both academically and socially. We are here as guides for incoming and prospective students who

  9. Intercomparison of oceanic and atmospheric forced and coupled mesoscale simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Intercomparison of oceanic and atmospheric forced and coupled mesoscale simulations Part I: Surface Abstract. A mesoscale non-hydrostatic atmospheric model has been coupled with a mesoscale oceanic model current. In order to analyze the eect of mesoscale coupling, three simulations are compared: the ®rst one

  10. INL Experimental Program Roadmap for Thermal Hydraulic Code Validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn McCreery; Hugh McIlroy

    2007-09-01

    Advanced computer modeling and simulation tools and protocols will be heavily relied on for a wide variety of system studies, engineering design activities, and other aspects of the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), the DOE Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), and light-water reactors. The goal is for all modeling and simulation tools to be demonstrated accurate and reliable through a formal Verification and Validation (V&V) process, especially where such tools are to be used to establish safety margins and support regulatory compliance, or to design a system in a manner that reduces the role of expensive mockups and prototypes. Recent literature identifies specific experimental principles that must be followed in order to insure that experimental data meet the standards required for a “benchmark” database. Even for well conducted experiments, missing experimental details, such as geometrical definition, data reduction procedures, and manufacturing tolerances have led to poor Benchmark calculations. The INL has a long and deep history of research in thermal hydraulics, especially in the 1960s through 1980s when many programs such as LOFT and Semiscle were devoted to light-water reactor safety research, the EBRII fast reactor was in operation, and a strong geothermal energy program was established. The past can serve as a partial guide for reinvigorating thermal hydraulic research at the laboratory. However, new research programs need to fully incorporate modern experimental methods such as measurement techniques using the latest instrumentation, computerized data reduction, and scaling methodology. The path forward for establishing experimental research for code model validation will require benchmark experiments conducted in suitable facilities located at the INL. This document describes thermal hydraulic facility requirements and candidate buildings and presents examples of suitable validation experiments related to VHTRs, sodium-cooled fast reactors, and light-water reactors. These experiments range from relatively low-cost benchtop experiments for investigating individual phenomena to large electrically-heated integral facilities for investigating reactor accidents and transients.

  11. Experimental development of the predictive relations for the eddy exchange coefficients for momentum and heat in the atmospheric boundary layer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jensen, Paul Alfred

    1972-01-01

    . 3 &ii. t' i' 1i~:. . ;at of: t'ai. , : -. . '. ; r. ;. ;. r, ': i r:;. - ~ leer-. . - . :. . . , , . ;: o i r ". pc i' FC:"1;', );, 1')7p EXPERIYENT'L Dj. 'VELOPkjENT OF THE PRFDICTZFF. RETATIONS 1'OR T13E Fl)DY E1CH'NGF CO1'FFZCZENTS I'OR 3j... m~. 'rir g scheme 44 V. TROCRSSINO i!RAN Dz&T4 VI. ANAIULSIS I'ROCRDURL 49 51 VII. RDDT ILXCDWCR CO. II'ICIRNl ICR NONRNTI!N (i) Sel ec L" on og for'ms occ Z m (Li ) Besu l ls (i'i) Discusscon 60 v2 p, p rf I I, "7)i r', ?'. 'XCIIAir...

  12. Multi-carrier Signal Transmission through HVAC Ducts: Experimental Results for Channel Capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stancil, Daniel D.

    Multi-carrier Signal Transmission through HVAC Ducts: Experimental Results for Channel Capacity) ducts based on multi-carrier transmission technique and mea- sured channel frequency responses in the 2 through a building HVAC duct system demonstrate the ability to transmit with a spectral efficiency of 3

  13. Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Nonlinearity in soils using Advanced Laboratory-Scaled models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENINALS Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Nonlinearity in soils using Advanced of Nonlinearity in Soils Using Advanced Laboratory-scaled Models Concluding Workshop Ispra, May 28-30 2013 IFSTTAR-geological constraints - centrifuge modelling - numerical modelling MILESTONES - Experiencing techniques for realising

  14. An Experimental Study of the Autonomous Helicopter Landing Problem Srikanth Saripalli1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukhatme, Gaurav S.

    An Experimental Study of the Autonomous Helicopter Landing Problem Srikanth Saripalli1 , Gaurav S investigate a vision-based technique for autonomously landing a robotic helicopter. We model the solution the individual degrees of freedom of the helicopter. The resulting hybrid control system is simple, yet effective

  15. Experimental study on the cause of insufficiency of a transcutaneous pulmonary valve replacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    Experimental study on the cause of insufficiency of a transcutaneous pulmonary valve replacement Peter Jülg, Sason von der Heyde Purpose: Within the EU-funded research project LifeValve the German for the replacement of pulmonary heart valves. This technique is a minimally invasive alternative to the replacement

  16. LEARNING FROM DAM REMOVAL MONITORING: CHALLENGES TO SELECTING EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND ESTABLISHING SIGNIFICANCE OF OUTCOMES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    LEARNING FROM DAM REMOVAL MONITORING: CHALLENGES TO SELECTING EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND ESTABLISHING, California, USA ABSTRACT As the decommissioning of dams becomes a common restoration technique, decisions about dam removals must be based on sound predictions of expected outcomes. Results of past and ongoing

  17. Experimental studies of unbiased gluon jets from e^+e^? annihilations using the jet boost algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Graham Wallace; Abbiendi, G.; Ainsley, C.; Å kesson, P. F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, J.; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.

    2004-02-25

    We present the first experimental results based on the jet boost algorithm, a technique to select unbiased samples of gluon jets in e^+e^? annihilations, i.e. gluon jets free of biases introduced by event selection or jet finding criteria. Our...

  18. The matching of 3D Rolie-Poly viscoelastic numerical simulations with experimental polymer melt flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimack, Peter

    Kingdom J. Embery and D. Auhl IRC in Polymer Science and Technology, Department of Physics and AstronomyThe matching of 3D Rolie-Poly viscoelastic numerical simulations with experimental polymer melt of commercial viscoelastic polymer melts. Numerical simulation techniques have steadily advanced over the last

  19. The opacity of grains in protoplanetary atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naor Movshovitz; Morris Podolak

    2007-09-29

    We have computed the size distribution of silicate grains in the outer radiative region of the envelope of a protoplanet evolving according to the scenario of Pollack et al. (1996). Our computation includes grain growth due to Brownian motion and overtake of smaller grains by larger ones. We also include the input of new grains due to the breakup of planetesimals in the atmosphere. We follow the procedure of Podolak (2003), but have speeded it up significantly. This allows us to test the sensitivity of the code to various parameters. We have also made a more careful estimate of the resulting grain opacity. We find that the grain opacity is of the order of $10^{-2}\\ \\mathrm{cm^2 g^{-1}}$ throughout most of the outer radiative zone as Hubickyj et al. (2005) assumed for their low opacity case, but near the outer edge of the envelope, the opacity can increase to $\\sim{1} \\mathrm{cm^2 g^{-1}}$. We discuss the effect of this on the evolution of the models.

  20. Antineutrino Oscillations in the Atmospheric Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himmel, Alexander I.; /Caltech

    2011-05-01

    This thesis presents measurements of the oscillations of muon antineutrinos in the atmospheric sector, where world knowledge of antineutrino oscillations lags well behind the knowledge of neutrinos, as well as a search for {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} transitions. Differences between neutrino and antineutrino oscillations could be a sign of physics beyond the Standard Model, including non-standard matter interactions or the violation of CPT symmetry. These measurements leverage the sign-selecting capabilities of the magnetized steel-scintillator MINOS detectors to analyze antineutrinos from the NuMI beam, both when it is in neutrino-mode and when it is in antineutrino-mode. Antineutrino oscillations are observed at |{Delta}{bar m}{sub atm}{sup 2}| = (3.36{sub -0.40}{sup +0.46}(stat) {+-} 0.06(syst)) x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}(2{bar {theta}}{sub 23}) = 0.860{sub -0.12}{sup +0.11}(stat) {+-} 0.01(syst). The oscillation parameters measured for antineutrinos and those measured by MINOS for neutrinos differ by a large enough margin that the chance of obtaining two values as discrepant as those observed is only 2%, assuming the two measurements arise from the same underlying mechanism, with the same parameter values. No evidence is seen for neutrino-to-antineutrino transitions.

  1. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  2. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Doyle, Edward F. (Dedham, MA); DiBella, Francis A. (Roslindale, MA)

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  3. Compendium of Experimental Cetane Numbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanowitz, J.; Ratcliff, M. A.; McCormick, R. L.; Taylor, J. D.; Murphy, M. J.

    2014-08-01

    This report is an updated version of the 2004 Compendium of Experimental Cetane Number Data and presents a compilation of measured cetane numbers for pure chemical compounds. It includes all available single compound cetane number data found in the scientific literature up until March 2014 as well as a number of unpublished values, most measured over the past decade at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This Compendium contains cetane values for 389 pure compounds, including 189 hydrocarbons and 201 oxygenates. More than 250 individual measurements are new to this version of the Compendium. For many compounds, numerous measurements are included, often collected by different researchers using different methods. Cetane number is a relative ranking of a fuel's autoignition characteristics for use in compression ignition engines; it is based on the amount of time between fuel injection and ignition, also known as ignition delay. The cetane number is typically measured either in a single-cylinder engine or a constant volume combustion chamber. Values in the previous Compendium derived from octane numbers have been removed, and replaced with a brief analysis of the correlation between cetane numbers and octane numbers. The discussion on the accuracy and precision of the most commonly used methods for measuring cetane has been expanded and the data has been annotated extensively to provide additional information that will help the reader judge the relative reliability of individual results.

  4. A multiple-scale simulation of variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide using a coupled biosphere-atmospheric model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    A multiple-scale simulation of variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide using a coupled biosphere, carbon dioxide, biosphere, regional-scale modeling, missing sink, carbon dioxide fluxes Citation), A multiple-scale simulation of variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide using a coupled biosphere

  5. A nonsteady one-dimensional theoretical model of Mars' neutral atmospheric composition between 30 and 200 km

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodrigo, R.; Garcia-Alvarez, E.; Lopez-Gonzalez, M.J.; Lopez-Moreno, J.J. (Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, Granada (Spain))

    1990-08-30

    There has been a big advance in the knowledge of the composition of the atmosphere of the planet Mars since its exploration by different missions in the 1970s, and this will be deeply increased in the following years as the upcoming programs to Mars develop. In this context, the authors have elaborated a model of the Mars' neutral atmosphere including the following compounds: O({sup 3}P), O({sup 1}D), O{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, H, H{sub 2}, OH, H{sub 2}O, HO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2}, between 30 and 200 km of altitude. The model is carried out for middle latitudes in equinox conditions and with moderate solar activity and provides the day-to-night evolution of the atmosphere. The scarcity of observations corresponding to the nightside of the planet has made it necessary to calculate the atmospheric temperature profile based on the available observations and on theoretical estimations. The model includes a detailed treatment of both the photochemical and the dynamical processes. In this sense, the most recent values of the reaction rates and photodissociation cross sections have been used, and a new height profile of the eddy diffusion coefficient has been computed which is able to explain the vertical distribution of carbon monoxide. The concentration profiles obtained show, in general, a very good agreement with the available experimental measurements.

  6. A Grid of 3D Stellar Atmosphere Models of Solar Metallicity: I. General Properties, Granulation and Atmospheric Expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trampedach, Regner; Collet, Remo; Nordlund, Åke; Stein, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    Present grids of stellar atmosphere models are the workhorses in interpreting stellar observations, and determining their fundamental parameters. These models rely on greatly simplified models of convection, however, lending less predictive power to such models of late type stars. We present a grid of improved and more reliable stellar atmosphere models of late type stars, based on deep, 3D, convective, stellar atmosphere simulations. This grid is to be used in general for interpreting observations, and improve stellar and asteroseismic modeling. We solve the Navier Stokes equations in 3D and concurrent with the radiative transfer equation, for a range of atmospheric parameters, covering most of stellar evolution with convection at the surface. We emphasize use of the best available atomic physics for quantitative predictions and comparisons with observations. We present granulation size, convective expansion of the acoustic cavity, asymptotic adiabat, as function of atmospheric parameters. These and other re...

  7. Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program: Atmospheric Remote Sensing and Assessment Program -- Final Report. Part 1: The lower atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tooman, T.P.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents work done between FY91 and FY95 for the lower atmospheric portion of the joint Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Remote Sensing and Assessment Program (ARSAP) within the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP). The work focused on (1) developing new measurement capabilities and (2) measuring atmospheric heating in a well-defined layer and then relating it to cloud properties an water vapor content. Seven new instruments were develop3ed for use with Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles (UAVs) as the host platform for flux, radiance, cloud, and water vapor measurements. Four major field campaigns were undertaken to use these new as well as existing instruments to make critically needed atmospheric measurements. Scientific results include the profiling of clear sky fluxes from near surface to 14 km and the strong indication of cloudy atmosphere absorption of solar radiation considerably greater than predicted by extant models.

  8. Functionalization of Hydrogen-free Diamond-like Carbon Films using Open-air Dielectric Barrier Discharge Atmospheric Plasma Treatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Instituto de Materiales de Madrid, C.S.I.C., Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Quimica-Fisica"Rocasolano"C.S.I.C., 28006 Madrid, Spain; Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 44150, Thailand; CASTI, CNR-INFM Regional Laboratory, L'Aquila 67100, Italy; SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA; Endrino, Jose; Endrino, J. L.; Marco, J. F.; Poolcharuansin, P.; Phani, A.R.; Allen, M.; Albella, J. M.; Anders, A.

    2007-12-28

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) technique has been employed to produce uniform atmospheric plasmas of He and N2 gas mixtures in open air in order to functionalize the surface of filtered-arc deposited hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. XPS measurements were carried out on both untreated and He/N2 DBD plasma treated DLC surfaces. Chemical states of the C 1s and N 1s peaks were collected and used to characterize the surface bonds. Contact angle measurements were also used to record the short- and long-term variations in wettability of treated and untreated DLC. In addition, cell viability tests were performed to determine the influence of various He/N2 atmospheric plasma treatments on the attachment of osteoblast MC3T3 cells. Current evidence shows the feasibility of atmospheric plasmas in producing long-lasting variations in the surface bonding and surface energy of hydrogen-free DLC and consequently the potential for this technique in the functionalization of DLC coated devices.

  9. Atmospheric process evaluation of mobile source emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    During the past two decades there has been a considerable effort in the US to develop and introduce an alternative to the use of gasoline and conventional diesel fuel for transportation. The primary motives for this effort have been twofold: energy security and improvement in air quality, most notably ozone, or smog. The anticipated improvement in air quality is associated with a decrease in the atmospheric reactivity, and sometimes a decrease in the mass emission rate, of the organic gas and NO{sub x} emissions from alternative fuels when compared to conventional transportation fuels. Quantification of these air quality impacts is a prerequisite to decisions on adopting alternative fuels. The purpose of this report is to present a critical review of the procedures and data base used to assess the impact on ambient air quality of mobile source emissions from alternative and conventional transportation fuels and to make recommendations as to how this process can be improved. Alternative transportation fuels are defined as methanol, ethanol, CNG, LPG, and reformulated gasoline. Most of the discussion centers on light-duty AFVs operating on these fuels. Other advanced transportation technologies and fuels such as hydrogen, electric vehicles, and fuel cells, will not be discussed. However, the issues raised herein can also be applied to these technologies and other classes of vehicles, such as heavy-duty diesels (HDDs). An evaluation of the overall impact of AFVs on society requires consideration of a number of complex issues. It involves the development of new vehicle technology associated with engines, fuel systems, and emission control technology; the implementation of the necessary fuel infrastructure; and an appropriate understanding of the economic, health, safety, and environmental impacts associated with the use of these fuels. This report addresses the steps necessary to properly evaluate the impact of AFVs on ozone air quality.

  10. Empirical comparison of network sampling techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blagus, Neli; Bahec, Marko

    2015-01-01

    In the past few years, the storage and analysis of large-scale and fast evolving networks present a great challenge. Therefore, a number of different techniques have been proposed for sampling large networks. In general, network exploration techniques approximate the original networks more accurately than random node and link selection. Yet, link selection with additional subgraph induction step outperforms most other techniques. In this paper, we apply subgraph induction also to random walk and forest-fire sampling. We analyze different real-world networks and the changes of their properties introduced by sampling. We compare several sampling techniques based on the match between the original networks and their sampled variants. The results reveal that the techniques with subgraph induction underestimate the degree and clustering distribution, while overestimate average degree and density of the original networks. Techniques without subgraph induction step exhibit exactly the opposite behavior. Hence, the pe...

  11. Non-equilibrium chemistry in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Saumon; M. S. Marley; K. Lodders; R. S. Freedman

    2002-07-02

    Carbon monoxide and ammonia have been detected in the spectrum of Gl 229B at abundances that differ substantially from those obtained from chemical equilibrium. Vertical mixing in the atmosphere is a mechanism that can drive slowly reacting species out of chemical equilibrium. We explore the effects of vertical mixing as a function of mixing efficiency and effective temperature on the chemical abundances in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and on their spectra. The models compare favorably with the observational evidence and indicate that vertical mixing plays an important role in brown dwarf atmospheres.

  12. Constraining uncertainties in climate models using climate change detection techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forest, Chris Eliot.; Allen, Myles R.; Stone, Peter H.; Sokolov, Andrei P.

    Different atmosphere-ocean general circulation models produce significantly different projections of climate change in response to increases in greenhouse gases and aerosol concentrations in the atmosphere. The main reasons ...

  13. Associate Research Physicist (Post Doc, Experimental Research...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Post Doc, Experimental Research, NSTX-U, Radio Frequency Waves) Department: Research Staff: RM1 Requisition Number: 1500421 The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) seeks to...

  14. Integrating Experimental Design into Your Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    How you can use experimental design in energy efficiency programs in order to make them the most successful and cost-effective programs that they can be.

  15. Consumers Energy- Experimental Advanced Renewable Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Experimental Advanced Renewable Energy Program (EARP) offers Consumers Energy residential and non-residential customers a buy-back tariff program for electricity produced by solar photovoltaic ...

  16. Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emission Treatment Catalyst Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental Studies of Emission Treatment Catalyst Poster presented at the 16th Directions in...

  17. Crises and problems seen from experimental psychology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandler, George

    2011-01-01

    of the theory and history of psychology (van der Veer, René,2009). The Future of Psychology: Connecting Mind to Brain.Development of experimental psychology Driesch, H. (1925).

  18. An Experimental Study Of Hydromagmatic Fragmentation Through...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fragmentation Through Energetic, Non-Explosive Magma-Water Mixing Abstract In this paper we report the first experimental investigation of non-explosive hydromagmatic...

  19. Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxidation Catalyst for Diesel Engine Emission Treatment Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental Studies of Oxidation Catalyst for Diesel Engine Emission...

  20. Habitability of waterworlds: runaway greenhouses, atmospheric expansion and multiple climate states of pure water atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldblatt, Colin

    2015-01-01

    There are four different stable climate states for pure water atmospheres, as might exist on so-called "waterworlds". I map these as a function of solar constant for planets ranging in size from Mars size to 10 Earth-mass. The states are: globally ice covered (Ts< 245K), cold and damp (270 < Ts< 290K), hot and moist (350< Ts< 550K) and very hot and dry (Ts< 900K). No stable climate exists for 290< Ts < 350K or 550 < Ts < 900K. The union of hot moist and cold damp climates describe the liquid water habitable zone, the width and location of which depends on planet mass. At each solar constant, two or three different climate states are stable. This is a consequence of strong non-linearities in both thermal emission and the net absorption of sunlight. Across the range of planet sizes, I account for the atmospheres expanding to high altitudes as they warm. The emitting and absorbing surfaces (optical depth of unity) move to high altitude, making their area larger than the planet surfa...