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1

Alternative Fuels Data Center: ASTM Biodiesel Specifications  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

ASTM Biodiesel ASTM Biodiesel Specifications to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: ASTM Biodiesel Specifications on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: ASTM Biodiesel Specifications on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: ASTM Biodiesel Specifications on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: ASTM Biodiesel Specifications on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: ASTM Biodiesel Specifications on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: ASTM Biodiesel Specifications on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biodiesel Basics Blends Production & Distribution Specifications Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives ASTM Biodiesel Specifications These tables show selected ASTM requirements for B100 and B6 to B20. Note

2

GF5 / ROBO Test or ASTM Sequence IIIGA Test, ASTM D7528 Aged Oil LowTemperature Viscosity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GF5 / ROBO Test or ASTM Sequence IIIGA Test, ASTM D7528 Aged Oil LowTemperature Viscosity SPECIFICATIONS PROCEDURE PARAMETERS The ROBO test is a proposed test for performance category GF.5, ASTM D7528. The ASTM Sequence IIIGA Test, ASTM D7320 may be run instead of the above. A total

Chapman, Clark R.

3

Porterfield named ASTM Fellow  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in standards development. Achievements Porterfield serves on both the ASTM Nuclear Fuel Cycle International Committee and the ASTM Water International Committee. He has led or...

4

Specifications for Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 28   ASTM specifications that incorporate AISI-SAE designations...A 29 Carbon and alloy steel bars, hot rolled and cold

5

Product Specifications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 6   ASTM and ASME specifications for copper tube and pipe...(a) B 359 SB359 B 359M (a) ? Seamless tube, for air conditioning and refrigeration

6

Ball Rust Test(ASTM D 6557) FIELD SERVICE SIMULATED  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-controlled shaker table. A syringe pump is used to inject acid into the test oil. In addition, a compressed air the Sequence IID (ASTM D 5844) gaso- line engine test, and evaluates the ability of an oil to prevent with regard to rusting. TEST PARAMETERS Tests are run for 18 hours with the test oil environment controlled

Chapman, Clark R.

7

NIST, ASTM Land a One-Two Punch to Fight Explosives ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST, ASTM Land a One-Two Punch to Fight Explosives Terrorism. From NIST Tech Beat: March 30, 2011. ...

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

8

Overview of ASTM D03 Involvement with Hydrogen Fuel Purity Specificati...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Breath of H2 Standardization Other ASTM Committees: * Committee D05 on Coal and Coke * Committee D14 on Adhesives * Committee D16 on Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Related...

9

Sentiment proxies: computing market volatility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Macroeconomic announcements can have an influential effect on the price, and related volatility, of an object traded in financial markets. Modeling the impact of a relevant announcement on a specific commodity is of interest in building financial models ...

Stephen Kelly; Khurshid Ahmad

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Guide to ASTM test methods for the analysis of coal and coke  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The guide includes brief descriptions of all 56 ASTM test methods that cover the physical, chemical, and spectroscopic analytical techniques to qualitatively and quantitatively identify over 40 chemical and physical properties of coal, coke, their products, and by-products.

R.A. Kishore Nadkarni (ed.)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Specifications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Specifications Grid connection Hardwired Connector type CHAdeMo Approximate size (H x W x D inches) 38 x 69 x 21 Charge level DC Fast Charge Input voltage 480 VAC - 3 Phase...

12

What Is Price Volatility  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

What Is Price Volatility? What Is Price Volatility? The term "price volatility" is used to describe price fluctuations of a commodity. Volatility is measured by the day-to-day percentage difference in the price of the commodity. The degree of variation, not the level of prices, defines a volatile market. Since price is a function of supply and demand, it follows that volatility is a result of the underlying supply and demand characteristics of the market. Therefore, high levels of volatility reflect extraordinary characteristics of supply and/or demand. Prices of basic energy (natural gas, electricity, heating oil) are generally more volatile than prices of other commodities. One reason that energy prices are so volatile is that many consumers are extremely limited in their ability to substitute other fuels when the price, of natural gas

13

Specific  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Specific Specific energy for pulsed laser rock drilling Z. Xu, a) C. B. Reed, and G. Konercki Technology Development Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60540 R. A. Parker b) Parker Geoscience Consulting, LLC, Arvada, Colorado 80403 B. C. Gahan Gas Technology Institute, Des Plains, Illinois 60018 S. Batarseh c) and R. M. Graves Department of Petroleum Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 H. Figueroa Petroleos de Venezuela INTEVEP, S.A., Caracas 1070A, Venezuela N. Skinner Halliburton Energy Service, Carrollton, Texas 75006 ͑Received 20 December 2001; accepted for publication 19 August 2002͒ Application of advanced high power laser technology to oil and gas well drilling has been attracting significant research interests recently among research institutes, petroleum industries, and universities. Potential laser or laser-aided

14

Quantifying requirements volatility effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In an organization operating in the bancassurance sector we identified a low-risk IT subportfolio of 84 IT projects comprising together 16,500 function points, each project varying in size and duration, for which we were able to quantify its requirements ... Keywords: ?-ratio, ?-ratio, Compound monthly growth rate, IT dashboard, IT portfolio management, Quantitative IT portfolio management, Requirements churn, Requirements creep, Requirements metric, Requirements scrap, Requirements volatility, Requirements volatility dashboard, Scope creep, Volatility benchmark, Volatility tolerance factor

G. P. Kulk; C. Verhoef

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels; Phase 3: Effects of Winter Gasoline Volatility and Ethanol Content on Blend Flammability; Flammability Limits of Denatured Ethanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study assessed differences in headspace flammability for summertime gasolines and new high-ethanol content fuel blends. The results apply to vehicle fuel tanks and underground storage tanks. Ambient temperature and fuel formulation effects on headspace vapor flammability of ethanol/gasoline blends were evaluated. Depending on the degree of tank filling, fuel type, and ambient temperature, fuel vapors in a tank can be flammable or non-flammable. Pure gasoline vapors in tanks generally are too rich to be flammable unless ambient temperatures are extremely low. High percentages of ethanol blended with gasoline can be less volatile than pure gasoline and can produce flammable headspace vapors at common ambient temperatures. The study supports refinements of fuel ethanol volatility specifications and shows potential consequences of using noncompliant fuels. E85 is flammable at low temperatures; denatured ethanol is flammable at warmer temperatures. If both are stored at the same location, one or both of the tanks' headspace vapors will be flammable over a wide range of ambient temperatures. This is relevant to allowing consumers to splash -blend ethanol and gasoline at fueling stations. Fuels compliant with ASTM volatility specifications are relatively safe, but the E85 samples tested indicate that some ethanol fuels may produce flammable vapors.

Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; Clark, W.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Volatility and commodity price dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Commodity prices tend to be volatile, and volatility itself varies over time. changes in volatility can affect market variables by directly affecting the marginal value of storage, and by affecting a component of the total ...

Pindyck, Robert S.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Oil Price Volatility  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Speculation and Oil Price Volatility Speculation and Oil Price Volatility Robert J. Weiner Robert J. Weiner Professor of International Business, Public Policy & Professor of International Business, Public Policy & Public Administration, and International Affairs Public Administration, and International Affairs George Washington University; George Washington University; Membre Associ Membre Associ é é , GREEN, Universit , GREEN, Universit é é Laval Laval EIA Annual Conference Washington Washington 7 April 2009 7 April 2009 1 FACTORS DRIVNG OIL PRICE VOLATILITY FACTORS DRIVNG OIL PRICE VOLATILITY ► ► Market fundamentals Market fundamentals . . Fluctuations in supply, Fluctuations in supply, demand, and market power demand, and market power Some fundamentals related to expectations of Some fundamentals related to expectations of

18

Narrow groove gas tungsten arc welding of ASTM A508 Class 4 steel for improved toughness properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Welding of heavy section steel has traditionally used the automatic submerged arc welding (ASAW) process because of the high deposition rates achievable. However, the properties, particularly fracture toughness, of the weld are often inferior when compared to base material. This project evaluated the use of narrow groove gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) to improve weld material properties. The welding procedures were developed for ASTM A508 Class 4 base material using a 1% Ni filler material complying to AWS Specification A.23-90-EF3-F3-N. A narrow groove joint preparation was used in conjunction with the GTAW process so competitive fabrication rates could be achieved when compared to the ASAW process. Weld procedures were developed to refine weld substructure to achieve better mechanical properties. Two heaters of weld wire were used to examine the effects of minor filler metal chemistry differences on weld mechanical properties. Extensive metallographic evaluations showed excellent weld quality with a refined microstructure. Chemical analysis of the weld metal showed minimal weld dilution by the base metal. Mechanical testing included bend and tensile tests to ensure weld quality and strength. A Charpy impact energy curve versus temperature and fracture toughness curve versus temperature were developed for each weld wire heat. Results of fracture toughness and Charpy impact testing indicated an improved transition temperature closer to that of the base material properties.

Penik, M.A. Jr. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

ASTM STANDARD GUIDE FOR EVALUATING DISPOSAL OPTIONS FOR REUSE OF CONCRETE FROM NUCLEAR FACILITY DECOMMISSIONING  

SciTech Connect

Within the nuclear industry, many contaminated facilities that require decommissioning contain huge volumes of concrete. This concrete is generally disposed of as low-level waste at a high cost. Much of the concrete is lightly contaminated and could be reused as roadbed, fill material, or aggregate for new concrete, thus saving millions of dollars. However, because of the possibility of volumetric contamination and the lack of a method to evaluate the risks and costs of reusing concrete, reuse is rarely considered. To address this problem, Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory teamed to write a ''concrete protocol'' to help evaluate the ramifications of reusing concrete within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document, titled the Protocol for Development of Authorized Release Limits for Concrete at U.S. Department of Energy Site (1) is based on ANL-E's previously developed scrap metal recycle protocols; on the 10-step method outlined in DOE's draft handbook, Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle of Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material (2); and on DOE Order 4500.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (3). The DOE concrete protocol was the basis for the ASTM Standard Guide for Evaluating Disposal Options for Concrete from Nuclear Facility Decommissioning, which was written to make the information available to a wider audience outside DOE. The resulting ASTM Standard Guide is a more concise version that can be used by the nuclear industry worldwide to evaluate the risks and costs of reusing concrete from nuclear facility decommissioning. The bulk of the ASTM Standard Guide focuses on evaluating the dose and cost for each disposal option. The user calculates these from the detailed formulas and tabulated data provided, then compares the dose and cost for each disposal option to select the best option that meets regulatory requirements. With this information, the reuse of concrete may be possible, thus reducing dose and decontamination and decommissioning costs. This paper outlines ten steps required to release concrete for reuse and discusses the disposal options covered in the ASTM Standard Guide.

Phillips, Ann Marie; Meservey, Richard H.

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

20

Uptakes of Cs and Sr on San Joaquin soil measured following ASTM method C1733.  

SciTech Connect

Series of tests were conducted following ASTM Standard Procedure C1733 to evaluate the repeatability of the test and the effects of several test parameters, including the solution-to-soil mass ratio, test duration, pH, and the concentrations of contaminants in the solution. This standard procedure is recommended for measuring the distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) of a contaminant in a specific soil/groundwater system. One objective of the current tests was to identify experimental conditions that can be used in future interlaboratory studies to determine the reproducibility of the test method. This includes the recommendation of a standard soil, the range of contaminant concentrations and solution matrix, and various test parameters. Quantifying the uncertainty in the distribution coefficient that can be attributed to the test procedure itself allows the differences in measured values to be associated with differences in the natural systems being studied. Tests were conducted to measure the uptake of Cs and Sr dissolved as CsCl and Sr(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} in a dilute NaHCO{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2} solution (representing contaminants in a silicate groundwater) by a NIST standard reference material of San Joaquin soil (SRM 2709a). Tests were run to measure the repeatability of the method and the sensitivity of the test response to the reaction time, the mass of soil used (at a constant soil-to-solution ratio), the solution pH, and the contaminant concentration. All tests were conducted in screw-top Teflon vessels at 30 C in an oven. All solutions were passed through a 0.45-{mu}m pore size cellulose acetate membrane filter and stabilized with nitric acid prior to analysis with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Scoping tests with soil in demineralized water resulted in a solution pH of about 8.0 and the release of small amounts of Sr from the soil. Solutions were made with targeted concentrations of 1 x 10{sup -6} m, 1 x 10{sup -5} m, 2.5 x 10{sup -5} m, 5 x 10{sup -5} m, 1 x 10{sup -4} m, and 5 x 10{sup -4} m to measure the effects of the Cs and Sr concentrations on their uptake by the soil. The pH values of all solutions were adjusted to about pH 8.5 so that the effects of pH and concentration could be measured separately. The 1 x 10{sup -4} m solutions were used to measure the repeatability of the test and the effects of duration, scale, and imposed pH on the test response.

Ebert, W.L.; Petri, E.T. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

2012-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "astm volatility specifications" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Properties of concrete incorporating high volumes of ASTM Class F fly ash  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents the results of research performed in developing high-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete incorporating ASTM Type I cement and ASTM Class F fly ash from Big Brown Power Plant of TU Electric, Texas. In HVFA concrete, the proportion of fly ash was 58 percent by weight of the total cementitious materials, the water and cement content were kept low at 115 and 155 k g/M3 , respectively. A broad range of engineering properties was investigated including compressive strength, flexural strength, splitting-tensile strength, Young's modulus of elasticity, drying shrinkage, resistance to freeze-thaw cycling, pore structure and activation energy. A preliminary economic analysis was also performed on HVFA concrete. The HVFA concrete evaluated in this study had satisfactory workability and setting characteristics. It also exhibited excellent mechanical properties with satisfactory early age strength and good long-term strength development. The HVFA concrete had relatively low drying shrinkage and a very fine pore system. Excellent durability under freeze-thaw cycling was also found for the air-entrained HVFA concrete. Results from activation energy test show that strength gain of the HVFA concrete under isothermal curing conditions could be modeled appropriately using Plowman's logarithmic strength-age model. The relative strength-maturity relationship was established for the HVFA concrete containing various percentages of additional gypsum. The HVFA concrete investigated was determined to be cost effective. It was shown that about two and half dollars per cubic meter could be saved through savings on portland cement.

Li, Wei Tung

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Na and Li ion diffusion in modified ASTM C 1260 test by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)  

SciTech Connect

In the current study, MRI was applied to investigate lithium and sodium ion diffusion in cement paste and mortars containing inert sand and borosilicate glass. Paste and mortars were treated by complying with ASTM C 1260. Lithium and sodium distribution profiles were collected at different ages after different treatments. Results revealed that sodium ions had a greater diffusion rate than lithium ions, suggesting that Na reaches the aggregate particle surface before Li. Results also showed that Na and Li ions had a competitive diffusion process in mortars; soaking in a solution with higher [Li] favored Li diffusion but hindered Na diffusion. In mortars containing glass, a substantial amount of Li was consumed by the formation of ASR products. When [Li] in soaking solution was reduced to 0.37 N, a distinctive Na distribution profile was observed, indicating the free-state Na ions were continuously transformed to solid reaction products by ASR. Hence, in the modified ASTM C 1260 test, [Li] in the storage solution should be controlled at 0.74 N, in order to completely prevent the consumption of Na ions and thus stop ASR.

Feng, X. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB (Canada)], E-mail: XFeng@ctlgroup.com; Balcom, B.J. [MRI Center, Department of Physics, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB (Canada); Thomas, M.D.A.; Bremner, T.W. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB (Canada)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

23

Does stock market volatility with regime shifts signal the business cycle in Taiwan?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a Switching Regime ARCH (SWARCH) model and other time series models, this paper sets out to investigate the volatility of Taiwan's monthly stock market returns, with the empirical results demonstrating that our SWARCH-L specification ... Keywords: Markov switching, Taiwan, business cycle, e-finance, electronic finance, regime shifts, stock market volatility, stock markets, stock volatility

Yih-Wen Shyu; Kuangyu Hsia

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Petroleum Outlook:.More Volatility?  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Outlook: More Volatility? Outlook: More Volatility? 3/19/01 Click here to start Table of Contents Petroleum Outlook: More Volatility? Product Price Volatility-This Year and in the Future WTI Crude Oil Price: Potential for Volatility Around Base Case OPEC Crude Oil Production 1998-2001 Annual World Oil Demand Growth by Region, 1991-2001 Low Total OECD Oil Stocks* Keep Market Balance Tight Fundamentals Explain High Crude Oil Prices Product Price Spreads Over Crude Oil Reflect Product Market-Based Volatility U.S. Distillate Inventories Distillate Winter Demand Stronger Than Temperatures Would Imply High Production Offset Lack of Inventory High Production Came From High Yields & High Inputs High Margins Bring High Imports Gasoline Price Volatility Is a Concern This Summer Gasoline Volatility

25

Implied volatility in oil markets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modelling the implied volatility surface as a function of an option's strike price and maturity is a subject of extensive research in financial markets. The implied volatility in commodity markets is much less studied, due to a limited liquidity and ...

Svetlana Borovkova; Ferry J. Permana

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Maximizing Information from Residential Measurements of Volatile...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Maximizing Information from Residential Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds Title Maximizing Information from Residential Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds...

27

FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: THE NEW X-WAND HVOC SCREENING DEVICE  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed new methodology and a test kit to screen soil or water samples for halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) in the field. The technology has been designated the X-Wand{trademark} screening tool. The new device uses a heated diode sensor that is commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. This sensor is selective to halogens. It does not respond to volatile aromatic hydrocarbons, such as those in gasoline, and it is not affected by high humidity. In the current work, the heated diode leak detectors were modified further to provide units with rapid response and enhanced sensitivity. The limit of detection for trichloroethylene TCE in air is 0.1 mg/m{sup 3} (S/N = 2). The response to other HVOCS relative to TCE is similar. Variability between sensors and changes in a particular sensor over time can be compensated for by normalizing sensor readings to a maximum sensor reading at 1,000 mg/m{sup 3} TCE. The soil TCE screening method was expanded to include application to water samples. Assuming complete vaporization, the detection limit for TCE in soil is about 1 ug/kg (ppb) for a 25-g sample in an 8-oz jar. The detection limit for TCE in water is about 1 ug/L (ppb) for a 25-mL sample in an 8-oz jar. This is comparable to quantitation limits of EPA GC/MS laboratory methods. A draft ASTM method for screening TCE contaminated soils using a heated diode sensor was successfully submitted for concurrent main committee and subcommittee balloting in ASTM Committee D 34 on Waste Management. The method was approved as ASTM D 7203-05, Standard Test Method for Screening Trichloroethylene (TCE)-Contaminated Soil Using a Heated Diode Sensor.

John F. Schabron; Susan S. Sorini; Joseph F. Rovani Jr

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Specifications  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Biodiesel Specifications to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Specifications on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Specifications on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Specifications on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Specifications on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Specifications on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Specifications on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Specifications Biodiesel produced or sold in the state, including for the purpose of blending with petroleum diesel, must meet ASTM specification D6751.

29

Classification of Volatile Engine Particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Volatile particles cannot be detected at the engine exhaust by an aerosol detector. They are formed when the exhaust is mixed with ambient air downstream. Lack of a precise definition of volatile engine particles has been an impediment to engine manufacturers and regulatory agencies involved in the development of an effective control strategy. It is beyond doubt that volatile particles from combustion sources contribute to the atmospheric particulate burden, and the effect of that contribution is a critical issue in the ongoing research in the areas of air quality and climate change. A new instrument, called volatile particle separator (VPS), has been developed. It utilizes a proprietary microporous metallic membrane to separate particles from vapors. VPS data were used in the development of a two-parameter function to quantitatively classify, for the first time, the volatilization behavior of engine particles. The value of parameter A describes the volatilization potential of an aerosol. A nonvolatile particle has a larger A-value than a volatile one. The value of parameter k, an effective evaporation energy barrier, is found to be much smaller for small engine particles than that for large engine particles. The VPS instrument provides a means beyond just being a volatile particle remover; it enables a numerical definition to characterize volatile engine particles.

Cheng, Mengdawn [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Metal price volatility : a study of informative metrics and the volatility mitigating effects of recycling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metal price volatility is undesirable for firms that use metals as raw materials, because price volatility can translate into volatility of material costs. Volatile material costs and can erode the profitability of the ...

Fleming, Nathan Richard

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

GADOLINIUM SOLUBILITY AND VOLATILITY DURING DWPF PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

Understanding of gadolinium behavior, as it relates to potential neutron poisoning applications at the DWPF, has increased over the past several years as process specific data have been generated. Of primary importance are phenomena related to gadolinium solubility and volatility, which introduce the potential for gadolinium to be separated from fissile materials during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) and Melter operations. Existing data indicate that gadolinium solubilities under moderately low pH conditions can vary over several orders of magnitude, depending on the quantities of other constituents that are present. With respect to sludge batching processes, the gadolinium solubility appears to be highly affected by iron. In cases where the mass ratio of Fe:Gd is 300 or more, the gadolinium solubility has been observed to be low, one milligram per liter or less. In contrast, when the ratio of Fe:Gd is 20 or less, the gadolinium solubility has been found to be relatively high, several thousands of milligrams per liter. For gadolinium to serve as an effective neutron poison in CPC operations, the solubility needs to be limited to approximately 100 mg/L. Unfortunately, the Fe:Gd ratio that corresponds to this solubility limit has not been identified. Existing data suggest gadolinium and plutonium are not volatile during melter operations. However, the data are subject to inherent uncertainties preventing definitive conclusions on this matter. In order to determine if gadolinium offers a practical means of poisoning waste in DWPF operations, generation of additional data is recommended. This includes: Gd solubility testing under conditions where the Fe:Gd ratio varies from 50 to 150; and Gd and Pu volatility studies tailored to quantifying high temperature partitioning. Additional tests focusing on crystal aging of Gd/Pu precipitates should be pursued if receipt of gadolinium-poisoned waste into the Tank Farm becomes routine.

Reboul, S

2008-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

32

Summary Report for the Development of Materials for Volatile Radionuclides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The materials development summarized here is in support of the Waste Forms campaign, Volatile Radionuclide task. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal and immobilization of iodine and krypton, specifically 129I and 85Kr. During FY 2010, aerogel materials were investigated for removal and immobilization of 129I. Two aerogel formulations were investigated, one based on silica aerogels and the second on chalcogenides. For 85Kr, metal organic framework (MOF) structures were investigated.

Strachan, Denis M.; Chun, Jaehun; Henager, Charles H.; Matyas, Josef; Riley, Brian J.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

2010-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

33

Volatility of hotel market fundamentals and the determinants of variations between markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

How can volatility as well as other dynamics and characteristics in hotel market fundamentals affecting risk be better understood? This paper explores that fundamental question along with other more specific questions that ...

Cason, Brian (Brian Paul)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Alternative Fuels Data Center: E85 Specifications  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

E85 Specifications to E85 Specifications to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: E85 Specifications on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: E85 Specifications on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: E85 Specifications on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: E85 Specifications on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: E85 Specifications on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: E85 Specifications on AddThis.com... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Blends Specifications Production & Distribution Feedstocks Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives E85 Specifications ASTM International developed specifications for E85-a gasoline-ethanol blend containing 51% to 83% ethanol-to ensure proper vehicle starting,

35

Volatility in natural gas and oil markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using daily futures price data, I examine the behavior of natural gas and crude oil price volatility since 1990. I test whether there has been a significant trend in volatility, whether there was a short-term increase in ...

Pindyck, Robert S.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Pyrolysis and volatilization of cocaine  

SciTech Connect

The increasing popularity of inhaling cocaine vapor prompted the present study, to determine cocaine's fate during this process. The free base of (3H)cocaine (1 microCi/50 mg) was added to a glass pipe, which was then heated in a furnace to simulate freebasing. Negative pressure was used to draw the vapor through a series of glass wool, ethanol, acidic, and basic traps. Air flow rate and temperature were found to have profound effects on the volatilization and pyrolysis of cocaine. At a temperature of 260 degrees C and a flow rate of 400 mL/min, 37% of the radioactivity remained in the pipe, 39% was found in the glass wool trap, and less than 1% in the remainder of the volatilization apparatus after a 10-min volatilization. Reducing the air flow rate to 100 mL/min reduced the amount of radioactivity collected in the glass wool trap to less than 10% of the starting material and increased the amount that remained in the pipe to 58%. GC/MS analysis of the contents of the glass wool trap after volatilization at 260 degrees C and a flow rate of 400 mL/min revealed that 60% of the cocaine remained intact, while approximately 6 and 2% of the starting material was recovered as benzoic acid and methylecgonidine, respectively. As the temperature was increased to 650 degrees C, benzoic acid and methylecgonidine accounted for 83 and 89% of the starting material, respectively, whereas only 2% of the cocaine remained intact. Quantitation of cocaine in the vapor during the course of volatilization revealed high concentrations during the first two min and low concentrations for the remaining time.

Martin, B.R.; Lue, L.P.; Boni, J.P. (Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond (USA))

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Insulation Materials: Testing and Applications, Third Volume, ASTM STP 1320, R. S. Graves and R. R. Zarr, Eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, 1997.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL-38925 TA-399 Insulation Materials: Testing and Applications, Third Volume, ASTM STP 1320, R. S by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technology, State, and Dariush K. Arasteh Windows and Daylighting Group Building Technologies Department Environmental Energy

38

A modified ASTM G-75 abrasion test helps select candidate alloys for service in a corrosive and abrasive slurry  

SciTech Connect

The design of a hazardous waste immobilization facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) set material requirements for both abrasion resistance and corrosion resistance in process equipment. Standard ASTM slurry wear test G75 was modified to permit evaluation and comparison of abrasive resistance of candidate materials of construction in the laboratory. However, corrosion was found to contribute significantly to overall metal loss during the testing. Consequently, the abrasive slurry used for the testing was modified by adjusting its chemistry to include appropriate corrosive species. The Miller numbers obtained in the modified G75 Miller abrasion test are described. Pilot plant observations for Type 304L austenitic stainless steel were available. These data were used to generate a Morrison-Miller Ratio'' in order to determine anticipated field abrasion properties for other alloys. Hardness for many of the alloys fell in a narrow range about Rockwell B90, but performance varied significantly in response to slurry chemistry. This effect if synergistic may often be overlooked in the selection process, and it needs to be addressed. Some pilot plant testing of other alloys is essential to confirm the calculated abrasion rates and the approach of using the Morrison-Miller ratio. 6 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Corbett, R.A.; Morrison, W.S.; Jenkins, C.F. (Corrosion Testing Labs., Inc., Wilmington, DE (USA); Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Price Volatility In - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The principal drivers behind this volatility are supply and demand fundamentals, which include the weather, storage activities, and the perception of market conditions.

40

Volatile organic compound emissions from composting.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This paper is a review of the aerobic composting process and the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from this process. To understand why and (more)

Harris, Stephanie Rose Rene

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "astm volatility specifications" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Product Price Volatility - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Product Price Volatility-This Year and in the Future. Crude Oil -- Continued tight balance leaves world on thin edge Distillate Winter Price Retrospective Why a ...

42

ASTM G 75 Tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Typical Miller numbers for selected slurry materials...51, 68, 85, 116, 138, 149, 246 Sea bottom 11 Shale 53, 59 Serpentine 134 Sewage, digested 15 Sewage, raw 25 Sodium sulfate 4 Soda ash tailings 27 Sulfur 1 Tailings (all types) 24, 61, 91, 159, 217, 480, 644 Tar sand 70 Waste, nickel 53 Waste, coal 22, 28...

43

Forecasting future volatility from option prices, Working  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Weisbach are gratefully acknowledged. I bear full responsibility for all remaining errors. Forecasting Future Volatility from Option Prices Evidence exists that option prices produce biased forecasts of future volatility across a wide variety of options markets. This paper presents two main results. First, approximately half of the forecasting bias in the S&P 500 index (SPX) options market is eliminated by constructing measures of realized volatility from five minute observations on SPX futures rather than from daily closing SPX levels. Second, much of the remaining forecasting bias is eliminated by employing an option pricing model that permits a non-zero market price of volatility risk. It is widely believed that option prices provide the best forecasts of the future volatility of the assets which underlie them. One reason for this belief is that option prices have the ability to impound all publicly available information including all information contained in the history of past prices about the future volatility of the underlying assets. A second related reason is that option pricing theory maintains that if an option prices fails to embody optimal forecasts of the future volatility of the underlying asset, a profitable trading strategy should be available whose implementation would push the option price to the level that reflects the best possible forecast of future volatility.

Allen M. Poteshman

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Volatile organic compound sensing devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs.

Lancaster, Gregory D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Moore, Glenn A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stone, Mark L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Reagen, William K. (Stillwater, MN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Volatile organic compound sensing devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs. 15 figs.

Lancaster, G.D.; Moore, G.A.; Stone, M.L.; Reagen, W.K.

1995-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

46

Volatile organic compound sensing devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs.

Lancaster, G.D.; Moore, G.A.; Stone, M.L.; Regen, W.K.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

47

Natural Gas Has Been The Most Volatile Of Energy Prices ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Price volatility in the natural gas market generally exceeds volatility in markets for other energy as well as other commodity markets. In fact, ...

48

Energy-efficient indoor volatile organic compound air cleaning...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy-efficient indoor volatile organic compound air cleaning using activated carbon fiber media with nightly regeneration Title Energy-efficient indoor volatile organic compound...

49

Removal of volatile materials from forepump oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method of clearing condensable vapors from forepump oil is described. Air is bubbled though the oil reservoir removing volatile material from the oil and allowing continuous pumping of materials by non?vented pumps.

Paul P. Nicole

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

June 2003VOLATILITY IN NATURAL GAS AND OIL MARKETS * by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Using daily futures price data, I examine the behavior of natural gas and crude oil price volatility since 1990. I test whether there has been a significant trend in volatility, whether there was a short-term increase in volatility during the time of the Enron collapse, and whether natural gas and crude oil price volatilities are interrelated. I also measure the persistence of shocks to volatility and discuss its implications for gas- and oil-related contingent claims.

Robert S. Pindyck; Robert S. Pindyck

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Seasonal Volatility in Energy Prices: Modeling Seasonality in Natural Gas and Electricity Price Volatility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The modeling and measurement of price uncertainty are essential prerequisites to asset valuation and risk management in electric power. Practical, realistic models must take into account the systematic time patterns exhibited by price volatility. This report uses new data and techniques to reexamine the seasonal nature of energy price volatility.

2004-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

52

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Ethanol Specifications  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

and Ethanol and Ethanol Specifications to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Ethanol Specifications on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Ethanol Specifications on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Ethanol Specifications on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Ethanol Specifications on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Ethanol Specifications on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Ethanol Specifications on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel and Ethanol Specifications Ethanol-blended gasoline must conform to ASTM D4814, E85 must conform to

53

Quantifying the value that wind power provides as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AGAINST VOLATILE NATURAL GAS PRICES Mark Bolinger, RyanAGAINST VOLATILE NATURAL GAS PRICES Mark Bolinger, Ryanwake of unprecedented natural gas price volatility during

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Quantifying the value that wind power provides as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AGAINST VOLATILE NATURAL GAS PRICES Mark Bolinger, RyanAGAINST VOLATILE NATURAL GAS PRICES Mark Bolinger, Ryanof unprecedented natural gas price volatility during the

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

PROCESS FOR TREATING VOLATILE METAL FLUORIDES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to the purification of uranium hexafluoride, made by reacting the metal or its tetrafluoride with fluorine, from the frequently contained traces of hydrofluoric acid. According to the present process, UF/sub 6/ containing as an impurity a small amount of hydrofluoric acid, is treated to remove such impurity by contact with an anhydrous alkali metal fluoride such as sodium fluoride. In this way a non-volatile complex containing hydrofluoric acid and the alkali metal fluoride is formed, and the volatile UF /sub 6/ may then be removed by distillation.

Rudge, A.J.; Lowe, A.J.

1957-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Asymptotic Behavior of the Stock Price Distribution Density and Implied Volatility in Stochastic Volatility Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the asymptotic behavior of distribution densities arising in stock price models with stochastic volatility. The main objects of our interest in the present paper are the density of time averages of the squared volatility process and the density of the stock price process in the Stein-Stein and the Heston model. We find explicit formulas for leading terms in asymptotic expansions of these densities and give error estimates. As an application of our results, sharp asymptotic formulas for the implied volatility in the Stein-Stein and the Heston model are obtained.

Gulisashvili, Archil, E-mail: guli@math.ohiou.ed [Ohio University, Department of Mathematics (United States); Stein, Elias M., E-mail: stein@math.princeton.ed [Princeton University, Department of Mathematics (United States)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

57

Dual volatility and dependence parameters and the copula  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We introduce some new species into the zoo of stochastic volatility and dependence parameters. We start with average absolute deviation and Gini index, which are elementary volatility parameters of first and second order in spirit of dual theory of choice ...

Dieter Denneberg; Nikola Leufer

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Apartment volatility determinants across the United States markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Much research has been done to examine the volatilities of return on public and private real estate investments. However, little is known about market volatility in real estate in general and in apartment real estate in ...

Luo, Mai, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

There's more to volatility than volume  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is widely believed that fluctuations in transaction volume, as reflected in the number of transactions and to a lesser extent their size, are the main cause of clustered volatility. Under this view bursts of rapid or slow price diffusion reflect bursts of frequent or less frequent trading, which cause both clustered volatility and heavy tails in price returns. We investigate this hypothesis using tick by tick data from the New York and London Stock Exchanges and show that only a small fraction of volatility fluctuations are explained in this manner. Clustered volatility is still very strong even if price changes are recorded on intervals in which the total transaction volume or number of transactions is held constant. In addition the distribution of price returns conditioned on volume or transaction frequency being held constant is similar to that in real time, making it clear that neither of these are the principal cause of heavy tails in price returns. We analyze recent results of Ane and Geman (2000) an...

Gillemot, L; Lillo, F; Gillemot, Laszlo; Lillo, Fabrizio

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Enhancing recommender systems under volatile userinterest drifts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a systematic study of how to enhance recommender systems under volatile user interest drifts. A key development challenge along this line is how to track user interests dynamically. To this end, we first define four types of interest ... Keywords: interest drift, interest pattern, recommender system

Huanhuan Cao; Enhong Chen; Jie Yang; Hui Xiong

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "astm volatility specifications" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Chemical States of Volatile and Corrosive Fission Products in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. Chemical States of Volatile and Corrosive Fission Products in Thorium Based Fuels from Thermodynamic Studies ...

2006-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

62

A New Volatility Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer to Measure the Volatile Sulfuric Acid Aerosol Fraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA) was developed with the intention to measure the fraction of sulfuric acid in marine fine aerosols (Dp < 150 nm). This work focused on the design and calibration of an aerosol conditioner ...

D. A. Orsini; A. Wiedensohler; F. Stratmann; D. S. Covert

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Online measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from aircraft  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of aviation requires measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) from aircraft. Currently both the ...

Herndon, S. C.

64

Volatile organic compound emissions from usaf wastewater treatment plants in ozone nonattainment areas. Master's thesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In accordance with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), this research conducts an evaluation of the potential emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from selected Air Force wastewater treatment plants. Using a conservative mass balance analysis and process specific simulation models, volatile organic emission estimates are calculated for four individual facilities--Edwards AFB, Luke AFB, McGuire AFB, and McClellan AFB--which represent a cross section of the current inventory of USAF wastewater plants in ozone nonattainment areas. From these calculations, maximum facility emissions are determined which represent the upper limit for the potential VOC emissions from these wastewater plants. Based on the calculated emission estimates, each selected wastewater facility is evaluated as a potential major stationary source of volatile organic emissions under both Title I of the 1990 CAAA and the plant's governing Clean Air Act state implementation plan. Next, the potential impact of the specific volatile organics being emitted is discussed in terms of their relative reactivity and individual contribution to tropospheric ozone formation. Finally, a relative comparison is made between the estimated VOC emissions for the selected wastewater facilities and the total VOC emissions for their respective host installations.

Ouellette, B.A.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

In-Situ Contained And Of Volatile Soil Contaminants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

Varvel, Mark Darrell (Idaho Falls, ID)

2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

66

In-Situ Containment and Extraction of Volatile Soil Contaminants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

Varvel, Mark Darrell

2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

67

Approximating stochastic volatility by recombinant trees  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A general method to construct recombinant tree approximations for stochastic volatility models is developed and applied to the Heston model for stock price dynamics. In this application, the resulting approximation is a four tuple Markov process. The ?first two components are related to the stock and volatility processes and take values in a two dimensional Binomial tree. The other two components of the Markov process are the increments of random walks with simple values in {-1; +1}. The resulting effi?cient option pricing equations are numerically implemented for general American and European options including the standard put and calls, barrier, lookback and Asian type pay-o?ffs. The weak and extended weak convergence are also proved.

Akyildirim, Erdinc; Soner, H Mete

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Volatility Due to Offshoring: Theory and Evidence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Existing models of offshoring are not equipped to explain how global production sharing affects the volatility of economic activity. This paper develops a trade model that can account for why offshoring industries in low wage countries such as Mexico experience fluctuations in employment that are twice as large as in high wage countries such as the United States. We argue that a key to explaining this outcome is that the extensive margin of offshoring responds endogenously to shocks in demand and transmits those shocks across borders in an amplified manner. Empirical evidence supports the claim that the extensive margin of offshoring is an active margin of adjustment, and quantitative simulation experiments show that the degree of movement of this margin in the data is sufficient to explain relative employment volatility in Mexico and the U.S. JEL classification: F1, F4

Paul R. Bergin; Robert C. Feenstra; Gordon H. Hanson

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Fuel and Power Price Volatilities and Convergence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As more energy is traded in competitive markets, the financial performance of generation companies will be increasingly determined by how well they understand and exploit the price behavior of those markets. How volatile are fuel and power prices? How do they correlate with one another? This report addresses these questions in several wholesale electricity and fuel markets and discusses implications of changing patterns of price behavior to fuel and asset management.

1999-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

70

Volatiles trapped in coals: Second quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

We have been able to collect and characterize volatiles that are evolved in the grinding of coal. We have developed a very sensitive method for collecting volatiles evolved in grinding. A sealed, gas tight, grinding apparatus has been built. With this system we can collect volatiles freed from the coal matrix during grinding. To do this a 125 cm/sup 3/ sample of coal is placed in to a 1 liter sealable ball mill jar. The jar is evacuated and the coal ground for 1 hr. The jar is then removed from the ball mill and evacuated into our sample collection system. Gas from the jar is pumped through two stages of dust filtering into a liquid nitrogen cold trap charged with 5 ml of methylene chloride. After warming the trap is shaken so that any gas from the sample mixes with and dissolves in the methylene chloride. One microliter samples of the methylene chloride are injected into a Finnegan GCMS. Preliminary analysis of mass spectra from peaks in the RIC show the presence of hydrocarbons. It was possible to definitively identify cyclohexene. The total amount of hydrocarbons seen is low. The attached figure is the mass spectra of the cyclohexene that was collected from the ground coal. 1 fig.

Sutter, J.R.; Halpern, J.B.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

NETL: Ambient Monitoring - Contribution of Semi-volatile Organic Material  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Semi-volatile Organics in PM Semi-volatile Organics in PM This project is a cooperative effort between Brigham Young University (BYU) and researchers from the DOE-NETL Office of Science and and Engineering Research to determine the contribution of semi-volatile particulate organic compounds (SVOC) to total ambient suspended fine particulate mass at the NETL-Pittsburgh air monitoring facility. Project funding comes from DOE‘s University Coal Research (UCR) program. The hypothesis of the project is that fine particulate mass will be significantly under-determined in urban environments using single filter samplers such as the PM2.5 Federal Reference Method (FRM) because of the loss of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) from the particles during sampling and storage. It is postulated that fine particulate mass, including the semi-volatile fine particulate organic species, are an appropriate surrogate for the components of fine particles which are associated with observed mortality and morbidity effects in epidemiological studies. Further, it is postulated that the most important fraction of the semi-volatile organic material with respect to exacerbation of health problems will be semi-volatile secondary compounds formed from reactions of volatile organic material with ozone and nitrogen oxides. Under-determination of these semi-volatile species will tend to over emphasize the importance of non-volatile fine particulate components such as sulfate or may reduce the significance of correlations with measured health effects.

72

Did Household Consumption Become More Volatile?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I show that after accounting for predictable variation arising from movements in real interest rates, preferences, income shocks, liquidity constraints and measurement errors, volatility of household consumption in the US increased between 1970 and 2004. For households headed by nonwhite and/or poorly educated individuals, this rise was significantly larger. This stands in sharp contrast with the dramatic fall in instability of the aggregate U.S. economy over the same period. Thus, while aggregate shocks affecting households fell over time, idiosyncratic shocks increased. This finding may lead to significant welfare implications.

Olga Gorbachev

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Princeton and PPPL launch center to study volatile space weather...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Princeton and PPPL launch center to study volatile space weather and violent solar storms By John Greenwald December 12, 2013 Tweet Widget Facebook Like Google Plus One Computer...

74

Growth History Of Kilauea Inferred From Volatile Concentrations...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Growth History Of Kilauea Inferred From Volatile Concentrations In Submarine-Collected Basalts Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Growth...

75

Financial distortions and the distribution of global volatility.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this thesis, I study the interactions between various aspects of the financial system and macroeconomic volatility in a globally integrated environment. In Chapter 1, (more)

Eden, Maya Rachel

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Temporal Geochemical Variations In Volatile Emissions From Mount...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temporal Geochemical Variations In Volatile Emissions From Mount St Helens, Usa, 1980-1994 Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Temporal...

77

Price and volatility relationships in the Australian electricity market.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis presents a collection of papers that has been published, accepted or submitted for publication. They assess price, volatility and market relationships in the (more)

Higgs, Helen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Analysis of Price Volatility in Natural Gas Markets  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This article presents an analysis of price volatility in the spot natural gas market, with particular emphasis on the Henry Hub in Louisiana.

Erin Mastrangelo

2007-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

79

Credit Constraints, Learning and Aggregate Consumption Volatility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper documents three empirical facts. First, consumption volatility relative to income volatility rose from 1947-1960 and then fell dramatically by 75 percent from the 1960s to the 1990s. Second, the correlation between consumption growth and personal income growth fell by about 75 percent over the same time period. Finally, absolute deviations of consumption changes from their mean exhibit two breaks in U.S. data, and the mean size of the absolute deviations has again fallen by about 75 percent. First, I find that a standard benchmark permanent income hypothesis model is unable to explain these facts. Then, I examine the ability of two hypotheses: a fall in credit constraints and changing beliefs about the permanence of income shocks to explain these facts. I find evidence for both explanations and find that these facts can be almost completely explained by a model with learning about the nature of income shocks and a reduction in credit constraints. Importantly, I find that estimated changes in beliefs about the permanence of income shocks have substantial explanatory power for consumption changes.

Daniel L. Tortorice

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Leverage Causes Fat Tails and Clustered Volatility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We build a very simple model of leveraged asset purchases with margin calls. Investment funds use what is perhaps the most basic financial strategy, called 'value investing', i.e. systematically attempting to buy underpriced assets. When funds do not borrow, the price fluctuations of the asset are normally distributed and uncorrelated across time. All this changes when the funds are allowed to leverage, i.e. borrow from a bank, to purchase more assets than their wealth would otherwise permit. When funds use leverage, price fluctuations become heavy tailed and display clustered volatility, similar to what is observed in real markets. Previous explanations of fat tails and clustered volatility depended on 'irrational behavior', such as trend following. We show that the immediate cause of the increase in extreme risks in our model is the risk control policy of the banks: A prudent bank makes itself locally safer by putting a limit to leverage, so when a fund exceeds its leverage limit, it must partially repay it...

Thurner, Stefan; Geanakoplos, John

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "astm volatility specifications" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Formaldehyde and Other Volatile Organic Chemical Emissions in Four FEMA  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Formaldehyde and Other Volatile Organic Chemical Emissions in Four FEMA Formaldehyde and Other Volatile Organic Chemical Emissions in Four FEMA Temporary Housing Units Title Formaldehyde and Other Volatile Organic Chemical Emissions in Four FEMA Temporary Housing Units Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors Maddalena, Randy L., Marion L. Russell, Douglas P. Sullivan, and Michael G. Apte Journal Environmental Science and Technology Volume 43 Start Page Chapter Pagination 5626-5632 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract Four unoccupied FEMA temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess their indoor emissions of volatile organic compounds including formaldehyde. Measurement of whole-THUVOC and aldehyde emission factors (µg h-1 per m2 of floor area) for each of the four THUs were made at FEMA's Purvis MS staging yard using a mass balance approach. Measurements were made in the morning, and again in the afternoon in each THU. Steady-state indoor formaldehydeconcentrations ranged from 378 µg m-3 (0.31ppm) to 632 µg m-3 (0.52 ppm) in the AM, and from 433 µg m-3 (0.35 ppm) to 926 µg m-3 (0.78 ppm) in the PM. THU air exchange rates ranged from 0.15 h-1 to 0.39 h-1. A total of 45 small (approximately 0.025 m2) samples of surface material, 16 types, were collected directly from the four THUs and shipped to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The material samples were analyzed for VOC and aldehyde emissions in small stainless steel chambers using a standard, accurate mass balance method. Quantification of VOCs was done via gas chromatography - mass spectrometry and low molecular weight aldehydes via high performance liquid chromatography. Material specific emission factors (µg h-1 per m2 of material) were quantified. Approximately 80 unique VOCs were tentatively identified in the THU field samples, of which forty-five were quantified either because of their toxicological significance or because their concentrations were high. Whole-trailer and materialspecific emission factors were calculated for 33 compounds. The THU emission factors and those from their component materials were compared against those measured from other types of housing and the materials used in their construction. Whole THU emission factors for most VOCs were typically similar to those from comparative housing. The three exceptions were exceptionally large emissions of formaldehyde and TMPD-DIB (a common plasticizer in vinyl products), and somewhat elevated for phenol. Of these three compounds, formaldehyde was theonly one with toxicological significance at the observed concentrations. Whole THU formaldehyde emissions ranged from 173 to 266 µg m-2 h-1 in the morning and 257 to 347 µg m-2 h-1 in the afternoon. Median formaldehyde emissions in previously studied site-built and manufactured homes were 31 and 45 µg m-2 h-1, respectively. Only one of the composite wood materials that was tested appeared to exceed the HUD formaldehyde emission standard (430 µg/m2 h-1 for particleboard and 130 µg/m2 h-1 for plywood). The high loading factor (materialsurface area divided by THU volume) of composite wood products in the THUs and the low fresh air exchange relative to the material surface area may be responsible for the excessive concentrations observed for some of the VOCs and formaldehyde

82

Goodness-of-fit test for stochastic volatility models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose a goodness of fit test for continuous time stochastic volatility models based on discretely sampled observations. The proposed test is constructed by measuring deviations between the empirical and true characteristic functions ... Keywords: 62E20, 62G09, 62G10, Bootstrap, Empirical characteristic function, Goodness-of-fit, Stochastic volatility models, V-statistics

Liang-Ching Lin, Sangyeol Lee, Meihui Guo

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Functional Specifications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Functional Specifications Functional Specifications Services Overview ECS Audio/Video Conferencing Fasterdata IPv6 Network Network Performance Tools (perfSONAR) ESnet OID Registry PGP Key Service Virtual Circuits (OSCARS) OSCARS Case Study Documentation User Manual FAQ Design Specifications Functional Specifications Notifications Publications Authorization Policy Default Attributes Message Security Clients For Developers Interfaces Links Hardware Requirements DOE Grids Service Transition Contact Us Technical Assistance: 1 800-33-ESnet (Inside the US) 1 800-333-7638 (Inside the US) 1 510-486-7600 (Globally) 1 510-486-7607 (Globally) Report Network Problems: trouble@es.net Provide Web Site Feedback: info@es.net Functional Specifications OSCARS Reservation Manager - Functional Specifications Year 3 Update (DRAFT)

84

Declining Volatility, a General Property of Disparate Systems: From Fossils, to Stocks, to the Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There may be structural principles pertaining to the general behavior of systems that lead to similarities in a variety of different contexts. Classic examples include the descriptive power of fractals, the importance of surface area to volume constraints, the universality of entropy in systems, and mathematical rules of growth and form. Documenting such overarching principles may represent a rejoinder to the Neodarwinian synthesis that emphasizes adaptation and competition. Instead, these principles could indicate the importance of constraint and structure on form and evolution. Here we document a potential example of a phenomenon suggesting congruent behavior of very different systems. We focus on the notion that universally there has been a tendency for more volatile entities to disappear from systems such that the net volatility in these systems tends to decline. We specifically focus on origination and extinction rates in the marine animal fossil record, the performance of stocks in the stock market, and...

Lieberman, Bruce S

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Advances in Volatility Modeling for Energy Markets: Methods for Reproducing Volatility Clustering, Fat Tails, Smiles, and Smirks in Energy Price Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes research sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to develop a new model of energy price volatility. For many years, EPRI has worked with a flexible and tractable volatility model that successfully captures the term "structure of volatility," including the properties commonly referred to as "mean reversion" and "seasonality." However, that model does not capture random volatility, evidenced by volatility clustering, nor does it capture skewness and excess kurtosis i...

2011-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

86

Agile specifications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Traditional formal methods and modern agile methods are separated more by limitations of current technology than by fundamental intellectual differences. A mixed interpreter that executes mixed programs, comprising both declarative specification statements ... Keywords: agile methods, formal methods, refinement calculus, specification statement, test-driven development

Derek Rayside; Aleksandar Milicevic; Kuat Yessenov; Greg Dennis; Daniel Jackson

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Design Specifications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Design Design Specifications Services Overview ECS Audio/Video Conferencing Fasterdata IPv6 Network Network Performance Tools (perfSONAR) ESnet OID Registry PGP Key Service Virtual Circuits (OSCARS) OSCARS Case Study Documentation User Manual FAQ Design Specifications Functional Specifications Notifications Publications Authorization Policy Default Attributes Message Security Clients For Developers Interfaces Links Hardware Requirements DOE Grids Service Transition Contact Us Technical Assistance: 1 800-33-ESnet (Inside the US) 1 800-333-7638 (Inside the US) 1 510-486-7600 (Globally) 1 510-486-7607 (Globally) Report Network Problems: trouble@es.net Provide Web Site Feedback: info@es.net Design Specifications OSCARS Reservation Manager - Design Specifications Year 3 Update (DRAFT) David Robertson, Chin Guok

88

Customer Risk from Real-Time Retail Electricity Pricing: Bill Volatility and Hedgability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the ?uctuations in electricity bills that are conceivable.concern about analyzing electricity bill volatility of largeat a The issue of electricity bill volatility from RTP

Borenstein, Severin

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

The impact of ventilation rate on the emission rates of volatile...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

impact of ventilation rate on the emission rates of volatile organic compounds in residences Title The impact of ventilation rate on the emission rates of volatile organic...

90

Vehicle Specifications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

E27C177982 Vehicle Specifications Engine: 2.5 L 4-cylinder Electric Motor: 105 kW Battery: NiMH Seatbelt Positions: Five Payload: 981 lbs Features: Regenerative braking Traction...

91

Vehicle Specifications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

E87C172351 Vehicle Specifications Engine: 2.5 L 4-cylinder Electric Motor: 105 kW Battery: NiMH Seatbelt Positions: Five Payload: 981 lbs Features: Regenerative braking Traction...

92

Vehicle Specifications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Z07S838122 Vehicle Specifications Engine: 2.4 L 4 cylinder Electric Motor: 14.5 kW Battery: NiMH Seatbelt Positions: Five Payload: 1,244 lbs Features: Regenerative braking wABS 4...

93

Vehicle Specifications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2AR194699 Vehicle Specifications Engine: 2.5 L 4-cylinder Electric Motor: 60 kW Battery: NiMH Seatbelt Positions: Five Payload: 850 lbs Features: Regenerative braking Traction...

94

Vehicle Specifications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2WD VIN 1FMYU95H75KC45881 Vehicle Specifications Engine: 2.3 L 4-cylinder Electric Motor: 70 kW Battery: NiMH Seatbelt Positions: Five Features: Four wheel drive Regenerative...

95

Vehicle Specifications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4AR144757 Vehicle Specifications Engine: 2.5 L 4-cylinder Electric Motor: 60 kW Battery: NiMH Seatbelt Positions: Five Payload: 850 lbs Features: Regenerative braking Traction...

96

Vehicle Specifications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Z37S813344 Vehicle Specifications Engine: 2.4 L 4 cylinder Electric Motor: 14.5 kW Battery: NiMH Seatbelt Positions: Five Payload: 1,244 lbs Features: Regenerative braking wABS 4...

97

Vehicle Specifications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4WD VIN 1FMCU96H15KE18237 Vehicle Specifications Engine: 2.4 L 4-cylinder Electric Motor: 70 kW Battery: NiMH Seatbelt Positions: Five Features: Four wheel drive Regenerative...

98

VEHICLE SPECIFICATIONS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SPECIFICATIONS 1 Vehicle VIN:19XFB5F57CE002590 Class: Compact Seatbelt Positions: 5 Type: Sedan CARB 2 : AT-PZEV EPA CityHwyCombined 3 : 273832 MPGe Tires Manufacturer:...

99

General Specifications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Specifications of the Infield Buildings of the Advanced Photon Source L8-78 Martin Knott January 1987 This LS note is the result of a series of meetings, conversations and private...

100

Empirical Analysis of Stochastic Volatility Model by Hybrid Monte Carlo Algorithm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The stochastic volatility model is one of volatility models which infer latent volatility of asset returns. The Bayesian inference of the stochastic volatility (SV) model is performed by the hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) algorithm which is superior to other Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods in sampling volatility variables. We perform the HMC simulations of the SV model for two liquid stock returns traded on the Tokyo Stock Exchange and measure the volatilities of those stock returns. Then we calculate the accuracy of the volatility measurement using the realized volatility as a proxy of the true volatility and compare the SV model with the GARCH model which is one of other volatility models. Using the accuracy calculated with the realized volatility we find that empirically the SV model performs better than the GARCH model.

Takaishi, Tetsuya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "astm volatility specifications" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

2011-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

102

Forecasting volatility with the multifractal random walk model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the problem of forecasting volatility for the multifractal random walk model. In order to avoid the ill posed problem of estimating the correlation length T of the model, we introduce a limiting object defined in a quotient space; formally, this object is an infinite range logvolatility. For this object and the non limiting object, we obtain precise prediction formulas and we apply them to the problem of forecasting volatility and pricing options with the MRW model in the absence of a reliable estimate of the average volatility and T.

Duchon, Jean; Vargas, Vincent

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

VOLATILE CHLORIDE PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METAL VALUES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is presented for recovering uranium, iron, and aluminum from centain shale type ores which contain uranium in minute quantities. The ore is heated wiih a chlorinating agent. such as chlorine, to form a volatilized stream of metal chlorides. The chloride stream is then passed through granular alumina which preferentially absorbs the volatile uranium chloride and from which the uranium may later be recovered. The remaining volatilized chlorides, chiefly those of iron and aluminum, are further treated to recover chlorine gas for recycle, and to recover ferric oxide and aluminum oxide as valuable by-products.

Hanley, W.R.

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Volatile organic compound remedial action project  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Assessment (EA) reviews a proposed project that is planned to reduce the levels of volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminants present in the Mound domestic water supply. The potable and industrial process water supply for Mound is presently obtained from a shallow aquifer via on-site production wells. The present levels of VOCs in the water supply drawn from the on-site wells are below the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) permissible for drinking water under Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA; 40 CFR 141); however, Mound has determined that remedial measures should be taken to further reduce the VOC levels. The proposed project action is the reduction of the VOC levels in the water supply using packed tower aeration (PTA). This document is intended to satisfy the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 and associated Council on Environmental Quality regulations (40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508) as implemented through U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5440.1D and supporting DOE NEPA Guidelines (52 FR 47662), as amended (54 FR 12474; 55 FR 37174), and as modified by the Secretary of Energy Notice (SEN) 15-90 and associated guidance. As required, this EA provides sufficient information on the probable environmental impacts of the proposed action and alternatives to support a DOE decision either to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

NONE

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Growth History Of Kilauea Inferred From Volatile Concentrations In  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

History Of Kilauea Inferred From Volatile Concentrations In History Of Kilauea Inferred From Volatile Concentrations In Submarine-Collected Basalts Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Growth History Of Kilauea Inferred From Volatile Concentrations In Submarine-Collected Basalts Details Activities (4) Areas (2) Regions (0) Abstract: Major-element and volatile (H2O, CO2, S) compositions of glasses from the submarine flanks of Kilauea Volcano record its growth from pre-shield into tholeiite shield-stage. Pillow lavas of mildly alkalic basalt at 2600-1900 mbsl on the upper slope of the south flank are an intermediate link between deeper alkalic volcaniclastics and the modern tholeiite shield. Lava clast glasses from the west flank of Papau Seamount are subaerial Mauna Loa-like tholeiite and mark the contact between the two

106

Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units Title Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-4083E Year of Publication 2010 Authors Parthasarathy, Srinandini, Randy L. Maddalena, Marion L. Russell, and Michael G. Apte Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract Sixteen previously occupied temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess emissions of volatile organic compounds. The whole trailer emission factors were evaluated for 36 VOCs including formaldehyde. Indoor sampling was carried out in the THUs located in Purvis staging yard in Mississippi, USA. Indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) were also measured in all the trailers during sampling. Indoor temperatures were varied (increased or decreased) in a selection of THUs using the

107

The impact of fuel price volatility on transportation mode choice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In recent years, the price of oil has driven large fluctuations in the price of diesel fuel, which is an important cost component in freight logistics. This thesis explores the impact of fuel price volatility on supply ...

Kim, Eun Hie

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

A note on wealth in a volatile economy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I show that if the capital accumulation dynamics is stochastic a new term, in addition to that given by accounting prices, has to be introduced in order to derive a correct estimate of the genuine wealth of an economy. In a simple model with multiplicative accumulation dynamics I show that: 1) the value function is always a decreasing function of volatility 2) the accounting prices are affected by volatility 3) the new term always gives a negative contribution to wealth changes. I discuss results for models with constant elasticity utility functions. When the elasticity of marginal utility is larger than one, accounting prices increase with volatility whereas when it is less than one accounting prices decrease with volatility. These conclusions are not altered when adopting optimal saving rates.

Marsili, M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Volatility of Aerosols in the Arid Southwestern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Volatile properties of aerosols at an isolated rural site in south-central New Mexico were measured with a light-scattering particle counter equipped with a temperature-controlled heated inlet. Intermittent measurements throughout a one-year ...

R. G. Pinnick; S. G. Jennings; G. Fernandez

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Financial distortions and the distribution of global volatility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, I study the interactions between various aspects of the financial system and macroeconomic volatility in a globally integrated environment. In Chapter 1, I illustrate that an efficient allocation of liquidity ...

Eden, Maya Rachel

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

VOLATILE FLUORIDE PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM OTHER MATERIALS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The separation of plutonium from uranium and/or tission products by formation of the higher fluorides of uranium and/or plutonium is discussed. Neutronirradiated uranium metal is first convcrted to the hydride. This hydrided product is then treatced with fluorine at about 315 deg C to form and volatilize UF/sup 6/ leaving plutonium behind. The plutonium may then be separated by reacting the residue with fluorine at about 500 deg C and collecting the volatile plutonium fluoride thus formed.

Spedding, F.H.; Newton, A.S.

1959-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

112

VOLATILE FLUORIDE PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM OTHER MATERIALS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The separation of plutonium from uranium and/or fission products by formation of the higher fluorides off uranium and/or plutonium is described. Neutronirradiated uranium metal is first converted to the hydride. This hydrided product is then treated with fluorine at about 315 deg C to form and volatilize UF/sub 6/ leaving plutonium behind. Thc plutonium may then be separated by reacting the residue with fluorine at about 5004DEC and collecting the volatile plutonium fluoride thus formed.

Spedding, F.H.; Newton, A.S.

1959-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

113

The fractional volatility model: An agent-based interpretation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on criteria of mathematical simplicity and consistency with empirical market data, a model with volatility driven by fractional noise has been constructed which provides a fairly accurate mathematical parametrization of the data. Here, some features of the model are discussed and, using agent-based models, one tries to find which agent strategies and (or) properties of the financial institutions might be responsible for the features of the fractional volatility model.

Mendes, R Vilela

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Reference Handbook for Site-Specific Assessment of Subsurface Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Subsurface vapor intrusion is only one of several possible sources for volatile and semi-volatile chemicals in indoor air. This report provides guidance on the site-specific assessment of the significance of subsurface vapor intrusion into indoor air. Topics covered include theoretical considerations, sampling and analysis considerations, recommended strategies and procedures, interpretive tools, mitigation measures, and suggestions for future research. This document reflects a comprehensive understandin...

2005-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

115

VEHICLE SPECIFICATIONS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

VEHICLE SPECIFICATIONS 1 Vehicle Features Base Vehicle: 2011 Chevrolet Volt VIN: 1G1RD6E48BUI00815 Class: Compact Seatbelt Positions: 4 Type 2 : Multi-Mode PHEV (EV, Series, and Power-split) Motor Type: 12-pole permanent magnet AC synchronous Max. Power/Torque: 111 kW/370 Nm Max. Motor Speed: 9500 rpm Cooling: Active - Liquid cooled Generator Type: 16-pole permanent magnet AC synchronous Max. Power/Torque: 55 kW/200 Nm Max. Generator Speed: 6000 rpm Cooling: Active - Liquid cooled Battery Manufacturer: LG Chem Type: Lithium-ion Cathode/Anode Material: LiMn 2 O 4 /Hard Carbon Number of Cells: 288 Cell Config.: 3 parallel, 96 series Nominal Cell Voltage: 3.7 V Nominal System Voltage: 355.2 V Rated Pack Capacity: 45 Ah Rated Pack Energy: 16 kWh Weight of Pack: 435 lb

116

VEHICLE SPECIFICATIONS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Page 1 of 5 Page 1 of 5 VEHICLE SPECIFICATIONS 1 Vehicle Features Base Vehicle: 2011 Nissan Leaf VIN: JN1AZ0CP5BT000356 Class: Mid-size Seatbelt Positions: 5 Type: EV Motor Type: Three-Phase, Four-Pole Permanent Magnet AC Synchronous Max. Power/Torque: 80 kW/280 Nm Max. Motor Speed: 10,390 rpm Cooling: Active - Liquid cooled Battery Manufacturer: Automotive Energy Supply Corporation Type: Lithium-ion - Laminate type Cathode/Anode Material: LiMn 2 O 4 with LiNiO 2 /Graphite Pack Location: Under center of vehicle Number of Cells: 192 Cell Configuration: 2 parallel, 96 series Nominal Cell Voltage: 3.8 V Nominal System Voltage: 364.8 V Rated Pack Capacity: 66.2 Ah Rated Pack Energy: 24 kWh Max. Cell Charge Voltage 2 : 4.2 V Min. Cell Discharge Voltage 2 : 2.5 V

117

Temporal Geochemical Variations In Volatile Emissions From Mount St Helens,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temporal Geochemical Variations In Volatile Emissions From Mount St Helens, Temporal Geochemical Variations In Volatile Emissions From Mount St Helens, Usa, 1980-1994 Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Temporal Geochemical Variations In Volatile Emissions From Mount St Helens, Usa, 1980-1994 Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Fumarole discharges (95-560°C) collected from the dacite dome inside Mount St. Helens crater show temporal changes in their isotopic and chemical compositions. A ΔD vs. Δ18O plot shows that condensed waters from the gases are mixtures of meteoric and magmatic components, but that the apparent magmatic end-member in 1994 was depleted by about 7‰ in ΔD relative to the apparent end-member in 1980. Based on ΔD modeling, approximately 63% of shallow, post-1980 magma has yet to degas.

118

Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid inclusions from active geothermal systems Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid inclusions from active geothermal systems Details Activities (4) Areas (4) Regions (0) Abstract: A system for analysis of inclusion gas contents based upon quadrupole mass spectrometry has been designed, assembled and tested during the first 7 months of funding. The system is currently being tested and calibrated using inclusions with known gas contents from active geothermal systems. Analyses are in progress on inclusions from the Salton Sea, Valles Caldera, Geysers, and Coso geothermal systems. Author(s): Mckibben, M. A.

119

Study of cesium volatility from sodium carbonate based melts  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of this study was to obtain thermodynamic data on cesium volatility from sodium carbonate-based molten salts for application to the Rockwell-ETEC molten salt oxidation process. At 1073 to 1373 K, volatility tests were conducted on a horizontal and a vertical transpiration apparatus using a carrier gas composed of CO{sub 2}(g) and H{sub 2}O(g) which was passed over or bubbled through a sodium carbonate bath containing cesium carbonate and various additives. The major vapor species was identified to be CsOH(g) except when greater than 3% chloride is present in the melt, then the major vapor species is CsCl(g). The decrease in volatility of cesium as a function of cesium concentration in Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3{minus}}Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixtures follows Raoult`s law very closely. Thus, this system exhibits close to ideal solution behavior. Addition of 22.5 wt % sodium sulfate decreases the cesium volatility by just under a factor of 2, and the addition of 10.0 wt % sodium chloride increases the cesium volatility about an order of magnitude. The addition of 2.0 wt % ash, molecular sieve, or silica show little or no effect. However, the data indicate that higher concentrations of ash will decrease the cesium volatility. For the addition of 22.5 wt % sodium sulfate the activity coefficient, {gamma}(Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}){sup {1/2}}, is calculated to be 0.720 {plus_minus} 0.068, and for the addition of 10.0 wt % sodium chloride, the activity coefficient, {gamma}(CsCl), is calculated to be 8.118 {plus_minus} 2.317. Assuming that Henry`s law applies, these activity coefficients are used to extrapolate the effect on cesium retention in the molten salt oxidizer of sulfate and chloride at lower cesium concentrations.

Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Krikorian, O.H.; Adamson, M.G.; Fleming, D.L.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Volatility Effects on the Escape Time in Financial Market Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We shortly review the statistical properties of the escape times, or hitting times, for stock price returns by using different models which describe the stock market evolution. We compare the probability function (PF) of these escape times with that obtained from real market data. Afterwards we analyze in detail the effect both of noise and different initial conditions on the escape time in a market model with stochastic volatility and a cubic nonlinearity. For this model we compare the PF of the stock price returns, the PF of the volatility and the return correlation with the same statistical characteristics obtained from real market data.

Spagnolo, Bernardo

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "astm volatility specifications" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

A two-dimensional volatility basis set Part 2: Diagnostics of organic-aerosol evolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the use of a two-dimensional volatility-oxidation space (2-D-VBS) to describe organic-aerosol chemical evolution. The space is built around two coordinates, volatility and the degree of oxidation, both of which ...

Donahue, N. M.

122

Quantifying the value that wind power provides as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas Pricing by Regulated Natural Gas Utilities, Docket No.A HEDGE AGAINST VOLATILE NATURAL GAS PRICES Mark Bolinger,A HEDGE AGAINST VOLATILE NATURAL GAS PRICES Mark Bolinger,

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Low-Volatility Motor Oils. Development and Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

saturated hydrocarbons. Viscosity index. 1. >0.03. <90. 80 120. 2. ?0.03. ?90 ... GOST 2079988 does not set a volatility level for this oil, which is within the limits of .... Short Handbook of the Properties of Lubricating Materials and Fuels [

124

Volatility of Aqueous Acetic Acid, Formic Acid, and Sodium Acetate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The quality of water and steam is central to ensuring power plant component availability and reliability. A key part of developing operating cycle chemistry guidelines is an understanding of the impurity distribution between water and steam. This report examines the volatility of some of the principal cycle organic corrodents: acetic acid, formic acid, and sodium acetate.

2000-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

125

Quantifying the value that energy efficiency and renewable energy provide as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Against Volatile Natural Gas Prices Mark Bolinger, Ryanwake of unprecedented natural gas price volatility duringyears) to a 10-year natural gas price forecast (i.e. , what

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Bachrach, Devra; Golove, William

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Quantifying the value that energy efficiency and renewable energy provide as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Against Volatile Natural Gas Prices Mark Bolinger, Ryanof unprecedented natural gas price volatility during thethe cost of hedging gas price risk through financial hedging

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Bachrach, Devra; Golove, William

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Quantifying the value that energy efficiency and renewable energy provide as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas Pricing by Regulated Natural Gas Utilities, Docket No.a Hedge Against Volatile Natural Gas Prices Mark Bolinger,wake of unprecedented natural gas price volatility during

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Bachrach, Devra; Golove, William

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Quantile Forecasting of Commodity Futures' Returns: Are Implied Volatility Factors Informative?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study develops a multi-period log-return quantile forecasting procedure to evaluate the performance of eleven nearby commodity futures contracts (NCFC) using a sample of 897 daily price observations and at-the-money (ATM) put and call implied volatilities of the corresponding prices for the period from 1/16/2008 to 7/29/2011. The statistical approach employs dynamic log-returns quantile regression models to forecast price densities using implied volatilities (IVs) and factors estimated through principal component analysis (PCA) from the IVs, pooled IVs and lagged returns. Extensive in-sample and out-of-sample analyses are conducted, including assessment of excess trading returns, and evaluations of several combinations of quantiles, model specifications, and NCFC's. The results suggest that the IV-PCA-factors, particularly pooled return-IV-PCA-factors, improve quantile forecasting power relative to models using only individual IV information. The ratio of the put-IV to the call-IV is also found to improve quantile forecasting performance of log returns. Improvements in quantile forecasting performance are found to be better in the tails of the distribution than in the center. Trading performance based on quantile forecasts from the models above generated significant excess returns. Finally, the fact that the single IV forecasts were outperformed by their quantile regression (QR) counterparts suggests that the conditional distribution of the log-returns is not normal.

Dorta, Miguel

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Variations in volatiles in magma bodies based on studies of melt inclusions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Knowledge of volatile concentrations in magmas are important in the prediction of explosive volcanism, and contribute to the understanding of the carbon dioxide budget of the atmosphere. Some important variables that are controlled by volatiles are: crystallization temperature of phases, composition of liquids minimum, and viscosity. Volatiles are also catalysts for reactions.

Vogel, T.A. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (USA). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

1989-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

130

QUANTIFYING THE VALUE THAT WIND POWER PROVIDES AS A HEDGE AGAINST VOLATILE NATURAL GAS PRICES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 LBNL-50484 QUANTIFYING THE VALUE THAT WIND POWER PROVIDES AS A HEDGE AGAINST VOLATILE NATURAL GAS VOLATILE NATURAL GAS PRICES Mark Bolinger, Ryan Wiser, and William Golove Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley natural gas price volatility during the winter of 2000/2001 ­ have mostly been qualitative in nature

131

Option Returns and the Cross-Sectional Predictability of Implied Volatility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- tive forecast of the change in implied volatility and short in straddles with a large negative forecast://www.krannert.purdue.edu/faculty/saretto/. #12;1 Introduction Volatility is central to the pricing of options as there is a one-to-one correspondence between the price of an option and the volatility of the underlying asset. In the context of Black

Kearns, Michael

132

CORROSION ASSOCIATED WITH FLUORINATION IN THE OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY FLUORIDE VOLATILITY PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

: : 9 7 7 8 6 9 : = 7 9 9used during the fluorination of fused-salt fuels and subsequent associated operations in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fluoride Volatility Process was evaluated. Corrosive attack is reported as mils per month based on molten salt residence time or mils per hour based on fluorine exposure time. Two fluorinators were used in the VPP to carry out the fluorination reactions. These vessels, Mark I and Mark II, were fabricated into right cylinders, approx 4 1/2 ft in height, from the same heat of L (low carbon nickel. The first vessel contained equimolar NaF- ZrF/sub 4/ or NaF-ZrF/sub 4/-UF/sub 4/ (48-48-4 mole%) for approx 1250 hr at 600 to 725 deg C. Over a period of 61 hr, 57,500 standard liters of F/sub 2/ were sparged into the slats. This constituted a F/sub 2/:U mole ratio of 3:1 beyond theoretical requirements. The Mark II fluorinator contained fluoride salts of approxi-mately the same compositions plus small additions of PuF/sub 4/ during three runs. The salts were kept molten at 540 to 730 deg C for approx 1950 hr and about sixty 500 standard liters of F/sub 2/ were sparged into the Mark II melts in 92 hr. Both fluorinators sustained large corrosion losses consisting of extensive wall thinning, severe interior inter- granular attack, and a moderate exterior oxidation attack. Maximum deterioration on the Mark I vessel occurred in the middle vapor region at a calculated rate of 1.2 mils/hr, based on fluorine sparge time, or 46 mils/month, based on time of exposure to molten salts. The second vessel showed maximum attack in the salt-containing region at similarly calculated rates of 1.1 mils/hr and 60 mils/month. Some evidence was found to indicate that the intergranular attack may have resulted from sulfur in the systems. Bulk metal losses from the vessel's walls were believed to be the result of cyclic losses of NiF/sub 2/ ""protective'' films. The shift in maximum corrosion attack geometry in the two fluorinators is believed to have resulted from differences in operating conditions. The Mark II vessel experienced higher temperatures, longer fluorine exposure times, and uranium residence times in its salt baths. Specimens removed from the wall of the first fluorinator showed a variation in aversge ASTM grain-size number of 5 or 6 to >1, the largest grains being found in the middle vapor region. The second vessel had a more uniform grain-size pattern, average ASTM grain-size numbers varying from 3 to 5 to 2 to 4. The variations in grain sizes are believed to have resulted from variable heating rates during initial usage. Examinations of bench-scale reactors, where simulated fluorination environments were provided to study process variables and corrosion, showed that A nickel had the highest degree of corrosion resistance as a fluorinator materiai of construction when compared with Inconel and INOR-8. Intergranular penetration and subsequent sloughing of whole grains seemed to be the predominant mode of corrosive attack on the Inconel vessel. At the higher test temperatures, 600 deg C, INOR-8 miniature fluorinators showed large bulk metal losses plus selective losses of chromium, molybdenum, and iron from the exposed alloy surfaces. Evidence of a marked reduction in attack on nickel and INOR-8 was found during lower temperature studies at 450 to 525 deg C. Scouting corrosion tests were performed in the VPP's fluorinators using rod, sheet, or wire specimens of commercial and developmental alloys. These tests were subjected to serious limitations due to the lack of control over operating conditions and thus considerable variation in the corrosion of L nickel control specimens resulted. Those nickel-rich alloys containing iron and cobalt showed some superiority in corrosion resistsnce when com- pared with L nickel specimens. Nickel-rich alloys containing molybdenum additions showed variable behavior in the fluorination environment. Additional experimental nickelbase alloy corrosion specimens, containing magnesium,

Litman, A.P.; Goldman, A.E.

1961-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

133

Relaxation dynamics of aftershocks after large volatility shocks in the SSEC index  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The relaxation dynamics of aftershocks after large volatility shocks are investigated based on two high-frequency data sets of the Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite (SSEC) index. Compared with previous relevant work, we have defined main financial shocks based on large volatilities rather than large crashes. We find that the occurrence rate of aftershocks with the magnitude exceeding a given threshold for both daily volatility (constructed using 1-minute data) and minutely volatility (using intra-minute data) decays as a power law. The power-law relaxation exponent increases with the volatility threshold and is significantly greater than 1. Taking financial volatility as the counterpart of seismic activity, the power-law relaxation in financial volatility deviates remarkably from the Omori law in Geophysics.

Mu, Guo-Hua

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Analysis of Realized Volatility in Two Trading Sessions of the Japanese Stock Market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze realized volatilities constructed using high-frequency stock data on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. In order to avoid non-trading hours issue in volatility calculations we define two realized volatilities calculated separately in the two trading sessions of the Tokyo Stock Exchange, i.e. morning and afternoon sessions. After calculating the realized volatilities at various sampling frequencies we evaluate the bias from the microstructure noise as a function of sampling frequency. Taking into account of the bias to realized volatility we examine returns standardized by realized volatilities and confirm that price returns on the Tokyo Stock Exchange are described approximately by Gaussian time series with time-varying volatility, i.e. consistent with a mixture of distributions hypothesis.

Takaishi, Tetsuya; Zheng, Zeyu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Volatile Energy Costs and the Floundering Deregulation of Electricity: A  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Volatile Energy Costs and the Floundering Deregulation of Electricity: A Volatile Energy Costs and the Floundering Deregulation of Electricity: A Fresh Look at Integrating Supply-Side and Demand-Side Resources Speaker(s): Bill Kelly Robert Redlinger Date: January 19, 2001 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3148 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Julie Osborn The restructuring of the California electricity industry has not proceeded as intended. A generation capacity shortage, combined with spiraling natural gas costs and a flawed electricity market structure, have led to unprecedented wholesale electricity prices, power outages, and a political and financial crisis for the State. This crisis will not be solved through increasing electricity supply alone. Energy industry observers agree that 1.) energy efficiency, 2.) distributed on-site generation, and 3.) price

136

Perturbation Expansion for Option Pricing with Stochastic Volatility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We fit the volatility fluctuations of the S&P 500 index well by a Chi distribution, and the distribution of log-returns by a corresponding superposition of Gaussian distributions. The Fourier transform of this is, remarkably, of the Tsallis type. An option pricing formula is derived from the same superposition of Black-Scholes expressions. An explicit analytic formula is deduced from a perturbation expansion around a Black-Scholes formula with the mean volatility. The expansion has two parts. The first takes into account the non-Gaussian character of the stock-fluctuations and is organized by powers of the excess kurtosis, the second is contract based, and is organized by the moments of moneyness of the option. With this expansion we show that for the Dow Jones Euro Stoxx 50 option data, a Delta-hedging strategy is close to being optimal.

Jizba, Petr; Haener, Patrick

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Volatile oils and retrograde gases - What's the difference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Part 1 showed that at reservoir conditions, volatile oils exhibit bubble points and retrograde gases exhibit dew points. The article contained a graph of initial producing gas-oil ratio plotted against concentration of heptanes plus in the fluid. This paper reproduces a portion of that graph with the data points indicating that the fluid had a dew point or a bubble point at reservoir conditions. The scatter in the data reflects the compositional differences among the fluids and the differences in surface separation facilities and conditions. In this graph, only three fluids have dew points and initial producing gas-oil ratios less than 3,200 scf/STB, and only one fluid reaches a bubble point above this value. Therefore, a value of 3,200 scf/STB appears to be a good cutoff between volatile oils and retrograde gases.

McCain, W.D. Jr. (S.A. Holditch and Associates, College Station, TX (United States)); Bridges, B. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Perturbation Expansion for Option Pricing with Stochastic Volatility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We fit the volatility fluctuations of the S&P 500 index well by a Chi distribution, and the distribution of log-returns by a corresponding superposition of Gaussian distributions. The Fourier transform of this is, remarkably, of the Tsallis type. An option pricing formula is derived from the same superposition of Black-Scholes expressions. An explicit analytic formula is deduced from a perturbation expansion around a Black-Scholes formula with the mean volatility. The expansion has two parts. The first takes into account the non-Gaussian character of the stock-fluctuations and is organized by powers of the excess kurtosis, the second is contract based, and is organized by the moments of moneyness of the option. With this expansion we show that for the Dow Jones Euro Stoxx 50 option data, a Delta-hedging strategy is close to being optimal.

Petr Jizba; Hagen Kleinert; Patrick Haener

2007-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

139

LABORATORY-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF THE FUSED SALT VOLATILITY PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of processing enriched irradiated zirconium--uranium alloy fuel by the fused salt-fluoride volatility procedure has been demonstrated in laboratory tests with fuel having a burnup of over 10%. Uranium recoveries were greater than 99% and decontamination factors for radioactive fission products were 10/sup 6/ to 10/sup 6/. The UF/sub 6/ product contained significant quantities of nonradioactive impurities; additional work in this area is needed. (auth)

Cathers, G.I.; Jolley, R.L.; Moncrief, E.C.

1962-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Measurement of Passive Uptake Rates for Volatile Organic Compounds on  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurement of Passive Uptake Rates for Volatile Organic Compounds on Measurement of Passive Uptake Rates for Volatile Organic Compounds on Commercial Thermal Desorption Tubes and the Effect of Ozone on Sampling Title Measurement of Passive Uptake Rates for Volatile Organic Compounds on Commercial Thermal Desorption Tubes and the Effect of Ozone on Sampling Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-6257E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Maddalena, Randy L., Amanda Parra, Marion L. Russell, and Wen-Yee Lee Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Keywords indoor air quality, Passive Sampling, Uptake Rates, vocs Abstract Diffusive or passive sampling methods using commercially filled axial-sampling thermal desorption tubes are widely used for measuring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air. The passive sampling method provides a robust, cost effective way to measure air quality with time-averaged concentrations spanning up to a week or more. Sampling rates for VOCs can be calculated using tube geometry and Fick's Law for ideal diffusion behavior or measured experimentally. There is evidence that uptake rates deviate from ideal and may not be constant over time. Therefore, experimentally measured sampling rates are preferred. In this project, a calibration chamber with a continuous stirred tank reactor design and constant VOC source was combined with active sampling to generate a controlled dynamic calibration environment for passive samplers. The chamber air was augmented with a continuous source of 45 VOCs ranging from pentane to diethyl phthalate representing a variety of chemical classes and physiochemical properties. Both passive and active samples were collected on commercially filled Tenax TA thermal desorption tubes over an 11-day period and used to calculate passive sampling rates. A second experiment was designed to determine the impact of ozone on passive sampling by using the calibration chamber to passively load five terpenes on a set of Tenax tubes and then exposing the tubes to different ozone environments with and without ozone scrubbers attached to the tube inlet. During the sampling rate experiment, the measured diffusive uptake was constant for up to seven days for most of the VOCs tested but deviated from linearity for some of the more volatile compounds between seven and eleven days. In the ozone experiment, both exposed and unexposed tubes showed a similar decline in terpene mass over time indicating back diffusion when uncapped tubes were transferred to a clean environment but there was no indication of significant loss by ozone reaction.

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141

Development and Characterization of a Thermodenuder for Aerosol Volatility Measurements  

SciTech Connect

This SBIR Phase I project addressed the critical need for improved characterization of carbonaceous aerosol species in the atmosphere. The proposed work focused on the development of a thermodenuder (TD) system capable of systematically measuring volatility profiles of primary and secondary organic aerosol species and providing insight into the effects of absorbing and nonabsorbing organic coatings on particle absorption properties. This work provided the fundamental framework for the generation of essential information needed for improved predictions of ambient aerosol loadings and radiative properties by atmospheric chemistry models. As part of this work, Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) continued to develop and test, with the final objective of commercialization, an improved thermodenuder system that can be used in series with any aerosol instrument or suite of instruments (e.g., aerosol mass spectrometers-AMS, scanning mobility particle sizers-SMPS, photoacoustic absorption spectrometers-PAS, etc.) to obtain aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties as a function of particle volatility. In particular, we provided the proof of concept for the direct coupling of our improved TD design with a full microphysical model to obtain volatility profiles for different organic aerosol components and to allow for meaningful comparisons between different TD-derived aerosol measurements. In a TD, particles are passed through a heated zone and a denuding (activated charcoal) zone to remove semi-volatile material. Changes in particle size, number concentration, optical absorption, and chemical composition are subsequently detected with aerosol instrumentation. The aerosol volatility profiles provided by the TD will strengthen organic aerosol emission inventories, provide further insight into secondary aerosol formation mechanisms, and provide an important measure of particle absorption (including brown carbon contributions and identification, and absorption enhancements due to coatings on soot particles). The successfully completed Phase I project included construction of a prototype design for the TD with detailed physical modeling, testing with laboratory and ambient aerosol particles, and the initiation of a detailed microphysical model of the aerosol particles passing through the TD to extract vapor pressure distributions. The objective of the microphysical model is to derive vapor pressure distributions (i.e. vapor pressure ranges, including single chemical compounds, mixtures of known compounds, and complex real-world aerosols, such as SOA, and soot particles with absorbing and nonabsorbing coatings) from TD measurements of changes in particle size, mass, and chemical composition for known TD temperatures and flow rates (i.e. residence times). The proposed Phase II project was designed to optimize several TD systems for different instrument applications and to combine the hardware and modeling into a robust package for commercial sales.

Dr. Timothy Onasch

2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

142

Well Productivity in Gas-Condensate and Volatile Oil Reservoirs:  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wells in gas condensate reservoirs usually exhibit complex behaviours due to condensate deposit as the bottomhole pressure drops below the dew point. The formation of this liquid saturation can lead to a severe loss of well productivity and therefore lower gas recovery. A similar behaviour is observed in volatile oil reservoirs below the bubble point. Understanding these behaviours and extracting values of controlling parameters is necessary to evaluate well potential and design effective programmes to improve productivity. The Centre of Petroleum Studies at Imperial College London has been involved in research in these areas since 1997, sponsored mainly by consortia of oil companies. Results from this work have already greatly improved the understanding of well behaviour in gas condensate and volatile oil reservoirs and the ability to interpret well tests in such reservoirs. Work to-date has focused on vertical and horizontal wells in sandstone reservoirs. Much work remains to understand the behaviours of fractured wells and wells in naturally fractured reservoirs. The objective of this proposal is to complete the work performed to-date in sandstone reservoirs and to extend it to new well and reservoir characteristics, in order to develop a better understanding of near-wellbore effects in gas condensate and volatile oil reservoirs from well testing, and to use this understanding to develop new methods for predicting and improving well productivity in such reservoirs. The work will be performed by staff, MSc and PhD students from the Centre for Petroleum Studies at Imperial College, with input and guidance from industry partners.

Prof A. C. Gringarten

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Effect of Outside Air Ventilation Rate on Volatile Organic Compound  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Outside Air Ventilation Rate on Volatile Organic Compound Outside Air Ventilation Rate on Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations in a Call Center Title Effect of Outside Air Ventilation Rate on Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations in a Call Center Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2003 Authors Hodgson, Alfred T., David Faulkner, Douglas P. Sullivan, Dennis L. DiBartolomeo, Marion L. Russell, and William J. Fisk Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 37 Start Page Chapter Pagination 5517-5528 Abstract A study of the relationship between outside air ventilation rate and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) generated indoors was conducted in a call center office building. The building, with two floors and a floor area of 4,600 m2, was located in the San Francisco Bay Area, CA. Ventilation rates were manipulated with the building's four air handling units (AHUs). VOC concentrations in the AHU returns were measured on seven days during a 13-week period. VOC emission factors were determined for individual zones on days when they were operating at near steady-state conditions. The emission factor data were subjected to principal component (PC) analysis to identify groups of co-varying compounds. Potential sources of the PC vectors were ascribed based on information from the literature supporting the associations. Two vectors with high loadings of compounds including formaldehyde, 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3- pentanediol monoisobutyrate, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (d5 siloxane), and isoprene likely identified occupant-related sources. One vector likely represented emissions from building materials. Another vector represented emissions of solvents from cleaning products. The relationships between indoor minus outdoor VOC concentrations and ventilation rate were qualitatively examined for eight VOCs. Of these, acetaldehyde and hexanal, which were likely associated with material sources, and d5 siloxane exhibited general trends of higher concentrations at lower ventilation rates. For other compounds, the operation of the building and variations in pollutant generation and removal rates apparently combined to obscure the inverse relationship between VOC concentrations and ventilation. This result emphasizes the importance of utilizing source control measures, in addition to adequate ventilation, to limit concentrations of VOCs of concern in office buildings

144

The Tight Coal Market: Volatility Spike or Trend?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spot coal market experienced a major price spike beginning in late 2000 and early 2001. This run-up in coal prices caught most producers and generators by surprise. While spot prices have declined from their peak, they remain well above historical levels. It is not clear whether this run-up in prices was merely a short-term event reflecting an increase in coal price volatility or the start of a new trend in coal pricing generally. This report analyzes possible causes of the price spike, the likelihoo...

2001-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

145

Oil consumption, pollutant emission, oil proce volatility and economic activities in selected Asian Developing Economies.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??It is now well established in the literature that oil consumption, oil price shocks, and oil price volatility may impact the economic activities negatively. Studies (more)

Rafiq, Shuddhasattwa

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Improvement of SOFC Electrodes through Catalyst Infiltration & Control of Cr Volatilization from FeCr Components  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation discusses the improvement of SOFC electrodes through catalyst infiltration and control of Cr volatilization from FeCr components.

Visco, S.J.; Jacobson, C.; Kurokawa, H.; Sholklapper, T.; Lu, C.; De Jonghe, L.

2005-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

147

Stock market volatility and price discovery : three essays on the effect of macroeconomic information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simple Microstructure Model of Price Determination . . 3.11Stock Market Volatility and Price Discovery: Three Essays onConstruction Spending PRICES CPI MONETARY POLICY FFR Source:

Rangel, Jose Gonzalo

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

ASTM D 6751 Lab Equipment Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Water & Sediment D2709 PAC 67310 Benchtop Centrifuge $6,600 $20 - $74 D2709 by centrifuge (std $29) ... D6584 by gas chromatography (std $34 ...

2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

149

ASTM A-710 GRADE B High Performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cooling from hot rolling without quenching and tempering (Q&T), accelerated cooling or thermomechanically for wind and seismic resistance · power and illumination towers · construction and mining equipment NUCu 70 at temperatures that do not exceed 1120o C (2050o F) followed by air-cooling. TABLE 1 : COMPOSITION OF NUCu 70W (A

150

New Soil Volatile Organic Compound Samplers U S  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Soil Volatile Organic Soil Volatile Organic Compound Samplers U . S . D e p a r t m e n t o f E n e r g y * O f f i c e o f F o s s i l E n e r g y N a t i o n a l E n e r g y T e c h n o l o g y L a b o r a t o r y Successes AdvAnced ReseARch To support coal and power systems development, NETL's Advanced Research Program conducts a range of pre-competitive research focused on breakthroughs in materials and processes, coal utilization science, sensors and controls, computational energy science, and bioprocessing-opening new avenues to gains in power plant efficiency, reliability, and environmental quality. NETL also sponsors cooperative educational initiatives in University Coal Research, Historically Black Colleges and Universities, and Other Minority Institutions. Accomplishments P Process improvement P Cost reduction P Greater efficiency

151

Summary Report on the Volatile Radionuclide and Immobilization Research for FY2011 at PNNL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The materials development summarized here is in support of the Waste Forms campaign, Volatile Radionuclide task. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal and immobilization of iodine and krypton, specifically 129I and 85Kr. During FY 2011, aerogel materials were investigated for removal and immobilization of 129I. Two aerogel formulations were investigated, one based on silica aerogels and the second on chalcogen-based aerogels (i.e., chalcogels). A silica aerogel was tested at ORNL for total I2 sorption capacity. It was determined to have 48 mass% capacity while having little physisorbed I2 (I2 not taken up in the aerogel pores). For 85Kr, metal organic framework (MOF) structures were investigated and a new MOF with about 8 mass% capacity for Xe and Kr. The selectivity can be changed from Xe > Kr to Xe < Kr simply by lowering the temperature below 0 C. A patent disclosure has been filed. Lastly, silicon carbide (SiC) was loaded with Kr. The diffusion of Kr in SiC was found to be less than detectable at 500 C.

Strachan, Denis M.; Chun, Jaehun; Matyas, Josef; Lepry, William C.; Riley, Brian J.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High Performance Building Title Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High Performance Building Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-3979e Year of Publication 2010 Authors Ortiz, Anna C., Marion L. Russell, Wen-Yee Lee, Michael G. Apte, and Randy L. Maddalena Pagination 29 Date Published 09/2010 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract The developers of the Paharpur Business Center (PBC) and Software Technology Incubator Park in New Delhi, India offer an environmentally sustainable building with a strong emphasis on energy conservation, waste minimization and superior indoor air quality (IAQ). To achieve the IAQ goal, the building utilizes a series of air cleaning technologies for treating the air entering the building. These technologies include an initial water wash followed by ultraviolet light treatment and biolfiltration using a greenhouse located on the roof and numerous plants distributed throughout the building. Even with the extensive treatment of makeup air and room air in the PBC, a recent study found that the concentrations of common volatile organic compounds and aldehydes appear to rise incrementally as the air passes through the building from the supply to the exhaust. This finding highlights the need to consider the minimization of chemical sources in buildings in combination with the use of advanced air cleaning technologies when seeking to achieve superior IAQ. The goal of this project was to identify potential source materials for indoor chemicals in the PBC. Samples of building materials, including wood paneling (polished and unpolished), drywall, and plastic from a hydroponic drum that was part of the air cleaning system, were collected from the building for testing. All materials were collected from the PBC building and shipped to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for testing. The materials were pre-conditioned for two different time periods before measuring material and chemical specific emission factors for a range of VOCs and Aldehydes. Of the six materials tested, we found that the highest emitter of formaldehyde was new plywood paneling. Although polish and paint contribute to some VOC emissions, the main influence of the polish was in altering the capacity of the surface to accumulate formaldehyde. Neither the new nor aged polish contributed significantly to formaldehyde emissions. The VOC emission stream (excluding formaldehyde) was composed of up to 18 different chemicals and the total VOC emissions ranged in magnitude from 7 μg/m2/h (old wood with old polish) to >500 μg/m2/h (painted drywall). The formaldehyde emissions from drywall and old wood with either new or old polish were ~ 15 μg/m2/h while the new wood material emitted > 100 μg/m2/h. However, when the projected surface area of each material in the building was considered, the new wood, old wood and painted drywall material all contributed substantially to the indoor formaldehyde loading while the coatings contributed primarily to the VOCs

153

Opportunities for reducing volatile organic compound emissions in manufacturing office furniture partitions: a feasibility analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A feasibility analysis is reported of reduction opportunities for volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in manufacturing office furniture partitions. The pollution prevention (P2) methodology as defined by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment ... Keywords: emissions, manufacturing, office furniture, pollution prevention, volatile organic compound

Frank S. Luisser; Marc A. Rosen

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Asymptotic expansion for pricing options for a mean-reverting asset with multiscale stochastic volatility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work investigates the valuation of options when the underlying asset follows a mean-reverting log-normal process with a stochastic volatility that is driven by two stochastic processes with one persistent factor and one fast mean-reverting factor. ... Keywords: Mean reversion, Multiscale asymptotic, Option pricing, Stochastic volatility

Mei Choi Chiu; Yu Wai Lo; Hoi Ying Wong

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Volatility dynamics of the US business cycle: A multivariate asymmetric GARCH approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most empirical investigations of the business cycles in the United States have excluded the dimension of asymmetric conditional volatility. This paper analyses the volatility dynamics of the US business cycle by comparing the performance of various multivariate ... Keywords: Constant correlations, E32, E37, Index of industrial production, Multivariate asymmetric GARCH, US business cycle non-linearities, Varying-correlations

Kin-Yip Ho; Albert K. Tsui; Zhaoyong Zhang

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

System for loading executable code into volatile memory in a downhole tool  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for loading an executable code into volatile memory in a downhole tool string component comprises a surface control unit comprising executable code. An integrated downhole network comprises data transmission elements in communication with the surface control unit and the volatile memory. The executable code, stored in the surface control unit, is not permanently stored in the downhole tool string component. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the downhole tool string component comprises boot memory. In another embodiment, the executable code is an operating system executable code. Preferably, the volatile memory comprises random access memory (RAM). A method for loading executable code to volatile memory in a downhole tool string component comprises sending the code from the surface control unit to a processor in the downhole tool string component over the network. A central processing unit writes the executable code in the volatile memory.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Bartholomew, David B. (Springville, UT); Johnson, Monte L. (Orem, UT)

2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

157

Using futures prices to filter short-term volatility and recover a latent, long-term price series for oil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oil prices are very volatile. But much of this volatility seems to reflect short-term,transitory factors that may have little or no influence on the price in the long run. Many major investment decisions should be guided ...

Herce, Miguel Angel

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Regulation, Volatility and Efficiency in Continuous-Time Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the efficiency of markets with friction, particularly power markets. We model the market as a dynamic system with $(d_t;\\,t\\geq 0)$ the demand process and $(s_t;\\,t\\geq 0)$ the supply process. Using stochastic differential equations to model the dynamics with friction, we investigate the efficiency of the market under an integrated expected undiscounted cost function solving the optimal control problem. Then, we extend the setup to a game theoretic model where multiple suppliers and consumers interact continuously by setting prices in a dynamic market with friction. We investigate the equilibrium, and analyze the efficiency of the market under an integrated expected social cost function. We provide an intriguing efficiency-volatility no-free-lunch trade-off theorem.

Kizilkale, Arman C

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Detection of volatile organic compounds using surface enhanced Raman scattering  

SciTech Connect

The authors present the detection of volatile organic compounds directly in their vapor phase by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates based on lithographically-defined two-dimensional rectangular array of nanopillars. The type of nanopillars is known as the tapered pillars. For the tapered pillars, SERS enhancement arises from the nanofocusing effect due to the sharp tip on top. SERS experiments were carried out on these substrates using various concentrations of toluene vapor. The results show that SERS signal from a toluene vapor concentration of ppm level can be achieved, and the toluene vapor can be detected within minutes of exposing the SERS substrate to the vapor. A simple adsorption model is developed which gives results matching the experimental data. The results also show promising potential for the use of these substrates in environmental monitoring of gases and vapors.

Chang, A S; Maiti, A; Ileri, N; Bora, M; Larson, C C; Britten, J A; Bond, T C

2012-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

160

FLUORIDE VOLATILITY PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The separation and recovery of uraniunn from contaminants introduced by neutron irradiation by a halogenation and volatilization method are described. The irradiated uranium is dissolved in bromine trifluoride in the liquid phase. The uranium is converted to the BrF/sub 3/ soluble urmium hexafluoride compound whereas the fluorides of certain contaminating elements are insoluble in liquid BrF/sub 3/, and the reaction rate of the BrF/sub 3/ with certain other solid uranium contamirnnts is sufficiently slower than the reaction rate with uranium that substantial portions of these contaminating elements will remain as solids. These solids are then separated from the solution by a distillation, filtration, or centrifugation step. The uranium hexafluoride is then separated from the balance of the impurities and solvent by one or more distillations.

Katz, J.J.; Hyman, H.H.; Sheft, I.

1958-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "astm volatility specifications" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Residential pollutants and ventilation strategies: Volatile organic compounds and radon  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews literature that reports investigations of residential ventilation and indoor air quality. Two important residential pollutant classes, volatile organic compounds and radon, are examined. A companion paper examines moisture and combustion pollutants. Control strategies recommended from the review include appropriate building design to prevent or limit the sources of the pollutants within the space, proper operation and maintenance to prevent adverse conditions from developing during the building's life and appropriate use of ventilation. The characteristics of these pollutant sources suggest that ventilation systems in residences should have several properties. They should have the extra capacity available to reduce short bursts of pollution, be located close to the expected source of the contamination, and be inexpensive. Mitigation of radon is technically a major success using a form of task ventilation. Whole-house ventilation is, at best, a secondary form of control of excess radon in residences.

Grimsrud, D.T.; Hadlich, D.E.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Explanatory Factors and Causality in the Dynamics of Volatility Surfaces Implied from OTC Asian---Pacific Currency Options  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Volatility implied from observed option contracts systematically varies with the contracts' strike price and time to expiration, giving rise to an instantaneously non-flat implied volatility surface (IVS) that exhibits substantial time variation. We ... Keywords: Causality, Factor model, Implied volatility surfaces

Georgios Chalamandaris; Andrianos E. Tsekrekos

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Requirements and Specification Exemplars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Specification exemplars are familiar to most software engineering researchers. For instance, many will have encountered the well known library and lift problem statements, and will have seen one or more published specifications. Exemplars may serve ...

Martin S. Feather; Stephen Fickas; Anthony Finkelstein; Axel Van Lamsweerde

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Federal Reserve Bank of DallasTime-Varying Oil Price Volatility and Macroeconomic Aggregates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We illustrate the theoretical relation among output, consumption, investment, and oil price volatility in a real business cycle model. The model incorporates demand for oil by a firm, as an intermediate input, and by a household, used in conjunction with a durable good. We estimate a stochastic volatility process for the real price of oil over the period 1986-2011 and utilize the estimated process in a non-linear approximation of the model. For realistic calibrations, an increase in oil price volatility produces a temporary decrease in durable spending, while precautionary savings motives lead investment and real GDP to rise. Irreversible capital and durable investment decisions do not overturn this result.

Michael Plante; Michael Plante; Nora Traum; We Thank Ron Alquist; Sebnem Kalemli-ozcan; Junghoon Lee; James Murray

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Ethanol as Internal Standard for Quantitative Determination of Volatile Compounds in Spirit Drinks by Gas Chromatography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The new methodical approach of using ethanol as internal standard in gas chromatographic analysis of volatile compounds in spirit drinks in daily practice of testing laboratories is proposed. This method provides determination of volatile compounds concentrations in spirit drinks directly expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L) of absolute alcohol according to official methods without measuring of alcohol strength of analyzed sample. The experimental demonstration of this method for determination of volatile compounds in spirit drinks by gas chromatography is described. Its validation was carried out by comparison with experimental results obtained by internal standard method and external standard method.

Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Kulevich, Nikita V; Makoed, Nicolai M; Mazanik, Arkadzi L; Sytova, Svetlana N

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Predicting flammability of gas mixtures containing volatile organic compounds  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One requirement regarding the transportation of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste containers currently limits the total concentration of potentially flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and flammable gases in the headspace of the waste container. Typical VOCs observed in the drums include aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, alcohols, cyclohexane, as well as chlorinated hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes). Flammable gases, such as hydrogen and methane, may be generated in the containers by radiation-induced decomposition (radiolysis) of water and hydrocarbon waste forms. An experimental program was initiated to identify an accurate means for predicting flammability for gas mixtures containing one or more of the following species: hydrogen, carbon tetrachloride, 1,2-dichloroethane, toluene, or 2-butanone. The lower flammability limits (LFL) of gas mixtures containing equimolar quantity for each species were determined in a 19-liter laboratory flammability chamber using a strong spark ignition source. The group factor contribution method was determined to be more accurate than the LeChatelier method for estimating the LFL for these gas mixtures.

Liekhus, K. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Zlochower, I. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Research Lab.; Djordjevic, S.; Loehr, C. [Benchmark Environmental, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

167

Advanced heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from stationary industrial and commercial sources represent a substantial portion of the total US VOC emissions. The Toxic-Release Inventory'' of The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates this to be at about 3 billion pounds per year (1987 estimates). The majority of these VOC emissions are from coating processes, cleaning processes, polymer production, fuel production and distribution, foam blowing,refrigerant production, and wood products production. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) interest in the recovery of VOC stems from the energy embodied in the recovered solvents and the energy required to dispose of them in an environmentally acceptable manner. This Phase I report documents 3M's work in close working relationship with its subcontractor Nuclear Consulting Services (Nucon) for the preliminary conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of VOC. Nucon designed Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene from coating operations at 3M Weatherford, OK, was used as a base line for the work under cooperative agreement between 3M and ODE. See appendix A and reference (4) by Kovach of Nucon. This cooperative agreement report evaluates and compares an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for solvent recovery with other competing technologies for solvent recovery and reuse. This advanced Brayton cycle heat pump is simple (very few components), highly reliable (off the shelf components), energy efficient and economically priced.

Not Available

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Source Footprint Considerations in the Determination of Volatile Organic Compound Fluxes from Forest Canopies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Above-canopy sampling of trace gases to determine volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions should be interpreted in terms of footprint considerations. This can be accomplished by defining the upwind canopy areas effectively sampled under the ...

S. K. Kaharabata; P. H. Schuepp; J. D. Fuentes

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Nutritional Status of some Aromatic Plants Grown to Produce Volatile Oils under Treated Municipal Wastewater irrigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

any reduction in quantity and quality of volatile oils.on the quantity and quality of the essential oil for fiveon the quantity and quality of the essential oil of five

Khalifa, Ramadan Khalifa Mohamed

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Currency options volatility forecasting with shift-invariant wavelet transform and neural networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes four currency options volatility forecasting models. These models are based on shift-invariant wavelet transform and neural networks techniques. The trous algorithm is used to realize the shift-invariant wavelet transform. ...

Fan-Yong Liu; Fan-Xin Liu

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Customer Risk from Real-Time Retail Electricity Pricing: Bill Volatility and Hedgability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

then pay/receive the real- time price for deviations fromI assume that the retail real-time prices customers face arewould likely dampen real-time price volatility and the

Borenstein, Severin

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Electrospun Polyurethane Fibers for Absorption of Volatile Organic Compounds from Air  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrospun polyurethane fibers for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from air with rapid VOC absorption and desorption have been developed. Polyurethanes based on 4,4-methylenebis(phenylisocyanate) (MDI) and ...

Scholten, Elke

173

Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds Using Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry during the MILAGRO 2006 Campaign  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) on a rooftop in the urban mixed residential and industrial area North Northeast of downtown Mexico City as part of ...

Fortner, E. C.

174

A statistical analysis of the natural gas futures market : the interplay of sentiment, volatility and prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper attempts to understand the price dynamics of the North American natural gas market through a statistical survey that includes an analysis of the variables influencing the price and volatility of this energy ...

Fazzio, Thomas J. (Thomas Joseph)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Combustion of volatile matter during the initial stages of coal combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Both the secondary pyrolysis and combustion of the volatiles from a bituminous coal will be studied. Devolatilization and secondary pyrolysis experiments will be conducted in a novel flow reactor in which secondary pyrolysis of the volatiles occurs after devolatilization is complete. This allows unambiguous measurements of the yields from both processes. Measurements will be made for reactor temperatures from 1500 to 1700 K, and a nominal residence time of 200 msec. These conditions are typical of coal combustion. Yields of tar, soot, H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} hydrocarbons will be determined as a function of reactor temperature. The yields will be reported as a function of the temperature of the reactor. The instrumentation for temperature measurements will be developed during future studies. Combustion studies will be conducted in a constant volume bomb, which will be designed and constructed for this study. Tar and soot will be removed before introducing the volatiles to the bomb, so that only the combustion of the light gas volatiles will be considered. The burning velocities of light gas volatiles will be determined both as functions of mixture stoichiometry and the temperature at which the volatiles are pyrolysed. 90 refs., 70 figs., 13 tabs.

Marlow, D.; Niksa, S.; Kruger, C.H.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Tritium Specific Adsorption Simulation Utilizing the OSPREY Model  

SciTech Connect

During the processing of used nuclear fuel, volatile radionuclides will be discharged to the atmosphere if no recovery processes are in place to limit their release. The volatile radionuclides of concern are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I. Methods are being developed, via adsorption and absorption unit operations, to capture these radionuclides. It is necessary to model these unit operations to aid in the evaluation of technologies and in the future development of an advanced used nuclear fuel processing plant. A collaboration between Fuel Cycle Research and Development Offgas Sigma Team member INL and a NEUP grant including ORNL, Syracuse University, and Georgia Institute of Technology has been formed to develop off gas models and support off gas research. This report is discusses the development of a tritium specific adsorption model. Using the OSPREY model and integrating it with a fundamental level isotherm model developed under and experimental data provided by the NEUP grant, the tritium specific adsorption model was developed.

Veronica Rutledge; Lawrence Tavlarides; Ronghong Lin; Austin Ladshaw

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Concentrating aqueous volatile fatty acid salt solutions using a tertiary amine mixture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lee (1993) has shown that tertiary amines are able to hics. extract water from low-concentration calcium acetate and sodium acetate solutions. This thesis extends the previous work to include calcium propionate and butyrate. Amine extraction may be used to selectively remove water from a fermentation broth thus concentrating calcium acetate, propionate, and butyrate. Compared to competing technologies that extract undissociated acids from a volatile fatty acid fermentation broth, extracting water with tertiary amines allows for higher pH levels in the broth resulting in greater productivity. Specifically, triethylamine and N,N-diethyl-methylamine in a 1:2 volumetric mixture are superior to any other examined mixture or single amine for extracting water at 40[]C, the proposed fermentation temperature (Lee, 1993; Davison et al., 1966, 1967). Once the acid salts have been concentrated, a variety of techniques are available to convert the concentrated salts into other products such as ketones, alcohols, and acids. At low temperatures, the low-molecular-weight amine mixture has a high affinity for water. By raising the temperature 20 to 25[]C, the water separates from the amine allowing for convenient solvent regeneration of the amine. The distribution coefficients, [] , measure the selectivity of concentrating calcium salts in the aqueous phase. The distribution coefficients generally vary as follows: [] thus, there is less selectivity as the aliphatic group increases in size. The amine mixture was used to extract water from actual fermentation broth to determine whether possible surfactants in the broth interfere with the extraction. Prior to extraction, the fermentation broth was adjusted to pH 11.5 by adding a small amount of lime. The high pH precipitate protein which can be recycled to the fermentor or collected for animal feed. Through 15 extraction runs, no degradation of the amine was observed.

Gaskin, David J

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Sign Specification and Synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A description in terms of elementary primitives is proposed, in the view of sign language synthesis. Gradual combination leads to global sign specification. Grammatical inflexions are also taken into account in the sign hierarchic description built. ...

Olivier Losson; Jean-Marc Vannobel

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Gender-specific blood?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gender-specific blood? Name: Charlie Fuentes Age: NA Location: NA Country: NA Date: NA Question: Is a female human's blood thinner than a man's? What is the average temperature...

180

Specification-enhanced execution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Our goal is to provide a framework that allows the programmer to easily shift responsibility for certain aspects of the program execution to the runtime system. We present specification- enhanced execution, a programming ...

Yang, Jean, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "astm volatility specifications" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Realm Specific IP: Framework  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document examines the general framework of Realm Specific IP (RSIP). RSIP is intended as a alternative to NAT in which the end- to-end integrity of packets is maintained. We focus on implementation issues, deployment scenarios, and interaction ...

M. Borella; J. Lo; D. Grabelsky; G. Montenegro

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Specific light in sculpture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Specific light is defined as light from artificial or altered natural sources. The use and manipulation of light in three dimensional sculptural work is discussed in an historic and contemporary context. The author's work ...

Powell, John William

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Redesigning specificity in miniproteins  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work focuses on designing specific miniprotein interactions using computational models and then testing these designs with experiments. Miniproteins are small, autonomously-folding proteins that are excellent for ...

Taylor, Christina Marie

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Potential Signatures of Semi-volatile Compounds Associated With Nuclear Processing  

SciTech Connect

Semi-volatile chemicals associated with nuclear processes (e.g., the reprocessing of uranium to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons, or the separation of actinides from processing waste streams), can provide sticky residues or signatures that will attach to piping, ducting, soil, water, or other surface media. Volatile compounds, that are more suitable for electro-optical sensing, have been well studied. However, the semi-volatile compounds have not been well documented or studied. A majority of these semi-volatile chemicals are more robust than typical gaseous or liquid chemicals and can have lifetimes of several weeks, months, or years in the environment. However, large data gaps exist concerning these potential signature compounds and more research is needed to fill these data gaps so that important signature information is not overlooked or discarded. This report investigates key semi-volatile compounds associated with nuclear separations, identifies available chemical and physical properties, and discusses the degradation products that would result from hydrolysis, radiolysis and oxidation reactions on these compounds.

Probasco, Kathleen M.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Maughan, A. D.

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Specific Group Hardware  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Specific Group Hardware Specific Group Hardware Specific Group Hardware ALICE palicevo1 The Virtual Organization (VO) server. Serves as gatekeeper for ALICE jobs. It's duties include getting assignments from ALICE file catalog (at CERN), submitting jobs to pdsfgrid (via condor) which submits jobs to the compute nodes, monitoring the cluster work load, and uploading job information to ALICE file catalog. It is monitored with MonALISA (the monitoring page is here). It's made up of 2 Intel Xeon E5520 processors each with 4 cores (16 virtual cores with hyperthreading). The total local disk space is 1.9 TB. It is running Scientific Linux SL release 5.5 (Boron) and is disk booted. It is in rack 17. palicevo2 The Virtual Organization (VO) server testbed. It's a Dell PowerEdge R410 with 2 Intel Xeon E5520 processors, each with 4 cores (16 virtual cores

186

Development of mirror specifications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The work performed by PNL for Sandia Laboratories under a contract titled Survey and Analysis of Mirror Silvering Technology and Heliostat Glass Evaluation is described. The primary purpose for the work was to develop specifications that will enhance the durability and lifetime of heliostat mirrors. The contract was initiated with a technical survey of the present commercial silvered glass mirror industry and an analytical investigation of the degradation phenomena experienced by the heliostat mirrors at Sandia's Livermore test facility. The main thrust was to evaluate the present methods of silver deposition and protection in order to recommend a specification for the heliostat mirror silvering process that would extend the lifetime of the Barstow mirror field. In addition, several advanced concepts for enhancing mirror lifetime were investigated. Technical and measurement support for evaluation of the Barstow heliostat glass and updating the glass specification was also provided. (WHK)

Lind, M.A.

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

New Approach to Assess Volatile Contamination in Vadose Zone Provides Path  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Approach to Assess Volatile Contamination in Vadose Zone Approach to Assess Volatile Contamination in Vadose Zone Provides Path Forward for Site Closure New Approach to Assess Volatile Contamination in Vadose Zone Provides Path Forward for Site Closure April 24, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Conceptual site model for evaluating soil vapor extraction system performance to determine if the system should be optimized, terminated, or transitioned to another approach. Conceptual site model for evaluating soil vapor extraction system performance to determine if the system should be optimized, terminated, or transitioned to another approach. RICHLAND, Wash. and LOS ALAMOS, N.M. - Through the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI), scientists and engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation

188

Volatility of HCl and the thermodynamics of brines during brine dryout  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Laboratory measurements of liquid-vapor partitioning (volatility) of chlorides from brines to steam can be used to indicate the potential for corrosion problems in geothermal systems. Measurements of volatilities of solutes in chloride brines have established a possible mechanism for the production of high-chloride steam from slightly acidic high temperature brines. Questions concerning the fate of NaCl in the steam production process have been addressed through extensive measurements of its volatility from brines ranging in concentration from dilute solutions to halite saturation. Recent measurements of chloride partitioning to steam over brines in contact with Geysers rock samples are consistent with our concept of the process for production of high-chloride steam.

Simonson, J.M.; Palmer, D.A.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Proposed Technical Specification Amendment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This letter provides the final revised Technical Specification (TS) pages for the subject proposed TS amendment. In Reference 1 Duke Energy requested an amendment to the Catawba Nuclear Station Facility Operating Licenses and Technical Specifications (TS). The proposed amendment revises various TS that are affected by the revised heatup, cooldown, critically, and inservice test pressure and temperature (P/T) limits for the reactor coolant system (RCS) of each unit. The proposed amendment also revised the TS requirements for the low temperature overpressure protection (LTOP) system for each unit. www. duke-energy. corn

D. M. Jamil; Duke Power

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Method for removing volatile components from a ceramic article, and related processes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of removing substantially all of the volatile component in a green, volatile-containing ceramic article is disclosed. The method comprises freezing the ceramic article; and then subjecting the frozen article to a vacuum for a sufficient time to freeze-dry the article. Frequently, the article is heated while being freeze-dried. Use of this method efficiently reduces the propensity for any warpage of the article. The article is often formed from a ceramic slurry in a gel-casting process. A method for fabricating a ceramic core used in investment casting is also described.

Klug, Frederic Joseph (Schenectady, NY); DeCarr, Sylvia Marie (Waterford, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Thermal engine driven heat pump for recovery of volatile organic compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for separating volatile organic compounds from a stream of process gas. An internal combustion engine drives a plurality of refrigeration systems, an electrical generator and an air compressor. The exhaust of the internal combustion engine drives an inert gas subsystem and a heater for the gas. A water jacket captures waste heat from the internal combustion engine and drives a second heater for the gas and possibly an additional refrigeration system for the supply of chilled water. The refrigeration systems mechanically driven by the internal combustion engine effect the precipitation of volatile organic compounds from the stream of gas.

Drake, Richard L. (Schenectady, NY)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Method For Removing Volatile Components From A Gel-Cast Ceramic Article  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of removing substantially all of the volatile component in a green, volatile-containing ceramic article is disclosed. The method comprises freezing the ceramic article; and then subjecting the frozen article to a vacuum for a sufficient time to freeze-dry the article. Frequently, the article is heated while being freeze-dried. Use of this method efficiently reduces the propensity for any warpage of the article. The article is often formed from a ceramic slurry in a gel-casting process. A method for fabricating a ceramic core used in investment casting is also described.

Klug, Frederic Joseph (Schenectady, NY); DeCarr, Sylvia Marie (Schenectady, NY)

2004-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

193

Detection and classification of volatile organic compounds using Indium Tin Oxide sensor array and artificial neural network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article reveals the novel approach of fabricating Indium Tin Oxide thin films grown on glass substrate at 648 K temperatures using direct evaporation method for detection of small concentration volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their ... Keywords: ANNs, ITO thin films, VOC mixtures, VOCs, artificial neural networks, direct evaporation, indium tin oxide, sensor arrays, thin film sensors, volatile organic compounds

H. J. Pandya

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Integration of organic insulator and self-assembled gold nanoparticles on Si MOSFET for novel non-volatile memory cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have fabricated a hybrid non-volatile gold nanoparticle floating-gate memory metal insulator semiconductor field effect transistor (MISFET) device combining silicon technology and organic thin film deposition. The nanoparticles are deposited by chemical ... Keywords: hybrid Silicon-organic memory, nanocrystal memory, nanoparticles, non-volatile memory

S. Kolliopoulou; P. Dimitrakis; P. Normand; H.-L. Zhang; N. Cant; S. D. Evans; S. Paul; C. Pearson; A. Molloy; M. C. Petty; D. Tsoukalas

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

SPECIFIC HEAT INDICATOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for continuously and automatically measuring and computing the specific heat of a flowing solution is described. The invention provides for the continuous measurement of all the parameters required for the mathematical solution of this characteristic. The parameters are converted to logarithmic functions which are added and subtracted in accordance with the solution and a null-seeking servo reduces errors due to changing voltage drops to a minimum. Logarithmic potentiometers are utilized in a unique manner to accomplish these results.

Horn, F.L.; Binns, J.E.

1961-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Field Test to Demonstrate Real-Time In-Situ Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Field Test to Demonstrate Real-Time In-Situ Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds Hazmat Spill Center, Nevada Test Site September 19-25, 2001 Clifford K. Ho Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque-filled 55- gallon drum at the Hazmat Spill Center at the Nevada Test Site. Background and Objectives Tens

Ho, Cliff

197

Optimising Flash non-volatile memory using machine learning: a project overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While near ubiquitous, the physical principles of Flash memory mean that its performance degrades with use. During fabrication and operation, its ability to be repeatedly programmed/erased (endurance) needs to be balanced with its ability to store information ... Keywords: Flash memory, endurance, machine learning, memory performance optimisation, non-volatile memory, retention

Tom Arbuckle; Damien Hogan; Conor Ryan

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Linear driving force models for dynamic adsorption of volatile organic compound traces by porous adsorbent beds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Models for the dynamic adsorption of volatile organic compound (VOC) traces in air are considered. They are based on the linear driving force approximation associated with various adsorption isotherms characteristic of the couple VOC-adsorbent (Langmuir, ... Keywords: Comsol, Dubinin-Astakhov isotherm, Dynamic adsorption modelling, Finite element

Agns Joly; Alain Perrard

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Behavior of Aqueous Electrolytes in Steam Cycles: The Solubility and Volatility of Cupric Oxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uncontrolled copper transport activity represents a potentially significant source of performance and reliability loss to fossil plants with mixed-metallurgy feedwater systems. Recent utility experiences with severe copper turbine fouling and other related problems identified the need for basic fundamental research to improve industry understanding of the volatility and solubility of copper and its oxides.

2000-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

200

PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS BY STRICTLY ANAEROBIC BACTERIA IN THE DIGESTIVE TRACT OF GNOTOXENIC MICE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SUMMARY PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS BY STRICTLY ANAEROBIC BACTERIA IN THE DIGESTIVE TRACT OF « GNOTOXENIC » MICE. INHIBITORY EFFECT ON SHIGELLA FLEXNERI Various strains of strictly anaerobic bacteria of holoxenic animals, were implanted in the digestive tract of axenic mice. The in vivo production of VFA

Recanati, Catherine

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "astm volatility specifications" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Oxidation, volatilization, and redistribution of molybdenum from TZM alloy in air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The excellent high temperature strength and thermal conductivity of molybdenum-base alloys provide attractive features for components in advanced magnetic and inertial fusion devices. Refractory metal alloys react readily with oxygen and other gases. Oxidized molybdenum in turn is susceptible to losses from volatile molybdenum trioxide species, MoO{sub 3}(m), in air and the hydroxide, MoO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}, formed from water vapor. Transport of radioactivity by the volatilization, migration, and re-deposition of these volatile species during a potential accident involving a loss of vacuum or inert environment represents a safety issue. In this report the authors present experimental results on the oxidation, volatilization and re-deposition of molybdenum from TZM in flowing air between 400 and 800 C. These results are compared with calculations obtained from a vaporization mass transfer model using chemical thermodynamic data for vapor pressures of MoO{sub 3}(g) over pure solid MoO{sub 3} and an expression for the vapor pressures of MoO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2} from the literature. Calculations correlate well with experimental data.

Smolik, G.R.; Petti, D.A.; McCarthy, K.A.; Schuetz, S.T.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Oxidation, Volatilization, and Redistribution of Molybdenum from TZM Alloy in Air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The excellent high temperature strength and thermal conductivity of molybdenum-base alloys provide attractive features for components in advanced magnetic and inertial fusion devices. Refractory metal alloys react readily with oxygen and other gases. Oxidized molybdenum in turn is susceptible to losses from volatile molybdenum trioxide species, (MoO3)m, in air and the hydroxide, MoO2(OH)2, formed from water vapor. Transport of radioactivity by the volatilization, migration, and re-deposition of these volatile species during a potential accident involving a loss of vacuum or inert environment represents a safety issue. In this report we present experimental results on the oxidation, volatilization and re-deposition of molybdenum from TZM in flowing air between 400 and 800C. These results are compared with calculations obtained from a vaporization mass transfer model using chemical thermodynamic data for vapor pressures of MoO3(g) over pure solid MoO3 and an expression for the vapor pressures of MoO2(OH)2 from the literature. Calculations correlate well with experimental data.

Smolik, Galen Richard; Petti, David Andrew; Mccarthy, Kathryn Ann; Schuetz, Stanley Thomas

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Bayesian Modelling Volatility of Growth Rate in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric gases, such as carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, nitrous oxide, and etc., create a natural greenhouse effect and cause climate change. Therefore, modelling behavior of these gases could help policy makers to control greenhouse effects. In a ... Keywords: Stochastic volatility, Smooth transition autoregressive, Markov chain Monte Carlo, methods, Bayesian, ARCH, GARCH

Esmail Amiri

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

EFFECT OF O2 ON SIC VOLATILIZATION RATE. R.A. Mendybaev1,3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

previous work on the volatilization rate of SiC in reducing gases [1, 2] was restricted to IW-2.8 and IW-6 us to estimate lifetimes of interstellar SiC grains (several months at 1200¡C) in a gas of solar lifetimes of inter- stellar SiC grains were significantly different from those we calculated previously

Grossman, Lawrence

205

Analyzing and Forecasting Volatility Spillovers, Asymmetries and Hedging in Major Oil Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Crude oil price volatility has been analyzed extensively for organized spot, forward and futures markets for well over a decade, and is crucial for forecasting volatility and Value-at-Risk (VaR). There are four major benchmarks in the international oil market, namely West Texas Intermediate (USA), Brent (North Sea), Dubai/Oman (Middle East), and Tapis (Asia-Pacific), which are likely to be highly correlated. This paper analyses the volatility spillover and asymmetric effects across and within the four markets, using three multivariate GARCH models, namely the constant conditional correlation (CCC), vector ARMA-GARCH (VARMA-GARCH) and vector ARMA-asymmetric GARCH (VARMA-AGARCH) models. A rolling window approach is used to forecast the 1-day ahead conditional correlations. The paper presents evidence of volatility spillovers and asymmetric effects on the conditional variances for most pairs of series. In addition, the forecast conditional correlations between pairs of crude oil returns have both positive and negative trends. Moreover, the optimal hedge ratios and optimal portfolio weights of crude oil across different assets and market portfolios are evaluated in order to provide important policy implications for risk management in crude oil markets.

Chia-lin Chang; Michael Mcaleer; Roengchai Tansuchat; Chia-lin Chang; Michael Mcaleer; Roengchai Tansuchat

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

A room temperature CuO nanowire sensor for organic volatile gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CuO nanowires have been synthesised by the thermal method in 100% oxygen ambient at 600C. Gas sensing property has been examined by measuring the resistance change of the materials to 1% of butane gas and 1% of ethanol vapour separately under the ... Keywords: copper oxide (CuO) nanowires, room temperature gas sensor and organic volatile gas

C. F. Dee; T. Y. Tiong; M. M. Salleh; M. M. Yahya; B. Y. Majlis

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Volatile impurities in the ceramic form for the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP)  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal for the impurity tests performed at SRS was to determine the maximum level of volatile impurities that can be accommodated into the ceramic form without significantly affecting product properties. The properties investigated in this study are the apparent porosity and the phase assemblage.

Cozzi, A.D.

2000-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

208

Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High Performance Building  

SciTech Connect

The developers of the Paharpur Business Center (PBC) and Software Technology Incubator Park in New Delhi, India offer an environmentally sustainable building with a strong emphasis on energy conservation, waste minimization and superior indoor air quality (IAQ). To achieve the IAQ goal, the building utilizes a series of air cleaning technologies for treating the air entering the building. These technologies include an initial water wash followed by ultraviolet light treatment and biolfiltration using a greenhouse located on the roof and numerous plants distributed throughout the building. Even with the extensive treatment of makeup air and room air in the PBC, a recent study found that the concentrations of common volatile organic compounds and aldehydes appear to rise incrementally as the air passes through the building from the supply to the exhaust. This finding highlights the need to consider the minimization of chemical sources in buildings in combination with the use of advanced air cleaning technologies when seeking to achieve superior IAQ. The goal of this project was to identify potential source materials for indoor chemicals in the PBC. Samples of building materials, including wood paneling (polished and unpolished), drywall, and plastic from a hydroponic drum that was part of the air cleaning system, were collected from the building for testing. All materials were collected from the PBC building and shipped to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for testing. The materials were pre-conditioned for two different time periods before measuring material and chemical specific emission factors for a range of VOCs and Aldehydes. Of the six materials tested, we found that the highest emitter of formaldehyde was new plywood paneling. Although polish and paint contribute to some VOC emissions, the main influence of the polish was in altering the capacity of the surface to accumulate formaldehyde. Neither the new nor aged polish contributed significantly to formaldehyde emissions. The VOC emission stream (excluding formaldehyde) was composed of up to 18 different chemicals and the total VOC emissions ranged in magnitude from 7 mu g/m2/h (old wood with old polish) to>500 mu g/m2/h (painted drywall). The formaldehyde emissions from drywall and old wood with either new or old polish were ~;;15 mu g/m2/h while the new wood material emitted>100 mu g/m2/h. However, when the projected surface area of each material in the building was considered, the new wood, old wood and painted drywall material all contributed substantially to the indoor formaldehyde loading while the coatings contributed primarily to the VOCs.

Ortiz, Anna C.; Russell, Marion; Lee, Wen-Yee; Apte, Michael; Maddalena, Randy

2010-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

209

NETL: Ambient Monitoring - Contribution of Semi-volatile Organic Material  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project In a collaborative effort between ChemImage Biothreat, LLC and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project will acquire the ability to discern between chemical/biological threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. The project will focus on potential background interferences, specifically from the ambient backgrounds collected at NETL-supported ambient air collection facilities. Potential substrate interferences such as pollen, insecticides and industrial PM will be addressed. Using Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) and fluorescence chemical imaging, a background - void of pathogen spores - will be collected and compared to known pathogens. Interactions causing possible false positives will be identified and studied. This study would systematically identify potential problems and provide a baseline of ambient particulates found in the mid-eastern United States .

210

"Building Energy Data Exchange Specification"  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Building Energy Data Exchange Specification" "Version 2.3" "applicationvnd.ms-excel" "Overview:" "This document describes the DOE Building Energy Data Exchange Specification...

211

Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). One method is a thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented in an engine test cell with a spark ignited direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. SIDI is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency compared to other SI engines, however, the efficiency benefit comes with greater PM emissions and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based PM regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition.

Matthias, Nicholas; Farron, Carrie; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Michael; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul M.; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun S.; Zelenyuk, Alla

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Extraction Utility Design Specification  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Extraction Extraction Utility Design Specification May 13, 2013 Document Version 1.10 1 Revision History Date Version Section and Titles Author Summary of Change January 15, 2010 1.0 All Eric Morgan, Dekker, Ltd. Initial Draft Document January 19, 2010 1.1 All Igor Pedan, Dekker, Ltd. Document update with EM team review notes January 20, 2010 1.2 2.1.1 EM Project Team Document Review January 27, 2010 1.3 All Bruce Bartells Final Draft Review May 10, 2010 1.4.1 2.8 Igor Pedan, Dekker, Ltd. Section Update May 14, 2010 1.4.2 2.3.1 Igor Pedan, Dekker, Ltd. System Tables Added May 17, 2010 1.4.3 2.3 Igor Pedan, Dekker, Ltd. Enhancements Update June 29, 2010 1.5 All Igor Pedan, Dekker, Ltd. Revised for Version

213

Small-Chamber Measurements of Chemical-Specific Emission Factors for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small-Chamber Measurements of Chemical-Specific Emission Factors for Small-Chamber Measurements of Chemical-Specific Emission Factors for Drywall Title Small-Chamber Measurements of Chemical-Specific Emission Factors for Drywall Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2010 Authors Maddalena, Randy L., Marion L. Russell, Moya Melody, and Michael G. Apte Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract Imported drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. To support an investigation of those building materials by the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) measured chemical-specific emission factors for 30 samples of drywall materials. Emission factors are reported for 75 chemicals and 30 different drywall samples encompassing both domestic and imported stock and incorporating natural, synthetic, or mixed gypsum core material. CPSC supplied all drywall materials. First the drywall samples were isolated and conditioned in dedicated chambers, then they were transferred to small chambers where emission testing was performed. Four sampling and analysis methods were utilized to assess (1) volatile organic compounds, (2) low molecular weight carbonyls, (3) volatile sulfur compounds, and (4) reactive sulfur gases. LBNL developed a new method that combines the use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) with small emission chambers to measure the reactive sulfur gases, then extended that technique to measure the full suite of volatile sulfur compounds. The testing procedure and analysis methods are described in detail herein. Emission factors were measured under a single set of controlled environmental conditions. The results are compared graphically for each method and in detailed tables for use in estimating indoor exposure concentrations

214

Measurement of plutonium and americium volatilities under thermal process conditions. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have used the transpiration method to measure volatilities of Pu and Am from PuO{sub 2}(s) and PuO{sub 2}/2% AmO{sub 2}(s) in the presence of steam and oxygen at temperatures of 1230--1430 K. We find the volatile species to be PuO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g) and AmO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g) at vapor pressures on the order of 10{sup {minus}10} atm and 10 {sup {minus}12} atm respectively under measurement conditions. For the Pu volatilization reaction, PuO{sub 2}(s) + 1/2 0{sub 2}(9) + H{sub 2}0(g) = PuO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g), we obtain a free energy of reaction of {Delta}G{sup O}{sub T} = 231.3--0.0109 T in kj/mol, and for the Am volatilization reaction, AmO{sub 2}(s.s. in PuO{sub 2}) + 1/2 0{sub 2}(9) + H{sub 2}0(g) = AmO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g), we obtain AG{sup O}{sub T} = 223.9--0.0109 T in kj/mol. We apply these results to the Rocky Flats Plant Fluidized Bed Incinerator to assess the amount of volatile Pu and Am produced in the secondary combustor chamber. Taking operating conditions of 550C combustor temperature, 40 kmols/h of total gas flow at 1 atm pressure, 0.1 atm 0{sub 2}(9), 0.05 atm H{sub 2}0(g), PuO{sub 2} (s) containing 200 ppm AmO{sub 2} in the bed, and 6000 h of operating time per year, gives volatilization rates of 7 {times} 10 {sup {minus}6}g Pu and 4 {times} 10 {sup {minus}9}g Am/y.

Krikorian, O.H.; Condit, R.H.; Fontes, A.S. Jr.; Fleming, D.L.; Magana, J.W.; Morris, W.F.; Adamson, M.G.

1993-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

215

ALDEHYDE AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICAL EMISSIONS IN FOUR FEMA TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS ? FINAL REPORT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four unoccupied FEMA temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess their indoor emissions of volatile organic compounds including formaldehyde. Measurement of whole-THU VOC and aldehyde emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of floor area) for each of the four THUs were made at FEMA's Purvis MS staging yard using a mass balance approach. Measurements were made in the morning, and again in the afternoon in each THU. Steady-state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 378 mu g m-3 (0.31ppm) to 632 mu g m-3 (0.52 ppm) in the AM, and from 433 mu g m-3 (0.35 ppm) to 926 mu g m-3 (0.78 ppm) in the PM. THU air exchange rates ranged from 0.15 h-1 to 0.39 h-1. A total of 45 small (approximately 0.025 m2) samples of surface material, 16 types, were collected directly from the four THUs and shipped to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The material samples were analyzed for VOC and aldehyde emissions in small stainless steel chambers using a standard, accurate mass balance method. Quantification of VOCs was done via gas chromatography -- mass spectrometry and low molecular weight aldehydes via high performance liquid chromatography. Material specific emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of material) were quantified. Approximately 80 unique VOCs were tentatively identified in the THU field samples, of which forty-five were quantified either because of their toxicological significance or because their concentrations were high. Whole-trailer and material specific emission factors were calculated for 33 compounds. The THU emission factors and those from their component materials were compared against those measured from other types of housing and the materials used in their construction. Whole THU emission factors for most VOCs were typically similar to those from comparative housing. The three exceptions were exceptionally large emissions of formaldehyde and TMPD-DIB (a common plasticizer in vinyl products), and somewhat elevated for phenol. Of these three compounds, formaldehyde was the only one with toxicological significance at the observed concentrations. Whole THU formaldehyde emissions ranged from 173 to 266 mu g m-2 h 1 in the morning and 257 to 347 mu g m-2 h-1 in the afternoon. Median formaldehyde emissions in previously studied site-built and manufactured homes were 31 and 45 mu g m-2 h-1, respectively. Only one of the composite wood materials that was tested appeared to exceed the HUD formaldehyde emission standard (430 mu g/m2 h-1 for particleboard and 130 mu g/m2 h-1 for plywood). The high loading factor (material surface area divided by THU volume) of composite wood products in the THUs and the low fresh air exchange relative to the material surface area may be responsible for the excessive concentrations observed for some of the VOCs and formaldehyde.

Salazar, Olivia; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Apte, Michael G.

2008-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

216

National 2010-2011 Survey of E85: CRC Project E-85-2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study examined the quality of E85 fuel around the country in each of the three volatility classes identified in ASTM D5798-10. Samples were collected from pumps in 21 states between July 2010 and May 2011, with almost 40 samples collected in each class. Parameters tested to assess fuel quality were volatility, ethanol content, water content, acidity, pHe, inorganic chloride and sulfate, and total sulfate. Class 1 samples more often met the volatility specification than samples from other classes, with 67% of the samples collected in this study meeting the specification. Samples in Classes 2 and 3 met the applicable volatility specifications on 43% and 30% of the time, respectively. Compliance with the ethanol specification was almost 90% in all three volatility classes, a significant improvement over previous surveys. Several samples that would have been off-specification for ethanol content under previous versions of the specification now met the specification with the reduction in ethanol content for all classes. A few samples were off-specification for pHe, acidity, water, and inorganic chloride. Few samples were off-specification for more than one property, and samples that were off-specification in one volatility class were not necessarily off-specification in the other two classes.

Alleman, T. L.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Extraction Utility Design Specification  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Extraction Utility Extraction Utility Design Specification January 11, 2011 Document Version 1.9 1 Revision History Date Version Section and Titles Author Summary of Change January 15, 2010 1.0 All Eric Morgan, Dekker, Ltd. Initial Draft Document January 19, 2010 1.1 All Igor Pedan, Dekker, Ltd. Document update with EM team review notes January 20, 2010 1.2 2.1.1 EM Project Team Document Review January 27, 2010 1.3 All Bruce Bartells Final Draft Review May 10, 2010 1.4.1 2.8 Igor Pedan, Dekker, Ltd. Section Update May 14, 2010 1.4.2 2.3.1 Igor Pedan, Dekker, Ltd. System Tables Added May 17, 2010 1.4.3 2.3 Igor Pedan, Dekker, Ltd. Enhancements Update June 29, 2010 1.5 All Igor Pedan, Dekker, Ltd. Revised for Version 8.0.20100628 July 14, 2010 1.5.1 2.8 Igor Pedan,

218

ADANS database specification  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Air Mobility Command (AMC) Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) Database Specification (DS) is to describe the database organization and storage allocation and to provide the detailed data model of the physical design and information necessary for the construction of the parts of the database (e.g., tables, indexes, rules, defaults). The DS includes entity relationship diagrams, table and field definitions, reports on other database objects, and a description of the ADANS data dictionary. ADANS is the automated system used by Headquarters AMC and the Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC) for airlift planning and scheduling of peacetime and contingency operations as well as for deliberate planning. ADANS also supports planning and scheduling of Air Refueling Events by the TACC and the unit-level tanker schedulers. ADANS receives input in the form of movement requirements and air refueling requests. It provides a suite of tools for planners to manipulate these requirements/requests against mobility assets and to develop, analyze, and distribute schedules. Analysis tools are provided for assessing the products of the scheduling subsystems, and editing capabilities support the refinement of schedules. A reporting capability provides formatted screen, print, and/or file outputs of various standard reports. An interface subsystem handles message traffic to and from external systems. The database is an integral part of the functionality summarized above.

1997-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

219

Energy Efficient Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants (o-HAPs) from Industrial Waste Streams by Direct Electron Oxidation  

SciTech Connect

This research program investigated and quantified the capability of direct electron beam destruction of volatile organic compounds and organic hazardous air pollutants in model industrial waste streams and calculated the energy savings that would be realized by the widespread adoption of the technology over traditional pollution control methods. Specifically, this research determined the quantity of electron beam dose required to remove 19 of the most important non-halogenated air pollutants from waste streams and constructed a technical and economic model for the implementation of the technology in key industries including petroleum refining, organic & solvent chemical production, food & beverage production, and forest & paper products manufacturing. Energy savings of 75 - 90% and green house gas reductions of 66 - 95% were calculated for the target market segments.

Testoni, A. L.

2011-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

220

Study of volatile organic compound emissions from consumer and commercial products. Economic incentives to reduce VOC emissions from consumer and commercial products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The report presents a preliminary assessment of the feasibility and desirability of employing Federal economic incentive programs to reduce volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from the use of consumer and commercial products. The principal tasks of the study are to examine alternative economic incentives and to compare them to a hypothetical command-and-control program, VOC content standards, which would consist of product-specific limitations on maximum VOC content (grams of VOC per unit of product). It is the basis of comparison because the ultimate purpose of this investigation is to search for the most desirable instrument in the set of potential instruments, which obviously would include instruments based on command-and-control. The purposes of comparison are to determine how well the instruments accomplish certain policy objectives and to appraise their ability to cope with the complexities inherent in the task of environmental regulation.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "astm volatility specifications" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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221

Hydrogen Geysers: Explanation for Observed Evidence of Geologically Recent Volatile-Related Activity on Mercury's Surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High resolution images of Mercury's surface, from the MESSENGER spacecraft, reveal many bright deposits associated with irregular, shallow, rimless depressions whose origins were attributed to volatile-related activity, but absent information on the nature and origin of that volatile matter. Here I describe planetary formation, unlike the cited models, and show that primordial condensation from an atmosphere of solar composition at pressures of one atmosphere or above will lead to iron condensing as a liquid and dissolving copious amounts of hydrogen, which is subsequently released as Mercury's core solidifies and escapes from the surface, yielding the observed pit-like features with associated highly-reflecting matter. The exiting hydrogen chemically reduces some iron compound, probably iron sulfide, to the metal, which accounts for the bright deposits.

J. Marvin Herndon

2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

222

The role of non-volatile memory from an application perspective  

SciTech Connect

Current, emerging, and future NVM (non-volatile memory) technologies give us hope that we will be able to architect HPC (high performance computing) systems that initially use them in a memory and storage hierarchy, and eventually use them as the memory and storage for the system, complete with ownership and protections as a HDD-based (hard-disk-drive-based) file system provides today.

Kettering, Brett M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nunez, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

223

Deep Frying: Chemistry, Nutrition and Practical ApplicationsChapter 4 Volatile Odor and Flavor Components Formed in Deep Frying  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deep Frying: Chemistry, Nutrition and Practical Applications Chapter 4 Volatile Odor and Flavor Components Formed in Deep Frying Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Bioch

224

Embedding domain-specific modelling languages in maude specifications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose an approach for embedding Domain-Specific Modelling Languages (DSML) into Maude, based on representing models and metamodels as Maude specifications, and on representing operational semantics and model transformations as computable functions/relations ...

Vlad Rusu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Commissioning Specifications | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Specifications Specifications Commissioning Specifications October 16, 2013 - 4:44pm Addthis Commissioning specifications outline basic requirements of the commissioning process and detail the roles and responsibilities of each party involved. System checklists, startup requirements, and performance testing procedures are typically included in the specifications to let contractors know what standards are required during the various testing phases involved throughout the commissioning process. Since renewable energy technologies are changing and developing rapidly, it is critical to have the commissioning specifications developed by a well-informed resource with up-to-date renewable energy expertise. This resource must also have a thorough understanding of how renewable energy

226

SG Network System Requirements Specification  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SG Network System Requirements Specification SG Network System Requirements Specification Interim Release 3 5/17/2010 - 2 - Table of Contents Document History ....................................................................................................................................... - 3 - Revision History .......................................................................................................................................... - 3 - Preface........................................................................................................................................................ - 4 - Authors........................................................................................................................................................ - 6 -

227

Executable specifications for Java programs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, we present a unified environment for running declarative specifications in the context of an imperative object-oriented programming language. Specifications are Alloy-like, written in first-order relational ...

Milicevic, Aleksandar, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Steam Boiler Control Specification Problem:  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Our solution to the specification problem in the specification language TLA+ is based on a model of operation where several components proceed synchronously. Our first specification concerns a simplified controller and abstracts from many details given in the informal problem description. We successively add modules to build a model of the state of the steam boiler, detect failures, and model message transmission. We give a more detailed controller specification and prove that it refines the abstract controller. We also address the relationship between the physical state of the steam boiler and the model maintained by the controller and discuss the reliability of failure detection. Finally, we discuss the implementability of our specification.

Tla Solution Frank; Frank Le Ke; Stephan Merz

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Predicted concentrations in new relocatable classrooms of volatile organic compounds emitted from standard and alternate interior finish materials  

SciTech Connect

Relocatable classrooms (RCs) are widely employed by California school districts to satisfy rapidly expanding space requirements due to population growth and class size reduction policies. There is public concern regarding indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in schools, particularly in RCs, but very little data to support or dispel these concerns. Several studies are investigating various aspects of IEQ in California schools. This laboratory-based study focused on evaluating the emissions of toxic and/or odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, from materials used to finish the interiors of new RCs. Furthermore, the study implemented a procedure for VOC source reduction by testing and selecting lower-emitting materials as substitutes for standard materials. In total, 17 standard and alternate floor coverings, wall panels and ceiling panels were quantitatively tested for emissions of VOCs using smallscale environmental chambers. Working with the largest northern California manufacturer of conventional RCs and two school districts, specifications were developed for four new RCs to be produced in early summer 2001. Two of these will be predominantly finished with standard materials. Alternate carpet systems, an alternate wall panel covering and an alternate ceiling panel were selected for the two other RCs based on the results of the laboratory study and considerations of cost and anticipated performance and maintenance. Particular emphasis was placed on reducing the concentrations of VOCs on California agency lists of toxic compounds. Indoor concentrations of toxic and odorous VOCs were estimated for the four classrooms by mass balance using the measured VOC emission factors, exposed surface areas of the materials in the RCs, and three ventilation rate scenarios. Results indicate that reductions in the concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde phenol, di(ethylene glycol) butyl ether, vinyl acetate, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone should be achieved as the result of the source reduction procedure.

Hodgson, Alfred T.; Fisk, William J.; Shendell, Derek G.; Apte, Michael G.

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

A property based specification formalism classification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Specification formalisms may be classified through some common properties. Specification formalism classification may be used as a basis for the evaluation of the adequacy of formal specification languages within specific application domains. System ... Keywords: Classification, Specification formalism, Specification properties

Amir A. Khwaja; Joseph E. Urban

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Oxidation of volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. Final technical report, September 1980-February 1984  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this project are to measure, through the use of laboratory combustors, those conditions which promote complete combustion of wood volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. The conditions of interest are combustion temperature, residence time, stoichiometry, and air mixing. The project objectives are met through two laboratory approaches: (1) model compound studies: in order to measure the overall rates of oxidative pyrolysis of biomass volatiles, and to determine the types of intermediate organic species which are likely to form as part of this process, model compounds have been reacted in a specialized jet-stirred reactor, which has been developed as part of this research. (2) high-intensity wood combustion: in order to study the clean combustion of wood, that is, to investigate the conceptual design features required for clean burning, and to ascertain the levels and types of pollutant and condensible species which are most difficult to oxidize, a high-intensity, research wood combustor has been developed and examined for the different phases of the wood burning cycle. Although the objectives of the project have been met, it has not been possible, because of support limitations, to thoroughly explore several interesting aspects which have arisen because of this research. For example, a third laboratory system in which wood pyrolysis gas is injected directly into the a well characterized reactor, so that the kinetics and mechanisms of the gas-phase reaction of the actual biomass volatiles can be studied, could not be thoroughly developed. Refinements in the high-intensity wood combustor, which would bring its design features closer to practicality for the industry, could not be considered. 32 references, 37 figures, 10 tables.

Malte, P.C.; Thornton, M.M.; Kamber, P.D.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Freeway Short-Term Traffic Flow Forecasting by Considering Traffic Volatility Dynamics and Missing Data Situations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Short-term traffic flow forecasting is a critical function in advanced traffic management systems (ATMS) and advanced traveler information systems (ATIS). Accurate forecasting results are useful to indicate future traffic conditions and assist traffic managers in seeking solutions to congestion problems on urban freeways and surface streets. There is new research interest in short-term traffic flow forecasting due to recent developments in ITS technologies. Previous research involves technologies in multiple areas, and a significant number of forecasting methods exist in literature. However, forecasting reliability is not properly addressed in existing studies. Most forecasting methods only focus on the expected value of traffic flow, assuming constant variance when perform forecasting. This method does not consider the volatility nature of traffic flow data. This paper demonstrated that the variance part of traffic flow data is not constant, and dependency exists. A volatility model studies the dependency among the variance part of traffic flow data and provides a prediction range to indicate the reliability of traffic flow forecasting. We proposed an ARIMA-GARCH (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average- AutoRegressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity) model to study the volatile nature of traffic flow data. Another problem of existing studies is that most methods have limited forecasting abilities when there is missing data in historical or current traffic flow data. We developed a General Regression Neural Network(GRNN) based multivariate forecasting method to deal with this issue. This method uses upstream information to predict traffic flow at the studied site. The study results indicate that the ARIMA-GARCH model outperforms other methods in non-missing data situations, while the GRNN model performs better in missing data situations.

Zhang, Yanru

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Volatilized tritiated water vapor in the vicinity of exposed tritium contaminated groundwater  

SciTech Connect

Water vapor tritium concentrations in air above a known source of tritiated water can be estimated. Estimates should account for the mechanisms of evaporation and condensation at the water surface and water species exchange, and are typically applicable under a broad range of wind, temperature and humidity conditions. An estimate of volatilized tritium water vapor was made for a known outcropping of tritium contaminated groundwater at the Savannah River Site (SRS) old F-Area effluent stream. In order to validate this estimate and the associated dose calculation, sampling equipment was fabricated, tested, and installed at the effluent stream. The estimate and the dose calculation were confirmed using data from samples collected.

Dunn, D.L.; Carlton, B.; Hunter, C.; McAdams, T.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

The effect of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide mixing ratios on the emission of Volatile organic compounds from Corymbia citriodora and Tristaniopsis laurina.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Bibliography: p. 120-124. Introduction Environmental factors affecting the emission of biogenic Volatile organic compounds Materials and experimental procedures Quantification using sold-phase microextraction (more)

Camenzuli, Michelle

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Specifications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Light Source Xenon flash lamp, 3-year warranty (5 years typical lifetime ... 17.8 cm (7 in) diagonal Operating System Microsoft Windows XP embedded ...

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

236

pmm.vp  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

API API Gravity: An arbitrary scale expressing the gravity or density of liquid petroleum products. The measuring scale is calibrated in terms of degrees API; it may be calculated in terms of the following formula: Degrees API sp gr F o = - 1415 60 1315 . . . @ . The higher the API gravity, the lighter the compound. Light crudes generally exceed 38 degrees API and heavy crudes are commonly labeled as all crudes with an API gravity of 22 degrees or below. Intermediate crudes fall in the range of 22 degrees to 38 degrees API gravity. ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials. Aviation Gasoline (Finished): A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in aviation reciprocating engines. Fuel specifications are provided in ASTM Specification D 910 and Military Specification MIL-G-5572. Note: Data

237

Investigation of tearing instability phenomena in ASTM A106 steel  

SciTech Connect

An experimental investigation was performed to evaluate tearing instability theory by varying the applied tearing modulus, T/sub applied/, so that fracture instability would be initiated at various levels of stable crack extension. This is an extension of past investigations of tearing instability theory in that crack extension was monitored continuously using the dc potential drop technique, enabling the applied and material tearing moduli to be calculated at the point of instability. The results of this investigation indicate that, in most cases, fracture instability occurred when the difference between the applied and material tearing moduli was on the order of 10%. Variations in the load versus displacement records of the specimens near maximum load due to local instabilities and friction in the load train precluded measurement of a smooth applied tearing modulus curve.

Link, R.E.; Hays, R.A.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Sequence VE Test(ASTM D 5302) FIELD SERVICE SIMULATED  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, cylinder walls, and oil pan. Inspect for "hot" stuck piston compression rings. Rate clogging of oil pump Maximum cam wear (µm), maximum 380 Oil ring clogging, percent maximum 15 (report only, limit waved) Oil housing, cylinder block, and oil pan. Rate varnish deposits on piston skirts, rocker arm cover, cam baffle

Chapman, Clark R.

239

1 Comments of ASTM International FR Doc. 2010-30864 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... agency (and even within different sub- units ... International joined the International Code Council; the ... Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE); the US ...

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

240

Hanford Site environmental management specification  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) uses this Hanford Site Environmental Management Specification (Specification) to document top-level mission requirements and planning assumptions for the prime contractors involved in Hanford Site cleanup and infrastructure activities under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management. This Specification describes at a top level the activities, facilities, and infrastructure necessary to accomplish the cleanup of the Hanford Site and assigns this scope to Site contractors and their respective projects. This Specification also references the key National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), and safety documentation necessary to accurately describe the cleanup at a summary level. The information contained in this document reflects RL`s application of values, priorities, and critical success factors expressed by those involved with and affected by the Hanford Site project. The prime contractors and their projects develop complete baselines and work plans to implement this Specification. These lower-level documents and the data that support them, together with this Specification, represent the full set of requirements applicable to the contractors and their projects. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this Specification to the other basic Site documents. Similarly, the documents, orders, and laws referenced in this specification represent only the most salient sources of requirements. Current and contractual reference data contain a complete set of source documents.

Grygiel, M.L.

1998-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "astm volatility specifications" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Unit Testing of Z Specifications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a simple framework for validation unit testing of Z specifications, and illustrate this framework by testing the first few levels of a POSIX specification. The tests are written in standard Z, and are executable by the CZT animator, ZLive.

Mark Utting; Petra Malik

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Conditional Correlations and Volatility Spillovers Between Crude Oil and Stock Index Returns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: This paper investigates the conditional correlations and volatility spillovers between crude oil returns and stock index returns. Daily returns from 2 January 1998 to 4 November 2009 of the crude oil spot, forward and futures prices from the WTI and Brent markets, and the FTSE100, NYSE, Dow Jones and S&P500 index returns, are analysed using the CCC model of Bollerslev (1990), VARMA-GARCH model of Ling and McAleer (2003), VARMA-AGARCH model of McAleer, Hoti and Chan (2008), and DCC model of Engle (2002). Based on the CCC model, the estimates of conditional correlations for returns across markets are very low, and some are not statistically significant, which means the conditional shocks are correlated only in the same market and not across markets. However, the DCC estimates of the conditional correlations are always significant. This result makes it clear that the assumption of constant conditional correlations is not supported empirically. Surprisingly, the empirical results from the VARMA-GARCH and VARMA-AGARCH models provide little evidence of volatility spillovers between the crude oil and financial markets. The evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive shocks of equal magnitude on the conditional variances suggests that VARMA-AGARCH is superior to VARMA-GARCH and

Roengchai Tansuchat; Chia-lin Chang; Michael Mcaleer; Roengchai Tansuchat; Chia-lin Chang; Michael Mcaleer

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Summary Short?Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Energy Price Volatility and Forecast Uncertainty 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is often noted that energy prices are quite volatile, reflecting market participants adjustments to new information from physical energy markets and/or markets in energyrelated financial derivatives. Price volatility is an indication of the level of uncertainty, or risk, in the market. This paper describes how markets price risk and how the marketclearing process for risk transfer can be used to generate price bands around observed futures prices for crude oil, natural gas, and other commodities. These bands provide a quantitative measure of uncertainty regarding the range in which markets expect prices to trade. The Energy Information Administrations (EIA) monthly Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) publishes base case projections for a variety of energy prices that go out 12 to 24 months (every January the STEO forecast is extended through December of the following year). EIA has recognized that all price forecasts are highly uncertain and has described the uncertainty by identifying the market factors that may significantly move prices away from their expected paths, such as economic growth, Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) behavior, geo-political events, and hurricanes.

unknown authors

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Pyrolysis of Sunnyside (Utah) tar sand: Characterization of volatile compound evolution  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sunnyside (Utah) tar sand was subjected to programmed temperature pyrolysis and the volatile products were detected by tandem on-line mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in real time analyses. A heating rate of 4/degree/C/min from room temperature to 900/degree/C was employed. Evolution of hydrogen, light hydrocarbons, nitrogen-, sulfur- and oxygen-containing compounds was monitored by MS or MS/MS detection. Evolution of volatile organic compounds occurred in two regimes: 1) low temperature (maximum evolution at 150 to 175/degree C), corresponding to entrained organics, and 2) high temperature (maximum evolution at 440 to 460/degreeC), corresponding to cracking of large organic components. Pyrolysis yields were dominated by the evolution of light hydrocarbons. Alkanes and alkenes of two carbons and higher had temperatures of maximum evolution at approximately 440/degree/C, and methane at approximately 474/degree/C. Aromatic hydrocarbons had temperatures of maximum evolution slightly higher, at approximately 450/degree/C. In general, H/sub2/, CO, and CO/sub2/ exhibited evolution associated with hydrocarbon cracking reactions, and high temperature evolution associated with mineral decomposition, the water-gas shift reaction, and gasification reactions. Compared to other domestic tar sands, the gas evolution relected more mineral decomposition character for Sunnyside tar sand. 26 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Reynolds, J.G.; Crawford, R.W.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

VEHICLE DETAILS AND BATTERY SPECIFICATIONS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Page 1 of 6 VEHICLE DETAILS AND BATTERY SPECIFICATIONS 1 Vehicle Details Base Vehicle: 2013 Chevrolet Volt VIN: 1G1RA6E40DU103929 Propulsion System: Multi-Mode PHEV (EV, Series,...

246

VEHICLE DETAILS AND BATTERY SPECIFICATIONS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Page 1 VEHICLE DETAILS AND BATTERY SPECIFICATIONS 1 Vehicle Details Base Vehicle: 2011 Chevrolet Volt VIN: 1G1RD6E48BU100815 Propulsion System: Multi-Mode PHEV (EV, Series, and...

247

Cell Data Sheet Specification (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The presentation shows a brief status report on the development of a specification being considered by IEC TC82 WG7 for a concentrator cell data sheet and solicits suggestions from the community.

Kurtz, S.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Position Paper on Practicable Performance Criteria for the Removal Efficiency of Volatile Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

As a result of fuel reprocessing, volatile radionuclides may be released from the facility stack if no processes are put in place to remove them. The radionuclides that are of concern in this document are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I. The question we attempted to answer is how efficient must this removal process be for each of these radionuclides? To answer this question, we examined the three regulations that may impact the degree to which these radionuclides must be reduced before process gases can be released from the facility. These regulations are 40 CFR 61 (EPA 2010a), 40 CFR 190(EPA 2010b), and 10 CFR 20 (NRC 2012). These regulations apply to the total radionuclide release and to a particular organ - the thyroid. Because these doses can be divided amongst all the radionuclides in different ways and even within the four radionuclides in question, we provided several cases. We first looked at the inventories for these radionuclides for three fuel types (PWR UOX, PWR MOX, and AHTGR), several burn-up values, and time out of reactor extending to 200 y. We calculated doses to the maximum exposed individual (MEI) with the EPA code CAP-88 (Rosnick 1992). Finally, we looked at two dose cases. Allocating all of the allowable dose to be used by the volatile radionuclides is one case, but, perhaps, unrealistic. In lieu of this, we arbitrarily selected a value of 10% of the allowable dose to be assigned to the volatile radionuclides. We calculated the required decontamination factors (DFs) for both of these cases, including the case for the thyroid dose for which 14C and 129I were the main contributors. With respect to 129I doses, we found that the highest dose was calculated with iodine as a fine particulate. The dose scaled as the fraction of the total 129I that was particulate. Therefore, we assumed for all of our calculations that 100% of the 129I was particulate and allow the user of the results given here to scale our calculated doses to their needs.

R. T. Jubin; N. Soelberg; D. M. Strachan

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

CHANGES IN MOISTURE, CARBON, NITROGEN, SULPHUR, VOLATILES, AND CALORIFIC VALUE OF MISCANTHUS DURING TORREFACTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Torrefaction tests were carried out on miscanthus samples in order to understand the changes in chemical composition at temperatures of 250350C and residence times of 30120 minutes. The raw material chemical composition was moisture content 7.97%, moisture-free carbon (C) 47.73%, hydrogen (H) 5.85%, nitrogen (N) 0.28%, sulphur (S) 0.02%, volatiles (V) 83.29% for volatiles, and moisture and ash-free (MAF) calorific value (CV) 8423 BTU/lb (19.59 MJ/kg). Torrefaction at temperatures of 250C and residence time of 30 minutes resulted in a significant decrease in moisture by about 82.68%, but the other components, C, H, N, S, and V changed only marginally. Increasing the torrefaction temperature to 350C and residence time to 120 minutes further reduced the moisture to a final value of 0.54% (a 93.2% reduction compared to original) and also resulted in a significant decrease in the other components, H, N, and V by 58.29%, 14.28%, and 70.45%, respectively. The carbon content at 350C and 120 minutes increased by about 4% and sulfur values were below detection limits. The calorific values increased by about 5.59% at 250C and 30 minutes, whereas at 350C and 120 minutes, the increase was much greater (about 75.61%) and resulted in a maximum degree of carbonization of 1.60. The H/C ratio decreased with an increase in torrefaction temperature, where a minimum value of 0.6 was observed at 350C and 120 minutes. The regression equations developed with respect to torrefaction temperature and times have adequately described the changes in chemical composition. The surface plots developed based on the regression equations indicate that torrefaction temperatures of 300350C and residence times of 30120 minutes residence time can help to increase carbon content, calorific value, and degree of carbonization to > 49.4%, >11,990 BTU/lb (27 MJ/kg), and 1.4, and reduce moisture, nitrogen, volatile, and the H/C ratio to 0.5250.725, 2.93.9, 0.2250.235, and <1.4.

Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Richard Boardman; Christopher Wright; John Heintzelman

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Glossary API Gravity: An  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 60 60 131 5 . . The higher the API gravity, the lighter the compound. Light crudes generally exceed 38 degrees API and heavy crudes are commonly labeled as all crudes with an API gravity of 22 degrees or below. Intermediate crudes fall in the range of 22 degrees to 38 degrees API gravity. ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials. Aviation Gasoline (Finished): A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in aviation reciprocating engines. Fuel specifi- cations are provided in ASTM Specification D 910 and Military Specification MIL-G-5572. Note: Data on blending components are not counted in data on fin- ished aviation gasoline. Barrel: A volumetric unit of measure for crude oil and petroleum products equivalent to 42 U.S. gallons. Bulk Sales: Wholesale sales of gasoline in individual

251

untitled  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 60 60 1315 . . The higher the API gravity, the lighter the com- pound. Light crudes generally exceed 38 degrees API and heavy crudes are commonly labeled as all crudes with an API gravity of 22 degrees or below. Interme- diate crudes fall in the range of 22 degrees to 38 de- grees API gravity. ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials. Aviation Gasoline (Finished): A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in aviation reciprocating engines. Fuel specifications are provided in ASTM Specifica- tion D 910 and Military Specification MIL-G-5572. Note: Data on blending components are not counted in data on finished aviation gasoline. Barrel: A volumetric unit of measure for crude oil and petroleum products equivalent to 42 U.S. gal- lons. Bulk Sales: Wholesale sales of gasoline in individual

252

Glossary API Gravity: An  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

60 60 1315 . . The higher the API gravity, the lighter the compound. Light crudes generally exceed 38 degrees API and heavy crudes are commonly labeled as all crudes with an API gravity of 22 degrees or below. Intermediate crudes fall in the range of 22 degrees to 38 degrees API gravity. ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials. Aviation Gasoline (Finished): A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in aviation reciprocating engines. Fuel specifi- cations are provided in ASTM Specification D 910 and Military Specification MIL-G-5572. Note: Data on blending components are not counted in data on fin- ished aviation gasoline. Barrel: A volumetric unit of measure for crude oil and petroleum products equivalent to 42 U.S. gallons. Bulk Sales: Wholesale sales of gasoline in individual

253

untitled  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 60 60 131 5 . . The higher the API gravity, the lighter the com- pound. Light crudes generally exceed 38 degrees API and heavy crudes are commonly labeled as all crudes with an API gravity of 22 degrees or below. Interme- diate crudes fall in the range of 22 degrees to 38 de- grees API gravity. ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials. Aviation Gasoline (Finished): A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in aviation reciprocating engines. Fuel specifications are provided in ASTM Specifica- tion D 910 and Military Specification MIL-G-5572. Note: Data on blending components are not counted in data on finished aviation gasoline. Barrel: A volumetric unit of measure for crude oil and petroleum products equivalent to 42 U.S. gal- lons. Bulk Sales: Wholesale sales of gasoline

254

untitled  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

measur- measur- ing scale is calibrated in terms of degrees API; it may be calculated in terms of the following formula: Deg API sp gr degF degF = - 1415 60 60 1315 . . The higher the API gravity, the lighter the compound. Light crudes generally exceed 38 degrees API and heavy crudes are commonly labeled as all crudes with an API gravity of 22 degrees or below. Intermediate crudes fall in the range of 22 degrees to 38 degrees API gravity. ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials. Aviation Gasoline (Finished): A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in aviation reciprocating engines. Fuel specifi- cations are provided in ASTM Specification D 910 and Military Specification MIL-G-5572. Note: Data on blending components are not counted in data on fin- ished aviation gasoline. Barrel: A volumetric

255

RESIDENTIAL WEATHERIZATION SPECIFICATIONS August 30, 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RESIDENTIAL WEATHERIZATION SPECIFICATIONS August 30, 2011 Index to Sections Section Page I. GENERAL............................................................................................35 #12;1 I. GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS 1. These specifications apply to existing residential (retro

256

NMED COMMENTS ITEM 3 REVISE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) TARGET ANALYTE LIST  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 NMED COMMENTS ITEM 3 REVISE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) TARGET ANALYTE LIST OTHER CHANGES TO VOC MONITORING PROGRAM Page 1 of 21 VOC 3·1: PMR Section 3, Topic 1, Table 1 Recalculated Waste Matrix Code Group Weighting Factors based on the 2004 Compliance Recertification Contact Handled (CH) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Inventory (m 3 ) The new weighting factors appear to be based on CH TRU waste only and do not include remote handled (RH) TRU waste. There was no discussion in the PMR addressing possible differences in Waste Matrix Code Group (WMCG) for RH TRU that could potentially impact the weighting factors. Please provide data characterizing the differences in emissions between the two types of waste, in support of the assertion that modeling data from CH TRU waste adequately

257

Technology projects for characterization--monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One hundred thirty technology project titles related to the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at an arid site are listed alphabetically by first contact person in a master compilation that includes phone numbers, addresses, keywords, and short descriptions. Separate tables are presented for 62 field-demonstrated, 36 laboratory-demonstrated, and 35 developing technology projects. The technology projects in each of these three categories are also prioritized in separate summary tables. Additional tables are presented for a number of other categorizations of the technology projects: In Situ; Fiberoptic; Mass Spectrometer; Optical Spectroscopy; Raman or SERS; Ion Mobility or Acoustic; Associated; and Commercial. Four lists of contact person names are provided so details concerning the projects that deal with sampling, and VOCs in gases, waters, and soils (sediments) can be obtained. Finally, seven wide-ranging conclusions based on observations and experiences during this work are presented.

Junk, G.A.; Haas, W.J. Jr.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Modeling Volatile Species Retention Experiments: Interim Progress Report (M3FT-12LA0202053)  

SciTech Connect

Metal nuclear fuel is a candidate transmutation fuel form for advanced fuel cycles. One constituent of the fuel, americium, has a high vapor pressure, and there is a concern that excessive volatility losses of americium will occur during casting of the metal. A number of experiments have been performed using americium and surrogate metals, including experiments slated for FY12, to address the concern. The present task is to model and numerically simulate these experiments. This report describes a system-level model of the relevant experiments that has been developed together with some results. It also describes some initial 3D, full-physics simulations of portions of the experiments that have been performed.

Carlson, Neil N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

259

EVALAUATION OF THE COMPONENTS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF VOLATILE OIL FROM ZANTHOXYLUMLIMONELLA FRUIT.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Essential oils constitute a relatively common group of natural products present in aromatic medicinal plants. They are volatile liquids usually with pleasant and sometimes intensive odors (aroma).Essential oils are well known for its activity in lungs related diseases.They maintained the ventilation and drainage of the sinuses, had an antiinflammatory effect on the trachea 5 and reduced asthma.The essential oil isolated from Zanthoxylumlimonellawere proved a large number of compounds. Many compounds were detected and proved by previous workers, some of them yet to be identified and screened.Traditional usage of the plant indicates various uses even some are contradictory.In the present study showed that the oil is moderately active against grampositive and significantly no action against gram-negative. KEY WORDS:,Gram-positive, Zanthoxylumlimonella,Gram-negative Essential oil.

Arunkumark. V; M. Paridhavi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

VOLATILE TRANSPORT INSIDE SUPER-EARTHS BY ENTRAPMENT IN THE WATER-ICE MATRIX  

SciTech Connect

Whether volatiles can be entrapped in a background matrix composing planetary envelopes and be dragged via convection to the surface is a key question in understanding atmospheric fluxes, cycles, and composition. In this paper, we consider super-Earths with an extensive water mantle (i.e., water planets), and the possibility of entrapment of methane in their extensive water-ice envelopes. We adopt the theory developed by van der Waals and Platteeuw for modeling solid solutions, often used for modeling clathrate hydrates, and modify it in order to estimate the thermodynamic stability field of a new phase called methane filled ice Ih. We find that in comparison to water ice VII the filled ice Ih structure may be stable not only at the high pressures but also at the high temperatures expected at the core-water mantle transition boundary of water planets.

Levi, A.; Podolak, M. [Department of Geophysics and Planetary Science, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Sasselov, D., E-mail: amitlevi.planetphys@gmail.com [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "astm volatility specifications" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

ACTION CONCENTRATION FOR MIXTURES OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOC) & METHANE & HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Waste containers may contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs), methane, hydrogen and possibly propane. These constituents may occur individually or in mixtures. Determining if a waste container contains a flammable concentration of flammable gases and vapors (from VOCs) is important to the safety of the handling, repackaging and shipping activities. This report provides the basis for determining the flammability of mixtures of flammable gases and vapors. The concentration of a mixture that is at the lowest flammability limit for that mixture is called the action concentration. The action concentration can be determined using total VOC concentrations or actual concentration of each individual VOC. The concentrations of hydrogen and methane are included with the total VOC or individual VOC concentration to determine the action concentration. Concentrations below this point are not flammable. Waste containers with gas/vapor concentrations at or above the action concentration are considered flammable.

MARUSICH, R.M.

2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

262

1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Comparison of sampling methods for semi-volatile organic carbonAssociated with PM2.5  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates the influence of denuder sampling methods and filter collection media on the measurement of semi-volatile organic carbon (SVOC) associated with PM2.5. Two types of collection media, charcoal (activated carbon) and XAD, were used both in diffusion denuders and impregnated back-up filters in two different samplers, the VAPS and the PC-BOSS. The two organic diffusion denuders were XAD-coated glass annular denuders and charcoal-impregnated cellulose fiber filter(CIF) denuders. In addition, recently developed XAD-impregnated quartz filters were compared to CIF filters as back-up filter collection media. The two denuder types resulted in equivalent measurement of particulate organic carbon and particle mass. The major difference observed between the XAD and charcoal BOSS denuders is the higher efficiency of charcoal for collection of more volatile carbon. This more volatile carbon does not contribute substantially to the particle mass or SVOC measured as OC on quartz filters downstream of the denuders. This volatile carbon does result in high OC concentrations observed in charcoal filters placed behind quartz filters downstream of the XAD denuders and would result in overestimating the SVOC in that configuration.

Lewtas, Joellen; Booth, Derrick; Pang, Yanbo; Reimer, Steve; Eatough, Delbert J.; Gundel, Lara A.

2001-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

264

A General, Cryogenically-Based Analytical Technique for the Determination of Trace Quantities of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analytical technique for the determination of trace (sub-ppbv) quantities of volatile organic compounds in air was developed. A liquid nitrogen-cooled trap operated at reduced pressures in series with a Dupont Nafion-based drying tube and a ...

Randolph A. Coleman; Wesley R. Cofer III; Robert A. Edahl Jr.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractions of Gasoline and Diesel Emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Little is known about the relative health hazards presented by emissions from in-use gasoline and diesel engines. Adverse health effects have been ascribed to engine emissions on the basis of: (1) the presence of known toxic agents in emissions; (2) high-dose animal and bacterial mutagenicity tests; and (3) studies indicating gradients of health effects with proximity to roadways. Most attention has been given to the particulate fraction of emissions; little attention has been given to the semi-volatile organic fraction. However, the semi-volatile fraction overlaps the particulate fraction in composition and is always present in the vicinity of fresh emissions. Although the potential health effects of diesel emissions have been frequently studied and debated during the past 20 years (EPA, 2002), relatively little attention has been given to the toxicity of emissions from gasoline engines. In view of the considerable progress in cleaning up diesel emissions, it would be useful to compare the toxicity of emissions from contemporary on-road diesel technology with that of emissions from the in-use gasoline fleet that is well-accepted by the public. It would also be useful to have a set of validated tests for rapid, cost-effective comparisons of the toxicity of emission samples, both for comparisons among competing technologies (e.g., diesel, gasoline, natural gas) and for determining the impacts of new fuel, engine, and after-treatment strategies on toxicity. The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has sponsored research aimed at developing and applying rapid-response toxicity tests for collected emission samples (Seagrave et al., 2000). This report presents selected results from that work, which is being published in much greater detail in the peer-reviewed literature (Seagrave et al., 2002).

Mauderly, Joe; Seagrave, JeanClare; McDonald, Jacob; Gigliotti,Andrew; Nikula, Kristen; Seilkop, Steven; Gurevich, Michael

2002-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

266

Methodology for Formulating Diesel Surrogate Fuels with Accurate Compositional, Ignition-Quality, and Volatility Characteristics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, a novel approach was developed to formulate surrogate fuels having characteristics that are representative of diesel fuels produced from real-world refinery streams. Because diesel fuels typically consist of hundreds of compounds, it is difficult to conclusively determine the effects of fuel composition on combustion properties. Surrogate fuels, being simpler representations of these practical fuels, are of interest because they can provide a better understanding of fundamental fuel-composition and property effects on combustion and emissions-formation processes in internal-combustion engines. In addition, the application of surrogate fuels in numerical simulations with accurate vaporization, mixing, and combustion models could revolutionize future engine designs by enabling computational optimization for evolving real fuels. Dependable computational design would not only improve engine function, it would do so at significant cost savings relative to current optimization strategies that rely on physical testing of hardware prototypes. The approach in this study utilized the state-of-the-art techniques of {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the advanced distillation curve to characterize fuel composition and volatility, respectively. The ignition quality was quantified by the derived cetane number. Two well-characterized, ultra-low-sulfur No.2 diesel reference fuels produced from refinery streams were used as target fuels: a 2007 emissions certification fuel and a Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel fuel. A surrogate was created for each target fuel by blending eight pure compounds. The known carbon bond types within the pure compounds, as well as models for the ignition qualities and volatilities of their mixtures, were used in a multiproperty regression algorithm to determine optimal surrogate formulations. The predicted and measured surrogate-fuel properties were quantitatively compared to the measured target-fuel properties, and good agreement was found.

Mueller, C. J.; Cannella, W. J.; Bruno, T. J.; Bunting, B.; Dettman, H. D.; Franz, J. A.; Huber, M. L.; Natarajan, M.; Pitz, W. J.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Wright, K.

2012-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

267

Specification of Ontologies in CASL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. In this paper we present methods to generate a Description Logic (DL) theory from a given First Order Logic (FOL) theory, such that each DL axiom is entailed by the given FOL theory. This is obtained by transforming the given FOL formulas. If this method is applied to an ontology specification in FOL, the resulting

Klaus Lttich

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Computer-specific metrics for the regulation and load following ancillary services  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In competitive electricity markets, the costs for each ancillary service should be charged to those who cause the costs to be incurred with charges based on the factors that contribute to these costs. For example, the amount of generating capacity assigned to the regulation service is a function of the short-term volatility of system load. Therefore, the charges for regulation should be related to the volatility of each load, not to its average demand. This report discusses the economic efficiency and equity benefits of assessing charges on the basis of customer-specific costs (rather than the traditional billing determinants, MWh or MW), focusing on two key real-power ancillary services, regulation and load following. The authors determine the extent to which individual customers and groups of customers contribute to the system's generation requirements for these two services. In particular, they analyze load data to determine whether some customers account for shares of these two services that differ substantially from their shares of total electricity consumption.

Kirby, B.; Hirst, E.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Materials Standards for Additive Manufacturing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... ASTM F2924 Standard Specification for Additive Manufacturing Titanium-6 Aluminum-4 Vanadium with Powder Bed Fusion) except for standards ...

2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

270

Substation Energy Storage Product Specification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This substation energy storage specification is intended to facilitate utility procurement of large grid-connected electrical energy storage systems that would typically be connected at medium voltage at distribution substations. Few utilities have experience with devices of this type, and industry practices are not extensively developed. Therefore, this update report may be used as a guide to suppliers of these devices (who may be unfamiliar with utility practices) as well as distribution utilities ...

2012-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

271

Project X functional requirements specification  

SciTech Connect

Project X is a multi-megawatt proton facility being developed to support intensity frontier research in elementary particle physics, with possible applications to nuclear physics and nuclear energy research, at Fermilab. A Functional Requirements Specification has been developed in order to establish performance criteria for the Project X complex in support of these multiple missions. This paper will describe the Functional Requirements for the Project X facility and the rationale for these requirements.

Holmes, S.D.; Henderson, S.D.; Kephart, R.; Kerby, J.; Mishra, S.; Nagaitsev, S.; Tschirhart, R.; /Fermilab

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Duke Edwardsport Generic Design Specification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This generic design specification (GDS) is sponsored by the CoalFleet for Tomorrow program of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The CoalFleet Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Design Guidelines Experts Group produced this report, which is based on available public sources and information. The CoalFleet IGCC Design Guidelines Experts Group consists of more than 10 IGCC experts, including independent consultants and EPRI staff.

2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

273

Specific test and evaluation plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system`s performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a ``lower tier`` document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP) This STEP encompasses all testing activities required to demonstrate compliance to the project design criteria as it relates to the modifications of the AN-A valve pit. The Project Design Specifications (PDS) identify the specific testing activities required for the Project. Testing includes Validations and Verifications (e.g., Commercial Grade Item Dedication activities), Factory Acceptance Tests (FATs), installation tests and inspections, Construction Acceptance Tests (CATs), Acceptance Test Procedures (ATPs), Pre-Operational Test Procedures (POTPs), and Operational Test Procedures (OTPs). It should be noted that POTPs are not required for testing of the modifications to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit. The STEP will be utilized in conjunction with the TEP for verification and validation.

Hays, W.H.

1997-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

274

Improved Predictions of Carbon Tetrachloride Contaminant Flow and Transport: Implementation of Kinetic Volatilization and Multicomponent NAPL Behavior  

SciTech Connect

Carbon tetrachloride (CT) was discharged to waste sites that are included in the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit in Hanford 200 West Area. Fluor Hanford, Inc. is conducting a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit. The RI/FS process and remedial investigations for the 200-PW-1, 200 PW-3, and 200-PW-6 Operable Units are described in the Plutonium/Organic-Rich Process Condensate/Process Waste Groups Operable Unit RI/FS Work Plan. As part of this overall effort, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted to improve the STOMP simulator (White and Oostrom, 2006) by incorporating kinetic volatilization of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPL) and multicomponent flow and transport. This work supports the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) efforts to characterize the nature and distribution of CT in the 200 West Area and subsequently select an appropriate final remedy. Previous numerical simulation results with the STOMP simulator have overestimated the effect of soil vapor extraction (SVE) on subsurface CT, showing rapid removal of considerably more CT than has actually been recovered so far. These previous multiphase simulations modeled CT mass transfer between phases based on equilibrium partitioning. Equilibrium volatilization can overestimate volatilization because mass transfer limitations present in the field are not considered. Previous simulations were also conducted by modeling the NAPL as a single component, CT. In reality, however, the NAPL mixture disposed of at the Hanford site contained several non-volatile and nearly insoluble organic components, resulting in time-variant fluid properties as the CT component volatilized or dissolved over time. Simulation of CT removal from a DNAPL mixture using single-component DNAPL properties typically leads to an overestimation of CT removal. Other possible reasons for the discrepancy between observed and simulated CT mass removal during SVE are differences between the actual and simulated (1) SVE flow rates, (2) fluid-media properties, and (3) disposal history (volumes, rates, and timing). In this report, numerical implementation of kinetic volatilization and multicomponent DNAPL flow and transport into the STOMP simulator (White and Oostrom, 2006) is described. The results of several test cases are presented and explained. The addition of these two major code enhancements increases the ability of the STOMP simulator to model complex subsurface flow and transport processes involving CT at the Hanford site.

Oostrom, Martinus; Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.

2008-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

275

Methodology for Formulating Diesel Surrogate Fuels with Accurate Compositional, Ignition-Quality, and Volatility Characteristics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, a novel approach was developed to formulate surrogate fuels having characteristics that are representative of diesel fuels produced from real-world refinery streams. Because diesel fuels typically consist of hundreds of compounds, it is difficult to conclusively determine the effects of fuel composition on combustion properties. Surrogate fuels, being simpler representations of these practical fuels, are of interest because they can provide a better understanding of fundamental fuel-composition and property effects on combustion and emissions-formation processes in internal-combustion engines. In addition, the application of surrogate fuels in numerical simulations with accurate vaporization, mixing, and combustion models could revolutionize future engine designs by enabling computational optimization for evolving real fuels. Dependable computational design would not only improve engine function, it would do so at significant cost savings relative to current optimization strategies that rely on physical testing of hardware prototypes. The approach in this study utilized the stateof- the-art techniques of 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the advanced distillation curve to characterize fuel composition and volatility, respectively. The ignition quality was quantified by the derived cetane number. Two wellcharacterized, ultra-low-sulfur #2 diesel reference fuels produced from refinery streams were used as target fuels: a 2007 emissions certification fuel and a Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel fuel. A surrogate was created for each target fuel by blending eight pure compounds. The known carbon bond types within the pure compounds, as well as models for the ignition qualities and volatilities of their mixtures, were used in a multiproperty regression algorithm to determine optimal surrogate formulations. The predicted and measured surrogate-fuel properties were quantitatively compared to the measured target-fuel properties, and good agreement was found. This paper is dedicated to the memory of our friend and colleague Jim Franz. Funding for this research was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Office of Vehicle Technologies, and by the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) and the companies that employ the CRC members. The study was conducted under the auspices of CRC. The authors thank U.S. DOE program manager Kevin Stork for supporting the participation of the U.S. national laboratories in this study.

Mueller, Charles J.; Cannella, William J.; Bruno, Thomas J.; Bunting, Bruce G.; Dettman, Heather; Franz, James A.; Huber, Marcia L.; Natarajan, Mani; Pitz, William J.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Wright, Ken

2012-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

276

ConsumTechNotes2011.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Note: Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton. ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials Aviation Gasoline (Finished): A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in aviation reciprocating engines. Fuel specifi- cations are provided in ASTM Specification D 910 and Military Specifica- tion MIL-G-5572. Note: Data on blending components are not counted in data on finished aviation gasoline. Aviation Gasoline Blending Components: Naphthas that will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes ox- ygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are re- ported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates. Barrel

277

PriceTechNotes2011.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

ASTM: The American Society for Testing and Materials. Aviation Gasoline (Finished): A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in aviation reciprocating engines. Fuel specifi- cations are provided in ASTM Specification D 910 and Military Specifica- tion MIL-G-5572. Note: Data on blending components are not counted in data on finished aviation gasoline. Aviation Gasoline Blending Components: Naphthas that will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates. Barrel (petroleum): A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Biomass Waste:

278

Solar Photovoltaic SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Photovoltaic Photovoltaic SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE Renewable Energy Ready Home Renewable Energy Ready Home SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE i Table of Contents About the Renewable Energy Ready Home Specifications Assumptions of the RERH Solar Photovoltaic Specification .............................................................................. 1 Builder and Specification Limitations ............................................................................................................. 2

279

POLICY STATEMENT ON TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has received two lettertype reports from its independent Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. They provide comments on a draft final policy statement on technical specifications improvements for nuclear power plants and additional implementation information for the NRC's regulation on requirements for the renewal of operating licenses for power reactors. The ACRS also sent a letter report to the NRC's Executive Director for Operations that provides comments on the NRC staff's proposed rule on advanced light water reactor severe accident performance. Attachments:

unknown authors

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by the Company and ITER. The Fabrication Specifications may reflect some national requirements and regulations that are not fully provided here. This document presents the ITER CSI specifications.

Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "astm volatility specifications" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Quantifying the value that wind power provides as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Advocates of renewable energy have long argued that wind power and other renewable technologies can mitigate fuel price risk within a resource portfolio. Such arguments--made with renewed vigor in the wake of unprecedented natural gas price volatility during the winter of 2000/2001--have mostly been qualitative in nature, however, with few attempts to actually quantify the price stability benefit that wind and other renewables provide. This paper attempts to quantify this benefit by equating it with the cost of achieving price stability through other means, particularly gas-based financial derivatives (futures and swaps). We find that over the past two years, natural gas consumers have had to pay a premium of roughly 0.50 cents/kWh over expected spot prices to lock in natural gas prices for the next 10 years. This incremental cost is potentially large enough to tip the scales away from new investments in natural gasfired generation and in favor of investments in wind power and other renewable technologies.

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

2002-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

282

1 QUANTIFYING THE VALUE THAT WIND POWER PROVIDES AS A HEDGE AGAINST VOLATILE NATURAL GAS PRICES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Advocates of renewable energy have long argued that wind power and other renewable technologies can mitigate fuel price risk within a resource portfolio. Such arguments made with renewed vigor in the wake of unprecedented natural gas price volatility during the winter of 2000/2001 have mostly been qualitative in nature, however, with few attempts to actually quantify the price stability benefit that wind and other renewables provide. This paper attempts to quantify this benefit by equating it with the cost of achieving price stability through other means, particularly gas-based financial derivatives (futures and swaps). We find that over the past two years, natural gas consumers have had to pay a premium of roughly 0.50/kWh over expected spot prices to lock in natural gas prices for the next 10 years. This incremental cost is potentially large enough to tip the scales away from new investments in natural gasfired generation and in favor of investments in wind power and other renewable technologies.

Mark Bolinger; Ryan Wiser; William Golove; Mark Bolinger; Ryan Wiser; William Golove

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FOR THE HYDROFLUORINATOR OF THE FLUORIDE-VOLATILITY PROCESS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel elements clad with Zr or containing Zr as a diluent can be recovered by a fluoride-volatility process. The first step consists of hydrofluorination of the elements in a bath of molten fluoride salts using an HF sparge. In this case the two salt systems considered were NaF-ZrF/sub 4/ and NaF- LiF. Materials evaluated at Battelle for possible use in the construction of this hydrofluorinator include Inconel, A'' Nickel, copper, silver, Monel, Hastelloy B, Hastelloy W, INOR-1, and INOR-8. The metals were exposed to molten fluoride salts through which HF was bubbled continuously. The data indicate that the NaF-LiF systems are much more corrosive than the NaF-ZrF/sub 4/ system. The systems are most corrosive when the alkali fluoride component is high. An elevation in temperature increases the corrosion significantly as does an increase in the HF flow rate. Hydrogen in the HF flow stream retards the corrosion of the sodiumzirconium salts significantly, but appears to have less effect on the sodium -lithium systems. The areas at the interface of the liquid and vapor phases were most seriously damaged under the exposure conditions usually used. However, appreciable reduction in attack was experienced when zirconium was actually hydrofluorinated. INOR-8 was the most promising of the materials evaluated. (auth)

Miller, P.D.; Peterson, C.L.; Stewart, O.M.; Stephan, E.F.; Fink, F.W.

1959-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Membrane System for Recovery of Volatile Organic Compounds from Remediation Off-Gases.: Phase 1.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In situ vacuum extraction, air or steam sparging, and vitrification are widely used methods of remediating soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All of these processes produce a VOC-laden air stream from which the VOC must be removed before the air can be discharged or recycled to the generating process. Treatment of these off-gases is often a major portion of the cost of the remediation project. Carbon adsorption and catalytic incineration, the most common methods of treating these gas streams, suffer from significant drawbacks. This report covers the first phase of a two-phase project. The first phase involved the laboratory demonstration of the water separation section of the unit, the production and demonstration of new membrane modules to improve the separation, the design studies required for the demonstration system, and initial contacts with potential field sites. In the second phase, the demonstration system will be built and, after a short laboratory evaluation, will be tested at two field sites.

Wijmans, J.G.; Goakey, S.; Wang, X.; Baker, R.W.; Kaschemekat, J.H.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Mass transport of volatile organic compounds between the saturated and vadose zones. Master`s thesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) dissolved in the saturated zone are transported into the vadose zone primarily by gaseous phase diffusion. If the saturated zone is remediated, VOCs present in the vadose zone may become a secondary source of contamination for the groundwater. The amount of VOCs that remain in the vadose zone is dependent on site hydrology, soil properties, and the chemical properties of the contaminants. The purpose of this study was to determine what conditions caused VOC concentrations in the vadose zone to significantly recontaminate the saturated zone. A one-dimensional numerical model was developed to investigate the transport of a VOC, trichioroethylene, between the saturated and vadose zones under a variety of conditions. The model featured steady-state unsaturated water flow and transient contaminant transport. Transport mechanisms included aqueous phase advection-dispersion and gaseous phase diffusion. Partitioning between the water, gas, and soil compartments were modeled as equilibrium processes. Sensitivity analyses were performed on several variables including soil type (homogeneous and heterogeneous profiles), water infiltration rate and vadose zone depth. Results indicated that recontamination was most significant rate, and vadose zone depth. Results indicated that recontamination was most significant in the presence of heterogeneous soils, low infiltration rates and deep vadose zones.

Harner, M.S.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

BIOFILTRATION OF VOLATILE POLLUTANTS: Fundamental Mechanisms for Improved Design, Long-term Operation, Prediction, and Implementation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biofiltration systems can be used for treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); however, the systems are poorly understood and are normally operated as ''black boxes''. Common operational problems associated with biofilters include fouling, deactivation, and overgrowth, all of which make them ineffective for continuous, long-term use. The objective of this investigation was to develop generic methods for long-term stable operation, in particular by using selective limitation of supplemental nutrients while maintaining high activity. As part of this effort, we have provided a deeper fundamental understanding of the important biological and transport mechanisms in biodestruction of sparingly soluble VOCs and have extended this approach and mathematical models to additional systems of high priority EM relevance--direct degradation and cometabolic degradation of priority pollutants such as BTEX and chlorinated organics. Innovative aspects of this project included development of a user-friendly two-dimensional predictive model/program for MS Windows 95/98/2000 to elucidate mass transfer and kinetic limitations in these systems, isolation of a unique microorganism capable of using sparingly soluble organic and chloroorganic VOCs as its sole carbon and energy source, and making long-term growth possible by successfully decoupling growth and degradation metabolisms in operating trickle bed bioreactors.

Davison,Brian H.

2000-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

287

In vivo evaluation of a new method for chemical analysis of volatile components in the respiratory gas of mechanically ventilated patients  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the volatile anaesthetic isoflurane as a marker substance a gas chromatographic method for analysis of exhaled gas in mechanically ventilated patients was evaluated. Twelve patients with and 10 patients without preceding isoflurane exposure ... Keywords: breath analysis, isoflurane, mechanical ventilation

J. K. Schubert; I. Esteban-Loos; K. Geiger; J. Guttmann

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Evolution and Transport of Pollutants over a Mediterranean Coastal Area: The Influence of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emissions on Ozone Concentrations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A computational simulation of a typical sea-breeze situation and the transport and evolution of photochemical pollutants on the Spanish east coast is performed, and the influence of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions on the ozone ...

Spyros Andronopoulos; Artemis Passamichali; Nikos Gounaris; John G. Bartzis

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Reducing volatilization of heavy metals in phosphate-pretreated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by forming pyromorphite-like minerals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research investigated the feasibility of reducing volatilization of heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium) in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash by forming pyromorphite-like minerals via phosphate pre-treatment. To evaluate the evaporation characteristics of three heavy metals from phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash, volatilization tests have been performed by means of a dedicated apparatus in the 100-1000 deg. C range. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test and BCR sequential extraction procedure were applied to assess phosphate stabilization process. The results showed that the volatilization behavior in phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash could be reduced effectively. Pyromorphite-like minerals formed in phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash were mainly responsible for the volatilization reduction of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash at higher temperature, due to their chemical fixation and thermal stabilization for heavy metals. The stabilization effects were encouraging for the potential reuse of MSWI fly ash.

Sun Ying; Zheng Jianchang [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Zou Luquan [Shanghai Center of Solid Waste Disposal, Shanghai (China); Liu Qiang; Zhu Ping [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Qian Guangren, E-mail: grqian@mail.shu.edu.cn [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

290

Quantifying the value that wind power provides as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

natural gas has become the fuel of choice for new power plantspower plants (Awerbuch 1993, 1994; Kahn & Stoft 1993). Specifically, in the context of natural gas-

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

" Row: Specific Energy-Management Activities...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Number of Establishments by Participation in Specific Energy-Management Activities, 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Specific Energy-Management Activities within NAICS...

292

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Quality Specifications  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biofuels Quality Biofuels Quality Specifications to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Quality Specifications on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Quality Specifications on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Quality Specifications on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Quality Specifications on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Quality Specifications on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Quality Specifications on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuels Quality Specifications The Tennessee Department of Agriculture may inspect and test biofuels under

293

Biomass Burning Observation Project Specifically,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Burning Observation Project Burning Observation Project Specifically, the aircraft will obtain measurements of the microphysical, chemical, hygroscopic, and optical properties of aerosols. Data captured during BBOP will help scientists better understand how aerosols combine and change at a variety of distances and burn times. Locations Pasco, Washington. From July through September, the G-1 will be based out of its home base in Washington. From this location, it can intercept and measure smoke plumes from naturally occurring uncontrolled fires across Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Northern California, and Western Montana. Smoke plumes aged 0-5 hours are the primary targets for this phase of the campaign. Memphis, Tennessee. In October, the plane moves to Tennessee to sample prescribed

294

VEHICLE DETAILS AND BATTERY SPECIFICATIONS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

RR0DF106791 RR0DF106791 Hybrid Propulsion System: Mild Parallel Belt-Alternator Starter (BAS) Number of Electric Machines: 1 Motor: 15 kW (peak), AC induction Battery Specifications Manufacturer: Hitachi Type: Cylindrical Lithium-ion Number of Cells: 32 Nominal Cell Voltage: 3.6 V Nominal System Voltage: 115.2 V Rated Pack Capacity: 4.4 Ah Maximum Cell Charge Voltage 2 : 4.10 V Minimum Cell Discharge Voltage 2 : 3.00 V Thermal Management: Active - Forced air Pack Weight: 65 lb BEGINNING-OF-TEST: BATTERY LABORATORY TEST RESULTS SUMMARY Vehicle Mileage and Testing Date Vehicle Odometer: 5,715 mi Date of Test: January 8, 2013 Static Capacity Test Measured Average Capacity: 3.98 Ah Measured Average Energy Capacity: 460 Wh HPPC Test Pulse Discharge Power @ 50% DOD

295

VEHICLE DETAILS AND BATTERY SPECIFICATIONS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

RRXDF106605 RRXDF106605 Hybrid Propulsion System: Mild Parallel Belt-Alternator Starter (BAS) Number of Electric Machines: 1 Motor: 15 kW (peak), AC induction Battery Specifications Manufacturer: Hitachi Type: Cylindrical Lithium-ion Number of Cells: 32 Nominal Cell Voltage: 3.6 V Nominal System Voltage: 115.2 V Rated Pack Capacity: 4.4 Ah Maximum Cell Charge Voltage 2 : 4.10 V Minimum Cell Discharge Voltage 2 : 3.00 V Thermal Management: Active - Forced air Pack Weight: 65 lb BEGINNING-OF-TEST: BATTERY LABORATORY TEST RESULTS SUMMARY Vehicle Mileage and Testing Date Vehicle Odometer: 4,244 mi Date of Test: January 9, 2013 Static Capacity Test Measured Average Capacity: 3.88 Ah Measured Average Energy Capacity: 450 Wh HPPC Test Pulse Discharge Power @ 50% DOD

296

DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC NEUTRONIC REACTIVITY  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is given for production-line determination of the specific neutronic reactivity of such objects as individual nuclear fuel or neutron absorber elements and is notable for rapidity and apparatus simplicity. The object is incorporated in a slightly sub-critical chain fission reactive assembly having a discrete neutron source, thereby establishing a K/sub eff/ within the crucial range of 0.95 to 0.995. The range was found to afford, uniquely, flux- transient damped response in a niatter of seconds simultaneously with acceptable analytical sensitivity. The resulting neutron flux measured at a situs spaced from both object and source within the assembly serves as a calibrable indication of said reactivity.

Dessauer, G.

1960-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

297

Specific test and evaluation plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made to the 241-AX-B Valve Pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system`s performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a lower tier document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP). Testing includes Validations and Verifications (e.g., Commercial Grade Item Dedication activities), Factory Acceptance Tests (FATs), installation tests and inspections, Construction Acceptance Tests (CATs), Acceptance Test Procedures (ATPs), Pre-Operational Test Procedures (POTPs), and Operational Test Procedures (OTPs). It should be noted that POTPs are not required for testing of the transfer line addition. The STEP will be utilized in conjunction with the TEP for verification and validation.

Hays, W.H.

1998-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

298

Characterization of the Sources and Concentrations of Formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds in four new manufactured houses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The concentrations of formaldehyde, 52 individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total VOCs (TVOC) were measured in four new manufactured houses on three occasions over a period of approximately nine months following completion of their construction. The houses were furnished, but unoccupied, model homes produced by a single U.S. manufacturer. Several of the houses incorporated interior finish materials with lower VOC emissions than standard materials. One house had a modified ventilation system. Ventilation rates were measured concurrently with the collection of air samples. A steady-state mass-balance model was used to calculate the area-specific emission rates of the target compounds and TVOC. The emissions of formaldehyde and VOCs from a specimen of plywood used as the floor sheeting were additionally quantified. The median formaldehyde concentration in the four houses was 37 parts-per-billion ( ppb). The formaldehyde concentrations were all less than the most restrictive guideline for this compound of 50 ppb. The concentrations of many of the target VOCs were low. Thirty-one of the VOCs had median concentrations that were at or below 1 ppb. Seven of the compounds were among the most abundant VOCs in all four houses. These compounds were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 3-carene, ethylene glycol, hexanal, 2-butanone, and acetic acid. The concentrations of the aldehydes, hexanal, octanal and nonanal, in the four houses were either near or exceeded their respective odor thresholds. The concentrations of acetic acid increased with time. In the final sampling period, the odor threshold for acetic acid was exceeded in all of the houses. The range of TVOC concentrations in the four houses was 0.8 to 3 mg m{sup -3}, with a median value of 1.6 mg m{sup -3}. These concentrations were somewhat lower than TVOC concentrations previously measured in several new site-built houses, and the median concentration was only about twice the typical value for existing residences. The house with the modified ventilation system and several lower emitting materials had consistently low TVOC concentrations that were near 1 mg m{sup -3}. There were no large decreases with time in the emission rates of the individual VOCs or TVOC during the course of the study. However, the emission rates were often lowest in the final sampling with the notable exception of the acetic acid emission rate that increased with time. The source of the aldehydes was most likely engineered wood products, such as the plywood floor sheeting and possibly other structural or interior components. The source of the acetic acid was uncertain. The effects of the source substitution treatments were measurable but turned out to be relatively minor due to the predominance of other sources.

Hodgson, A.T.; Beal, D.; Chandra, S.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Direct Push Groundwater Circulation Wells for Remediation of BTEX and Volatile Organics  

SciTech Connect

Direct push groundwater circulation wells (DP-GCW) are a promising technology for remediation of groundwater contaminated with dissolved hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents. In these wells, groundwater is withdrawn from the formation at the bottom of the well, aerated and vapor stripped and injected back into the formation at or above the water table. Previous field studies have shown that: (a) GCWs can circulate significant volumes of groundwater; and (b) GCWs can effectively remove volatile compounds and add oxygen. In this work, we describe the development and field-testing of a system of DP-GCWs for remediation of volatile organics such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and toluene (BTEX). The GCWs were constructed with No. 20 slotted well screen (2.4 cm ID) and natural sand pack extending from 1.5 to 8.2 m below grade. Air is introduced {approximately}7.5 m below grade via 0.6 cm tubing. Approximately 15% of the vertical length of the air supply tubing is wrapped in tangled mesh polypropylene geonet drainage fabric to provide surface area for biological growth and precipitation of oxidized iron. These materials were selected to allow rapid installation of the GCWs using 3.8 cm direct push Geoprobe{reg_sign} rods, greatly reducing well installation costs. Laboratory testing of these sparged wells and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling showed that these wells, although they used only about 1 L/min of air, could circulate about 1 L/min of water through the surrounding aquifer. This flow was sufficient to capture all of a flowing contaminant if the wells are sufficiently closely together, about 1 meter on center depending on the air flow rate supplied, in a line across the plume. The CFD work showed the details of this ability to capture, and also showed that unforeseen heterogeneities in the aquifer such as a gradient of permeability or a thin impermeable layer (such as a clay layer) did not prevent the system from working largely as intended. The system was tested in a petroleum contaminated aquifer near Rocky Point, NC. The contaminant plume there is approximately 10 m deep, 50 m wide and contains up to 4 {micro}g/L total BTEX and 75 {micro}g/L dissolved iron. An extensive pilot test was first performed to estimate the zone of influence for a single well. At this site an air injection rate of 1.2 L/min resulted in a water flow rate of 1 to 2 L/min based on bromide dilution tests in the GCW. The GCW increased the dissolved oxygen concentration in the discharge water to between 6 and 8 {micro}g/L and reduced contaminant concentrations to less than 20 {micro}g/L total BTEX. Monitoring results from a 73 day pilot test were then used to define the zone of influence for a single DP-GCW and to design a full scale barrier system.

Borden, R.C.; Cherry, R.S.

2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

300

Direct Push Groundwater Circulation Wells for Remediation of BTEX and Volatile Organics  

SciTech Connect

Direct push groundwater circulation wells (DP-GCW) are a promising technology for remediation of groundwater contaminated with dissolved hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents. In these wells, groundwater is withdrawn from the formation at the bottom of the well, aerated and vapor stripped and injected back into the formation at or above the water table. Previous field studies have shown that: (a) GCWs can circulate significant volumes of groundwater; and (b) GCWs can effectively remove volatile compounds and add oxygen. In this work, we describe the development and field-testing of a system of DP-GCWs for remediation of volatile organics such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and toluene (BTEX). The GCWs were constructed with No. 20 slotted well screen (2.4 cm ID) and natural sand pack extending from 1.5 to 8.2 m below grade. Air is introduced ~7.5 m below grade via 0.6 cm tubing. Approximately 15% of the vertical length of the air supply tubing is wrapped in tangled mesh polypropylene geonet drainage fabric to provide surface area for biological growth and precipitation of oxidized iron. These materials were selected to allow rapid installation of the GCWs using 3.8 cm direct push Geoprobe rods, greatly reducing well installation costs. Laboratory testing of these sparged wells and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling showed that these wells, although they used only about 1 L/min of air, could circulate about 1 L/min of water through the surrounding aquifer. This flow was sufficient to capture all of a flowing contaminant if the wells are sufficiently closely together, about 1 meter on center depending on the air flow rate supplied, in a line across the plume. The CFD work showed the details of this ability to capture, and also showed that unforeseen heterogeneities in the aquifer such as a gradient of permeability or a thin impermeable layer (such as a clay layer) did not prevent the system from working largely as intended. The system was tested in a petroleum contaminated aquifer near Rocky Point, NC. The contaminant plume there is approximately 10 m deep, 50 m wide and contains up to 4 g/L total BTEX and 75 g/L dissolved iron. An extensive pilot test was first performed to estimate the zone of influence for a single well. At this site an air injection rate of 1.2 L/min resulted in a water flow rate of 1 to 2 L/min based on bromide dilution tests in the GCW. The GCW increased the dissolved oxygen concentration in the discharge water to between 6 and 8 g/L and reduced contaminant concentrations to less than 20 g/L total BTEX. Monitoring results from a 73 day pilot test were then used to define the zone of influence for a single DP-GCW and to design a full scale barrier system.

Borden, R. E.; Cherry, Robert Stephen

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "astm volatility specifications" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Assessment and development of an advanced heat pump for recovery of volatile organic compounds  

SciTech Connect

This report documents Phase 1 of a project conducted by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for the assessment and development of an advanced heat pump for recovery of VOC solvents from process gas streams. In Phase 1, MTI has evaluated solvent recovery applications within New York State (NYS), identified host sites willing to implement their application, and conducted a preliminary design of the equipment required. The design and applications were evaluated for technical and economic feasibility. The solvent recovery heat pump system concept resulting from the Phase 1 work is one of a mobile unit that would service multiple stationary adsorbers. A large percentage of solvent recovery applications within the state can be serviced by on-site carbon bed adsorbers that are desorbed at frequencies ranging from once per to once per month. In this way, many users can effectively share'' the substantial capital investment associated with the system's reverse Brayton hardware, providing it can be packaged as a mobile unit. In a typical operating scenario, a carbon adsorption module will be located permanently at the industrial site. The SLA will be ducted through the adsorber and the solvents removed, thus eliminating an air emission problem. Prior to VOC breakthrough, by schedule or by request, the mobile unit would arrive at the site to recover the concentrated solvent. An engine driven, natural gas fueled system, the mobile unit utilizes conditioned engine exhaust gases as the inert gas for desorption. Hot inert gas is directed through the carbon bed, heating it and volatilizing the adsorbed solvent. Using a revere Brayton-cycle refrigeration system to create low temperatures, the solvent vapors are condensed and collected from the inert gas stream. The solvent can then be recycled to the production process or sold for other uses and the adsorber returned to service.

Not Available

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Assessment and development of an advanced heat pump for recovery of volatile organic compounds. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents Phase 1 of a project conducted by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for the assessment and development of an advanced heat pump for recovery of VOC solvents from process gas streams. In Phase 1, MTI has evaluated solvent recovery applications within New York State (NYS), identified host sites willing to implement their application, and conducted a preliminary design of the equipment required. The design and applications were evaluated for technical and economic feasibility. The solvent recovery heat pump system concept resulting from the Phase 1 work is one of a mobile unit that would service multiple stationary adsorbers. A large percentage of solvent recovery applications within the state can be serviced by on-site carbon bed adsorbers that are desorbed at frequencies ranging from once per to once per month. In this way, many users can effectively ``share`` the substantial capital investment associated with the system`s reverse Brayton hardware, providing it can be packaged as a mobile unit. In a typical operating scenario, a carbon adsorption module will be located permanently at the industrial site. The SLA will be ducted through the adsorber and the solvents removed, thus eliminating an air emission problem. Prior to VOC breakthrough, by schedule or by request, the mobile unit would arrive at the site to recover the concentrated solvent. An engine driven, natural gas fueled system, the mobile unit utilizes conditioned engine exhaust gases as the inert gas for desorption. Hot inert gas is directed through the carbon bed, heating it and volatilizing the adsorbed solvent. Using a revere Brayton-cycle refrigeration system to create low temperatures, the solvent vapors are condensed and collected from the inert gas stream. The solvent can then be recycled to the production process or sold for other uses and the adsorber returned to service.

Not Available

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

SVG web environment for z specification language  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a web environment for the Z formal specification language using the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) technology. The Z Specification Web Editor (ZSWE) is the first prototype of a web based graphical editor for the Z specification language. ... Keywords: Z formal specification language, scalable vector graphics, web based tool support

Jing Sun; Hai Wang; Sasanka Athauda; Tazkiya Sheik

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Composites for removing metals and volatile organic compounds and method thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Functionalized hydrophobic aerogel/solid support structure composites have been developed to remove metals and organic compounds from aqueous and vapor media. The targeted metals and organics are removed by passing the aqueous or vapor phase through the composite which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The composites adsorb the metals and the organics leaving a purified aqueous or vapor stream. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific functionalization of the aerogels tailored towards specific metals and/or organics. After adsorption, the composites can be disposed of or the targeted metals and/or organics can be reclaimed or removed and the composites recycled.

Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Coleman, Sabre J. (Oakland, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

305

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Specifications  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Hydrogen Fuel Hydrogen Fuel Specifications to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Specifications on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Specifications on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Specifications on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Specifications on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Specifications on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Specifications on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Hydrogen Fuel Specifications The California Department of Food and Agriculture, Division of Measurement Standards (DMS) established interim specifications for hydrogen fuels for

306

Recovery of semi-volatile organic compounds during sample preparation: Compilation for characterization of airborne particulate matter  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Semi-volatile compounds present special analytical challenges not met by conventional methods for analysis of ambient particulate matter (PM). Accurate quantification of PM-associated organic compounds requires validation of the laboratory procedures for recovery over a wide volatility and polarity range. To meet these challenges, solutions of n-alkanes (nC{sub 12} to nC{sub 40}) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs (naphthalene to benzo[ghi]perylene) were reduced in volume from a solvent mixture (equal volumes of hexane, dichloromethane and methanol), to examine recovery after reduction in volume. When the extract solution volume reached 0.5 mL the solvent was entirely methanol, and the recovery averaged 60% for n-alkanes nC{sub 12} to nC{sub 25} and PAHs from naphthalene to chrysene. Recovery of higher MW compounds decreased with MW, because of their insolubility in methanol. When the walls of the flasks were washed with 1 mL of equal parts hexane and dichloromethane (to reconstruct the original solvent composition), the recovery of nC{sub 18} and higher MW compounds increased dramatically, up to 100% for nC{sub 22}-nC{sub 32} and then slowly decreasing with MW due to insolubility. To examine recovery during extraction of the components of the High Capacity Integrated Gas and Particle Sampler, the same standards were used to spike its denuders and filters. For XAD-4 coated denuders and filters, normalized recovery was > 95% after two extractions. Recovery from spiked quartz filters matched the recovery from the coated surfaces for alkanes nC{sub 18} and larger, and for fluoranthene and larger PAHs. Lower MW compounds evaporated from the quartz filter with the spiking solvent. This careful approach allowed quantification of organics by correcting for volatility- and solubility-related sample preparation losses. This method is illustrated for an ambient sample collected with this sampler during the Texas Air Quality Study 2000.

Swartz, Erick; Stockburger, Leonard; Gundel, Lara

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Volatile fatty acid fermentation of lime-treated bagasse by rumen microorganisms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes the design and operation of a batch, anaerobic, in vitro fermentation of sugarcane bagasse by a mixed culture of ruminal microflora. The bagasse was supplemented with a small amount of alfalfa (0.16 g alfalfa/g bagasse) to provide necessary nutrients. The volatile fatty acid (VFA) product concentrations, yields and proportions of each acid for six different bagasse concentrations (10, 20, 35, 50, 75, and 100 g/L) are reported. Bagasse was treated with calcium hydroxide to increase the digestibility of the cell wall carbohydrates. The treatment conditions were: Ca(OH)2 loading = 10 g/100 g dry bagasse, water loading = 8.5 g/g dry bagasse, temperature 100'C, and treatment time = 1 hour. Compared to untreated bagasse, the lime-treated bagasse gave higher total VFA concentrations, faster rates of acidogenesis, and more stable molar proportions of individual VFA'S. The highest total VFA concentration obtained from lime-treated bagasse was 690 mM (45 g/L). By applying the lime pretreatment, the total VFA concentrations increased over 80% for a 10 g dry bagasse/L loading fermentation (from 4.5g VFA/L to 8.5 g VFAAL) With lime pretreatment, approximately 71 to 96% of the final total VFA yields were accomplished within the initial three days of fermentation, whereas only 52 to 67% were achieved without pretreatment during the same time period. At all solid loadings, the VFA molar compositions resulting from lime-treated bagasse were quite constant: acetate, 64-70%; propionate, 21-28%; butyrate, 6.5-7.6%; and other acids were about 1% each. In this thesis, we examined the effect of higher substrate concentration up to 100 g dry bagasse/L. For untreated bagasse, the VFA yields were fairly constant regardless of substrate concentration (ca. 0.37 g VFA/g dry substrate). However, for lime-treated bagasse, the total VFA yields decreased as the substrate concentrations increased. The best total VFA yield obtained from 10 g/L lime-treated bagasse was 0.63 g VFA/g dry raw substrate (or 0.82 g VFA/g dry ash-free substrate or 0.94 g VFA/g dry ash-free, lignin- free substrate). This is greater than yields previously reported in the literature using lignocellulosic substrates, and hence demonstrates the superiority of this very effective lime pretreatment.

Lee, Chang-Ming

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sixteen previously occupied temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess emissions of volatile organic compounds. The whole trailer emission factors wereevaluated for 36 VOCs including formaldehyde. Indoor sampling was carried out in the THUs located in Purvis staging yard in Mississippi, USA. Indoor temperature andrelative humidity (RH) were also measured in all the trailers during sampling. Indoor temperatures were varied (increased or decreased) in a selection of THUs using theheating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Indoor temperatures during sampling ranged from 14o C to 33o C, and relative humidity (RH) varied between 35percentand 74percent. Ventilation rates were increased in some trailers using bathroom fans and vents during some of the sampling events. Ventilation rates measured during some aselection of sampling events varied from 0.14 to 4.3 h-1. Steady state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 10 mu g-m-3 to 1000 mu g-m-3. The formaldehyde concentrations in the trailers were of toxicological significance. The effects of temperature, humidity and ventilation rates were also studied. A linearregression model was built using log of percentage relative humidity, inverse of temperature (in K-1), and inverse log ACH as continuous independent variables, trailermanufacturer as a categorical independent variable, and log of the chemical emission factors as the dependent variable. The coefficients of inverse temperature, log relativehumidity, log inverse ACH with log emission factor were found to be statistically significant for all the samples at the 95percent confidence level. The regression model wasfound to explain about 84percent of the variation in the dependent variable. Most VOC concentrations measured indoors in the Purvis THUs were mostly found to be belowvalues reported in earlier studies by Maddalena et al.,1,2 Hodgson et al.,3 and Hippelein4. Emissions of TMPB-DIB (a plasticizer found in vinyl products) were found to be higher than values reported in comparable housing by Hodgson et al.,3. Emissions of phenol were also found to be slightly higher than values reported in earlier studies1,2,3. This study can assist in retrospective formaldehyde exposure assessments of THUs where estimates of the occupants indoor formaldehyde exposures are needed.

Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L.; Apte, Michael G.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Modeling Organic Aerosols in a Megacity: Comparison of Simple and Complex Representations of the Volatility Basis Set Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is modified to include a volatility basis set (VBS) treatment of secondary organic aerosol formation. The VBS approach, coupled with SAPRC-99 gas-phase chemistry mechanism, is used to model gas-particle partitioning and multiple generations of gas-phase oxidation of organic vapors. In addition to the detailed 9-species VBS, a simplified mechanism using 2 volatility species (2-species VBS) is developed and tested for similarity to the 9-species VBS in terms of both mass and oxygen-to-carbon ratios of organic aerosols in the atmosphere. WRF-Chem results are evaluated against field measurements of organic aerosols collected during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign in the vicinity of Mexico City. The simplified 2-species mechanism reduces the computational cost by a factor of 2 as compared to 9-species VBS. Both ground site and aircraft measurements suggest that the 9-species and 2-species VBS predictions of total organic aerosol mass as well as individual organic aerosol components including primary, secondary, and biomass burning are comparable in magnitude. In addition, oxygen-to-carbon ratio predictions from both approaches agree within 25%, providing evidence that the 2-species VBS is well suited to represent the complex evolution of organic aerosols. Model sensitivity to amount of anthropogenic semi-volatile and intermediate volatility (S/IVOC) precursor emissions is also examined by doubling the default emissions. Both the emission cases significantly under-predict primary organic aerosols in the city center and along aircraft flight transects. Secondary organic aerosols are predicted reasonably well along flight tracks surrounding the city, but are consistently over-predicted downwind of the city. Also, oxygen-to-carbon ratio predictions are significantly improved compared to prior studies by adding 15% oxygen mass per generation of oxidation; however, all modeling cases still under-predict these ratios downwind as compared to measurements, suggesting a need to further improve chemistry parameterizations of secondary organic aerosol formation.

Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Fast, Jerome D.; Easter, Richard C.; Gustafson, William I.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Saide, Pablo; Hodzic, Alma

2011-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

310

Limiting currency volatility to stimulate goods market integration: a price based approach. NBER Working Paper No. 8468  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper studies the effect of instrumental and institutional stabilization of exchange rate volatility on the integration of goods markets. Rather than using data on volume of trade, this paper employs a 3-dimensional panel of prices of 95 very disaggregated goods (e.g., light bulbs) in 83 cities around the world during 1990-2000. We find that the impact of an institutional stabilization currency board or dollarization promotes market integration far beyond an instrumental stabilization. Among them, long-term currency unions are more effective than more recent currency boards. All have room to improve relative to a U.S. benchmark.

David C. Parsley; Shang-jin Wei

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Runtime verification of object lifetime specifications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis reports on the implementation of a runtime verification system for object lifetime specifications. This system is used to explore and evaluate the expressiveness object lifetime specifications. Object lifetime ...

Benjamin, Zev (Zev A.)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Infrared Spectroscopy of Wild 2 Particle Hypervelocity Tracks in Stardust Aerogel: Evidence for the presence of Volatile Organics in Comet Dust  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Infrared spectroscopy maps of some tracks, made by cometary dust from 81P/Wild 2 impacting Stardust aerogel, reveal an interesting distribution of volatile organic material. Out of six examined tracks three show presence of volatile organic components possibly injected into the aerogel during particle impacts. When particle tracks contained excess volatile organic material, they were found to be -CH{sub 2}-rich. Off-normal particle tracks could indicate impacts by lower velocity particles that could have bounced off the Whipple shield, therefore carry off some contamination from it. However, this theory is not supported by data that show excess organic-rich material in normal and off-normal particle tracks. It is clear that the population of cometary particles impacting the Stardust aerogel collectors also include grains that contained little or none of this volatile organic component. This observation is consistent with the highly heterogeneous nature of the collected grains, as seen by a multitude of other analytical techniques. We propose that at least some of the volatile organic material might be of cometary origin based on supporting data shown in this paper. However, we also acknowledge the presence of carbon (primarily as -CH{sub 3}) in the original aerogel, which complicates interpretation of these results.

Bajt, S; Sandford, S A; Flynn, G J; Matrajt, G; Snead, C J; Westphal, A J; Bradley, J P

2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

313

Specific Energy Consumption in Anode Bake Furnaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Electrode Technology for Aluminum Production. Presentation Title, Specific...

314

Risk-Managed Technical Specifications (RMTS) Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI has assessed the role of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in the regulation of nuclear power plant technical specifications. This report presents nuclear utilities with a framework and associated general guidance for implementing risk managed technical specifications (RMTS) as a partial replacement of existing technical specifications. This report was prepared for EPRI with extensive technical input and review by the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) Risk-Informed Technical Specifications Task Force...

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Natural Language Specification of Performance Trees  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accessible specification of performance queries is a key challenge in performance analysis. To this end, we seek to combine the intuitive aspects of natural language query specification with the expressive power and flexibility of the Performance ... Keywords: Natural language, Performance Trees, Performance analysis, Performance requirements specification

Lei Wang; Nicholas J. Dingle; William J. Knottenbelt

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

www.ucei.org Customer Risk from Real-Time Retail Electricity Pricing: Bill Volatility and Hedgability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: One of the most critical concerns that customers have voiced in the debate over real-time retail electricity pricing is that they would be exposed to risk from fluctuations in their electricity cost. The concern seems to be that a customer could find itself consuming a large quantity of power on the day that prices skyrocket and thus receive a monthly bill far larger than it had budgeted for. I analyze the magnitude of this risk, using demand data from 1142 large industrial customers, and then ask how much of this risk can be eliminated through various straightforward financial instruments. I find that very simple hedging strategies can eliminate more than 80 % of the bill volatility that would otherwise occur. Far from being complex, mystifying financial instruments that only a Wall Street analyst could love, these are simple forward power purchase contracts, and are already offered to retail customers by a number of fully-regulated utilities that operate real-time pricing programs. I then show that a slightly more sophisticated application of these forward power purchases can significantly enhance their effect on reducing bill volatility. 1

Severin Borenstein; Severin Borenstein

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

The Influence of Lewis Acid/Base Chemistry on the Removal of Gallium by Volatility from Weapons-Grade Plutonium Dissolved in Molten Chlorides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been proposed that GaCl{sub 3} can be removed by direct volatilization from a Pu-Ga alloy that is dissolved in a molten chloride salt. Although pure GaCl{sub 3} is quite volatile (boiling point: 201 deg. C), the behavior of GaCl{sub 3} dissolved in chloride salts is quite different because of solution effects and is critically dependent upon the composition of the solvent salt (i.e., its Lewis acid/base character). In this technical note, the behavior of gallium in prototypical Lewis acid and Lewis base salts is contrasted. It is found that gallium volatility is suppressed in basic melts and promoted in acidic melts. These results have an important influence on the potential for simple gallium removal in molten salt systems.

Williams, David F.; Cul, Guillermo D. del [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Toth, Louis M. [Electrochemical Systems (United States); Collins, Emory D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States)

2001-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

318

Lighting technology specifications for relighting federal buildings  

SciTech Connect

Under a Federal Relighting Initiative (FRI) project, a set of Master Lighting Technology Specifications was developed for use by the Federal sector in relighting buildings. The specifications were to cover all major lighting technologies. The initial set was developed and issued for extensive peer review in December 1991. Extensive comments were received from industry, Federal sector participants (DOD, GSA, NASA, DOE, etc.), national laboratories, professional lighting organizations, private lighting professionals, and recognized experts in the lighting community. The document underwent extensive revision and was reissued in June 1992 for a second round of peer review. The current FRI Lighting Technology Specifications are organized into two sections: (1) Technical Notes and (2) Master Specifications. The Technical Notes contain explanations that enable the users to understand the background and reasons for specification requirements. The Master Specifications are organized in the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) format and are intended to form the basis for competitive bidding and contracting to undertake relighting initiatives.

Harris, L. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Purcell, C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Gordon, H. [Burt Hill Kosar Rittelmann Associates (United States); McKay, H. [McKay (Hayden) Lighting Design (United States)

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Independent Specific Administrative Controls Review, Richland Operations  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Independent Specific Administrative Controls Review, Richland Independent Specific Administrative Controls Review, Richland Operations Office - December 2010 Independent Specific Administrative Controls Review, Richland Operations Office - December 2010 December 2010 Specific Administrative Controls Review with the Office of Environmental Management at DOE-Richland Operations Office The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Independent Oversight, within the Office of Health, Safety and Security, participated in the Office of Environmental Management Office of Standards and Quality Assurance, EM-23, review of Specific Administrative Controls (SAC) at the Hanford Site. The EM-23 review included selected programs at the Hanford Site that are under the auspices of the DOE Richland Operations Office. Independent Specific Administrative Controls Review, Richland Operations

320

Modular Communication Interface Specification for Demand Response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains a technical specification for a modular interface for residential appliances that enables them to be compatible with any utility communication system through the use of customer-installable plug-in communication modules. This specification is the result of collaboration between utilities, appliance makers, communication system providers, demand response service providers, and trade organizations. The specification details the mechanical, electrical, and logical characteristics of a s...

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "astm volatility specifications" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Methods for chromosome-specific staining  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and compositions for chromosome-specific staining are provided. Compositions comprise heterogeneous mixtures of labeled nucleic acid fragments having substantially complementary base sequences to unique sequence regions of the chromosomal DNA for which their associated staining reagent is specific. Methods include ways for making the chromosome-specific staining compositions of the invention, and methods for applying the staining compositions to chromosomes. 3 figs.

Gray, J.W.; Pinkel, D.

1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

322

Risk-Managed Technical Specifications (RMTS) Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has assessed the role of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in the regulation of nuclear power station Technical Specifications. This report presents nuclear utilities with a framework and associated general guidance for implementing Risk-Managed Technical Specifications (RMTS) as a partial replacement for existing Technical Specifications. This report was prepared for EPRI with extensive technical input and review by the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) Risk-I...

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Automated testing using executable formal specifications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method is presented for the automated random generation of valid content-sensitive test data and corresponding oracle information. The process takes as input a specification of the program under test, expressed as a functional program, and produces ... Keywords: automated program testing, automated random test data generation, automatic testing, computer aided software engineering, executable formal specifications, formal specification, functional program, oracle information, output test cases, program testing, valid content-sensitive test data, valid input space

N. Sanders

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

KINETICS AND VOLATILIZATION OF SiC AND SiO2: IMPLICATIONS FOR METAMORPHISM OF UNEQUILIBRATED ORDINARY CHONDRITES; R.A. Mendybaev1,3, J.R. Beckett3, L. Grossman1,2, and E.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

KINETICS AND VOLATILIZATION OF SiC AND SiO2: IMPLICATIONS FOR METAMORPHISM OF UNEQUILIBRATED the possibility of a more direct indicator based on the observation [1, 2] that abundances of diamond and SiC of volatilization experiments to lay the groundwork necessary to understand the processes by which SiC is destroyed

Grossman, Lawrence

325

Low Specific Activity (LSA) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Low Specific Activity (LSA) Low Specific Activity (LSA) Low Specific Activity (LSA) This scenario provides the planning instructions, guidance, and evaluation forms necessary to conduct an exercise involving a highway shipment of Low Specific Activity (LSA) material. This exercise manual is one in a series of five scenarios developed by the Department of Energy Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program. Responding agencies may include several or more of the following: local municipal and county fire, police, sheriff, and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel; state, local, and federal emergency response teams; emergency response contractors; and other emergency response resources that could potentially be provided by the carrier and the originating facility (shipper).

326

Legacy Management Specific Training | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Legacy Management Specific Training Legacy Management Specific Training Legacy Management Specific Training Registration Information The following courses are specific to Legacy Management Employees, for more information about the courses below or to register for any of these courses please contact Chequita Johnson. Mandatory Training ECOMM, Environmental-Related External Communication (E-COMM) Tracking System GPP101, Management of Government Personal Property RM 102, Basic Records Management Training (DOE) Training at All LM Site Offices EC 100, Environmental Management System General Awareness (DOE) ER 200, Site Emergency Preparedness [All sites except Grand Junction] SC 105, Security Awareness Briefing Washington, DC HQ Mini Coop Briefing Fernald, OH FE110, Fernald Preserve Site Awareness Briefing

327

Specifically Designed Constructed Wetlands; A Novel Treatment...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Generic parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) may also be targeted constituents for treatment. The specific targeted constituents...

328

Solar Water Heating: SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to meet the elements of these specifications but are constructing multifamily buildings, flat roof residential structures, or buildings without attic access, or using alternatives...

329

Specifications - The Security Content Automation Protocol ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Platform Enumeration Version: 2.3 Web site: http://scap.nist.gov/specifications/ cpe Contact Email: cpe@nist.gov Official Dictionary: https://nvd.nist ...

2013-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

330

Urban Electric Vehicle (UEV) Technical Specifications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 UEV AMERICA January 1, 2003 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS (14) The controllerinverter shall control the minimum traction battery discharge voltage to prevent degradation...

331

SG Network System Requirements Specification- Interim Release...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Specification- Interim Release 3 This document has been created to support NIST Smart Grid Interoperability Priority Action Plans (PAP) 1 & 2 and provide Utilities,...

332

Glossary - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

A gas turbine consists typically of an ... It includes all products designated in ASTM Specification D1835 and Gas Processors Association Specifications for ...

333

Specification and modeling: an academic perspective  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The specification and modeling of software systems, of their aspects, and their development processes is at the heart of software engineering. Over the years, we have achieved a much deeper and more comprehensive understanding of software and its ... Keywords: modeling, quality assurance, requirements engineering, specification, tool support

Manfred Broy

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Model Checking Complete Requirements Specifications Using Abstraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although model checking has proven remarkably effective in detecting errors in hardware designs, its success in the analysis of software specifications has been limited. Model checking algorithms for hardware verification commonly use Binary Decision ... Keywords: SCR, abstraction, model checking, requirements specification, verification

Ramesh Bharadwaj; Constance L. Heitmeyer

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Integrating software specifications into intrusion detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There exist a number of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) that detect computer attacks based on some defined attack scenarios. The attack scenarios or security requirements in some of these IDSs are specified in attack specification languages that are ... Keywords: Attack scenarios, Intrusion detection, Software specification languages, State machines

Mohammad Zulkernine; Mathews Graves; Muhammad Umair Ahmed Khan

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Modeling the heat and mass transfers in temperature-swing adsorption of volatile organic compounds onto activated carbons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A theoretical model was built to simulate the adsorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) onto activated carbons in a fixed bed. This model was validated on a set of experimental data obtained for the adsorption of acetone, ethyl formate, and dichloromethane onto five commercial activated carbons. The influence of operating conditions was modeled with various VOC contents at the inlet of the adsorber and superficial velocities of the gas-phase from 0.14 to 0.28 m.s{sup -1}. Breakthrough times and maximum temperature rises were computed with a coefficient of determination of 0.988 and 0.901, respectively. The simulation was then extended to the adsorption of mixtures of VOCs. From the comparison of simulation and experimental results, the advantage of accounting for dispersions of heat and mass is shown and the importance in taking into account the temperature effect on the equilibrium data is demonstrated. 29 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Sylvain Giraudet; Pascaline Pre; Pierre Le Cloirec [Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Nantes (France)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

337

End Points Specification Methods | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

End Points Specification Methods End Points Specification Methods End Points Specification Methods Two methods to develop end point specifications are presented. These have evolved from use in the field for deactivation projects. The hierarchical method is systematic, comprehensive, and completely defensible as to the basis for each specification. This method may appear complex to the uninitiated, but it is a straightforward application of a systematic engineering approach. It is labor intensive only during the final stage. This method is appropriate to the type of project involving a complex facility that contains process systems and a variety of contaminated areas or other hazards. The checklist method is an approach that is more appropriate to facilities which require less detailed planning, such as for industrial

338

Equivalence between executable OOZE and algebraic specification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper two algorithms are presented: one which turns an executable OOZE specification into an algebraic specification and another which does the reverse operation. In this way, we shall be able to prove in a constructive way that executable OOZE and algebraic specification are equivalent and that, generally speaking, state-based specification is equivalent to to algebraic specification. We shall discuss whether these results can be made to cover other object-oriented Z dialects. 1 Introduction Formal methods are a constant subject of research within the field of Software Engineering. They have been being developed since the mid 70's, and are nowadays beginning to be applied in industry (see [Hal90]) and are expected to become a most favourable tool for saving the time and effort which is spent in the development of applications. This very same objective is shared by object-oriented programming. This new style of programming, which helps to reduce costs during the development pr...

Vicent-Ramon Palasi Lallana

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Behavior of Aqueous Electrolytes in Steam Cycles: The Final Report on the Solubility and Volatility of Copper (I) and Copper (II) Ox ides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uncontrolled copper transport represents a potentially significant source of performance and reliability loss to fossil plants with mixed-metallurgy feedwater systems. Utility experiences over the last 10 years with severe copper turbine fouling and other related problems identified the need for basic fundamental research to improve industry understanding of the volatility and solubility of copper and its oxides.

2004-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

340

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "astm volatility specifications" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

ENERGY STAR Enterprise Storage Draft Specification Framework  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This document describes the key building blocks that form the basis for every ENERGY STAR specification; these items are intended to provide the framework around which the EPA can develop an effective energy efficiency program for Enterprise Storage. The principal objectives for this ENERGY STAR specification are threefold: (1) to encourage widespread adoption of appropriate hardware and software strategies to improve energy efficiency in enterprise storage systems, (2) to provide purchasers with the means to identify the most energy efficient enterprise storage solutions for their specific end-use application, and (3) to provide tools and information to designers and mangers looking to improve the efficiency of data center operations. The purpose of each building block is provided under the subheadings below, along with EPAs preliminary thoughts on how each may ultimately be incorporated into the Version 1.0 Enterprise Storage specification. At the end of each section are a series of questions aimed at generating discussion about the proposed approach. Please note that this document is not intended to be a comprehensive review of the ENERGY STAR perspective on enterprise storage, rather it serves as a starting point for EPAs specification development efforts. Stakeholders are encouraged to provide feedback on the specific concepts and definitions presented in this document, and are also welcome to submit comments of a more general nature. Communication between EPA and industry stakeholders is critical to the success of the ENERGY STAR program, especially in this early stage of the specification development process. Any and all creative suggestions for improvements to the basic ENERGY STAR approach outlined in this document will be considered for inclusion in subsequent draft and final specifications. ENERGY STAR representatives are available for additional technical discussions with interested parties at any time during the specification development process. Please contact Steve Pantano, ICF International, at

unknown authors

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

REPROCESSING OF ARE FUEL, VOLATILITY PILOT PLANT RUNS E-1 AND E-2  

SciTech Connect

After two batches ( approximately 340 kg) of fluoride salt from the ARE were reprocessed, a pilot plant operations were terminated because of a leak through which an estimated 780 g of uranium (as UF/sub 6/ escaped. Of the 21 kg of highly enriched uranium in the feed, 93.12% was collected as UF/sub 6/ product, 0.13% represented measured losses, and 3.72% was unaccounted for (leak). An additional 3.03% was reclaimed from NaF beds and equipment washes. The produce met both chemical purity and activity specifications for product level UF/ sub 6/. Decontamination from fission products was essentially complete. A gross gamma decontamination factor was apparently limited by the low activity of the feed salt. (auth)

Whitmarsh, C.L.

1959-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

343

REPROCESSING OF ARE FUEL, VOLATILITY PILOT PLANT RUNS E-3 THROUGH E-6  

SciTech Connect

Reprocessing of the ARE fuel was resumed after extensive leak testing in the pilot plant. This was considered necessary to assure no recurrence of gaseous UF/sub 6/ leaks as experienced in Run E-2. In the four additional runs required to complete the program, about 641 kg of fluoride salt containing 40.64 kg of fully enriched uranium was reprocessed. Recovery as UF/sub 6/ product represented 97.97% of the feed, with 0.01% measured losses. An additional 2.14% was reclaimed from NaF beds. The product was of sufficient purity to meet specifications for material designated for reduction to uranium metal. Decontamination from fission products was essentially complete. Calculations based on the entire ARE program indicated 96.38% product recovery, with 0.06% measured losses. An additional 2.50% was reclaimed from NaF beds and equipment washes. (auth)

Whitmarsh, C.L.

1959-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

344

VIN# JTNBB46K773007129 Vehicle Specifications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

K773007129 Vehicle Specifications Engine: 2.4 L 4-cylinder Electric Motor: 105 kW Battery: NiMH Seatbelt Positions: Five Payload: 1,109 lbs Features: Four-wheel disk brakes ABS w...

345

VIN# JHMFA36216S019329 Vehicle Specifications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

16S019329 Vehicle Specifications Engine: 1.3 L 4-cylinder Electric Motor: 15 kW Battery: NiMH Seatbelt Positions: Five Payload: 968 lbs Features: Front disk brakes wEBD brake...

346

VIN# JTNBB46K673006330 Vehicle Specifications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

K673006330 Vehicle Specifications Engine: 2.4 L 4-cylinder Electric Motor: 105 kW Battery: NiMH Seatbelt Positions: Five Payload: 1,109 lbs Features: Four-wheel disk brakes ABS w...

347

VIN# JHMFA36246S018725 Vehicle Specifications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

46S018725 Vehicle Specifications Engine: 1.3 L 4-cylinder Electric Motor: 15 kW Battery: NiMH Seatbelt Positions: Five Payload: 968 lbs Features: Front disk brakes wEBD brake...

348

FTCP Site Specific Information - NNSA Headquarters | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NNSA Headquarters FTCP Site Specific Information - NNSA Headquarters FTCP Agent Organization Name Phone E-Mail NNSA HQ Ike White 202586-8214 William.white@nnsa.doe.gov Annual...

349

Specification of United States Summer Season Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The specification of summer season precipitation in the contiguous United States from summer season fields of 700 mb height, sea level pressure (SLP) and Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) was carried out using stepwise multiple linear ...

John R. Lanzante; Robert P. Harnack

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Technical requirements specification for tank waste retrieval  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document provides the technical requirements specification for the retrieval of waste from the underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. All activities covered by this scope are conducted in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) mission.

Lamberd, D.L.

1996-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

351

Specification of Wintertime North American Surface Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The extent to which wintertime North American surface temperature can be specified based on simultaneous sea surface temperature (SST) is quantified for the period 198298. The term specification indicates that the predictor and predictands are ...

Timothy DelSole; J. Shukla

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

VIN# JTDKB20U740012721 Vehicle Specifications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Toyota Prius VIN JTDKB20U740012721 Vehicle Specifications Engine: 1.5 L 4-cylinder Electric Motor: 50 kW Battery: NiMH Seatbelt Positions: Five Payload: 905 lbs Features: CVT...

353

Stepwise specification of dynamic database behaviour  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a methodology for the stepwise specification of dynamic database behaviour. A conceptual schema is described in three levels: data, objects and transactions. To determine which sequences of database states are admissible, ...

Udo W. Lipeck

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Double Shell Tank (DST) Utilities Specification  

SciTech Connect

This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides the references to the requisite codes and standards to he applied during the design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Utilities Subsystems that support the first phase of waste feed delivery (WFD). The DST Utilities Subsystems provide electrical power, raw/potable water, and service/instrument air to the equipment and structures used to transfer low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) to designated DST staging tanks. The DST Utilities Subsystems also support the equipment and structures used to deliver blended LAW and HLW feed from these staging tanks to the River Protection Project (RPP) Privatization Contractor facility where the waste will be immobilized. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations. This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program.

SUSIENE, W.T.

2000-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

355

VEHICLE DETAILS, BATTERY DESCRIPTION AND SPECIFICATIONS Vehicle...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Page 1 VEHICLE DETAILS, BATTERY DESCRIPTION AND SPECIFICATIONS Vehicle Details Base Vehicle: 2011 Nissan Leaf VIN: JN1AZ0CP5BT000356 Propulsion System: BEV Electric Machine: 80 kW...

356

Vehicle Specifications Battery Type: Li-Ion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 All-Electric Conversion of the USPS Long Life Vehicle (LLV) Vehicle Specifications Battery Type: Li-Ion Pack Locations: Underbody (inboard of frame rails) Nominal System Voltage:...

357

AOCS Specification H 20-11  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Standard Test Sieves AOCS Specification H 20-11 5562E937344C9B92B7CA1C4FA0E4B065 DEFINITION Not applicable SCOPE Not applicable AOCS

358

Better Buildings Alliance Equipment Performance Specifications  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

BBA Equipment Performance BBA Equipment Performance Specifications William Goetzler Navigant Consulting william.goetzler@navigant.com (781) 270 8351 April 4, 2013 Better Buildings Alliance BTO Program Review 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Project Overview The BBA Performance Specifications project provides information and tools to help BBA members and other commercial building owners/operators specify and purchase high efficiency equipment. - Ensures targeted technologies are of interest to end users and manufacturers

359

Orlando Gasification Project Generic Design Specification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology is now entering commercial service, so there is a need to develop specifications that encourage greater standardization in IGCC design. This Generic Design Specification (GDS), sponsored by EPRI's CoalFleet for Tomorrow program with support from 50 power companies, provides technical information from Front End Engineering Design (FEED) results submitted by Southern Company Services to DOE regarding their Orlando Gasification Project (OGP), a 270 MW...

2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

360

NORMAL LOAD BEARING BY SITE SPECIFIC CANISTER  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall purpose of this calculation is to perform a preliminary analysis of the Site Specific Canister/Basket, subject to static gravity loads that include the self weight of the Canister Shell, the Basket, the Spent Nuclear Fuel, the Shield Plug and the related hardware, so that the loads are approximately known for sizing purposes. Based on these loads the stress levels in various components of the Site Specific Canister/Basket are evaluated.

NA

2005-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "astm volatility specifications" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Hydrogen Energy California Preliminary Design Specification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology enters commercial service, the industry needs specifications that encourage greater standardization in IGCC design. Standardization lowers initial capital cost; supports repeatable, reliable performance; and reduces the time and cost to develop decision-quality economics for potential IGCC plant owners. This preliminary design specification (PDS) defines technical information provided in the permit application submitted by Hydrogen Energy Intern...

2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

362

Alloy 690 Procurement Specification - Revision 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The metallurgical characteristics of Alloy 690 can play a role in its resistance to primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) propensity and UT inspectibility. This specification guideline was created to provide guidance on the procurement of Alloy 690 to ensure that it has the metallurgical characteristics to optimize its PWSCC resistance and eliminate microstructure which could affect the Ultrasonic test (UT) inspectability of the material. The Alloy 690 procurement specification guideline ...

2012-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

363

Better Buildings Alliance Equipment Performance Specifications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BBA Equipment Performance BBA Equipment Performance Specifications William Goetzler Navigant Consulting william.goetzler@navigant.com (781) 270 8351 April 4, 2013 Better Buildings Alliance BTO Program Review 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Project Overview The BBA Performance Specifications project provides information and tools to help BBA members and other commercial building owners/operators specify and purchase high efficiency equipment. - Ensures targeted technologies are of interest to end users and manufacturers

364

Experimental studies and thermodynamic modelling of volatilities of uranium, plutonium, and americium from their oxides and from their oxides interacted with ash  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to identify the types and amounts of volatile gaseous species of U, Pu, and Am that are produced in the combustion chamber offgases of mixed waste oxidation processors. Primary emphasis is on the Rocky Flats Plant Fluidized Bed Incinerator. Transpiration experiments have been carried out on U{sub 3}O{sub 8}(s), U{sub 3}O{sub 8} interacted with various ash materials, PuO{sub 2}(s), PuO{sub 2} interacted with ash materials, and a 3%PuO{sub 2}/0.06%AmO{sub 2}/ash material, all in the presence of steam and oxygen, and at temperatures in the vicinity of 1,300 K. UO{sub 3}(g) and UO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g) have been identified as the uranium volatile species and thermodynamic data established for them. Pu and Am are found to have very low volatilities, and carryover of Pu and Am as fine dust particulates is found to dominate over vapor transport. The authors are able to set upper limits on Pu and Am volatilities. Very little lowering of U volatility is found for U{sub 3}O{sub 8} interacted with typical ashes. However, ashes high in Na{sub 2}O (6.4 wt %) or in CaO (25 wt %) showed about an order of magnitude reduction in U volatility. Thermodynamic modeling studies were carried out that show that for aluminosilicate ash materials, it is the presence of group I and group II oxides that reduces the activity of the actinide oxides. K{sub 2}O is the most effective followed by Na{sub 2}O and CaO for common ash constituents. A more major effect in actinide activity lowering could be achieved by adding excess group I or group II oxides to exceed their interaction with the ash and lead to direct formation of alkali or alkaline earth uranates, plutonates, and americates.

Krikorian, O.H.; Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Adamson, M.G.; Fontes, A.S. Jr.; Fleming, D.L.

1993-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

365

A PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF URANIUM FROM NUCLEAR FUEL ELEMENTS USING FLUID-BED DRYING AND VOLATILITY TECHNIQUES  

SciTech Connect

A process scheme for the recovery of uranium from fuel elements has been developed. The scheme combines continuous fluid-bed drying and fluoride volatility techniques after initial dissolution of the fuel element in the appropriate aqueous system, hence the designation ADF, Aqueous Dry Fluorination Process. The application of this process to the recovery of uranium from highly enriched, low uranium-zirconium alloy plate-type fuels is described. ln the process, the feed solution is sprayed horizontally through a two-fluid nozzle and is atomized directly in the heated fluidized bed. The spray droplets are dried on the fluidized particles and form a dense coating. Excessive particle growth was limited by the use of air attrition-jets inserted directly in the bed. Aqueous hydrofluoric acid solutions containing l.2 to 3.6 M zirconiuni, 0.007 to 0.03 M uranium, and free acid concentrations from 1 to about l0 M were successfully processed in a 6-in.-diameter Inconel fluid-bed spray dryer. Rates equivalent to about 3.l kg/hr of zirconium were achieved, 160 ml/min with the most concentrated feed solution. Experiments were successfully carried out from 240 to 450 deg C. A new design for a two-fluid nozzle was developed. Extensive work was done to identify the various zirconium fluoride compounds formed. The granular dryer product was subsequently fluorinated at temperatures to 600 deg C in fluid beds and to 700 deg C in static beds to remove the uranium as the volatile hexafluoride. About 90 to 95% uranium removal was consistently achieved near 600 deg C. The relatively low uranium recovery under these conditions is a disadvantage for the application to zirconium-base fuels. It was found necessary to resort to static beds and higher temperatures to achieve greater removal. Since the fluorine attack on nickel, the material of construction, is prohibitive at temperatures above 600 deg C, a disposable fluorinator concept for use with static beds is described. Results of corrosion studies are reported. A preliminary chemical flowsheet with a design capacity of 1l00 kg of uranium (93% enriched) annually is presented. (auth)

Levitz, N.; Barghusen, J.; Carls, E.; Jonke, A.A.

1961-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Advanced heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds. Phase 1, Conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds: Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from stationary industrial and commercial sources represent a substantial portion of the total US VOC emissions. The ``Toxic-Release Inventory`` of The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates this to be at about 3 billion pounds per year (1987 estimates). The majority of these VOC emissions are from coating processes, cleaning processes, polymer production, fuel production and distribution, foam blowing,refrigerant production, and wood products production. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) interest in the recovery of VOC stems from the energy embodied in the recovered solvents and the energy required to dispose of them in an environmentally acceptable manner. This Phase I report documents 3M`s work in close working relationship with its subcontractor Nuclear Consulting Services (Nucon) for the preliminary conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of VOC. Nucon designed Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene from coating operations at 3M Weatherford, OK, was used as a base line for the work under cooperative agreement between 3M and ODE. See appendix A and reference (4) by Kovach of Nucon. This cooperative agreement report evaluates and compares an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for solvent recovery with other competing technologies for solvent recovery and reuse. This advanced Brayton cycle heat pump is simple (very few components), highly reliable (off the shelf components), energy efficient and economically priced.

Not Available

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Domain-specific abstractions and compiler transformations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Domain-specific abstractions and compiler Domain-specific abstractions and compiler transformations Domain-specific abstractions and compiler transformations March 4, 2013 sadayappan Saday Sadayappan Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Ohio State University Recent trends in architecture are making multicore parallelism as well as heterogeneity ubiquitous. This creates significant chalenges to application developers as well as compiler implementations. Currently it is virtually impossible to achieve performance portability of high-performance applications, i.e., develop a single version of source code for an application that achieves high performance on different parallel computer platforms. Different implementations of compute intensive core functions are generally needed for different target platforms, e.g., for multicore

368

AWS breaks new ground with soldering specification.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Joining technologies continue to advance with new materials, process innovations, and inspection techniques. An increasing number of high-valued, high-reliability applications -- from boilers and ship hulls to rocket motors and medical devices -- have required the development of industry standards and specifications in order to ensure that the best design and manufacturing practices are being used to produce safe, durable products and assemblies. Standards writing has always had an important role at the American Welding Society (AWS). The AWS standards and specifications cover such topics as filler materials, joining processes, inspection techniques, and qualification methods that are used in welding and brazing technologies. These AWS standards and specifications, all of which are approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), have also provided the basis for many similar documents used in Europe and in Pacific Rim countries.

Vianco, Paul Thomas

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SITE SPECIFIC ADVISORY BOARD  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SITE-SPECIFIC ADVISORY BOARD (EM SSAB) Savannah River Site Application No. (Please leave blank) ______________ MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION ________________________________________________________________________________________________ The EM SSAB provides meaningful opportunity for collaborative dialogue among the diverse communities at the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) clean-up sites. At the request of the Assistant Secretary or the Site Manager/Assistant Manager for Environmental Management, the Board provides advice and recommendations concerning the following EM site-specific issues: clean-up standards and environmental restoration; waste management and disposition; stabilization and disposition of non-stockpile nuclear materials;

370

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SITE-SPECIFIC ADVISORY BOARD  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Washington, D.C. 20585 Washington, D.C. 20585 April 25, 2013 2 Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board - April 25, 2013 Meeting Minutes LIST OF ACRONYMS AB - Advisory Board ANL - Argonne National Laboratory ARP - Accelerator Retrieval Project BNL - Brookhaven National Laboratory BRC - Blue Ribbon Commission CAB - Citizens Advisory Board D&D - Decontamination & Decommissioning DDFO - Deputy Designated Federal Officer DOE - Department of Energy DUF6 - Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride DWPF - Defense Waste Processing Facility EIS - Environmental Impact Statement EM - DOE Office of Environmental Management EM SSAB - DOE Office of Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board EPA - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency FY - Fiscal Year

371

ACTIVITY SPECIFIC FIREARMS SAFETY PLAN FOR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility/ Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility/ North Slope of Alaska/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (ACRF/NSA/AAO) Activity Specific Firearm Safety Plan for ACRF/North Slope of Alaska Sandia National Laboratories Department 6383, Energy, Climate & Atmospheric Management ACRF/NSA/AAO Revision 14 Activity Specific Firearm Safety Plan for June 2010 ACRF/North Slope of Alaska Signature Page This safety plan is approved by the undersigned and includes the firearm and ammunition storage practices described in this document. Mark D Ivey ACRF/NSA/AAO Site Manager _________________________________Date: ______ Mark D Ivey Department 06339 Manager _________________________________Date: _______ Michael L Heister SNL Safety Engineer _________________________________Date:________

372

Specific complexation of metal oxo cations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to novel chelating agents for high molecular weight polyvalent metal oxo cations. Specifically, an improved chelating agent and an improved process of chelation is described to recognize specifically metal oxo cations using organic chelating agents that have a functional group to supply donor groups for metal coordination while simultaneously providing a different group to intramolecularly interact with the oxygen of the oxo group. More precisely, the invention relates to tripodal amine carboxylates useful to sequester uranyl and related metal oxo cations in aqueous solution, and is especially suitable for recovering such oxo cations from dilute aqueous solutions, e.g. seawater, mine runoff, processing waste streams, etc.

Raymond, K.N.; Franczyk, T.S.

1990-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

373

Engineered waste-package-system design specification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the waste package performance requirements and geologic and waste form data bases used in developing the conceptual designs for waste packages for salt, tuff, and basalt geologies. The data base reflects the latest geotechnical information on the geologic media of interest. The parameters or characteristics specified primarily cover spent fuel, defense high-level waste, and commercial high-level waste forms. The specification documents the direction taken during the conceptual design activity. A separate design specification will be developed prior to the start of the preliminary design activity.

Not Available

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

QUARK: Empirical Assessment of Automaton-based Specification Miners  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Software is often built without specification. Tools to automatically extract specification from software are needed and many techniques have been proposed. One type of these specifications - temporal API specification - is often specified in the form ...

David Lo; Siau-Cheng Khoo

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Evaluation of EPA Region IV Standard Operating Procedures for decontamination of field equipment when sampling for volatile organic compounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Decontamination procedures for use at CERCLA sites where the US Environmental protection Agency (EPA) Region IV is the lead agency are specified in their Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) document. Under certain circumstances, the objectives of proper decontamination can be obtained without utilizing the full procedure as specified in the SOP. Because some treatment methods may introduce low levels of organic constituents into water (e.g., chlorination), the use of treated potable water would actually have an adverse effect on the decontamination procedure compared to the use of an untreated potable supply. Certified organic-free water, the cost of which ranges from five dollars per gallon to over sixty dollars per gallon may also be unnecessary in some cases. Distilled water samples from seven different suppliers (at a cost of less than a dollar per gallon) were analyzed for Target Compound List (TCL) volatile, organic compounds (VOCs) or benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Fifty of the samples analyzed for BTEX contained no detectable amounts of these compounds, and twenty-six of the samples analyzed for TCL VOCs contained no detectable concentration. The use of solvent rinses may cause false positives during sampling. Field experiments have shown that isopropanol may degrade to acetone under some circumstances. In many cases, particularly when sampling ground water or decontaminating drilling equipment, the elimination of this step should not adversely affect sample quality. 8 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Brice, D.A. (Westinghouse Materials Co. of Ohio, Cincinnati, OH (USA). Feed Materials Production Center); Kelley, M.E. (Geraghty and Miller, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development`s VOC`s in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry.

Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

1995-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

377

Mass transfer of volatile organic compounds from drinking water to indoor air: The role of residential dishwashers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Contaminated tap water may be a source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in residential indoor air. To better understand the extent and impact of chemical emissions from this source, a two-phase mass balance model was developed based on mass transfer kinetics between each phase. Twenty-nine experiments were completed using a residential dishwasher to determine model parameters. During each experiment, inflow water was spiked with a cocktail of chemical tracers with a wide range of physicochemical properties. In each case, the effects of water temperature, detergent, and dish-loading pattern on chemical stripping efficiencies and mass transfer coefficients were determined. Dishwasher headspace ventilation rates were also measured using an isobutylene tracer gas. Chemical stripping efficiencies for a single cycle ranged from 18% to 55% for acetone, from 96% to 98% for toluene, and from 97% to 98% for ethylbenzene and were consistently 100% for cyclohexane. Experimental results indicate that dishwashers have a relatively low but continuous ventilation rate that results in significant chemical storage within the headspace of the dishwasher. In conjunction with relatively high mass transfer coefficients, low ventilation rates generally lead to emissions that are limited by equilibrium conditions after approximately 1--2 min of dishwasher operation.

Howard-Reed, C.; Corsi, R.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Moya, J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Volatile compound evolution from the programmed temperature pyrolysis of Big Clifty and McKittrick tar sands at a 10 degrees C/min heating rate  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Big Clifty (Kentucky) and McKittrick (California) tar sands were pyrolyzed at a 10{degrees}C/min heating rate from room temperature to 900{degrees}C. The volatile compounds were detected on-line and in real time by tandem mass spectrometry using MS and MS/MS detection. This paper reports the programmed temperature pyrolysis behaviors of Big Clifty and McKittrick tar sands and compares their results. 48 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Reynolds, J.G.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Implications of Low Volatility SOA and Gas-Phase Fragmentation Reactions on SOA Loadings and their Spatial and Temporal Evolution in the Atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Recent laboratory and field measurements by a number of groups show that secondary organic aerosol (SOA) evaporates orders of magnitude slower than traditional models assume. In addition, chemical transport models using volatility basis set (VBS) SOA schemes neglect gas-phase fragmentation reactions, which are known to be extremely important. In this work, we present modeling studies to investigate the implications of non-evaporating SOA and gas-phase fragmentation reactions. Using the 3-D chemical transport model, WRF-Chem, we show that previous parameterizations, which neglect fragmentation during multi-generational gas-phase chemistry of semi-volatile/inter-mediate volatility organics ("aging SIVOC"), significantly over-predict SOA as compared to aircraft measurements downwind of Mexico City. In sharp contrast, the revised models, which include gas-phase fragmentation, show much better agreement with measurements downwind of Mexico City. We also demonstrate complex differences in spatial SOA distributions when we transform SOA to non-volatile secondary organic aerosol (NVSOA) to account for experimental observations. Using a simple box model, we show that for same amount of SOA precursors, earlier models that do not employ multi-generation gas-phase chemistry of precursors ("non-aging SIVOC"), produce orders of magnitude lower SOA than "aging SIVOC" parameterizations both with and without fragmentation. In addition, traditional absorptive partitioning models predict almost complete SOA evaporation at farther downwind locations for both "non-aging SIVOC" and "aging SIVOC" with fragmentation. In contrast, in our revised approach, SOA transformed to NVSOA implies significantly higher background concentrations as it remains in particle phase even under highly dilute conditions. This work has significant implications on understanding the role of multi-generational chemistry and NVSOA formation on SOA evolution in the atmosphere.

Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Imre, Dan; Easter, Richard C.; Beranek, Josef; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Fast, Jerome D.

2013-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

380

Assessment ofSpecific Administrative Controls  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the Design, Implementation, and Maintenance ofAdministrative Controls, calls for a report to the Secretary ofEnergy on the results ofsite reviews to confinn specific administrative controls are properly treated in safety basis documents and implementing procedures. Enclosed is the report from the Office

Deputy Chiefoperating Officer

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "astm volatility specifications" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Generating Test Data From Statebased Specifications 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Generating Test Data From State­based Specifications 1 A. Jefferson Offutt 1 , Shaoying Liu 2 testing in industry is conducted at the system level, most formal research has focused on the unit level. As a result, most system level testing techniques are only described informally. This paper presents formal

Offutt, Jeff

382

October 15, 2001 CONSTRUCTION STANDARD SPECIFICATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, guidelines and specifications. B. The following codes, as required by law: 1. ANSI/NFPA-70, National Electric.2 COPPER A. Wall-mounted 110-blocks (for voice applications) 1. Performance shall meet the performance 5e 110 Block Kits b) Panduit Pan-Punch 110 category 5e System Kits B. Angled patch panels 1. Size

383

Group communication specifications: a comprehensive study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

View-oriented group communication is an important and widely used building block for many distributed applications. Much current research has been dedicated to specifying the semantics and services of view-oriented group communication systems (GCSs). However, ... Keywords: Group communication systems, partitionable group membership, process group membership, specifications of group communication systems, view synchrony, virtual synchrony

Gregory V. Chockler; Idit Keidar; Roman Vitenberg

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Ultrasonic hydrometer. [Specific gravity of electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time t between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance d between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time t, the sonic velocity V is calculated with the equation V = 2d/t. The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0 and 40/sup 0/C and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation.

Swoboda, C.A.

1982-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

385

CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN LAB SPECIFIC INFORMATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN (CHP) LAB SPECIFIC INFORMATION & STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOPs/23/09 This is the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) for the Materials Research Laboratory (MRL) Spectroscopy Facility. All labs using chemicals are required by Cal-OSHA to have a written safety plan (CHP) in place for chemical

Bigelow, Stephen

386

Automated consistency checking of requirements specifications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article describes a formal analysis technique, called consistency checking, for automatic detection of errors, such as type errors, nondeterminism, missing cases, and circular definitions, in requirements specifications. The technique ... Keywords: application-independent properties, consistency checking, formal requirements modeling, software cost reduction methodology, tabular notations

Constance L. Heitmeyer; Ralph D. Jeffords; Bruce G. Labaw

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Estimating the Soil Surface Specific Humidity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on the recent experiment results, a formula is proposed to be used in numerical weather-climate models to estimate the soil surface humidity. The formula has a very simple form and shows a smooth transition in the soil surface specific ...

Tsengdar J. Lee; Roger A. Pielke

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Ultrahigh Specific Impulse Nuclear Thermal Propulsion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research on nuclear thermal propulsion systems (NTP) have been in forefront of the space nuclear power and propulsion due to their design simplicity and their promise for providing very high thrust at reasonably high specific impulse. During NERVA-ROVER program in late 1950's till early 1970's, the United States developed and ground tested about 18 NTP systems without ever deploying them into space. The NERVA-ROVER program included development and testing of NTP systems with very high thrust (~250,000 lbf) and relatively high specific impulse (~850 s). High thrust to weight ratio in NTP systems is an indicator of high acceleration that could be achieved with these systems. The specific impulse in the lowest mass propellant, hydrogen, is a function of square root of absolute temperature in the NTP thrust chamber. Therefor optimizing design performance of NTP systems would require achieving the highest possible hydrogen temperature at reasonably high thrust to weight ratio. High hydrogen exit temperature produces high specific impulse that is a diret measure of propellant usage efficiency.

Anne Charmeau; Brandon Cunningham; Samim Anghaie

2009-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

389

Final Report for "Experimental Petrology and Chemistry of Volatile-Bearing Silicate Melts"  

SciTech Connect

The goal of Part 1 was the definitive determination of the dependence of the diffusion coefficient for water (DH2O, defined as the diffusion coefficient of total water) in various compositions of silicate melts with respect to water content (CH2O). We measured profiles of CH2O in hydration and diffusion couple experiments by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. DH2O values were determined from the profiles using both direct calculations (Boltzmann-Matano methods) and models assuming specific relationships between DH2O and CH2O (including constant, proportional, and exponential relationships, and a simple speciation model assuming that water molecules are mobile (with constant diffusivity) and hydroxyl groups are immobile). As expected, the constant DH2O model was never the best fit to our diffusion profile data. In order to distinguish among the models with varying diffusion coefficients, all of which require increasing DH2O with increasing CH2O, we ran a series of experiments with small ranges of CH2O, so that we could assume that DH2O was constant. If either the proportional or speciation model holds, then DH2O = 0 at CH2O = 0, whereas the exponential model predicts a finite value for DH2O at CH2O = 0. Results for haplobasalt and haploandesite compositions are consistent with DH2O = exp(DH2O). We have confirmed this conclusion by looking at experiments with very low CH2O, in which we found a finite DH2O= 2-4E-10 m2/s. Using our data and results in the literature over a range of composition (including major elements and water), temperature, and pressure conditions, we defined a general relationship between water diffusivity and viscosity (???????????????·) of silicate liquids. This is an important result, since it allows the calculation of diffusivity for compositions for which there are no measurements. Part 2 is the study of the zonation of P and other elements in olivines: (1) Complex zoning patterns in P in olivines from terrestrial komatiites, basalts, andesites, and dacites and from an SNC (Martian) meteorite are decoupled from zoning in divalent cations. The P zoning patterns can be: (i) P-rich crystal cores with skeletal, hopper, or euhedral shapes; (ii) thin, widely spaced, concentric P-rich zones, especially near crystal rims, and other types of oscillatory zoning; (iii) structures suggesting resorption of P-rich zones and replacement by P-poor olivine; and (iv) sector zoning. Crystallization experiments on a Hawaiian basalt at constant cooling rates produced olivine with many comparable zoning features, demonstrating that they can form by crystal growth during simple cooling histories. Al and Cr zoning can be correlated with P zoning in experiments and in natural crystals. The development of oscillatory zoning in olivine from isothermal experiments or at a constant cooling rate from the liquidus indicates that such zoning in natural samples cannot necessarily be ascribed to changing magmatic conditions. (2) For Sc-doped bulk compositions, most Sc in the experimental olivines substitutes independent of P but up to half participates in a coupled substitution with P in a roughly 5:3 ratio. However results from our 1-atm experiments are consistent with a 1:1 relationship between trivalent cations and P, suggesting that the simple substitution P + M3+ + ???????¢??????????????? = Si + 2M2+ (where M2+ denotes Mg, Fe2+, Mn, Ca, and Ni; M3+ denotes Sc, Al, and Cr; and ???????¢??????????????? denotes a vacancy) is probably the dominant substitution mechanism in Sc- and P-bearing bulk compositions. In the absence of Sc, both molar Al-P and Cr-P plots

Edward M. Stolper

2013-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

390

Final Report for "Experimental Petrology and Chemistry of Volatile-Bearing Silicate Melts"  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of Part 1 was the definitive determination of the dependence of the diffusion coefficient for water (DH2O, defined as the diffusion coefficient of total water) in various compositions of silicate melts with respect to water content (CH2O). We measured profiles of CH2O in hydration and diffusion couple experiments by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. DH2O values were determined from the profiles using both direct calculations (Boltzmann-Matano methods) and models assuming specific relationships between DH2O and CH2O (including constant, proportional, and exponential relationships, and a simple speciation model assuming that water molecules are mobile (with constant diffusivity) and hydroxyl groups are immobile). As expected, the constant DH2O model was never the best fit to our diffusion profile data. In order to distinguish among the models with varying diffusion coefficients, all of which require increasing DH2O with increasing CH2O, we ran a series of experiments with small ranges of CH2O, so that we could assume that DH2O was constant. If either the proportional or speciation model holds, then DH2O = 0 at CH2O = 0, whereas the exponential model predicts a finite value for DH2O at CH2O = 0. Results for haplobasalt and haploandesite compositions are consistent with DH2O = exp(DH2O). We have confirmed this conclusion by looking at experiments with very low CH2O, in which we found a finite DH2O= 2-4E-10 m2/s. Using our data and results in the literature over a range of composition (including major elements and water), temperature, and pressure conditions, we defined a general relationship between water diffusivity and viscosity (???????????????·) of silicate liquids. This is an important result, since it allows the calculation of diffusivity for compositions for which there are no measurements. Part 2 is the study of the zonation of P and other elements in olivines: (1) Complex zoning patterns in P in olivines from terrestrial komatiites, basalts, andesites, and dacites and from an SNC (Martian) meteorite are decoupled from zoning in divalent cations. The P zoning patterns can be: (i) P-rich crystal cores with skeletal, hopper, or euhedral shapes; (ii) thin, widely spaced, concentric P-rich zones, especially near crystal rims, and other types of oscillatory zoning; (iii) structures suggesting resorption of P-rich zones and replacement by P-poor olivine; and (iv) sector zoning. Crystallization experiments on a Hawaiian basalt at constant cooling rates produced olivine with many comparable zoning features, demonstrating that they can form by crystal growth during simple cooling histories. Al and Cr zoning can be correlated with P zoning in experiments and in natural crystals. The development of oscillatory zoning in olivine from isothermal experiments or at a constant cooling rate from the liquidus indicates that such zoning in natural samples cannot necessarily be ascribed to changing magmatic conditions. (2) For Sc-doped bulk compositions, most Sc in the experimental olivines substitutes independent of P but up to half participates in a coupled substitution with P in a roughly 5:3 ratio. However results from our 1-atm experiments are consistent with a 1:1 relationship between trivalent cations and P, suggesting that the simple substitution P + M3+ + ???????¢??????????????? = Si + 2M2+ (where M2+ denotes Mg, Fe2+, Mn, Ca, and Ni; M3+ denotes Sc, Al, and Cr; and ???????¢??????????????? denotes a vacancy) is probably the dominant substitution mechanism in Sc- and P-bearing bulk compositions. In the absence of Sc, both molar Al-P and Cr-P plots

Edward M. Stolper

2013-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

391

Visual Specification of Complex Database Actions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper presents an approach to specify in an integrated way by visual, diagrammatic languages the structural and behavioural aspects of database applications. Hereby, well-known extended Entity-Relationship diagrams are employed to specify the structural aspects. The behavioural aspects of a database application are specified by using ViAL (Visual Action Language). ViAL specifications are a special kind of data (or better object) flow diagrams, where so-called elementary actions are used as basic building blocks. These elementary actions are automatically derived from a given EER diagram. They guarantee that after finishing their execution all inherent integrity constraints are fulfilled. The paper explains the features of the language ViAL and gives some illustrating examples. 1 Introduction Nowadays, semantic data models are regarded as convenient means to specify database applications [11]. Most of these approaches offer corresponding visual specification languages which eases b...

Gregor Engels; Perdita Lhr

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Writing Motor Specifications - How to Include Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The escalating cost of electric power coupled with the rapid depletion of our non-renewable resources makes consideration of motor efficiency good sense both from economic and conservation viewpoints. The efficiency of an electric motor can be assessed during bid evaluation by applying loss penalties: however, the actual value can be influenced at an earlier stage by a careful review of what goes into the motor specification.

Quartermaine, B. J.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Critical Operating Constraints Forecast-- Functional Specification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Critical operating constraints that could result in curtailments of load may occur in a transmission grid with areas of potential generation deficit and limited transmission import capacities. In such situations, it is crucial that the grid operators have a tool to predict when and where critical operating constraints would occur. This report describes the functional specification of such a decision support tool, called the COCF (Critical Operating Constraint Forecast).

2008-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

394

Distributed Control System Log-Keeping Specification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Information generated within the distributed control system (DCS) at most fossil generating stations could be more fully used by converting relevant information into searchable operator logs. This can be done through automated techniques combined with operator oversight and review. As a result, operator log-keeping effectiveness can be greatly improved while reducing the burden on the operator.ObjectivesThis project was undertaken to create specifications for ...

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

395

Site Specific Records Schedules | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Site Specific Records Schedules Site Specific Records Schedules Site Specific Records Schedules NOTE: Most of the files below are in PDF, you will need Acrobat® Reader(tm) to view these files. TITLE DATE LAST CHANGED AUTHORIZATION NUMBER AEC -- Administrative Record (pdf) 01/15/01 II-NNA-6754 AEC -- Nuclear Power Plant Docket Records (pdf) 01/15/01 NC-174-231 AEC -- Power Reactor Records (pdf) 01/15/01 II-NNA-2110 Alaska Power Administration (pdf) 02/09/01 N1-447-97-1 Appointee Clearance and Vetting Files (pdf) 09/10/02 N1-434-96-3 Bettis Atomic Laboratory Naval Reactors (pdf) 09/09/91 N1-434-91-8 Bonneville Power Administration (pdf) 08/06/07 N1-305-07-1 Cyclotron Records, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (pdf) 12/22/88 N1-434-89-7 Energy Information Administration (EIARS) (pdf) 10/21/03 N1-434-96-2

396

Automatic Sequences and Zip-Specifications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider infinite sequences of symbols, also known as streams, and the decidability question for equality of streams defined in a restricted format. This restricted format consists of prefixing a symbol at the head of a stream, of the stream function `zip', and recursion variables. Here `zip' interleaves the elements of two streams in alternating order, starting with the first stream. For example, the Thue-Morse sequence is obtained by the `zip-specification' {M = 0 : X, X = 1 : zip(X,Y), Y = 0 : zip(Y,X)}. Our analysis of such systems employs both term rewriting and coalgebraic techniques. We establish decidability for these zip-specifications, employing bisimilarity of observation graphs based on a suitably chosen cobasis. The importance of zip-specifications resides in their intimate connection with automatic sequences. We establish a new and simple characterization of automatic sequences. Thus we obtain for the binary zip that a stream is 2-automatic iff its observation graph using the cobasis (hd,even...

Grabmayer, Clemens; Hendriks, Dimitri; Klop, Jan Willem; Moss, Lawrence S

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

ENERGY STAR Uninterruptible Power Supply Specification Framework  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This document describes the key building blocks that form the basis for every ENERGY STAR specification; these items are intended to provide the framework around which the EPA can develop an effective energy efficiency program for Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) devices in data center, small office / home office, and home entertainment applications. The principal objectives for this ENERGY STAR specification are threefold: (1) to provide purchasers with the means to identify the most energy efficient UPS solutions for their specific end-use application, (2) to provide tools and information to designers and managers looking to improve the efficiency of data center operations, and (3) to provide uniform efficiency testing conditions and reporting criteria to enable an informed purchase decision and efficiency-oriented comparison of products. EPA will look to harmonize energy efficiency requirements, where appropriate, to minimize the number of competing standards in the marketplace. The purpose of each building block is provided under the subheadings below, along with EPAs preliminary thoughts on how each may ultimately be incorporated into the Version 1.0

unknown authors

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

THE DUAL ORIGIN OF THE NITROGEN DEFICIENCY IN COMETS: SELECTIVE VOLATILE TRAPPING IN THE NEBULA AND POSTACCRETION RADIOGENIC HEATING  

SciTech Connect

We propose a scenario that explains the apparent nitrogen deficiency in comets in a way that is consistent with the fact that the surfaces of Pluto and Triton are dominated by nitrogen-rich ice. We use a statistical thermodynamic model to investigate the composition of the successive multiple guest clathrates that may have formed during the cooling of the primordial nebula from the most abundant volatiles present in the gas phase. These clathrates agglomerated with the other ices (pure condensates or stoichiometric hydrates) and formed the building blocks of comets. We report that molecular nitrogen is a poor clathrate former, when we consider a plausible gas-phase composition of the primordial nebula. This implies that its trapping into cometesimals requires a low disk temperature ({approx}20 K) in order to allow the formation of its pure condensate. We find that it is possible to explain the lack of molecular nitrogen in comets as a consequence of their postformation internal heating engendered by the decay of short-lived radiogenic nuclides. This scenario is found to be consistent with the presence of nitrogen-rich ice covers on Pluto and Triton. Our model predicts that comets should present xenon-to-water and krypton-to-water ratios close to solar xenon-to-oxygen and krypton-to-oxygen ratios, respectively. In contrast, the argon-to-water ratio is predicted to be depleted by a factor of {approx}300 in comets compared to solar argon-to-oxygen, as a consequence of poor trapping efficiency and radiogenic heating.

Mousis, Olivier; Petit, Jean-Marc; Rousselot, Philippe [Universite de Franche-Comte, Institut UTINAM, CNRS/INSU, UMR 6213, Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers de Besancon, F-25030 Besancon Cedex (France); Guilbert-Lepoutre, Aurelie [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lunine, Jonathan I. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cochran, Anita L. [University of Texas McDonald Observatory, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Waite, J. Hunter, E-mail: olivier.mousis@obs-besancon.fr [Space Science and Engineering Division, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Pressure Tubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 8   Specifications for carbon and alloy steel pressure tubes (ASTM)...medium-strength carbon-molybdenum alloy

400

Fine limestone additions to regulate setting in high volume fly ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... [11] ASTM C618-08a. Standard specification for coal fly ash and raw or calcined natural pozzolan for use in concrete; 2008. ...

2013-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "astm volatility specifications" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Types of Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 10   ASTM specifications for structural quality steel plate...bolted, or welded construction of bridges, buildings,

402

Effect of Fiber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... to determine property data for material specifications, the laminates were obtained by hand layup process .The laminates were cut to obtain ASTM standards.

403

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Prices, Sales Volumes & Stocks by State Prices, Sales Volumes & Stocks by State Definitions Key Terms Definition Aviation Gasoline (Finished) A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in aviation reciprocating engines. Fuel specifications are provided in ASTM Specification D 910 and Military Specification MIL-G-5572. Note: Data on blending components are not counted in data on finished aviation gasoline. Gas Plant Operator Any firm, including a gas plant owner, which operates a gas plant and keeps the gas plant records. A gas plant is a facility in which natural gas liquids are separated from natural gas or in which natural gas liquids are fractionated or otherwise separated into natural gas liquid products or both. For the purposes of this survey, gas plant operator data are contained in the refiner categories.

404

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Petroleum Product Prices by Sales Type Petroleum Product Prices by Sales Type Definitions Key Terms Definition Aviation Gasoline (Finished) A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in aviation reciprocating engines. Fuel specifications are provided in ASTM Specification D 910 and Military Specification MIL-G-5572. Note: Data on blending components are not counted in data on finished aviation gasoline. Gas Plant Operator Any firm, including a gas plant owner, which operates a gas plant and keeps the gas plant records. A gas plant is a facility in which natural gas liquids are separated from natural gas or in which natural gas liquids are fractionated or otherwise separated into natural gas liquid products or both. For the purposes of this survey, gas plant operator data are contained in the refiner categories.

405

Codes and Standards: Hydrogen Fuel Purity Specifications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Codes and Standards: Codes and Standards: Hydrogen Fuel Purity Specifications Walter F. Podolski Fuel Purity Workshop Los Angeles, CA April 26, 2004 ChevronTexaco ConocoPhillips EXONMobil FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership Organizational Structure Codes and Standards for Commercial Hydrogen/Fuel Cell Vehicles Goal is to support commercialization decision in the 2015 timeframe * Ensure acceptability to all stake-holders - Regulators, insurers, public * Enable commercial feasibility * Facilitate rapid introduction of technical advances Issues * What we want to avoid - Premature Standards, Codes, and Regulations that slow introduction of new technologies - Competing national and international SDOs and professional organizations * What we want to encourage - Flexible guidelines that enable demonstration

406

HomePlug AV Specification Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes and evaluates the HomePlug AV (HPAV) Home Area Network (HAN) protocol as described in the HomePlug Power Alliance's "HomePlug AV Specification Version 1.1," May 21, 2007. The report introduces HPAV features and capabilities. Its focus is on information required by developers and evaluators of HPAV-enabled applications. It also includes an in-depth description of necessary processes required to establish and maintain a HPAV network over Power Line Communication (PLC) as well as commu...

2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

407

Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

Jamriska, Sr., David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Ott, Martin A. (Los Alamos, NM); Fowler, Malcolm (Los Alamos, NM); Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

408

Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity Cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

Jamriska, Sr., David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Ott, Martin A. (Los Alamos, NM); Fowler, Malcolm (Los Alamos, NM); Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM)

2003-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

409

ELECTRONIC SPECIFIC HEAT OF SODIUM TUNGSTEN BRONZE  

SciTech Connect

The design and operation of a calorimeter for use in the temperature range 1.8 to 4.2 deg K are presented, and the methods used in the treatment of data and calculation of results are discussed. The heat capacities of several Na- W bronzes (Na/sub x/WO/sub 3/) were determined in the temperature interval 1.8 to 4.2 deg K. Samples having x equal to 0.89, heat capacities are described adequately by the sum of two terms, one linear and one cubic in temperature. The electronic specific heat of each sample is obtained by evaluating the coefficient of the linear term, and the Rebye eharacteristic temperature derived from the coefficient of the cubic term. Rensities of one-electron energy levels at the Fermi energy, and effective electronic masses are calculated from the electronic specific heats. A plot of the density of states as a function of energy can be made if it is assumed that this curve is independent of Na concentration. The justification of this assumption is discussed in the light of current theories of the solid state. The density of states curve rises rapidly at higher energies, and this rise is interpreted in terms of the filling of a Brillouin zone or of an overlap of two bands. (auth)

Vest,R.W.; Griffel, M.; Smith, J.F.

1957-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Synthesis of application specific instruction sets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An instruction set serves as the interface between hardware and software in a computer system. In an application specific environment, the system per-formance can be improved by designing an instruction set that matches the characteristics of hardware and the application. We present a systematic approach to generate application-specific instruction sets so that software applications can be efficiently mapped to a given pipelined microarchitec-ture. The approach synthesizes instruction sets from application bench-marks, given a machine model, an objective function, and a set of design constraints. In addition, assembly code is generated to show how the benchmarks can be compiled with the synthesized instruction set. The problem of designing instruction sets is formulated as a modified schedul-ing problem. A binary tuple is proposed to model the semantics of instruc-tions and integrate the instruction formation process into the scheduling process. A simulated annealing scheme is used to solve for the schedules. Experiments have shown that the approach is capable of synthesizing pow-erful instructions for modern pipelined micro-processors, and running with reasonable time and a modest amount of memory for large applications.

Ing-jer Huang

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Contractor-specific Documentation & Information in PARS II |...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Contractor-specific Documentation & Information in PARS II Contractor-specific Documentation & Information in PARS II DOE Office of Acquisition and Project Management established...

412

Specification of an Information Delivery Tool to Support Optimal...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Media Contacts Specification of an Information Delivery Tool to Support Optimal Holistic Environmental and Energy Management in Buildings Title Specification of an Information...

413

FTCP Site Specific Information - NNSA Production Office | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

FTCP Site Specific Information - NNSA Production Office FTCP Site Specific Information - NNSA Production Office FTCP Agent Organization Name Phone E-Mail NNSA Production Office Ken...

414

Information Resources: Model Specification for LED Roadway Luminaires...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Model Specification for LED Roadway Luminaires Webcast This November 15, 2011 webcast presented information about the Model Specification for LED Roadway Luminaires developed by...

415

Solid-State Lighting: Model Specification for LED Roadway Luminaires...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Model Specification for LED Roadway Luminaires Webcast to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Model Specification for LED Roadway Luminaires Webcast on Facebook Tweet...

416

Level: National Data; Row: Specific Energy-Management Activities...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

be conducted in 2010 Table 8.4 Number of Establishments by Participation in Specific Energy-Management Activities, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: Specific Energy-Management...

417

Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy Program Specific Recovery...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy Program Specific Recovery Plan Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy Program Specific Recovery Plan Microsoft Word - 44F1801D.doc...

418

Petroleum Outlook: More Volatility?  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Presented by: Dr. John S. Cook, Director, Petroleum Division, Office of Oil and GasPresented to: NPRA Annual MeetingMarch 19, 2001

Information Center

2001-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

419

Volatility of copper  

SciTech Connect

The relevant aqueous thermodynamics of copper and its oxides are evaluated and summarized with emphasis on solubility, hydrolysis, and complexation. The solubilities of metallic copper, solid cuprous and cupric oxides in steam measured by Pocock and Stewart in 1963 are discussed and the latter data are fitted in the form of established empirical equations and compared to other existing results. No other sources of data were found for the solubility of copper and cupric oxide in steam and even these data are very limited. Discussion of corresponding available solubility data on both oxide phases in liquid water is given. The possible effects of complexing agents are considered. A brief discussion is provided of the role of surface adsorption in determining the fate of dissolved copper in the boiler. 37 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Palmer, D.A.; Simonson, J.M.; Joyce, D.B.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Parent Volatiles and Dust  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

1 Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, code 693,. Greenbelt, MD ... 4 Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ 08028, USA. 5 W.M. Keck .... sample a range of rotational energies

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "astm volatility specifications" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Volatility and Variance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is the culmination of an inquiry into the behavior of energy prices, starting at least as far back as 1992 with passage of the Energy Policy Act and development of a relatively vibrant wholesale electricity market. Prior to about 1997, the volume of literature on energy price modeling was scarce. Many of the insights presented here were learned via trial and error or by painstakingly pondering a seemingly incongruous result. This report attempts to present a distilled and clear summary of the...

2006-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

422

Exponential Conditional Volatility Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- relation function (ACF) is less straightforward than it is for a GARCHmodel, analytic expressions can be obtained and these expressions are more general. Speci?cally, formulae for the ACF of the (absolute values of ) the observations raised to any power can... proposes an exponential link function for the conditional mean in gamma and Weibull distributions. As well as setting out the conditions for the asymptotic theory to be valid, expressions for moments, ACFs and multi-step forecasts are derived. Leverage...

Harvey, Andrew

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

423

TECHNICAL JUSTIFICATION FOR CHOOSING PROPANE AS A CALIBRATION AGENT FOR TOTAL FLAMMABLE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) DETERMINATIONS  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the technical justification for choosing and using propane as a calibration standard for estimating total flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an air matrix. A propane-in-nitrogen standard was selected based on a number of criteria: (1) has an analytical response similar to the VOCs of interest, (2) can be made with known accuracy and traceability, (3) is available with good purity, (4) has a matrix similar to the sample matrix, (5) is stable during storage and use, (6) is relatively non-hazardous, and (7) is a recognized standard for similar analytical applications. The Waste Retrieval Project (WRP) desires a fast, reliable, and inexpensive method for screening the flammable VOC content in the vapor-phase headspace of waste containers. Table 1 lists the flammable VOCs of interest to the WRP. The current method used to determine the VOC content of a container is to sample the container's headspace and submit the sample for gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The driver for the VOC measurement requirement is safety: potentially flammable atmospheres in the waste containers must be allowed to diffuse prior to processing the container. The proposed flammable VOC screening method is to inject an aliquot of the headspace sample into an argon-doped pulsed-discharge helium ionization detector (Ar-PDHID) contained within a gas chromatograph. No actual chromatography is performed; the sample is transferred directly from a sample loop to the detector through a short, inert transfer line. The peak area resulting from the injected sample is proportional to the flammable VOC content of the sample. However, because the Ar-PDHID has different response factors for different flammable VOCs, a fundamental assumption must be made that the agent used to calibrate the detector is representative of the flammable VOCs of interest that may be in the headspace samples. At worst, we desire that calibration with the selected calibrating agent overestimate the value of the VOCs in a sample. By overestimating the VOC content of a sample, we want to minimize false negatives. A false negative is defined as incorrectly estimating the VOC content of the sample to be below programmatic action limits when, in fact, the sample,exceeds the action limits. The disadvantage of overestimating the flammable VOC content of a sample is that additional cost may be incurred because additional sampling and GC-MS analysis may be required to confirm results over programmatic action limits. Therefore, choosing an appropriate calibration standard for the Ar-PDHID is critical to avoid false negatives and to minimize additional analytical costs.

DOUGLAS, J.G.

2006-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

424

Business System Planning Project System Requirements Specification  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Business Systems Planning Project System Requirements Specification (SRS) is to provide the outline and contents of the requirements for the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) integrated business and technical information systems. The SRS will translate proposed objectives into the statement of the functions that are to be performed and data and information flows that they require. The requirements gathering methodology will use (1) facilitated group requirement sessions; (2) individual interviews; (3) surveys; and (4) document reviews. The requirements will be verified and validated through coordination of the technical requirement team and CHG Managers. The SRS document used the content and format specified in Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. Organization Standard Software Practices in conjunction with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 8340-1984 for Systems Requirements Documents.

NELSON, R.E.

2000-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

425

X-Ray Microtomography of an ASTM C-109 mortar exposed to ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 20899 USA. J. Dunsmuir Exxon Research and Engineering Company Route 22 East, Annandale, NJ 08801 USA. LM Schwartz ...

2005-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

426

DHS-NIST-ASTM Robot Test Methods (v2011.1) BLANK ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Page 30 Terrains: Sand (P) Terrains ... IDENTIFIER PAN TILT ZOOM (OPT/DIG) COLOR I/RB/W NO YES VAR NO YES VAR FIXED AUTO -TIGHT ...

2013-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

427

Journal of ASTM International, June 2005, Vol. 2, No. 6 Paper ID JAI12441  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. These axial segments were inserted and contained in a thin-walled, 3-mm diameter brass tube with the same

Motta, Arthur T.

428

Analysis of the ASTM Round-Robin Test on Particle Size ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and Concrete Reference Laboratory (CCRL), who ... Ella Shkolnik, Construction Technology Labs Charlotte Lehmann ... Cable, ROAN Laboratories Inc. ...

2003-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

429

ASTM Meeting Agenda for San Antonio, TX (v2010.3)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Then on Wednesday morning we will meet at the hotel for the Main ... TOPIC: ENERGY (Karl Reichard) Discuss and demonstrate the first 20 laps with ...

2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

430

Analysis of the ASTM Round-Robin Test on Particle Size ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... so there is no theoretical difference between using a liquid or a gas as a ... down to about 0.01 m, depending on the speed of the centrifuge and the ...

2002-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

431

Development of an ASTM Standard Test Method on X-Ray ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Hydraulic cement composition and fineness, along with other concrete ... Mill grinding affects the cement microstructure through fracturing of the ...

2004-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

432

Evaluation of compost specifications for stormwater management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Urban development will continue to increase in Texas because of population growth and urban sprawl. Despite the desire for urbanization and expansion of the economy, this growth increases the amount of construction, which, if not properly managed, can increase non-point source pollution and threaten surface water quality. Therefore, Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) has approved and promoted the use of compost as a stormwater best management practice (BMP) during highway construction. The objectives of this study were to construct and calibrate an indoor rainfall simulator and to determine the effectiveness of using compost rather than conventional hydroseeding or topsoil to reduce erosion from disturbed soils. Runoff rates, interrill erosion, and interrill erodibility were determined and compared across five compost treatments following TxDOT specifications for compost applied as an erosion control and two control treatments of topsoil (TS) and hydroseeding (HS) applied at 5 cm depth. The simulator produced 89% uniformity using ten Veejet 80100 nozzles at a target rate of 100 mm h-1. The surface runoff was collected after 5 minutes of rainfall (first flush) and during the last 30 minutes of rainfall (steady-state). The first flush mean runoff for GUC-5 treatment was significantly higher than all other treatments. All other treatments; 50% woodchips and 50% compost blend (ECC-1.3, ECC-5), and hydroseeding (HS) had significantly lower runoff and erosion rates compared to topsoil (TS) and compost manufactured topsoil (CMT) at first flush and steady-state. Furthermore, there were no performance differences between 1.3 cm and 5 cm compost applications at first flush or steady-state. The results of this project indicate that particle size, soil moisture capabilities, and time at which rainfall is applied affect surface runoff. TxDOT specification of using ECC at 5 cm depth on a max of 3:1 slope should be reconsidered. An ECC application depth of 1.3 cm was effective in reducing first flush runoff and interrill erosion rates.

Birt, Lindsay Nicole

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

A summary of North American HVDC converter station reliability specifications  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (RAM) specifications that were issued for thyristor based HVDC converter stations in service in North America. A total of twenty project specifications are summarized. A detailed summary by project is shown with specific quantitative requirements categorized. Definitions of terms, representative design principles, and formulas used in calculating RAM parameters contained in existing reliability specifications are presented.

Vancers, I. (ABB Power Systems Inc., Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Hormozi, F.J. (Los Angeles Dept. of Water and Power, CA (United States))

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Building Technologies Office: Building America Climate-Specific Guidance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

America America Climate-Specific Guidance to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Building America Climate-Specific Guidance on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Building America Climate-Specific Guidance on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Building America Climate-Specific Guidance on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Building America Climate-Specific Guidance on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Building America Climate-Specific Guidance on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Building America Climate-Specific Guidance on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy Partner With DOE Activities Solar Decathlon Building America Research Innovations Research Tools Building Science Education

435

Technology & System Specifications | The Better Buildings Alliance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

& System Specifications & System Specifications Activities Technology Solutions Teams Public Sector Teams Market Solutions Teams Technology & System Specifications The Better Buildings Alliance Technology Solutions Teams develop specifications for you to customize and use to obtain quotes for high-efficiency products and services. Collective support for these product and performance specifications demonstrates a market need to manufacturers and leads to greater product availability, higher quality, and more competitive pricing. Get started by clicking below. Available Specifications Sign your support for the Wireless Meter Challenge and review the specification The wireless meter challenge has been launched to catalyze the development of low cost metering solutions. Meters are an integral component of energy

436

Formal specification of real-time dependable systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The complex and critical nature of real-time, dependable systems (henceforth referred to as RTD systems) necessitates the use of analyzable specifications and specification analysis techniques supporting the assessment of behavioral, safety-critical, ... Keywords: analyzable specifications, behavioral quality, consistency check, fault-tolerant quality, formal reasoning systems, formal specification, multilevel description, nonfunctional qualities, precise specification language, real-time dependable systems, real-time systems, safety-critical quality, safety-critical software, security of data, security quality, software fault tolerance, specification analysis techniques, specification languages, system monitoring

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Building Technologies Office: Building Energy Data Exchange Specification  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Building Energy Data Building Energy Data Exchange Specification to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Building Energy Data Exchange Specification on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Building Energy Data Exchange Specification on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Building Energy Data Exchange Specification on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Building Energy Data Exchange Specification on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Building Energy Data Exchange Specification on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Building Energy Data Exchange Specification on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy Activities 179d Tax Calculator Advanced Energy Design Guides Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides

438

Quantifying the value that energy efficiency and renewable energy provide as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

natural gas has become the fuel of choice for new power plantspower from a new plant will not be needed, which can be Unlike natural gas-power plants (Awerbuch 1993, 1994; Kahn & Stoft 1993). Specifically, in the context of natural gas-

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Bachrach, Devra; Golove, William

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Evaluation of superpave fine aggregate specification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Superpave[] was the final product of the Strategic Highway Research Program's (SHRP) asphalt pavement research effort during 1987-93. Some aspects of the Superpave aggregate specifications are not universally accepted. The validity of the fine aggregate angularity (FAA) requirement is questioned by both the owner agencies and the paving and aggregate industries. The FAA test is based on the assumption that more fractured faces will result in higher void content in the loosely compacted sample; however, this is not always true. The aggregate industry has found that cubical shaped particles, even with 100% fractured faces, may not meet the FAA requirement for high-volume traffic. State agencies are concerned that local materials previously considered acceptable and which have provided good field performance, now cannot meet the Superpave requirements. Twenty three-fine aggregates from different part of the USA were tested using major angularity tests: FAA test, direct shear test, compacted aggregate resistance (CAR) test, image analysis Hough transform, and visual inspection. The results from those tests were compared with the available performance history. The FAA test method does not consistently identify angular, cubical aggregates as high quality materials. There is a fair correlation between the CAR stability value and angle of internal friction (AIF) from direct shear test. No correlation was found between FAA and CAR stability or between FAA and AIF. A good correlation was found between FAA and K-index from Hough transform method. Some cubical crushed aggregates whose FAA values were less than 45 gave very high values of CAR stability, AIF and K-index. The statistical analysis of the SHRP LTPP database reveals that there is no evidence of any good linear relationship between FAA and rutting. Of the methods evaluated, image analysis using Hough transform appears most promising for measuring fine aggregate angularity. Until a replacement method for FAA can be identified, the author recommends that the FAA criteria be lowered from 45. The FAA vs. rutting data analysis should be continued with a larger amount of data as the LTPP SHRP database is expanded.

Chowdhury, Md. Tahjib-Ul-Arif

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

X:\Data_Publication\Pma\current\ventura\pma00.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

calculated in terms of the following formula: calculated in terms of the following formula: Deg API sp gr degF degF = - 141 5 60 60 131 5 . . The higher the API gravity, the lighter the compound. Light crudes generally exceed 38 degrees API and heavy crudes are commonly labeled as all crudes with an API gravity of 22 degrees or below. Intermediate crudes fall in the range of 22 degrees to 38 degrees API gravity. ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials. Aviation Gasoline (Finished): A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in aviation reciprocating engines. Fuel specifi- cations are provided in ASTM Specification D 910 and Military Specification MIL-G-5572. Note: Data on blending components are not counted in data on fin- ished aviation gasoline. Barrel: A volumetric unit of measure for crude oil and petroleum products equivalent to 42 U.S. gallons.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "astm volatility specifications" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Final Report - Glass Formulation Testing to Increase Sulfate Volatilization from Melter, VSL-04R4970-1, Rev. 0, dated 2/24/05  

SciTech Connect

The principal objectives of the DM100 and DM10 tests were to determine the impact of four different organics and one inorganic feed additive on sulfate volatilization and to determine the sulfur partitioning between the glass and the off-gas system. The tests provided information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data including sulfur incorporation and partitioning. A series of DM10 and DM100 melter tests were conducted using a LAW Envelope A feed. The testing was divided into three parts. The first part involved a series of DM10 melter tests with four different organic feed additives: sugar, polyethylene glycol (PEG), starch, and urea. The second part involved two confirmatory 50-hour melter tests on the DM100 using the best combination of reductants and conditions based on the DM10 results. The third part was performed on the DM100 with feeds containing vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) as an inorganic additive to increase sulfur partitioning to the off-gas. Although vanadium oxide is not a reductant, previous testing has shown that vanadium shows promise for partitioning sulfur to the melter exhaust, presumably through its known catalytic effect on the SO{sub 2}/SO{sub 3} reaction. Crucible-scale tests were conducted prior to the melter tests to confirm that the glasses and feeds would be processable in the melter and that the glasses would meet the waste form (ILAW) performance requirements. Thus, the major objectives of these tests were to: ? Perform screening tests on the DM10 followed by tests on the DM100-WV system using a LAW -Envelope A feed with four organic additives to assess their impact on sulfur volatilization. ? Perform tests on the DM100-WV system using a LAW -Envelope A feed containing vanadium oxide to assess its impact on sulfur volatilization. ? Determine feed processability and product quality with the above additives. ? Collect melter emissions data to determine the effect of additives on sulfur partitioning and melter emissions. ? Collect and analyze discharged glass to determine sulfur retention in the glass. ? Prepare and characterize feeds and glasses with the additives to confirm that the feeds and the glass melts are suitable for processing in the DM100 melter. ? Prepare and characterize glasses with the additives to confirm that the glasses meet the waste form (ILAW) performance requirements.

Kruger, Albert A.; Matlack, K. A.; Pegg, I. L.; Gong, W.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

442

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Definitions and Specifications  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biofuels Definitions Biofuels Definitions and Specifications to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Definitions and Specifications on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Definitions and Specifications on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Definitions and Specifications on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Definitions and Specifications on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Definitions and Specifications on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Definitions and Specifications on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuels Definitions and Specifications Biodiesel is a fuel that is produced from nonpetroleum renewable resources

443

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Definition and Specification  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Definition Biodiesel Definition and Specification to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Definition and Specification on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Definition and Specification on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Definition and Specification on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Definition and Specification on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Definition and Specification on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Definition and Specification on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Definition and Specification Biodiesel is defined as a fuel that is comprised of mono-alkyl esters of

444

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Definition and Specifications  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Definition Biodiesel Definition and Specifications to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Definition and Specifications on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Definition and Specifications on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Definition and Specifications on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Definition and Specifications on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Definition and Specifications on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Definition and Specifications on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Definition and Specifications Biodiesel is defined as a fuel that is comprised only of mono-alkyl esters

445

Steam boiler control specification problem: A TLA solution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Our solution to the specification problem in the specification language TLA+ is based on a model of operation where several components proceed synchronously. Our first specification concerns a simplified controller and abstracts from many details given in the informal problem description. We successively add modules to build a model of the state of the steam boiler, detect failures, and model message transmission. We give a more detailed controller specification and prove that it refines the abstract controller. We also address the relationship between the physical state of the steam boiler and the model maintained by the controller and discuss the reliability of failure detection. Finally, we discuss the implementability of our specification. 1 Introduction We propose a solution to the steam boiler control specification problem [AS] by means of a formal specification in the specification language TLA+, which is based on Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions TLA [L94]. The overall str...

Frank Leke; Stephan Merz

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Assessment of Rainfall Measurement That Uses Specific Differential Phase  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines some effects of drop size distribution and shape on the rainfall-rate estimates obtained from the specific differential phase. An algorithm that uses exclusively the specific differential phase is presented, and performance of ...

Alexander Ryzhkov; Dusan Zrni?

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

A lightweight specification language for bounded program verification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a new light-weight specification language called JForge Specification Language (JFSL) for object-oriented languages such as Java. The language is amenable to bounded verification analysis by a tool ...

Yessenov, Kuat T

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

An accuracy information annotation model for validated service behavior specifications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Assessing providable service levels based on model-driven prediction approaches requires valid service behavior specifications. Such specifications must be suitable for the requested usage profile and available hardware to make correct predictions and ...

Henning Groenda

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

NDSeq: runtime checking for nondeterministic sequential specifications of parallel correctness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose to specify the correctness of a program's parallelism using a sequential version of the program with controlled nondeterminism. Such a nondeterministic sequential specification allows (1) the correctness of parallel interference to ... Keywords: parallel correctness, serializability, specification

Jacob Burnim; Tayfun Elmas; George Necula; Koushik Sen

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Algorithm for Estimation of the Specific Differential Phase  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The specific differential phase Kdp is one of the important parameters measured by dual-polarization radar that is being considered for the upgrade of the current Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) system. Estimation of the specific ...

Yanting Wang; V. Chandrasekar

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Solid-State Lighting: Model Specification for LED Roadway Luminaires  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Model Specification for LED Roadway Luminaires to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Model Specification for LED Roadway Luminaires on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State...

452

Formulation, Pretreatment, and Densification Options to Improve Biomass Specifications for Co-Firing High Percentages with Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is a growing interest internationally to use more biomass for power generation, given the potential for significant environmental benefits and long-term fuel sustainability. However, the use of biomass alone for power generation is subject to serious challenges, such as feedstock supply reliability, quality, and stability, as well as comparative cost, except in situations in which biomass is locally sourced. In most countries, only a limited biomass supply infrastructure exists. Alternatively, co-firing biomass alongwith coal offers several advantages; these include reducing challenges related to biomass quality, buffering the system against insufficient feedstock quantity, and mitigating the costs of adapting existing coal power plants to feed biomass exclusively. There are some technical constraints, such as low heating values, low bulk density, and grindability or size-reduction challenges, as well as higher moisture, volatiles, and ash content, which limit the co-firing ratios in direct and indirect co-firing. To achieve successful co-firing of biomass with coal, biomass feedstock specifications must be established to direct pretreatment options in order to modify biomass materials into a format that is more compatible with coal co-firing. The impacts on particle transport systems, flame stability, pollutant formation, and boiler-tube fouling/corrosion must also be minimized by setting feedstock specifications, which may include developing new feedstock composition by formulation or blending. Some of the issues, like feeding, co-milling, and fouling, can be overcome by pretreatment methods including washing/leaching, steam explosion, hydrothermal carbonization, and torrefaction, and densification methods such as pelletizing and briquetting. Integrating formulation, pretreatment, and densification will help to overcome issues related to physical and chemical composition, storage, and logistics to successfully co-fire higher percentages of biomass ( > 40%) with coal.

Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; J Richard Hess; Richard D. Boardman; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Tyler L. Westover

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Generic Guide Specification for Geothermal Heat Pump Systems  

SciTech Connect

The attached Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pump (GHP) Guide Specifications have been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the intent to assist federal agency sites and engineers in the preparation of construction specifications for GHP projects. These specifications have been developed in the industry-standard Construction Specification Institute (CSI) format and cover several of the most popular members of the family of GHP systems. These guide specifications are applicable to projects whether the financing is with conventional appropriations, arranged by GHP specialty ESCOs under the U.S. Department of Energy's Technology-Specific GHP Super ESPCs, arranged by utilities under Utility Energy Service Contracts (UESCs) or arranged by generalist ESCOs under the various regional ESPCs. These specifications can provide several benefits to the end user that will help ensure successful GHP system installations. GHP guide specifications will help to streamline the specification development, review, and approval process because the architecture and engineering (AE) firm will be working from the familiar CSI format instead of developing the specifications from other sources. The guide specifications help to provide uniformity, standardization, and consistency in both the construction specifications and system installations across multiple federal sites. This standardization can provide future benefits to the federal sites in respect to both maintenance and operations. GHP guide specifications can help to ensure that the agency is getting its money's worth from the GHP system by preventing the use of marginal or inferior components and equipment. The agency and its AE do not have to start from scratch when developing specifications and can use the specification as a template and/or a checklist in developing both the design and the contract documents. The guide specifications can save project costs by reducing the engineering effort required during the design development phase. Use of this guide specification for any project is strictly optional and at the discretion of the responsible party in charge. If used as a construction specification master template for GHP systems, this guide specification must, in all cases, be edited to apply to the specific project in question and to reflect the site-specific conditions relevant to the project. There is no guarantee of accuracy or applicability with respect to any portion of this specification and the user assumes all risk associated with the application of the information contained in this document.

Thomas, WKT

2000-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

454

Uniform, Shape-Specific Carriers for Vaccines, Biologics and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uniform, Shape-Specific Carriers for Vaccines, Biologics and Small Molecule Drugs: Top-down Nano-fabrication Technologies. ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

455

NIST SP800-15, Minimum Interoperability Specification for PKI ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... code (MAC) using the symmetric encryption algorithm ... 2. Infrastructure Component Specifications ... required for the interoperation of PKI components. ...

2012-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

456

Procurement specifications : Daylighting The New York Times Building  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Overview The architectural approach The owner's approach Daylighting field study Daylighting control systems Automated roller shades Procurement specifications Shades and...

457

Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister System Performance Specification: Revision 1  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This document provides specifications for selected system components of the Transportation, Aging and Disposal (TAD) canister-based system.

458

An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification Peter Csaba ()lveczky, Poland Abstract. In this paper an object-oriented algebraic solution of the steam-boiler specification Introduction The steam-boiler control specification problem has been proposed as a challenge for different

?lveczky, Peter Csaba

459

An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification.In this paper an object-oriented algebraic solution of the steam-boiler specification problem is presented computations cannot happen. 1 Introduction The steam-boiler control specification problem has been

?lveczky, Peter Csaba

460

Object-oriented logical specification of time-critical systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We define TRIO+, an object-oriented logical language for modular system specification. TRIO+ is based on TRIO, a first-order temporal language that is well suited to the specification of embedded and real-time ... Keywords: first-order logic, formal specifications, model-theoretic semantics, object-oriented methodologies, real-time systems, temporal logic

Angelo Morzenti; Pierluigi San Pietro

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "astm volatility specifications" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Task-specific information retrieval systems for software engineers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses the development of task-specific information retrieval systems for software engineers. We discuss how software engineers interact with information and information retrieval systems and investigate to what extent a domain-specific ... Keywords: Collaborative filtering, Contextualization of information retrieval, Domain-specific information retrieval, Implicit feedback

Adam Grzywaczewski; Rahat Iqbal

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Important Cognitive Components of Domain-Specific Search Knowledge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the subject-specific terms to enter in a query. For example, many university students often buy electronicImportant Cognitive Components of Domain-Specific Search Knowledge Suresh K. Bhavnani School Many users have acquired a sophisticated understanding of searching the Web in specific domains

Bhavnani, Suresh K.

463

A four-way framework for validating a specification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The validation of a software specification may be viewed as a function of what the specification is to be used for and any comprehensive validation exercise needs to address possibly conflicting requirements. In this paper we develop a framework which ... Keywords: formal specification, requirements, spiral model, validation

Cyrille Dongmo; John A. van der Poll

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Independent Specific Administrative Controls Review, Office of River  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Office of Office of River Protection - December 2010 Independent Specific Administrative Controls Review, Office of River Protection - December 2010 December 2010 Specific Administrative Controls Review with the Office of Environmental Management at the Office of River Protection The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Independent Oversight, within the Office of Health, Safety and Security, participated in an Office of Environmental Management Office of Standards and Quality Assurance, EM-23, review of Specific Administrative Controls (SAC). The EM-23 review included selected Office of River Protection programs at the Hanford Site. Independent Specific Administrative Controls Review, Office of River Protection - December 2010 More Documents & Publications Independent Specific Administrative Controls Review, Richland Operations

465

Renewable Energy Specifications, Testing and Certification Terms of  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Renewable Energy Specifications, Testing and Certification Terms of Renewable Energy Specifications, Testing and Certification Terms of Reference Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Renewable Energy Specifications, Testing and Certification Terms of Reference Agency/Company /Organization: World Bank Sector: Energy Focus Area: Solar, - Solar PV Topics: Market analysis, Co-benefits assessment Website: web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTENERGY2/EXTRENENERGYTK/0,, References: Renewable Energy Specifications, Testing and Certification Terms of Reference[1] Resources Establishment of Local PV Systems Certification Capability Preparation of Small Private Power Producers Grid Connection Standards Establishment of Local PV System Battery Testing Procedure References ↑ "Renewable Energy Specifications, Testing and Certification

466

Guide Specifications: An Overlooked Avenue for Promoting Building Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Guide Specifications: An Overlooked Avenue for Promoting Building Energy Guide Specifications: An Overlooked Avenue for Promoting Building Energy Efficiency Title Guide Specifications: An Overlooked Avenue for Promoting Building Energy Efficiency Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2000 Authors Coleman, Philip, and Alexander T. Shaw Conference Name 2000 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings Volume 4 Pagination 47-54 Date Published 01/2000 Abstract Guide specifications, the templates from which individual building project specifications are based, can be written to require high-efficiency products or systems. This paper documents a few selected instances where federal, state, or commercial guide specifications have incorporated such provisions, resulting in estimated annual savings in 2010 of over $30 million. The argument is made that promoting higher efficiency through guide specifications has several advantages over other avenues, including the improvement of building codes. The paper calls for increased attention to this overlooked opportunity from the energy policy community.

467

Microbiological characterization and specific methanogenic activity of anaerobe sludges used in urban solid waste treatment  

SciTech Connect

This study presents the microbiological characterization of the anaerobic sludge used in a two-stage anaerobic reactor for the treatment of organic fraction of urban solid waste (OFUSW). This treatment is one alternative for reducing solid waste in landfills at the same time producing a biogas (CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}) and an effluent that can be used as biofertilizer. The system was inoculated with sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) (Rio Frio Plant in Bucaramanga-Colombia) and a methanogenic anaerobic digester for the treatment of pig manure (Mesa de los Santos in Santander). Bacterial populations were evaluated by counting groups related to oxygen sensitivity, while metabolic groups were determined by most probable number (MPN) technique. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA) for acetate, formate, methanol and ethanol substrates was also determined. In the acidogenic reactor (R1), volatile fatty acids (VFA) reached values of 25,000 mg L{sup -1} and a concentration of CO{sub 2} of 90%. In this reactor, the fermentative population was predominant (10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} MPN mL{sup -1}). The acetogenic population was (10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) and the sulphate-reducing population was (10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}). In the methanogenic reactor (R2), levels of CH{sub 4} (70%) were higher than CO{sub 2} (25%), whereas the VFA values were lower than 4000 mg L{sup -1}. Substrate competition between sulphate-reducing (10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) and methanogenic bacteria (10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) was not detected. From the SMA results obtained, acetoclastic (2.39 g COD-CH{sub 4} g{sup -1} VSS{sup -1} day{sup -1}) and hydrogenophilic (0.94 g COD-CH{sub 4} g{sup -1} VSS{sup -1} day{sup -1}) transformations as possible metabolic pathways used by methanogenic bacteria is suggested from the SMA results obtained. Methanotrix sp., Methanosarcina sp., Methanoccocus sp. and Methanobacterium sp. were identified.

Sandoval Lozano, Claudia Johanna [Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Ambientales, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Calle 9A Carrera 27, Aptdo Aereo 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia)], E-mail: ceiam@uis.edu.co; Vergara Mendoza, Marisol; Carreno de Arango, Mariela; Castillo Monroy, Edgar Fernando [Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Ambientales, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Calle 9A Carrera 27, Aptdo Aereo 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

468

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Ethanol Plant Production Ethanol Plant Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Fuel Ethanol An anhydrous alcohol (ethanol with less than 1% water) intended for gasoline blending as described in the Oxygenates definition. Oxyge