National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for assumptions fully integrated

  1. FULLY INTEGRATED HIGH SPEED MEGAWATT CLASS MOTOR AND HIGH FREQUENCY...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FULLY INTEGRATED HIGH SPEED MEGAWATT CLASS MOTOR AND HIGH FREQUENCY VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE SYSTEM FULLY INTEGRATED HIGH SPEED MEGAWATT CLASS MOTOR AND HIGH FREQUENCY VARIABLE SPEED ...

  2. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ape03marlino.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit Smart Integrated Power Module ...

  3. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. PDF icon ape003tolbert2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit Wide Bandgap Materials Smart ...

  4. Analysis of Modeling Assumptions used in Production Cost Models for Renewable Integration Studies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of Modeling Assumptions used in Production Cost Models for Renewable Integration Studies Brady Stoll, Gregory Brinkman, Aaron Townsend, and Aaron Bloom National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-65383 January 2016 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

  5. Analysis of Modeling Assumptions used in Production Cost Models for Renewable Integration Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoll, Brady; Brinkman, Gregory; Townsend, Aaron; Bloom, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy integration studies have been published for many different regions exploring the question of how higher penetration of renewable energy will impact the electric grid. These studies each make assumptions about the systems they are analyzing; however the effect of many of these assumptions has not been yet been examined and published. In this paper we analyze the impact of modeling assumptions in renewable integration studies, including the optimization method used (linear or mixed-integer programming) and the temporal resolution of the dispatch stage (hourly or sub-hourly). We analyze each of these assumptions on a large and a small system and determine the impact of each assumption on key metrics including the total production cost, curtailment of renewables, CO2 emissions, and generator starts and ramps. Additionally, we identified the impact on these metrics if a four-hour ahead commitment step is included before the dispatch step and the impact of retiring generators to reduce the degree to which the system is overbuilt. We find that the largest effect of these assumptions is at the unit level on starts and ramps, particularly for the temporal resolution, and saw a smaller impact at the aggregate level on system costs and emissions. For each fossil fuel generator type we measured the average capacity started, average run-time per start, and average number of ramps. Linear programming results saw up to a 20% difference in number of starts and average run time of traditional generators, and up to a 4% difference in the number of ramps, when compared to mixed-integer programming. Utilizing hourly dispatch instead of sub-hourly dispatch saw no difference in coal or gas CC units for either start metric, while gas CT units had a 5% increase in the number of starts and 2% increase in the average on-time per start. The number of ramps decreased up to 44%. The smallest effect seen was on the CO2 emissions and total production cost, with a 0.8% and 0

  6. Fully integrated safeguards and security for reprocessing plant monitoring.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Ward, Rebecca; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Middleton, Bobby D.

    2011-10-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing plants contain a wealth of plant monitoring data including material measurements, process monitoring, administrative procedures, and physical protection elements. Future facilities are moving in the direction of highly-integrated plant monitoring systems that make efficient use of the plant data to improve monitoring and reduce costs. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM) is an analysis tool that is used for modeling advanced monitoring systems and to determine system response under diversion scenarios. This report both describes the architecture for such a future monitoring system and present results under various diversion scenarios. Improvements made in the past year include the development of statistical tests for detecting material loss, the integration of material balance alarms to improve physical protection, and the integration of administrative procedures. The SSPM has been used to demonstrate how advanced instrumentation (as developed in the Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies campaign) can benefit the overall safeguards system as well as how all instrumentation is tied into the physical protection system. This concept has the potential to greatly improve the probability of detection for both abrupt and protracted diversion of nuclear material.

  7. FULLY INTEGRATED HIGH SPEED MEGAWATT CLASS MOTOR AND HIGH FREQUENCY VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE SYSTEM

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clemson University – North Charleston, SC New motor power converter technologies will be used to develop a pre-commercial megawatt class variable speed drive. The fully integrated prototype system will be made by TECO Westinghouse Motor Company in its Round Rock, TX facility and be demonstrated at Clemson’s eGRID Center. Fact sheet coming soon.

  8. A Fully Integrated Nanosystem of Semiconductor Nanowires for Direct Solar Water Splitting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Chong; Tang, Jinyao; Chen, HaoMing; Liu, Bin; Yang, Peidong

    2013-02-21

    Artificial photosynthesis, the biomimetic approach to converting sunlight?s energy directly into chemical fuels, aims to imitate nature by using an integrated system of nanostructures, each of which plays a specific role in the sunlight-to-fuel conversion process. Here we describe a fully integrated system of nanoscale photoelectrodes assembled from inorganic nanowires for direct solar water splitting. Similar to the photosynthetic system in a chloroplast, the artificial photosynthetic system comprises two semiconductor light absorbers with large surface area, an interfacial layer for charge transport, and spatially separated cocatalysts to facilitate the water reduction and oxidation. Under simulated sunlight, a 0.12percent solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency is achieved, which is comparable to that of natural photosynthesis. The result demonstrates the possibility of integrating material components into a functional system that mimics the nanoscopic integration in chloroplasts. It also provides a conceptual blueprint of modular design that allows incorporation of newly discovered components for improved performance.

  9. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator -- Part I. Design and fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Baker, Michael S.; Clews, Peggy J.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the design and fabrication of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). This paper begins by describing the limits on oscillator frequency stability imposed by the thermal drift and electronic properties (Q, resistance) of both the resonant tank circuit and feedback electronics required to form an electronic oscillator. An OCMO is presented that takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. This was achieved by developing a processing technique where both silicon-on-insulator complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry and piezoelectric aluminum nitride, AlN, micromechanical resonators are placed on a suspended platform within a standard CMOS integrated circuit. Operation at microscale sizes achieves high thermal resistances (~10 C/mW), and hence thermal stabilization of the oscillators at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art ovenized crystal oscillators, OCXO. This constant resistance feedback circuit is presented that incorporates on platform resistive heaters and temperature sensors to both measure and stabilize the platform temperature. Moreover, the limits on temperature stability of the OCMO platform and oscillator frequency imposed by the gain of the constant resistance feedback loop, placement of the heater and temperature sensing resistors, as well as platform radiative and convective heat losses are investigated.

  10. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator -- Part I. Design and fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Baker, Michael S.; Clews, Peggy J.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the design and fabrication of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). This paper begins by describing the limits on oscillator frequency stability imposed by the thermal drift and electronic properties (Q, resistance) of both the resonant tank circuit and feedback electronics required to form an electronic oscillator. An OCMO is presented that takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. This was achieved by developing a processing technique where both silicon-on-insulator complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry and piezoelectric aluminum nitride, AlN, micromechanical resonators are placed on a suspended platform within a standard CMOS integrated circuit. Operation at microscale sizes achieves high thermal resistances (~10 °C/mW), and hence thermal stabilization of the oscillators at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art ovenized crystal oscillators, OCXO. This constant resistance feedback circuit is presented that incorporates on platform resistive heaters and temperature sensors to both measure and stabilize the platform temperature. Moreover, the limits on temperature stability of the OCMO platform and oscillator frequency imposed by the gain of the constant resistance feedback loop, placement of the heater and temperature sensing resistors, as well as platform radiative and convective heat losses are investigated.

  11. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator -- Part I. Design and fabrication

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Baker, Michael S.; Clews, Peggy J.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the design and fabrication of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). This paper begins by describing the limits on oscillator frequency stability imposed by the thermal drift and electronic properties (Q, resistance) of both the resonant tank circuit and feedback electronics required to form an electronic oscillator. An OCMO is presented that takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. This was achieved by developing a processing technique where both silicon-on-insulator complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitrymore » and piezoelectric aluminum nitride, AlN, micromechanical resonators are placed on a suspended platform within a standard CMOS integrated circuit. Operation at microscale sizes achieves high thermal resistances (~10 °C/mW), and hence thermal stabilization of the oscillators at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art ovenized crystal oscillators, OCXO. This constant resistance feedback circuit is presented that incorporates on platform resistive heaters and temperature sensors to both measure and stabilize the platform temperature. Moreover, the limits on temperature stability of the OCMO platform and oscillator frequency imposed by the gain of the constant resistance feedback loop, placement of the heater and temperature sensing resistors, as well as platform radiative and convective heat losses are investigated.« less

  12. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillatorPart I. Design and fabrication

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Baker, Michael S.; Clews, Peggy J.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the design and fabrication of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). This paper begins by describing the limits on oscillator frequency stability imposed by the thermal drift and electronic properties (Q, resistance) of both the resonant tank circuit and feedback electronics required to form an electronic oscillator. An OCMO is presented that takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. This was achieved by developing a processing technique where both silicon-on-insulator complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitrymoreand piezoelectric aluminum nitride, AlN, micromechanical resonators are placed on a suspended platform within a standard CMOS integrated circuit. Operation at microscale sizes achieves high thermal resistances (~10 C/mW), and hence thermal stabilization of the oscillators at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art ovenized crystal oscillators, OCXO. This constant resistance feedback circuit is presented that incorporates on platform resistive heaters and temperature sensors to both measure and stabilize the platform temperature. Moreover, the limits on temperature stability of the OCMO platform and oscillator frequency imposed by the gain of the constant resistance feedback loop, placement of the heater and temperature sensing resistors, as well as platform radiative and convective heat losses are investigated.less

  13. Fully integrated wearable sensor arrays for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Wei; Emaminejad, Sam; Nyein, Hnin Yin Yin; Challa, Samyuktha; Chen, Kevin; Peck, Austin; Fahad, Hossain M.; Ota, Hiroki; Shiraki, Hiroshi; Kiriya, Daisuke; et al

    2016-01-27

    We report that wearable sensor technologies are essential to the realization of personalized medicine through continuously monitoring an individual’s state of health. Sampling human sweat, which is rich in physiological information13, could enable non-invasive monitoring. Previously reported sweat-based and other noninvasive biosensors either can only monitor a single analyte at a time or lack on-site signal processing circuitry and sensor calibration mechanisms for accurate analysis of the physiological state14–18. Given the complexity of sweat secretion, simultaneous and multiplexed screening of target biomarkers is critical and requires full system integration to ensure the accuracy of measurements. Here we present a mechanicallymore » flexible and fully integrated (that is, no external analysis is needed) sensor array for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis, which simultaneously and selectively measures sweat metabolites (such as glucose and lactate) and electrolytes (such as sodium and potassium ions), as well as the skin temperature (to calibrate the response of the sensors). Lastly, our work bridges the technological gap between signal transduction, conditioning (amplification and filtering), processing and wireless transmission in wearable biosensors by merging plasticbased sensors that interface with the skin with silicon integrated circuits consolidated on a flexible circuit board for complex signal processing.« less

  14. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator Part II. Characterization and measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the measurement and characterization of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). The OCMO takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both aluminum nitride (AlN) micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. Operation at microscale sizes allows implementation of high thermal resistance platform supports that enable thermal stabilization at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art oven controlled crystal oscillators. A prototype OCMO has been demonstrated with a measured temperature stability of -1.2 ppb/C, over the commercial temperature range while using tens of milliwatts of supply power and with a volume of 2.3 mm3 (not including the printed circuit board-based thermal control loop). Additionally, due to its small thermal time constant, the thermal compensation loop can maintain stability during fast thermal transients (>10 C/min). This new technology has resulted in a new paradigm in terms of power, size, and warm up time for high thermal stability oscillators.

  15. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator – Part II. Characterization and measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the measurement and characterization of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). The OCMO takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both aluminum nitride (AlN) micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. Operation at microscale sizes allows implementation of high thermal resistance platform supports that enable thermal stabilization at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art oven controlled crystal oscillators. A prototype OCMO has been demonstrated with a measured temperature stability of -1.2 ppb/°C, over the commercial temperature range while using tens of milliwatts of supply power and with a volume of 2.3 mm3 (not including the printed circuit board-based thermal control loop). Additionally, due to its small thermal time constant, the thermal compensation loop can maintain stability during fast thermal transients (>10 °C/min). This new technology has resulted in a new paradigm in terms of power, size, and warm up time for high thermal stability oscillators.

  16. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator – Part II. Characterization and measurement

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the measurement and characterization of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). The OCMO takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both aluminum nitride (AlN) micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. Operation at microscale sizes allows implementation of high thermal resistance platform supports that enable thermal stabilization at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art oven controlled crystal oscillators. A prototype OCMO has been demonstrated with a measured temperature stability of -1.2 ppb/°C, over the commercial temperature range while using tensmore » of milliwatts of supply power and with a volume of 2.3 mm3 (not including the printed circuit board-based thermal control loop). Additionally, due to its small thermal time constant, the thermal compensation loop can maintain stability during fast thermal transients (>10 °C/min). This new technology has resulted in a new paradigm in terms of power, size, and warm up time for high thermal stability oscillators.« less

  17. A Fully Integrated Oven Controlled Microelectromechanical OscillatorPart II. Characterization and Measurement

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the measurement and characterization of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). The OCMO takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both aluminum nitride (AlN) micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. Operation at microscale sizes allows implementation of high thermal resistance platform supports that enable thermal stabilization at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art oven controlled crystal oscillators. A prototype OCMO has been demonstrated with a measured temperature stability of -1.2 ppb/C, over the commercial temperature range while using tensmoreof milliwatts of supply power and with a volume of 2.3 mm3 (not including the printed circuit board-based thermal control loop). Additionally, due to its small thermal time constant, the thermal compensation loop can maintain stability during fast thermal transients (>10 C/min). This new technology has resulted in a new paradigm in terms of power, size, and warm up time for high thermal stability oscillators.less

  18. Fully 3D-Integrated Pixel Detectors for X-Rays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz W.; Gabriella, Carini; Enquist, Paul; Grybos, Pawel; Holm, Scott; Lipton, Ronald; Maj, Piotr; Patti, Robert; Siddons, David Peter; Szczygiel, Robert; et al

    2016-01-01

    The vertically integrated photon imaging chip (VIPIC1) pixel detector is a stack consisting of a 500-?m-thick silicon sensor, a two-tier 34-?m-thick integrated circuit, and a host printed circuit board (PCB). The integrated circuit tiers were bonded using the direct bonding technology with copper, and each tier features 1-?m-diameter throughsilicon vias that were used for connections to the sensor on one side, and to the host PCB on the other side. The 80-?m-pixel-pitch sensor was the direct bonding technology with nickel bonded to the integrated circuit. The stack was mounted on the board using SnPb balls placed on a 320-?m pitch,moreyielding an entirely wire-bond-less structure. The analog front-end features a pulse response peaking at below 250 ns, and the power consumption per pixel is 25 ?W. We successful completed the 3-D integration and have reported here. Additionally, all pixels in the matrix of 64 64 pixels were responding on well-bonded devices. Correct operation of the sparsified readout, allowing a single 153-ns bunch timing resolution, was confirmed in the tests on a synchrotron beam of 10-keV X-rays. An equivalent noise charge of 36.2 e- rms and a conversion gain of 69.5 ?V/e- with 2.6 e- rms and 2.7 ?V/e- rms pixel-to-pixel variations, respectively, were measured.less

  19. Fully 3D-Integrated Pixel Detectors for X-Rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz W.; Gabriella, Carini; Enquist, Paul; Grybos, Pawel; Holm, Scott; Lipton, Ronald; Maj, Piotr; Patti, Robert; Siddons, David Peter; Szczygiel, Robert; Yarema, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    The vertically integrated photon imaging chip (VIPIC1) pixel detector is a stack consisting of a 500-μm-thick silicon sensor, a two-tier 34-μm-thick integrated circuit, and a host printed circuit board (PCB). The integrated circuit tiers were bonded using the direct bonding technology with copper, and each tier features 1-μm-diameter through-silicon vias that were used for connections to the sensor on one side, and to the host PCB on the other side. The 80-μm-pixel-pitch sensor was the direct bonding technology with nickel bonded to the integrated circuit. The stack was mounted on the board using Sn–Pb balls placed on a 320-μm pitch, yielding an entirely wire-bond-less structure. The analog front-end features a pulse response peaking at below 250 ns, and the power consumption per pixel is 25 μW. We successful completed the 3-D integration and have reported here. Additionally, all pixels in the matrix of 64 × 64 pixels were responding on well-bonded devices. Correct operation of the sparsified readout, allowing a single 153-ns bunch timing resolution, was confirmed in the tests on a synchrotron beam of 10-keV X-rays. An equivalent noise charge of 36.2 e- rms and a conversion gain of 69.5 μV/e- with 2.6 e- rms and 2.7 μV/e- rms pixel-to-pixel variations, respectively, were measured.

  20. Fully Integrated Applications of Thin Films on Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ambrose Wolf; Ken Peterson; Matt O'Keefe; Wayne Huebner; Bill Kuhn

    2012-04-19

    Thin film multilayers have previously been introduced on multilayer low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC), as well as initial thin film capacitors on LTCC. The ruggedness of a multipurpose Ti-Cu-Pt-Au stack for connectivity and RF conductivity has continued to benefit fabrication and reliability in state of-the-art modules, while the capacitors have followed the traditional Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) style. The full integration of thin film passives with thin film connectivity traces is presented. Certain passives, such as capacitors, require specifically tailored and separately patterned thin film (multi-)layers, including a dielectric. Different capacitance values are achieved by variation of both the insulator layer thickness and the active area of the capacitor. Other passives, such as filters, require only the conductor - a single thin film multilayer. This can be patterned from the same connectivity thin film material (Ti-Cu-Pt-Au), or a specially tailored thin film material (e.g. Ti-Cu-Au) can be deposited. Both versions are described, including process and integration details. Examples are discussed, ranging from patterning for maximum tolerances, to space and performance-optimized designs. Cross-sectional issues associated with integration are also highlighted in the discussion.

  1. Controls upon hydrocarbon reservoir evolution within the Rotliegende group: A fully integrated regional study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, J.A.; Becker, A.; Turner, P.; Searl, A. ); Edwards, H.E.; Williams, G. )

    1993-09-01

    The collection of a large database, in conjunction with new understandings of sedimentology and structural controls upon diagenesis, has enabled the detailed mapping of the factors that control the distribution of hydrocarbon reservoirs within the Rotliegende Group of the United Kingdom southern North Sea. The results of this regional study incorporate detail previously confined to field scale studies. High resolution sedimentological and stratigraphic studies (4 km of core) have resulted in a twelve-fold subdivision of the Rotliegende Group based upon the recognition of climatically driven depositional cycles. These illustrate a progressive basin expansion controlled by the distribution of buried lower Paleozoic granites and post-Vanscan topography. This model incorporated with mapping of facies distribution has been used to document the distribution of potential reservoir rocks. Detailed diagenetic work has documented the distribution of all the principal mineral phases within the basin. Integration with structural studies has revealed the role of the fractures for introducing fluids to, and compartmentalizing reservoirs has led to significant understanding of the source and transport mechanism for the pore-occluding diagenetic phases. Regionally, an understanding of burial and inversion events has demonstrated that the distribution of clays, particularly permeability destroying illite, is controlled by both burial depth and source of reactants. Combination of sedimentological and diagenetic aspects has enabled the production predictive maps for the area. This, combined with the structural work, has highlighted the importance of timing of hydrocarbon migration in relation to reservoir structuration, particularly in areas away from the main Sole Pit source kitchen.

  2. Section 25: Future State Assumptions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Future State Assumptions (40 CFR § 194.25) United States Department of Energy Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Carlsbad Field Office Carlsbad, New Mexico Compliance Recertification Application 2014 Future State Assumptions (40 CFR § 194.25) Table of Contents 25.0 Future State Assumptions (40 CFR § 194.25) 25.1 Requirements 25.2 Background 25.3 1998 Certification Decision 25.4 Changes in the CRA-2004 25.5 EPA's Evaluation of Compliance for the 2004 Recertification 25.5.1 40 CFR § 194.25(a) 25.5.2

  3. Development of a fully-integrated PV system for residential applications: Phase I annual technical report: February 27, 1998 -- August 31, 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, R.; Mackamul, K.; Duran, G.

    2000-03-06

    This report describes Utility Power Group's (UPG's) technical progress for Phase 1 of a two-phase effort to focus on the design, assembly, and testing of a fully-integrated residential PV power system, including storage. In the PV Array Task, UPG significantly improved the conventional means and methods required to structurally interface PV modules to the roofs of single-family residential houses and to electrically interconnect these PV modules to a power conversion unit. UPG focused on the design and test of a PV array based on the highly efficient use of materials and labor. Design criteria included cost, structural integrity, electrical safety, reliability, conformance with applicable standards and building and seismic codes, and adaptability to a wide range of roof materials for both existing and retrofit roof applications. In the Power Unit Task, UPG designed and tested a high-efficiency, low-cost, high-reliability prototype power conversion unit that included all materials, components, equipment, and software required to perform all DC-AC/AC-DC power collection, conversion, and control functions between the output of the PV array and the interconnection to the electrical grid service of single-family residences. In the Energy Storage Unit Task, UPG designed and tested a low-cost, modular, self-contained, low-maintenance, all-weather, battery-based Energy Storage Unit designed to interface with the Power Unit to provide back-up electricity to supply critical household loads in the event of utility-grid failure. The Energy Storage Unit includes batteries and all structural, mechanical, and electrical equipment required to provide a source of stored DC energy for input of the Power Unit. UPG designed the storage unit as a ''plug and play'' option, where multiple units can be easily paralleled for additional energy storage capacity.

  4. Fully Automated Simultaneous Integrated Boosted-Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning Is Feasible for Head-and-Neck Cancer: A Prospective Clinical Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Binbin; McNutt, Todd; Zahurak, Marianna; Simari, Patricio; Pang, Dalong; Taylor, Russell; Sanguineti, Giuseppe

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To prospectively determine whether overlap volume histogram (OVH)-driven, automated simultaneous integrated boosted (SIB)-intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning for head-and-neck cancer can be implemented in clinics. Methods and Materials: A prospective study was designed to compare fully automated plans (APs) created by an OVH-driven, automated planning application with clinical plans (CPs) created by dosimetrists in a 3-dose-level (70 Gy, 63 Gy, and 58.1 Gy), head-and-neck SIB-IMRT planning. Because primary organ sparing (cord, brain, brainstem, mandible, and optic nerve/chiasm) always received the highest priority in clinical planning, the study aimed to show the noninferiority of APs with respect to PTV coverage and secondary organ sparing (parotid, brachial plexus, esophagus, larynx, inner ear, and oral mucosa). The sample size was determined a priori by a superiority hypothesis test that had 85% power to detect a 4% dose decrease in secondary organ sparing with a 2-sided alpha level of 0.05. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression model was used for statistical comparison. Results: Forty consecutive patients were accrued from July to December 2010. GEE analysis indicated that in APs, overall average dose to the secondary organs was reduced by 1.16 (95% CI = 0.09-2.33) with P=.04, overall average PTV coverage was increased by 0.26% (95% CI = 0.06-0.47) with P=.02 and overall average dose to the primary organs was reduced by 1.14 Gy (95% CI = 0.45-1.8) with P=.004. A physician determined that all APs could be delivered to patients, and APs were clinically superior in 27 of 40 cases. Conclusions: The application can be implemented in clinics as a fast, reliable, and consistent way of generating plans that need only minor adjustments to meet specific clinical needs.

  5. Behavioral Assumptions Underlying California Residential Sector Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Programs (2009 CIEE Report) | Department of Energy Behavioral Assumptions Underlying California Residential Sector Energy Efficiency Programs (2009 CIEE Report) Behavioral Assumptions Underlying California Residential Sector Energy Efficiency Programs (2009 CIEE Report) This paper examines the behavioral assumptions that underlie California's residential sector energy efficiency programs and recommends improvements that will help to advance the state's ambitious greenhouse gas

  6. Assumption Parish, Louisiana: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Number 2 Climate Zone Subtype A. Places in Assumption Parish, Louisiana Belle Rose, Louisiana Labadieville, Louisiana Napoleonville, Louisiana Paincourtville, Louisiana...

  7. Behavioral Assumptions Underlying California Residential Sector...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    paper examines the behavioral assumptions that underlie California's residential sector energy efficiency programs and recommends improvements that will help to advance the state's ...

  8. Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2015 September 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2015 i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or

  9. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Part II. Characterization and measurement Prev Next ... Additionally, due to its small thermal time constant, the ... Word Cloud More Like This Free Publicly Accessible Full Text ...

  10. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Wojciechowski, Kenneth E. 1 ; Baker, Michael S. 1 ; Clews, Peggy J. 1 ; Olsson, Roy H. 1 + Show Author Affiliations Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM ...

  11. Fully Integrated Nanosystem for Artificial Photosynthesis - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Liu, C., Dasgupta, N. P., Yang, P., "Semiconductor Nanowires for Artificial Photosynthesis," Chemistry of Materials,...

  12. Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    International Energy Module The National Energy Modeling System International Energy Module (IEM) simulates the interaction between U.S. and global petroleum markets. It uses assumptions of economic growth and expectations of future U.S. and world crude-like liquids production and consumption to estimate the effects of changes in U.S. liquid fuels markets on the international petroleum market. For each year of the forecast, the IEM computes Brent and WTI prices, provides a supply curve of world

  13. Appendix MASS: Performance Assessment Modeling Assumptions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Appendix MASS-2014 Performance Assessment Modeling Assumptions United States Department of Energy Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Carlsbad Field Office Carlsbad, New Mexico Compliance Recertification Application 2014 Appendix MASS Table of Contents MASS-1.0 Introduction MASS-2.0 Summary of Changes in Performance Assessment MASS-2.1 FEPs Assessment MASS-2.2 Monitoring MASS-2.3 Experimental Activities MASS-2.3.1 Steel Corrosion Investigations MASS-2.3.2 Waste Shear Strength Investigations MASS-2.3.3

  14. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Definitions and Assumptions, October 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Definitions of parameters and table of assumptions for the Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator Assumptions and

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Methodology Assumptions and Methodology to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator Assumptions and Methodology on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator Assumptions and Methodology on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator Assumptions and Methodology on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator Assumptions and Methodology on Delicious Rank Alternative

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator Widget Assumptions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    and Methodology Widget Assumptions and Methodology to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator Widget Assumptions and Methodology on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator Widget Assumptions and Methodology on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator Widget Assumptions and Methodology on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator Widget Assumptions and

  17. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Definitions and Assumptions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Definitions and Assumptions, October 2012 Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint ... More Documents & Publications Understanding Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints, ...

  18. 2010 Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints: Definitions and Assumptions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This 13-page document provides definitions and assumptions used in the Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints (MECS 2010)

  19. Halo-independent direct detection analyses without mass assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Adam J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-10-06

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the m{sub χ}−σ{sub n} plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the v{sub min}−g-tilde plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from v{sub min} to nuclear recoil momentum (p{sub R}), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call h-til-tilde(p{sub R}). The entire family of conventional halo-independent g-tilde(v{sub min}) plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single h-tilde(p{sub R}) plot through a simple rescaling of axes. By considering results in h-tilde(p{sub R}) space, one can determine if two experiments are inconsistent for all masses and all physically possible halos, or for what range of dark matter masses the results are inconsistent for all halos, without the necessity of multiple g-tilde(v{sub min}) plots for different DM masses. We conduct a sample analysis comparing the CDMS II Si events to the null results from LUX, XENON10, and SuperCDMS using our method and discuss how the results can be strengthened by imposing the physically reasonable requirement of a finite halo escape velocity.

  20. Halo-independent direct detection analyses without mass assumptions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Anderson, Adam J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-10-06

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the mχ – σn plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the vmin – g~ plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from vmin to nuclear recoil momentum (pR),more » the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call tilde h(pR). The entire family of conventional halo-independent tilde g~(vmin) plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single tilde h~(pR) plot through a simple rescaling of axes. By considering results in tildeh~(pR) space, one can determine if two experiments are inconsistent for all masses and all physically possible halos, or for what range of dark matter masses the results are inconsistent for all halos, without the necessity of multiple tilde g~(vmin) plots for different DM masses. As a result, we conduct a sample analysis comparing the CDMS II Si events to the null results from LUX, XENON10, and SuperCDMS using our method and discuss how the results can be strengthened by imposing the physically reasonable requirement of a finite halo escape velocity.« less

  1. Halo-independent direct detection analyses without mass assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Adam J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-10-06

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the mχ – σn plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the vmin – g~ plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from vmin to nuclear recoil momentum (pR), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call tilde h(pR). The entire family of conventional halo-independent tilde g~(vmin) plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single tilde h~(pR) plot through a simple rescaling of axes. By considering results in tildeh~(pR) space, one can determine if two experiments are inconsistent for all masses and all physically possible halos, or for what range of dark matter masses the results are inconsistent for all halos, without the necessity of multiple tilde g~(vmin) plots for different DM masses. As a result, we conduct a sample analysis comparing the CDMS II Si events to the null results from LUX, XENON10, and SuperCDMS using our method and discuss how the results can be strengthened by imposing the physically reasonable requirement of a finite halo escape velocity.

  2. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Definitions and Assumptions, October 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Definitions and Assumptions A number of key terms are used to interpret the manufacturing energy and carbon footprints. The terms associated with the energy footprint analysis are defined below, in the order they generally appear in the footprint energy flow, starting from offsite energy and then continuing to onsite energy end uses and loss assumptions. Key definitions and assumptions associated with the carbon footprint analysis are shown on pages 7 and 8. Energy Footprint Analysis Definitions

  3. Assumptions and Expectations for Annual Energy Outlook 2015:...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    changes. (early work of a two year project) * Revise assumptions pertaining to price ... barrels per day January 2015 STEO forecast of U.S. oil production generally within ...

  4. Fully depleted back illuminated CCD

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen Edward

    2001-01-01

    A backside illuminated charge coupled device (CCD) is formed of a relatively thick high resistivity photon sensitive silicon substrate, with frontside electronic circuitry, and an optically transparent backside ohmic contact for applying a backside voltage which is at least sufficient to substantially fully deplete the substrate. A greater bias voltage which overdepletes the substrate may also be applied. One way of applying the bias voltage to the substrate is by physically connecting the voltage source to the ohmic contact. An alternate way of applying the bias voltage to the substrate is to physically connect the voltage source to the frontside of the substrate, at a point outside the depletion region. Thus both frontside and backside contacts can be used for backside biasing to fully deplete the substrate. Also, high resistivity gaps around the CCD channels and electrically floating channel stop regions can be provided in the CCD array around the CCD channels. The CCD array forms an imaging sensor useful in astronomy.

  5. Fully synthetic taped insulation cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsyth, Eric B. (Brookhaven, NY); Muller, Albert C. (Center Moriches, NY)

    1984-01-01

    A high voltage oil-impregnated electrical cable with fully polymer taped insulation operable to 765 kV. Biaxially oriented, specially processed, polyethylene, polybutene or polypropylene tape with an embossed pattern is wound in multiple layers over a conductive core with a permeable screen around the insulation. Conventional oil which closely matches the dielectric constant of the tape is used, and the cable can be impregnated after field installation because of its excellent impregnation characteristics.

  6. Monitored Geologic Repository Life Cycle Cost Estimate Assumptions Document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Sweeney

    2000-03-08

    The purpose of this assumptions document is to provide general scope, strategy, technical basis, schedule and cost assumptions for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) life cycle cost estimate and schedule update incorporating information from the Viability Assessment (VA), License Application Design Selection (LADS), 1999 Update to the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) estimate and from other related and updated information. This document is intended to generally follow the assumptions outlined in the previous MGR cost estimates and as further prescribed by DOE guidance.

  7. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY LIFE CYCLE COST ESTIMATE ASSUMPTIONS DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.E. Sweeney

    2001-02-08

    The purpose of this assumptions document is to provide general scope, strategy, technical basis, schedule and cost assumptions for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) life cycle cost (LCC) estimate and schedule update incorporating information from the Viability Assessment (VA) , License Application Design Selection (LADS), 1999 Update to the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) estimate and from other related and updated information. This document is intended to generally follow the assumptions outlined in the previous MGR cost estimates and as further prescribed by DOE guidance.

  8. Assumption to the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 - International...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    3.2. The GDP growth rate assumptions for non-U.S. countriesregions are taken from Oxford Economic Model (October, 2012). The values for growth in total liquids demand in the...

  9. 2014 Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints: Definitions and Assumptions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Definitions and Assumptions A number of key terms are used to interpret the manufacturing energy and carbon footprints. The terms associated with the energy footprint analysis are defined below in alphabetical order. Key definitions and assumptions associated with the greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint analysis are shown on pages 12 and 13. Energy Footprint Analysis Definitions CHP/Cogeneration - The production of electrical energy and another form of useful energy (such as heat or steam) through

  10. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardin, Ernest

    2015-07-01

    This document presents design requirements and controlled assumptions intended for use in the engineering development and testing of: 1) prototype packages for radioactive waste disposal in deep boreholes; 2) a waste package surface handling system; and 3) a subsurface system for emplacing and retrieving packages in deep boreholes. Engineering development and testing is being performed as part of the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT; SNL 2014a). This document presents parallel sets of requirements for a waste disposal system and for the DBFT, showing the close relationship. In addition to design, it will also inform planning for drilling, construction, and scientific characterization activities for the DBFT. The information presented here follows typical preparations for engineering design. It includes functional and operating requirements for handling and emplacement/retrieval equipment, waste package design and emplacement requirements, borehole construction requirements, sealing requirements, and performance criteria. Assumptions are included where they could impact engineering design. Design solutions are avoided in the requirements discussion. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions July 21, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This set of requirements and assumptions has benefited greatly from reviews by Gordon Appel, Geoff Freeze, Kris Kuhlman, Bob MacKinnon, Steve Pye, David Sassani, Dave Sevougian, and Jiann Su.

  11. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  12. A Fully Integrated Oven Controlled Micro Electro-Mechanical Oscillator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... 60, no. 4, pp. 851-853, April 2013. 11 D. M. Henry, K. D. Greth, J. Nguyen, C. D. Nordquist, R. Shul, M. Wiwi, T. A. Plut and R. H. Olsson III, "Hermetic wafer-level packaging ...

  13. A Fully Integrated Oven Controlled Micro Electro-Mechanical Oscillator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... 4 R. H. Olsson III, K. E. Wojciechowski, M. R. Tuck, J. E. Stevens and C. D. Nordquist, "Multi-frequency aluminum nitride micro-filters for advanced RF communications," Govt. ...

  14. Fully integrated and encapsulated micro-fabricated vacuum diode...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Inventors: Resnick, Paul J. ; Langlois, Eric Issue Date: 2015-12-01 OSTI Identifier: 1227357 Assignee: Sandia Corporation SSO Patent Number(s): 9,202,657 Application Number: 14...

  15. Method of manufacturing a fully integrated and encapsulatedmicro...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Inventors: Resnick, Paul J. ; Langlois, Eric Issue Date: 2014-08-26 OSTI Identifier: 1151787 Assignee: Sandia Corporation (Albuquerque, NM) SNL-A Patent Number(s): 8,814,622 ...

  16. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  17. Fully localized two-dimensional embedded solitons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Jianke

    2010-11-15

    We report the prediction of fully localized two-dimensional embedded solitons. These solitons are obtained in a quasi-one-dimensional waveguide array which is periodic along one spatial direction and localized along the orthogonal direction. Under appropriate nonlinearity, these solitons are found to exist inside the Bloch bands (continuous spectrum) of the waveguide and thus are embedded solitons. These embedded solitons are fully localized along both spatial directions. In addition, they are fully stable under perturbations.

  18. Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuels: Characteristics and Potential...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: ATF; accident tolerant fuel; FCM; fully ceramic microencapsulated; LWR; light water reactor; fuel; TRISO; particle fuel; nuclear; reactor physics; neutronics; actinide ...

  19. Preliminary neutronics assessment of fully ceramic microencapsulated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    gas-cooled reactors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preliminary neutronics assessment of fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel in high-temperature gas-cooled ...

  20. The contour method cutting assumption: error minimization and correction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prime, Michael B; Kastengren, Alan L

    2010-01-01

    The recently developed contour method can measure 2-D, cross-sectional residual-stress map. A part is cut in two using a precise and low-stress cutting technique such as electric discharge machining. The contours of the new surfaces created by the cut, which will not be flat if residual stresses are relaxed by the cutting, are then measured and used to calculate the original residual stresses. The precise nature of the assumption about the cut is presented theoretically and is evaluated experimentally. Simply assuming a flat cut is overly restrictive and misleading. The critical assumption is that the width of the cut, when measured in the original, undeformed configuration of the body is constant. Stresses at the cut tip during cutting cause the material to deform, which causes errors. The effect of such cutting errors on the measured stresses is presented. The important parameters are quantified. Experimental procedures for minimizing these errors are presented. An iterative finite element procedure to correct for the errors is also presented. The correction procedure is demonstrated on experimental data from a steel beam that was plastically bent to put in a known profile of residual stresses.

  1. Assumptions and ambiguities in nonplanar acoustic soliton theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verheest, Frank; School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 ; Hellberg, Manfred A.

    2014-02-15

    There have been many recent theoretical investigations of the nonlinear evolution of electrostatic modes with cylindrical or spherical symmetry. Through a reductive perturbation analysis based on a quasiplanar stretching, a modified form of the Korteweg-de Vries or related equation is derived, containing an additional term which is linear in the electrostatic potential and singular at time t = 0. Unfortunately, these analyses contain several restrictive assumptions and ambiguities which are normally neither properly explained nor discussed, and severely limit the applicability of the technique. Most glaring are the use of plane-wave stretchings, the assumption that shape-preserving cylindrical modes can exist and that, although time is homogeneous, the origin of time (which can be chosen arbitrarily) needs to be avoided. Hence, only in the domain where the nonlinear modes are quasiplanar, far from the axis of cylindrical or from the origin of spherical symmetry can acceptable but unexciting results be obtained. Nonplanar nonlinear modes are clearly an interesting topic of research, as some of these phenomena have been observed in experiments. However, it is argued that a proper study of such modes needs numerical simulations rather than ill-suited analytical approximations.

  2. Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidball, Rick; Bluestein, Joel; Rodriguez, Nick; Knoke, Stu

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.

  3. Experimental assessment of unvalidated assumptions in classical plasticity theory.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brannon, Rebecca Moss; Burghardt, Jeffrey A.; Bauer, Stephen J.; Bronowski, David R.

    2009-01-01

    This report investigates the validity of several key assumptions in classical plasticity theory regarding material response to changes in the loading direction. Three metals, two rock types, and one ceramic were subjected to non-standard loading directions, and the resulting strain response increments were displayed in Gudehus diagrams to illustrate the approximation error of classical plasticity theories. A rigorous mathematical framework for fitting classical theories to the data, thus quantifying the error, is provided. Further data analysis techniques are presented that allow testing for the effect of changes in loading direction without having to use a new sample and for inferring the yield normal and flow directions without having to measure the yield surface. Though the data are inconclusive, there is indication that classical, incrementally linear, plasticity theory may be inadequate over a certain range of loading directions. This range of loading directions also coincides with loading directions that are known to produce a physically inadmissible instability for any nonassociative plasticity model.

  4. NREL: Electricity Integration Research Home Page

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electricity Integration Research Photo of power lines with sky and clouds in the background. Electricity integration at NREL enables renewable energy technologies to be fully ...

  5. Finite Element Simulations to Explore Assumptions in Kolsky Bar Experiments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crum, Justin

    2015-08-05

    The chief purpose of this project has been to develop a set of finite element models that attempt to explore some of the assumptions in the experimental set-up and data reduction of the Kolsky bar experiment. In brief, the Kolsky bar, sometimes referred to as the split Hopkinson pressure bar, is an experimental apparatus used to study the mechanical properties of materials at high strain rates. Kolsky bars can be constructed to conduct experiments in tension or compression, both of which are studied in this paper. The basic operation of the tension Kolsky bar is as follows: compressed air is inserted into the barrel that contains the striker; the striker accelerates towards the left and strikes the left end of the barrel producing a tensile stress wave that propogates first through the barrel and then down the incident bar, into the specimen, and finally the transmission bar. In the compression case, the striker instead travels to the right and impacts the incident bar directly. As the stress wave travels through an interface (e.g., the incident bar to specimen connection), a portion of the pulse is transmitted and the rest reflected. The incident pulse, as well as the transmitted and reflected pulses are picked up by two strain gauges installed on the incident and transmitted bars as shown. By interpreting the data acquired by these strain gauges, the stress/strain behavior of the specimen can be determined.

  6. Assumptions and Expectations for Annual Energy Outlook 2015: Oil and Gas Working Group

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Assumptions and Expectations for Annual Energy Outlook 2016: Oil and Gas Working Group AEO2016 Oil and Gas Supply Working Group Meeting Office of Petroleum, Gas, and Biofuels Analysis December 1, 2015| Washington, DC http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo/workinggroup/ WORKING GROUP PRESENTATION FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE AS RESULTS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE We welcome feedback on our assumptions and documentation * The AEO Assumptions report http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo/assumptions/

  7. Summary of Findings: Peer Review of the FY2001 GPRA Assumptions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Summary of Findings: Peer Review of the FY2001 GPRA Assumptions, Report to National Renewable Energy Laboratory, February 29, 2000.

  8. Summary of Findings: Peer Review of the FY2000 GPRA Assumptions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Summary of Findings: Peer Review of the FY2000 GPRA Assumptions, Report to National Renewable Energy Laboratory, March 1999.

  9. Development of Low Energy Gap and Fully Regioregular Polythienylenevin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Gap and Fully Regioregular Polythienylenevinylene Derivative Low energy gap and fully regioregular conjugated polymers find its wide use in solar energy conversion applications. ...

  10. Summary of Findings: Peer Review of the FY2003 GPRA Assumptions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Summary of Findings: Peer Review of the FY ‘03 GPRA Assumptions, Report to National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Washington, D.C., April 3, 2002.

  11. Flow Partitioning in Fully Saturated Soil Aggregates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xiaofan; Richmond, Marshall C.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Perkins, William A.; Resat, Haluk

    2014-03-30

    Microbes play an important role in facilitating organic matter decomposition in soils, which is a major component of the global carbon cycle. Microbial dynamics are intimately coupled to environmental transport processes, which control access to labile organic matter and other nutrients that are needed for the growth and maintenance of microorganisms. Transport of soluble nutrients in the soil system is arguably most strongly impacted by preferential flow pathways in the soil. Since the physical structure of soils can be characterized as being formed from constituent micro aggregates which contain internal porosity, one pressing question is the partitioning of the flow among the inter-aggregate and intra-aggregate pores and how this may impact overall solute transport within heterogeneous soil structures. The answer to this question is particularly important in evaluating assumptions to be used in developing upscaled simulations based on highly-resolved mechanistic models. We constructed a number of diverse multi-aggregate structures with different packing ratios by stacking micro-aggregates containing internal pores and varying the size and shape of inter-aggregate pore spacing between them. We then performed pore-scale flow simulations using computational fluid dynamics methods to determine the flow patterns in these aggregate-of-aggregates structures and computed the partitioning of the flow through intra- and inter-aggregate pores as a function of the spacing between the aggregates. The results of these numerical experiments demonstrate that soluble nutrients are largely transported via flows through inter-aggregate pores. Although this result is consistent with intuition, we have also been able to quantify the relative flow capacity of the two domains under various conditions. For example, in our simulations, the flow capacity through the aggregates (intra-aggregate flow) was less than 2% of the total flow when the spacing between the aggregates was larger

  12. A new scenario framework for climate change research: The concept of Shared Climate Policy Assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriegler, Elmar; Edmonds, James A.; Hallegatte, Stephane; Ebi, Kristie L.; Kram, Tom; Riahi, Keywan; Winkler, Harald; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2014-04-01

    The paper presents the concept of shared climate policy assumptions as an important element of the new scenario framework. Shared climate policy assumptions capture key climate policy dimensions such as the type and scale of mitigation and adaptation measures. They are not specified in the socio-economic reference pathways, and therefore introduce an important third dimension to the scenario matrix architecture. Climate policy assumptions will have to be made in any climate policy scenario, and can have a significant impact on the scenario description. We conclude that a meaningful set of shared climate policy assumptions is useful for grouping individual climate policy analyses and facilitating their comparison. Shared climate policy assumptions should be designed to be policy relevant, and as a set to be broad enough to allow a comprehensive exploration of the climate change scenario space.

  13. Demonstration and Deployment Successes: Sapphire Integrated Algal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... and solvents to create refinable crude oil Sapphire Energy - IABR Accomplishments & ... has a fully integrated R&D asset pipeline, enabling creation and testing of ...

  14. Fully Coupled Well Models for Fluid Injection and Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Mark D.; Bacon, Diana H.; White, Signe K.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2013-08-05

    these equations varies from zero coupling to full coupling. In this paper we describe a fully coupled solution approach for well model that allows for a flexible well trajectory and screened interval within a structured hexahedral computational grid. In this scheme the nonlinear well equations have been fully integrated into the Jacobian matrix for the reservoir conservation equations, minimizing the matrix bandwidth.

  15. Hydrocarbon characterization experiments in fully turbulent fires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ricks, Allen; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-05-01

    As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. The model for the fuel evaporation rate in a liquid fuel pool fire is significant because in well-ventilated fires the evaporation rate largely controls the total heat release rate from the fire. A set of experiments are outlined in this report which will provide data for the development and validation of models for the fuel regression rates in liquid hydrocarbon fuel fires. The experiments will be performed on fires in the fully turbulent scale range (> 1 m diameter) and with a number of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from lightly sooting to heavily sooting. The importance of spectral absorption in the liquid fuels and the vapor dome above the pool will be investigated and the total heat flux to the pool surface will be measured. The importance of convection within the liquid fuel will be assessed by restricting large scale liquid motion in some tests. These data sets will provide a sound, experimentally proven basis for assessing how much of the liquid fuel needs to be modeled to enable a predictive simulation of a fuel fire given the couplings between evaporation of fuel from the pool and the heat release from the fire which drives the evaporation.

  16. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission key enabling assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, J.H.

    1998-01-05

    An overall systems approach has been applied to develop action plans to support the retrieval and immobilization waste disposal mission. The review concluded that the systems and infrastructure required to support the mission are known. Required systems are either in place or plans have been developed to ensure they exist when needed. The review showed that since October 1996 a robust system engineering approach to establishing integrated Technical Baselines, work breakdown structures, tank farm structure and configurations and work scope and costs has been established itself as part of the culture within TWRS. An analysis of the programmatic, management and technical activities necessary to declare readiness to proceed with execution of the mission demonstrates that the system, people and hardware will be on line and ready to support the private contractors. The systems approach included defining the retrieval and immobilized waste disposal mission requirements and evaluating the readiness of the TWRS contractor to supply waste feed to the private contractors in June 2OO2. The Phase 1 feed delivery requirements from the Private Contractor Request for Proposals were reviewed. Transfer piping routes were mapped out, existing systems were evaluated, and upgrade requirements were defined. Technical Basis Reviews were completed to define work scope in greater detail, cost estimates and associated year by year financial analyses were completed. TWRS personnel training, qualifications, management systems and procedures were reviewed and shown to be in place and ready to support the Phase 1B mission. Key assumptions and risks that could negatively impact mission success were evaluated and appropriate mitigative actions plans were planned and scheduled.

  17. Washington International Renewable Energy Conference (WIREC) 2008 Pledges. Methodology and Assumptions Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babiuch, Bill; Bilello, Daniel E.; Cowlin, Shannon C.; Mann, Margaret; Wise, Alison

    2008-08-01

    This report describes the methodology and assumptions used by NREL in quantifying the potential CO2 reductions resulting from more than 140 governments, international organizations, and private-sector representatives pledging to advance the uptake of renewable energy.

  18. NGNP: High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Key Definitions, Plant Capabilities, and Assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne Moe

    2013-05-01

    This document provides key definitions, plant capabilities, and inputs and assumptions related to the Next Generation Nuclear Plant to be used in ongoing efforts related to the licensing and deployment of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. These definitions, capabilities, and assumptions were extracted from a number of NGNP Project sources such as licensing related white papers, previously issued requirement documents, and preapplication interactions with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  19. Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) Fuel in FHRs: A Preliminary...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reactor Physics Assessment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) Fuel in FHRs: A Preliminary Reactor Physics Assessment ...

  20. Using fully coupled hydro-geomechanical numerical test bed to...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    test bed to study reservoir stimulation with low hydraulic pressure Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Using fully coupled hydro-geomechanical numerical test bed to ...

  1. Fully kinetic simulations of megajoule-scale dense plasma focus...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a combination of thermonuclear and beam-target fusion. However, the details of the neutron production are not fully understood and past optimization efforts of these devices...

  2. Assessment of Possible Cycle Lengths for Fully Encapsulated Microstruc...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    light water reactor Concepts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Assessment of Possible Cycle Lengths for Fully Encapsulated Microstructure fueled light water reactor ...

  3. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Fully Operational at the...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Fully Operational at the Portsmouth and Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Sites October 20, 2011 - 9:16am Addthis When Babcock & Wilcox Conversion ...

  4. Solid State Processing of Fully Dense Anistropic Nanocomposition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid State Processing of Fully Dense Anistropic Nanocomposition Magnets Research Personnel Characterization The project proposes a new solid state processing technology which will...

  5. Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR): Method and System to fully fission

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    actinides for electric power production without fuel enrichment, fabrication, or reprocessing | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR): Method and System to fully fission actinides for electric power production without fuel enrichment, fabrication, or reprocessing A method for integrating an external source of high-energy neutrons with a conventional moderated high conversion ratio molten salt reactor, thereby creating a self-contained hybrid system which fissions any

  6. Sensitivity of Rooftop PV Projections in the SunShot Vision Study to Market Assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drury, E.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2013-01-01

    The SunShot Vision Study explored the potential growth of solar markets if solar prices decreased by about 75% from 2010 to 2020. The SolarDS model was used to simulate rooftop PV demand for this study, based on several PV market assumptions--future electricity rates, customer access to financing, and others--in addition to the SunShot PV price projections. This paper finds that modeled PV demand is highly sensitive to several non-price market assumptions, particularly PV financing parameters.

  7. Integrative Genomics Building

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integrative Genomics Building Community Environmental Documents Tours Community Programs Friends of Berkeley Lab ⇒ Navigate Section Community Environmental Documents Tours Community Programs Friends of Berkeley Lab Project Description The Integrative Genomics Building (IGB) is proposed to be an approximately 77,000 gsf, four-story research and office building constructed in the former Bevatron area - a fully developed site in the geographic interior of the Berkeley Lab. The IGB is intended to

  8. Analyzing the impact of modeling choices and assumptions in compartmental epidemiological models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nutaro, James J.; Pullum, Laura L.; Ramanathan, Arvind; Ozmen, Ozgur

    2016-05-01

    In this study, computational models have become increasingly used as part of modeling, predicting, and understanding how infectious diseases spread within large populations. These models can be broadly classified into differential equation-based models (EBM) and agent-based models (ABM). Both types of models are central in aiding public health officials design intervention strategies in case of large epidemic outbreaks. We examine these models in the context of illuminating their hidden assumptions and the impact these may have on the model outcomes. Very few ABM/EBMs are evaluated for their suitability to address a particular public health concern, and drawing relevant conclusions aboutmore » their suitability requires reliable and relevant information regarding the different modeling strategies and associated assumptions. Hence, there is a need to determine how the different modeling strategies, choices of various parameters, and the resolution of information for EBMs and ABMs affect outcomes, including predictions of disease spread. In this study, we present a quantitative analysis of how the selection of model types (i.e., EBM vs. ABM), the underlying assumptions that are enforced by model types to model the disease propagation process, and the choice of time advance (continuous vs. discrete) affect the overall outcomes of modeling disease spread. Our study reveals that the magnitude and velocity of the simulated epidemic depends critically on the selection of modeling principles, various assumptions of disease process, and the choice of time advance.« less

  9. Summary Of Findings Peer Review of the FY2001 GPRA Assumptions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Findings - Peer Review of the FY2001 GPRA Assumptions Report to National Renewable Energy Laboratory February 29, 2000 In response to TOA Number KDC-9-18631-00 Arthur D. Little, Inc. Acorn Park Cambridge, Massachusetts 02140-2390 Reference 69393-01 Table of Contents INTRODUCTION ..............................................................................................................................................2

  10. External review of the thermal energy storage (TES) cogeneration study assumptions. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, B.Y.; Poirier, R.N.

    1996-08-01

    This report is to provide a detailed review of the basic assumptions made in the design, sizing, performance, and economic models used in the thermal energy storage (TES)/cogeneration feasibility studies conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. This report is the deliverable required under the contract.

  11. Assessment of Possible Cycle Lengths for Fully-Ceramic Micro...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Light Water Reactor Concepts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Assessment of Possible Cycle Lengths for Fully-Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel-Based Light Water Reactor ...

  12. Neutronic Analysis of the Burning of Transuranics in Fully Ceramic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Calculations have been performed to assess the neutronic behavior of pins of Fully-Ceramic ... of coolant voiding suggest that the behavior of this fuel would be similar to a MOX ...

  13. Thermal Deactivation Mechanisms of Fully-Formed Lean NOx Trap...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Duty Linehaul Platform Project Update Effect of Thermal Aging on NO oxidation and NOx storage in a Fully-Formulated Lean NOx Trap Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts

  14. Effects of dynamic screening on the electrical conductivity of fully ionized, nondegenerate hydrogen plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redmer, R.A.; Roepke, G.; Morales, F.; Kilimann, K. )

    1990-02-01

    The electrical conductivity of fully ionized, nondegenerate hydrogen plasma is expressed within the Zubarev method by equilibrium correlation functions. Using the Green's function technique, the Lenard--Balescu--Gurnsey collision integral of a generalized Boltzmann equation is derived that accounts for the effects of dynamic screening. Applying the usual random phase approximation, numerical results for the collision integral and the electrical conductivity are compared with the case of static screening ({omega}=0) and the long-wavelength limit ({ital q}{r arrow}0) for the dielectric function {Epsilon}({ital q},{omega}). Effective low-density expansions are given for the collision integrals as well as for the electrical conductivity that are applicable for a wide range of density and temperature.

  15. NGNP: High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Key Definitions, Plant Capabilities, and Assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillip Mills

    2012-02-01

    This document is intended to provide a Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project tool in which to collect and identify key definitions, plant capabilities, and inputs and assumptions to be used in ongoing efforts related to the licensing and deployment of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). These definitions, capabilities, and assumptions are extracted from a number of sources, including NGNP Project documents such as licensing related white papers [References 1-11] and previously issued requirement documents [References 13-15]. Also included is information agreed upon by the NGNP Regulatory Affairs group's Licensing Working Group and Configuration Council. The NGNP Project approach to licensing an HTGR plant via a combined license (COL) is defined within the referenced white papers and reference [12], and is not duplicated here.

  16. Microbes Disprove Long-Held Assumption that All Organisms Share a Common

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vocabulary | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Microbes Disprove Long-Held Assumption that All Organisms Share a Common Vocabulary Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) Community Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy

  17. Development and Evaluation of a Novel Integrated Vacuum Carbonate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Unique features of the IVCAP include its ability to be fully-integrated with the power ... What additives can effectively reduce the water vapor saturation pressure and energy ...

  18. Fully kinetic simulations of megajoule-scale dense plasma focus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, A.; Link, A.; Tang, V.; Halvorson, C.; May, M.; Welch, D.; Meehan, B. T.; Hagen, E. C.

    2014-10-15

    Dense plasma focus (DPF) Z-pinch devices are sources of copious high energy electrons and ions, x-rays, and neutrons. Megajoule-scale DPFs can generate 10{sup 12} neutrons per pulse in deuterium gas through a combination of thermonuclear and beam-target fusion. However, the details of the neutron production are not fully understood and past optimization efforts of these devices have been largely empirical. Previously, we reported on the first fully kinetic simulations of a kilojoule-scale DPF and demonstrated that both kinetic ions and kinetic electrons are needed to reproduce experimentally observed features, such as charged-particle beam formation and anomalous resistivity. Here, we present the first fully kinetic simulation of a MegaJoule DPF, with predicted ion and neutron spectra, neutron anisotropy, neutron spot size, and time history of neutron production. The total yield predicted by the simulation is in agreement with measured values, validating the kinetic model in a second energy regime.

  19. Bases, Assumptions, and Results of the Flowsheet Calculations for the Decision Phase Salt Disposition Alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dimenna, R.A.; Jacobs, R.A.; Taylor, G.A.; Durate, O.E.; Paul, P.K.; Elder, H.H.; Pike, J.A.; Fowler, J.R.; Rutland, P.L.; Gregory, M.V.; Smith III, F.G.; Hang, T.; Subosits, S.G.; Campbell, S.G.

    2001-03-26

    The High Level Waste (HLW) Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team was formed on March 13, 1998, and chartered to identify options, evaluate alternatives, and recommend a selected alternative(s) for processing HLW salt to a permitted wasteform. This requirement arises because the existing In-Tank Precipitation process at the Savannah River Site, as currently configured, cannot simultaneously meet the HLW production and Authorization Basis safety requirements. This engineering study was performed in four phases. This document provides the technical bases, assumptions, and results of this engineering study.

  20. The following data/assumptions will better address the LLW differences between t

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    data/assumptions will better address the LLW differences between the LEU option and the LEU/Th option of Alternative 1. 1. There is 397 kg fissile ( 233 U and 235 U) in the HTGR fuel. 2. Based on past experience of LLW to Nevada National Security Site, it is expected that the maximum quantity of fissile in a Type B shipping container (CASTOR cask) will be restricted to 1 kg. To protect a 1 kg maximum, it is assumed that 900 grams would be the maximum in a CASTOR cask. Therefore, from a fissile

  1. Fully Integrated Lignocellulosic Biorefinery with Onsite Production of Enzymes and Yeast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manoj Kumar, PhD

    2010-06-14

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  2. Method of manufacturing a fully integrated and encapsulated micro-fabricated vacuum diode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Resnick, Paul J.; Langlois, Eric

    2014-08-26

    Disclosed is an encapsulated micro-diode and a method for producing same. The method comprises forming a plurality columns in the substrate with a respective tip disposed at a first end of the column, the tip defining a cathode of the diode; disposing a sacrificial oxide layer on the substrate, plurality of columns and respective tips; forming respective trenches in the sacrificial oxide layer around the columns; forming an opening in the sacrificial oxide layer to expose a portion of the tips; depositing a conductive material in of the opening and on a surface of the substrate to form an anode of the diode; and removing the sacrificial oxide layer.

  3. Fully integrated and encapsulated micro-fabricated vacuum diode and method of manufacturing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Resnick, Paul J.; Langlois, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Disclosed is an encapsulated micro-diode and a method for producing same. The method comprises forming a plurality columns in the substrate with a respective tip disposed at a first end of the column, the tip defining a cathode of the diode; disposing a sacrificial oxide layer on the substrate, plurality of columns and respective tips; forming respective trenches in the sacrificial oxide layer around the columns; forming an opening in the sacrificial oxide layer to expose a portion of the tips; depositing a conductive material in of the opening and on a surface of the substrate to form an anode of the diode; and removing the sacrificial oxide layer.

  4. Fully implicit Particle-in-cell algorithms for multiscale plasma simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chacon, Luis

    2015-07-16

    The outline of the paper is as follows: Particle-in-cell (PIC) methods for fully ionized collisionless plasmas, explicit vs. implicit PIC, 1D ES implicit PIC (charge and energy conservation, moment-based acceleration), and generalization to Multi-D EM PIC: Vlasov-Darwin model (review and motivation for Darwin model, conservation properties (energy, charge, and canonical momenta), and numerical benchmarks). The author demonstrates a fully implicit, fully nonlinear, multidimensional PIC formulation that features exact local charge conservation (via a novel particle mover strategy), exact global energy conservation (no particle self-heating or self-cooling), adaptive particle orbit integrator to control errors in momentum conservation, and canonical momenta (EM-PIC only, reduced dimensionality). The approach is free of numerical instabilities: ωpeΔt >> 1, and Δx >> λD. It requires many fewer dofs (vs. explicit PIC) for comparable accuracy in challenging problems. Significant CPU gains (vs explicit PIC) have been demonstrated. The method has much potential for efficiency gains vs. explicit in long-time-scale applications. Moment-based acceleration is effective in minimizing NFE, leading to an optimal algorithm.

  5. Development of Fully Coupled Aeroelastic and Hydrodynamic Models for Offshore Wind Turbines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonkman, J. M.; Sclavounos, P. D.

    2006-01-01

    Aeroelastic simulation tools are routinely used to design and analyze onshore wind turbines, in order to obtain cost effective machines that achieve favorable performance while maintaining structural integrity. These tools employ sophisticated models of wind-inflow; aerodynamic, gravitational, and inertial loading of the rotor, nacelle, and tower; elastic effects within and between components; and mechanical actuation and electrical responses of the generator and of control and protection systems. For offshore wind turbines, additional models of the hydrodynamic loading in regular and irregular seas, the dynamic coupling between the support platform motions and wind turbine motions, and the dynamic characterization of mooring systems for compliant floating platforms are also important. Hydrodynamic loading includes contributions from hydrostatics, wave radiation, and wave scattering, including free surface memory effects. The integration of all of these models into comprehensive simulation tools, capable of modeling the fully coupled aeroelastic and hydrodynamic responses of floating offshore wind turbines, is presented.

  6. Integrated heterodyne terahertz transceiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanke, Michael C.; Lee, Mark; Nordquist, Christopher D.; Cich, Michael J.

    2012-09-25

    A heterodyne terahertz transceiver comprises a quantum cascade laser that is integrated on-chip with a Schottky diode mixer. A terahertz signal can be received by an antenna connected to the mixer, an end facet or sidewall of the laser, or through a separate active section that can amplify the incident signal. The quantum cascade laser couples terahertz local oscillator power to the Schottky diode to mix with the received terahertz signal to provide an intermediate frequency output signal. The fully integrated transceiver optimizes power efficiency, sensitivity, compactness, and reliability. The transceiver can be used in compact, fieldable systems covering a wide variety of deployable applications not possible with existing technology.

  7. Integrated heterodyne terahertz transceiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Mark; Wanke, Michael C.

    2009-06-23

    A heterodyne terahertz transceiver comprises a quantum cascade laser that is integrated on-chip with a Schottky diode mixer. An antenna connected to the Schottky diode receives a terahertz signal. The quantum cascade laser couples terahertz local oscillator power to the Schottky diode to mix with the received terahertz signal to provide an intermediate frequency output signal. The fully integrated transceiver optimizes power efficiency, sensitivity, compactness, and reliability. The transceiver can be used in compact, fieldable systems covering a wide variety of deployable applications not possible with existing technology.

  8. Design assumptions and bases for small D-T-fueled Sperical Tokamak (ST) fusion core

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Galambos, J.D.; Fogarty, P.J.

    1996-12-31

    Recent progress in defining the assumptions and clarifying the bases for a small D-T-fueled ST fusion core are presented. The paper covers several issues in the physics of ST plasmas, the technology of neutral beam injection, the engineering design configuration, and the center leg material under intense neutron irradiation. This progress was driven by the exciting data from pioneering ST experiments, a heightened interest in proof-of-principle experiments at the MA level in plasma current, and the initiation of the first conceptual design study of the small ST fusion core. The needs recently identified for a restructured fusion energy sciences program have provided a timely impetus for examining the subject of this paper. Our results, though preliminary in nature, strengthen the case for the potential realism and attractiveness of the ST approach.

  9. Washington International Renewable Energy Conference 2008 Pledges: Methodology and Assumptions Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babiuch, B.; Bilello, D. E.; Cowlin, S. C.; Mann, M.; Wise, A.

    2008-08-01

    The 2008 Washington International Renewable Energy Conference (WIREC) was held in Washington, D.C., from March 4-6, 2008, and involved nearly 9,000 people from 125 countries. The event brought together worldwide leaders in renewable energy (RE) from governments, international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector to discuss the role that renewables can play in alleviating poverty, growing economies, and passing on a healthy planet to future generations. The conference concluded with more than 140 governments, international organizations, and private-sector representatives pledging to advance the uptake of renewable energy. The U.S. government authorized the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to estimate the carbon dioxide (CO2) savings that would result from the pledges made at the 2008 conference. This report describes the methodology and assumptions used by NREL in quantifying the potential CO2 reductions derived from those pledges.

  10. CRITICAL ASSUMPTIONS IN THE F-TANK FARM CLOSURE OPERATIONAL DOCUMENTATION REGARDING WASTE TANK INTERNAL CONFIGURATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hommel, S.; Fountain, D.

    2012-03-28

    The intent of this document is to provide clarification of critical assumptions regarding the internal configurations of liquid waste tanks at operational closure, with respect to F-Tank Farm (FTF) closure documentation. For the purposes of this document, FTF closure documentation includes: (1) Performance Assessment for the F-Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (hereafter referred to as the FTF PA) (SRS-REG-2007-00002), (2) Basis for Section 3116 Determination for Closure of F-Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (DOE/SRS-WD-2012-001), (3) Tier 1 Closure Plan for the F-Area Waste Tank Systems at the Savannah River Site (SRR-CWDA-2010-00147), (4) F-Tank Farm Tanks 18 and 19 DOE Manual 435.1-1 Tier 2 Closure Plan Savannah River Site (SRR-CWDA-2011-00015), (5) Industrial Wastewater Closure Module for the Liquid Waste Tanks 18 and 19 (SRRCWDA-2010-00003), and (6) Tank 18/Tank 19 Special Analysis for the Performance Assessment for the F-Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (hereafter referred to as the Tank 18/Tank 19 Special Analysis) (SRR-CWDA-2010-00124). Note that the first three FTF closure documents listed apply to the entire FTF, whereas the last three FTF closure documents listed are specific to Tanks 18 and 19. These two waste tanks are expected to be the first two tanks to be grouted and operationally closed under the current suite of FTF closure documents and many of the assumptions and approaches that apply to these two tanks are also applicable to the other FTF waste tanks and operational closure processes.

  11. Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Mark F.; Samtaney, Ravi; Brandt, Achi

    2013-12-14

    Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations – so-called “textbook” multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss-Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field, which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations.

  12. Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adams, Mark F.; Samtaney, Ravi; Brandt, Achi

    2010-09-01

    Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations – so-called ‘‘textbook” multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss–Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field,more » which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations.« less

  13. Point kinetics calculations with fully coupled thermal fluids reactivity feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, H.; Zou, L.; Andrs, D.; Zhao, H.; Martineau, R.

    2013-07-01

    The point kinetics model has been widely used in the analysis of the transient behavior of a nuclear reactor. In the traditional nuclear reactor system safety analysis codes such as RELAP5, the reactivity feedback effects are calculated in a loosely coupled fashion through operator splitting approach. This paper discusses the point kinetics calculations with the fully coupled thermal fluids and fuel temperature feedback implemented into the RELAP-7 code currently being developed with the MOOSE framework. (authors)

  14. Archaeopteryx Feathers and Bone Chemistry Fully Revealed via Synchrotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging Archaeopteryx Feathers and Bone Chemistry Fully Revealed via Synchrotron Imaging Archaeopteryx specimens are important but extremely rare fossils. Due to their possession of both reptilian (jaws with teeth, long bony tail) and avian (feathered wings) characters, Archaeopteryx has been crucial in the development of Darwinian evolution. Despite their importance, no Archaeopteryx specimen has ever been chemically analyzed. This in large part may be explained by the analytical obstacles

  15. Technical considerations related to interim source-term assumptions for emergency planning and equipment qualification. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemczyk, S.J.; McDowell-Boyer, L.M.

    1982-09-01

    The source terms recommended in the current regulatory guidance for many considerations of light water reactor (LWR) accidents were developed a number of years ago when understandings of many of the phenomena pertinent to source term estimation were relatively primitive. The purpose of the work presented here was to develop more realistic source term assumptions which could be used for interim regulatory purposes for two specific considerations, namely, equipment qualification and emergency planning. The overall approach taken was to adopt assumptions and models previously proposed for various aspects of source term estimation and to modify those assumptions and models to reflect recently gained insights into, and data describing, the release and transport of radionuclides during and after LWR accidents. To obtain illustrative estimates of the magnitudes of the source terms, the results of previous calculations employing the adopted assumptions and models were utilized and were modified to account for the effects of the recent insights and data.

  16. Final Report - Study of Shortwave Spectra in Fully 3D Environment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report - Study of Shortwave Spectra in Fully 3D Environment. Synergy Between Scanning ... Title: Final Report - Study of Shortwave Spectra in Fully 3D Environment. Synergy Between ...

  17. Ability of TiO2(110) Surface to Be Fully Hydroxylated and Fully Reduced

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhitao; Garcia, Juan C.; Deskins, N. A.; Lyubinetsky, Igor

    2015-08-06

    Many TiO2 applications (e.g., in heterogeneous catalysis) involve contact with ambient atmosphere and/or water. The resulting hydroxylation can significantly alter its surface properties. While behavior of single, isolated OH species on the model metal oxide surface of rutile TiO2(110) is relatively well understood, much less is known regarding highly-hydroxylated surfaces and/or whether TiO2(110) could be fully-hydroxylated under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Here we report in situ formation of a well-ordered, fully-hydroxylated TiO2(110)-(1 x 1) surface using an enhanced photochemical approach, key parts of which are pre-dosing of water and multi-step dissociative adsorption and subsequent photolysis of the carboxylic (trimethyl acetic) acid. Combining scanning tunneling microscopy, ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory results, we show that the attained super OH surface is also fully-reduced, as a result of the photochemical trapping of electrons at the OH groups.

  18. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission key enabling assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, J.H.

    1998-01-09

    An overall systems approach has been applied to develop action plans to support the retrieval and immobilization waste disposal mission. The review concluded that the systems and infrastructure required to support the mission are known. Required systems are either in place or plans have been developed. An analysis of the programmatic, management and technical activities necessary to declare Readiness to Proceed with execution of the mission demonstrates that the system, people, and hardware will be on line and ready to support the private contractors. The systems approach included defining the retrieval and immobilized waste disposal mission requirements and evaluating the readiness of the TWRS contractor to supply waste feed to the private contractors in June 2002. The Phase 1 feed delivery requirements from the Private Contractor Request for Proposals were reviewed, transfer piping routes were mapped on it, existing systems were evaluated, and upgrade requirements were defined. Technical Basis Reviews were completed to define work scope in greater detail, cost estimates and associated year by year financial analyses were completed. Personnel training, qualifications, management systems and procedures were reviewed and shown to be in place and ready to support the Phase 1B mission. Key assumptions and risks that could negatively impact mission success were evaluated and appropriate mitigative actions plans were planned and scheduled.

  19. Estimating Alarm Thresholds for Process Monitoring Data under Different Assumptions about the Data Generating Mechanism

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burr, Tom; Hamada, Michael S.; Howell, John; Skurikhin, Misha; Ticknor, Larry; Weaver, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Process monitoring (PM) for nuclear safeguards sometimes requires estimation of thresholds corresponding to small false alarm rates. Threshold estimation dates to the 1920s with the Shewhart control chart; however, because possible new roles for PM are being evaluated in nuclear safeguards, it is timely to consider modern model selection options in the context of threshold estimation. One of the possible new PM roles involves PM residuals, where a residual is defined as residual = data − prediction. This paper reviews alarm threshold estimation, introduces model selection options, and considers a range of assumptions regarding the data-generating mechanism for PM residuals.more » Two PM examples from nuclear safeguards are included to motivate the need for alarm threshold estimation. The first example involves mixtures of probability distributions that arise in solution monitoring, which is a common type of PM. The second example involves periodic partial cleanout of in-process inventory, leading to challenging structure in the time series of PM residuals.« less

  20. Procurement of a fully licensed radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, H.E.; Bearden, T.E.

    1990-10-01

    A fully licensed transportation system for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Units is currently being designed and built. The system will comply with all applicable US Department of Transportation regulations without the use of a DOE Alternative.'' The US Department of Transportation has special double containment'' requirements for plutonium. The system packaging uses a doubly contained bell jar'' concept. A refrigerated trailer is used for cooling the high-heat payloads. The same packaging is used for both high- and low-heat payloads. The system is scheduled to be available for use by mid-1992. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Runaway electrons in a fully and partially ionized nonideal plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramazanov, T.S.; Turekhanova, K.M.

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports on a study of electron runaway for a nonideal plasma in an external electric field. Based on pseudopotential models of nonideal fully and partially ionized plasmas, the friction force was derived as a function of electron velocities. Dependences of the electron free path on plasma density and nonideality parameters were obtained. The impact of the relative number of runaway electrons on their velocity and temperature was considered for classical and semiclassical models of a nonideal plasma. It has been shown that for the defined intervals of the coupled plasma parameter, the difference between the relative numbers of runaway electron values is essential for various plasma models.

  2. Is the assumption of normality or log-normality for continuous response data critical for benchmark dose estimation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Kan; Gift, Jeffrey S.; Setzer, R. Woodrow

    2013-11-01

    Continuous responses (e.g. body weight) are widely used in risk assessment for determining the benchmark dose (BMD) which is used to derive a U.S. EPA reference dose. One critical question that is not often addressed in doseresponse assessments is whether to model the continuous data as normally or log-normally distributed. Additionally, if lognormality is assumed, and only summarized response data (i.e., mean standard deviation) are available as is usual in the peer-reviewed literature, the BMD can only be approximated. In this study, using the hybrid method and relative deviation approach, we first evaluate six representative continuous doseresponse datasets reporting individual animal responses to investigate the impact on BMD/BMDL estimates of (1) the distribution assumption and (2) the use of summarized versus individual animal data when a log-normal distribution is assumed. We also conduct simulation studies evaluating model fits to various known distributions to investigate whether the distribution assumption has influence on BMD/BMDL estimates. Our results indicate that BMDs estimated using the hybrid method are more sensitive to the distribution assumption than counterpart BMDs estimated using the relative deviation approach. The choice of distribution assumption has limited impact on the BMD/BMDL estimates when the within dose-group variance is small, while the lognormality assumption is a better choice for relative deviation method when data are more skewed because of its appropriateness in describing the relationship between mean and standard deviation. Additionally, the results suggest that the use of summarized data versus individual response data to characterize log-normal distributions has minimal impact on BMD estimates. - Highlights: We investigate to what extent the distribution assumption can affect BMD estimates. Both real data analysis and simulation study are conducted. BMDs estimated using hybrid method are more sensitive to

  3. Fully Polarimetric Differential Intensity W-band Imager

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Kelly, James F.; Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; Valdez, Patrick LJ; Lechelt, Wayne M.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2013-05-31

    We present a novel architecture based upon a Dicke-switched heterodyne radiometer architecture employing two identical input sections consisting of horn and orthomode transducer to detect the difference between the H and V polarization states of two separate object patches imaged by the radiometer. We have constructed and described previously a fully polarimetric W-band passive millimeter wave imager constructed to study the phenomenology of anomaly detection using polarimetric image exploitation of the Stokes images. The heterodyne radiometer used a PIN diode switch between the input millimeter wave energy and that of a reference load in order to eliminate the effects of component drifts and reduce the effects of 1/f noise. The differential approach differs from our previous work by comparing H and V polarization states detected by each of the two input horns instead of a reference load to form signals delta H and delta V from closely adjacent paired object patches. This novel imaging approach reduces common mode noise and enhances detection of small changes between the H and V polarization states of two object patches, now given as difference terms of the fully polarimetric radiometer. We present the theory of operation, initial proof of concept experimental results, and extension of the differential radiometer to a system with a binocular fore optics that allow adjustment of the convergence or shear of the object patches viewed by the differential polarimetric imager.

  4. Development of Low Energy Gap and Fully Regioregular Polythienylenevinylene Derivative

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    David, Tanya M. S.; Zhang, Cheng; Sun, Sam-Shajing

    2014-01-01

    Low energy gap and fully regioregular conjugated polymers find its wide use in solar energy conversion applications. This paper will first briefly review this type of polymers and also report synthesis and characterization of a specific example new polymer, a low energy gap, fully regioregular, terminal functionalized, and processable conjugated polymer poly-(3-dodecyloxy-2,5-thienylene vinylene) or PDDTV. The polymer exhibited an optical energy gap of 1.46 eV based on the UV-vis-NIR absorption spectrum. The electrochemically measured highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level is −4.79 eV, resulting in the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level of −3.33 eV based on optical energy gap. The polymer wasmore » synthesized via Horner-Emmons condensation and is fairly soluble in common organic solvents such as tetrahydrofuran and chloroform with gentle heating. DSC showed two endothermic peaks at 67°C and 227°C that can be attributed to transitions between crystalline and liquid states. The polymer is thermally stable up to about 300°C. This polymer appears very promising for cost-effective solar cell applications.« less

  5. Scalable Nonlinear Solvers for Fully Implicit Coupled Nuclear Fuel Modeling. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Xiao-Chuan; Keyes, David; Yang, Chao; Zheng, Xiang; Pernice, Michael

    2014-09-29

    The focus of the project is on the development and customization of some highly scalable domain decomposition based preconditioning techniques for the numerical solution of nonlinear, coupled systems of partial differential equations (PDEs) arising from nuclear fuel simulations. These high-order PDEs represent multiple interacting physical fields (for example, heat conduction, oxygen transport, solid deformation), each is modeled by a certain type of Cahn-Hilliard and/or Allen-Cahn equations. Most existing approaches involve a careful splitting of the fields and the use of field-by-field iterations to obtain a solution of the coupled problem. Such approaches have many advantages such as ease of implementation since only single field solvers are needed, but also exhibit disadvantages. For example, certain nonlinear interactions between the fields may not be fully captured, and for unsteady problems, stable time integration schemes are difficult to design. In addition, when implemented on large scale parallel computers, the sequential nature of the field-by-field iterations substantially reduces the parallel efficiency. To overcome the disadvantages, fully coupled approaches have been investigated in order to obtain full physics simulations.

  6. Technical assumption for Mo-99 production in the MARIA reactor. Feasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaroszewicz, J.; Pytel, K.; Dabkowski, L.; Krzysztoszek, G. [Institute of Atomic Energy, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2008-07-15

    The main objective of U-235 irradiation is to obtain the Tc-99m isotope which is widely used in the domain of medical diagnostics. The decisive factor determining its availability, despite its short life time, is a reaction of radioactive decay of Mo-99 into Tc- 99m. One of the possible sources of molybdenum can be achieved in course of the U-235 fission reaction. The paper presents activities and the calculations results obtained upon the feasibility study on irradiation of U-235 targets for production of molybdenum in the MARIA reactor. The activities including technical assumption were focused on performing calculation for modelling of the target and irradiation device as well as adequate equipment and tools for processing in reactor. It has been assumed that the basic component of fuel charge is an aluminium cladded plate with dimensions of 40x230x1.45 containing 4.7 g U-235. The presumed mode of the heat removal generated in the fuel charge of the reactor primary cooling circuit influences the construction of installation to be used for irradiation and the technological instrumentation. The outer channel construction for irradiation has to be identical as the standard fuel channel construction of the MARIA reactor. It enables to use the existing slab and reactor mounting sockets for the fastening of the molybdenum channel as well as the cooling water delivery system. The measurement of water temperature cooling a fuel charge and control of water flow rate in the channel can also be carried out be means of the standard instrumentation of the reactor. (author)

  7. FULLY CONVECTIVE MAGNETOROTATIONAL TURBULENCE IN STRATIFIED SHEARING BOXES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodo, G.; Rossi, P.; Cattaneo, F.; Mignone, A.

    2013-07-10

    We present a numerical study of turbulence and dynamo action in stratified shearing boxes with zero magnetic flux. We assume that the fluid obeys the perfect gas law and has finite (constant) thermal diffusivity. We choose radiative boundary conditions at the vertical boundaries in which the heat flux is proportional to the fourth power of the temperature. We compare the results with the corresponding cases in which fixed temperature boundary conditions are applied. The most notable result is that the formation of a fully convective state in which the density is nearly constant as a function of height and the heat is transported to the upper and lower boundaries by overturning motions is robust and persists even in cases with radiative boundary conditions. Interestingly, in the convective regime, although the diffusive transport is negligible, the mean stratification does not relax to an adiabatic state.

  8. Thermochemical Conversion - Biorefinery Integration | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Biorefinery Integration Thermochemical Conversion - Biorefinery Integration Fuels Synthesis Fuels can be produced from bio-oils using processes similar to those found in a petroleum refinery, including hydrotreating and hydrocracking to create green gasoline, an alternative to alcohol-based ethanol fuels. Some types of bio-oils can even be fully integrated into petroleum refining stream and infrastructure. The conversion of biomass derived syngas to products is typically an exothermic process,

  9. Workshop: Systems Integration Vision Challenges and Opportunities |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 5:30PM PDT Pacific A Even after achieving the SunShot Initiative's cost targets for solar energy, successful systems integration will remain as the key barrier to enable significantly higher levels of penetration and growth in solar power generation. To fully realize the SunShot goals, it is critical to address the challenges to successful integration of solar generation into the power grid (both transmission and distribution). SunShot's Systems Integration (SI)

  10. Electroproduction and gluonic production of J/{psi} mesons under the assumption of quark-hadron duality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berezhnoy, A. V. Likhoded, A. K.

    2008-02-15

    On the basis of the assumption of quark-hadron duality, it is shown that the color-singlet contribution to the cross sections for the processes e + g {sup {yields}} e + J/{psi} + g and gg {sup {yields}} J/{psi}g increases upon taking into account the relative motion of quarks in the J/{psi} meson.

  11. Electroproduction and gluonic production of J/{psi} mesons under the assumption of quark-hadron duality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berezhnoy, A. V.; Likhoded, A. K.

    2008-02-15

    On the basis of the assumption of quark-hadron duality, it is shown that the color-singlet contribution to the cross sections for the processes e + g {yields} e + J/{psi} + g and gg {yields} J/{psi}g increases upon taking into account the relative motion of quarks in the J/{psi} meson.

  12. Preliminary Review of Models, Assumptions, and Key Data used in Performance Assessments and Composite Analysis at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arthur S. Rood; Swen O. Magnuson

    2009-07-01

    This document is in response to a request by Ming Zhu, DOE-EM to provide a preliminary review of existing models and data used in completed or soon to be completed Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses (PA/CA) documents, to identify codes, methodologies, main assumptions, and key data sets used.

  13. Fully Kinetic Simulations of MegaJoule-Scale Dense Plasma Focus...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Fully Kinetic Simulations of MegaJoule-Scale Dense Plasma Focus Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fully Kinetic Simulations of MegaJoule-Scale Dense ...

  14. Scalable implicit incompressible resistive MHD with stabilized FE and fully-coupled Newton–Krylov-AMG

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shadid, J. N.; Pawlowski, R. P.; Cyr, E. C.; Tuminaro, R. S.; Chacon, L.; Weber, P. D.

    2016-02-10

    Here, we discuss that the computational solution of the governing balance equations for mass, momentum, heat transfer and magnetic induction for resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) systems can be extremely challenging. These difficulties arise from both the strong nonlinear, nonsymmetric coupling of fluid and electromagnetic phenomena, as well as the significant range of time- and length-scales that the interactions of these physical mechanisms produce. This paper explores the development of a scalable, fully-implicit stabilized unstructured finite element (FE) capability for 3D incompressible resistive MHD. The discussion considers the development of a stabilized FE formulation in context of the variational multiscale (VMS) method,more » and describes the scalable implicit time integration and direct-to-steady-state solution capability. The nonlinear solver strategy employs Newton–Krylov methods, which are preconditioned using fully-coupled algebraic multilevel preconditioners. These preconditioners are shown to enable a robust, scalable and efficient solution approach for the large-scale sparse linear systems generated by the Newton linearization. Verification results demonstrate the expected order-of-accuracy for the stabilized FE discretization. The approach is tested on a variety of prototype problems, that include MHD duct flows, an unstable hydromagnetic Kelvin–Helmholtz shear layer, and a 3D island coalescence problem used to model magnetic reconnection. Initial results that explore the scaling of the solution methods are also presented on up to 128K processors for problems with up to 1.8B unknowns on a CrayXK7.« less

  15. Fully Coupled Simulation of Lithium Ion Battery Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trembacki, Bradley L.; Murthy, Jayathi Y.; Roberts, Scott Alan

    2015-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery particle-scale (non-porous electrode) simulations applied to resolved electrode geometries predict localized phenomena and can lead to better informed decisions on electrode design and manufacturing. This work develops and implements a fully-coupled finite volume methodology for the simulation of the electrochemical equations in a lithium-ion battery cell. The model implementation is used to investigate 3D battery electrode architectures that offer potential energy density and power density improvements over traditional layer-by-layer particle bed battery geometries. Advancement of micro-scale additive manufacturing techniques has made it possible to fabricate these 3D electrode microarchitectures. A variety of 3D battery electrode geometries are simulated and compared across various battery discharge rates and length scales in order to quantify performance trends and investigate geometrical factors that improve battery performance. The energy density and power density of the 3D battery microstructures are compared in several ways, including a uniform surface area to volume ratio comparison as well as a comparison requiring a minimum manufacturable feature size. Significant performance improvements over traditional particle bed electrode designs are observed, and electrode microarchitectures derived from minimal surfaces are shown to be superior. A reduced-order volume-averaged porous electrode theory formulation for these unique 3D batteries is also developed, allowing simulations on the full-battery scale. Electrode concentration gradients are modeled using the diffusion length method, and results for plate and cylinder electrode geometries are compared to particle-scale simulation results. Additionally, effective diffusion lengths that minimize error with respect to particle-scale results for gyroid and Schwarz P electrode microstructures are determined.

  16. Technology Implementation Plan. Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel for Commercial Light Water Reactor Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snead, Lance Lewis; Terrani, Kurt A.; Powers, Jeffrey J.; Worrall, Andrew; Robb, Kevin R.; Snead, Mary A.

    2015-04-01

    This report is an overview of the implementation plan for ORNL's fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) light water reactor fuel. The fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel consists of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particles embedded inside a fully dense SiC matrix and is intended for utilization in commercial light water reactor application.

  17. Grid Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its grid integration subprogram.

  18. Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining at Kraft Pulp and Paper Mills in the United States, Part A: Background and Assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, E. D.; Consonni, S.; Katofsky, R. E.; Iisa, K.; Frederick, W. J., Jr.

    2008-11-01

    Commercialization of black liquor and biomass gasification technologies is anticipated in the 2010-2015 time frame, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are already commercially established in the gas-to-liquids or coal-to-liquids industries. This set of two papers describes key results from a major assessment of the prospective energy, environmental, and financial performance of commercial gasification-based biorefineries integrated with kraft pulp and paper mills [1]. Seven detailed biorefinery designs were developed for a reference mill in the southeastern United States, together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which could be refined to vehicle fuels at an existing petroleum refinery), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or propane substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. This paper describes the key assumptions that underlie the biorefinery designs. Part B will present analytical results.

  19. Fully-Implicit Orthogonal Reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin for Fluid Dynamics with Phase Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nourgaliev, R.; Luo, H.; Weston, B.; Anderson, A.; Schofield, S.; Dunn, T.; Delplanque, J. -P.

    2015-11-11

    A new reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin (rDG) method, based on orthogonal basis/test functions, is developed for fluid flows on unstructured meshes. Orthogonality of basis functions is essential for enabling robust and efficient fully-implicit Newton-Krylov based time integration. The method is designed for generic partial differential equations, including transient, hyperbolic, parabolic or elliptic operators, which are attributed to many multiphysics problems. We demonstrate the method’s capabilities for solving compressible fluid-solid systems (in the low Mach number limit), with phase change (melting/solidification), as motivated by applications in Additive Manufacturing (AM). We focus on the method’s accuracy (in both space and time), as well as robustness and solvability of the system of linear equations involved in the linearization steps of Newton-based methods. The performance of the developed method is investigated for highly-stiff problems with melting/solidification, emphasizing the advantages from tight coupling of mass, momentum and energy conservation equations, as well as orthogonality of basis functions, which leads to better conditioning of the underlying (approximate) Jacobian matrices, and rapid convergence of the Krylov-based linear solver.

  20. Fully-Implicit Orthogonal Reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin for Fluid Dynamics with Phase Change

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nourgaliev, R.; Luo, H.; Weston, B.; Anderson, A.; Schofield, S.; Dunn, T.; Delplanque, J. -P.

    2015-11-11

    A new reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin (rDG) method, based on orthogonal basis/test functions, is developed for fluid flows on unstructured meshes. Orthogonality of basis functions is essential for enabling robust and efficient fully-implicit Newton-Krylov based time integration. The method is designed for generic partial differential equations, including transient, hyperbolic, parabolic or elliptic operators, which are attributed to many multiphysics problems. We demonstrate the method’s capabilities for solving compressible fluid-solid systems (in the low Mach number limit), with phase change (melting/solidification), as motivated by applications in Additive Manufacturing (AM). We focus on the method’s accuracy (in both space and time), as wellmore » as robustness and solvability of the system of linear equations involved in the linearization steps of Newton-based methods. The performance of the developed method is investigated for highly-stiff problems with melting/solidification, emphasizing the advantages from tight coupling of mass, momentum and energy conservation equations, as well as orthogonality of basis functions, which leads to better conditioning of the underlying (approximate) Jacobian matrices, and rapid convergence of the Krylov-based linear solver.« less

  1. Procurement Integrity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - ------------------------------Chapter 3.1 (Dec 2015) 1 Procurement Integrity [Reference: 41 U.S.C. 423, FAR 3.104, DEAR 903.104] Overview This section discusses the requirements of the Procurement Integrity Act and its impact on Federal employees. Background The Department of Energy (DOE), like most federal agencies, purchases many products and services from the private sector. To preserve the integrity of the Federal procurement process and assure fair treatment of bidders, offerors and

  2. Procurement Integrity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    To preserve the integrity of the Federal procurement process and assure fair treatment of bidders, offerors and contractors, laws govern the procurement process and the manner in ...

  3. Insolation integrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, John J.; Rudge, George T.

    1980-01-01

    An electric signal representative of the rate of insolation is integrated to determine if it is adequate for operation of a solar energy collection system.

  4. System design and integration analysis for the Integrated Booking System (IBS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truett, L.F.; Wheeler, V.V.; Grubb, J.W.; Grubb, J.W.; Faby, E.Z.

    1995-11-01

    In accordance with tasking for the Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC), the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated design and integration issues and identified specific options for MTMC`s Integrated Booking System (IBS). Three system designs are described: the single-server, stand-alone IBS; the area-based IBS; and the fully-integrated IBS. Because of the functional and technical requirements of IBS and because of the MTMC strategy of sharing resources, ORNL recommends the fully-integrated design. This option uses the excess computing resources provided through the architectural components of the Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB) and provides visibility over the cargo record from initial request through final delivery.

  5. Final Report - Study of Shortwave Spectra in Fully 3D Environment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    3D Environment. Synergy Between Scanning Radars and Spectral Radiation Measurements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Report - Study of Shortwave Spectra in Fully 3D ...

  6. Rythmos Numerical Integration Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-09-01

    Rythmos numerically integrates transient differential equations. The differential equations can be explicit or implicit ordinary differential equations ofr formulated as fully implicit differential-algebraic equations. Methods include backward Euler, forward Euler, explicit Runge-Kutta, and implicit BDF at this time. Native support for operator split methods and strict modularity are strong design goals. Forward sensitivity computations will be included in the first release with adjoint sensitivities coming in the near future. Rythmos heavily relies on Thyra formore » linear algebra and nonlinear solver interfaces to AztecOO, Amesos, IFPack, and NOX in Tilinos. Rythmos is specially suited for stiff differential equations and thos applictions where operator split methods have a big advantage, e.g. Computational fluid dynamics, convection-diffusion equations, etc.« less

  7. Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A lot that needs to be done to enable the transition towards larger shares of renewables in the power mix. The 5th International Conference on Integration of Renewable Energy and ...

  8. Sensitivity of Utility-Scale Solar Deployment Projections in the SunShot Vision Study to Market and Performance Assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eurek, K.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Mowers, M.

    2013-04-01

    The SunShot Vision Study explored the potential growth of solar markets if solar prices decreased by about 75% from 2010 to 2020. The ReEDS model was used to simulate utility PV and CSP deployment for this present study, based on several market and performance assumptions - electricity demand, natural gas prices, coal retirements, cost and performance of non-solar renewable technologies, PV resource variability, distributed PV deployment, and solar market supply growth - in addition to the SunShot solar price projections. This study finds that utility-scale solar deployment is highly sensitive to solar prices. Other factors can have significant impacts, particularly electricity demand and natural gas prices.

  9. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This eighteenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period November 1, 1991 to January 31, 1992. The precombustor is fully assembled. Manufacturing of all slagging stage components has been completed. All cooling panels were welded in place and the panel/shell gap was filled with RTV. Final combustor assembly is in progress. The low pressure cooling subsystem (LPCS) was delivered to the CDIF. Second stage brazing issues were resolved. The construction of the two anode power cabinets was completed.

  10. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Fully Operational at the Portsmouth and Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Sites

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When Babcock & Wilcox Conversion Services took over the DUF6 Project on March 29 of this year, the company had one thing in mind: Bring all seven conversion lines at both plants to fully operational status by Sept. 30, 2011.

  11. Loads Analysis of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Using Fully Coupled Simulation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonkman, J. M.; Buhl, M. L., Jr.

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents the use of fully coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulation tools to perform a loads analysis of a 5-MW offshore wind turbine supported by a barge with moorings, one of many promising floating platform concepts.

  12. Box Integrals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Crandall, Richard E.

    2006-06-01

    By a "box integral" we mean here an expectation $\\langle|\\vec r - \\vec q|^s \\rangle$ where $\\vec r$runs over the unit $n$-cube,with $\\vec q$ and $s$ fixed, explicitly:\\begin eqnarray*&&\\int_01 \\cdots \\int_01 \\left((r_1 - q_1)2 + \\dots+(r_n-q_n)2\\right)^ s/2 \\ dr_1 \\cdots dr_n.\\end eqnarray* The study ofbox integrals leads one naturally into several disparate fields ofanalysis. While previous studies have focused upon symbolic evaluationand asymptotic analysis of special cases (notably $s = 1$), we workherein more generally--in interdisciplinary fashion--developing resultssuch as: (1) analytic continuation (in complex $s$), (2) relevantcombinatorial identities, (3) rapidly converging series, (4) statisticalinferences, (5) connections to mathematical physics, and (6)extreme-precision quadrature techniques appropriate for these integrals.These intuitions and results open up avenues of experimental mathematics,with a view to new conjectures and theorems on integrals of thistype.

  13. Integration of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors into Industrial Process Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee Nelson

    2011-09-01

    This report is a summary of analyses performed by the NGNP project to determine whether it is technically and economically feasible to integrate high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) technology into industrial processes. To avoid an overly optimistic environmental and economic baseline for comparing nuclear integrated and conventional processes, a conservative approach was used for the assumptions and calculations.

  14. Searches for third-generation squark production in fully hadronic final states in proton-proton collisions at ?s = 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khachatryan, V.

    2015-06-17

    Searches for third-generation squarks in fully hadronic final states are presented using data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities of 19.4 or 19.7 fb?, collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. Three mutually exclusive searches are presented, each optimized for a different decay topology. They include a multijet search requiring one fully reconstructed top quark, a dijet search requiring one or two jets originating from b quarks, and a monojet search. No excesses above the standard model expectations are seen, and limits are set on top and bottom squark production in the context of simplified models of supersymmetry.

  15. Searches for third-generation squark production in fully hadronic final states in proton-proton collisions at ?s = 8 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khachatryan, V.

    2015-06-17

    Searches for third-generation squarks in fully hadronic final states are presented using data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities of 19.4 or 19.7 fb?, collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. Three mutually exclusive searches are presented, each optimized for a different decay topology. They include a multijet search requiring one fully reconstructed top quark, a dijet search requiring one or two jets originating from b quarks, and a monojet search. No excesses above the standard model expectations are seen, and limits are set on top and bottom squark production in the contextmoreof simplified models of supersymmetry.less

  16. Searches for third-generation squark production in fully hadronic final states in proton-proton collisions at $$ \\sqrt{s} = 8$$ TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-06-17

    We searched for third-generation squarks in fully hadronic final states and presented them using data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities of 19.4 or 19.7 fb-1, collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. Three mutually exclusive searches are presented, each optimized for a different decay topology. They include a multijet search requiring one fully reconstructed top quark, a dijet search requiring one or two jets originating from b quarks, and a monojet search. Furthermore, no excesses above the standard model expectations are seen, and limits are set on top and bottom squark productionmore » in the context of simplified models of supersymmetry.« less

  17. AutoDrug: fully automated macromolecular crystallography workflows for fragment-based drug discovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, Yingssu; McPhillips, Scott E.; Gonzlez, Ana; McPhillips, Timothy M.; Zinn, Daniel; Cohen, Aina E.; Feese, Michael D.; Bushnell, David; Tiefenbrunn, Theresa; Stout, C. David; Ludaescher, Bertram; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O.; Soltis, S. Michael

    2013-05-01

    New software has been developed for automating the experimental and data-processing stages of fragment-based drug discovery at a macromolecular crystallography beamline. A new workflow-automation framework orchestrates beamline-control and data-analysis software while organizing results from multiple samples. AutoDrug is software based upon the scientific workflow paradigm that integrates the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource macromolecular crystallography beamlines and third-party processing software to automate the crystallography steps of the fragment-based drug-discovery process. AutoDrug screens a cassette of fragment-soaked crystals, selects crystals for data collection based on screening results and user-specified criteria and determines optimal data-collection strategies. It then collects and processes diffraction data, performs molecular replacement using provided models and detects electron density that is likely to arise from bound fragments. All processes are fully automated, i.e. are performed without user interaction or supervision. Samples can be screened in groups corresponding to particular proteins, crystal forms and/or soaking conditions. A single AutoDrug run is only limited by the capacity of the sample-storage dewar at the beamline: currently 288 samples. AutoDrug was developed in conjunction with RestFlow, a new scientific workflow-automation framework. RestFlow simplifies the design of AutoDrug by managing the flow of data and the organization of results and by orchestrating the execution of computational pipeline steps. It also simplifies the execution and interaction of third-party programs and the beamline-control system. Modeling AutoDrug as a scientific workflow enables multiple variants that meet the requirements of different user groups to be developed and supported. A workflow tailored to mimic the crystallography stages comprising the drug-discovery pipeline of CoCrystal Discovery Inc. has been deployed and successfully

  18. RADIATION INTEGRATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glass, F.M.; Wilson, H.N.

    1959-02-17

    Radiation detecting and measuring systems, particularly a compact, integrating, background monitor, are discussed. One of the principal features of the system is the use of an electrometer tube where the input of the tube is directly connected to an electrode of the radiation detector and a capacitor is coupled to the tube input. When a predetermined quantity of radiation has been integrated, a trigger signal is fed to a recorder and a charge is delivered to the capacitor to render the tube inoperative. The capacitor is then recharged for the next period of operation. With this arrangement there is a substantial reduction in lead lengths and the principal components may be enclosed and hermetically sealed to insure low leakage.

  19. Refinery Integration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mary Biddy Sue Jones NREL PNNL This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) 2015 Project Peer Review Refinery Integration 4.1.1.31 NREL 4.1.1.51 PNNL Goal Statement GOALS: Model bio-intermediates insertion points to better define costs & ID opportunities, technical risks, information gaps, research needs Publish results Review with stakeholders 2 Leveraging existing refining infrastructure

  20. Residential applliance data, assumptions and methodology for end-use forecasting with EPRI-REEPS 2.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, R.J,; Johnson, F.X.; Brown, R.E.; Hanford, J.W.; Kommey, J.G.

    1994-05-01

    This report details the data, assumptions and methodology for end-use forecasting of appliance energy use in the US residential sector. Our analysis uses the modeling framework provided by the Appliance Model in the Residential End-Use Energy Planning System (REEPS), which was developed by the Electric Power Research Institute. In this modeling framework, appliances include essentially all residential end-uses other than space conditioning end-uses. We have defined a distinct appliance model for each end-use based on a common modeling framework provided in the REEPS software. This report details our development of the following appliance models: refrigerator, freezer, dryer, water heater, clothes washer, dishwasher, lighting, cooking and miscellaneous. Taken together, appliances account for approximately 70% of electricity consumption and 30% of natural gas consumption in the US residential sector. Appliances are thus important to those residential sector policies or programs aimed at improving the efficiency of electricity and natural gas consumption. This report is primarily methodological in nature, taking the reader through the entire process of developing the baseline for residential appliance end-uses. Analysis steps documented in this report include: gathering technology and market data for each appliance end-use and specific technologies within those end-uses, developing cost data for the various technologies, and specifying decision models to forecast future purchase decisions by households. Our implementation of the REEPS 2.1 modeling framework draws on the extensive technology, cost and market data assembled by LBL for the purpose of analyzing federal energy conservation standards. The resulting residential appliance forecasting model offers a flexible and accurate tool for analyzing the effect of policies at the national level.

  1. The Role Of Modeling Assumptions And Policy Instruments in Evaluating The Global Implications Of U.S. Biofuel Policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A; Kline, Keith L

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of current U.S. biofuel law the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) is to reduce dependence on imported oil, but the law also requires biofuels to meet carbon emission reduction thresholds relative to petroleum fuels. EISA created a renewable fuel standard with annual targets for U.S. biofuel use that climb gradually from 9 billion gallons per year in 2008 to 36 billion gallons (or about 136 billion liters) of biofuels per year by 2022. The most controversial aspects of the biofuel policy have centered on the global social and environmental implications of its potential land use effects. In particular, there is an ongoing debate about whether indirect land use change (ILUC) make biofuels a net source, rather sink, of carbon emissions. However, estimates of ILUC induced by biofuel production and use can only be inferred through modeling. This paper evaluates how model structure, underlying assumptions, and the representation of policy instruments influence the results of U.S. biofuel policy simulations. The analysis shows that differences in these factors can lead to divergent model estimates of land use and economic effects. Estimates of the net conversion of forests and grasslands induced by U.S. biofuel policy range from 0.09 ha/1000 gallons described in this paper to 0.73 ha/1000 gallons from early studies in the ILUC change debate. We note that several important factors governing LUC change remain to be examined. Challenges that must be addressed to improve global land use change modeling are highlighted.

  2. A Fully Automated Method for CT-on-Rails-Guided Online Adaptive Planning for Prostate Cancer Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiaoqiang; Quan, Enzhuo M.; Li, Yupeng; Pan, Xiaoning; Zhou, Yin; Wang, Xiaochun; Du, Weiliang; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Johnson, Jennifer L.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Lee, Andrew K.; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to validate a fully automated adaptive planning (AAP) method which integrates automated recontouring and automated replanning to account for interfractional anatomical changes in prostate cancer patients receiving adaptive intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) based on daily repeated computed tomography (CT)-on-rails images. Methods and Materials: Nine prostate cancer patients treated at our institution were randomly selected. For the AAP method, contours on each repeat CT image were automatically generated by mapping the contours from the simulation CT image using deformable image registration. An in-house automated planning tool incorporated into the Pinnacle treatment planning system was used to generate the original and the adapted IMRT plans. The cumulative dosevolume histograms (DVHs) of the target and critical structures were calculated based on the manual contours for all plans and compared with those of plans generated by the conventional method, that is, shifting the isocenters by aligning the images based on the center of the volume (COV) of prostate (prostate COV-aligned). Results: The target coverage from our AAP method for every patient was acceptable, while 1 of the 9 patients showed target underdosing from prostate COV-aligned plans. The normalized volume receiving at least 70 Gy (V{sub 70}), and the mean dose of the rectum and bladder were reduced by 8.9%, 6.4 Gy and 4.3%, 5.3 Gy, respectively, for the AAP method compared with the values obtained from prostate COV-aligned plans. Conclusions: The AAP method, which is fully automated, is effective for online replanning to compensate for target dose deficits and critical organ overdosing caused by interfractional anatomical changes in prostate cancer.

  3. Integrating smart sensors into grid systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    smart sensors into grid systems will enable more complex modeling and adaptation to unknown problems for preventing future catastrophic failures. Passive Microsensor for Autonomous Sensing Grid health and reliability forms the backbone of our Nation's infrastructure. Real time monitoring and fast failure location and identification is critical for electrical grid sustainability. We propose the development of a cheap, fast (µs), fully integrated, passive micro-sensor capable of detecting

  4. FRACSTIM/I: A Fully Coupled Fluid Flow/Heat Transport and Geomechanical Deformation/Fracture Generation Simulator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This research will develop a fully coupled, fully implicit approach for EGS stimulation and reservoir simulation. Solve all governing equations simultaneously in fully implicit way. Enable massively parallel performance and scalability. Apply state of the art nonlinear PDE solvers: Jacobian Free Newton Krylov (JFNK) method.

  5. ACCELERATION INTEGRATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pope, K.E.

    1958-01-01

    This patent relates to an improved acceleration integrator and more particularly to apparatus of this nature which is gyrostabilized. The device may be used to sense the attainment by an airborne vehicle of a predetermined velocitv or distance along a given vector path. In its broad aspects, the acceleration integrator utilizes a magnetized element rotatable driven by a synchronous motor and having a cylin drical flux gap and a restrained eddy- current drag cap deposed to move into the gap. The angular velocity imparted to the rotatable cap shaft is transmitted in a positive manner to the magnetized element through a servo feedback loop. The resultant angular velocity of tae cap is proportional to the acceleration of the housing in this manner and means may be used to measure the velocity and operate switches at a pre-set magnitude. To make the above-described dcvice sensitive to acceleration in only one direction the magnetized element forms the spinning inertia element of a free gyroscope, and the outer housing functions as a gimbal of a gyroscope.

  6. Progress report on a fully automatic Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) system development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daumeyer, G.J. III

    1994-12-01

    A plan to develop a fully automatic gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) system that will utilize a vision-sensing computer (which will provide in-process feedback control) is presently in work. Evaluations of different technological aspects and system design requirements continue. This report summaries major activities in the plan`s successful progress. The technological feasibility of producing the fully automated GTAW system has been proven. The goal of this process development project is to provide a production-ready system within the shortest reasonable time frame.

  7. Development of an Integrated Distribution Management System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schatz, Joe E.

    2010-10-20

    This final report details the components, functionality, costs, schedule and benefits of developing an Integrated Distribution Management System (IDMS) for power distribution system operation. The Distribution Automation (DA) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems used by electric power companies to manage the distribution of electric power to retail energy consumers are vital components of the Nation’s critical infrastructure. Providing electricity is an essential public service and a disruption in that service, if not quickly restored, could threaten the public safety and the Nation’s economic security. Our Nation’s economic prosperity and quality of life have long depended on the essential services that utilities provide; therefore, it is necessary to ensure that electric utilities are able to conduct their operations safely and efficiently. A fully integrated technology of applications is needed to link various remote sensing, communications and control devices with other information tools that help guide Power Distribution Operations personnel. A fully implemented IDMS will provide this, a seamlessly integrated set of applications to raise electric system operating intelligence. IDMS will enhance DA and SCADA through integration of applications such as Geographic Information Systems, Outage Management Systems, Switching Management and Analysis, Operator Training Simulator, and other Advanced Applications, including unbalanced load flow and fault isolation/service restoration. These apps are capable of utilizing and obtaining information from appropriately installed DER, and by integrating disparate systems, the Distribution Operators will benefit from advanced capabilities when analyzing, controlling and operating the electric system.

  8. NREL: Transmission Grid Integration - Wind Integration Datasets

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Integration Datasets The datasets below provide energy professionals with a consistent set of ... Eastern and Western Wind Datasets WIND Toolkit Solar Integration Datasets ...

  9. NREL: Energy Systems Integration - Systems Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-level system integration New distribution scenarios such as household DC systems and residential-scale generation and storage integrated with home energy management systems. ...

  10. ProDeGe: A Computational Protocol for fully Automated Decontamination of Genomic Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-12-01

    The Single Cell Data Decontamination Pipeline is a fully-automated software tool which classifies unscreened contigs from single cell datasets through a combination of homology and feature-based methodologies using the organism's nucleotide sequences and known NCBI taxonomony. The software is freely available to download and install, and can be run on any system.

  11. NREL: Process Development and Integration Laboratory - Integrated

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurements and Characterization Capabilities Integrated Measurements and Characterization Capabilities The Integrated Measurements and Characterization cluster tool in the Process Development and Integration Laboratory offers powerful capabilities with integrated tools for measuring and characterizing photovoltaic materials and devices. Contact Pete Sheldon for more details on these capabilities. Basic Cluster Tool Capabilities Sample Handling Ultra-high-vacuum robot Transport pod: allows

  12. A fully relativistic approach for calculating atomic data for highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hong Lin; Fontes, Christopher J; Sampson, Douglas H

    2009-01-01

    We present a review of our fully relativistic approach to calculating atomic data for highly charged ions, highlighting a research effort that spans twenty years. Detailed discussions of both theoretical and numerical techniques are provided. Our basic approach is expected to provide accurate results for ions that range from approximately half ionized to fully stripped. Options for improving the accuracy and range of validity of this approach are also discussed. In developing numerical methods for calculating data within this framework, considerable emphasis is placed on techniques that are robust and efficient. A variety of fundamental processes are considered including: photoexcitation, electron-impact excitation, electron-impact ionization, autoionization, electron capture, photoionization and photorecombination. Resonance contributions to a variety of these processes are also considered, including discussions of autoionization, electron capture and dielectronic recombination. Ample numerical examples are provided in order to illustrate the approach and to demonstrate its usefulness in providing data for large-scale plasma modeling.

  13. A fully implicit method for 3D quasi-steady state magnetic advection-diffusion.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, Christopher; Robinson, Allen Conrad

    2009-09-01

    We describe the implementation of a prototype fully implicit method for solving three-dimensional quasi-steady state magnetic advection-diffusion problems. This method allows us to solve the magnetic advection diffusion equations in an Eulerian frame with a fixed, user-prescribed velocity field. We have verified the correctness of method and implementation on two standard verification problems, the Solberg-White magnetic shear problem and the Perry-Jones-White rotating cylinder problem.

  14. Direct Simulation of Fully Resolved Vaporizing Droplets in a Turbulent Flow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Direct Simulation of Fully Resolved Vaporizing Droplets in a Turbulent Flow PI Name: Said Elghobashi PI Email: selghoba@uci.edu Institution: University of California, Irvine Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 20,000,000 Year: 2012 Research Domain: Engineering This project will enhance the understanding of liquid droplet vaporization and mixing processes in a turbulent flow. All liquid fuel combustion devices, mobile or stationary, use

  15. Persistent State-of-Charge Heterogeneity in Fully Relaxed Battery Electrode

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Particles | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Persistent State-of-Charge Heterogeneity in Fully Relaxed Battery Electrode Particles Friday, July 29, 2016 Figure. A transmission x-ray micrograph of an individual secondary particle charged to 30% global SOC at a 100 h rate, showing overcharged (green) domains even at this slow charging rate. Lithium ion batteries are used ubiquitously for portable energy storage in today's modern electronic devices and have served in that capacity for

  16. Fully Differential Monte-Carlo Generator Dedicated to TMDs and Bessel-Weighted Asymmetries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aghasyan, Mher M.; Avakian, Harut A.

    2013-10-01

    We present studies of double longitudinal spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a new dedicated Monte Carlo generator, which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model based on the fully differential cross section for the process. Additionally, we apply Bessel-weighting to the simulated events to extract transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and also discuss possible uncertainties due to kinematic correlation effects.

  17. Thermal Deactivation Mechanisms of Fully-Formed Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Aged by Lean/Rich Cycling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Catalysts in fully formulated lean NOx traps are aged and evaluated in a bench-flow reactor using simulated diesel engine exhaust.

  18. Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) in the Residential Sector: An Analysis of Installed Rooftop System Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, T.; Goodrich, A.; Woodhouse, M.; Margolis, R.; Ong, S.

    2011-11-01

    For more than 30 years, there have been strong efforts to accelerate the deployment of solar-electric systems by developing photovoltaic (PV) products that are fully integrated with building materials. This report examines the status of building-integrated PV (BIPV), with a focus on the cost drivers of residential rooftop systems, and explores key opportunities and challenges in the marketplace.

  19. General support for integrated assessment research. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowlatabadi, Hadi

    2001-03-01

    The climate change problem spans an extraordinarily large number of disciplines from earth sciences to social and political sciences. The interaction of processes described by these different fields is why climate change is such a complex issue. Keeping track of these interactions and bringing coherence to the assumptions underlying each disciplinary insight on the climate problem is a massive undertaking. Integrated assessment is an interdisciplinary approach designed to provide systematic evaluations of technically complex problems such as the analysis of environmental change challenges facing humanity. Ph.D. theses stemming from this application are summarized. Then some aspects of Integrated Climate Assessment Models are described.

  20. Tests and analyses for fully plastic fracture mechanics of plane strain mode I crack growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClintock, F.A.; Parks, D.M.; Kim, Y.J.

    1995-12-31

    Under monotonic loading, structures should ideally be ductile enough to provide continued resistance during crack growth. For fully plastic crack growth in low strength alloys, existing asymptotic solutions for elastic-plastic growing cracks are not applicable because they reach the fracture strain only in regions small compared to the inhomogeneities of the actual fracture process. For the limiting case of non-hardening fully-plastic plane strain crack growth, in a number of geometries and loadings the near-tip fields are characterized in terms of three parameters: an effective angle 2{theta}{sub s} between a pair of slip planes, and the normal stress {sigma}{sub s} and the increment of displacement {delta}u{sub s} across the planes. This three-parameter characterization is in contrast to the one- or two-parameter (K or J and T or Q) characterization in linear or non-linear elastic fracture mechanics. These {theta}{sub s}, {sigma}{sub s}, and {delta}u{sub s} parameters are found form the far-field geometries and loadings through slip line fields or least upper bound analyses based on circular arcs. The resulting crack growth, in terms of the crack tip opening angle (CTOA), is a function of {theta}{sub s}, {sigma}{sub s}, and the material. The geometry of the crack growing between two moving slip planes emanating from its tip reduces this function to the critical fracture shear strain left behind the slip planes, {gamma}f, as a function of {sigma}{sub s}. {gamma}f({sigma}{sub s}) is found theoretically from a hole initiation and growth model. It is also found from preliminary fully plastic crack growth experiments on unequally grooved specimens with fixed-grip extension or 4-point bending of a 1018 CF steel.

  1. Integrated Distribution Management System for Alabama Principal Investigator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schatz, Joe

    2013-03-31

    Southern Company Services, under contract with the Department of Energy, along with Alabama Power, Alstom Grid (formerly AREVA T&D) and others moved the work product developed in the first phase of the Integrated Distribution Management System (IDMS) from “Proof of Concept” to true deployment through the activity described in this Final Report. This Project – Integrated Distribution Management Systems in Alabama – advanced earlier developed proof of concept activities into actual implementation and furthermore completed additional requirements to fully realize the benefits of an IDMS. These tasks include development and implementation of a Distribution System based Model that enables data access and enterprise application integration.

  2. The Discrete Equation Method (DEM) for Fully Compressible, Two-Phase Flows in Ducts of Spatially Varying Cross-Section

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Berry; R. Saurel; O. LeMetayer

    2010-11-01

    -conservative terms are correctly approximated. Some of the closure relations missing from the traditional approach are automatically obtained. Lastly, the continuous equation system resulting from the discrete equations can be identified by taking the continuous limit with weak-wave assumptions. In this work, this approach is tested by constructing a DEM model for the flow of two compressible phases in 1-D ducts of spatially varying cross-section with explicit time integration. An analytical equation of state is included for both water vapor and liquid phases, and a realistic interphase mass transfer model is developed based on interphase heat transfer. A robust compliment of boundary conditions are developed and discussed. Though originally conceived as a first step toward implict time integration of the DEM method (to relieve time step size restrictions due to stiffness and to achieve tighter coupling of equations) in multidimensions, this model offers some unique capabilities for incorporation into next generation light water reactor safety analysis codes. We demonstrate, on a converging-diverging two-phase nozzle, that this well-posed, 2-pressure, 2-velocity DEM model can be integrated to a realistic and meaningful steady-state with both phases treated as compressible.

  3. A neutronic feasibility study of the AP1000 design loaded with fully ceramic micro-encapsulated fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, C.; Ji, W.

    2013-07-01

    A neutronic feasibility study is performed to evaluate the utilization of fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) fuel in the AP1000 reactor design. The widely used Monte Carlo code MCNP is employed to perform the full core analysis at the beginning of cycle (BOC). Both the original AP1000 design and the modified design with the replacement of uranium dioxide fuel pellets with FCM fuel compacts are modeled and simulated for comparison. To retain the original excess reactivity, ranges of fuel particle packing fraction and fuel enrichment in the FCM fuel design are first determined. Within the determined ranges, the reactor control mechanism employed by the original design is directly used in the modified design and the utilization feasibility is evaluated. The worth of control of each type of fuel burnable absorber (discrete/integral fuel burnable absorbers and soluble boron in primary coolant) is calculated for each design and significant differences between the two designs are observed. Those differences are interpreted by the fundamental difference of the fuel form used in each design. Due to the usage of silicon carbide as the matrix material and the fuel particles fuel form in FCM fuel design, neutron slowing down capability is increased in the new design, leading to a much higher thermal spectrum than the original design. This results in different reactivity and fission power density distributions in each design. We conclude that a direct replacement of fuel pellets by the FCM fuel in the AP1000 cannot retain the original optimum reactor core performance. Necessary modifications of the core design should be done and the original control mechanism needs to be re-designed. (authors)

  4. Distribution Grid Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Systems Integration team funds distribution grid integration research and development (R&D) activities to address the technical issues that surround distribution grid planning,...

  5. Thermal Control & System Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies....

  6. Integrating Environmental Stewardship

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    stewardship Many Laboratory functions are integrated with environmental stewardship. This Strategy cannot be effective without systematic integration with other related Laboratory...

  7. Monolithically integrated self-rolled-up microtube-based vertical coupler for three-dimensional photonic integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xin; Arbabi, Ehsan; Goddard, Lynford L.; Li, Xiuling; Chen, Xiaogang

    2015-07-20

    We demonstrate a self-rolled-up microtube-based vertical photonic coupler monolithically integrated on top of a ridge waveguide to achieve three-dimensional (3D) photonic integration. The fabrication process is fully compatible with standard planar silicon processing technology. Strong light coupling between the vertical coupler and the ridge waveguide was observed experimentally, which may provide an alternative route for 3D heterogeneous photonic integration. The highest extinction ratio observed in the transmission spectrum passing through the ridge waveguide was 23 dB.

  8. Analysis of the Effects of Compositional and Configurational Assumptions on Product Costs for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Mixed Alcohols -- FY 2007 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-05

    The purpose of this study was to examine alternative biomass-to-ethanol conversion process assumptions and configuration options to determine their relative effects on overall process economics. A process-flow-sheet computer model was used to determine the heat and material balance for each configuration that was studied. The heat and material balance was then fed to a costing spreadsheet to determine the impact on the ethanol selling price. By examining a number of operational and configuration alternatives and comparing the results to the base flow sheet, alternatives having the greatest impact the performance and cost of the overall system were identified and used to make decisions on research priorities.

  9. Sandia Energy - Transmission Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transmission Grid Integration Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Grid Integration Transmission Grid Integration Transmission Grid...

  10. Sandia Energy - Distribution Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Distribution Grid Integration Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Grid Integration Distribution Grid Integration Distribution Grid...

  11. Procurement Integrity Brochure What is Procurement Integrity?

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Procurement Integrity Brochure What is Procurement Integrity? The Department of Energy, like most federal agencies, purchases many products and services from the private sector. To preserve the integrity of the Federal procurement process and assure fair treatment of bidders, offerors, and contractors, laws govern the procurement process and the manner in which federal and contractor personnel conduct business with each other. One of these statutes is Section 27 of the Office of Federal

  12. NREL: Transmission Grid Integration - Wind Integration National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Wind and Water Power Technologies Office, and ... Principles for Integration Studies Glossary News Did you find what you needed? ...

  13. Vacancies in fully hydrogenated boron nitride layer: implications for functional nanodevices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Yungang; Wang, Zhiguo; Nie, JL; Yang, Ping; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Zu, Xiaotao; Gao, Fei

    2012-03-01

    Using density functional theory, a series of calculations of structural and electronic properties of hydrogen vacancies in a fully hydrogenated boron nitride (fH-BN) layer were conducted. By dehydrogenating the fH-BN structure, B-terminated vacancies can be created which induce complete spin polarization around the Fermi level, irrespective of the vacancy size. On the contrary, the fH-BN structure with N-terminated vacancies can be a small-gap semiconductor, a typical spin gapless semiconductor, or a metal depending on the vacancy size. Utilizing such vacancy-induced band gap and magnetism changes, possible applications in spintronics are proposed, and a special fH-BN based quantum dot device is designed.

  14. Fully transparent organic transistors with junction-free metallic network electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pei, Ke; Wang, Zongrong; Ren, Xiaochen; Zhang, Zhichao; Peng, Boyu; Chan, Paddy K. L.

    2015-07-20

    We utilize highly transparent, junction-free metal network electrodes to fabricate fully transparent organic field effect transistors (OFETs). The patterned transparent Ag networks are developed by polymer crack template with adjustable line width and density. Sheet resistance of the network is 6.8 Ω/sq and optical transparency in the whole visible range is higher than 80%. The bottom contact OFETs with DNTT active layer and parylene-C dielectric insulator show a maximum field-effect mobility of 0.13 cm{sup 2}/V s (average mobility is 0.12 cm{sup 2}/V s) and on/off ratio is higher than 10{sup 7}. The current OFETs show great potential for applications in the next generation of transparent and flexible electronics.

  15. Assessing the Vulnerability of Large Critical Infrastructure Using Fully-Coupled Blast Effects Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMichael, L D; Noble, C R; Margraf, J D; Glascoe, L G

    2009-03-26

    Structural failures, such as the MacArthur Maze I-880 overpass in Oakland, California and the I-35 bridge in Minneapolis, Minnesota, are recent examples of our national infrastructure's fragility and serve as an important reminder of such infrastructure in our everyday lives. These two failures, as well as the World Trade Center's collapse and the levee failures in New Orleans, highlight the national importance of protecting our infrastructure as much as possible against acts of terrorism and natural hazards. This paper describes a process for evaluating the vulnerability of critical infrastructure to large blast loads using a fully-coupled finite element approach. A description of the finite element software and modeling technique is discussed along with the experimental validation of the numerical tools. We discuss how such an approach can be used for specific problems such as modeling the progressive collapse of a building.

  16. Osborne Reynolds pipe flow: Direct simulation from laminar through gradual transition to fully developed turbulence

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Adrian, Ronald J.; Baltzer, Jon R.

    2015-06-15

    We report that the precise dynamics of breakdown in pipe transition is a century-old unresolved problem in fluid mechanics. We demonstrate that the abruptness and mysteriousness attributed to the Osborne Reynolds pipe transition can be partially resolved with a spatially developing direct simulation that carries weakly but finitely perturbed laminar inflow through gradual rather than abrupt transition arriving at the fully developed turbulent state. Our results with this approach show during transition the energy norms of such inlet perturbations grow exponentially rather than algebraically with axial distance. When inlet disturbance is located in the core region, helical vortex filaments evolvemore » into large-scale reverse hairpin vortices. The interaction of these reverse hairpins among themselves or with the near-wall flow when they descend to the surface from the core produces small-scale hairpin packets, which leads to breakdown. When inlet disturbance is near the wall, certain quasi-spanwise structure is stretched into a Lambda vortex, and develops into a large-scale hairpin vortex. Small-scale hairpin packets emerge near the tip region of the large-scale hairpin vortex, and subsequently grow into a turbulent spot, which is itself a local concentration of small-scale hairpin vortices. This vortex dynamics is broadly analogous to that in the boundary layer bypass transition and in the secondary instability and breakdown stage of natural transition, suggesting the possibility of a partial unification. Under parabolic base flow the friction factor overshoots Moody’s correlation. Plug base flow requires stronger inlet disturbance for transition. Finally, accuracy of the results is demonstrated by comparing with analytical solutions before breakdown, and with fully developed turbulence measurements after the completion of transition.« less

  17. Integrated solid waste management of Sevierville, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Sevierville, Tennessee integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM systems.

  18. Integrated solid waste management of Minneapolis, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Minneapolis, Minnesota (Hennepin County) integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for municipal solid waste (MSW) management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM system.

  19. Integration of US Department of Energy contractor installations for the purpose of optimizing treatment, storage, and disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, M.; Gnoose, J.; Coony, M.; Martin, E.; Piscitella, R.

    1998-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) manages a multibillion dollar environmental management (EM) program. In June 1996, the Assistant Secretary of Energy for EM issued a memorandum with guidance and a vision for a ten year planning process for the EM Program. The purpose of this process, which became known as the Accelerated Cleanup: Focus on 2006, is to make step changes within the DOE complex regarding the approach for making meaningful environmental cleanup progress. To augment the process, Assistant Secretary requested the site contractors to engage in an effort to identify and evaluate integration alternatives for EM waste stream treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) that would parallel the 2006 Plan. In October 1996, ten DOE contractor installations began the task of identifying alternative opportunities for low level radioactive waste (LLW). Cost effective, efficient solutions were necessary to meet all requirements associated with storing, characterizing, treating, packaging, transporting, and disposing of LLW while protecting the workers` health and safety, and minimizing impacts to the environment. To develop these solutions, a systems engineering approach was used to establish the baseline requirements, to develop alternatives, and to evaluate the alternatives. Key assumptions were that unique disposal capabilities exist within the DOE that must be maintained; private sector disposal capability for some LLW may not continue to exist into the foreseeable future; and decisions made by the LLW Team must be made on a system or complex wide basis to fully realize the potential cost and schedule benefits. This integration effort promoted more accurate waste volume estimates and forecasts; enhanced recognition of existing treatment, storage, and disposal capabilities and capacities; and improved identification of cost savings across the complex.

  20. Fully coupled simulation of cosmic reionization. II. Recombinations, clumping factors, and the photon budget for reionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    So, Geoffrey C.; Norman, Michael L.; Reynolds, Daniel R.; Wise, John H.

    2014-07-10

    We use a fully coupled cosmological simulation including dark matter dynamics, multispecies hydrodynamics, nonequilibrium chemical ionization, flux-limited diffusion radiation transport, and a parameterized model of star formation and feedback (thermal and radiative) to investigate the epoch of hydrogen reionization in detail. In this paper, the first of several application papers, we investigate the mechanics of reionization from stellar sources forming in high-z galaxies, the utility of various formulations for the gas clumping factor on accurately estimating the effective recombination time in the intergalactic medium (IGM), and the photon budget required to achieve reionization. We also test the accuracy of the static and time-dependent models of Madau et al. as predictors of reionization completion/maintenance. We simulate a WMAP7 ?CDM cosmological model in a 20 comoving Mpc cube, resolved with 800{sup 3} uniform fluid cells and dark matter particles. By tuning our star formation recipe to approximately match the observed high-redshift star formation rate density and galaxy luminosity function, we have created a fully coupled radiation hydrodynamical realization of hydrogen reionization, which begins to ionize at z ? 10 and is completed at z ? 5.8 without further tuning. We find that roughly two ionizing photons per H atom are required to convert the neutral IGM to a highly ionized state. After reionization concludes, we find that the quantity n-dot{sub ion}(1 Gyr)/n{sub H} is ?9 at z = 5, in rough agreement with measurements of the ionizing emissivity by Becker and Bolton. The complicated events during reionization that lead to this number can be generally described as inside-out, but in reality, the narrative depends on the level of ionization of the gas one attributes as being ionized. We find that the formula for the ionizing photon production rate needed to maintain the IGM in an ionized state derived by Madau et al. should not be used to predict the

  1. Integrating Environmental Stewardship

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Consent-Based Siting » Integrated Waste Management Integrated Waste Management The Department envisions an integrated waste management system with storage, transportation, and disposal capabilities in order to safely and effectively manage our nation's spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The Department envisions an integrated waste management system with storage, transportation, and disposal capabilities in order to safely and effectively manage our nation's spent nuclear fuel

  2. A curvilinear, fully implicit, conservative electromagnetic PIC algorithm in multiple dimensions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chacon, L.; Chen, G.

    2016-04-19

    Here, we extend a recently proposed fully implicit PIC algorithm for the Vlasov–Darwin model in multiple dimensions (Chen and Chacón (2015) [1]) to curvilinear geometry. As in the Cartesian case, the approach is based on a potential formulation (Φ, A), and overcomes many difficulties of traditional semi-implicit Darwin PIC algorithms. Conservation theorems for local charge and global energy are derived in curvilinear representation, and then enforced discretely by a careful choice of the discretization of field and particle equations. Additionally, the algorithm conserves canonical-momentum in any ignorable direction, and preserves the Coulomb gauge ∇ • A = 0 exactly. Anmore » asymptotically well-posed fluid preconditioner allows efficient use of large cell sizes, which are determined by accuracy considerations, not stability, and can be orders of magnitude larger than required in a standard explicit electromagnetic PIC simulation. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency properties of the algorithm with numerical experiments in mapped meshes in 1D-3V and 2D-3V.« less

  3. Fully alternating, triaxial electric or magnetic fields offer new routes to fluid vorticity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, James E.; Solis, Kyle J.

    2014-10-31

    Noncontact methods of generating strong fluid vorticity are important to problems involving heat and mass transfer, fluid mixing, active wetting, and droplet transport. Furthermore, because zero or even negative shear viscosities can be induced, vorticity can greatly extend the control range of the smart fluids used in magnetorheological devices. In recent work we have shown that a particular class of ac/ac/dc triaxial fields (so-called symmetry-breaking rational fields) can create strong vorticity in magnetic particle suspensions and have presented a theory of the vorticity that is based on the symmetry of the 2-d Lissajous trajectories of the field and its converse. In this paper we demonstrate that there are three countably infinite sets of fully alternating ac/ac/ac triaxial fields whose frequencies form rational triads that have the symmetry required to drive fluid vorticity. The symmetry of the 3-d Lissajous trajectories of the field and its converse can be derived and from this the direction of the vorticity axis can be predicted, as can the dependence of the sign of the vorticity on the phase relations between the three field components. Experimental results are presented that validate the symmetry theory. These discoveries significantly broaden the class of triaxial fields that can be exploited to produce strong noncontact flow.

  4. Is the price squeeze doctrine still viable in fully-regulated energy markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spiwak, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    Simply stated, a price squeeze occurs when a firm with monopoly power on the primary, or wholesale, level engages in a prolonged price increase that drives competitors out of the secondary, or retail level, and thereby extends its monopoly power to the secondary market. A price squeeze will not be found, however, for any short-term exercise in market power. Rather, because anticompetitive effects of a price squeeze are indirect, the price squeeze must last long enough and be severe enough to produce effects on actual or potential competition in the secondary market. In regulated electric industries, a price squeeze claim usually arises from the complex relationship between the supplier, the wholesale customer, the retail customer, and the federal and state regulators. The supplier sells electric power to both wholesale and retail customers. Wholesale transactions are regulated by federal regulators, and retail transactions are regulated at the state level. The wholesale customers in turn sell power to their retail customers. Over the last several years, there have been substantial developments in the application of the price squeeze doctrine to fully-regulated electric utilities. This article will examine the current developments in this area, and attempt to highlight the burdens potential litigants, both plaintiffs and defendants, must overcome to succeed.

  5. Fully Nonlinear Edge Gyrokinetic Simulations of Kinetic Geodesic-Acoustic Modes and Boundary Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, X Q; Belli, E; Bodi, K; Candy, J; Chang, C S; Cohen, B I; Cohen, R H; Colella, P; Dimits, A M; Dorr, M R; Gao, Z; Hittinger, J A; Ko, S; Krasheninnikov, S; McKee, G R; Nevins, W M; Rognlien, T D; Snyder, P B; Suh, J; Umansky, M V

    2008-09-18

    We present edge gyrokinetic neoclassical simulations of tokamak plasmas using the fully nonlinear (full-f) continuum code TEMPEST. A nonlinear Boltzmann model is used for the electrons. The electric field is obtained by solving the 2D gyrokinetic Poisson Equation. We demonstrate the following: (1) High harmonic resonances (n > 2) significantly enhance geodesic-acoustic mode (GAM) damping at high-q (tokamak safety factor), and are necessary to explain both the damping observed in our TEMPEST q-scans and experimental measurements of the scaling of the GAM amplitude with edge q{sub 95} in the absence of obvious evidence that there is a strong q dependence of the turbulent drive and damping of the GAM. (2) The kinetic GAM exists in the edge for steep density and temperature gradients in the form of outgoing waves, its radial scale is set by the ion temperature profile, and ion temperature inhomogeneity is necessary for GAM radial propagation. (3) The development of the neoclassical electric field evolves through different phases of relaxation, including GAMs, their radial propagation, and their long-time collisional decay. (4) Natural consequences of orbits in the pedestal and scrape-off layer region in divertor geometry are substantial non-Maxwellian ion distributions and flow characteristics qualitatively like those observed in experiments.

  6. Fully alternating, triaxial electric or magnetic fields offer new routes to fluid vorticity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Martin, James E.; Solis, Kyle J.

    2014-10-31

    Noncontact methods of generating strong fluid vorticity are important to problems involving heat and mass transfer, fluid mixing, active wetting, and droplet transport. Furthermore, because zero or even negative shear viscosities can be induced, vorticity can greatly extend the control range of the smart fluids used in magnetorheological devices. In recent work we have shown that a particular class of ac/ac/dc triaxial fields (so-called symmetry-breaking rational fields) can create strong vorticity in magnetic particle suspensions and have presented a theory of the vorticity that is based on the symmetry of the 2-d Lissajous trajectories of the field and its converse.more » In this paper we demonstrate that there are three countably infinite sets of fully alternating ac/ac/ac triaxial fields whose frequencies form rational triads that have the symmetry required to drive fluid vorticity. The symmetry of the 3-d Lissajous trajectories of the field and its converse can be derived and from this the direction of the vorticity axis can be predicted, as can the dependence of the sign of the vorticity on the phase relations between the three field components. Experimental results are presented that validate the symmetry theory. These discoveries significantly broaden the class of triaxial fields that can be exploited to produce strong noncontact flow.« less

  7. FULLY RESOLVED QUIET-SUN MAGNETIC FLUX TUBE OBSERVED WITH THE SUNRISE/IMAX INSTRUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagg, A.; Solanki, S. K.; Riethmueller, T. L.; Schuessler, M.; Hirzberger, J.; Feller, A.; Borrero, J. M.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; MartInez Pillet, V.; Bonet, J. A.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Domingo, V.; Knoelker, M.; Title, A. M.

    2010-11-10

    Until today, the small size of magnetic elements in quiet-Sun areas has required the application of indirect methods, such as the line-ratio technique or multi-component inversions, to infer their physical properties. A consistent match to the observed Stokes profiles could only be obtained by introducing a magnetic filling factor that specifies the fraction of the observed pixel filled with magnetic field. Here, we investigate the properties of a small magnetic patch in the quiet Sun observed with the IMaX magnetograph on board the balloon-borne telescope SUNRISE with unprecedented spatial resolution and low instrumental stray light. We apply an inversion technique based on the numerical solution of the radiative transfer equation to retrieve the temperature stratification and the field strength in the magnetic patch. The observations can be well reproduced with a one-component, fully magnetized atmosphere with a field strength exceeding 1 kG and a significantly enhanced temperature in the mid to upper photosphere with respect to its surroundings, consistent with semi-empirical flux tube models for plage regions. We therefore conclude that, within the framework of a simple atmospheric model, the IMaX measurements resolve the observed quiet-Sun flux tube.

  8. Rate of reaction of hydrogen sulfide-carbonyl sulfide mixtures with fully calcined dolomite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamath, V.S.; Petrie, T.W.

    1981-01-01

    Kinetic data are obtained by a gravimetric technique for rates of reaction of calcium oxide in fully calcined dolomite with hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen sulfide-carbonyl sulfide mixtures. The data are presented as values for a factor k defined by d(CAO) = -k (CAO) dt. At 600, 700, and 800 degrees C with (H/sub 2/S) from 0.5% to 5.0% by volume and (H/sub 2/S)/(COS) = 20 for mixtures, expressions for k show apparent rate constants and the dependence on sulfurous gas concentration. For example, at 700 degrees C, k = 1.43 x 10/sup -4/ (h2s) 1.06/S and k = 1.70 x 10/sup -4/ (H/sub 2/S + COS) 1.00/s. Since the date show first-order dependence on calcium oxide, k's for H/sub 2/S alone as the sulfurous gas and h2s-cos mixtures can be obtained for the same sample, free from scatter due to variations from sample to sample. Addition of values for k from runs with H/sub 2/S as the only sulfurous gas and runs with COS as the only sulfurous gas are compared to measurements with actual mixtures. K's for the mixtures are approximately 30% higher than the sum of the appropriate separate values.

  9. Neutronics Studies of Uranium-bearing Fully Ceramic Micro-encapsulated Fuel for PWRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, Nathan M.; Maldonado, G. Ivan; Terrani, Kurt A.; Godfrey, Andrew T.; Gehin, Jess C.; Powers, Jeffrey J.

    2014-12-01

    Our study evaluated the neutronics and some of the fuel cycle characteristics of using uranium-based fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Specific PWR lattice designs with FCM fuel have been developed that are expected to achieve higher specific burnup levels in the fuel while also increasing the tolerance to reactor accidents. The SCALE software system was the primary analysis tool used to model the lattice designs. A parametric study was performed by varying tristructural isotropic particle design features (e.g., kernel diameter, coating layer thicknesses, and packing fraction) to understand the impact on reactivity and resulting operating cycle length. Moreover, to match the lifetime of an 18-month PWR cycle, the FCM particle fuel design required roughly 10% additional fissile material at beginning of life compared with that of a standard uranium dioxide (UO2) rod. Uranium mononitride proved to be a favorable fuel for the fuel kernel due to its higher heavy metal loading density compared with UO2. The FCM fuel designs evaluated maintain acceptable neutronics design features for fuel lifetime, lattice peaking factors, and nonproliferation figure of merit.

  10. Neutronics Studies of Uranium-bearing Fully Ceramic Micro-encapsulated Fuel for PWRs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    George, Nathan M.; Maldonado, G. Ivan; Terrani, Kurt A.; Godfrey, Andrew T.; Gehin, Jess C.; Powers, Jeffrey J.

    2014-12-01

    Our study evaluated the neutronics and some of the fuel cycle characteristics of using uranium-based fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Specific PWR lattice designs with FCM fuel have been developed that are expected to achieve higher specific burnup levels in the fuel while also increasing the tolerance to reactor accidents. The SCALE software system was the primary analysis tool used to model the lattice designs. A parametric study was performed by varying tristructural isotropic particle design features (e.g., kernel diameter, coating layer thicknesses, and packing fraction) to understand the impact on reactivity and resultingmore » operating cycle length. Moreover, to match the lifetime of an 18-month PWR cycle, the FCM particle fuel design required roughly 10% additional fissile material at beginning of life compared with that of a standard uranium dioxide (UO2) rod. Uranium mononitride proved to be a favorable fuel for the fuel kernel due to its higher heavy metal loading density compared with UO2. The FCM fuel designs evaluated maintain acceptable neutronics design features for fuel lifetime, lattice peaking factors, and nonproliferation figure of merit.« less

  11. Fully Autonomous Multiplet Event Detection: Application to Local-Distance Monitoring of Blood Falls Seismicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmichael, Joshua Daniel; Carr, Christina; Pettit, Erin C.

    2015-06-18

    We apply a fully autonomous icequake detection methodology to a single day of high-sample rate (200 Hz) seismic network data recorded from the terminus of Taylor Glacier, ANT that temporally coincided with a brine release episode near Blood Falls (May 13, 2014). We demonstrate a statistically validated procedure to assemble waveforms triggered by icequakes into populations of clusters linked by intra-event waveform similarity. Our processing methodology implements a noise-adaptive power detector coupled with a complete-linkage clustering algorithm and noise-adaptive correlation detector. This detector-chain reveals a population of 20 multiplet sequences that includes ~150 icequakes and produces zero false alarms on the concurrent, diurnally variable noise. Our results are very promising for identifying changes in background seismicity associated with the presence or absence of brine release episodes. We thereby suggest that our methodology could be applied to longer time periods to establish a brine-release monitoring program for Blood Falls that is based on icequake detections.

  12. Integrated rural energy planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Mahgary, Y.; Biswas, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on integrated community energy systems in developing countries. Topics considered include an integrated rural energy system in Sri Lanka, rural energy systems in Indonesia, integrated rural food-energy systems and technology diffusion in India, bringing energy to the rural sector in the Philippines, the development of a new energy village in China, the Niaga Wolof experimental rural energy center, designing a model rural energy system for Nigeria, the Basaisa village integrated field project, a rural energy project in Tanzania, rural energy development in Columbia, and guidelines for the planning, development and operation of integrated rural energy projects.

  13. Plan for Management of Mineral Assess on Native Tribal Lands and for Formation of a Fully Integrated Natural Gas and Oil Exploration and Production Company

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blechner, Michael H.; Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    This report describes a plan for Native American tribes to assume responsibility for and operation of tribal mineral resources using the Osage Tribe as an example. Under this plan, the tribal council select and employ a qualified Director to assume responsibility for management of their mineral reservations. The procurement process should begin with an application for contracting to the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Under this plan, the Director will develop strategies to increase income by money management and increasing exploitation of natural gas, oil, and other minerals.

  14. Force-controlled absorption in a fully-nonlinear numerical wave tank

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spinneken, Johannes Christou, Marios; Swan, Chris

    2014-09-01

    An active control methodology for the absorption of water waves in a numerical wave tank is introduced. This methodology is based upon a force-feedback technique which has previously been shown to be very effective in physical wave tanks. Unlike other methods, an a-priori knowledge of the wave conditions in the tank is not required; the absorption controller being designed to automatically respond to a wide range of wave conditions. In comparison to numerical sponge layers, effective wave absorption is achieved on the boundary, thereby minimising the spatial extent of the numerical wave tank. In contrast to the imposition of radiation conditions, the scheme is inherently capable of absorbing irregular waves. Most importantly, simultaneous generation and absorption can be achieved. This is an important advance when considering inclusion of reflective bodies within the numerical wave tank. In designing the absorption controller, an infinite impulse response filter is adopted, thereby eliminating the problem of non-causality in the controller optimisation. Two alternative controllers are considered, both implemented in a fully-nonlinear wave tank based on a multiple-flux boundary element scheme. To simplify the problem under consideration, the present analysis is limited to water waves propagating in a two-dimensional domain. The paper presents an extensive numerical validation which demonstrates the success of the method for a wide range of wave conditions including regular, focused and random waves. The numerical investigation also highlights some of the limitations of the method, particularly in simultaneously generating and absorbing large amplitude or highly-nonlinear waves. The findings of the present numerical study are directly applicable to related fields where optimum absorption is sought; these include physical wavemaking, wave power absorption and a wide range of numerical wave tank schemes.

  15. Demonstration of fully coupled simplified extended station black-out accident simulation with RELAP-7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Haihua; Zhang, Hongbin; Zou, Ling; Anders, David; Martineau, Richard

    2014-10-01

    The RELAP-7 code is the next generation nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The RELAP-7 code develop-ment effort started in October of 2011 and by the end of the second development year, a number of physical components with simplified two phase flow capability have been de-veloped to support the simplified boiling water reactor (BWR) extended station blackout (SBO) analyses. The demonstration case includes the major components for the primary system of a BWR, as well as the safety system components for the safety relief valve (SRV), the reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system, and the wet well. Three scenar-ios for the SBO simulations have been considered. Since RELAP-7 is not a severe acci-dent analysis code, the simulation stops when fuel clad temperature reaches damage point. Scenario I represents an extreme station blackout accident without any external cooling and cooling water injection. The system pressure is controlled by automatically releasing steam through SRVs. Scenario II includes the RCIC system but without SRV. The RCIC system is fully coupled with the reactor primary system and all the major components are dynamically simulated. The third scenario includes both the RCIC system and the SRV to provide a more realistic simulation. This paper will describe the major models and dis-cuss the results for the three scenarios. The RELAP-7 simulations for the three simplified SBO scenarios show the importance of dynamically simulating the SRVs, the RCIC sys-tem, and the wet well system to the reactor safety during extended SBO accidents.

  16. Testing and Modeling of a 3-MW Wind Turbine Using Fully Coupled Simulation Codes (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaCava, W.; Guo, Y.; Van Dam, J.; Bergua, R.; Casanovas, C.; Cugat, C.

    2012-06-01

    This poster describes the NREL/Alstom Wind testing and model verification of the Alstom 3-MW wind turbine located at NREL's National Wind Technology Center. NREL,in collaboration with ALSTOM Wind, is studying a 3-MW wind turbine installed at the National Wind Technology Center(NWTC). The project analyzes the turbine design using a state-of-the-art simulation code validated with detailed test data. This poster describes the testing and the model validation effort, and provides conclusions about the performance of the unique drive train configuration used in this wind turbine. The 3-MW machine has been operating at the NWTC since March 2011, and drive train measurements will be collected through the spring of 2012. The NWTC testing site has particularly turbulent wind patterns that allow for the measurement of large transient loads and the resulting turbine response. This poster describes the 3-MW turbine test project, the instrumentation installed, and the load cases captured. The design of a reliable wind turbine drive train increasingly relies on the use of advanced simulation to predict structural responses in a varying wind field. This poster presents a fully coupled, aero-elastic and dynamic model of the wind turbine. It also shows the methodology used to validate the model, including the use of measured tower modes, model-to-model comparisons of the power curve, and mainshaft bending predictions for various load cases. The drivetrain is designed to only transmit torque to the gearbox, eliminating non-torque moments that are known to cause gear misalignment. Preliminary results show that the drivetrain is able to divert bending loads in extreme loading cases, and that a significantly smaller bending moment is induced on the mainshaft compared to a three-point mounting design.

  17. Experiments measuring particle deposition from fully developed turbulent flow in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-08-01

    Particle deposition in ventilation ducts influences particle exposures of building occupants and may lead to a variety of indoor air quality concerns. Experiments have been performed in a laboratory to study the effects of particle size and air speed on deposition rates of particles from turbulent air flows in galvanized steel and internally insulated ducts with hydraulic diameters of 15.2 cm. The duct systems were constructed of materials typically found in commercial heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. In the steel duct system, experiments with nominal particle sizes of 1, 3, 5, 9 and 16 {micro}m were conducted at each of three nominal air speeds: 2.2, 5.3 and 9.0 m/s. In the insulated duct system, deposition rates of particles with nominal sizes of 1, 3, 5, 8 and 13 {micro}m were measured at nominal air speeds of 2.2, 5.3 and 8.8 m/s. Fluorescent techniques were used to directly measure the deposition velocities of monodisperse fluorescent particles to duct surfaces (floor, wall and ceiling) at two straight duct sections where the turbulent flow profile was fully developed. In steel ducts, deposition rates were higher to the duct floor than to the wall, which were, in turn, greater than to the ceiling. In insulated ducts, deposition was nearly the same to the duct floor, wall and ceiling for a given particle size and air speed. Deposition to duct walls and ceilings was greatly enhanced in insulated ducts compared to steel ducts. Deposition velocities to each of the three duct surface orientations in both systems were found to increase with increasing particle size or air velocity over the ranges studied. Deposition rates measured in the current experiments were in general agreement with the limited observations of similar systems by previous researchers.

  18. Hydrocarbon characterization experiments in fully turbulent fires : results and data analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2011-03-01

    As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. The model for the fuel evaporation rate in a liquid fuel pool fire is significant because in well-ventilated fires the evaporation rate largely controls the total heat release rate from the fire. This report describes a set of fuel regression rates experiments to provide data for the development and validation of models. The experiments were performed with fires in the fully turbulent scale range (> 1 m diameter) and with a number of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from lightly sooting to heavily sooting. The importance of spectral absorption in the liquid fuels and the vapor dome above the pool was investigated and the total heat flux to the pool surface was measured. The importance of convection within the liquid fuel was assessed by restricting large scale liquid motion in some tests. These data sets provide a sound, experimentally proven basis for assessing how much of the liquid fuel needs to be modeled to enable a predictive simulation of a fuel fire given the couplings between evaporation of fuel from the pool and the heat release from the fire which drives the evaporation.

  19. Fully kinetic simulations of magnetic reconnction in semi-collisional plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daughton, William S; Roytershteyn, Vadim S; Albright, Brian J; Yin, Lin; Bowers, Kevin J; Karimabadi, Homa

    2009-01-01

    The influence of Coulomb collisions on the dynamics of magnetic reconnection is examined using fully kinetic simulations with a Monte-Carlo treatment of the Fokker-Planck collision operator. This powerful first-principles approach offers a bridge between kinetic and fluid regimes, which may prove useful for understanding the applicability of various fluid models. In order to lay the necessary groundwork, the collision algorithm is first carefully bench marked for a homogeneous plasma against theoretical predictions for beam-plasma interactions and electrical resistivity. Next, the collisional decay of a current layer is examined as a function of guide field, allowing direct comparisons with transport theory for the parallel and perpendicular resistivity as well as the thermoelectric force. Finally, the transition between collisional and collision less reconnection is examined in neutral sheet geometry. For modest Lundquist numbers S {approx}< 1000, a distinct transition is observed when the thickness of the Sweet-Parker layers falls below the ion inertia length {delta}{sub sp} {approx}< d,. At higher Lundquist number, deviations from the Sweet-Parker scaling are observed due to the growth of plasmoids (secondary-islands) within the elongated resistive layer. In certain cases, this instability leads to the onset of fast reconnection sooner than expected from {delta}{sub sp} {approx} d, condition. After the transition to fast reconnection, elongated electron current layers are formed which are unstable to the formation of new plasmoids. The structure and time-dependence of the electron diffusion region in these semi-collisional regimes is profoundly different than reported in two-fluid simulations.

  20. Fully Automated Laser Ablation Liquid Capture Sample Analysis using NanoElectrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenz, Matthias; Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: Laser ablation provides for the possibility of sampling a large variety of surfaces with high spatial resolution. This type of sampling when employed in conjunction with liquid capture followed by nanoelectrospray ionization provides the opportunity for sensitive and prolonged interrogation of samples by mass spectrometry as well as the ability to analyze surfaces not amenable to direct liquid extraction. METHODS: A fully automated, reflection geometry, laser ablation liquid capture spot sampling system was achieved by incorporating appropriate laser fiber optics and a focusing lens into a commercially available, liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA ) ready Advion TriVersa NanoMate system. RESULTS: Under optimized conditions about 10% of laser ablated material could be captured in a droplet positioned vertically over the ablation region using the NanoMate robot controlled pipette. The sampling spot size area with this laser ablation liquid capture surface analysis (LA/LCSA) mode of operation (typically about 120 m x 160 m) was approximately 50 times smaller than that achievable by direct liquid extraction using LESA (ca. 1 mm diameter liquid extraction spot). The set-up was successfully applied for the analysis of ink on glass and paper as well as the endogenous components in Alstroemeria Yellow King flower petals. In a second mode of operation with a comparable sampling spot size, termed laser ablation/LESA , the laser system was used to drill through, penetrate, or otherwise expose material beneath a solvent resistant surface. Once drilled, LESA was effective in sampling soluble material exposed at that location on the surface. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating the capability for different laser ablation liquid capture spot sampling modes of operation into a LESA ready Advion TriVersa NanoMate enhanced the spot sampling spatial resolution of this device and broadened the surface types amenable to analysis to include absorbent and solvent resistant

  1. Fully Polarimetric Passive W-band Millimeter Wave Imager for Wide Area Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Sheen, David M.; Kelly, James F.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2013-09-27

    We describe the design and phenomenology imaging results of a fully polarimetric W-band millimeter wave (MMW) radiometer developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for wide-area search. Operating from 92 - 94 GHz, the W-band radiometer employs a Dicke switching heterodyne design isolating the horizontal and vertical mm-wave components with 40 dB of polarization isolation. Design results are presented for both infinite conjugate off-axis parabolic and finite conjugate off-axis elliptical fore-optics using optical ray tracing and diffraction calculations. The received linear polarizations are down-converted to a microwave frequency band and recombined in a phase-shifting network to produce all six orthogonal polarization states of light simultaneously, which are used to calculate the Stokes parameters for display and analysis. The resulting system performance produces a heterodyne receiver noise equivalent delta temperature (NEDT) of less than 150m Kelvin. The radiometer provides novel imaging capability by producing all four of the Stokes parameters of light, which are used to create imagery based on the polarization states associated with unique scattering geometries and their interaction with the down welling MMW energy. The polarization states can be exploited in such a way that man-made objects can be located and highlighted in a cluttered scene using methods such as image comparison, color encoding of Stokes parameters, multivariate image analysis, and image fusion with visible and infrared imagery. We also present initial results using a differential imaging approach used to highlight polarization features and reduce common-mode noise. Persistent monitoring of a scene using the polarimetric passive mm-wave technique shows great promise for anomaly detection caused by human activity.

  2. Integrated Transmission and Distribution Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Fuller, Jason C.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Wei; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Fisher, Andrew R.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Hauer, Matthew L.

    2013-01-16

    allows the load flow interactions between the bulk power system and end-use loads to be explicitly modeled. Power system interactions are modeled down to time intervals as short as 1-second. Another practical issue is that the size and complexity of typical distribution systems makes direct integration with transmission models computationally intractable. Hence, the focus of the next main task is to develop reduced-order controllable models for some of the smart grid assets. In particular, HVAC units, which are a type of Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs), are considered. The reduced-order modeling approach can be extended to other smart grid assets, like water heaters, PVs and PHEVs. Closed-loop control strategies are designed for a population of HVAC units under realistic conditions. The proposed load controller is fully responsive and achieves the control objective without sacrificing the end-use performance. Finally, using the T&D simulation platform, the benefits to the bulk power system are demonstrated by controlling smart grid assets under different demand response closed-loop control strategies.

  3. Analysis of the Effects of Compositional and Configurational Assumptions on Product Costs for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Mixed Alcohols – FY 2007 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine alternative biomass-to-ethanol conversion process assumptions and configuration options to determine their relative effects on overall process economics. A process-flow-sheet computer model was used to determine the heat and material balance for each configuration that was studied. The heat and material balance was then fed to a costing spreadsheet to determine the impact on the ethanol selling price. By examining a number of operational and configuration alternatives and comparing the results to the base flow sheet, alternatives having the greatest impact the performance and cost of the overall system were identified and used to make decisions on research priorities. This report, which was originally published in December 2008, has been revised primarily to correct information presented in Appendix B -- Base Case Flow Sheets and Model Results. The corrections to Appendix B include replacement of several pages in Table B.1 that duplicated previous pages of the table. Other changes were made in Appendix B to correct inconsistencies between stream labels presented in the tables and the stream labels in the figures.

  4. Development and evaluation of fully automated demand response in large facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Sezgen, Osman; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Shockman, Christine; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-03-30

    This report describes the results of a research project to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve electric grid reliability, manage electricity costs, and ensure that customers receive signals that encourage load reduction during times when the electric grid is near its capacity. The two main drivers for widespread demand responsiveness are the prevention of future electricity crises and the reduction of electricity prices. Additional goals for price responsiveness include equity through cost of service pricing, and customer control of electricity usage and bills. The technology developed and evaluated in this report could be used to support numerous forms of DR programs and tariffs. For the purpose of this report, we have defined three levels of Demand Response automation. Manual Demand Response involves manually turning off lights or equipment; this can be a labor-intensive approach. Semi-Automated Response involves the use of building energy management control systems for load shedding, where a preprogrammed load shedding strategy is initiated by facilities staff. Fully-Automated Demand Response is initiated at a building or facility through receipt of an external communications signal--facility staff set up a pre-programmed load shedding strategy which is automatically initiated by the system without the need for human intervention. We have defined this approach to be Auto-DR. An important concept in Auto-DR is that a facility manager is able to ''opt out'' or ''override'' an individual DR event if it occurs at a time when the reduction in end-use services is not desirable. This project sought to improve the feasibility and nature of Auto-DR strategies in large facilities. The research focused on technology development, testing, characterization, and evaluation relating to Auto

  5. Algorithmically scalable block preconditioner for fully implicit shallow-water equations in CAM-SE

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lott, P. Aaron; Woodward, Carol S.; Evans, Katherine J.

    2014-10-19

    Performing accurate and efficient numerical simulation of global atmospheric climate models is challenging due to the disparate length and time scales over which physical processes interact. Implicit solvers enable the physical system to be integrated with a time step commensurate with processes being studied. The dominant cost of an implicit time step is the ancillary linear system solves, so we have developed a preconditioner aimed at improving the efficiency of these linear system solves. Our preconditioner is based on an approximate block factorization of the linearized shallow-water equations and has been implemented within the spectral element dynamical core within themore » Community Atmospheric Model (CAM-SE). Furthermore, in this paper we discuss the development and scalability of the preconditioner for a suite of test cases with the implicit shallow-water solver within CAM-SE.« less

  6. Algorithmically scalable block preconditioner for fully implicit shallow-water equations in CAM-SE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lott, P. Aaron; Woodward, Carol S.; Evans, Katherine J.

    2014-10-19

    Performing accurate and efficient numerical simulation of global atmospheric climate models is challenging due to the disparate length and time scales over which physical processes interact. Implicit solvers enable the physical system to be integrated with a time step commensurate with processes being studied. The dominant cost of an implicit time step is the ancillary linear system solves, so we have developed a preconditioner aimed at improving the efficiency of these linear system solves. Our preconditioner is based on an approximate block factorization of the linearized shallow-water equations and has been implemented within the spectral element dynamical core within the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM-SE). Furthermore, in this paper we discuss the development and scalability of the preconditioner for a suite of test cases with the implicit shallow-water solver within CAM-SE.

  7. Wind Energy Integration: Slides

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    information about integrating wind energy into the electricity grid. Wind Energy Integration Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL 25907 Wind energy currently contributes significant power to energy portfolios around the world. *U.S. Department of Energy. (August 2015). 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report. Wind Energy Integration In 2014, Denmark led the way with wind power supplying roughly 39% of the country's electricity demand. Ireland, Portugal, and Spain provided more than 20% of their

  8. Energy Systems Integration | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Watch: NREL Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study Redefines What's Possible for Renewables Text Version Watch: NREL + SolarCity: Maximizing Solar Power on Electrical Grids Text Version Watch: Smart Homes and Buildings Research at the Energy Systems Integration Facility Text Version # # Previous Story Next Story × Skip to main content Toggle Search Search NREL.gov Search National Renewable Energy Laboratory Energy Systems Integration Toggle navigation Menu Research Research Renewable

  9. Commercial Buildings Integration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buildings Integration Images courtesy CREE, True Manufacturing, A.O. Smith, Bernstein Associates, Cambridge Engineering, Alliance Laundry Systems, NREL 2 Strategic Fit within ...

  10. Sandia Energy - Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Sandia's larger portfolio of renewable energy technology programs (Wind, Solar Power, Geothermal, and Energy Systems Analysis). Transmission Grid Integration The goal of...

  11. Integrated Project Team RM

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... conducts interviews, document reviews, walk downs, and observations as necessary. ... 2003 * Letter April 18, 2007, Dae Chung to Jim Rispoli, Integrated Project Team Capability ...

  12. Distribution Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Energy, SMART Grid, Systems Analysis, Transmission Grid Integration, Wind Energy Sandia Contributes to International Electrotechnical Commission IEC 61400-26 Availability ...

  13. Transmission Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Energy, SMART Grid, Systems Analysis, Transmission Grid Integration, Wind Energy Sandia Contributes to International Electrotechnical Commission IEC 61400-26 Availability ...

  14. Renewable Energy Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integration - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us ... Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, ...

  15. Grid Integration & Advanced Inverters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integration & Advanced Inverters - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home ... Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, ...

  16. integrated-transportation-models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    support a wider application of integrated transportation models, especially focusing on travel demand and network ... irrevocable worldwide license in said article to ...

  17. CLASIC DATA INTEGRATION

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oklahoma Lightning Mapping Array, NLDN NOAA Profiler Network Kessler Farm Field Laboratory ASOS, AWOS, AWSS (FAANWSDOD) ARM & Oklahoma Dataset Integration: Examples Oklahoma ...

  18. NREL: Transmission Grid Integration - Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publications Want updates about future transmission grid integration webinars and ... and Transmission Study Flexible Energy Scheduling Tool for Integration of ...

  19. NREL: Energy Systems Integration - Events

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    archive. Printable Version Energy Systems Integration Home Capabilities Research & Development Facilities Working with Us Publications News Events Energy Systems Integration...

  20. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining should more fully recover or eliminate its costs of regulating coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-05-28

    The Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM) is spending about $65 million annually to implement regulatory program requirements of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. The act requires the regulatory authority, whether OSM or that of a state with an OSM-approved program, to charge fees to mining operators for reviewing, enforcing, and administering coal mine operating permits and authorizes that the amount of such fees can fully recover costs. The OSM and states assess certain fees, but the fees recover only a small portion of their program costs. GAO found that if OSM and states fully recovered their regulatory costs, OSM could save over $50 million a year and the impact on coal demand and production would be minimal. GAO recommends that the Secretary of the Interior collect fees that fully recover OSM's regulatory costs, phase out or substantially reduce financial assistance to states, and encourage states to fully recover their own costs.

  1. Advanced Fuels for LWRs: Fully-Ceramic Microencapsulated and Related Concepts FY 2012 Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Sonat Sen; Brian Boer; John D. Bess; Michael A. Pope; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2012-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress in the Deep Burn project at Idaho National Laboratory during the first half of fiscal year 2012 (FY2012). The current focus of this work is on Fully-Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) fuel containing low-enriched uranium (LEU) uranium nitride (UN) fuel kernels. UO2 fuel kernels have not been ruled out, and will be examined as later work in FY2012. Reactor physics calculations confirmed that the FCM fuel containing 500 mm diameter kernels of UN fuel has positive MTC with a conventional fuel pellet radius of 4.1 mm. The methodology was put into place and validated against MCNP to perform whole-core calculations using DONJON, which can interpolate cross sections from a library generated using DRAGON. Comparisons to MCNP were performed on the whole core to confirm the accuracy of the DRAGON/DONJON schemes. A thermal fluid coupling scheme was also developed and implemented with DONJON. This is currently able to iterate between diffusion calculations and thermal fluid calculations in order to update fuel temperatures and cross sections in whole-core calculations. Now that the DRAGON/DONJON calculation capability is in place and has been validated against MCNP results, and a thermal-hydraulic capability has been implemented in the DONJON methodology, the work will proceed to more realistic reactor calculations. MTC calculations at the lattice level without the correct burnable poison are inadequate to guarantee zero or negative values in a realistic mode of operation. Using the DONJON calculation methodology described in this report, a startup core with enrichment zoning and burnable poisons will be designed. Larger fuel pins will be evaluated for their ability to (1) alleviate the problem of positive MTC and (2) increase reactivity-limited burnup. Once the critical boron concentration of the startup core is determined, MTC will be calculated to verify a non-positive value. If the value is positive, the design will be changed to require

  2. Integrating Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Provides an overview of the complete National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) model, and includes brief descriptions of the modules with which the Integrating Module interacts. The emphasis and focus, however, is on the structure and function of the Integrating Module of NEMS.

  3. Systems Integration (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    The Systems Integration (SI) subprogram works closely with industry, universities, and the national laboratories to overcome technical barriers to the large-scale deployment of solar technologies. To support these goals, the subprogram invests primarily in four areas: grid integration, technology validation, solar resource assessment, and balance of system development.

  4. Systems Integration (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2011-10-13

    The Systems Integration (SI) subprogram works closely with industry, universities, and the national laboratories to overcome technical barriers to the large-scale deployment of solar technologies. To support these goals, the subprogram invests primarily in four areas: grid integration, technology validation, solar resource assessment, and balance of system development.

  5. MODULAR AND FULL SIZE SIMPLIFIED BOILING WATER REACTOR DESIGN WITH FULLY PASSIVE SAFETY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Ishii; S. T. Revankar; T. Downar; Y. Xu, H. J. Yoon; D. Tinkler; U. S. Rohatgi

    2003-06-16

    OAK B204 The overall goal of this three-year research project was to develop a new scientific design of a compact modular 200 MWe and a full size 1200 MWe simplified boiling water reactors (SBWR). Specific objectives of this research were: (1) to perform scientific designs of the core neutronics and core thermal-hydraulics for a small capacity and full size simplified boiling water reactor, (2) to develop a passive safety system design, (3) improve and validate safety analysis code, (4) demonstrate experimentally and analytically all design functions of the safety systems for the design basis accidents (DBA) and (5) to develop the final scientific design of both SBWR systems, 200 MWe (SBWR-200) and 1200 MWe (SBWR-1200). The SBWR combines the advantages of design simplicity and completely passive safety systems. These advantages fit well within the objectives of NERI and the Department of Energy's focus on the development of Generation III and IV nuclear power. The 3-year research program was structured around seven tasks. Task 1 was to perform the preliminary thermal-hydraulic design. Task 2 was to perform the core neutronic design analysis. Task 3 was to perform a detailed scaling study and obtain corresponding PUMA conditions from an integral test. Task 4 was to perform integral tests and code evaluation for the DBA. Task 5 was to perform a safety analysis for the DBA. Task 6 was to perform a BWR stability analysis. Task 7 was to perform a final scientific design of the compact modular SBWR-200 and the full size SBWR-1200. A no cost extension for the third year was requested and the request was granted and all the project tasks were completed by April 2003. The design activities in tasks 1, 2, and 3 were completed as planned. The existing thermal-hydraulic information, core physics, and fuel lattice information was collected on the existing design of the simplified boiling water reactor. The thermal-hydraulic design were developed. Based on a detailed integral

  6. Integrated assessment briefs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    Integrated assessment can be used to evaluate and clarify resource management policy options and outcomes for decision makers. The defining characteristics of integrated assessment are (1) focus on providing information and analysis that can be understood and used by decision makers rather than for merely advancing understanding and (2) its multidisciplinary approach, using methods, styles of study, and considerations from a broader variety of technical areas than would typically characterize studies produced from a single disciplinary standpoint. Integrated assessment may combine scientific, social, economic, health, and environmental data and models. Integrated assessment requires bridging the gap between science and policy considerations. Because not everything can be valued using a single metric, such as a dollar value, the integrated assessment process also involves evaluating trade-offs among dissimilar attributes. Scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) recognized the importance and value of multidisciplinary approaches to solving environmental problems early on and have pioneered the development of tools and methods for integrated assessment over the past three decades. Major examples of ORNL`s experience in the development of its capabilities for integrated assessment are given.

  7. GMRES and integral operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, C.T.; Xue, Z.Q.

    1994-12-31

    Many discretizations of integral equations and compact fixed point problems are collectively compact and strongly convergent in spaces of continuous functions. These properties not only lead to stable and convergent approximations but also can be used in the construction of fast multilevel algorithms. Recently the GMRES algorithm has become a standard coarse mesh solver. The purpose of this paper is to show how the special properties of integral operators and their approximations are reflected in the performance of the GMRES iteration and how these properties can be used to strengthen the norm in which convergence takes place. The authors illustrate these ideas with composite Gauss rules for integral equations on the unit interval.

  8. Fully-coupled engineering and mesoscale simulations of thermal conductivity in UO2 fuel using an implicit multiscale approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Tonks; Derek Gaston; Cody Permann; Paul Millett; Glen Hansen; Chris Newman

    2009-08-01

    Reactor fuel performance is sensitive to microstructure changes during irradiation (such as fission gas and pore formation). This study proposes an approach to capture microstructural changes in the fuel by a two-way coupling of a mesoscale phase field irradiation model to an engineering scale, finite element calculation. This work solves the multiphysics equation system at the engineering-scale in a parallel, fully-coupled, fully-implicit manner using a preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton Krylov method (JFNK). A sampling of the temperature at the Gauss points of the coarse scale is passed to a parallel sequence of mesoscale calculations within the JFNK function evaluation phase of the calculation. The mesoscale thermal conductivity is calculated in parallel, and the result is passed back to the engineering-scale calculation. As this algorithm is fully contained within the JFNK function evaluation, the mesoscale calculation is nonlinearly consistent with the engineering-scale calculation. Further, the action of the Jacobian is also consistent, so the composite algorithm provides the strong nonlinear convergence properties of Newton's method. The coupled model using INL's \\bison\\ code demonstrates quadratic nonlinear convergence and good parallel scalability. Initial results predict the formation of large pores in the hotter center of the pellet, but few pores on the outer circumference. Thus, the thermal conductivity is is reduced in the center of the pellet, leading to a higher internal temperature than that in an unirradiated pellet.

  9. 3D electrostatic gyrokinetic electron and fully kinetic ion simulation of lower-hybrid drift instability of Harris current sheet

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Lin, Yu; Wang, Xueyi; Tummel, Kurt; Chen, Liu

    2016-07-07

    The eigenmode stability properties of three-dimensional lower-hybrid-drift-instabilities (LHDI) in a Harris current sheet with a small but finite guide magnetic field have been systematically studied by employing the gyrokinetic electron and fully kinetic ion (GeFi) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation model with a realistic ion-to-electron mass ratio mi/me. In contrast to the fully kinetic PIC simulation scheme, the fast electron cyclotron motion and plasma oscillations are systematically removed in the GeFi model, and hence one can employ the realistic mi/me. The GeFi simulations are benchmarked against and show excellent agreement with both the fully kinetic PIC simulation and the analytical eigenmode theory.more » Our studies indicate that, for small wavenumbers, ky, along the current direction, the most unstable eigenmodes are peaked at the location where k⃗• B⃗ =0, consistent with previous analytical and simulation studies. Here, B⃗ is the equilibrium magnetic field and k⃗ is the wavevector perpendicular to the nonuniformity direction. As ky increases, however, the most unstable eigenmodes are found to be peaked at k⃗ •B⃗ ≠0. Additionally, the simulation results indicate that varying mi/me, the current sheet width, and the guide magnetic field can affect the stability of LHDI. Simulations with the varying mass ratio confirm the lower hybrid frequency and wave number scalings.« less

  10. ELECTRONIC INTEGRATING CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Englemann, R.H.

    1963-08-20

    An electronic integrating circuit using a transistor with a capacitor connected between the emitter and collector through which the capacitor discharges at a rate proportional to the input current at the base is described. Means are provided for biasing the base with an operating bias and for applying a voltage pulse to the capacitor for charging to an initial voltage. A current dividing diode is connected between the base and emitter of the transistor, and signal input terminal means are coupled to the juncture of the capacitor and emitter and to the base of the transistor. At the end of the integration period, the residual voltage on said capacitor is less by an amount proportional to the integral of the input signal. Either continuous or intermittent periods of integration are provided. (AEC)