Sample records for assumed growth rates

  1. Reaction rate prediction for elementary reactions in binary mixed solvents assuming an additive solvation of reactant(s)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Woert, Howard Clark

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REACTION RATE PREDICTION FOR ELEMENTARY REACTIONS IN BINARY MIXED SOLVENTS ASSUMING AN ADDITIVE SOLVATION OF REACTANT(S) A Thesis by HOWARD CLARK VAN WOERT, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkN University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Chemistry REACTION RATE PREDICTION FOR ELEMENTARY REACTIONS IN BINARY MIXED SOLVENTS ASSUMING AN ADDITIVE SOLVATION OF REACTANT(S) A Thesis HOWARD CLARK VAN WOERT, JR. Approved...

  2. Nonlinear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David

    2015-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a nonlinear, stochastic relation between ? – ? • ?(x,t)/aH and ?. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean (???), together with the fluctuations of ? around this mean. We measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10% at kmore »relation and nonlinearity are more pronounced for halos, M ? 5 x 10¹²Mh?¹, compared to the dark matter at z – 0 and 1. Nonlinear growth effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean (???) away from the linear theory prediction –fLT?, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) for k LT from two point statistics in redshift space. Given that the relationship between ? and ? is stochastic and nonlinear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.« less

  3. Nonlinear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jennings, Elise [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Jennings, David [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a nonlinear, stochastic relation between ? – ? • ?(x,t)/aH and ?. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean (???), together with the fluctuations of ? around this mean. We measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10% at kLT?, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) for k LT from two point statistics in redshift space. Given that the relationship between ? and ? is stochastic and nonlinear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.

  4. Can we estimate bacterial growth rates from ribosomal RNA content?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, P.F.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Several studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between the quantity of RNA in bacterial cells and their growth rate under laboratory conditions. It may be possible to use this relationship to provide information on the activity of natural bacterial communities, and in particular on growth rate. However, if this approach is to provide reliably interpretable information, the relationship between RNA content and growth rate must be well-understood. In particular, a requisite of such applications is that the relationship must be universal among bacteria, or alternately that the relationship can be determined and measured for specific bacterial taxa. The RNA-growth rate relationship has not been used to evaluate bacterial growth in field studies, although RNA content has been measured in single cells and in bulk extracts of field samples taken from coastal environments. These measurements have been treated as probable indicators of bacterial activity, but have not yet been interpreted as estimators of growth rate. The primary obstacle to such interpretations is a lack of information on biological and environmental factors that affect the RNA-growth rate relationship. In this paper, the available data on the RNA-growth rate relationship in bacteria will be reviewed, including hypotheses regarding the regulation of RNA synthesis and degradation as a function of growth rate and environmental factors; i.e. the basic mechanisms for maintaining RNA content in proportion to growth rate. An assessment of the published laboratory and field data, the current status of this research area, and some of the remaining questions will be presented.

  5. The instantaneous radial growth rate of stellar discs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pezzulli, Gabriele; Boissier, Samuel; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new and simple method to measure the instantaneous mass and radial growth rates of the stellar discs of spiral galaxies, based on their star formation rate surface density (SFRD) profiles. Under the hypothesis that discs are exponential with time-varying scalelengths, we derive a universal theoretical profile for the SFRD, with a linear dependence on two parameters: the specific mass growth rate $\

  6. Nonlinear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jennings, Elise

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. Here we introduce a formalism that extends this to a nonlinear, stochastic relation between $\\theta = \

  7. ARM - Lesson Plans: Rate of Coral Growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow, Alaska OutreachMakingPast SeaRate of Coral

  8. Does Growth Rate Determine the Rate of Metabolism in Shorebird Chicks Living in the Arctic?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Jos. B.

    primarily of greater metabolic inten- sities of heat-generating tissues. The maximum temperature gradient500 Does Growth Rate Determine the Rate of Metabolism in Shorebird Chicks Living in the Arctic/22/2007; Electronically Published 7/13/2007 ABSTRACT We measured resting and peak metabolic rates (RMR and PMR

  9. Upscaling Calcite Growth Rates From the Mesoscale to the Macroscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bracco, Jacquelyn N [ORNL; Stack, Andrew G [ORNL; Steefel, Carl I [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantitative prediction of mineral reaction rates in the subsurface remains a daunting task partly because a key parameter for macroscopic models, the reactive site density, is poorly constrained. Here we report atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on the calcite surface of monomolecular step densities, treated as equivalent to the reactive site density, as a function of aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratio and saturation index. Data for the obtuse step orientation are combined with existing step velocity measurements to generate a model that predicts overall macroscopic calcite growth rates. The model is quantitatively consistent with several published macroscopic rates under a range of alkaline solution conditions, particularly for two of the most comprehensive data sets without the need for additional fit parameters. The model reproduces peak growth rates and its functional form is simple enough to be incorporated into reactive transport or other macroscopic models designed for predictions in porous media. However, it currently cannot model equilibrium, pH effects, and may overestimate rates at high aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratios. The discrepancies in rates at high calcium-to-carbonate ratios may be due to differences in pre-treatment, such as exposing the seed material to SI 1.0 to generate/develop growth hillocks, or other factors.

  10. Wall recession rates in cavity-growth modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grens, E.A. II; Thorsness, C.B.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The predictions of resource utilization obtained from cavity-growth models depend on the methods used to represent the recession rates of the walls of the cavity. Under many circumstances the cavity is largely filled with a bed char rubble. Examination of the mechanisms for recession at walls adjacent to these char beds indicates that the recession rates are controlled by convective heat transfer from the bed to the walls coupled with the thermomechanical breakdown of the walls. A recession-rate representation has been developed, based on this concept, for use in cavity-growth simulation programs. This representation characterizes wall breakdown by either a failure temperature or by a thickness of char layer at failure, and determines rates from a model of heat transfer under these conditions. It gives recession rates that are functions of gas temperature and mass flow rate in the cavity, and depend on effective particle size in the char bed. Wall recession rates calculated for WIDCO, Hoe Creek, and Hanna coals are in the range of 0.1 to 0.8 m/day at a 1300 K cavity temperature, and are consistent with the general rates observed for field tests. 27 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  11. In situ growth rate measurements by normal-incidence reflectance during MOVPE growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, H.Q.; Breiland, W.G.; Hammons, B.E.; Chui, H.C.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an in situ technique for monitoring metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy growth by normal-incidence reflectance. This technique is used to calibrate the growth rate periodically and to monitor the growth process routinely. It is not only a precise tool to measure the growth rate, but also very useful in identifying unusal problems during a growth run, such as depletion of source material, deterioration of surface morphology, and problems associated with an improper growht procedure. We will also present an excellent reproducibility ({+-}0.3% over a course of more than 100 runs) of the cavity wavelength of vertical-cavity surface emitting laser structures with periodic calibration by this in situ technique.

  12. Building Address Locations -Assumes entire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guenther, Frank

    Building Address Locations - Assumes entire building unless noted Designation Submit through* 560, 4 BU Crosstown Center 801 Massachusetts Ave Floor 1, 2 BMC BCD Building 800 Harrison Avenue BCD BMC Biosquare III 670 Albany Floors 2, 3, 6, 7 BMC Biosquare III 670 Albany Floors 1, 4, 5, 8 BU Building

  13. GROWTH OF POSITIVE WORDS AND LOWER BOUNDS OF THE GROWTH RATE FOR THOMPSON'S GROUPS F(p)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burillo, José

    GROWTH OF POSITIVE WORDS AND LOWER BOUNDS OF THE GROWTH RATE FOR THOMPSON'S GROUPS F(p) JOS´E BURILLO AND VICTOR GUBA Abstract. Let F(p), p 2 be the family of generalized Thompson's groups. Here F(2) is the famous Richard Thompson's group usually denoted by F. We find the growth rate of the monoid of positive

  14. Effects of crowding on growth rate and symbiosis in green hydra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorp, James H.; Barthalamus, George T.

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    every 4 days. A significant inverse relationship between population density and population growth rate exists. In addition, hydras were found to increase or decrease their growth rates in response to rapid changes of density after acclimation to fixed...

  15. Dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser: Finite axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheiri, Golshad; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi [Department of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16844 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16844 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A theoretical analysis is presented for dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser with finite axial magnetic field. It is shown that the growth rate and the resonance frequency of Cherenkov free electron laser increase with increasing axial magnetic field for low axial magnetic fields, while for high axial magnetic fields, they go to a saturation value. The growth rate and resonance frequency saturation values are exactly the same as those for infinite axial magnetic field approximation. The effects of electron beam self-fields on growth rate are investigated, and it is shown that the growth rate decreases in the presence of self-fields. It is found that there is an optimum value for electron beam density and Lorentz relativistic factor at which the maximum growth rate can take place. Also, the effects of velocity spread of electron beam are studied and it is found that the growth rate decreases due to the electron velocity spread.

  16. Long-run growth rate in a random multiplicative model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dan Pirjol

    2015-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the long-run growth rate of the average value of a random multiplicative process $x_{i+1} = a_i x_i$ where the multipliers $a_i=1+\\rho\\exp(\\sigma W_i - \\frac12 \\sigma^2 t_i)$ have Markovian dependence given by the exponential of a standard Brownian motion $W_i$. The average value $\\langle x_n\\rangle$ is given by the grand partition function of a one-dimensional lattice gas with two-body linear attractive interactions placed in a uniform field. We study the Lyapunov exponent $\\lambda(\\rho,\\beta) = \\lim_{n\\to \\infty} \\frac{1}{n} \\log \\langle x_n\\rangle$ at fixed $\\beta = \\frac12 \\sigma^2 t_n n$, and show that it is given by the equation of state of the lattice gas in thermodynamical equilibrium. The Lyapunov exponent has discontinuous first derivatives along a curve in the $(\\rho,\\beta)$ plane ending at a critical point $(\\rho_C,\\beta_C)$, which is related to a phase transition in the equivalent lattice gas. Using the equivalence of the lattice gas with a bosonic system, we obtain the exact solution for the equation of state in the thermodynamical limit $n\\to \\infty$.

  17. Long-run growth rate in a random multiplicative model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pirjol, Dan [Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, 077125 Bucharest (Romania)

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the long-run growth rate of the average value of a random multiplicative process x{sub i+1} = a{sub i}x{sub i} where the multipliers a{sub i}=1+?exp(?W{sub i}?1/2 ?²t{sub i}) have Markovian dependence given by the exponential of a standard Brownian motion W{sub i}. The average value (x{sub n}) is given by the grand partition function of a one-dimensional lattice gas with two-body linear attractive interactions placed in a uniform field. We study the Lyapunov exponent ?=lim{sub n??}1/n log(x{sub n}), at fixed ?=1/2 ?²t{sub n}n, and show that it is given by the equation of state of the lattice gas in thermodynamical equilibrium. The Lyapunov exponent has discontinuous partial derivatives along a curve in the (?, ?) plane ending at a critical point (?{sub C}, ?{sub C}) which is related to a phase transition in the equivalent lattice gas. Using the equivalence of the lattice gas with a bosonic system, we obtain the exact solution for the equation of state in the thermodynamical limit n ? ?.

  18. Driving Smart Growth: Electric Vehicle Adoption and OffPeak Electricity Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holsinger, Kent

    Driving Smart Growth: Electric Vehicle Adoption and OffPeak Electricity Rates Peter Driving Smart Growth: Electric Vehicle Adoption Page 2 Executive Summary Reducing our dependence to electric vehicles (EVs)1 is core to reducing reliance on fossil fuels and driving smart growth

  19. Constant Sustainable Consumption Rate in Optimal Growth with Exhaustible Resources*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, Frederic Yui-Ming

    's criterion of maximum sustainable consumption rate, previously formulated as a minimum-resource-extraction or not the constant unit resource extraction cost vanishes. The related problem of maximizing the terminal capital appetite for the earth's finite stock of nonrenew- able resources, such as fossil fuel and minerals, have

  20. Field Study of Growth and Calcification Rates of Three Species of Articulated Coralline Algae in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martone, Patrick T.

    Field Study of Growth and Calcification Rates of Three Species of Articulated Coralline Algae of coralline algae. Decreases in coralline abundance may have cascading effects on marine ecosys- tems- mon species of articulated coralline algae (Bossiella plu- mosa, Calliarthron tuberculosum

  1. Growth rate and mortality of Australian bass, Macquaria novemaculeata, in four freshwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilde, Gene

    Growth rate and mortality of Australian bass, Macquaria novemaculeata, in four freshwater, Queensland, Australia Abstract Growth and total mortality of Australian bass, Macquaria novemaculeata impoundments, ranging from 5.0 to 7.8 cm yr)1 among fish 20-cm total length (TL) and 1.7 to 4.9 cm yr)1 among

  2. Quantum Coherence Conservation by Growth in Environmental Dissipation Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SaiToh, Akira; Nakahara, Mikio

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum coherence conservation is shown to be achieved by a very high rate of dissipation of an environmental system coupled with a principal system. This effect is not in the list of previously-known effects of noise suppression, such as Zeno effect, dynamical decoupling, quantum error correction code, and decoherence free subspace. An analytical solution is found for a simplified model of a single qubit coupled with an environmental single qubit dissipating rapidly. We also show examples of coherence conservation in a spin-boson linear coupling model with a numerical evaluation.

  3. Quantum Coherence Conservation by Growth in Environmental Dissipation Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akira SaiToh; Robabeh Rahimi; Mikio Nakahara

    2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum coherence conservation is shown to be achieved by a very high rate of dissipation of an environmental system coupled with a principal system. This effect is not in the list of previously-known strategies of noise suppression, such as Zeno effect, dynamical decoupling, quantum error correction code, and decoherence free subspace. An analytical solution is found for a simplified model of a single qubit coupled with an environmental single qubit dissipating rapidly. We also show examples of coherence conservation in a spin-boson linear coupling model with a numerical evaluation.

  4. Static growth in obesity rates among kids no reason to celebrate, health officials say

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belogay, Eugene A.

    Static growth in obesity rates among kids no reason to celebrate, health officials say By SONJA, Jan. 17, 2012 The growing girth of the nation's children has taken a pause, leaving us with an obesity obesity rate) is not going down, I don't find that comforting." Few health professionals do. Nearly one

  5. Systems Level Regulation of Rhythmic Growth Rate and Biomass Accumulation in Grasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kay, Steve A. [University of California San Diego

    2013-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Several breakthroughs have been recently made in our understanding of plant growth and biomass accumulation. It was found that plant growth is rhythmically controlled throughout the day by the circadian clock through a complex interplay of light and phytohormone signaling pathways. While plants such as the C4 energy crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and possibly the C3 grass (Brachypodium distachyon) also exhibit daily rhythms in growth rate, the molecular details of its regulation remain to be explored. A better understanding of diurnally regulated growth behavior in grasses may lead to species-specific mechanisms highly relevant to future strategies to optimize energy crop biomass yield. Here we propose to devise a systems approach to identify, in parallel, regulatory hubs associated with rhythmic growth in C3 and C4 plants. We propose to use rhythmicity in daily growth patterns to drive the discovery of regulatory network modules controlling biomass accumulation.

  6. Influence of three types of treated straw on intake and growth rate in beef cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Influence of three types of treated straw on intake and growth rate in beef cattle WX Zhang JK Yuan treated wheat straw (AS), an untreated wheat straw (US), and a microbe-fermented wheat straw (MS). Thirty.544 (AS), 0.479 (US) and 0.551 (MS). It is concluded that both urea and microbe treated straw can

  7. Maximal Sum of Metabolic Exchange Fluxes Outperforms Biomass Yield as a Predictor of Growth Rate of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruppin, Eytan

    to CO2. CO2, the main product of cellular catabolism, was necessarily released from the cell in nearly.g., predictions of biomass yield using GEnome- scale metabolic Models (GEMs)] or notably require many empirical) in a genome-scale metabolic model. SUMEX successfully predicts relative microbial growth rates across species

  8. Real-time growth rate metrology for a tungsten chemical vapor deposition process by acoustic sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    to a production-scale tungsten chemical vapor deposition cluster tool for in situ process sensing. Process gasesReal-time growth rate metrology for a tungsten chemical vapor deposition process by acoustic to achieve run-to-run process control of the deposited tungsten film thickness. © 2001 American Vacuum

  9. Rate-dependent morphology of Li2O2 growth in Li-O2 batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horstmann, B; Mitchell, R; Bessler, W G; Shao-Horn, Y; Bazant, M Z

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Compact solid discharge products enable energy storage devices with high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities, but solid deposits on active surfaces can disturb charge transport and induce mechanical stress. In this Letter we develop a nanoscale continuum model for the growth of Li2O2 crystals in lithium-oxygen batteries with organic electrolytes, based on a theory of electrochemical non-equilibrium thermodynamics originally applied to Li-ion batteries. As in the case of lithium insertion in phase-separating LiFePO4 nanoparticles, the theory predicts a transition from complex to uniform morphologies of Li2O2 with increasing current. Discrete particle growth at low discharge rates becomes suppressed at high rates, resulting in a film of electronically insulating Li2O2 that limits cell performance. We predict that the transition between these surface growth modes occurs at current densities close to the exchange current density of the cathode reaction, consistent with experimental observations.

  10. Supermassive Black Hole Growth and Merger Rates from Cosmological N-body Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miroslav Micic; Kelly Holley-Bockelmann; Steinn Sigurdsson; Tom Abel

    2007-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding how seed black holes grow into intermediate and supermassive black holes (IMBHs and SMBHs, respectively) has important implications for the duty-cycle of active galactic nuclei (AGN), galaxy evolution, and gravitational wave astronomy. Most studies of the cosmological growth and merger history of black holes have used semianalytic models and have concentrated on SMBH growth in luminous galaxies. Using high resolution cosmological N-body simulations, we track the assembly of black holes over a large range of final masses -- from seed black holes to SMBHs -- over widely varying dynamical histories. We used the dynamics of dark matter halos to track the evolution of seed black holes in three different gas accretion scenarios. We have found that growth of Sagittarius A* - size SMBH reaches its maximum mass M_{SMBH}~10^6Msun at z~6 through early gaseous accretion episodes, after which it stays at near constant mass. At the same redshift, the duty-cycle of the host AGN ends, hence redshift z=6 marks the transition from an AGN to a starburst galaxy which eventually becomes the Milky Way. By tracking black hole growth as a function of time and mass, we estimate that the IMBH merger rate reaches a maximum of R_{max}=55 yr^-1 at z=11. From IMBH merger rates we calculate N_{ULX}=7 per Milky Way type galaxy per redshift in redshift range 2

  11. A closer look at interacting dark energy with statefinder hierarchy and growth rate of structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Lu; Cui, Jing-Lei; Li, Yun-He; Zhang, Xin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the interacting dark energy models by using the diagnostics of statefinder hierarchy and growth rate of structure. We wish to explore the deviations from $\\Lambda$CDM and to differentiate possible degeneracies in the interacting dark energy models with the geometrical and structure growth diagnostics. We consider two interacting forms for the models, i.e., $Q_1=\\beta H\\rho_c$ and $Q_2=\\beta H\\rho_{de}$, with $\\beta$ being the dimensionless coupling parameter. Our focus is the I$\\Lambda$CDM model that is a one-parameter extension to $\\Lambda$CDM by considering a direct coupling between the vacuum energy ($\\Lambda$) and cold dark matter (CDM), with the only additional parameter $\\beta$. But we begin with a more general case by considering the I$w$CDM model in which dark energy has a constant $w$ (equation-of-state parameter). For calculating the growth rate of structure, we employ the "parametrized post-Friedmann" theoretical framework for interacting dark energy to numerically obtain the $\\epsil...

  12. Crack growth rates of irradiated austenitic stainless steel weld heat affected zone in BWR environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O. K.; Alexandreanu, B.; Gruber, E. E.; Daum, R. S.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Austenitic stainless steels (SSs) are used extensively as structural alloys in the internal components of reactor pressure vessels because of their superior fracture toughness. However, exposure to high levels of neutron irradiation for extended periods can exacerbate the corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of these steels by affecting the material microchemistry, material microstructure, and water chemistry. Experimental data are presented on crack growth rates of the heat affected zone (HAZ) in Types 304L and 304 SS weld specimens before and after they were irradiated to a fluence of 5.0 x 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV) ({approx} 0.75 dpa) at {approx}288 C. Crack growth tests were conducted under cycling loading and long hold time trapezoidal loading in simulated boiling water reactor environments on Type 304L SS HAZ of the H5 weld from the Grand Gulf reactor core shroud and on Type 304 SS HAZ of a laboratory-prepared weld. The effects of material composition, irradiation, and water chemistry on growth rates are discussed.

  13. The influence of prey consumption and demographic stochasticity on population growth rate of Isle Royale wolves Canis lupus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are often expressed as functions of per capita rate of consumption (Beddington et al. 1976), availability, or demographic stochasticity. To the extent that per capita consumption and population growth rate: 309Á/320, 2004 OIKOS 107:2 (2004) 309 #12;the relationship between per capita kill rate (consump- tion

  14. The number e^{(1/2)} is the ratio between the time of maximum value and the time of maximum growth rate for restricted growth phenomena?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zi-Niu Wu

    2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    For many natural process of growth, with the growth rate independent of size due to Gibrat law and with the growth process following a log-normal distribution, the ratio between the time (D) for maximum value and the time (L) for maximum growth rate (inflexion point) is then equal to the square root of the base of the natural logarithm (e^{1/2}). On the logarithm scale this ratio becomes one half ((1/2)). It remains an open question, due to lack of complete data for various cases with restricted growth, whether this e^{1/2} ratio can be stated as e^{1/2}-Law. Two established examples already published, one for an epidemic spreading and one for droplet production, support however this ratio. Another example appears to be the height of humain body. For boys the maximum height occurs near 23 years old while the maximum growth rate is at the age near 14, and there ratio is close to e^{1/2}. The main theoretical base to obtain this conclusion is problem independent, provided the growth process is restricted, such as public intervention to control the spreading of communicable epidemics, so that an entropy is associated with the process and the role of dissipation, representing the mechanism of intervention, is maximized. Under this formulation the principle of maximum rate of entropy production is used to make the production process problem independent.

  15. Influence of finite radial geometry on the growth rate of ion-channel free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahmani, Mohammad; Hamzehpour, Hossein [Department of Physics, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran 15875-4416 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran 15875-4416 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Department of Physics and Institute for Plasma Research, Kharazmi University, 49 Dr. Mofateh Avenue, Tehran 15614 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics and Institute for Plasma Research, Kharazmi University, 49 Dr. Mofateh Avenue, Tehran 15614 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of finite radial geometry on the instability of a tenuous relativistic electron beam propagating in an ion-channel in a waveguide is investigated. The instability analysis is based on the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations for the perturbation about a self-consistent beam equilibrium. With the help of characteristic method the dispersion relation for the TE-mode is derived and analyzed through the numerical solutions. It is found that the positioning of the beam radius R{sub b} relative to the waveguide radius R{sub c}, and the ion-channel frequency can have a large influence on the maximum growth rate and corresponding wave number.

  16. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates You are here: SN Home page > Power Marketing > RATES Rates and Repayment Services Rates Current Rates FY 15 PRR worksheet (PDF - 31K) FY...

  17. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-44 ICE-COVER GROWTH RATES AT NEARSHORE LOCATIONS IN THE GREAT LAKES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-44 ICE-COVER GROWTH RATES AT NEARSHORE LOCATIONS IN THE GREAT of such products is not authorized. ii #12;CONTENTS Abstract 1. INTRODUCTION 2. THE THEORETICAL BASIS OF THE ICE GROWTH EQUATION 3. THE INFLUENCE OF SNOW COVER 4. THE DEGREE-DAY LINEAR MODEL 5. THE DATA SETS 5.1 Ice

  18. The trade-off between growth rate and yield in microbial communities and the consequences for under-snow soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Steven K.

    at the ecosystem and global scales, representing about half of total CO2 flux from soils (Hanson et al. 2000 of soil microbial communities. In particular, the rate and efficiency of growth determine how much CO2 unit substrate consumed) convert a larger fraction of substrate into CO2 during growth, and so respire

  19. Desiccation resistance and root growth rate of St. Augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze 'Floratam') as influenced by potassium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DiPaola, J. M

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and turfgrass quality of Floratam St. Augustinegrass were investigated in both field and greenhouse experiments. Both studies evaluated the influence of potassium on root growth and turfgrass quality from the establishment of sod, through an imposed water... in the fall field experiment, while no improvement was noted in the spring greenhouse study. The daily root growth rates were not influenced by potassium in the field study, while increased potassium fertilization rates resulted in greater daily root...

  20. Polymer Growth Rate in a Wire Chamber with Oxygen,Water, or Alcohol Gas Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyarski, Adam; /SLAC

    2008-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The rate of polymer growth on wires was measured in a wire chamber while the chamber was aged initially with helium-isobutane (80:20) gas, and then with either oxygen, water, or alcohol added to the gas. At the completion of the aging process for each gas mixture, the carbon content on the wires was measured in a SEM/EDX instrument. The same physical wires were used in all the gas mixtures, allowing measurement of polymer build up or polymer depletion by each gas additive. It is found that the rate of polymer growth is not changed by the presence of oxygen, water or alcohol. Conjecture that oxygen reduces breakdown by removing polymer deposits on field wires is negated by these measurements. Instead, it appears that the reduced breakdown is due to lower resistance in the polymer from oxygen ions being transported into the polymer. It is also observed that field wires bombarded by the electrons in the SEM and then placed back into the chamber show an abundance of single electrons being emitted, indicating that electron charge is stored in the polymer layer and that a high electric field is necessary to remove the charge.

  1. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RATES Rates Document Library SNR Rates Process Calendar (PDF - 171K) Procedures Informal Process Transmission Action Items List (PDF - 144K) Power Action Item List updated on...

  2. Effects of ion abundances on electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave growth rate in the vicinity of the plasmapause

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henning, F. D., E-mail: farranalfonso@gmail.com; Mace, R. L., E-mail: macer@ukzn.ac.za [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in multi-ion species plasmas propagate in branches. Except for the branch corresponding to the heaviest ion species, which has only a resonance at its gyrofrequency, these branches are bounded below by a cutoff frequency and above by a resonant gyrofrequency. The condition for wave growth is determined by the thermal anisotropies of each ion species, j, which sets an upper bound, ?{sub j}{sup ?}, on the wave frequency below which that ion species contributes positively to the growth rate. It follows that the relative positions of the cutoffs and the critical frequencies ?{sub j}{sup ?} play a crucial role in determining whether a particular wave branch will be unstable. The effect of the magnetospheric ion abundances on the growth rate of each branch of the EMIC instability in a model where all the ion species have kappa velocity distributions is investigated by appealing to the above ideas. Using the variation of the cutoff frequencies predicted by cold plasma theory as a guide, optimal ion abundances that maximise the EMIC instability growth rate are sought. When the ring current is comprised predominantly of H{sup +} ions, all branches of the EMIC wave are destabilised, with the proton branch having the maximum growth rate. When the O{sup +} ion abundance in the ring current is increased, a decrease in the growth rate of the proton branch and cyclotron damping of the helium branch are observed. The oxygen branch, on the other hand, experiences an increase in the maximum growth rate with an increase in the O{sup +} ion abundance. When the ring current is comprised predominantly of He{sup +} ions, only the helium and oxygen branches of the EMIC wave are destabilised, with the helium branch having the maximum growth rate.

  3. Effect of flow rate of ethanol on growth dynamics of VA-SWNT -Transition from no-flow CVD to normal ACCVD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Effect of flow rate of ethanol on growth dynamics of VA-SWNT - Transition from no-flow CVD a growth model [2]. In this study, the flow rate of ethanol during the CVD was controlled precisely. Figure 1 shows the growth curve of VA-SWNT film for various ethanol flow rates. In the figure, "No

  4. Effect of mono- and dichromatic light quality on growth rates and photosynthetic performance of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstein, Hans C.; Konopka, Allan; Melnicki, Matthew R.; Hill, Eric A.; Kucek, Leo A.; Zhang, Shuyi; Shen, Gaozhong; Bryant, Donald A.; Beliaev, Alex S.

    2014-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was grown to steady state in optically thin turbidostat cultures under conditions for which light quantity and quality was systematically varied by modulating the output of narrow-band LEDs. Cells were provided photons absorbed primarily by chlorophyll (680 nm) or phycocyanin (630 nm) as the organism was subjected to four distinct mono- and dichromatic regimes. During cultivation with dichromatic light, growth rates displayed by Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 were generally proportional to the total incident irradiance at values < 275 µmol photons m-2 s-1 and were not affected by the ratio of 630:680 nm wavelengths. Notably, under monochromatic light conditions, cultures exhibited similar growth rates only when they were irradiated with 630 nm light; cultures irradiated with only 680 nm light grew at rates that were 60 – 70% of those under other light quality regimes at equivalent irradiances. The functionality of photosystem II and associated processes such as maximum rate of photosynthetic electron transport, rate of cyclic electron flow, and rate of dark respiration generally increased as a function of growth rate. Nonetheless, some of the photophysiological parameters measured here displayed distinct patterns with respect to growth rate of cultures adapted to a single wavelength including phycobiliprotein content, which increased under severely light-limited growth conditions. Additionally, the ratio of photosystem II to photosystem I increased approximately 40% over the range of growth rates, although cells grown with 680 nm light only had the highest ratios. These results suggest the presence of effective mechanisms which allow acclimation of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 acclimation to different irradiance conditions.

  5. Crack growth rates of nickel alloy welds in a PWR environment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexandreanu, B.; Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In light water reactors (LWRs), vessel internal components made of nickel-base alloys are susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking. A better understanding of the causes and mechanisms of this cracking may permit less conservative estimates of damage accumulation and requirements on inspection intervals. A program is being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate the resistance of Ni alloys and their welds to environmentally assisted cracking in simulated LWR coolant environments. This report presents crack growth rate (CGR) results for Alloy 182 shielded-metal-arc weld metal in a simulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) environment at 320 C. Crack growth tests were conducted on 1-T compact tension specimens with different weld orientations from both double-J and deep-groove welds. The results indicate little or no environmental enhancement of fatigue CGRs of Alloy 182 weld metal in the PWR environment. The CGRs of Alloy 182 in the PWR environment are a factor of {approx}5 higher than those of Alloy 600 in air under the same loading conditions. The stress corrosion cracking for the Alloy 182 weld is close to the average behavior of Alloy 600 in the PWR environment. The weld orientation was found to have a profound effect on the magnitude of crack growth: cracking was found to propagate faster along the dendrites than across them. The existing CGR data for Ni-alloy weld metals have been compiled and evaluated to establish the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on CGRs in PWR environments. The results from the present study are compared with the existing CGR data for Ni-alloy welds to determine the relative susceptibility of the specific Ni-alloy weld to environmentally enhanced cracking.

  6. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marketing > RATES RATES Current Rates Past Rates 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Rates Schedules Power CV-F13 CPP-2 Transmissions CV-T3 CV-NWT5 PACI-T3 COTP-T3 CV-TPT7 CV-UUP1...

  7. Probing $f(R)$ cosmology with sterile neutrinos via measurements of scale-dependent growth rate of structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yun-He; Zhang, Xin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we constrain the dimensionless Compton wavelength parameter $B_0$ of $f(R)$ gravity as well as the mass of sterile neutrino by using the cosmic microwave background observations, the baryon acoustic oscillation surveys, and the linear growth rate measurements. Since both the $f(R)$ model and the sterile neutrino generally predict scale-dependent growth rates, we utilize the growth rate data measured in different wavenumber bins with the theoretical growth rate approximatively scale-independent in each bin. The employed growth rate data come from the peculiar velocity measurements at $z=0$ in five wavenumber bins, and the redshift space distortions measurements at $z=0.25$ and $z=0.37$ in one wavenumber bin. By constraining the $f(R)$ model alone, we get a tight 95% upper bound of $\\log_{10}B_0<-4.1$. This result is slightly weakened to $\\log_{10}B_0<-3.8$ (at 2$\\sigma$ level) once we simultaneously constrain the $f(R)$ model and the sterile neutrino mass, due to the degeneracy between the...

  8. Mathematically strong subsystems of analysis with low rate of growth of provably recursive functionals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich

    Habilitationsschrift [22] which are devoted to determine the growth in proofs of standard parts of analysis to determine the growth in proofs of standard parts of analysis. Let U be a complete separable metric space, K

  9. Mathematically strong subsystems of analysis with low rate of growth of provably recursive functionals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller-Dintelmann, Robert

    Habilitationsschrift [22] which are devoted to determine the growth in proofs of standard parts of analysis Habilitationsschrift [22] which are devoted to determine the growth in proofs of standard parts of analysis. Let U

  10. Cross-nucleation between clathrate hydrate polymorphs: Assessing the role of stability, growth rate, and structure matching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Andrew H.; Molinero, Valeria, E-mail: Valeria.Molinero@utah.edu [Department of Chemistry, The University of Utah, 315 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0850 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, The University of Utah, 315 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0850 (United States)

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Cross-nucleation is a phenomenon where a new crystal nucleates and grows upon the surface of a different polymorph. Previous studies indicate that faster growth rate of the new crystal is a necessary but not sufficient condition for cross-nucleation. The thermodynamic stability of the different polymorphs can also affect cross-nucleation by modulating the rates of crystal growth. The interplay between thermodynamic stability of the polymorphs involved, the growth rate of the crystals, and the need for creation of an interfacial transition layer that seamlessly connects the two structures has not yet been fully elucidated. Predicting cross-nucleation is particularly challenging for clathrate hydrates, for which there are sometimes several polymorphs with similar stability and for which growth rates are not known. In this work, we use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate which factor (stability, growth rate, or formation of interfacial transition layer) controls cross-nucleation between the four known Frank-Kasper clathrate hydrate polymorphs: sI, sII, TS, and HS-I. We investigate the growth and cross-nucleation of these four hydrates filled with a set of guest molecules that produce different order of stabilities for the four crystal structures. We determine that the growth rate of sII clathrate is the fastest, followed by TS, HS-I, and sI. We find that cross-nucleation into or from sII clathrates is preceded by the formation of an interfacial transition layer at the seed crystal/liquid interface because sII does not share a crystal plane with sI, HS-I, or TS. Cross-nucleation between the latter three can occur seamlessly and is determined only by their growth rates. Our results indicate that nucleation of an interfacial transition layer between non-matching polymorphs can control cross-nucleation or lack thereof under conditions of small driving force. Under conditions of sufficient supercooling clathrate hydrate polymorphs cross-nucleate into the fastest growing phase even if that new phase is less stable and does not share a common crystal plane with the initial polymorph.

  11. Crack growth rates and fracture toughness of irradiated austenitic stainless steels in BWR environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.

    2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In light water reactors, austenitic stainless steels (SSs) are used extensively as structural alloys in reactor core internal components because of their high strength, ductility, and fracture toughness. However, exposure to high levels of neutron irradiation for extended periods degrades the fracture properties of these steels by changing the material microstructure (e.g., radiation hardening) and microchemistry (e.g., radiation-induced segregation). Experimental data are presented on the fracture toughness and crack growth rates (CGRs) of wrought and cast austenitic SSs, including weld heat-affected-zone materials, that were irradiated to fluence levels as high as {approx} 2x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV) ({approx} 3 dpa) in a light water reactor at 288-300 C. The results are compared with the data available in the literature. The effects of material composition, irradiation dose, and water chemistry on CGRs under cyclic and stress corrosion cracking conditions were determined. A superposition model was used to represent the cyclic CGRs of austenitic SSs. The effects of neutron irradiation on the fracture toughness of these steels, as well as the effects of material and irradiation conditions and test temperature, have been evaluated. A fracture toughness trend curve that bounds the existing data has been defined. The synergistic effects of thermal and radiation embrittlement of cast austenitic SS internal components have also been evaluated.

  12. Generation and growth rates of nonlinear distortions in a traveling wave tube John G. Wohlbier, Ian Dobson, and John H. Booske

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobson, Ian

    Generation and growth rates of nonlinear distortions in a traveling wave tube John G. Wo the generation of intermodulation frequencies and calculate their growth rates. The model describes the evolution rates is derived and compared to simulation results. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.66.056504 PACS number s : 52

  13. Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Model for Metallic Alloys R. C. Dimitriu and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    and aluminium alloys. It appears therefore that a large proportion of the differences in the fatigue crack against iron, aluminium and titanium alloys; it does however require a prior knowledge of the thresholdFatigue Crack Growth Rate Model for Metallic Alloys R. C. Dimitriu and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia

  14. Linton Brooks Assumes Post as Deputy Administrator for NNSA Defense...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administrator for NNSA Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Office Press Release Oct 30, 2001 Linton Brooks Assumes Post as Deputy Administrator for NNSA Defense Nuclear...

  15. A dynamic estimation scheme of specific growth rates of bacteria for an anaerobic wastewater treatment process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ­ the dilution rate and the flow rates of methane and carbon dioxide in the biogas. I. Introduction Before it may. The dynamics of this process are the ones of standard anaerobic digestion, and depend on the type of organic quantities such as the dilution rate and the flow rates of methane and carbon dioxide in the biogas. In [1, 2

  16. A Unified Framework for Designing Optimal STSA Estimators Assuming Maximum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alwan, Abeer

    ) estimators for speech enhancement assuming phase equivalence of speech and noise. By assuming additive measure [34], when applied to the Noizeus database [28]. Although single-channel speech enhancement;2 Speech Enhancement, Noise Suppression, Short-Time Spectral Amplitude Estimation, Generalized Gamma

  17. Catalyst proximity effects on the growth rate of Si nanowires S. T. Boles,1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and a silane precursor in a cold-wall chemical vapor deposition CVD system, where the precursor decomposition and experimental design, we have identified a fundamental aspect of growth of Si nanowires using the VLS mechanism

  18. BomB ThreaT Assume threat is real

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Call 911 BomB ThreaT · Assume threat is real · Evacuate area explosion/ Fire · Activate fire alarm or office, do not let the person in · Do not block person's access to an exit · Move away from the threat

  19. The genetic control of growth rate: a systems biology study in yeast.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pir, Pinar; Gutteridge, Alex; Wu, Jian; Rash, Bharat; Kell, Douglas B; Zhang, Nianshu; Oliver, Stephen G

    2012-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    in the fermentor. If the culture is growing faster than the rate imposed by the current dilution rate, then the biomass concentration will rise as a result of the positive difference between the biomass production rate and the rate of removal of cells from... and the cell pellet from two 20 ml samples was stored at 80oC until further processing. Fermentations Ten ml of the preculture was used to inoculate 1L of FPM or nitrogen-limited F1 medium in the sterilized fermentor vessels. The composition of FPM [4...

  20. Effects of pre-feedlot growth rate on carcass composition and meat tenderness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brigman, Ivan Todd

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    & . 001) less backfat (. 75 vs 1. 08 and . 99+. 06 cm), and less (P & . 001) rib fat (24. 23 vs 29. 2 and 28. 72+. 7 '/o). Angus x Brahman steers compared to Simmental-sired steers and heifers had higher (P & . 001) quality grades (665. 33 vs 622. 12... realimentation. This was evidenced by the previously restricted compensatory growth (CG) cattle having a 24'/0 lighter gut fill than the unrestricted continuous growth (CON) cattle at a full body weight (FBW) of 300 kg and a 20/o heavier gut fill at a FBW...

  1. The Effects of Test Temperature, Temper, and Alloyed Copper on the Hydrogen-Controlled Crack Growth Rate of an Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.A. Young, Jr.; J.R. Scully

    2000-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydrogen embrittlement controlled stage II crack growth rate of AA 7050 (6.09 wt.% Zn, 2.14 wt% Mg, 2.19 wt.% Cu) was investigated as a function of temper and alloyed copper level in a humid air environment at various temperatures. Three tempers representing the underaged, peak aged, and overaged conditions were tested in 90% relative humidity (RH) air at temperatures between 25 and 90 C. At all test temperatures, an increased degree of aging (from underaged to overaged) produced slower stage II crack growth rates. The stage II crack growth rate of each alloy and temper displayed Arrhenius-type temperature dependence with activation energies between 58 and 99 kJ/mol. For both the normal copper and low copper alloys, the fracture path was predominantly intergranular at all test temperatures (25-90 C) in each temper investigated. Comparison of the stage II crack growth rates for normal (2.19 wt.%) and low (0.06 wt.%) copper alloys in the peak aged and overaged tempers showed the beneficial effect of copper additions on stage II crack growth rate in humid air. In the 2.19 wt.% copper alloy, the significant decrease ({approx} 10 times at 25 C) in stage II crack growth rate upon overaging is attributed to an increase in the apparent activation energy for crack growth. IN the 0.06 wt.% copper alloy, overaging did not increase the activation energy for crack growth but did lower the pre-exponential factor, {nu}{sub 0}, resulting in a modest ({approx} 2.5 times at 25 C) decrease in crack growth rate. These results indicate that alloyed copper and thermal aging affect the kinetic factors that govern stage II crack growth rate. Overaged, copper bearing alloys are not intrinsically immune to hydrogen environment assisted cracking but are more resistant due to an increased apparent activation energy for stage II crack growth.

  2. Capping layer growth rate and the optical and structural properties of GaAsSbN-capped InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulloa, J. M., E-mail: jmulloa@isom.upm.es; Utrilla, A. D.; Guzman, A.; Hierro, A. [Institute for Systems based on Optoelectronics and Microtechnology (ISOM) and Dpto. Ingeniería Electrónica, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Reyes, D. F.; Ben, T.; González, D. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e IM y QI, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Cádiz) (Spain)

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Changing the growth rate during the heteroepitaxial capping of InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) with a 5?nm-thick GaAsSbN capping layer (CL) strongly modifies the QD structural and optical properties. A size and shape transition from taller pyramids to flatter lens-shaped QDs is observed when the CL growth rate is decreased from 1.5 to 0.5 ML/s. This indicates that the QD dissolution processes taking place during capping can be controlled to some extent by the GaAsSbN CL growth rate, with high growth rates allowing a complete preservation of the QDs. However, the dissolution processes are shown to have a leveling effect on the QD height, giving rise to a narrower size distribution for lower growth rates. Contrary to what could be expected, these effects are opposite to the strong blue-shift and improvement of the photoluminescence (PL) observed for higher growth rates. Nevertheless, the PL results can be understood in terms of the strong impact of the growth rate on the Sb and N incorporation into the CL, which results in lower Sb and N contents at higher growth rates. Besides the QD-CL band offsets and QD strain, the different CL composition alters the band alignment of the system, which can be transformed to type-II at low growth rates. These results show the key role of the alloyed CL growth parameters on the resulting QD properties and demonstrate an intricate correlation between the PL spectra and the sample morphology in complex QD-CL structures.

  3. Dynamic estimation of specific growth rates and concentrations of bacteria for the anaerobic digestion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    measured quantities ­ the dilution rate and the flow rates of methane and carbon dioxide in the biogas by microorganisms into biogas (methane and carbon dioxide) and digestate (natural manure) in the absence of oxygen [1, 2, 6]. The biogas is an additional energy source and the methane is a greenhouse gas

  4. A Quantitative Theory of Solid Tumor Growth, Metabolic Rate and Vascularization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savage, Van M.

    of America, 3 Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States of America, 4 Theoretical Division, T-8, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States of America Abstract and tumor growth. Understanding how these are integrated and interconnected is crucial for developing

  5. The effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser-induced damage sites at 351 nm on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negres, R A; Norton, M A; Liao, Z M; Cross, D A; Bude, J D; Carr, C W

    2009-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Past work in the area of laser-induced damage growth has shown growth rates to be primarily dependent on the laser fluence and wavelength. More recent studies suggest that growth rate, similar to the damage initiation process, is affected by a number of additional parameters including pulse duration, pulse shape, site size, and internal structure. In this study, we focus on the effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser damage sites located on the exit surface of fused silica optics. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, a significant dependence of growth rate at 351 nm on pulse duration from 1 ns to 15 ns as {tau}{sup 0.3} for sites in the 50-100 {micro}m size range.

  6. Grain growth behavior and high-temperature high-strain-rate tensile ductility of iridium alloy DOP-26

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKamey, C.G.; Gubbi, A.N.; Lin, Y.; Cohron, J.W.; Lee, E.H.; George, E.P.

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes results of studies conducted to date under the Iridium Alloy Characterization and Development subtask of the Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program to characterize the properties of the new-process iridium-based DOP-26 alloy used for the Cassini space mission. This alloy was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the early 1980`s and is currently used by NASA for cladding and post-impact containment of the radioactive fuel in radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) heat sources which provide electric power for interplanetary spacecraft. Included within this report are data generated on grain growth in vacuum or low-pressure oxygen environments; a comparison of grain growth in vacuum of the clad vent set cup material with sheet material; effect of grain size, test temperature, and oxygen exposure on high-temperature high-strain-rate tensile ductility; and grain growth in vacuum and high-temperature high-strain-rate tensile ductility of welded DOP-26. The data for the new-process material is compared to available old-process data.

  7. Growth diagram of N-face GaN (0001{sup ¯}) grown at high rate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okumura, Hironori, E-mail: okumura@engineering.ucsb.edu; McSkimming, Brian M.; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)] [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Huault, Thomas; Chaix, Catherine [RIBER S.A., 3a Rue Casimir Perier, BP 70083, 95873 Bezons Cedex (France)] [RIBER S.A., 3a Rue Casimir Perier, BP 70083, 95873 Bezons Cedex (France)

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    N-face GaN was grown on free-standing GaN (0001{sup ¯}) substrates at a growth rate of 1.5??m/h using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Difference in growth rate between (0001{sup ¯}) and (0001) oriented GaN depends on nitrogen plasma power, and the (0001{sup ¯}) oriented GaN had only 70% of the growth rate of the (0001) oriented GaN at 300?W. Unintentional impurity concentrations of silicon, carbon, and oxygen were 2?×?10{sup 15}, 2?×?10{sup 16}, and 7?×?10{sup 16}?cm{sup ?3}, respectively. A growth diagram was constructed that shows the dependence of the growth modes on the difference in the Ga and active nitrogen flux, ?{sub Ga}????{sub N*}, and the growth temperature. At high ?{sub Ga}????{sub N*} (?{sub Ga}????{sub N*}), two-dimensional (step-flow and layer-by-layer) growth modes were realized. High growth temperature (780?°C) expanded the growth window of the two-dimensional growth modes, achieving a surface with rms roughness of 0.48?nm without Ga droplets.

  8. The effect of threadfin shad introduction on growth rates of largemouth bass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bivings, Albert Eugene

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Nat. Hist. Surv. 24(3):377-412. Carlander, K. D. 1956. Fish growth studies: techniques and roles in surveys and management. Trans . N . Am . Wi ldl . Conf . 21: 262-274. 1973. Handbook of freshwater fishery biology, Yol. 2, tecgemo th h ss, ~Mic o... of fishery science. Cornell Univ. Press. Ithaca. 288 pp. Grizzell, R. A. , Jr. 1965. Diuron as an aquatic herbicide. Proc. Annu . Conf . Southeastern Assoc . Game and Fish Comm . 19: 194-197 . Neman, N. L. , R. S. Campbell, and L. C. Redmond. 1969...

  9. The effect of threadfin shad introduction on growth rates of largemouth bass 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bivings, Albert Eugene

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Nat. Hist. Surv. 24(3):377-412. Carlander, K. D. 1956. Fish growth studies: techniques and roles in surveys and management. Trans . N . Am . Wi ldl . Conf . 21: 262-274. 1973. Handbook of freshwater fishery biology, Yol. 2, tecgemo th h ss, ~Mic o... of fishery science. Cornell Univ. Press. Ithaca. 288 pp. Grizzell, R. A. , Jr. 1965. Diuron as an aquatic herbicide. Proc. Annu . Conf . Southeastern Assoc . Game and Fish Comm . 19: 194-197 . Neman, N. L. , R. S. Campbell, and L. C. Redmond. 1969...

  10. A physiological and morphological analysis of the effects of nitrogen supply on the relative growth rates of nine loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) clones 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stover, Corey Michael

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of nitrogen supply on relationships of relative growth rate (RGR) to leaf physiology, structural and non-structural carbon partitioning, and nitrogen- and water-use efficiencies were examined in loblolly pine ...

  11. Rate-Dependent Morphology of Li2O2 Growth in Li-O2 Batteries Birger Horstmann,1, 2, 3, 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    Rate-Dependent Morphology of Li2O2 Growth in Li-O2 Batteries Birger Horstmann,1, 2, 3, 4 Betar continuum model for the growth of Li2O2 crystals in lithium-oxygen batteries with organic electrolytes-ion batteries. As in the case of lithium insertion in phase-separating LiFePO4 nanoparticles, the theory

  12. Fertility and rate of growth in a beef cattle herd in the 0rient of Venezuela 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez Crespo, Justo Nicolas

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    status upon pregnancy rate in Venezuela. They calculated adjusted means of lactating and nonlactating cows to be 54. 3~~ and 89. 2~ respect. ively. Such results have been re- ported by . , everal authors in Bolivia (Plasse et aL. , 1975 and Bauer et a... and Huertas, 1974, in Colombia and Bauer, 1973, in Bolivia). Thc negative effect of lactation upon ferti. lity seems to be related to the plane of nutrition (IViltbank et al. , 1961, 1964; Villar et al, 1975; Stonaker et al, 1975 and Bazan et al. , 1975...

  13. Spectroscopic analysis of H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} microwave plasma and fast growth rate of diamond single crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derkaoui, N.; Rond, C., E-mail: rond@lspm.cnrs.fr; Hassouni, K.; Gicquel, A. [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux (LSPM), UPR3407 CNRS, Université Paris 13, 99 Avenue Jean Baptiste Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the best ways to increase the diamond growth rate is to couple high microwave power to the plasma. Indeed, increasing the power density leads to increase gas temperature the atomic hydrogen density in the plasma bulk, and to produce more hydrogen and methyl at the diamond surface. Experimental and numerical approaches were used to study the microwave plasma under high power densities conditions. Gas temperature was measured by optical emission spectroscopy and H-atom density using actinometry. CH{sub 3}-radical density was obtained using a 1D model that describes temperatures and plasma composition from the substrate to the top of the reactor. The results show that gas temperature in the plasma bulk, atomic hydrogen, and methyl densities at the diamond surface highly increase with the power density. As a consequence, measurements have shown that diamond growth rate also increases. At very high power density, we measured a growth rate of 40??m/h with an H-atom density of 5 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup ?3} which corresponds to a H{sub 2} dissociation rate higher than 50%. Finally, we have shown that the growth rate can be framed between a lower and an upper limit as a function depending only on the maximum of H-atom density measured or calculated in the plasma bulk. The results also demonstrated that increasing fresh CH{sub 4} by an appropriate injection into the boundary layer is a potential way to increase the diamond growth rates.

  14. Exploring a new interaction between dark matter and dark energy using the growth rate of structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richarte, Martín G

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a phenomenological interaction with a scale factor power law form which leads to the appearance of two kinds of perturbed terms, a scale factor spatial variation along with perturbed Hubble expansion rate. We study both the background and the perturbation evolution within the parametrized post-Friedmann scheme, obtaining that the exchange of energy-momentum can flow from dark energy to dark matter in order to keep dark energy and dark matter densities well defined at all times. We combine several measures of the cosmic microwave background (WMAP9+Planck) data, baryon acoustic oscillation measurements, redshift-space distortion data, JLA sample of supernovae, and Hubble constant for constraining the coupling constant and the exponent provided both parametrized the interaction itself. The joint analysis of ${\\rm Planck+WMAP9+BAO}$ ${\\rm +RSD+JLA+HST}$ data seems to favor large coupling constant, $\\xi_c = 0.34403427_{- 0.18907353}^{+ 0.14430125}$ at 1 $\\sigma$ level, and prefers a power law interactio...

  15. Size of clearcut opening affects species composition, growth rate, and stand characteristics. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, M.E.; Smith, H.C.; Pearcy, J.N.

    1995-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In the late 1950`s and early 1960`s, a series of studies was installed in the central hardwood forest to determine if size of clearcut opening affects the growth rate and species composition of new stands. In 1991, about 30 years after cutting, stand data were collected in 89 openings ranging in size from 0.04 to 1.61 acres. The number of stems per acre increased with opening size; however, the number of shade-tolerant species constituted a greater proportion of the stand in small openings (<0.5 acre), while the porportion of shade-intolerant species increased in larger openings. Results of this study indicate that opening size has a major influence on stand characteristics after about 30 years.

  16. Population levels and growth rates of scleractinian corals within the Diploria-Montastrea-Porites zones of the East and West Flower Garden Banks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraemer, George Philip

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 3 m depth was significantly greater than that of D. ~ti, th, d pth. Th g th t f th p f kl annularis colony at 25. 9 m in depth was s1gnif1cantly greater than the growth rate of the side of the same colony. A decrease in M. annu- laris accretionary... growth rate with 1ncreasing depth was observed over the 21. 3-27. 4 m range. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I ws sh to express my appreciati on to Dr, Thomas J . Bright, cha1 r- man of my advisory committee, for his acceptance of me as a student, for h1s willingness...

  17. A Bioreactor for Growth of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: Online Estimation of Specific Growth Rate and Biomass for the Deep-Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reysenbach, Anna-Louise

    Microbial Ecology A Bioreactor for Growth of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: Online Estimation production. The authors channeled the effluent gas of a bioreactor containing biogenic H2S purged from

  18. Derivation of a Langmuir type of model to describe the intrinsic growth rate of gas hydrates during crystallization from gas mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Derivation of a Langmuir type of model to describe the intrinsic growth rate of gas hydrates during de Saint-Etienne, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint- Etienne, France Abstract Gas Hydrates 81 (2012) 28-37" DOI : 10.1016/j.ces.2012.06.016 #12;Keywords Gas Hydrates, Crystallisation

  19. Influences of gaseous environment on low growth-rate fatigue crack propagation in steels. Annual report No. 1, January 1980. Report No. FPL/R/80/1030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritchie, R.O.; Suresh, S.; Toplosky, J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of gaseous environment is examined on fatigue crack propagation behavior in steels. Specifically, a fully martensitic 300-M ultrahigh strength steel and a fully bainitic 2-1/4Cr-1Mo lower strength steel are investigated in environments of ambient temperature moist air and low pressure dehumidified hydrogen and argon gases over a wide range of growth rates from 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -2/ mm/cycle, with particular emphasis given to behavior near the crack propagation threshold ..delta..K/sub 0/. It is found that two distinct growth rate regimes exist where hydrogen can markedly accelerate crack propagation rates compared to air, (1) at near-threshold levels below (5 x 10/sup -6/ mm/cycle) and (2) at higher growth rates, typically around 10/sup -5/ mm/cycle above a critical maximum stress intensity K/sub max//sup T/. Hydrogen-assisted crack propagation at higher growth rates is attributed to a hydrogen embrittlement mechanism, with K/sub max//sup T/ nominally equal to K/sub Iscc/ (the sustained load stress corrosion threshold) in high strength steels, and far below K/sub Iscc/ in the strain-rate sensitive lower strength steels. Hydrogen-assisted crack propagation at near-threshold levels is attributed to a new mechanism involving fretting-oxide-induced crack closure generated in moist (or oxygenated) environments. The absence of hydrogen embrittlement mechanisms at near-threshold levels is supported by tests showing that ..delta..K/sub 0/ values in dry gaseous argon are similar to ..delta..K/sub 0/ values in hydrogen. The potential ramifications of these results are examined in detail.

  20. From Ultrananocrystalline Diamond to Single Crystal Diamond Growth in Hot Filament and Microwave Plasma-Enhanced CVD Reactors: a Unified Model for Growth Rates and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    From Ultrananocrystalline Diamond to Single Crystal Diamond Growth in Hot Filament and Microwave, Moscow State UniVersity, 119991 Moscow, Russia ReceiVed: April 29, 2008 CVD Diamond can now be deposited either in the form of single crystal homoepitaxial layers, or as polycrystalline films with crystal sizes

  1. Determination of redox reaction rates and –orders by in-situ liquid cell electron microscopy of Pd and Au solution growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutter, Eli A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sutter, Peter W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In-situ liquid cell transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) experiments are important as they provide direct insight into processes in liquids, such as solution growth of nanoparticles among others. In liquid cell TEM/STEM redox reaction experiments the hydrated electrons e?aq created by the electron beam are responsible for the reduction of metal-ion complexes. Here we investigate the rate equation of redox reactions involving reduction by e?aq generated by the electron beam during in-situ liquid TEM/STEM. Specifically we consider the growth of Pd on Au seeds in aqueous solutions containing Pd-chloro complexes. From the quantification of the rate of Pd deposition at different electron beam currents and as a function of distance from a stationary, nanometer-sized exciting beam, we determine that the reaction is first order with respect to the concentration of hydrated electrons, [e?aq]. By comparing Pd- and Au-deposition, we further demonstrate that measurements of the local deposition rate on nanoparticles in the solution via real-time imaging can be used to measure not only [e?aq] but also the rate of reduction of a metal-ion complex to zero-valent metal atoms in solution.

  2. Determination of redox reaction rates and –orders by in-situ liquid cell electron microscopy of Pd and Au solution growth

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sutter, Eli A.; Sutter, Peter W.

    2014-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In-situ liquid cell transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) experiments are important as they provide direct insight into processes in liquids, such as solution growth of nanoparticles among others. In liquid cell TEM/STEM redox reaction experiments the hydrated electrons e?aq created by the electron beam are responsible for the reduction of metal-ion complexes. Here we investigate the rate equation of redox reactions involving reduction by e?aq generated by the electron beam during in-situ liquid TEM/STEM. Specifically we consider the growth of Pd on Au seeds in aqueous solutions containing Pd-chloro complexes. From the quantification of the rate of Pdmore »deposition at different electron beam currents and as a function of distance from a stationary, nanometer-sized exciting beam, we determine that the reaction is first order with respect to the concentration of hydrated electrons, [e?aq]. By comparing Pd- and Au-deposition, we further demonstrate that measurements of the local deposition rate on nanoparticles in the solution via real-time imaging can be used to measure not only [e?aq] but also the rate of reduction of a metal-ion complex to zero-valent metal atoms in solution.« less

  3. Determination of redox reaction rates and –orders by in-situ liquid cell electron microscopy of Pd and Au solution growth

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sutter, Eli A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sutter, Peter W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In-situ liquid cell transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) experiments are important as they provide direct insight into processes in liquids, such as solution growth of nanoparticles among others. In liquid cell TEM/STEM redox reaction experiments the hydrated electrons e?aq created by the electron beam are responsible for the reduction of metal-ion complexes. Here we investigate the rate equation of redox reactions involving reduction by e?aq generated by the electron beam during in-situ liquid TEM/STEM. Specifically we consider the growth of Pd on Au seeds in aqueous solutions containing Pd-chloro complexes. From the quantification of the rate of Pd deposition at different electron beam currents and as a function of distance from a stationary, nanometer-sized exciting beam, we determine that the reaction is first order with respect to the concentration of hydrated electrons, [e?aq]. By comparing Pd- and Au-deposition, we further demonstrate that measurements of the local deposition rate on nanoparticles in the solution via real-time imaging can be used to measure not only [e?aq] but also the rate of reduction of a metal-ion complex to zero-valent metal atoms in solution.

  4. Effects of assumed tow architecture on the predicted moduli and stresses in woven composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Clinton Dane

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study deals with the effect of assumed tow architecture on the elastic material properties and stress distributions of plain weave woven composites. Specifically, the examination of how a cross-section is assumed to sweep-out the tows...

  5. ENHANCED GROWTH RATE AND SILANE UTILIZATION IN AMORPHOUS SILICON AND NANOCRYSTALLINE-SILICON SOLAR CELL DEPOSITION VIA GAS PHASE ADDITIVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridgeway, R.G.; Hegedus, S.S.; Podraza, N.J.

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Products set out to investigate the impact of additives on the deposition rate of both ���µCSi and ���±Si-H films. One criterion for additives was that they could be used in conventional PECVD processing, which would require sufficient vapor pressure to deliver material to the process chamber at the required flow rates. The flow rate required would depend on the size of the substrate onto which silicon films were being deposited, potentially ranging from 200 mm diameter wafers to the 5.7 m2 glass substrates used in GEN 8.5 flat-panel display tools. In choosing higher-order silanes, both disilane and trisilane had sufficient vapor pressure to withdraw gas at the required flow rates of up to 120 sccm. This report presents results obtained from testing at Air Products�¢���� electronic technology laboratories, located in Allentown, PA, which focused on developing processes on a commercial IC reactor using silane and mixtures of silane plus additives. These processes were deployed to compare deposition rates and film properties with and without additives, with a goal of maximizing the deposition rate while maintaining or improving film properties.

  6. Beyond the growth rate of cosmic structure: Testing modified gravity models with an extra degree of freedom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burrage, Clare; Seery, David

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 'modified' gravity the observed acceleration of the universe is explained by changing the gravitational force law or the number of degrees of freedom in the gravitational sector. Both possibilities can be tested by measurements of cosmological structure formation. In this paper we elaborate the details of such tests using the Galileon model as a case study. We pay attention to the possibility that each new degree of freedom may have stochastically independent initial conditions, generating different types of potential well in the early universe and breaking complete correlation between density and velocity power spectra. This 'stochastic bias' can confuse schemes to parametrize the predictions of modified gravity models, such as the use of the growth parameter f alone. Using data from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey we show that it will be possible to obtain constraints using information about the cosmological-scale force law embedded in the multipole power spectra of redshift-space distortions. As an examp...

  7. The effect of water content, cooling rate, and growth temperature on the freezing temperature of 4 Tillandsia species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagar, Christopher Flint

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -5oC / hr) (Levitt, 1972) . During extracellular freezing, ice forms in intracellular spaces and / or extracellularly between cell walls and protoplasts (Asahina, 1978; Levitt, 1972) creating a vapor pressure gradient between the ice... lethal (Asahina, 1978; Burke et al. , 1976; Habeshaw, 1976; Levitt, 1978). This type of freezing results from rapid cooling rates and extensive supercooling (Burke et al. , 1976; Levitt, 1972; 1978). When plants freeze intracellulary, ice crystals...

  8. Crack growth rates and metallographic examinations of Alloy 600 and Alloy 82/182 from field components and laboratory materials tested in PWR environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexandreanu, B.; Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.

    2008-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In light water reactors, components made of nickel-base alloys are susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking. This report summarizes the crack growth rate results and related metallography for field and laboratory-procured Alloy 600 and its weld alloys tested in pressurized water reactor (PWR) environments. The report also presents crack growth rate (CGR) results for a shielded-metal-arc weld of Alloy 182 in a simulated PWR environment as a function of temperature between 290 C and 350 C. These data were used to determine the activation energy for crack growth in Alloy 182 welds. The tests were performed by measuring the changes in the stress corrosion CGR as the temperatures were varied during the test. The difference in electrochemical potential between the specimen and the Ni/NiO line was maintained constant at each temperature by adjusting the hydrogen overpressure on the water supply tank. The CGR data as a function of temperature yielded activation energies of 252 kJ/mol for a double-J weld and 189 kJ/mol for a deep-groove weld. These values are in good agreement with the data reported in the literature. The data reported here and those in the literature suggest that the average activation energy for Alloy 182 welds is on the order of 220-230 kJ/mol, higher than the 130 kJ/mol commonly used for Alloy 600. The consequences of using a larger value of activation energy for SCC CGR data analysis are discussed.

  9. Approximate models for the study of exponential changed quantities: Application on the plasma waves growth rate or damping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xaplanteris, C. L., E-mail: cxaplanteris@yahoo.com [Plasma Physics Laboratory, IMS, NCSR “Demokritos”, Athens, Greece and Hellenic Army Academy, Vari Attica (Greece); Xaplanteris, L. C. [School of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens (Greece)] [School of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Leousis, D. P. [Technical High School of Athens, Athens (Greece)] [Technical High School of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Many physical phenomena that concern the research these days are basically complicated because of being multi-parametric. Thus, their study and understanding meets with big if not unsolved obstacles. Such complicated and multi-parametric is the plasmatic state as well, where the plasma and the physical quantities that appear along with it have chaotic behavior. Many of those physical quantities change exponentially and at most times they are stabilized by presenting wavy behavior. Mostly in the transitive state rather than the steady state, the exponentially changing quantities (Growth, Damping etc) depend on each other in most cases. Thus, it is difficult to distinguish the cause from the result. The present paper attempts to help this difficult study and understanding by proposing mathematical exponential models that could relate with the study and understanding of the plasmatic wavy instability behavior. Such instabilities are already detected, understood and presented in previous publications of our laboratory. In other words, our new contribution is the study of the already known plasmatic quantities by using mathematical models (modeling and simulation). These methods are both useful and applicable in the chaotic theory. In addition, our ambition is to also conduct a list of models useful for the study of chaotic problems, such as those that appear into the plasma, starting with this paper's examples.

  10. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Linjing [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Li, Ning [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Wu, Borong [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Beijing Higher Institution Engineering Research Center of Power Battery and Chemical Energy Materials (China); Xu, Hongliang [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Wang, Lei [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Wu, Feng [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment

    2015-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achieving around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.

  11. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Linjing; Li, Ning; Wu, Borong; Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Feng

    2015-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achievingmore »around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.« less

  12. Direct Observation of Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic Modeling of the Size Distribution and Growth Rate. Direct Observation of Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic Modeling of the Size...

  13. Siting algae cultivation facilities for biofuel production in the United States: trade-offs between growth rate, site constructability, water availability, and infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venteris, Erik R.; McBride, Robert; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Locating sites for new algae cultivation facilities is a complex task. The climate must support high growth rates, and cultivation ponds require appropriate land and water resources as well as key utility and transportation infrastructure. We employ our spatiotemporal Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT) to select promising locations based on the open-pond cultivation of Arthrospira sp. and a strain of the order Desmidiales. 64,000 potential sites across the southern United States were evaluated. We progressively apply a range of screening criteria and track their impact on the number of selected sites, geographic location, and biomass productivity. Both strains demonstrate maximum productivity along the Gulf of Mexico coast, with the highest values on the Florida peninsula. In contrast, sites meeting all selection criteria for Arthrospira were located along the southern coast of Texas and for Desmidiales were located in Louisiana and southern Arkansas. Site selection was driven mainly by the lack of oil pipeline access in Florida and elevated groundwater salinity in southern Texas. The requirement for low salinity freshwater (<400 mg L-1) constrained Desmidiales locations; siting flexibility is greater for salt-tolerant species such as Arthrospira. Combined siting factors can result in significant departures from regions of maximum productivity but are within the expected range of site-specific process improvements.

  14. Life in the Solar System Assume we need energy, liquid water, and organic materials.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirley, Yancy

    high pressure, no sunlight, high temperature. Not much chance of life there. Gas Giants #12;The moonsLife in the Solar System Assume we need energy, liquid water, and organic materials. #12;Size N2 Titan Thick atmo Thick atmo Thin atmo #12;Small rocky bodies are unlikely to host life: too hot

  15. ECE 103 Solid State Electronics Master Exam 2012 Assume silicon, room temperature, complete ionization.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Deli

    ECE 103 Solid State Electronics Master Exam 2012 Assume silicon, room temperature, complete ionization. (q=1.6×10-19 C, ox=3.9×8.85×10-14 F/cm, si=11.7×8.85×10-14 F/cm, kT/q=0.0259 V, Eg=1.12 e

  16. Calculating Routes A Long a Line Assumes that lines exist as a shapefile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    Calculating Routes A Long a Line Assumes that lines exist as a shapefile Step 1 ­ Create a Route from the Line Shapefile Go to ArcToolBox ­ Linear Referencing Tools ­ Create Route. Fill in Fields;Step 4 ­ Convert to Shapefile Make the event file permanent. Right click on the event table

  17. Submitted to J. Appl. Phys., revised October, 1999 1 A Rate Equation Model for the Growth of GaN on GaN(0001) by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Philip I.

    Submitted to J. Appl. Phys., revised October, 1999 1 A Rate Equation Model for the Growth of GaN on GaN(000¯1) by Molecular Beam Epitaxy R.Held, B.E. Ishaug, A. Parkhomovsky, A.M. Dabiran, and P (October 7, 1999) GaN(000¯1)filmsweregrownbymolecularbeamepitaxyusingammoniaandelemental

  18. a poorer food conversion efficiency and survival rate. The lower survival rate (87~) of this

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    rate. 3. Survival and growth rates and food efficien- cies were excellent for trout reared in brackish

  19. How much do helioseismological inferences depend upon the assumed reference model?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarbani Basu; M. H. Pinsonneault; John N. Bahcall

    1999-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate systematic uncertainties in determining the profiles of the solar sound speed, density, and adiabatic index by helioseismological techniques. We find that rms uncertainties-averaged over the sun of ~ 0.2%-0.4% are contributed to the sound speed profile by each of three sources: 1)the choice of assumed reference model, 2) the width of the inversion kernel, and 3) the measurements errors. The density profile is about an order of magnitude less well determined by the helioseismological measurements. The profile of the adiabatic index is determined to an accuracy of about 0.2% . We find that even relatively crude reference models yield reasonably accurate solar parameters.

  20. Commodity Price Volatility and the Sources of Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cavalcanti, Tiago V. de V.; Mohaddes, Kamiar; Raissi, Mehdi

    2011-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    -2000, show that higher levels of exchange rate volatility can stunt growth, especially in countries with thin capital markets. Bleaney and Greenaway (2001) estimate a panel data model for a sample of 14 sub-Saharan African countries over 1980-1995 and show... countries, we set t0 to this year.5 Furthermore, we assume a depreciation rate, #14;, of six percent and compute the subsequent values of the capital stock as: Kit = (1#0; #14;)Kit#0;1 + Iit: (6) 3.3 Human Capital Stock To calculate the level of human...

  1. Droop (Droop, 2002) points out that equation (3) of Baird et al. (Baird et al., 2001) contains the maximum growth rate,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baird, Mark

    Droop (Droop, 2002) points out that equation (3) of Baird et al. (Baird et al., 2001) contains. (Baird et al., 2001) is no longer Droop's original Cell Quota model, and should not have been referred COMMENT Reply to `In defence of the Cell Quota model of micro-algal growth' by M. R. Droop MARK BAIRD

  2. Configuring Entourage 2008 w/ Exchange Web Services. Note: These instruction assume that the Exchange Web Services (EWS) Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blackwell, Keith

    Configuring Entourage 2008 w/ Exchange Web Services. Note: These instruction assume that the Exchange Web Services (EWS) Update , also known as Entourage 13.0, has already been

  3. Engineering evaluation of alternatives: Managing the assumed leak from single-shell Tank 241-T-101

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brevick, C.H. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Jenkins, C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At mid-year 1992, the liquid level gage for Tank 241-T-101 indicated that 6,000 to 9,000 gal had leaked. Because of the liquid level anomaly, Tank 241-T-101 was declared an assumed leaker on October 4, 1992. SSTs liquid level gages have been historically unreliable. False readings can occur because of instrument failures, floating salt cake, and salt encrustation. Gages frequently self-correct and tanks show no indication of leak. Tank levels cannot be visually inspected and verified because of high radiation fields. The gage in Tank 241-T-101 has largely corrected itself since the mid-year 1992 reading. Therefore, doubt exists that a leak has occurred, or that the magnitude of the leak poses any immediate environmental threat. While reluctance exists to use valuable DST space unnecessarily, there is a large safety and economic incentive to prevent or mitigate release of tank liquid waste into the surrounding environment. During the assessment of the significance of the Tank 241-T-101 liquid level gage readings, Washington State Department of Ecology determined that Westinghouse Hanford Company was not in compliance with regulatory requirements, and directed transfer of the Tank 241-T-101 liquid contents into a DST. Meanwhile, DOE directed WHC to examine reasonable alternatives/options for safe interim management of Tank 241-T-101 wastes before taking action. The five alternatives that could be used to manage waste from a leaking SST are: (1) No-Action, (2) In-Tank Stabilization, (3) External Tank Stabilization, (4) Liquid Retrieval, and (5) Total Retrieval. The findings of these examinations are reported in this study.

  4. From "Stages" of Business Growth to a Dynamic States Model of Entrepreneurial Growth and Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mottram, Nigel

    From "Stages" of Business Growth to a Dynamic States Model of Entrepreneurial Growth and Change and Gumpert, 1985), and virtually all economic models of business creation follow firm birth with firm growth models of new business growth assume a limited number of distinct stages through #12;3 which businesses

  5. Rates & Repayment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Review-NEPA Financial Data Operations Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates Rate Adjustments Transmission Ancillary Services Rates WAPA-137 Rate Order Rates and...

  6. The effect of cover crop and fertilizer rate on the growth and survival of loblolly pine in East Texas mine spoil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kee, David Dwayne

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    /ha/year, fertilized with 0, 25 or 50 kg P/ha, were evaluated in the P study. CcnIpetition between cover crops and trees for light, water and nutrients influenced survival and growth of trees. Tree survival, after three years, was greatest in the subterranean... clover (42%), Coastal bermudagrass + 50 kg N/ha/year (45%) and Coastal bermudagrass + 0 kg N/ha (39%) plots. The highly competitive crops, Coastal bermudagrass + 100 kg N/ha/year and arrowleaf clover, had the lowest tree survival (14% and 13...

  7. Effect of milk consumption, forage availability and cow phenotype on rate of preweaning growth of calves in a semiarid Texas rangeland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saunders, Susan Lynn

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    environments (Brown, 1986). In a study reported by DeNise and Ray (1987), which analyzed postweaning performance of Herefords in an Arizona range environment, the generalized growth pattern following fall weaning was: weight loss of approximately 10' from... Committee: Dr. John P. Walter Dr. Jerome F. Baker Data were collected on 200 Brahman-Hereford Fl cow/calf pairs in 1986, 1987 and 1988 (YR). At 15 mo of age (spring before first breeding season) females were stratified by weight and randomly assigned...

  8. Gauging Employment Growth in Wisconsin: State-By-State Comparisons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    Gauging Employment Growth in Wisconsin: State; 2 Employment growth in Wisconsin continues to lag both the national rate of job growth as well as the rates of employment increase in most other states

  9. The growth of luminous red galaxies by merging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morad Masjedi; David W. Hogg; Michael R. Blanton

    2007-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the role of major and minor mergers in the mass growth of luminous red galaxies. We present small-scale ($0.01luminous early-type galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Luminous Red Galaxy (LRG) sample ($0.16luminous than $\\Lstar$. We integrate the luminosity accretion rate from mergers over all companion galaxy subsamples and find that LRGs are growing by $[1.7\\pm 0.1]$ percent per $\\Gyr$, on average, from merger activity at redshift $z\\sim 0.25$. This rate is almost certainly an over-estimate because we have assumed that all close pairs are merging as quickly as dynamical friction allows; nonetheless it is on the low side of the panoply of measurements in the literature, and lower than any rate predicted from theory.

  10. assumed, with no inter-district transport.) If the conventional technology coal-fired power plant is used

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    assumed, with no inter-district transport.) If the conventional technology coal-fired power plant-fired power plant is used for comparison, then lower SO2, NOx or particulate emissions can be expected in 9. A final option considered was to retrofit emission controls for captive power plants at an additional cost

  11. 6. Multiple sequence alignment methods In Chapter 5, we assumed that a reasonable multiple sequence alignment was already

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Jun

    6. Multiple sequence alignment methods In Chapter 5, we assumed that a reasonable multiple sequence sequences. Biologists produce high quality multiple sequence alignments by hand using expert knowledge of protein sequence evolution. Importance factors include: specific sorts of columns in alignments

  12. Relations between Points and Subsets Assume given a metric or topological space X and any subset A X. We discuss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boardman, J. Michael

    Relations between Points and Subsets Assume given a metric or topological space X and any subset - A of A. We call x an exterior point of A. Since x N, these points never lie in A. They form the exterior exterior 2. x has a neighborhood N with x A Int limit non-empty N - x A. x A Fr limit 3. x has

  13. Rate Schedules

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

  14. Tier 2 Vintage Rate Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    period FY2015 through 2028. Customers have a diversification right to limit the amount of power they purchase at the Load Growth rate in future years with notice provided by...

  15. Initial Studies Toward Real-Time Transmission Path Rating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Ruchi; Diao, Ruisheng; Cai, Niannian; Huang, Zhenyu; Tuck, Brian; Guo, Xinxin

    2012-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand continues to increase while transmission line construction is being constrained by multiple factors— economic, environmental, and political. Effective and efficient utilization of transmission lines is thus of great importance in an open access environment. Large blocks of power are transferred from areas with inexpensive generation to heavy load demand areas or areas with high generation costs. This results in some transmission paths being loaded closer to their path ratings, which limits further power transfer between areas. Traditionally, rating of important paths was determined off line by assuming the worst-case study scenario; once determined, it could be used for years. With increasing uncertainty arising from rapid growth of renewable energy and smart technologies, path rating studies are needed in near-real time to account for the latest system status and support a reliable and economic power grid. This paper adopts a simplified procedure based on standards of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) to determine total transfer capability (TTC) or transfer limit for the purpose of demonstrating the benefits and necessity of real-time path rating. Initial studies are conducted to compute TTC of a two-area test system and a 39-bus test system. Results indicate that path rating can be significantly affected by loading conditions, generator schedules, system topology and other factors.

  16. Theorem 1. L Act is realizable if and only if L is closed under |=. =. Assume L is realizable. Thus, there exists a weak CFM A (a CFM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ábrahám, Erika

    . Let w Act, be well-formed, and assume L |= w. By definition of |=, this means that for every process p there exists a word vp L such that vp p = w p. We show that w L. (Then it follows that L" receipts. Thus w L. =. Assume L is closed under |=. As |= is only defined for well-formed words, each word

  17. Bertrand's postulate and subgroup growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bou-Rabee, K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article we investigate the L^1-norm of certain functions on groups called divisibility functions. Using these functions, their connection to residual finiteness, and integration theory on profinite groups, we define the residual average of a finitely generated group. One of the main results in this article is the finiteness of residual averages on finitely generated linear groups. Whether or not the residual average is finite depends on growth rates of indices of finite index subgroups. Our results on index growth rates are analogous to results on gaps between primes, and provide a variant of the subgroup growth function, which may be of independent interest.

  18. GALAXY GROWTH BY MERGING IN THE NEARBY UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Tao; Hogg, David W.; Blanton, Michael R., E-mail: david.hogg@nyu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We measure the mass growth rate by merging for a wide range of galaxy types. We present the small-scale (0.014 h {sup -1} {sub 70} Mpc < r < 11 h {sub 70} {sup -1} Mpc) projected cross-correlation functions w(r {sub p}) of galaxy subsamples from the spectroscopic sample of the NYU Value-Added Galaxy Catalog (5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} galaxies of redshifts 0.03 < z < 0.15) with galaxy subsamples from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging (4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} galaxies). We use smooth fits to de-project the two-dimensional functions w(r {sub p}) to obtain smooth three-dimensional real-space cross-correlation functions {xi}(r) for each of several spectroscopic subsamples with each of several imaging subsamples. Because close pairs are expected to merge, the three-space functions and dynamical evolution time estimates provide galaxy accretion rates. We find that the accretion onto massive blue galaxies and onto red galaxies is dominated by red companions, and that onto small-mass blue galaxies, red and blue galaxies make comparable contributions. We integrate over all types of companions and find that at fixed stellar mass, the total fractional accretion rates onto red galaxies ({approx}3 h {sub 70} percent per Gyr) are greater than that onto blue galaxies ({approx}1 h {sub 70} percent per Gyr). These rates are almost certainly overestimates because we have assumed that all close pairs merge as quickly as the merger time that we used. One conclusion of this work is that if the total growth of red galaxies from z = 1 to z = 0 is mainly due to merging, the merger rates must have been higher in the past.

  19. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tariff Rates FY 2015 Rates and Rate Schedules **Effective October 1, 2014** FY 2014 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2013 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2012 Rates and Rate Schedules FY...

  20. Incentive Rates- At What Cost?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaeffer, S. C.

    's impact. In fact, I doubt that one can truly know the exact impact of a rate even after its inclusion in a tariff, assuming of course, that someone uses it. My own judgment is that there are currently examples of both effective and not so effective... tem see a positive impact on their rates from any successes with this tariff, over the expected life of the new facility. We did not count societal benefits like high tax bases for local authorities when reviewing existing ratepayer benefit - only...

  1. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Customer Letter - Preliminary Review of Drought Adder Component for 2011 Firm Power Rates 2015 Rates and Rate Schedule - Current * 2010 Rates and Rate Schedule 2009 Rates and...

  2. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rates and Repayment Services Consolidated Rate Schedules FY 2015 Consolidated Rate Schedules FY 2014 Rates BCP Annual Rate Process Central Arizona Project Transmission Rate Process...

  3. Lemniscate growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    May 8, 2012 ... [8], (mem)Brane theory [3], elliptic growth [11], and non-Newtonian Hele-Shaw flows [5]. ...... a loose connection to non-Newtonian fluids.

  4. III-V Nanowire Growth Mechanism: V/III Ratio and Temperature Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Deli

    ,17,18 The growth experiments reported in this paper were performed in a horizontal OMVPE growth tube using to be determined by the local V/III ratio, which is dependent on the input precursor flow rates, growth temperature to favor vapor-solid (VS) surface growth over VLS NW growth. By tuning both the group III flow rate

  5. Light and electron microscopic studies of the nanobenthic diatom, Nitzschia ovalis Arnott, Section Lanceolatae, as compared to related forms, and the effect of temperature and salinity on its growth rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medlin, Linda Karen

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Selection and Maintenance of Diatoms to be Studied . 13 Preparation of Glassware and Culture Media. Preparation and Examination of Cells. Determination of Temperature and Salinity Tolerances and Optima for the growth of Nitzschia ovalis Arnott RESULTS... Light Microscopy. Electron Microscopy Salinity and Temperature Tolerances and Optima. DISCUSSION. Morphological Studies Physiological Studies SUMMARy LITERATURE. APPENDIX A. VITA. 15 18 20 24 24 46 110 124 124 131 139 141 149 BIST...

  6. Light and electron microscopic studies of the nanobenthic diatom, Nitzschia ovalis Arnott, Section Lanceolatae, as compared to related forms, and the effect of temperature and salinity on its growth rate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medlin, Linda Karen

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OP TABLES Number Page 1. Summary of changes made in the sections of the genus Nitzschia by Bustedt and Hasle. 2. Species of the genus 'Nitzschia obtained from Indiana Culture Collection (ICC) for compara- tive morphological studies with N... on cultures have facilitated the completion of life histories, illustrated developmental variances within a species, and revealed information on growth patterns (Schultz, 1971; Fryxell and Hasle, 1972; Fryxell, 1975, p. 22) . Results of studies...

  7. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rates and Repayment Services Rates Loveland Area Projects Firm Power Rates Open Access Transmission Tariff Rates Chart of Loveland Area Projects Historical Transmission Rates...

  8. RATE DECLINE ANALYSIS FOR NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    RATE DECLINE ANALYSIS FOR NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS A REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT analylsiis for constant pressure production in a naturally fractured reservoir is presented. The solution, the Warren and Root model which assumes fracturing is perfectly unifom, provides an upper bound of reservoir

  9. Flow-Solution-Liquid-Solid Growth of Semiconductor Nanowires: A Novel Approach for Controlled Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Palaniappan, Kumaranand [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan [National Science and Technology Center, Thailand; Smith, Nickolaus A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dickerson, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Casson, Joanna L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baldwin, Jon K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor nanowires (SC-NWs) have potential applications in diverse technologies from nanoelectronics and photonics to energy harvesting and storage due to their quantum-confined opto-electronic properties coupled with their highly anisotropic shape. Here, we explore new approaches to an important solution-based growth method known as solution-liquid-solid (SLS) growth. In SLS, molecular precursors are reacted in the presence of low-melting metal nanoparticles that serve as molten fluxes to catalyze the growth of the SC-NWs. The mechanism of growth is assumed to be similar to that of vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth, with the clear distinctions of being conducted in solution in the presence of coordinating ligands and at relatively lower temperatures (<300 C). The resultant SC-NWs are soluble in common organic solvents and solution processable, offering advantages such as simplified processing, scale-up, ultra-small diameters for quantum-confinement effects, and flexible choice of materials from group III-V to groups II-VI, IV-VI, as well as truly ternary I-III-VI semiconductors as we recently demonstrates. Despite these advantages of SLS growth, VLS offers several clear opportunities not allowed by conventional SLS. Namely, VLS allows sequential addition of precursors for facile synthesis of complex axial heterostructures. In addition, growth proceeds relatively slowly compared to SLS, allowing clear assessments of growth kinetics. In order to retain the materials and processing flexibility afforded by SLS, but add the elements of controlled growth afforded by VLS, we transformed SLS into a flow based method by adapting it to synthesis in a microfluidic system. By this new method - so-called 'flow-SLS' (FSLS) - we have now demonstrated unprecedented fabrication of multi-segmented SC-NWs, e.g., 8-segmented CdSe/ZnSe defined by either compositionally abrupt or alloyed interfaces as a function of growth conditions. In addition, we have studied growth rates as a function of catalyst size/SC-NW diameter and shown for the first time that SLS is governed by Gibbs-Thomson effects. Lastly, from an applications standpoint, we report growth of SC-NWs from a range of substrates, including ITO-coated glass for fabrication of hybrid photovoltaic devices, comparing these to their quasi zero-dimensional quantum-dot counterparts.

  10. Off-Campus Housing Resource Center DISCLAIMER: Please keep in mind that the University assumes no responsibility for contracts/leases between individuals. The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kounaves, Samuel P.

    Off-Campus Housing Resource Center DISCLAIMER: Please keep in mind that the University assumes no responsibility for contracts/leases between individuals. The Off-Campus Housing Resource Center is not responsible or liable for the consequences of any off-campus student housing arrangement. In addition, Tufts

  11. Wireless connection instructions -Mac This document outlines the procedure for setting up Apple OS X to use the College wireless network. It assumes that you

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldschmidt, Christina

    X to use the College wireless network. It assumes that you have already connected your computer connection pack from the Computer Office before proceeding. Connect your computer to the wireless network your wireless connection Click on the Apply for access to Murray Edwards College Network link Please

  12. Wireless connection instructions -Windows This document outlines the procedure for setting up Windows7, Vista or XP to use the College wireless network. It assumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldschmidt, Christina

    Windows7, Vista or XP to use the College wireless network. It assumes that you have already connected your network Double click the wireless connection icon at the bottom right hand corner of your screen. Click View Wireless Networks. Select Academic MurrayEdwards and click the Connect button. Close the View

  13. Discovery Park's Birck Nanotechnology Center (BNC) has assumed a leadership role in K-12 STEM activities. Faculty, administrators, and graduate students work together to provide K-12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Discovery Park's Birck Nanotechnology Center (BNC) has assumed a leadership role in K-12 STEM that are fun, interactive and educational. Birck Nanotechnology Center led a workshop for K-12 teachers in 2009, the Birck Nanotechnology Center continued to build this relationship by hosting NanoDays, a nationwide

  14. Exact evaluation of the rates of electrostatic decay and scattering off thermal ions for an unmagnetized Maxwellian plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layden, B.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)] [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrostatic decay of Langmuir waves into Langmuir and ion sound waves (L?L?+S) and scattering of Langmuir waves off thermal ions (L+i?L?+i?, also called “nonlinear Landau damping”) are important nonlinear weak-turbulence processes. The rates for these processes depend on the quadratic longitudinal response function ?{sup (2)} (or, equivalently, the quadratic longitudinal susceptibility ?{sup (2)}), which describes the second-order response of a plasma to electrostatic wave fields. Previous calculations of these rates for an unmagnetized Maxwellian plasma have relied upon an approximate form for ?{sup (2)} that is valid where two of the wave fields are fast (i.e., v{sub ?}=?/k?V{sub e} where ? is the angular frequency, k is the wavenumber, and V{sub e} is the electron thermal speed) and one is slow (v{sub ?}?V{sub e}). Recently, an exact expression was derived for ?{sup (2)} that is valid for any phase speeds of the three waves in an unmagnetized Maxwellian plasma. Here, this exact ?{sup (2)} is applied to the calculation of the three-dimensional rates for electrostatic decay and scattering off thermal ions, and the resulting exact rates are compared with the approximate rates. The calculations are performed using previously derived three-dimensional rates for electrostatic decay given in terms of a general ?{sup (2)}, and newly derived three-dimensional rates for scattering off thermal ions; the scattering rate is derived assuming a Maxwellian ion distribution, and both rates are derived assuming arc distributions for the wave spectra. For most space plasma conditions, the approximate rate is found to be accurate to better than 20%; however, for sufficiently low Langmuir phase speeds (v{sub ?}/V{sub e}?3) appropriate to some spatial domains of the foreshock regions of planetary bow shocks and type II solar radio bursts, the use of the exact rate may be necessary for accurate calculations. The relative rates of electrostatic decay and scattering off thermal ions are calculated for a range of parameters using the exact expressions for the rates; electrostatic decay is found to have the larger growth rate over the whole range of parameters, consistent with previous approximate calculations.

  15. affect yeast growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were carried out under fixed dilution rate after batch growth in YPD as described... Pir, Pinar; Gutteridge, Alex; Wu, Jian; Rash, Bharat; Kell, Douglas B; Zhang, Nianshu;...

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Sustainable syntrophic growth of Dehalococcoides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    with the capabilities of DVH to ferment lactate to provide H2 and acetate for growth, along with potential benefits from proton translocation, cobalamin-salvaging and amino acid biosynthesis, whereas MC in the tri). They exhibit low growth rates, specific obligate nutrient requirements (hydrogen as electron donor, acetate

  17. Extinction rates under nonrandom patterns of habitat loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    conversion on species extinctions assume that habitat conversion occurs at ran- dom. This assumption allows predictions about extinction rates based on the species­area relationship. We show that the spatially compositional gradients, or species richness, also alter pre- dicted species extinction rates. We illustrate

  18. Kinetics of silicide formation over a wide range of heating rates spanning six orders of magnitude

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molina-Ruiz, Manel; Lopeandía, Aitor F.; Gonzalez-Silveira, Marta; Garcia, Gemma; Clavaguera-Mora, Maria T. [Grup de Nanomaterials i Microsistemes, Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Peral, Inma [ALBA Synchrotron Light Facility, 08290 Cerdanyola del Vallès (Spain); Rodríguez-Viejo, Javier, E-mail: javier.rodriguez@uab.cat [Grup de Nanomaterials i Microsistemes, Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); MATGAS Research Centre, UAB Campus, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Kinetic processes involving intermediate phase formation are often assumed to follow an Arrhenius temperature dependence. This behavior is usually inferred from limited data over narrow temperature intervals, where the exponential dependence is generally fully satisfied. However, direct evidence over wide temperature intervals is experimentally challenging and data are scarce. Here, we report a study of silicide formation between a 12?nm film of palladium and 15?nm of amorphous silicon in a wide range of heating rates, spanning six orders of magnitude, from 0.1 to 10{sup 5?}K/s, or equivalently more than 300?K of variation in reaction temperature. The calorimetric traces exhibit several distinct exothermic events related to interdiffusion, nucleation of Pd{sub 2}Si, crystallization of amorphous silicon, and vertical growth of Pd{sub 2}Si. Interestingly, the thickness of the initial nucleation layer depends on the heating rate revealing enhanced mass diffusion at the fastest heating rates during the initial stages of the reaction. In spite of this, the formation of the silicide strictly follows an Arrhenius temperature dependence over the whole temperature interval explored. A kinetic model is used to fit the calorimetric data over the complete heating rate range. Calorimetry is complemented by structural analysis through transmission electron microscopy and both standard and in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction.

  19. Analytical study of the energy rate balance equation for the magnetospheric storm-ring current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Analytical study of the energy rate balance equation for the magnetospheric storm-ring current A. L of the analytical integration of the energy rate balance equation, assum- ing that the input energy rate of the energy function to ht times a constant factor in the energy rate balance equation (e.g. Gonzalez et al

  20. The relationship of metabolic rate to rate of gain in young beef cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, Kenneth Harold

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and growt? rate, and l7-keto steriods against growth rates, but when the two were combined a very signifi- cant correlation was reported. PROCEI3UBE The first trial was conducted during the spring of 1951 on young beef bulls which were the get of sires...

  1. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  2. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Susan

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  3. The Interest Rate Conundrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craine, Roger; Martin, Vance L.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flows and US Interest Rates,” NBER Working Paper No 12560. [Working Paper # 2008 -03 The Interest Rate Conundrum Roger

  4. Florida Growth Fund (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Florida Growth Fund can provide investments in technology and growth-related companies through co-investments with other institutional investors. The Fund awards preference to companies...

  5. Final Report: " Growth Rates of Freshly Nucleated Particles"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMurry, Peter H; Smith, James N

    2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This report lists of archival journal articles that were written with support from this grant. Research objectives from the original proposal are given, along with papers that were written to meet each of those objectives. The papers are all available in the archival literature.

  6. algal growth rate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    developed regional algorithm Bricaud, Annick 333 Assessment of the sustainability of bioenergy production from algal feedstock Edinburgh, University of - Research Archive...

  7. Some factors influencing digestion and growth rates of beef steers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gossett, John Warren

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~ R? K~c P? 8? ~c H. 8? mLaohp 8? R? Ellis ani P? T? 1IarLon. 1943. Vitanin k studios in fattening feeder oalms ani yoarlingo ~ Tax? kgr ~ Exp? Sta Bul? 630? Jcnao? J? H?c J? 8? Jonclc G S? PcccPoc k? 8? K~orp R? 8? Dishes' C? 8, rioter and 8? R...

  8. assemblage growth rate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    surface) with numerous colonies of the ascidian Diazona violacea, and the polychaete Sabella pavonina. This study highlights, also for a Mediterranean seamount, the potential...

  9. BCP Annual Rate Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 BCP Annual Rate Process (FY 2016 Base Charge & Rate) Informal Process Rate Activity Schedule (doc) Informal Customer Meeting Thursday March 11, 2015 at 10:30 A.M. Conf Rms 3&4...

  10. Research Rate Liaison Rate for outside academic &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilchrist, James F.

    as of 12/9/13 External Rate Spark Plasma Sintering ) Spark Plasma Sintering > 24 hrs 2 8 Vacuum Hot Press

  11. 2012 Transmission Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2014 Transmission, Ancillary, and Control Area Service Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (FY 2014-2015) October 2013 United States Department of Energy...

  12. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10012014 - 03312015 Mid-Year Change (if applicable) 10012014 - 09302015 Power Rates Annual Revenue Requirement Rate Schedule Power Revenue Requirement 70,091,227 CV-F13...

  13. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the FY Mid-Year Change 10012013 - 03312014 04012014 - 09302014 Power Rates Annual Revenue Requirement Rate Schedule Power Revenue Requirement 73,441,557...

  14. 2004 Rate Adjustments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Transmission and Ancillary Services Federal Register Notice -- Rate Order WAPA-141: Notice of Extension of Formula Rates for Transmission and Ancillary Services If you have any...

  15. WAPA-169 Rate Order

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    69 Rate Order Western is proposing adjustments to the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects firm power rate and the Colorado River Storage Project Transmission and ancillary...

  16. Multiple System Rate Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DSW Multiple System Transmission Rate Process Federal Register Notice Withdrawing Rate Proposal (PDF) Formal Process Extension Federal Register Notice (PDF) Customer Savisngs Under...

  17. A general integrative model for scaling plant growth, carbon flux, and functional trait spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerkhoff, Andrew J.

    Carthy1 & Charles A. Price1 Linking functional traits to plant growth is critical for scaling attri- butes and biomass flux within and across plants is needed. Building on foundational work on relative growth rate4 are ultimately governed by the isometric scaling4,5,20,21 of whole-plant net biomass growth rate, d

  18. Self-regulated growth of supermassive black holes by a dual jet/heating AGN feedback mechanism: methods, tests and implications for cosmological simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dubois, Yohan; Slyz, Adrianne; Teyssier, Romain

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a new sub-grid model for the growth of supermassive Black Holes (BHs) and their associated Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) feedback in hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. Assuming that BHs are created in the early stages of galaxy formation, they grow by mergers and accretion of gas at a Eddington-limited Bondi accretion rate. However this growth is regulated by AGN feedback which we model using two different modes: a quasar-heating mode when accretion rates onto the BHs are comparable to the Eddington rate, and a radio-jet mode at lower accretion rates. In other words, our feedback model deposits energy as a succession of thermal bursts and jet outflows depending on the properties of the gas surrounding the BHs. We assess the plausibility of such a model by comparing our results to observational measurements of the coevolution of BHs and their host galaxy properties, and check their robustness with respect to numerical resolution. We show that AGN feedback must be a crucial physical ingredient f...

  19. Strategic Rate Design: The Role of Industrial Tariffs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenblum, J. I.; House, R.

    STRA TEGIC RA TE DESIGN: THE ROLE OF INDUSTRIAL TARIFFS Jeffrey 1. Rosenblum Rate Design Section Public Utility Commission of Texas Austin, Texas ABSTRACT Strategic rate design refers to the use of deliberate pricing strategies... occurred in cogeneration capacity in Texas. The utilities use their rate tariffs strategically to influence the growth of self-generation. This paper will discuss several aspects of strategic rate design to influence industrial energy sales (measured...

  20. Penetration rate prediction for percussive drilling via dry friction model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krivtsov, Anton M.

    Penetration rate prediction for percussive drilling via dry friction model Anton M. Krivtsov a of percussive drilling assuming a dry friction mechanism to explain the experimentally observed drop in pene as a frictional pair, and this can generate the pattern of the impact forces close to reality. Despite quite

  1. Discontinuous Load Rating Problem for Induction Motors Gennady A. Leonov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonov, Gennady A.

    , is the parameter of influence of electromagnetic processes in a rotor on processes in the stator windings the influence of electromagnetic processes in a rotor on processes in the stator windings we assume in system (1Discontinuous Load Rating Problem for Induction Motors Gennady A. Leonov The transient processes

  2. DIRECT EXTRUSION OF RATE-SENSITIVE MATERIALS THROUGH CONICAL DIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    frottements sont du type Coulomb. Les expériences de filage menées sur l'alliage super- plastique PbSn à la to the constitutive equation : 03C3e = 03C30 sin h-1(03B5e/03B50) and die friction is assumed to be of the Coulomb Strain-rate sensitivity index. Eo Strain-rate constant in material law. 6o Material parameter in material

  3. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Section 7(b)(2) Rate Test Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Section 7(b)(2) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Northwest Power Act), 16 U.S.C. {section} 839e(b)(2), directs the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to conduct, after July 1, 1985, a comparison of the projected rates to be charged its preference and Federal agency customers for their firm power requirements, over the rate test period plus the ensuing four years, with the costs of power (hereafter called rates) to those customers for the same time period if certain assumptions are made. The effect of this rate test is to protect BPA's preference and Federal agency customers wholesale firm power rates from certain specified costs resulting from provisions of the Northwest Power Act. The rate test can result in a reallocation of costs from the general requirements loads of preference and Federal agency customers to other BPA loads. The rate test involves the projection and comparison of two sets of wholesale power rates for the general requirements loads of BPA's public body, cooperative, and Federal agency customers (7(b)(2) Customers). The two sets of rates are: (1) a set for the test period and the ensuing four years assuming that section 7(b)(2) is not in effect (known as Program Case rates); and (2) a set for the same period taking into account the five assumptions listed in section 7(b)(2), (known as 7(b)(2) Case rates). Certain specified costs allocated pursuant to section 7(g) of the Northwest Power Act are subtracted from the Program Case rates. Next, each nominal rate is discounted to the beginning of the test period of the relevant rate case. The discounted Program Case rates are averaged, as are the 7(b)(2) Case rates. Both averages are rounded to the nearest tenth of a mill for comparison. If the average Program Case rate is greater than the average 7(b)(2) Case rate, the rate test triggers. The difference between the average Program Case rate and the average 7(b)(2) Case rate determines the amount to be reallocated from the 7(b)(2) Customers to other BPA loads in the rate proposal test period.

  4. Seeding rate and seed size as management techniques for ryegrass (Lolium Multiflorum, Lam) in winter wheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Casey Lee

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Higher seeding rates and larger seed sizes could enhance the competitiveness of wheat with ryegrass. Growth room and field research evaluated the effects of wheat seeding rates and seed size in competition with Italian ryegrass. Winter wheat seeds...

  5. Ratios of heavy hadron semileptonic decay rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Gronau; Jonathan L. Rosner

    2010-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Ratios of charmed meson and baryon semileptonic decay rates appear to be satisfactorily described by considering only the lowest-lying (S-wave) hadronic final states and assuming the kinematic factor describing phase space suppression is the same as that for free quarks. For example, the rate for $D_s$ semileptonic decay is known to be $(17.0 \\pm 5.3)%$ lower than those for $D^0$ or $D^+$, and the model accounts for this difference. When applied to hadrons containing $b$ quarks, this method implies that the $B_s$ semileptonic decay rate is about 1% higher than that of the nonstrange $B$ mesons. This small difference thus suggests surprisingly good local quark-hadron duality for $B$ semileptonic decays, complementing the expectation based on inclusive quark-hadron duality that these differences in rates should not exceed a few tenths of a percent. For $\\Lambda_b$ semileptonic decay, however, the inclusive rate is predicted to be about 13% greater than that of the nonstrange $B$ mesons. This value, representing a considerable departure from a calculation using a heavy quark expansion, is close to the corresponding experimental ratio $\\Gamma(\\Lambda_b)/ \\bar \\Gamma(B) = 1.13 \\pm 0.03$ of total decay rates.

  6. Evaluation of the implementation of home energy rating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vine, E.; Barnes, B.K.; Ritschard, R.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We evaluate the implementation of home energy rating and labelling programs (HERS) that are being conducted around the country. We examine the nature of different implementation problems and the kinds of strategies that have been used to deal with them to ensure the effective penetration of HERS to all HERS users. We use a model of the implementation process that assumes implementation is strongly influenced by the local context, involves two-way communication, and assumes little commonality of purpose among participants, saving a consensus on reaching some sort of decision.

  7. Shock Compression and Strain Rate Effect in Composites and Polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Eric [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymers are increasingly being utilized as monolithic materials and composite matrices for structural applications historically reserved for metals. High strain and high strain-rate applications in aerospace, defense, and automotive industries have lead to interest in utilizing the ability of many polymers to withstand extensions to failure of several hundred percent, often without localization or necking and their strong rate dependence. A broad range of characterization techniques will be presented for semi-crystalline polymers and composites including elastic-plastic fracture, split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB), plate impact including soft-recovery and lateral gage measurements and Taylor Impact. Gas-launched, plate impact experiments have been performed on pedigreed PTFE 7C, mounted in momentum-trapped, shock assemblies, with impact pressures above and below the phase II to phase III crystalline transition to probe subtle changes in the crystallinity, microstructure, and mechanical response of PTFE. Observed strong anisotropy on the hugoniot and spall behavior of fiber-reinforced composites will be discussed. Polymers are known to exhibit a strong dependence of the yield stress on temperature and strain-rate that are often observed to be linear for temperature and logarithmic for strain-rate. Temperature and strain-rate dependence will be reviewed in terms of classic time-temperature superposition and an empirical mapping function for superposition between temperature and strain-rate. The recent extension of the new Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion (Dyn-Ten-Ext) technique to probe the dynamic tensile responses of polymers will be discussed, where more irregular deformation and stochastic-based damage and failure mechanisms than the stable plastic elongation and shear instabilities observed that in metals. The opportunity to use of Dyn-Ten-Ext to probe incipient damage at very high strain-rate by linking in situ and post mortem experimental observations with high-fidelity simulation will be introduced. The potential to study polymer deformation under even more extreme conditions by employing explosive drive to induce Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) growth linking with in situ diagnosis by proton radiography will be proposed. Finally, a case study of collaboration between experimentalists and modelers to study the shock induced phase transition of PTFE presented. Building on a history of shock and Diamond Anvil Cell data it has long been know that PTFE exhibits a pressure induced phase transition at 0.7 GPa. The transition has historically been assumed and reported to be dependent on the hydrostatic pressure. However, studies employing neutron diffraction have suggested the phase transition is driven by only the principle stress applied to the compliant direction of crystalline domain. A multiphase model based on the Maxwell-type viscoelastic formulation was developed to include the stress deviator to drive potential martensitic transition and time to reflects the kinetic nature of the transitions demonstrating the need to account for both a martensitic nature and kinetics of the transition to capture subtle experimental observables.

  8. Global investments for sustainable growth in the wireless telecommunication industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsuda, Osamu, M.B.A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since its establishment in 1992, NTT DoCoMo had accomplished rapid growth by developing innovative strategies and meeting consumer demands. However, the population-based penetration rate of Japanese wireless phones now ...

  9. U.S. Metropolitan Spatial Structure and Employment Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Xiaoyan

    2014-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This study explores the influence of US metropolitan spatial structure evolution on regional employment growth rate. The first part of this study investigates the evolution of US metropolitan spatial structures from 2000 to 2010. At the macro level...

  10. affects growth chemotaxis: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plants and the Growth Rate, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland Cabbage, Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata (cv Reddy, Gadi VP 45 An agarose-based...

  11. antibodies affect growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plants and the Growth Rate, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland Cabbage, Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata (cv Reddy, Gadi VP 26 Seven in Absentia...

  12. Solidification at the High and Low Rate Extreme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halim Meco

    2004-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The microstructures formed upon solidification are strongly influenced by the imposed growth rates on an alloy system. Depending on the characteristics of the solidification process, a wide range of growth rates is accessible. The prevailing solidification mechanisms, and thus the final microstructure of the alloy, are governed by these imposed growth rates. At the high rate extreme, for instance, one can have access to novel microstructures that are unattainable at low growth rates. While the low growth rates can be utilized for the study of the intrinsic growth behavior of a certain phase growing from the melt. Although the length scales associated with certain processes, such as capillarity, and the diffusion of heat and solute, are different at low and high rate extremes, the phenomena that govern the selection of a certain microstructural length scale or a growth mode are the same. Consequently, one can analyze the solidification phenomena at both high and low rates by using the same governing principles. In this study, we examined the microstructural control at both low and high extremes. For the high rate extreme, the formation of crystalline products and factors that control the microstructure during rapid solidification by free-jet melt spinning are examined in Fe-Si-B system. Particular attention was given to the behavior of the melt pool at different quench-wheel speeds. Since the solidification process takes place within the melt-pool that forms on the rotating quench-wheel, we examined the influence of melt-pool dynamics on nucleation and growth of crystalline solidification products and glass formation. High-speed imaging of the melt-pool, analysis of ribbon microstructure, and measurement of ribbon geometry and surface character all indicate upper and lower limits for melt-spinning rates for which nucleation can be avoided, and fully amorphous ribbons can be achieved. Comparison of the relevant time scales reveals that surface-controlled melt-pool oscillation may be the dominant factor governing the onset of unsteady thermal conditions accompanied by varying amounts of crystalline nucleation observed near the lower limit. At high quench-wheel velocities, the influence of these oscillations is minimal due to very short melt-pool residence times. However, microstructural evidence suggests that the entrapment of gas pockets at the wheel-metal interface plays a critical role in establishing the upper rate limit. An observed transition in wheel-side surface character with increasing melt-spinning rate supports this conclusion.

  13. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Final Proposal : Section 7(b)(2) Rate Test Study and Documentation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Section 7(b)(2) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Northwest Power Act), 16 U.S.C. {section} 839e(b)(2), directs the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to conduct, after July 1, 1985, a comparison of the projected rates to be charged its preference and Federal agency customers for their firm power requirements, over the rate test period plus the ensuing 4 years, with the costs of power (hereafter called rates) to those customers for the same time period if certain assumptions are made. The effect of this rate test is to protect BPA's preference and Federal agency customers wholesale firm power rates from certain specified costs resulting from certain provisions of the Northwest Power Act. The rate test can result in a reallocation of costs from the general requirements loads of preference and Federal agency customers to other BPA loads. The rate test involves the projection and comparison of two sets of wholesale power rates for the general requirement loads of BPA's public body, cooperative, and Federal agency customers (collectively, the 7(b)(2) Customers). The two sets of rates are: (1) a set for the test period and the ensuing four years assuming that Section 7(b)(2) is not in effect (known as Program Case rates); and (2) a set for the same period taking into account the five assumptions listed in section 7(b)(2) (known as 7(b)(2) Case rates). Certain specified costs allocated pursuant to section 7(g) of the Northwest Power Act are subtracted from the Program Case rates. Next, each nominal rate is discounted to the beginning of the test period of the relevant rate case. The discounted Program Case rates are averaged, as are the 7(b)(2) Case rates. Both averages are rounded to the nearest tenth of a mill for comparison. If the average of the Program Case rates is greater than the average of the 7(b)(2) Case rates, the rate test triggers. The difference between the average of the Program Case rates and the average of the 7(b)(2) Case rates determines the amount to be reallocated from the 7(b)(2) Customers to other BPA loads in the rate test period. The purpose of this Study is to describe the application of the ''Section 7(b)(2) Implementation Methodology (Implementation Methodology)'' and the results of such application. The accompanying Section 7(b)(2) Rate Test Study Documentation, WP-07-FS-BPA-06A, contains the documentation of the computer models and data used to perform the 7(b)(2) rate test. This Study is organized into three major sections. The first section provides an introduction to the study, as well as a summary of the section ''7(b)(2) Legal Interpretation and Implementation Methodology''. The second section describes the methodology used in conducting the rate test. It provides a discussion of the calculations performed to project the two sets of power rates that are compared in the rate test. The third section presents a summary of the results of the rate test for the WP-07 Final Rate Proposal.

  14. Rate Schedule CPP-2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CPP-2 (Supersedes Schedule CPP-1) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL VALLEY PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATES FOR CUSTOM PRODUCT POWER Effective:...

  15. LCC Guidance Rates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Notepad text file provides the LCC guidance rates in a numbered format for the various regions throughout the U.S.

  16. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    charges or credits associated with the creation, termination, or modification to any tariff, contract, or rate schedule accepted or approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  17. Residential Solar Valuation Rates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Solar Valuation Rates Karl R. Rbago Rbago Energy LLC 1 The Ideal Residential Solar Tariff Fair to the utility and non-solar customers Fair compensation to...

  18. Solutions to a Reduced PoissonNernstPlanck System and Determination of Reaction Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Bo

    linearized. Others are assumed to be reactive, meaning that their concentrations vanish when in contact to the underlying re- duced PNP system, and calculate the reaction rate for the reactive species. We give a rigorous dependence of the reaction rates of the reactive species on the magnitude of its far field concentration

  19. Direct estimation of per nucleotide and genomic deleterious mutation rates in Drosophila

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keightley, Peter

    LETTERS Direct estimation of per nucleotide and genomic deleterious mutation rates in Drosophila to the per nucleotide mutation rate, u (ref. 1), and this can be used to date speciation events by assuming) appears in theories of nucleotide divergence and polymorphism2 , the evolution of sex and recom- bination3

  20. Sorghum Growth and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerik, Tom; Bean, Brent W.; Vanderlip, Richard

    2003-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Sorghum is well adapted to Texas, and its ability to yield consistently makes it popular with growers. This publication discusses sorghum plant biology and growth....

  1. Strategic Growth Initiative (Michigan)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A joint venture between Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD) and the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC), the Strategic Growth Initiative Grant Program was...

  2. Power Rate Cases (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah Project OfficePower Electronics Power Electronics PowerPowerRates

  3. Power Rates Announcements (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah Project OfficePower Electronics Power Electronics PowerPowerRates

  4. Why electric-power growth will not resume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.R.

    1983-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Basic structural changes now occurring in the US economy have irrevocably broken previously existing links between gross national product and the growth of sales of electricity. The author contends that the extent of the macroeconomic changes presently taking place are underestimated by many electric-utility planners and, as a result, forecasts projecting electricity growth rates about even with gross national product growth levels when the economy recovers are too high. The article states that electric-utility companies are entering an indefinite period of stagnant sales growth. But it closes on the positive note that electric-utility managements can take certain steps to make their businesses grow again. 8 figures.

  5. FERC allows higher rate of return for independent projects: the Ocean State power project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ruling last February to allow a private owners of a powerplant to receive a higher rate of return than normal electric utilities if they assumed the risks of cogeneration without qualifying under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act also leaves an out for unusual situations. The key to the decisions was an acknowledgement that those assuming higher risk deserve higher compensation. The incentive package is unique in the way it handles cost recovery and availability contracts.

  6. Weathering rates of marble in laboratory and outdoor conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yerrapragada, S.S.; Chirra, S.R.; Jaynes, J.H.; Bandyopadhyay, J.K.; Gauri, K.L. [Univ of Louisville, KY (United States); Li, S. [Metro Services Lab., Louisville, KY (United States)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the modern urban atmosphere SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} attack calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) in marble exposed at rain-sheltered surfaces creating largely gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O) crusts that eventually exfoliate. In combination with CO{sub 2} these gases erode the marble at unsheltered surfaces. the authors report the development of mathematical models to predict the rate of growth of crust and the rate of surface recession. To determine the rate of growth of crust the kinetic rate constant, diffusion rate, and the order of reaction were determined by the application of the shrinking-core model applied to data generated in laboratory experiments. Based on these parameters /and average ambient levels of 10 parts per billion (ppb) SO{sub 2} and 25 ppb NO{sub 2} in Louisville, Ky., the rate of crust formation for this metro area was calculated to be 1.8 {micro}m in the first year. However, the rate of recession was modeled from data obtained by exposing marble slabs to rainfalls. A surface recession of 15 {micro}m/yr was calculated. The models predicted well the rate of growth of crust observed at several sites in Louisville and the predicted surface recession compared well with values reported in the literature.

  7. 2010FirmRateAdj

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 Firm Power Rates & Rate Schedules The Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program--Eastern Division: Firm Electric Service Pick Sloan Missouri River -Eastern Division Rates Effective...

  8. <RatesMiscInfo>

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rates & Repayment Services Power Reporting MISCELLANEOUS REPORTING Power Supply Report October 2014 (59kb pdf) September 2014 (58kb pdf) August 2014 (47kb pdf) July 2014 (57kb pdf)...

  9. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regulation and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 4.56 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  10. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 3.98 4.17 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  11. On Thermonuclear Reaction Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. J. Haubold; A. M. Mathai

    1996-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear reactions govern major aspects of the chemical evolution od galaxies and stars. Analytic study of the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals is attempted here. Exact expressions for the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals for nuclear reactions in the case of nonresonant, modified nonresonant, screened nonresonant and resonant cases are given. These are expressed in terms of H-functions, G-functions and in computable series forms. Computational aspects are also discussed.

  12. Off-Campus Housing Resource Center DISCLAIMER: Please keep in mind that the University assumes no responsibility for contracts/leases between individuals. The Off-Campus Housing Resource Center is not responsible

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kounaves, Samuel P.

    Off-Campus Housing Resource Center DISCLAIMER: Please keep in mind that the University assumes no responsibility for contracts/leases between individuals. The Off-Campus Housing Resource Center is not responsible or liable for the consequences of any off-campus student housing arrangement. In addition, Tufts

  13. Belief space planning assuming maximum likelihood observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lozano-Perez, Tomas

    observations are modelled as Gaussian noise. Given this model of the dynamics, two planning and control methods-locating the sensors with the contacts this way complicates planning and control because it forces the system to trade of the partially observable control problem, often modeled as a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP

  14. Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC Assumes WIPP Operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps1DOETHEWeekly ReportsWenjunTRUOffersEddy

  15. Modeling tin whisker growth.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinberger, Christopher Robert

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tin, lead, and lead-tin solders are the most commonly used solders due to their low melting temperatures. However, due to the toxicity problems, lead must now be removed from solder materials. This has lead to the re-emergence of the issue of tin whisker growth. Tin whiskers are a microelectronic packaging issue because they can lead to shorts if they grow to sufficient length. However, the cause of tin whisker growth is still not well understood and there is lack of robust methods to determine when and if whiskering will be a problem. This report summarizes some of the leading theories on whisker growth and attempts to provide some ideas towards establishing the role microstructure plays in whisker growth.

  16. Planar elliptic growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mineev, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The planar elliptic extension of the Laplacian growth is, after a proper parametrization, given in a form of a solution to the equation for areapreserving diffeomorphisms. The infinite set of conservation laws associated with such elliptic growth is interpreted in terms of potential theory, and the relations between two major forms of the elliptic growth are analyzed. The constants of integration for closed form solutions are identified as the singularities of the Schwarz function, which are located both inside and outside the moving contour. Well-posedness of the recovery of the elliptic operator governing the process from the continuum of interfaces parametrized by time is addressed and two examples of exact solutions of elliptic growth are presented.

  17. Renewable Energy Growth Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2014, Act H 7727 created the Renewable Energy Growth (REG) program with the goal to promote installation of grid connected renewable energy within the load zones of electric distribution...

  18. Robust Growth Determinants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doppelhofer, Gernot; Weeks, Melvyn

    2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the robustness of determinants of economic growth in the presence of model uncertainty, parameter heterogeneity and outliers. The robust model averaging approach introduced in the paper uses a flexible and parsimonious...

  19. QTL and Candidate Genes for Growth Traits in Pinus Taeda L

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claire G. Williams

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reason for the project is to find the genetic factors which control growth at ages closer to commercial harvest (also known as QTL detection). To date, efforts to find genetic factors which control growth have been limited to seedlings. Because tree breeders want to find molecular markers which are linked to traits of direct economic value, finding linkage to factors controlling older-tree growth is more critical than seedling growth. Our current research interest includes both absolute height at ages 10-13 years but also growth trajectory or the rate of growth from seedling to half-rotation.

  20. FGF growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY); Takahashi, Kazuyuki (Germantown, MD)

    2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  1. STELLAR ENCOUNTER RATE IN GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahramian, Arash; Heinke, Craig O.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Gladstone, Jeanette C., E-mail: bahramia@ualberta.ca [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-183, Edmonton, AB, T5K 1V4 (Canada)

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The high stellar densities in the cores of globular clusters cause significant stellar interactions. These stellar interactions can produce close binary mass-transferring systems involving compact objects and their progeny, such as X-ray binaries and radio millisecond pulsars. Comparing the numbers of these systems and interaction rates in different clusters drives our understanding of how cluster parameters affect the production of close binaries. In this paper we estimate stellar encounter rates ({Gamma}) for 124 Galactic globular clusters based on observational data as opposed to the methods previously employed, which assumed 'King-model' profiles for all clusters. By deprojecting cluster surface brightness profiles to estimate luminosity density profiles, we treat 'King-model' and 'core-collapsed' clusters in the same way. In addition, we use Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the effects of uncertainties in various observational parameters (distance, reddening, surface brightness) on {Gamma}, producing the first catalog of globular cluster stellar encounter rates with estimated errors. Comparing our results with published observations of likely products of stellar interactions (numbers of X-ray binaries, numbers of radio millisecond pulsars, and {gamma}-ray luminosity) we find both clear correlations and some differences with published results.

  2. Controlling single and few-layer graphene crystals growth in a solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papon, Remi; Sharma, Subash; Shinde, Sachin M.; Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Center for Fostering Young and Innovative Researchers, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8555 (Japan)

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Here, we reveal the growth process of single and few-layer graphene crystals in the solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Nucleation and growth of graphene crystals on a polycrystalline Cu foil are significantly affected by the injection of carbon atoms with pyrolysis rate of the carbon source. We observe micron length ribbons like growth front as well as saturated growth edges of graphene crystals depending on growth conditions. Controlling the pyrolysis rate of carbon source, monolayer and few-layer crystals and corresponding continuous films are obtained. In a controlled process, we observed growth of large monolayer graphene crystals, which interconnect and merge together to form a continuous film. On the other hand, adlayer growth is observed with an increased pyrolysis rate, resulting few-layer graphene crystal structure and merged continuous film. The understanding of monolayer and few-layer crystals growth in the developed CVD process can be significant to grow graphene with controlled layer numbers.

  3. Epitaxial Growth and Characterization of Silicon Carbide Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhanaraj,G.; Dudley, M.; Chen, Y.; Ragothamachar, B.; Wu, B.; Zhang, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon carbide (SiC) epitaxial layers have been grown in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system designed and fabricated in our laboratory. Silicon tetrachloride-propane as well as silane-propane were used as precursor gases. The hot zone was designed based on simulation by using numerical modeling. Growth rates up to 200 {mu}m could be achieved. A new growth-assisted hydrogen etching was developed to show the distribution of the micropipes present in the substrate. Higher growth rate was observed on off-axis (0 0 0 1) 4 H SiC compared to the on-axis (0 0 0 1) wafer and growth mechanism was explained.

  4. Modelling of InGaP nanowires morphology and composition on molecular beam epitaxy growth conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fakhr, A., E-mail: fakhrad@mcmaster.ca; Haddara, Y. M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An analytical kinetic model has been developed within this framework to describe the growth of ternary III-V semiconductor nanowires. The key to apply the model is to divide the ternary system into two separate binary systems and model each binary system separately. The model is used to describe the growth of InGaP nanowires. The growth conditions were varied among several samples, and the model was able to predict the temperature and growth rate behaviors. The model predicts the axial and radial elemental distribution along the nanowires and the dependence of the elemental distribution on the nanowire's diameter size for all growth rates. The model reveals the limitations of In incorporation into the nanowires for high temperatures or low growth rates and the effects of the group-V elements on the In incorporation.

  5. Arch.Hydrobiol. 167 1-4 467-487 Stuttgart.September2006 Stoichiometry and growth kinetics in the "smallest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chrzanowski, Thomas H.

    growth rate is predicted to vary with both food quantity and quality (in terms of nutrient element). The rate at which consumers produce new biomass through growth and reproduction is then simply related in stored nutrients, in terms of both identity and quantity, and their subsequent use in growth

  6. Rotational rate sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Steven L. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.

  7. Previous Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah ProjectPRE-AWARDenergyEnergy InnovationRecentPreviouspower-rates

  8. Previous Transmission Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah ProjectPRE-AWARDenergyEnergytransmission-rates Sign In About |

  9. Daily digestible protein and energy requirements for growth and maintenance of sub-adult Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siccardi, Anthony Joseph, III

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This study utilized two diets (25 and 35% crude protein) fed at 10 different rates to produce differences in shrimp specific growth rate which were regressed against daily digestible protein (DP) and digestible energy (DE) intake to estimate daily...

  10. Multi-Carrier Multiple Access is Sum-Rate Optimal for Block Transmissions over Circulant ISI Channels*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giannakis, Georgios

    Multi-Carrier Multiple Access is Sum-Rate Optimal for Block Transmissions over Circulant ISI to maximizing the sum-rate of circulant inter-symbol interference (ISI) channels, that are assumed available at the transmitter. Cir- culant ISI channels are ensured either with cyclic pre`xed block transmissions

  11. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rates, assuming a levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of about $to the levelized cost per unit of delivered energy amongto the levelized cost per unit of delivered energy, of the

  12. Shallow melt apparatus for semicontinuous czochralski crystal growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Tihu; Ciszek, Theodore F.

    2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt crucible (20) to eliminate the necessity supplying a large quantity of feed stock materials that had to be preloaded in a deep crucible to grow a large ingot, comprising a gas tight container a crucible with a deepened periphery (25) to prevent snapping of a shallow melt and reduce turbulent melt convection; source supply means for adding source material to the semiconductor melt; a double barrier (23) to minimize heat transfer between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow melt in the growth compartment; offset holes (24) in the double barrier (23) to increase melt travel length between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow growth compartment; and the interface heater/heat sink (22) to control the interface shape and crystal growth rate.

  13. Kinetics of monolayer graphene growth by segregation on Pd(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mok, H. S.; Murata, Y.; Kodambaka, S., E-mail: kodambaka@ucla.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Ebnonnasir, A.; Ciobanu, C. V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science Program, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Nie, S.; McCarty, K. F. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Using in situ low-energy electron microscopy and density functional theory calculations, we follow the growth of monolayer graphene on Pd(111) via surface segregation of bulk-dissolved carbon. Upon lowering the substrate temperature, nucleation of graphene begins on graphene-free Pd surface and continues to occur during graphene growth. Measurements of graphene growth rates and Pd surface work functions establish that this continued nucleation is due to increasing C adatom concentration on the Pd surface with time. We attribute this anomalous phenomenon to a large barrier for attachment of C adatoms to graphene coupled with a strong binding of the non-graphitic C to the Pd surface.

  14. Local debts, international authority : rating agencies' emergence in regulating subnational debt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathe, Ommeed S. (Ommeed Sanjay)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores the growth of subnational debt ("SND") and the different regulatory responses to this debt. It focuses on the recent emergence of credit rating agencies (e.g. Standard & Poor's, Moody's and Fitch) as ...

  15. ORIGINAL PAPER Determining the rate of change in a mixed deciduous forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , growth, and mortality rate of the different species. Moreover, the type, frequen- cy, and intensity of the disturbance, e.g., wind, fire, avalanches, or flooding and the sensitivity of the present trees

  16. Real-time variable rate Pix® application system using a plant height sensor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beck, Andy Dwayne

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . A cotton growth regulator (Pix) was applied at uniform and biomass-based variable rates in a replicated study that included two cotton fields. Plant mapping data was collected during the season. Plant heights were significantly shorter in areas...

  17. Current Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would likeConstitution4 Department ofDepartmentPower-Rates Sign In About |

  18. Current Transmission Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would likeConstitution4 Department ofDepartmentPower-Rates Sign

  19. [FIXED RATE GUARANTEED OBLIGATIONS]

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2, 2015Visiting Strong,Women @JoinEnergy ZEROFIXED RATE GUARANTEED

  20. Settlement PF Exchange Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9 SeptemberSetting the Stage for the Next SolarRate

  1. A mechanical model of early salt dome growth 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irwin, Frank Albert

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    salt and the upper layer representing the overlying sediment, is used to study the mechanics of growth in the early stages of salt dome formation. Three cases of this model, each representing a particular rate of removal of the surface topography..., are examined to determine which case best fits observations of salt domes in East Texas, Northwest Germany, and the North Sea. These observations include the spacing and growth rate of the dome and the amount of deformation of the sediments above the dome...

  2. Journal of Crystal Growth ] (

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) at high pressure of CO2 (initial PCO2 ¼ 55 bar) and moderate to high temperature (30 and 90 1C) was used and the dissolved quantity of CO2 have a significant effect on the average particle size, specific surface areaJournal of Crystal Growth ] (

  3. Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments Constraint in Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lansky, Joshua

    Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments Constraint in Mexico Carlos of a model of balance-of-payments-constrained growth for Mexico, with disaggregated exports (manufactured for the slowdown in Mexico's actual growth during the early phase of trade liberalization and macro stabilization

  4. Effects of Temperature on Rates of Herbivory and Predation: Consequences for a Trophic Cascade?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    for Undergraduates Program Cold Water and Kelp Growth ·Cold water upwelling associated with increased kelp growth- controlled rooms at 10°C and 15°C ·Measurement of grazing rates on giant kelp, Macrocystis ·Two trials, each, Strongylocentrotus Kelp crab, Pugettia Brown turban snail, Tegula Methods Water bath chilled to 10°C Tanks

  5. Illinois Jobs Index release 11/28/2011 www.real.illinois.edu page 1 For August Illinois Job Index, the state and the Nation had positive job growth, the RMW had negative job growth.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank, Thomas D.

    Illinois Jobs Index release 11/28/2011 www.real.illinois.edu page 1 For August Illinois Job Index, the state and the Nation had positive job growth, the RMW had negative job growth. The Illinois Job Index Positive Sep 2011­ Oct 2011 Last 12 months Oct 2011 Total non-farm employment Growth Rate % Number of Jobs

  6. Illinois Jobs Index release 10/31/2011 www.real.illinois.edu page 1 For August Illinois Job Index, the state and the Nation had positive job growth, the RMW had negative job growth.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank, Thomas D.

    Illinois Jobs Index release 10/31/2011 www.real.illinois.edu page 1 For August Illinois Job Index, the state and the Nation had positive job growth, the RMW had negative job growth. The Illinois Job Index Positive Aug 2011­ Sep 2011 Last 12 months Sep 2011 Total non-farm employment Growth Rate % Number of Jobs

  7. Illinois Jobs Index release 01/31/2011 www.real.illinois.edu page 1 For November Illinois Job Index, the state and the Nation had positive job growth, the RMW had negative job growth.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank, Thomas D.

    Illinois Jobs Index release 01/31/2011 www.real.illinois.edu page 1 For November Illinois Job Index, the state and the Nation had positive job growth, the RMW had negative job growth. The Illinois Job Index Negative Nov 2011­ Dec 2011 Last 12 months Dec 2011 Total non-farm employment Growth Rate % Number of Jobs

  8. Energy Management Through Innovative Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, M. L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of energy efficiency in the industrial sector and specific rate design alternatives for doing so....

  9. Eco-Growth: A Framework for Sustainable Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blanco, Edgar E.

    Growth is imperative for corporate success and yet the environmental impact of this growth is not sustainable. In this paper we offer a framework for thinking about the stages of tackling the environmental sustainability ...

  10. Does Exchange Rate Risk Affect Exports Asymmetrically? Asian Evidence WenShwo Fang,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Does Exchange Rate Risk Affect Exports Asymmetrically? Asian Evidence by WenShwo Fang,a YiHao Lai exists, however, regarding its effect on exports. Previous studies implicitly assume symmetry. This paper bivariate GARCH(1,1)-M model. The data include bilateral exports from eight Asian countries to the US

  11. Bernoulli Applications A Venturi meter is used to measure the flow rate through a tube.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weijgaert, Rien van de

    04/03/2014 1 Bernoulli Applications A Venturi meter is used to measure the flow rate through a tube: as the flow is horizontal, we do not have to take into account the gravity term. 2) Continuity equation-1822), an Italian physicist. Look at the construction in figure: - we assume the flow is smooth and effectively

  12. A Minimal Model for Large-scale Epitaxial Growth Kinetics of Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Huijun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Epitaxial growth via chemical vapor deposition is considered to be the most promising way towards synthesizing large area graphene with high quality. However, it remains a big theoretical challenge to reveal growth kinetics with atomically energetic and large-scale spatial information included. Here, we propose a minimal kinetic Monte Carlo model to address such an issue on an active catalyst surface with graphene/substrate lattice mismatch, which facilitates us to perform large scale simulations of the growth kinetics over two dimensional surface with growth fronts of complex shapes. A geometry-determined large-scale growth mechanism is revealed, where the rate-dominating event is found to be $C_{1}$-attachment for concave growth front segments and $C_{5}$-attachment for others. This growth mechanism leads to an interesting time-resolved growth behavior which is well consistent with that observed in a recent scanning tunneling microscopy experiment.

  13. Control Mechanisms for the Growth of Isolated Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkulov, Vladimir I [ORNL; Hensley, Dale K [ORNL; Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich [ORNL; Guillorn, M. A. [Cornell University; Lowndes, Douglas H [ORNL; Simpson, Michael L [ORNL

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isolated vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) have been grown using dc plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and the effects of the growth conditions on VACNF morphology and composition have been determined in substantial detail. The dependence of the growth rate, tip and base diameters, and chemical composition of isolated VACNFs on the growth parameters is described, including the effects of plasma power and gas mixture. Phenomenological models explaining the observed growth behavior are presented. The results indicate the importance of plasma control for the deterministic growth of isolated VACNFs, which are promising elements for the fabrication of practical nanoscale devices.

  14. Method for accurate growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chalmers, S.A.; Killeen, K.P.; Lear, K.L.

    1995-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report a method for accurate growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The method uses a single reflectivity spectrum measurement to determine the structure of the partially completed VCSEL at a critical point of growth. This information, along with the extracted growth rates, allows imprecisions in growth parameters to be compensated for during growth of the remaining structure, which can then be completed with very accurate critical dimensions. Using this method, they can now routinely grow lasing VCSELs with Fabry-Perot cavity resonance wavelengths controlled to within 0.5%. 4 figs.

  15. Small Enterprise Growth Fund (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Small Enterprise Growth Fund is a professionally-managed venture capital fund that invests in Maine companies which demonstrate high potential for growth and public benefit. The fund has...

  16. Geometry of Valley Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petroff, Alexander P; Abrams, Daniel M; Lobkovsky, Alexander E; Kudrolli, Arshad; Rothman, Daniel H

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although amphitheater-shaped valley heads can be cut by groundwater flows emerging from springs, recent geological evidence suggests that other processes may also produce similar features, thus confounding the interpretations of such valley heads on Earth and Mars. To better understand the origin of this topographic form we combine field observations, laboratory experiments, analysis of a high-resolution topographic map, and mathematical theory to quantitatively characterize a class of physical phenomena that produce amphitheater-shaped heads. The resulting geometric growth equation accurately predicts the shape of decimeter-wide channels in laboratory experiments, 100-meter wide valleys in Florida and Idaho, and kilometer wide valleys on Mars. We find that whenever the processes shaping a landscape favor the growth of sharply protruding features, channels develop amphitheater-shaped heads with an aspect ratio of pi.

  17. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  18. Growth curve analysis of Rambouillet ewes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathenge, James Mwai

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for this study. However, most of the results were reported for 152 observations; a subset of the 283 records that contained the smst complete set of weighted' Type of birth and rearing was the single most significant source of variation for preweaning body... weights and growth rates. Estimation of mature weight obtained for 184 records was 59. 6 + . 77 kilograms. Based upon analysis of yearly weights, ewes had reached maturity by 42 months of age. Birth and 120-day weight were lower than those reported...

  19. Acceleration Rates and Injection Efficiencies in Oblique Shocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. C. Ellison; M. G. Baring; F. C. Jones

    1995-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The rate at which particles are accelerated by the first-order Fermi mechanism in shocks depends on the angle, \\teq{\\Tbone}, that the upstream magnetic field makes with the shock normal. The greater the obliquity the greater the rate, and in quasi-perpendicular shocks rates can be hundreds of times higher than those seen in parallel shocks. In many circumstances pertaining to evolving shocks (\\eg, supernova blast waves and interplanetary traveling shocks), high acceleration rates imply high maximum particle energies and obliquity effects may have important astrophysical consequences. However, as is demonstrated here, the efficiency for injecting thermal particles into the acceleration mechanism also depends strongly on obliquity and, in general, varies inversely with \\teq{\\Tbone}. The degree of turbulence and the resulting cross-field diffusion strongly influences both injection efficiency and acceleration rates. The test particle \\mc simulation of shock acceleration used here assumes large-angle scattering, computes particle orbits exactly in shocked, laminar, non-relativistic flows, and calculates the injection efficiency as a function of obliquity, Mach number, and degree of turbulence. We find that turbulence must be quite strong for high Mach number, highly oblique shocks to inject significant numbers of thermal particles and that only modest gains in acceleration rates can be expected for strong oblique shocks over parallel ones if the only source of seed particles is the thermal background.

  20. Upper Great Plains Rates information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ancillary Services Rate Data (2.4mb pdf) Transmission and Ancillary Services 2011 Rate True-up Calculation (3.4mb pdf) Power Reporting Miscellaneous Information If you have any...

  1. Endocrine manipulation of growth and tissue development of broiler chickens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borbolla Sosa, Arturo German

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .5 % reduction in fat pad weight in males. The effect of manipulating estrogen status in ovo on posthatch growth rate and skeletal development was examined by two trials in experiment 2. Effects of in ovo administration of tamoxifen citrate (T) or 17f3-estradiol...

  2. Decelerating growth in tropical forest trees Kenneth J. Feeley,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    significantly at both forests regardless of initial size or organizational level (species, community or stand poorly understood. We examined changes in tree growth rates over the past two decades for all species productivity caused by rising concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and carbon fertilization (Melillo et al. 1993

  3. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  4. Effect of oxygen potential on high temperature crack growth in alloy 617

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benz, Julian K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of oxygen partial pressure on crack growth rates in Alloy 617 has been studied using both static and fatigue loading at 650°C. Tests were conducted at a constant stress intensity factor, K, for static loading ...

  5. AGE AND GROWTH OF SKIPJACK TUNA, KATSUWONUS PELAMIS, AND YELLOWFIN TUNA, THUNNUS ALBACARES, AS INDICATED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (1971), Marcille and Stequert (1976a), and Diaz3 determined growth rate and estimated the age et al. (1969), Le Guen and Sakagawa (1973), and Marcille and Stequert (1976b) have estimated age

  6. Shallow Melt Apparatus for Semicontinuous Czochralski Crystal Growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, T.; Ciszek, T. F.

    2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt crucible (20) to eliminate the necessity supplying a large quantity of feed stock materials that had to be preloaded in a deep crucible to grow a large ingot, comprising a gas tight container a crucible with a deepened periphery (25) to prevent snapping of a shallow melt and reduce turbulent melt convection; source supply means for adding source material to the semiconductor melt; a double barrier (23) to minimize heat transfer between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow melt in the growth compartment; offset holes (24) in the double barrier (23) to increase melt travel length between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow growth compartment; and the interface heater/heat sink (22) to control the interface shape and crystal growth rate.

  7. Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Projections 1993--2014 and Historical Wholesale Power Rates 1939--1992.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a range of high, medium, and low case long-term projections of Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) wholesale power rates and a medium case long-term projection of BPA`s wheeling rates. These projections are produced annually by BPA. BPA uses these projections in long-term marketing, resource, transmission, and financial planning assessments. BPA`s projections also are used by public utility commissions, utilities, and others for a variety of planning purposes. The analysis used for these rate projections assumes that current rate making methodologies continue into the future and are further based on certain assumptions about regional loads, extra-regional markets, the costs of resources, BPA`s financial requirements, and the capability of the region`s power plants. While these projections are intended to address the overall uncertainty in rate levels, BPA realizes that the future will not reflect any specific set of assumptions. The rate projections in this document have been prepared prior to the Draft 1993 BPA Marketing Plan, the implementation of which is almost certain to push BPA away from any set of assumptions in this document. Therefore, this document can be thought of as representing the ``old`` BPA with its products and policies. It can be viewed as a starting point or reference point to measure the impact of the ``new`` BPA with its Marketing Plan, and the broader undertaking referred to as the Competitiveness Project.

  8. Inertial Frames and Clock Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subhash Kak

    2012-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This article revisits the historiography of the problem of inertial frames. Specifically, the case of the twins in the clock paradox is considered to see that some resolutions implicitly assume inertiality for the non-accelerating twin. If inertial frames are explicitly identified by motion with respect to the large scale structure of the universe, it makes it possible to consider the relative inertiality of different frames.

  9. A NON-ISOTHERMAL FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH LAW FOR THE A356-T7 ALUMINUM ALLOY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 A NON-ISOTHERMAL FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH LAW FOR THE A356-T7 ALUMINUM ALLOY E. Merhy 1,2,3* , L rate, Damage tolerant design, Life time prediction, A356 cast alloy ABSTRACT Fatigue crack growth period in cylinder heads of A356-T7 casting alloy has been found to constitute an important part

  10. Hexagonal Growth Spirals on GaN Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Kinetics vs Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Philip I.

    prepared, Ga-polar GaN(0001) templates. The surface morphology was studied using reflection high-energy-edge energy of 0.26 eV/Ã?. They suggest that local conditions at step edges dominate the growth. 1 conducted ex situ using AFM. Desorption mass spectrometry (DMS) was used to measure the GaN growth rate. Our

  11. Sapling growth in response to light and nitrogen availability in a southern New England forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sapling growth in response to light and nitrogen availability in a southern New England forest, the availability of light and nitrogen (N) limits the rate of woody plant growth in the forest understory and N to the availability of these resources could affect the species composition of forest communities. While many studies

  12. Efficiency Discounted Exponential Growth (EDEG) Approach to Modeling the Power Progression of a Historical Dynasty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciotola, Mark P A

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various approaches to model the progression of a dynasty in terms of power are discussed. The efficiency-discounted exponential growth (EDEG) approach is presented, and the effects of changing decay type and growth rate are demonstrated. The Russian Romanov dynasty is utilized as an example for several of the approaches.

  13. Growth, microstructure, and luminescent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.NewofGeothermal Heaton Armed- Deep Vadose ZonescheduleGrowth,

  14. Rates for Color Shifted Microlensing Events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ari Buchalter; Marc Kamionkowski; R. Michael Rich

    1995-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    If the objects responsible for gravitational microlensing (ML) of Galactic-bulge stars are faint dwarfs, then blended light from the lens will distort the shape of the ML light curve and shift the color of the observed star during the event. The resolution in current surveys is not accurate enough to observe this effect, but it should be detected with frequent and precise followup observations. We calculate the expected rates for ML events where the shape distortions will be observable by such followup observations, assuming that the lenses are ordinary main-sequence stars in a bar and in the disk. We study the dependence of the rates for color-shifted (CS) events on the frequency of followup observations and on the precision of the photometry for a variety of waveband pairings. We find that for hourly observations in $B$ and $K$ with typical photometric errors of 0.01 mag, 28\\% of the events where a main-sequence bulge star is lensed, and 7\\% of the events where the source is a bulge giant, will give rise to a measurable CS at the 95\\% confidence level. For observations in $V$ and $I$, the fractions become 18\\% and 5\\%, respectively, but may be increased to 40\\% and 13\\% by improved photometric accuracy and increased sampling frequency. We outline how the mass, distance, and transverse speed of the lens can be obtained, giving examples of typical errors. We discuss how CS events can be distinguished from events where the source is blended with a binary companion.

  15. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turick, Charles E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases.

  16. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turick, C.E.

    1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases. 3 figs.

  17. Illinois Jobs Index release 3/14/2011 www.real.illinois.edu page 1 For January Illinois Job Index, the Nation, RMW and the state all had positive job growth.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anastasio, Thomas J.

    Illinois Jobs Index release 3/14/2011 www.real.illinois.edu page 1 For January Illinois Job Index, the Nation, RMW and the state all had positive job growth. The monthly Illinois Job Index and MSA Report months Jan 2011 Total non-farm employment Growth Rate % Number of Jobs Growth Rate% Number of Jobs Shadow

  18. Illinois Jobs Index release 4/25/2011 www.real.illinois.edu page 1 For March Illinois Job Index, the Nation, RMW and the state all had positive job growth.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anastasio, Thomas J.

    Illinois Jobs Index release 4/25/2011 www.real.illinois.edu page 1 For March Illinois Job Index, the Nation, RMW and the state all had positive job growth. The monthly Illinois Job Index and MSA Report months Mar 2011 Total non-farm employment Growth Rate % Number of Jobs Growth Rate% Number of Jobs Shadow

  19. Theoretical mass loss rates of cool main-sequence stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Holzwarth; M. Jardine

    2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a model for the wind properties of cool main-sequence stars, which comprises their wind ram pressures, mass fluxes, and terminal wind velocities. The wind properties are determined through a polytropic magnetised wind model, assuming power laws for the dependence of the thermal and magnetic wind parameters on the stellar rotation rate. We use empirical data to constrain theoretical wind scenarios, which are characterised by different rates of increase of the wind temperature, wind density, and magnetic field strength. Scenarios based on moderate rates of increase yield wind ram pressures in agreement with most empirical constraints, but cannot account for some moderately rotating targets, whose high apparent mass loss rates are inconsistent with observed coronal X-ray and magnetic properties. For fast magnetic rotators, the magneto-centrifugal driving of the outflow can produce terminal wind velocities far in excess of the surface escape velocity. Disregarding this aspect in the analyses of wind ram pressures leads to overestimations of stellar mass loss rates. The predicted mass loss rates of cool main-sequence stars do not exceed about ten times the solar value. Our results are in contrast with previous investigations, which found a strong increase of the stellar mass loss rates with the coronal X-ray flux. Owing to the weaker dependence, we expect the impact of stellar winds on planetary atmospheres to be less severe and the detectability of magnetospheric radio emission to be lower then previously suggested. Considering the rotational evolution of a one solar-mass star, the mass loss rates and the wind ram pressures are highest during the pre-main sequence phase.

  20. Standard test method for creep-fatigue crack growth testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of creep-fatigue crack growth properties of nominally homogeneous materials by use of pre-cracked compact type, C(T), test specimens subjected to uniaxial cyclic forces. It concerns fatigue cycling with sufficiently long loading/unloading rates or hold-times, or both, to cause creep deformation at the crack tip and the creep deformation be responsible for enhanced crack growth per loading cycle. It is intended as a guide for creep-fatigue testing performed in support of such activities as materials research and development, mechanical design, process and quality control, product performance, and failure analysis. Therefore, this method requires testing of at least two specimens that yield overlapping crack growth rate data. The cyclic conditions responsible for creep-fatigue deformation and enhanced crack growth vary with material and with temperature for a given material. The effects of environment such as time-dependent oxidation in enhancing the crack growth ra...

  1. Rate Adjustments and Public Involvement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CRSP Transmission 9162013 WAPA-161 FRN, CRSP transmission and ancillary services rates extension Letter announcing two-year extension to CRSP transmission and ancillary...

  2. Sustainable Building Rating Systems Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Rauch, Emily M.

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to offer information that could be used to compare and contrast sustainable building rating systems.

  3. A mechanical model of early salt dome growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irwin, Frank Albert

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Department) December 1988 A Mechanical Analysis of Early Salt Dome Growth. (December 1988) Frank Albert Irwin, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Raymond C. Fletcher A two-layer superposition model, the lower layer representing... of the sediments results in growth rates much higher than those observed. Analysis of the case with a diffusivity of 104m2/Ka agrees with all observa- tions. A range of diffusivities which will produce a realistic salt dome model is then determined. The lower...

  4. Strain rate sensitive constitutive equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, Charles Edward

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 Computed Constants For Far'ous . Baterials 47 LIST OF FIGURFS Pace Figure I Comparison of Rate Data For Commercially Pure Aluminum Figure 2 Dynamic Loading Regimes 17 Figure 3 Yield Criteria 32 Figure 4 Uni-axial Stress-Strain Rate...

  5. RECYCLING RATE STUDY Prepared by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    NATIONAL RECYCLING RATE STUDY Prepared by: Smith, Bucklin and Associates, Inc. Market Research and Statistics Division Chicago, Illinois July 2003 PRINTED ON RECYCLED PAPER #12;BCI RECYCLING RATE STUDY TABLE ....................................................................................................1 II. METHODOLOGY A. Total Pounds of Lead Recycled from Batteries

  6. Rate making for Electric Utilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanson, Carl Falster

    1911-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a given size in Texas may be dif­ ferent from that of a same size town in Massachusetts. This growing demand depends upon two factors: The educating of the people to the use of electricity for light and power, and the probable growth...

  7. Prediction of interest rate using CKLS model with stochastic parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ying, Khor Chia [Faculty of Computing and Informatics, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Hin, Pooi Ah [Sunway University Business School, No. 5, Jalan Universiti, Bandar Sunway, 47500 Subang Jaya, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Chan, Karolyi, Longstaff and Sanders (CKLS) model is a popular one-factor model for describing the spot interest rates. In this paper, the four parameters in the CKLS model are regarded as stochastic. The parameter vector ?{sup (j)} of four parameters at the (J+n)-th time point is estimated by the j-th window which is defined as the set consisting of the observed interest rates at the j?-th time point where j?j??j+n. To model the variation of ?{sup (j)}, we assume that ?{sup (j)} depends on ?{sup (j?m)}, ?{sup (j?m+1)},…, ?{sup (j?1)} and the interest rate r{sub j+n} at the (j+n)-th time point via a four-dimensional conditional distribution which is derived from a [4(m+1)+1]-dimensional power-normal distribution. Treating the (j+n)-th time point as the present time point, we find a prediction interval for the future value r{sub j+n+1} of the interest rate at the next time point when the value r{sub j+n} of the interest rate is given. From the above four-dimensional conditional distribution, we also find a prediction interval for the future interest rate r{sub j+n+d} at the next d-th (d?2) time point. The prediction intervals based on the CKLS model with stochastic parameters are found to have better ability of covering the observed future interest rates when compared with those based on the model with fixed parameters.

  8. Innovative Rates Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Title II of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA) as amended by the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) provided financial assistance to state utility regulatory commissions, nonregulated electric utilities, and the Tennessee Valley Authority through the Innovative Rates Program. The financial assistance was to be used to plan or carry out electric utility regulatory rate reform initiatives relating to innovative rate structures that encourage conservation of energy, electric utility efficiency and reduced costs, and equitable rates to consumers. The Federal and local objectives of the project are described. Activities planned and accomplishments are summarized for the following: project management, data collection, utility bill evaluation, billing enclosure/mailing evaluation, media program evaluation, display evaluation, rate study sessions evaluation, speakers bureau evaluation, and individual customer contacts. A timetable/milestone chart and financial information are included. (MHR)

  9. WP-07 Power Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening aTurbulenceUtilizeRural PublicRates > Rate Cases > Rates

  10. Core-Collapse Supernova Rate Synthesis Within 11 Mpc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Lin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 11 Mpc H-alpha and Ultraviolet Galaxy (11HUGS) Survey traces the star formation activity of nearby galaxies. In addition within this volume the detection completeness of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) is high therefore by comparing these observed stellar births and deaths we can make a sensitive test of our understanding of how stars live and die. In this paper, we use the results of the Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis (BPASS) code to simulate the 11HUGS galaxies H-alpha and far-ultraviolet (FUV) star formation rate indicators (SFRIs) and simultaneously match the core-collapse supernova (CCSN) rate. We find that stellar population including interacting binary stars makes little difference to the total CCSN rate but increases the H-alpha and FUV fluxes for a constant number of stars being formed. In addition they significantly increase the predicted rate of type Ibc supernovae (SNe) relative to type II SNe to the level observed in the 11HUGS galaxies. We also find that instead of assuming a cons...

  11. Supernova rates and stellar populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Mannucci

    2007-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the results about the nature of type Ia Supernovae that can be derived by studying their rates in different stellar populations. While the evolution of SN photometry and spectra can constrain the explosion mechanism, the SN rate depends on the progenitor system. We review the current available data on rates as a function of parent galaxy color, morphology, star formation rate, radio luminosity and environment. By studying the variation of the rates with the color of the parent galaxy, a strong evidence was established that type Ia SNe come from both young and old stars. The dependence of the rates with the radio power of the parent galaxy is best reproduced by a bimodal distribution of delay time between the formation of the progenitor and its explosion as a SN. Cluster early-type galaxies show higher type Ia SN rate with respect to field galaxies, and this effect can be due either to traces of young stars or to differences in the delay time distribution.

  12. Coordinated Beamforming for Multiuser MISO Interference Channel under Rate Outage Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Wei-Chiang; Lin, Che; Chi, Chong-Yung

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper studies the coordinated beamforming design problem for the multiple-input single-output (MISO) interference channel, assuming only channel distribution information (CDI) at the transmitters. For a given requirement on the rate outage probability for receivers, we aim to maximize the system utility (e.g., the weighted sum rate, weighted proportional fairness rate, and the weighed harmonic mean rate) subject to the rate outage constraints and individual power constraints. The outage constraints, however, lead to a complicated, nonconvex structure for the considered beamforming design problem and make the optimization problem difficult to handle. While this nonconvex optimization problem can be solved in an exhaustive search manner, this brute-force approach is only feasible when the number of transmitter-receiver pairs is small. For a system with a large number of transmitter-receiver pairs, computationally efficient alternatives are necessary. The focus of this paper is hence on the design of such e...

  13. Electron and Positron Capture Rates on $\\bf{^{55}}$Co in Stellar Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jameel-Un Nabi; Muneeb-Ur Rahman; Muhammad Sajjad

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Cobalt-55 is not only present in abundance in presupernova phase but is also advocated to play a decisive role in the core collapse of massive stars. The spectroscopy of electron capture and emitted neutrinos yields useful information on the physical conditions and stellar core composition. B(GT) values to low-lying states are calculated microscopically using the pn-QRPA theory. Our rates are enhanced compared to the shell model rates. The enhancement is attributed partly to the liberty of selecting a huge model space, allowing consideration of many more parent excited states in our rate calculation. Unlike previous calculations, the so-called Brink's hypothesis is not assumed leading to a more realistic estimate of the rates. The electron and positron capture rates are calculated over a wide temperature and density grid.

  14. Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111) and Pd(111): Nonwetting Growth...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111) and Pd(111): Nonwetting Growth on a Hydrophobic Water Monolayer. Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111) and Pd(111): Nonwetting Growth on a Hydrophobic...

  15. Asset Prices and Exchange Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavlova, Anna

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper develops a simple two-country, two-good model, in which the real exchange rate, stock and bond prices are jointly determined. The model predicts that ...

  16. Asset Prices and Exchange Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavlova, Anna

    2004-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper develops a simple two-country, two-good model, in which the real exchange rate, stock and bond prices are jointly determined. The model predicts that stock market prices are correlated ...

  17. High repetition rate fiber lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jian, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis reports work in high repetition rate femtosecond fiber lasers. Driven by the applications including optical arbitrary waveform generation, high speed optical sampling, frequency metrology, and timing and frequency ...

  18. Bounds on Mutual Information Rates of Noisy Channels with Timing Errors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavcic, Aleksandar

    of this information rate (and its supremum) is still an open problem. In this paper, we study a more general case than-th sample at the receiver, Yi = Y (iT + Ei) = + k=- Xk · h(iT - kT + Ei) + Ni = i+q+ Ei T k=i-q+ Ei T Xk · h(iT - kT + Ei) + Ni, (3) where Ei is the timing error. For simplicity, we shall assume that Ni

  19. Normal Growth of Range Cattle.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lush, Jay L. (Jay Laurence)

    1930-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of surplus stock unless home-grown supplemental feed is cheap and abundant or the price to be obtained for the cattle the following spring is much higher per pound than can be had in the fall. Fall sale also lessens the danger of over-grazing in the late... of growth. Naturally the feed supply is the first thing considered as a cause of growth and it is the cause which is usually most nearly under control. Diseases or minor differences in health are just as obvious in controlling growth as are changes...

  20. Electric Rate Alternatives to Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandberg, K. R. Jr.

    "ELECTRIC RATE ALTERNATIVES TO COGENERATION" K. R. SANDBERG, JR. INDUSTRIAL ACCOUNTS MANAGER - TEXAS GULF STATES UTILITIES COMPANY BEAUMONT, TEXAS ABSTRACT This paper discusses electric rate slternatives to cogeneration for the industrisl... PERSPECTIVE Gulf States Utilities was incorporated in 1925 and is primarily in the business of generating. transmitting and distributing electricity to 555.000 customers in southeast Texas and south Louisiana. The service area extends 350 miles westward...

  1. Evolution of Massive Protostars with High Accretion Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takashi Hosokawa; Kazuyuki Omukai

    2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Formation of massive stars by accretion requires a high accretion rate of > 10^-4 M_sun/yr to overcome the radiation pressure barrier of the forming stars. Here, we study evolution of protostars accreting at such high rates, by solving the structure of the central star and the inner accreting envelope simultaneously. The protostellar evolution is followed starting from small initial cores until their arrival at the stage of the Zero-Age Main Sequence (ZAMS) stars. An emphasis is put on evolutionary features different from those with a low accretion rate of 10^-5 M_sun/yr, which is presumed in the standard scenario for low-mass star formation. With the high accretion rate of 10^-3 M_sun/yr, the protostellar radius becomes very large and exceeds 100 R_sun. It is not until the stellar mass reaches 40 M_sun that hydrogen burning begins and the protostar reaches the ZAMS phase, and this ZAMS arrival mass increases with the accretion rate. At a very high accretion rate of > 3 x 10^-3 M_sun/yr, the total luminosity of the protostar becomes so high that the resultant radiation pressure inhibits the growth of the protostars under steady accretion before reaching the ZAMS stage. Therefore, the evolution under the critical accretion rate 3 x 10^-3 M_sun/yr gives the upper mass limit of possible pre-main-sequence stars at 60 M_sun. The upper mass limit of MS stars is also set by the radiation pressure onto the dusty envelope under the same accretion rate at 250 M_sun. We also propose that the central source enshrouded in the Orion KL/BN nebula has effective temperature and luminosity consistent with our model, and is a possible candidate for such protostars growing under the high accretion rate. (abridged)

  2. Growth machine theory: a qualitative analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Gavin Paul

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of land inherent in growth machine theory, does not necessarily result in a dialectic, win-lose situation. Furthermore, it is argued that the growth coalition may not always ado t a unidimensional roach to development where further growth...

  3. Nonlinear fast growth of water waves under wind forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunetti, Maura; Berti, Nicolas; Kasparian, Jérôme

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the wind-driven wave regime, the Miles mechanism gives an estimate of the growth rate of the waves under the effect of wind. We consider the case where this growth rate, normalised with respect to the frequency of the carrier wave, is of the order of the wave steepness. Using the method of multiple scales, we calculate the terms which appear in the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger (NLS) equation in this regime of fast-growing waves. We define a coordinate transformation which maps the forced NLS equation into the standard NLS with constant coefficients, that has a number of known analytical soliton solutions. Among these solutions, the Peregrine and the Akhmediev solitons show an enhancement of both their lifetime and maximum amplitude which is in qualitative agreement with the results of tank experiments and numerical simulations of dispersive focusing under the action of wind.

  4. Lid for improved dendritic web growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, Charles S. (Penn Hills, PA); Kochka, Edgar L. (Greentree, PA); Piotrowski, Paul A. (Monroeville, PA); Seidensticker, Raymond G. (Forest Hills, PA)

    1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A lid for a susceptor in which a crystalline material is melted by induction heating to form a pool or melt of molten material from which a dendritic web of essentially a single crystal of the material is pulled through an elongated slot in the lid and the lid has a pair of generally round openings adjacent the ends of the slot and a groove extends between each opening and the end of the slot. The grooves extend from the outboard surface of the lid to adjacent the inboard surface providing a strip contiguous with the inboard surface of the lid to produce generally uniform radiational heat loss across the width of the dendritic web adjacent the inboard surface of the lid to reduce thermal stresses in the web and facilitate the growth of wider webs at a greater withdrawal rate.

  5. Time resolved measurement of film growth during reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) of titanium nitride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitschker, Felix; Benedikt, Jan; Maszl, Christian; von Keudell, Achim

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth rate during reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) of titanium nitride is measured with a temporal resolution of up to 25 us using a rotating shutter concept. According to that concept a 200 um slit is rotated in front of the substrate synchronous with the HIPIMS pulses. Thereby, the growth flux is laterally distributed over the substrate. By measuring the resulting deposition profile with profilometry and with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the temporal variation of the titanium and nitrogen growth flux per pulse is deduced. The analysis reveals that film growth occurs mainly during a HIPIMS pulse, with the growth rate following the HIPIMS phases ignition, current rise, gas rarefaction, plateau and afterglow. The growth fluxes of titanium and nitrogen follow slightly different behaviors with titanium dominating at the beginning of the HIPIMS pulse and nitrogen at the end of the pulse. This is explained by the gas rarefaction effect resulting in a dense initial metal plasma and...

  6. A Statistical Physics Perspective on Web Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. L. Krapivsky; S. Redner

    2002-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Approaches from statistical physics are applied to investigate the structure of network models whose growth rules mimic aspects of the evolution of the world-wide web. We first determine the degree distribution of a growing network in which nodes are introduced one at a time and attach to an earlier node of degree k with rate A_ksim k^gamma. Very different behaviors arise for gamma1. We also analyze the degree distribution of a heterogeneous network, the joint age-degree distribution, the correlation between degrees of neighboring nodes, as well as global network properties. An extension to directed networks is then presented. By tuning model parameters to reasonable values, we obtain distinct power-law forms for the in-degree and out-degree distributions with exponents that are in good agreement with current data for the web. Finally, a general growth process with independent introduction of nodes and links is investigated. This leads to independently growing sub-networks that may coalesce with other sub-networks. General results for both the size distribution of sub-networks and the degree distribution are obtained.

  7. Bacterial Growth H. L. Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Hal

    Bacterial Growth H. L. Smith 1 Simple Models Bacteria are the dominant form of life on the planet the concentration of the nutrient in the media (grams/liter) and N(t) de

  8. Vermont Employment Growth Incentive (Vermont)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of the Employment Growth Incentive (VEGI) is to encourage job creation in Vermont by a Vermont company, a Vermont division of a company that plans to grow and expand in Vermont, a...

  9. Exploration of the multiparameter space of nanosecond-laser damage growth in fused silica optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negres, Raluca A.; Liao, Zhi M.; Abdulla, Ghaleb M.; Cross, David A.; Norton, Mary A.; Carr, Christopher W.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, the rate at which laser-induced damage sites grow on the exit surface of SiO{sub 2} optics under subsequent illumination with nanosecond-laser pulses of any wavelength was believed to depend solely on laser fluence. We demonstrate here that much of the scatter in previous growth observations was due to additional parameters that were not previously known to affect growth rate, namely the temporal pulse shape and the size of a site. Furthermore, the remaining variability observed in the rate at which sites grow is well described in terms of Weibull statistics. The effects of site size and laser fluence may both be expressed orthogonally in terms of Weibull coefficients. In addition, we employ a clustering algorithm to explore the multiparameter growth space and expose average growth trends. Conversely, this analysis approach also identifies sites likely to exhibit growth rates outside the norm. The ability to identify which sites are likely to grow abnormally fast in advance of the manifestation of such behavior will significantly enhance the accuracy of predictive models over those based on average growth behaviors.

  10. Inequality and Growth: Why Differential Fertility Matters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Croix, David; Doepke, Matthias

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Barro, Robert J. 2000. “Inequality and Growth in a Panel of1–25. Benabou, Roland. 1996. “Inequality and Growth. ” NBER1996. “Measuring Income Inequality: A New Database. ”

  11. The high-strain-rate and spallation response of tantalum, Ta-10W, and T-111

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, G.T. III; Rollett, A.D.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The compressive true stress-true response of tantalum, Ta-10W, and T-111 were found to depend on the applied strain rate, in the range 0.001 to 7000 s{sup {minus}1}. The strain-rate sensitivities of the flow stress of tantalum, Ta-10W, and T-111 a 1% strain are 0.062, 0.031, and 0.024, respectively. The rates of strain hardening in Tantalum, Ta-10W, and T-111 are seen to exhibit differing behavior with increasing strain rate. The calculated average strain-hardening rate in tantalum, {Theta}, for the quasi-static (0.001 s{sup {minus}1}) data at 25{degrees}C is 2080 MPa/unit strain. The hardening rate at 3000s{sup {minus}1} at 25{degrees}C decreases to 846 MPa/unit strain. Normalizing the work hardening rate in tantalum with the Taylor Factor for a random polycrystal, ({Theta} / (3.07){sup 2}), yields work hardening rates of {mu}/276 at quasi-static strain rates and {mu}/680 at high-rates, assuming a shear modulus of 61 GPa for tantalum at room temperature. While the work hardening of all the tantalum-based materials are similar at quasi-static rates, alloying results in a small reduction in hardening rate. With increasing strain rate, the work hardening rate in tantalum decreases by approximately a factor of two compared to the alloys. Alloying tantalum with substitutional or interstitial elements is thought to result in increased edge dislocation storage and screw dislocation cross-slip due to interactions with the alloying elements at high strain rates. 28 refs.

  12. Public Capital, Growth and Welfare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (t) + I(t) (0,1): depreciation rate. K(t+1) = (1 - )K(t) + I(t) (0,1): efficiency/governance services Private capital Rate of time preference Consumption saving decisions Investment in physical and sanitation--increase in enrolment rates (especially for girls, rural areas). 2. Electricity

  13. Direct estimation of decoherence rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimír Bužek; Peter Rapcan; Jochen Rau; Mario Ziman

    2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The decoherence rate is a nonlinear channel parameter that describes quantitatively the decay of the off-diagonal elements of a density operator in the decoherence basis. We address the question of how to experimentally access such a nonlinear parameter directly without the need of complete process tomography. In particular, we design a simple experiment working with two copies of the channel, in which the registered mean value of a two-valued measurement directly determines the value of the average decoherence rate. No prior knowledge of the decoherence basis is required.

  14. Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO Overview OCHCO Overview OCHCODepartmentEnergy April 20138Rate Schedules Rate Schedules

  15. Instability statistics and mixing rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberto Artuso; Cesar Manchein

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We claim that looking at probability distributions of \\emph{finite time} largest Lyapunov exponents, and more precisely studying their large deviation properties, yields an extremely powerful technique to get quantitative estimates of polynomial decay rates of time correlations and Poincar\\'e recurrences in the -quite delicate- case of dynamical systems with weak chaotic properties.

  16. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

    1997-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher is described suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz. 14 figs.

  17. Economic Growth and Development Economics 777

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almor, Amit

    Economic Growth and Development Economics 777 July 18, 2008 Fall Semester 2008 Professor J. H. Mc of economic growth and development. We will analyze several different growth models and look at some recent empirical research. Text The text for this course is: Economic Growth (2nd Edition) by Robert J. Barro

  18. Fertility and rate of growth in a beef cattle herd in the 0rient of Venezuela

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez Crespo, Justo Nicolas

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to express his utmost gratitude to Venezuela for giving him the opportunity to work toward the Master of Science degree through a scholarship of the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientzficas (CONICIT) and the Universidad de Oriente. Special...

  19. Size-dependent standard deviation for growth rates: Empirical results and theoretical modeling Boris Podobnik*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podobnik, Boris

    , Croatia; Zagreb School of Economics and Management, Zagreb, Croatia; and Center for Polymer Studies of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia Fabio Pammolli Faculty of Economics

  20. Economics Letters 60 (1998) 335341 Scaling the volatility of GDP growth rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Canning , L.A.N. Amaral , Y. Lee , M. Meyer , H.E. Stanley a Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, UK b links between agents. For example, in network models with interactions between neighbors (see Stanley

  1. Effect of nutritional programs on growth rate and body fat of broilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hargis, Phillip Herbert

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    was in the form of abdominal fat in the female. In experiment two, 2750 day-old Hubbard/Hubbard broiler chicks were fed diets containing 24%, 27% and 30% protein and 2860 kcal ME/kg (no supplemental energy for the first seven days), 2860 kcal ME/kg, and 3080... kcal ME/kg from 0-49 days of age. Feeding no supplemental energy in the diet for the first seven days resulted in a decrease in the percent abdominal fat at 49 days of age. Higher protein levels were found to be beneficial in maximizing performance...

  2. Dynamic estimation of specific growth rates and concentrations of bacteria for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    at- tractive method for the treatment and recycling of organic wastes. Successful combination. Keywords: Waste treatment, Biotechnology, Observer, Estimation theory, Algebraic systems theory 1 out in continuously stirred tank bioreactors, the organic matter is depolluted by mi- croorganisms

  3. Growth Rate of Marine Microalgal Species using Sodium Bicarbonate for Biofuels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gore, Matthew

    2013-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    With additional research on species characteristics and continued work towards cost effective production methods, algae are viewed as a possible alternative biofuel crop to current feedstocks such as corn. Current open pond production methods...

  4. Hydrogen isotope fractionation in freshwater and marine algae: II. Temperature and nitrogen limited growth rate effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sachs, Julian P.

    Hydrogen isotope fractionation in freshwater and marine algae: II. Temperature and nitrogen limited isotope fractionation in freshwater algae: I. Variations among lipids and spe- cies. Organic Geochemistry. Two species of freshwater green algae, Eudorina unicocca and Volvox aureus, were grown in batch

  5. Growth Rate of Marine Microalgal Species using Sodium Bicarbonate for Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gore, Matthew

    2013-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    With additional research on species characteristics and continued work towards cost effective production methods, algae are viewed as a possible alternative biofuel crop to current feedstocks such as corn. Current open pond production methods...

  6. The rate of germination and growth of certain range grasses under experimental conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxnam, Herbert Richard

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ;"ficienqp co stra~i~~ cry'; rr11 of vP!M dao ~ ~~+9~& for . ". t! acor arrdcm&rrrL!irr, o oc'~tv ic rosa% n. mf ~ ~rrctS. rrn 8xrrm. ". " . "-x' ~'. "~":rx r r 390'3b& "orror'I oro. 'Q sr ud&c !xg . 'oorro. " (1". 1' XXO'!, os~ (13%) srr3 ";~r, ' Vl an '- ~m...$il 'Aqgg5$5 g q gg Q 'Q Q Q 'Q Q Q '4@ 8'44ZC QQQ QSSQQ gang QQSQS 8%$8 %RA~ i 4'4/8 QRR R~gg WH C CC g 0 lac ~ ~ IIC 0 %SASH 8888 gQ gQ Cll W IA g ~gg ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C4 0Ig QQ'QQ88 QQSQQ ~f Q 'RNCQ a" OO N i4%O ch ~ De...

  7. Nonlinear structural crack growth monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, Donald E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hively, Lee M. (Philadelphia, TN); Holdaway, Ray F. (Clinton, TN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for the detection, through nonlinear manipulation of data, of an indicator of imminent failure due to crack growth in structural elements. The method is a process of determining energy consumption due to crack growth and correlating the energy consumption with physical phenomena indicative of a failure event. The apparatus includes sensors for sensing physical data factors, processors or the like for computing a relationship between the physical data factors and phenomena indicative of the failure event, and apparatus for providing notification of the characteristics and extent of such phenomena.

  8. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A device is described for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient`s skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures. 5 figs.

  9. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient's skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures.

  10. Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments in Mexico, 1960-2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lansky, Joshua

    Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments in Mexico, 1960-2012 Carlos structural changes in the composition of Mexico's trade and the parameters that affect it across five-of-payments constraint may account for the post-liberalization slowdown in Mexico's growth only during certain subperiods

  11. Water-Splitting Photoelectrolysis Reaction Rate via Microscopic Imaging of Evolved Oxygen Bubbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    manuscript received June 16, 2010. Published July 19, 2010. The production of hydrogen using solar energy electrochemical probe near the surface10 that can even include local illumination through an optical fiber,11 of the gas-evolving reaction rate. Optical microscopy was used to record the bubble growth on single

  12. Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments in Mexico, 1960-2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlini, David

    Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments in Mexico, 1960-2012 Carlos in Mexico's growth only during certain subperiods of the post-liberalization era, and that the impact the recent crisis), Mexico stands out for having fully embraced trade liberalization and undergoing deep

  13. Palladium chloride to palladium metal two-dimensional nucleation and growth phenomena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, H.C. de; Carlin, R.T. [Air Force Academy, CO (United States). Frank J. Seiler Research Lab.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reduction of a monolayer of surface-bound Pd(II) to Pd(0) on a palladium substrate reveals two-dimensional nucleation and growth phenomena. Using well-known 2D nucleation-growth theories, this reduction is shown to proceed by an instantaneous nucleation and growth mechanism. However, when a submonolayer of Pd(II) is present, this mechanism fails to account for the experimentally observed high cathodic currents seen at zero time. A model incorporating preexisting Pd(0) cylindrical sites on the partially oxidized Pd(0) surface has been successfully applied to account for the discrepancy between the experimental results and current 2D theories. Using this modified 2D model, values for the mathematical product of cylindrical growth rate and the square root of the nucleation site densities have been determined, and the overpotential dependence of the growth rate has been confirmed and quantified. These 2D nucleation-growth phenomena have practical consequences on the performance of the Pd(II)/Pd(0) system as a faradaic supercapacitor, and probably on the performance of other 2D faradaic supercapacitor systems. In addition, because many electrodes undergo monolayer surface oxidation-reduction reactions in other solvent systems, especially aqueous electrolytes, these 2D nucleation-growth phenomena may play a role in these important surface-modifying redox systems as well.

  14. Intraclass Price Elasticity & Electric Rate Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gresham, K. E.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric rate design relies on cost incurrance for pricing and pricing structures. However, as utilities move into a marketing mode, rate design needs to respond more to customer reactions to pricing changes. Intraclass price elasticities aid rate...

  15. Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: Natural Gas Rate Design Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    First, the comments on May 3, 1979 Notice of Inquiry of DOE relating to the Gas Utility Rate Design Study Required by Section 306 of PURPA are presented. Then, comments on the following are included: (1) ICF Gas Utility Model, Gas Utility Model Data Outputs, Scenario Design; (2) Interim Model Development Report with Example Case Illustrations; (3) Interim Report on Simulation of Seven Rate Forms; (4) Methodology for Assessing the Impacts of Alternative Rate Designs on Industrial Energy Use; (5) Simulation of Marginal-Cost-Based Natural Gas Rates; and (6) Preliminary Discussion Draft of the Gas Rate Design Study. Among the most frequent comments expressed were the following: (a) the public should be given the opportunity to review the final report prior to its submission to Congress; (b) results based on a single computer model of only four hypothetical utility situations cannot be used for policy-making purposes for individual companies or the entire gas industry; (c) there has been an unobjective treatment of traditional and economic cost rate structures; the practical difficulties and potential detrimental consequences of economic cost rates are not fully disclosed; and (d) it is erroneous to assume that end users, particularly residential customers, are influenced by price signals in the rate structure, as opposed to the total bill.

  16. October 1996 - September 2001 Wholesale Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges

  17. October 2001 - March 2002 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges1

  18. October 2001 - September 2006 Wholesale Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges11

  19. October 2002 - March 2003 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA2 - March

  20. October 2003 - March 2004 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA2 - March3

  1. October 2004 - March 2005 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA2 -

  2. October 2005 - March 2006 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA2 -5 -

  3. Condensed phase conversion and growth of nanorods instead of from vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geohegan, David B.; Seals, Roland D.; Puretzky, Alex A.; Fan, Xudong

    2005-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions, systems and methods are described for condensed phase conversion and growth of nanorods and other materials. A method includes providing a condensed phase matrix material; and activating the condensed phase matrix material to produce a plurality of nanorods by condensed phase conversion and growth from the condensed chase matrix material instead of from vacor. The compositions are very strong. The compositions and methods provide advantages because they allow (1) formation rates of nanostructures necessary for reasonable production rates, and (2) the near net shaped production of component structures.

  4. Condensed phase conversion and growth of nanorods and other materials instead of from vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geohegan, David B. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Puretzky, Alex A. (Knoxville, TN); Fan, Xudong (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions, systems and methods are described for condensed phase conversion and growth of nanorods and other materials. A method includes providing a condensed phase matrix material; and activating the condensed phase matrix material to produce a plurality of nanorods by condensed phase conversion and growth from the condensed phase matrix material instead of from vapor. The compositions are very strong. The compositions and methods provide advantages because they allow (1) formation rates of nanostructures necessary for reasonable production rates, and (2) the near net shaped production of component structures.

  5. SBA Growth Accelerator Fund Competition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is accepting applications for the Growth Accelerator Fund Competition to identify the nation's innovative accelerators and similar organizations and award them cash prizes they may use to fund their operations costs and allow them to bring startup competitions to scale and new ideas to life.

  6. Study of small-scale cavity growth mechanisms for UCG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeary, D.L.; Riggs, J.B.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study has been conducted to evaluate previously proposed small-scale cavity growth mechanisms in Underground Coal Gasification (UCG). Quarried blocks of lignite from Rockdale, Texas, and subbituminous coal from Hanna, Wyoming, were exposed to high-temperature gases in a refractory chamber in order to access their behavior under UCG conditions. Effects of gas temperature, gas composition, and gas flow rate on the surface recession rates were studied for coal samples using the bedding plan orientation of the side wall of the cavity. The effect of gas temperature on the surface recession rate with cavity roof bedding plane orientation was also studied. For the side wall tests, structural failure of the char or ash was not observed. In addition, the surface recession rate was round to increase significantly with gas temperature and gas flow rate. These results indicate that the surface recession process was heat transfer controlled gasification. For the tests conducted using the bedding plane orientation of the cavity roof, it was found that significant structural failure of the lignite resulted while no structural failure of the subbituminous coal was observed. As a result, the surface recession rate for lignite was three times that for subbituminous coal at 1300/sup 0/K. It is theorized that the structural failure of the lignite is caused by clay stringers present in the lignite.

  7. The Cutaneous Epidermal Growth Factor Network: Can it be Translated Clinically to Stimulate Hair Growth?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandrescu, Doru T; Kauffman, C Lisa; Dasanu, Constantin A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of epidermal growth factor on hair growth in the mouse. Jstem cell character in hair follicles. Science. 2006;312:Notch signalling pathway in hair growth. Mech Dev. 1998;78:

  8. Evolution of the galaxy merger rate in model universes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abilio Mateus

    2008-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the evolution of the galaxy merger rate predicted by two semi-analytical galaxy formation models implemented on the Millennium Simulation of dark matter structure growth. The fraction of merging galaxy pairs at each time-step of the simulation is derived from the galaxy catalogues obtained by the models and the results are compared with various observational estimates of merger fractions taken from the literature. We find a good match between the pair fractions derived from the simulation and the observed counting of galaxy pairs obtained by different sources in the redshift range 0 evolution of the number of galaxy mergers per Gyr grows with redshift as an exponential rate proportional to (1+z)^m, with m ranging from 0.6 to 0.8 for 0 evolution in the fraction of galaxy mergers since z ~ 1.2. The weak evolution predicted for the galaxy merger rate in an hierarchical model universe shows that the mass assembly evolution of galaxies through mergers does not follow the rapid evolution of the halo merger rate obtained in previous studies.

  9. Short Gamma Ray Burst Formation Rate from BATSE data using E_p-L_p correlation and the minimum gravitational wave event rate of coalescing compact binary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daisuke Yonetoku; Takashi Nakamura; Tatsuya Sawano; Keitaro Takahashi; Asuka Toyanago

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Using 72 Short Gamma Ray Bursts (SGRBs) with well determined spectral data observed by BATSE, we determine their redshift and the luminosity by applying $E_p$--$L_p$ correlation for SGRBs found by \\cite{tsutsui13}. For 53 SGRBs with the observed flux brighter than $4 \\times 10^{-6}~{\\rm erg~cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$, the cumulative redshift distribution up to $z=1$ agrees well with that of 22 {\\it Swift}~SGRBs. This suggests that the redshift determination by the $E_p$--$L_p$ correlation for SGRBs works well. The minimum event rate at $z=0$ is estimated as $\\rho_{SGRB}(0) = 6.3_{-3.9}^{+3.1} \\times 10^{-10}~{\\rm events~Mpc^{-3}yr^{-1}}$ so that the minimum beaming angle is $0.6^\\circ-7.8^\\circ$ assuming the merging rate of $10^{-7}-4\\times 10^{-6}~{\\rm events~Mpc^{-3}yr^{-1}}$ suggested from the binary pulsar data. Interestingly, this angle is consistent with that for SGRB130603B of $\\sim 4^\\circ-8^\\circ$\\citep{fong13b}. On the other hand, if we assume the beaming angle of $\\sim 6^\\circ$ suggested from four SGRBs with the observed value of beaming angle, the minimum event rate including off-axis SGRBs is estimated as $\\rho_{SGRB,all}^{min}(0)=1.15_{-0.71}^{+0.57}\\times 10^{-7}~{\\rm events~Mpc^{-3}yr^{-1}}$. If SGRBs are induced by coalescence of binary neutron stars (NSs) and/or black holes (BHs), this event rate leads to the minimum gravitational-wave detection rate of $\\rm 3.9_{-2.4}^{+1.9} (152_{-94}^{+75})~events~y^{-1}$ for NS-NS (NS-BH) binary, respectively, by a worldwide network with KAGRA, advanced-LIGO, advanced-Virgo, and GEO.

  10. Rate-based degradation modeling of lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.V. Thomas; I. Bloom; J.P. Christophersen; V.S. Battaglia

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accelerated degradation testing is commonly used as the basis to characterize battery cell performance over a range of stress conditions (e.g., temperatures). Performance is measured by some response that is assumed to be related to the state of health of the cell (e.g., discharge resistance). Often, the ultimate goal of such testing is to predict cell life at some reference stress condition, where cell life is defined to be the point in time where performance has degraded to some critical level. These predictions are based on a degradation model that expresses the expected performance level versus the time and conditions under which a cell has been aged. Usually, the degradation model relates the accumulated degradation to the time at a constant stress level. The purpose of this article is to present an alternative framework for constructing a degradation model that focuses on the degradation rate rather than the accumulated degradation. One benefit of this alternative approach is that prediction of cell life is greatly facilitated in situations where the temperature exposure is not isothermal. This alternative modeling framework is illustrated via a family of rate-based models and experimental data acquired during calendar-life testing of high-power lithium-ion cells.

  11. Dynamic and rate-dependent yielding in model cohesive suspensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard Buscall; Peter J. Scales; Anthony D. Stickland; Hui-En Teo; Tiara E. Kusuma; Daniel R. Lester

    2015-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental system has been found recently, a coagulated CaCO3 suspension system, which shows very variable yield behaviour depending upon how it is tested and, specifically, at what rate it is sheared. At P\\'eclet numbers Pe > 1 it behaves as a simple Herschel Bulkley liquid, whereas at Pe < 1 highly non-monotonic flow curves are seen. In controlled stress testing it shows hysteresis and shear banding and in the usual type of stress scan, used to measure flow curves in controlled stress mode routinely, it can show very erratic and irreproducible behaviour. All of these features will be attributed here to a dependence of the solid phase, or, yield stress, on the prevailing rate of shear at the yield point. Stress growth curves obtained from step strain-rate testing showed that this rate-dependence was a consequence of P\\'eclet number dependent strain softening. At very low Pe, yield was cooperative and the yield strain was order-one, whereas as Pe approached unity, the yield strain reduced to that needed to break interparticle bonds, causing the yield stress to be greatly reduced. It is suspected that rate-dependent yield could well be the rule rather than the exception for cohesive suspensions more generally. If so, then the Herschel-Bulkley equation can usefully be generalized to read (in simple shear). The proposition that rate-dependent yield might be general for cohesive suspensions is amenable to critical experimental testing by a range of means and along lines suggested.

  12. Dissolution and growth of spinel crystals in a borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alton, Jesse (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY) [ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY; Plaisted, Trevor J.(ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY) [ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY; Hrma, Pavel R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rate of dissolution and growth of settling crystals of spinel was measured optically in a borosilicate melt that was pre-heated at a temperature above liquidus to erase the effects of previous history. The Hixson-Crowell equation, which is based on Fick's first law, was used to determine mass-transfer coefficients (kH) for dissolution and growth; both were found to fit the same Arrhenius function of temperature (T). An attempt was made to estimate the diffusion coefficient (D) and the concentration-boundary-layer thickness (d). The calculated values of d compared well with experimental results and observations. The D vs. T function was similar to a literature function obtained for the dissolution of magnetite in sodium disilicate glass.

  13. FORMALISM FOR INCLUSION OF MEASURED REACTION CROSS SECTIONS IN STELLAR RATES INCLUDING UNCERTAINTIES AND ITS APPLICATION TO NEUTRON CAPTURE IN THE s-PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauscher, Thomas [Department of Physics, University of Basel, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A general formalism to include experimental reaction cross sections into calculations of stellar rates is presented. It also allows us to assess the maximally possible reduction of uncertainties in the stellar rates by experiments. As an example for the application of the procedure, stellar neutron capture reactivities from KADoNiS v0.3 are revised and the remaining uncertainties shown. Many of the uncertainties in the stellar rates are larger than those obtained experimentally. This has important consequences for s-process models and the interpretation of meteoritic data because it allows the rates of some reactions to vary within a larger range than previously assumed.

  14. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Zhe

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  15. An analysis of international grain freight rates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonnala, Sneha Latha

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the dependent variable was included in the model as an explanatory variable. The estimated econometric model was designed to explain ocean freight rates for grain. Results indicate rates increase at a decreasing rate with distance and rates decrease at a...

  16. 7, 29612989, 2007 Predicting arene rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    software or computing power. Measured gas-phase rate coefficients for the reaction of aromatic hydrocarbons

  17. Composite Fringe Benefit Rates Nancy R. Lewis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Marcelo A.

    January 1, 2015 Retirement Eligible FY 2014-15 Rate FY 2015-16 Rate FY 2016-17 Rate B Healthcomp Faculty of Research #12;New Rates · Provided by the Budget Office for use when planning proposal budgets for contract and grants · Effective for use in proposals submitted to sponsors January 1, 2015 and thereafter · Title

  18. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feng, Zhe

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  19. New Partners for Smart Growth Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Partners for Smart Growth Conference is the nation's largest smart growth and sustainability conference. The three-day conference is themed, "Practical Tools and Innovative Strategies for Creating Great Communities."

  20. Stress corrosion crack growth in porous sandstones. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ojala, Ira O

    Stress corrosion crack growth occurs when the chemical weakening of strained crack tip bonds facilitates crack propagation. I have examined the effect of chemical processes on the growth of a creack population by carrying out triaxial compression...

  1. The History of the Comic Supernova Rate Derived from the Evolution of the Host Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiaki Kobayashi; Takuji Tsujimoto; Ken'ichi Nomoto

    2000-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We make a prediction of the cosmic supernova rate history as a composite of the supernova rates in spiral and elliptical galaxies. We include the metallicity effect on the evolution of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) progenitors, and construct detailed models for the evolutions of spiral and elliptical galaxies in clusters and field to meet the latest observational constraints. In the cluster environment, the synthesized cosmic star formation rate (SFR) has an excess at $z \\gtsim 3$ corresponding to the early star burst in ellipticals and a shallower slope from the present to the peak at the redshift of $z \\sim 1.4$ compared with Madau's plot. In the field environment, we assume that ellipticals form over a wide range of redshifts as $1 \\ltsim z \\ltsim 4$. The synthesized cosmic SFR has a broad peak around $z \\sim 3$, which is in good agreement with the observed one. The resultant cosmic SFRs lead to the following predictions for the cosmic SN Ia rate: 1) The SN Ia rate in spirals has a break at $z \\sim 2$ due to the low-metallicity inhibition of SNe Ia, regardless of clusters or field. 2) At high redshifts, the SN Ia rate has a strong peak around $z \\sim 3$ in clusters, whereas in field much lower rate is expected, reflecting the difference in the formation epochs of ellipticals.

  2. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier6Rate | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkinsInformation DemandReactivePowerChargeInformation Rate Jump to: navigation,

  3. TILT STABILITY, UNIFORM QUADRATIC GROWTH, AND STRONG ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Tilt stability, variational analysis, subdifferentials, quadratic growth, strong metric .... Some convex analysis. ..... Example 3.5 (Failure of subdifferential continuity).

  4. Method for crystal growth control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yates, Douglas A. (Burlington, MA); Hatch, Arthur E. (Waltham, MA); Goldsmith, Jeff M. (Medford, MA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth of a crystalline body of a selected material is controlled so that the body has a selected cross-sectional shape. The apparatus is of the type which includes the structure normally employed in known capillary die devices as well as means for observing at least the portion of the surfaces of the growing crystalline body and the meniscus (of melt material from which the body is being pulled) including the solid/liquid/vapor junction in a direction substantially perpendicular to the meniscus surface formed at the junction when the growth of the crystalline body is under steady state conditions. The cross-sectional size of the growing crystalline body can be controlled by determining which points exhibit a sharp change in the amount of reflected radiation of a preselected wavelength and controlling the speed at which the body is being pulled or the temperature of the growth pool of melt so as to maintain those points exhibiting a sharp change at a preselected spatial position relative to a predetermined reference position. The improvement comprises reference object means positioned near the solid/liquid/vapor junction and capable of being observed by the means for observing so as to define said reference position so that the problems associated with convection current jitter are overcome.

  5. Reduced models of algae growth Heikki Haario,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bardsley, John

    Reduced models of algae growth Heikki Haario, Leonid Kalachev Marko Laine, Lappeenranta University of the phenomena studied. Here, in the case of algae growth modelling, we show how a systematic model reduction may: Algae growth modelling, asymptotic methods, model reduction, MCMC, Adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo. 1

  6. Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change and Developing New Growth Engines Jump to: navigation, search Name Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change...

  7. The Minimum Assumed Incentive Effect of Executive Share Options 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Main, Brian G M; Skovoroda, Rodion; Buck, Trevor; Bruce, Alistair

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In granting executive share options (ESOs), companies hand over financial assets to the executive at an opportunity cost that generally outweighs the value placed on those assets by the executive on the receiving end. This ...

  8. Parameterizing deep convection using the assumed probability density function method

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Storer, R. L.; Griffin, B. M.; Höft, J.; Weber, J. K.; Raut, E.; Larson, V. E.; Wang, M.; Rasch, P. J.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to their coarse horizontal resolution, present-day climate models must parameterize deep convection. This paper presents single-column simulations of deep convection using a probability density function (PDF) parameterization. The PDF parameterization predicts the PDF of subgrid variability of turbulence, clouds, and hydrometeors. That variability is interfaced to a prognostic microphysics scheme using a Monte Carlo sampling method.The PDF parameterization is used to simulate tropical deep convection, the transition from shallow to deep convection over land, and midlatitude deep convection. These parameterized single-column simulations are compared with 3-D reference simulations. The agreement is satisfactory except when the convective forcing is weak.more »The same PDF parameterization is also used to simulate shallow cumulus and stratocumulus layers. The PDF method is sufficiently general to adequately simulate these five deep, shallow, and stratiform cloud cases with a single equation set. This raises hopes that it may be possible in the future, with further refinements at coarse time step and grid spacing, to parameterize all cloud types in a large-scale model in a unified way.« less

  9. assuming nonparallel propagation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bruce R. Sutherland Department of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences theories of the propagation of internal waves in continuously stratified fluid is reviewed and new...

  10. assumed breakout scenario: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    shock br... Couch, Sean M; Wheeler, J Craig; Milosavljevic, Milos 2010-01-01 4 Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout Renewable Energy Websites Summary: detection Pipeline Safety:...

  11. The health of manufacturing in the UK is assuming greater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mottram, Nigel

    , energy production and mineral extraction would place the total to nearer 25% of the economy manufac- turing processes, are in- volved. A wider definition, including, for example, con- struction

  12. assuming light traces: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SCHMOLL Abstract. We show that light rays in almost every doubly periodic pattern of Eaton lenses do not leave certain directed strips of bounded width. The light rays are...

  13. Col. Christopher Barron assumes command of the New England District

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    , but also four tractors and three dump trucks to help haul and spread the donated 165 tons of half inch who also assisted by providing a fourth dump truck, a project owned vehicle. For the 12 trail

  14. WAI Assumes Responsibility for DOE'S Transuranic Waste Processing Center

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group current C3EDepartmentDepartment(GATE)Action PlanNovember 2010-0-18381|

  15. Hanford Contractor Assumes Responsibility of Three Wastewater Facilities |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To: CongestionDevelopmentHEADQUARTERSOutreachApril 23,handbookDepartment

  16. Gas-bubble growth mechanisms in the analysis of metal fuel swelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruber, E.E.; Kramer, J.M.

    1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During steady-state irradiation, swelling rates associated with growth of fission-gas bubbles in metallic fast reactor fuels may be expected to remain small. As a consequence, bubble-growth mechanisms are not a major consideration in modeling the steady-state fuel behavior, and it is usually adequate to consider the gas pressure to be in equilibrium with the external pressure and surface tension restraint. On transient time scales, however, various bubble-growth mechanisms become important components of the swelling rate. These mechanisms include growth by diffusion, for bubbles within grains and on grain boundaries; dislocation nucleation at the bubble surface, or ''punchout''; and bubble growth by creep. Analyses of these mechanisms are presented and applied to provide information on the conditions and the relative time scales for which the various processes should dominate fuel swelling. The results are compared to a series of experiments in which the swelling of irradiated metal fuel was determined after annealing at various temperatures and pressures. The diffusive growth of bubbles on grain boundaries is concluded to be dominant in these experiments.

  17. The relationship between leaf area growth and biomass accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Chen, Jin [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Energy Plant Research Lab., Dept. of Computer Science; Anozie, Fransisca C. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Morales, Alejandro [Wageningen Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands). Center for Crop Systems Analysis; Weise, Sean E. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Sharkey, Thomas D. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    2015-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Leaf area growth determines the light interception capacity of a crop and is often used as a surrogate for plant growth in high-throughput phenotyping systems. The relationship between leaf area growth and growth in terms of mass will depend on how carbon is partitioned among new leaf area, leaf mass, root mass, reproduction, and respiration. A model of leaf area growth in terms of photosynthetic rate and carbon partitioning to different plant organs was developed and tested with Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and a mutant line, gigantea-2 (gi-2), which develops very large rosettes. Data obtained from growth analysis and gas exchange measurements was used to train a genetic programming algorithm to parameterize and test the above model. The relationship between leaf area and plant biomass was found to be non-linear and variable depending on carbon partitioning. The model output was sensitive to the rate of photosynthesis but more sensitive to the amount of carbon partitioned to growing thicker leaves. The large rosette size of gi-2 relative to that of Col-0 resulted from relatively small differences in partitioning to new leaf area vs. leaf thickness.

  18. 1996 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) 1996 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules, 1996 Ancillary Products and Services Rate Schedule, 1996 Transmission Rate Schedules, and General Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1996. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), United States Department of Energy, in September 1996 (Docket Nos EF96-2011-000 and EF96f-2021-000). These rate schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions were approved on a final basis by the FERC July 30, 1997, in Dept. of Energy--Bonneville Power Administration, Docket Nos. EF96-2011-000 and EF96-2021-000. Except as noted elsewhere, these 1996 rate schedules and provisions supersede BPA`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions, and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, effective October 1, 1995. These rate schedules and general rate schedule provisions include all errata.

  19. Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2: FinalOffers3.pdf0-45.pdf0 BudgetGoals andSenate | DepartmentGroundwaterGrowingGrowth in

  20. The differential effects of Ligula intestinalis (L.) plerocercoids on host growth in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roche, Benjamin

    populations of roach, Rutilus rutilus (L.) Un resumen en espanÃ? ol se incluye detraÃ? s del texto principal de natural populations of roach, Rutilus rutilus (L.). Ecology of Freshwater Fish 2002: 11: 168 cestode, Ligula intestinalis, on the growth rates of three fish populations of the roach, Rutilus rutilus

  1. Analysis of calorimetric measurements of grain growth L. C. Chena) and F. Spaepen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spaepen, Frans A.

    solidification4 or vapor deposition,' or in some of the materials prepared by gas condensation and compaction,6Analysis of calorimetric measurements of grain growth L. C. Chena) and F. Spaepen Division. The Kissinger' analysis of the shift of the transformation peaks as a function of heating rate is perhaps

  2. Nucleation and growth of carbon nanotubes by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at a very rapid and constant rate 100 nm/s that decreases sharply after the catalyst Co particles become. Experi- ments performed, mostly on individual nanotubes, show that they have extraordinary electrical conditions such as substrate, catalyst, feed gas, and temperature, the growth model proposed by several

  3. 069 MCNITORINGTHE GROWTH OF SEODNDARYPRECIPITATES UPON METALSORPTICN CM CLAY MINERALS AND ALUMINUM OXIDES USING X-RAY ABSORPTICN FINE STRUCIURE (XAFS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    069 MCNITORINGTHE GROWTH OF SEODNDARYPRECIPITATES UPON METALSORPTICN CM CLAY MINERALS AND ALUMINUM and oxide minerals is typically fast initially, then the rates gradually diminish. In the literature on surfaces of clay minerals and aluminum oxides. #12;

  4. LEAK: A source term generator for evaluating release rates from leaking vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clinton, J.H.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An interactive computer code for estimating the rate of release of any one of several materials from a leaking tank or broken pipe leading from a tank is presented. It is generally assumed that the material in the tank is liquid. Materials included in the data base are acetonitrile, ammonia, carbon tetrachloride, chlorine, chlorine trifluoride, fluorine, hydrogen fluoride, nitric acid, nitrogen tetroxide, sodium hydroxide, sulfur hexafluoride, sulfuric acid, and uranium hexafluoride. Materials that exist only as liquid and/or vapor over expected ranges of temperature and pressure can easily be added to the data base file. The Fortran source code for LEAK and the data file are included with this report.

  5. Grain growth in a conventional titanium alloy during rapid, continuous heat treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semiatin, S.L. (Wright Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States)); Soper, J.C. (Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States)); Sukonnik, I.M. (Texas Instruments, Inc., Attleboro, MA (United States))

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the present work was to analyze the kinetics of beta grain growth during rapid, continuous heating of a conventional alpha-beta titanium alloy. The analysis was based on approximate, closed-form theoretical expressions derived by Bourell and Kaysser and Soper and Semiatin as well as a fully numerical, computer-based approach. The problem and approach discussed here differs from previous investigations of grain growth during continuous heating and cooling, most of which have been for austenite grain growth in the heat-affected zone during welding of steels. In this regard, the main features of the present work are the very high heating rates involved, the avoidance of the application of complex numerical integration schemes, and the avoidance of using isothermal grain growth kinetic data to fit continuous heating results.

  6. Coulomb energy spacing is 50 meV (assum-ing that the oxide layer between the dot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boxer, Steven G.

    can be held much longer than the current 5 s. The SEMM should be investigated more thoroughly before

  7. Spallation in ductile void growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.N.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mathematical model of ductile void growth under the application of a mean tensile stress is applied to the problem of spallation in solids. Calculation of plate-impact spallation in copper (peak compressive stress approx. 29 kbar) shows good agreement with the dynamically measured spall signal. A second calculation, using identical material parameters, of explosively produced spallation in copper (peak compressive stress approx. 250 kbar) does very well in reproducing experimentally observed multiple spall thicknesses as observed by dynamic x-radiographic techniques. This theoretical model thus appears applicable to a wide range of dynamic uniaxial-strain loading conditions, bridging a gap that has been thought to exist for some time.

  8. Fostering Growth | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2: FinalOffers3.pdf0-45.pdf0 Budget Fossil Energy FY 2010 Budget FossilThirdFostering Growth

  9. 2012 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the meaning given such term in section 3.3.5. "COU Parties' PF Rate" means any BPA wholesale power rate for service to COUs' "general requirements" (as defined in section...

  10. ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONVERGENCE RATES OF ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Q-rates in terms of the di erential properties of v and in terms of the ... schemes of this kind is to assure that they converge at a provably fast rate to a point.

  11. Energy Efficiency Interest Rate Reduction Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Alaska Housing Finance Corporation (AHFC) offers interest rate reductions to home buyers purchasing new and existing homes with 5 Star and 5 Star Plus energy ratings. All homes constructed on...

  12. Fluorescence Assay for Polymerase Arrival Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Che, Austin

    2003-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To engineer complex synthetic biological systems will require modular design, assembly, and characterization strategies. The RNA polymerase arrival rate (PAR) is defined to be the rate that RNA polymerases arrive at a ...

  13. Fluorescence assay for polymerase arrival rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Che, Austin, 1979-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To engineer complex synthetic biological systems will require modular design, assembly, and characterization strategies. The RNA polymerase arrival rate (PAR) is defined to be the rate that RNA polymerases arrive at a ...

  14. Home Energy Ratings and Building Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, J.C.

    climate as they affect the rating score of a proposed or completed structure. The rating is used to determine the most cost effective mechanical systems, building envelope design including window and door types, effect of various roofing materials...

  15. Private Sector Rates (FY 2015) Instrument Technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bashir, Rashid

    Source Laser $150 $175 Nanophoton Raman 11 Raman Spectroscopy $150 $175 Newport Solar Simulator Solar Rates for the Material Research Laboratory Facilities Rates for Private Sector companies and researchers

  16. Rate Setting for Small Water Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; Theodori, Gene L.; Jensen, Ricard

    2007-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowing how to set the proper rate for water service is a challenge for small water systems. They must generate enough revenue to remain solvent, but offer affordable service. This publication describes the various types of rates and explains...

  17. Regional growth and energy supply: Is there an energy security issue?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roop, J.M.; Freund, K.A.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Johnson, A.K.; Paananen, O.H.; Woodruff, M.G.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines how the growth of the developing world might affect energy markets in the future. Based on recent growth trends, world energy demand could reasonably be expected to grow from about 350 Exajoules (EJ: 1.0E18=0.95 Quad) to nearly 1025 EJ by the year 2020, nearly 3x current consumption estimates. Introduction of more energy-efficient technologies could reduce this growth by about 17% to 830 EJ. But one cannot rely exclusively on current trends to forecast future energy demand. The growth of the developing world will interact with supply to affect prices, which in turn will mitigate the growth of demand, and growth rates of energy use will be much more modes. Under the Business as Usual scenario, energy demand will grow to 835 EJ by 2020, and this could be reduced a further 15% to 714 EJ through the adoption of more energy efficient technologies. Fuel prices based on model results are analyzed. Energy security implications of rapid growth in the developing world are considered and found to be of likely little significance.

  18. Optimization Online - Faster convergence rates of relaxed ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damek Davis

    2014-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Jul 19, 2014 ... Faster convergence rates of relaxed Peaceman-Rachford and ADMM under regularity assumptions. Damek Davis (damek ***at*** ...

  19. Spontaneous Emission Rate Enhancement Using Optical Antennas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Nikhil

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of  Spontaneous  Emission  in  a  Semiconductor  nanoLED,”  emission  rate  enhancement  using  the  Fluorescent  Emission  by  Lattice   Resonances  in  

  20. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedule and General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  1. WAGES, FLEXIBLE EXCHANGE RATES, AND MACROECONOMIC POLICY*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WAGES, FLEXIBLE EXCHANGE RATES, AND MACROECONOMIC POLICY* JEFFREY SACHS In an open economy with a floaLing exchange rate, the efficacy of fiscal and monetary policy depends fundamentally on the wage rate depreciation, while fiscal expansion has no output effect. These results hold only when real wages

  2. Kiwifruitsize influences softening rate during storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crisosto, Carlos H.

    Kiwifruitsize influences softening rate during storage Carlos H. Crisosto o David Garner D Katia)at 32*F for 16 weeks. Un- der both storage conditions,large fruit had a slower rate of softening than fruit size and the rate of softening under air and CA conditions will help cold storage managerssafely

  3. AUXILIARY RATE CALCULATION The Budget Office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    AUXILIARY RATE CALCULATION The Budget Office #12;AGENDA Guiding Principles Rate Proposal Building Office supplies for budget manager reconciliationOffice supplies for budget manager reconciliation: Equipment Compensated Leave #12;CALCULATING A RATE Budgeted Expenses Budgeted Usage BaseBudgeted Usage Base

  4. West Virginia University -Main Campus Student Retention and Graduation Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    West Virginia University - Main Campus Student Retention and Graduation Rates First-Time, Full ---------------------------------------------------------------------Continuation Rates and Cumulative Graduation Rates

  5. Atmospheric pressure flow reactor / aerosol mass spectrometer studies of tropospheric aerosol nucleat and growth kinetics. Final report, June, 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this program was to determine the mechanisms and rates of growth and transformation and growth processes that control secondary aerosol particles in both the clear and polluted troposphere. The experimental plan coupled an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer to provide simultaneous measurement of condensed and particle phases. The first task investigated the kinetics of tropospheric particle growth and transformation by measuring vapor accretion to particles (uptake coefficients, including mass accommodation coefficients and heterogeneous reaction rate coefficients). Other work initiated investigation of aerosol nucleation processes by monitoring the appearance of submicron particles with the AMS as a function of precursor gas concentrations. Three projects were investigated during the program: (1) Ozonolysis of oleic acid aerosols as model of chemical reactivity of secondary organic aerosol; (2) Activation of soot particles by measurement deliquescence in the presence of sulfuric acid and water vapor; (3) Controlled nucleation and growth of sulfuric acid aerosols.

  6. Method and apparatus for aluminum nitride monocrystal boule growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Shaoping (Brookfield, CT)

    2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A crystal growth setup within a physical vapor transport growth furnace system for producing AlN monocrystal boules at high temperatures includes a crucible effective to contain an AlN source material and a growing AlN crystal boule. This crucible has a thin wall thickness in at least that portion housing the growing AlN crystal boule. Other components include a susceptor, in case of an inductive heating, or a heater, in case of a resistive heating, a thermal insulation enclosing the susceptor or heater effective to provide a thermal gradient inside the crucible in the range of 5-100.degree. C./cm and a furnace chamber capable of being operated from a vacuum (<0.1 torr) to a gas pressure of at least 4000 torr through filling or flowing a nitrogen gas or a mixture of nitrogen gas and argon gas. The high temperatures contribute to a high boule growth rate and the thin wall thickness contributes to reduced imparted stress during boule removal.

  7. Growth of Spirals: Secular or Driven by Mergers ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Hammer

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The physical phenomena contributing to the galaxy growth can be tested all the way to z= 1. Galaxy mass, extinction, star formation and gas metal abundance can be measured in a robust way, as well as the distribution of the galaxy morphologies. I discuss here the observational methods and their accuracy. Physical quantities can be evaluated with uncertainties much lower than 0.3 dex, if they are based on 2 sets of independent measurements. For example, at a given IMF, the star formation rate is well estimated by combining flux measurements of the extinction corrected Balmer line and of the mid-IR continuum. Spiral mass growth had occurred from gas accretion and from merging. Gas accretion can explain at most half of the spiral mass growth: at moderate redshift, the numerous population of compact, merger and irregular galaxies requires another origin. A spiral rebuilding scenario is able to reproduce all the evolutionary trends observed since z~1, and could be at the origin of the present-day, numerous population of early type spirals.

  8. Evolution of (001) and (111) facets for selective epitaxial growth inside submicron trenches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, S., E-mail: jiang@imec.be; Heyns, M., E-mail: marc.heyns@imec.be [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KULeuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44-bus 2450, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Merckling, C.; Guo, W.; Waldron, N.; Caymax, M. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Vandervorst, W. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Department of Physics and Astronomy, KULeuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D-bus 2418, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Seefeldt, M. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KULeuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44-bus 2450, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The evolution of (001) and (111) facets for the epitaxial growth inside submicron trenches is systematically studied in this report. The analysis with the method of “Lagrange multiplier” indicates the equilibrium crystal shape. In the case of non-equilibrium without external fluxes, we employed the “weighted mean curvature” method to mathematically model the inter-facet migration rate for two extreme kinetic cases: “surface diffusion limited” and “surface attachment/detachment limited.” Coupled with external supply of atoms, the self-limited behavior of facet size is theoretically predicted. Moreover, we find that the self-limited stable facet size in trenches of different widths has a specific relationship determined by the surface energy ratio, kinetic rate ratio, and isolated growth rate difference. The two limited cases could be discriminated according to the mathematical fitting of one exponent in this relationship based on the stable facet size in trenches of different widths.

  9. Impact of Independently Controlling Ventilation Rate per Person and Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Impact of Independently Controlling Ventilation Rate per Person and Ventilation Rate per Floor Impact of Independently Controlling Ventilation Rate per Person and Ventilation Rate per Floor Area

  10. FY2015 Standard Recharge Rates 12-30-2014.xls

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "***" indicates that these rates have not yet been received and approved. Organizational Unit Direct Portion of Rate Machine Power Rate Total Rate Total BNL Users...

  11. Phenomenological approach for describing environment dependent growths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dibyendu Biswas; Swarup Poria

    2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Different classes of phenomenological universalities of environment dependent growths have been proposed. The logistic as well as environment dependent West-type allometry based biological growth can be explained in this proposed framework of phenomenological description. It is shown that logistic and environment dependent West-type growths are phenomenologically identical in nature. However there is a difference between them in terms of coefficients involved in the phenomenological descriptions. It is also established that environment independent and enviornment dependent biological growth processes lead to the same West-type biological growth equation. Involuted Gompertz function, used to describe biological growth processes undergoing atrophy or a demographic and economic system undergoing involution or regression, can be addressed in this proposed environment dependent description. In addition, some other phenomenological descriptions have been examined in this proposed framework and graphical representations of variation of different parameters involved in the description are executed.

  12. Rate Analysis or a Possible Interpretation of Abundances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miklos Kiss

    2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Heavy elements are formed in nucleosynthesis processes. Abundances of these elements can be classified as elemental abundance, isotopic abundance, and abundance of nuclei. In this work we propose to change nucleon identification from the usual (Z,A) to (Z,N), which allows reading out new information from the measured abundances. We are interested in the neutron density required to reproduce the measured abundance of nuclei assuming equilibrium processes. This is only possible when two stable nuclei are separated by an unstable nucleus. At these places we investigated the neutron density required for equilibrium nucleosynthesis both isotopically and isotonically at temperatures of AGB interpulse and thermal pulse phases. We obtained an estimate for equilibrium nucleosynthesis neutron density in most of the cases. Next we investigated the possibility of partial formation of nuclei. We analyzed the meaning of the branching factor. We found a mathematical definition for the unified interpretation of a branching point closed at isotonic case and open at isotopic case. We introduce a more expressive variant of branching ratio called partial formation rate. With these we are capable of determining the characteristic neutron density values.

  13. Gauging risks: Rising interest rates and industry restructuring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cross, P.S.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With major utility industry restructuring looming, risk issues have become proportionally more important and complex. California regulators, for example, have increased the return for the state`s electric utilities to account for the pace of restructuring in the `Blue Book` proceedings. Performance-based regulatory reform efforts, new environmental regulations, and swings in interest rate trends have already been cited to support utility risk bonuses. Yet, in many cases, regulators have refused to award bonus adjustments, finding such changes to well known and reflected in the standard financial models used in setting return on equity. Nevertheless, regulators have acknowledged that restructuring might increase utilities` cost of capital. While finding that consumers might benefit from restructuring and competition at the retail level, the Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control advised careful consideration of downside risks. The possibility that shareholders might be left to cover high-cost investment stranded as a result of increased competition in the electric market has also figured in the return-on-equity debate. At the same time, the question of whether investors assume the risk of paying for uneconomic utility investments has become a focal point in the policy debate over stranded costs.

  14. A Model for High-Strain-Rate Deformation of Uranium-Niobium Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F.L.Addessio; Q.H.Zuo; T.A.Mason; L.C.Brinson

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermodynamic approach is used to develop a framework for modeling uranium-niobium alloys under the conditions of high strain rate. Using this framework, a three-dimensional phenomenological model, which includes nonlinear elasticity (equation of state), phase transformation, crystal reorientation, rate-dependent plasticity, and porosity growth is presented. An implicit numerical technique is used to solve the evolution equations for the material state. Comparisons are made between the model and data for low-strain-rate loading and unloading as well as for heating and cooling experiments. Comparisons of the model and data also are made for low- and high-strain-rate uniaxial stress and uniaxial strain experiments. A uranium-6 weight percent niobium alloy is used in the comparisons of model and experiment.

  15. Synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pena, Louis A.; Zamora, Paul; Lin, Xinhua; Glass, John D.

    2007-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having at least one peptide chain that binds a heparin-binding growth factor receptor, covalently bound to a hydrophobic linker, which is in turn covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  16. Modelling of silicon oxynitridation by nitrous oxide using the reaction rate approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dominique Krzeminski, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.krzeminski@isen.fr [Départment ISEN, IEMN-UMR-8520, 41 Boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France)

    2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Large technological progress in oxynitridation processing leads to the introduction of silicon oxynitride as ultra-thin gate oxide. On the theoretical side, few studies have been dedicated to the process modelling of oxynitridation. Such an objective is a considerable challenge regarding the various atomistic mechanisms occurring during this fabrication step. In this article, some progress performed to adapt the reaction rate approach for the modelling of oxynitride growth by a nitrous ambient are reported. The Ellis and Buhrman's approach is used for the gas phase decomposition modelling. Taking into account the mass balance of the species at the interface between the oxynitride and silicon, a minimal kinetic model describing the oxide growth has been calibrated and implemented. The influence of nitrogen on the reaction rate has been introduced in an empirical way. The oxidation kinetics predicted with this minimal model compares well with several experiments.

  17. "Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dr. Bryan Czech, resident, Center for the Advancement of the Steady State of the Economy Presentation: Presentation Abstract: Abstract Conflict Between Economic Growth and...

  18. Interface control and snow crystal growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jessica Li; Laura P. Schaposnik

    2015-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth of snow crystals is dependent on the temperature and saturation of the environment. In the case of dendrites, Reiter's local two-dimensional model provides a realistic approach to the study of dendrite growth. In this paper we obtain a new geometric rule that incorporates interface control, a basic mechanism of crystallization that is not taken into account in the original Reiter's model. By defining two new variables, growth latency and growth direction, our improved model gives a realistic model not only for dendrite but also for plate forms.

  19. Slow crack growth in polycarbonate films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Vanel, Loic; Ciliberto, Sergio

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study experimentally the slow growth of a single crack in polycarbonate films submitted to uniaxial and constant imposed stress. The specificity of fracture in polycarbonate films is the appearance of flame shaped macroscopic process zones at the tips of the crack. Supported by an experimental study of the mechanical properties of polycarbonate films, an analysis of the stress dependence of the mean ratio between the process zone and crack lengths, during the crack growth, show a quantitative agreement with the Dugdale-Barenblatt model of the plastic process zone. We find that the fracture growth curves obey strong scaling properties that lead to a well defined growth master curve.

  20. Theoretical Ecology: Continued growth and success

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hastings, Alan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EDITORIAL Theoretical Ecology: Continued growth and successof areas in theoretical ecology. Among the highlights areyear represent theoretical ecology from around the world: 20

  1. Unlocking Growth Opportunities for Minority Businesses Through...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    economic growth. At the Energy Innovation Portal, the Department's hub for technology transfer resources, minority owned firms and other businesses can browse through the patents...

  2. Well having inhibited microbial growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Brady D.; Dooley, Kirk J.

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention includes methods of inhibiting microbial growth in a well. A packing material containing a mixture of a first material and an antimicrobial agent is provided to at least partially fill a well bore. One or more access tubes are provided in an annular space around a casing within the well bore. The access tubes have a first terminal opening located at or above a ground surface and have a length that extends from the first terminal opening at least part of the depth of the well bore. The access tubes have a second terminal opening located within the well bore. An antimicrobial material is supplied into the well bore through the first terminal opening of the access tubes. The invention also includes well constructs.

  3. Thermomechanical cavity-growth modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, R.E.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of recent field tests, laboratory studies, and modeling efforts in UCG have indicated that the thermal and mechanical properties of coal may be the controlling parameters in determining initial cavity shape. In examining this possibility, laboratory efforts have been directed at determining temperature and bedding plane dependent properties of coal. A thermomechanical model which uses these properties has indicated that the cavity shapes seen at both the Hanna and Hoe Creek test sites result from the temperature dependent properties of the coal such as the coefficients of thermal expansion and the elastic moduli. The model determines stress levels and uses a simple bedding plane dependent stress failure mechanism to determine cavity growth.

  4. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

    1992-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B[sub x]O[sub y] are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T[sub m1] of the oxide of boron (T[sub m1]=723 K for boron oxide B[sub 2]O[sub 3]), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T[sub m2] of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm[sup 2]. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 [mu]m. 7 figs.

  5. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D. (Richmond, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B.sub.x O.sub.y are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T.sub.m1 of the oxide of boron (T.sub.m1 =723.degree. K. for boron oxide B.sub.2 O.sub.3), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T.sub.m2 of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm.sup.2. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 .mu.m.

  6. The relationship between leaf area growth and biomass accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M.; Chen, Jin; Anozie, Fransisca C.; Morales, Alejandro; Weise, Sean E.; Sharkey, Thomas D.

    2015-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Leaf area growth determines the light interception capacity of a crop and is often used as a surrogate for plant growth in high-throughput phenotyping systems. The relationship between leaf area growth and growth in terms of mass will depend on how carbon is partitioned among new leaf area, leaf mass, root mass, reproduction, and respiration. A model of leaf area growth in terms of photosynthetic rate and carbon partitioning to different plant organs was developed and tested with Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and a mutant line, gigantea-2 (gi-2), which develops very large rosettes. Data obtained from growthmore »analysis and gas exchange measurements was used to train a genetic programming algorithm to parameterize and test the above model. The relationship between leaf area and plant biomass was found to be non-linear and variable depending on carbon partitioning. The model output was sensitive to the rate of photosynthesis but more sensitive to the amount of carbon partitioned to growing thicker leaves. The large rosette size of gi-2 relative to that of Col-0 resulted from relatively small differences in partitioning to new leaf area vs. leaf thickness.« less

  7. Analyticity, Convergence and Convergence Rate of Recursive Maximum Likelihood Estimation in Hidden Markov Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tadi?, Vladislav B

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper considers the asymptotic properties of the recursive maximum likelihood estimation in hidden Markov models. The paper is focused on the asymptotic behavior of the log-likelihood function and on the point-convergence and convergence rate of the recursive maximum likelihood estimator. Using the principle of analytical continuation, the analyticity of the asymptotic log-likelihood function is shown for analytically parameterized hidden Markov models. Relying on this fact and some results from differential geometry (Lojasiewicz inequality), the almost sure point-convergence of the recursive maximum likelihood algorithm is demonstrated, and relatively tight bounds on the convergence rate are derived. As opposed to the existing result on the asymptotic behavior of maximum likelihood estimation in hidden Markov models, the results of this paper are obtained without assuming that the log-likelihood function has an isolated maximum at which the Hessian is strictly negative definite.

  8. Direct Calculation of Ice Homogeneous Nucleation Rate for a Molecular Model of Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haji-Akbari, Amir

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ice formation is ubiquitous in nature, with important consequences in a variety of systems and environments, including biological cells [1], soil [2], aircraft [3], transportation infrastructure [4] and atmospheric clouds [5,6]. However, its intrinsic kinetics and microscopic mechanism are difficult to discern with current experiments. Molecular simulations of ice nucleation are also challenging, and direct rate calculations have only been performed for coarse-grained models of water [7-9]. For the more realistic molecular models, only indirect estimates have been obtained, e.g.~by assuming the validity of classical nucleation theory [10]. Here, we use a path sampling approach to perform the first direct rate calculation of homogeneous nucleation of ice in a molecular model of water. We use TIP4P/Ice [11], the most accurate among the existing molecular models for studying ice polymorphs. By using a novel topological order parameter for distinguishing different polymorphs, we are able to identify a freezing me...

  9. A new algorithm for wavelet-based heart rate variability analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    García, Constantino A; Vila, Xosé; Márquez, David G

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most promising non-invasive markers of the activity of the autonomic nervous system is Heart Rate Variability (HRV). HRV analysis toolkits often provide spectral analysis techniques using the Fourier transform, which assumes that the heart rate series is stationary. To overcome this issue, the Short Time Fourier Transform is often used (STFT). However, the wavelet transform is thought to be a more suitable tool for analyzing non-stationary signals than the STFT. Given the lack of support for wavelet-based analysis in HRV toolkits, such analysis must be implemented by the researcher. This has made this technique underutilized. This paper presents a new algorithm to perform HRV power spectrum analysis based on the Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Packet Transform (MODWPT). The algorithm calculates the power in any spectral band with a given tolerance for the band's boundaries. The MODWPT decomposition tree is pruned to avoid calculating unnecessary wavelet coefficients, thereby optimizing execution t...

  10. Fall rates of prescribed fire-killed ponderosa pine. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrington, M.G.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fall rates of prescribed fire-killed ponderosa pine were evaluated relative to tree and fire damage characteristics. High crown scorch and short survival time after fire injury were factors leading to a high probability of early tree fall. The role of chemical defense mechanisms is discussed. Results apply to prescribed-fire injured, second-growth ponderosa pine less than 16 inches diameter at breast height.

  11. Energy production rates in fluid mixtures of inelastic rough hard spheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrés Santos; Gilberto M. Kremer; Vicente Garzó

    2010-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this work is to explore the combined effect of polydispersity and roughness on the partial energy production rates and on the total cooling rate of a granular fluid mixture. We consider a mixture of inelastic rough hard spheres of different number densities, masses, diameters, moments of inertia, and mutual coefficients of normal and tangential restitution. Starting from the first equation of the BBGKY hierarchy, the collisional energy production rates associated with the translational and rotational temperatures ($T_i^\\text{tr}$ and $T_i^\\text{rot}$) are expressed in terms of two-body average values. Next, those average values are estimated by assuming a velocity distribution function based on maximum-entropy arguments, allowing us to express the energy production rates and the total cooling rate in terms of the partial temperatures and the parameters of the mixture. Finally, the results are applied to the homogeneous cooling state of a binary mixture and the influence of inelasticity and roughness on the temperature ratios $T_1^\\text{tr}/T_1^\\text{rot}$, $T_2^\\text{tr}/T_1^\\text{tr}$, and $T_2^\\text{rot}/T_1^\\text{rot}$ is analyzed.

  12. THE IMPACT OF METALLICITY ON THE RATE OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kistler, Matthew D. [California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Thompson, Todd A. [Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Prieto, Jose L. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2013-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The metallicity of a star strongly affects both its evolution and the properties of the stellar remnant that results from its demise. It is generally accepted that stars with initial masses below {approx}8 M{sub Sun} leave behind white dwarfs and that some sub-population of these lead to Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). However, it is often tacitly assumed that metallicity has no effect on the rate of SNe Ia. We propose that a consequence of the effects of metallicity is to significantly increase the SN Ia rate in lower-metallicity galaxies, in contrast to previous expectations. This is because lower-metallicity stars leave behind higher-mass white dwarfs, which should be easier to bring to explosion. We first model SN Ia rates in relation to galaxy masses and ages alone, finding that the elevation in the rate of SNe Ia in lower-mass galaxies measured by Lick Observatory SN Search is readily explained. However, we then see that models incorporating this effect of metallicity agree just as well. Using the same parameters to estimate the cosmic SN Ia rate, we again find good agreement with data up to z Almost-Equal-To 2. We suggest that this degeneracy warrants more detailed examination of host galaxy metallicities. We discuss additional implications, including for hosts of high-z SNe Ia, the SN Ia delay time distribution, super-Chandrasekhar SNe, and cosmology.

  13. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEACHAM JE

    2009-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for all 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 11 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-10l) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 10 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-101) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).

  14. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEACHAM JE

    2008-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for al1 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 13 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 12 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).

  15. An Examination of Harvest Rates and Brood-Take Rates as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Examination of Harvest Rates and Brood-Take Rates as Management Strategies to Assist Recovery of Resource Management Project Number: 546 Title of Project: An Examination of Harvest Rates and Brood-Take Rates as Management Strategies to Assist Recovery of Cowichan River Chinook Salmon Examining Committee

  16. HEART RATE AS A MONITOR FOR METABOLIC RATE IN CAPTIVE JUVENILE STELLER SEA LIONS (EUMETOPIAS JUBATUS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HEART RATE AS A MONITOR FOR METABOLIC RATE IN CAPTIVE JUVENILE STELLER SEA LIONS (EUMETOPIAS COLUMBIA 0Jan M. Mcl'hee, 2001 #12;ABSTRACT The potential use of heart rate to monitor energy expenditure a relationship exists between heart rate @I) and oxygen consumption ( ~ 0 ~ )in captive sea lions while swimming

  17. Dose-rate-effects in XRCC1 wild-type and mutant CHO cell lines using An ²?¹AM source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chambers, Dwight McCoy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work explores the effects of low-dose-rate radiation on both the AA8 (wild-type CHO cells) and EM9 (XRCC1 null CHO mutants) cell lines. In particular, this study performed clonogenic survival and growth assays to ...

  18. JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES & LIFE SCIENCES EDUCATION VOLUME 38 2009 87 exceeds the harvesting rate, forest carbon uptake during

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grogan, Paul

    fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions to the atmosphere because most carbon released during the harvesting rate, forest carbon uptake during growth of new trees in the harvested forest or woodlot offsets have relied heavily on wood fuel from local forests (Keddy, 1993). Given the widespread abandonment

  19. Choices for Growth: Quality of Life and the Natural Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, John

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    of interac- 6 Choices for Growth Smart growth A way to restore community and economic vitality while preserving natural areas In recent years there has been a renaissance in urban design that focuses on the human scale. Several names are used, including smart... growth, sensible growth, livable communities, and new urbanism. We use smart growth because it has the broadest base of practice in the US. Smart growth means development that ac- commodates growth in economically viable, environmentally responsible...

  20. The Escape Rate of a Molecule

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas Knauf; Markus Krapf

    2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We show existence and give an implicit formula for the escape rate of the n-centre problem of celestial mechanics for high energies. Furthermore we give precise computable estimates of this rate. This exponential decay rate plays an important role especially in semiclassical scattering theory of n-atomic molecules. Our result shows that the diameter of a molecule is measurable in a (classical) high-energy scattering experiment.

  1. Understanding Regional Economic Growth in IndiaUnderstanding Regional Economic Growth in India Understanding Regional Economic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Understanding Regional Economic Growth in IndiaUnderstanding Regional Economic Growth in India Understanding Regional Economic Growth in India* Jeffrey D. Sachs Director The Earth Institute at Columbia_ramiah@yahoo.co.uk Asian Economic Papers 1:3 © 2002 The Earth Institute at Columbia University and the Massachusetts

  2. Final Report, Photocathodes for High Repetition Rate Light Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan [Stony Brook University

    2014-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This proposal brought together teams at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Stony Brook University (SBU) to study photocathodes for high repetition rate light sources such as Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL). The work done under this grant comprises a comprehensive program on critical aspects of the production of the electron beams needed for future user facilities. Our program pioneered in situ and in operando diagnostics for alkali antimonide growth. The focus is on development of photocathodes for high repetition rate Free Electron Lasers (FELs) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), including testing SRF photoguns, both normal-conducting and superconducting. Teams from BNL, LBNL and Stony Brook University (SBU) led this research, and coordinated their work over a range of topics. The work leveraged a robust infrastructure of existing facilities and the support was used for carrying out the research at these facilities. The program concentrated in three areas: a) Physics and chemistry of alkali-antimonide cathodes b) Development and testing of a diamond amplifier for photocathodes c) Tests of both cathodes in superconducting RF photoguns and copper RF photoguns

  3. Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide. Growth, yield and plant water relationships in sweet potatoes in response to carbon dioxide enrichment 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the summer of 1985, under the joint program of US Department of Energy, Carbon Dioxide Division, and Tuskegee University, experiments were conducted to study growth, yield, photosynthesis and plant water relationships in sweet potato plants growth in an enriched CO{sub 2} environment. The main experiment utilized open top chambers to study the effects of CO{sub 2} and soil moisture on growth, yield and photosynthesis of field-grown plants. In addition, potted plants in open top chambers were utilized in a study of the effects of different CO{sub 2} concentrations on growth pattern, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate and biomass increment at different stages of development. The interaction effects of enriched CO{sub 2} and water stress on biomass production, yield, xylem potential, and stomatal conductance were also investigated. The overall results of the various studies are described.

  4. CM-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Availability:This rate schedule shall be available to the South Mississippi Electric Power Association, Municipal Energy Agency of Mississippi, and Mississippi Delta Energy Agency (hereinafter...

  5. Photovoltaic Degradation Rates -- An Analytical Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As photovoltaic penetration of the power grid increases, accurate predictions of return on investment require accurate prediction of decreased power output over time. Degradation rates must be known in order to predict power delivery. This article reviews degradation rates of flat-plate terrestrial modules and systems reported in published literature from field testing throughout the last 40 years. Nearly 2000 degradation rates, measured on individual modules or entire systems, have been assembled from the literature, showing a median value of 0.5%/year. The review consists of three parts: a brief historical outline, an analytical summary of degradation rates, and a detailed bibliography partitioned by technology.

  6. Convergence Rates with Inexact Nonexpansive Operators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jingwei Liang

    2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Apr 18, 2014 ... Abstract: In this paper, we present a convergence rate analysis for the inexact Krasnosel'ski{\\u{\\i}}-Mann iteration built from nonexpansive ...

  7. "EIA-914 Production Weighted Response Rates, Percent"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    EIA-914 Production Weighted Response Rates, Percent" "Areas",38353,38384,38412,38443,38473,38504,38534,38565,38596,38626,38657,38687,38718,38749,38777,"application...

  8. Rate Schedule COTP-T3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    COTP-T3 (Supersedes Schedule COTP-T2) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION CALIFORNIA-OREGON TRANSMISSION PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATE FOR...

  9. Rate Schedule CV-NWT5

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NWT5 (Supersedes Schedule CV-NWT4) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL VALLEY PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATE FOR NETWORK INTEGRATION TRANSMISSION...

  10. Rate Schedule CV-SUR4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SUR4 (Supersedes Schedule CV-SUR3) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL VALLEY PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATE FOR SUPPLEMENTAL RESERVE SERVICE...

  11. Rate Schedule CV-F13

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    F13 (Supersedes Schedule CV-F12) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL VALLEY PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATES FOR BASE RESOURCE AND FIRST...

  12. Rate Schedule PACI-T3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PACI-T3 (Supersedes Schedule PACI -T2) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION PACIFIC ALTERNATING CURRENT INTERTIE PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATE FOR...

  13. Rate Schedule CV-RFS4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RFS4 (Supersedes Schedule CV-RFS3) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL VALLEY PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATE FOR REGULATION AND FREQUENCY...

  14. Rate Schedule CV-EID4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EID4 (Supersedes Schedule CV-EID3) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL VALLEY PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATE FOR ENERGY IMBALANCE SERVICE...

  15. Rate Schedule CV-SPR4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SPR4 (Supersedes Schedule CV-SPR3) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL VALLEY PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATE FOR SPINNING RESERVE SERVICE...

  16. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulsrud, R.M.; Furth, H.P.; Valeo, E.J.; Goldhaber, M.

    1983-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a method of controlling the reaction rates in a nuclear fusion reactor; and more particularly, to the use of polarized nuclear fuel.

  17. Confronting the Graduation Rate Crisis in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Losen, Daniel; Orfield, Gary; Balfanz, Robert

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Guide to Graduation Policy and Rates, Editorial Projects inthe Graduation Crisis. Bethesda, MD: Editorial Projects inthe Graduation Crisis. Bethesda, MD: Editorial Projects in

  18. 2006 Texas High Plains Cotton Variety Ratings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Average Incidence of Wilt Date of Wilt Rating Earth 0.0 0.0 Sept. 8 Brownfield 5.5 1.8 Aug. 28 Petersburg

  19. Home energy rating systems: Program descriptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vine, E.; Barnes, B.K.; Ritschard, R.

    1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the descriptions of home energy rating and labelling programs (HERS) that were surveyed in January 1986 as part of a national evaluation of HERS.

  20. Export Growth and Credit Constraints Tibor Besedes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    Export Growth and Credit Constraints Tibor Besedes Byung-Cheol Kim Volodymyr Lugovskyy§ May 14, 2014 Abstract We investigate the effect of credit constraints on the growth of exports at the micro of exporting, but not in later stages. Our empirical results using product level data on exports to twelve

  1. Understanding Regional Economic Growth in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Understanding Regional Economic Growth in India Jeffrey D. Sachs, Nirupam Bajpai and Ananthi Ramiah Papers #12;Understanding Regional Economic Growth in India Jeffrey D. Sachs Center for International Development (CID) Harvard University Ananthi_Ramiah@harvard.edu This paper was prepared for the Asian Economic

  2. Graphene Growth on Low Carbon Solubility Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wofford, Joseph Monroe

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    preparation of Cu substrates will lead to larger grapheneGraphene Growth on Cu(100), Cu(111), and Au(111) Substrate selection and preparationGraphene Growth on Cu(100), Cu(111), and Au(111) 3.1 Substrate selection and preparation

  3. Fish production: integrating growth, mortality, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limburg, Karin E.

    1 Fish production: integrating growth, mortality, and population density K. Limburg lecture notes, Fisheries Science Outline: 1. Biological production ­ a critical ecological parameter 2. How to compute production from a simple biomass model 3. Production:biomass ratios 4. Growth: mortality ratios Reading

  4. Beer and Economic Growth Dr. Martin Shields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beer and Economic Growth Dr. Martin Shields Regional Economics Institute Colorado State University to the rest of the world #12;Industry Trends · Over the past 10 years, the growth in craft beer has significantly altered the industry · While overall beer sales are relatively flat, market share of craft brewers

  5. Standard test method for measurement of creep crack growth times in metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of creep crack growth (CCG) in metals at elevated temperatures using pre-cracked specimens subjected to static or quasi-static loading conditions. The time (CCI), t0.2 to an initial crack extension ?ai = 0.2 mm from the onset of first applied force and creep crack growth rate, ?a or da/dt is expressed in terms of the magnitude of creep crack growth relating parameters, C* or K. With C* defined as the steady state determination of the crack tip stresses derived in principal from C*(t) and Ct (1-14). The crack growth derived in this manner is identified as a material property which can be used in modeling and life assessment methods (15-25). 1.1.1 The choice of the crack growth correlating parameter C*, C*(t), Ct, or K depends on the material creep properties, geometry and size of the specimen. Two types of material behavior are generally observed during creep crack growth tests; creep-ductile (1-14) and creep-brittle (26-37). In creep ductile materials, where cr...

  6. Measurement of the solar neutrino capture rate with gallium metal, part III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Steven Ray [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Russian-American experiment SAGE began to measure the solar neutrino capture rate with a target of gallium metal in December 1989. Measurements have continued with only a few brief interruptions since that time. In this article we present the experimental improvements in SAGE since its last published data summary in December 2001. Assuming the solar neutrino production rate was constant during the period of data collection, combined analysis of 168 extractions through December 2007 gives a capture rate of solar neutrinos with energy more than 233 keY of 65.4{sup +3.1}{sub 3.0} (stat) {sup +2.6}{sub -2.8} (syst) SNU. The weighted average of the results of all three Ga solar neUlrino experiments, SAGE, Gallex, and GNO, is now 66.1 {+-} 3.1 SNU, where statistical and systematic uncertainties have been combined in quadrature. During the recent period of data collection a new test of SAGE was made with a reactor-produced {sup 37}Ar neutrino source. The ratio of observed to calculated rates in this experiment, combined with the measured rates in the three prior {sup 51}Cr neutrino-source experiments with Ga, is 0.88 {+-} 0.05. A probable explanation for this low result is that the cross section for neutrino capture by the two lowest-lying excited states in {sup 71}Ge has been overestimated. If we assume these cross sections are zero, then the standard solar model including neutrino oscillations predicts a total capture rate in Ga in the range of 63--67 SNU with an uncertainly of about 5%, in good agreement with experiment. We derive the current value of the pp neutrino flux produced in the Sun to be {phi}{sup {circle_dot}}{sub pp} = (6.1 {+-} 0.8) x 10{sup 10}/(cm{sup 2} s), which agrees well with the flux predicted by the standard solar model. Finally, we make several tests and show that the data are consistent with the assumption that the solar neutrino production rate is constant in time.

  7. Energy input from quasars regulates the growth and activity of black holes and their host galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiziana Di Matteo; Volker Springel; Lars Hernquist

    2005-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In the early Universe, while galaxies were still forming, black holes as massive as a billion solar masses powered quasars. Supermassive black holes are found at the centers of most galaxies today, where their masses are related to the velocity dispersions of stars in their host galaxies and hence to the mass of the central bulge of the galaxy. This suggests a link between the growth of the black holes and the host galaxies, which has indeed been assumed for a number of years. But the origin of the observed relation between black hole mass and stellar velocity dispersion, and its connection with the evolution of galaxies have remained unclear. Here we report simulations that simultaneously follow star formation and the growth of black holes during galaxy-galaxy collisions. We find that in addition to generating a burst of star formation, a merger leads to strong inflows that feed gas to the supermassive black hole and thereby power the quasar. The energy released by the quasar expels enough gas to quench both star formation and further black hole growth. This determines the lifetime of the quasar phase (approaching 100 million years) and explains the relationship between the black hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion.

  8. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to the electrical treatment of biological tissue. In particular, the present invention discloses a device that produces discrete electrical pulse trains for treating osteoporosis and accelerating bone growth. According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention consists of an electrical circuit configuration capable of generating Bassett-type waveforms shown with alternative signals provide for the treatment of either fractured bones or osteoporosis. The signal generator comprises a quartz clock, an oscillator circuit, a binary divider chain, and a plurality of simple, digital logic gates. Signals are delivered efficiently, with little or no distortion, and uniformly distributed throughout the area of injury. Perferably, power is furnished by widely available and inexpensive radio batteries, needing replacement only once in several days. The present invention can be affixed to a medical cast without a great increase in either weight or bulk. Also, the disclosed stimulator can be used to treat osteoporosis or to strengthen a healing bone after the cast has been removed by attaching the device to the patient`s skin or clothing.

  9. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulsrud, Russell M. (Princeton, NJ); Furth, Harold P. (Princeton, NJ); Valeo, Ernest J. (Princeton Junction, NJ); Goldhaber, Maurice (Bayport, NY)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of controlling the reaction rates of the fuel atoms in a fusion reactor comprises the step of polarizing the nuclei of the fuel atoms in a particular direction relative to the plasma confining magnetic field. Fusion reaction rates can be increased or decreased, and the direction of emission of the reaction products can be controlled, depending on the choice of polarization direction.

  10. Theoretical cosmic Type Ia supernova rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Valiante; F. Matteucci; S. Recchi; F. Calura

    2009-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this work is the computation of the cosmic Type Ia supernova rates at very high redshifts (z>2). We adopt various progenitor models in order to predict the number of explosions in different scenarios for galaxy formation and to check whether it is possible to select the best delay time distribution model, on the basis of the available observations of Type Ia supernovae. We also computed the Type Ia supernova rate in typical elliptical galaxies of different initial luminous masses and the total amount of iron produced by Type Ia supernovae in each case. It emerges that: it is not easy to select the best delay time distribution scenario from the observational data and this is because the cosmic star formation rate dominates over the distribution function of the delay times; the monolithic collapse scenario predicts an increasing trend of the SN Ia rate at high redshifts whereas the predicted rate in the hierarchical scheme drops dramatically at high redshift; for the elliptical galaxies we note that the predicted maximum of the Type Ia supernova rate depends on the initial galactic mass. The maximum occurs earlier (at about 0.3 Gyr) in the most massive ellipticals, as a consequence of downsizing in star formation. We find that different delay time distributions predict different relations between the Type Ia supernova rate per unit mass at the present time and the color of the parent galaxies and that bluer ellipticals present higher supernova Type Ia rates at the present time.

  11. Cadmium Biosorption Rate in Protonated Sargassum Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volesky, Bohumil

    Cadmium Biosorption Rate in Protonated Sargassum Biomass J I N B A I Y A N G A N D B O H U M I L V Sargassum fluitans biomass was accompanied by the release of hydrogen protons from the biomass. The uptake the overall biosorption rate of cadmium ions in flat seaweed biomass particles. The overall biosorption

  12. Rate Setting for Small Water Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; Theodori, Gene L.; Jensen, Ricard

    2007-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Jensen, Assistant Research Scientist, Texas Water Resources Institute; The Texas A&M University System K Knowing how to set the proper rate for water service is a daunting challenge for small water systems. The rates must be high enough to re- cover...

  13. Optimal Rate Allocation in Overlay Content Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baochun

    Optimal Rate Allocation in Overlay Content Distribution Chuan Wu and Baochun Li Department. This paper addresses the optimal rate allocation problem in overlay content distribution for efficient, these scenarios reflect the contrast between elastic and streaming content distribution, with either per

  14. Resonances and the thermonuclear reaction rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. S. Hussein; M. Ueda; A. J. Sargeant; M. P. Pato

    2003-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an approximate analytic expression for thermonuclear reaction rate of charged particles when the cross section contains a single narrow or wide resonance described by a Breit-Wigner shape. The resulting expression is uniformly valid as the effective energy and resonance energy coalesce. We use our expressions to calculate the reaction rate for $^{12}$C(p,$\\gamma$)$^{13}$N.

  15. Nuclear reaction rates and the primordial nucleosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abhishek Mishra; D. N. Basu

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The theoretical predictions of the primordial abundances of elements in the big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) are dominated by uncertainties in the input nuclear reaction rates. We investigate the effect of modifying these reaction rates on light element abundance yields in BBN by replacing the thirty-five reaction rates out of the existing eighty-eight. We have studied these yields as functions of evolution time or temperature. We find that using these new reaction rates results in only a little increase in helium mass fraction over that obtained previously in BBN calculations. This allows insights into the role of the nuclear reaction rates in the setting of the neutron-to-proton ratio during the BBN epoch. We observe that even with considerable nuclear physics uncertainties, most of these nuclear reactions have minimal effect on the standard BBN abundance yields of $^6$Li and $^7$Li.

  16. Atomic multipole relaxation rates near surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. A. Crosse; Stefan Scheel

    2010-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The spontaneous relaxation rates for an atom in free space and close to an absorbing surface are calculated to various orders of the electromagnetic multipole expansion. The spontaneous decay rates for dipole, quadrupole and octupole transitions are calculated in terms of their respective primitive electric multipole moments and the magnetic relaxation rate is calculated for the dipole and quadrupole transitions in terms of their respective primitive magnetic multipole moments. The theory of electromagnetic field quantization in magnetoelectric materials is used to derive general expressions for the decay rates in terms of the dyadic Green function. We focus on the decay rates in free space and near an infinite half space. For the decay of atoms near to an absorbing dielectric surface we find a hierarchy of scaling laws depending on the atom-surface distance z.

  17. Merger Rates of Dark-Matter Haloes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eyal Neistein; Avishai Dekel

    2008-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive analytic merger rates for dark-matter haloes within the framework of the Extended Press-Schechter (EPS) formalism. These rates become self-consistent within EPS once we realize that the typical merger in the limit of a small time-step involves more than two progenitors, contrary to the assumption of binary mergers adopted in earlier studies. We present a general method for computing merger rates that span the range of solutions permitted by the EPS conditional mass function, and focus on a specific solution that attempts to match the merger rates in N-body simulations. The corrected EPS merger rates are more accurate than the earlier estimates of Lacey & Cole, by ~20% for major mergers and by up to a factor of ~3 for minor mergers of mass ratio 1:10^4. Based on the revised merger rates, we provide a new algorithm for constructing Monte-Carlo EPS merger trees, that could be useful in Semi-Analytic Modeling. We provide analytic expressions and plot numerical results for several quantities that are very useful in studies of galaxy formation. This includes (a) the rate of mergers of a given mass ratio per given final halo, (b) the fraction of mass added by mergers to a halo, and (c) the rate of mergers per given main progenitor. The creation and destruction rates of haloes serve for a self-consistency check. Our method for computing merger rates can be applied to conditional mass functions beyond EPS, such as those obtained by the ellipsoidal collapse model or extracted from $N$-body simulations.

  18. The radiative capture reaction rate from $??$ to H dibaryon in the imaginary time method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Hikota; Y. Funaki; E. Hiyama; M. Oka

    2015-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative capture rates of thermal $\\Lambda\\Lambda + \\Xi$N states into H dibaryon are calculated in the novel imaginary time method. The H dibaryon is assumed to be a bound state of $\\Xi $N with spin $J^{\\pi}= 0^+$, isospin $I=0$ and strangeness $-2$. We consider $E1$ transition to H from $\\Xi$N $(L=1)$ scattering states which mix with $\\Lambda\\Lambda (L=1)$. In order to calculate the transition rates, we formulate a coupled-channel imaginary time method by extending the one-channel formula originally proposed by Yabana and Funaki. The imaginary time method allows us to avoid the sum over all the excited thermal initial states, and thus to save computational time significantly. The transition rates are given as a function of temperature and the unknown binding energy of the H dibaryon, which we take as a parameter. It is found that the transition rate is not sensitive to the choices of the H binding energy or the strengths of the channel coupling for temperatures 3 MeV or higher.

  19. The Swift short gamma-ray burst rate density: prospects for detecting binary neutron star mergers by aLIGO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Coward; Eric Howell; Tsvi Piran; Giulia Stratta; Marica Branchesi; Omer Bromberg; Bruce Gendre; Ronald Burman; Dafne Guetta

    2012-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Presently only 30% of short gamma ray bursts (SGRBs) have accurate redshifts, and this sample is highly biased by the limited sensitivity of {\\it Swift} to detect SGRBs. We account for the dominant biases to calculate a realistic SGRB rate density out to $z = 0.5$ using the {\\it Swift} sample of peak fluxes, redshifts, and those SGRBs with a beaming angle constraint from X-ray/optical observations. Assuming a significant fraction of binary neutron star mergers produce SGRBs, we calculate lower and upper detection rate limits of (1-180) per Yr by an advanced LIGO and Virgo coincidence search. Our detection rate is compatible with extrapolations using Galactic pulsar observations and population synthesis.

  20. Real-time monitoring of P-based semiconductor growth by linear-optical spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knorr, K.; Rumberg, A.; Zorn, M.; Meyne, C.; Trepk, T.; Zettler, J.T.; Richter, W. [Technischen Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik; Kurpas, P.; Weyers, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Inst. fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Berlin (Germany)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In a metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor two optical methods, reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) are applied simultaneously for a general characterization of all steps of growth. The deoxidation behavior of InP is studied in order to determine the desorption temperature of InP oxide. The influences of doping to the optical spectra are measured with desorption temperature of InP oxide. The influences of doping to the optical spectra are measured with RAS and the surface temperature of InP is determined in-situ from the optical data. Finally, the growth rates of InGaP on GaAs are determined with RAS by the evaluation of Fabry-Perot like oscillations during growth.

  1. Recovery Act: Energy Efficiency of Data Networks through Rate Adaptation (EEDNRA) - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthew Andrews; Spyridon Antonakopoulos; Steve Fortune; Andrea Francini; Lisa Zhang

    2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This Concept Definition Study focused on developing a scientific understanding of methods to reduce energy consumption in data networks using rate adaptation. Rate adaptation is a collection of techniques that reduce energy consumption when traffic is light, and only require full energy when traffic is at full provisioned capacity. Rate adaptation is a very promising technique for saving energy: modern data networks are typically operated at average rates well below capacity, but network equipment has not yet been designed to incorporate rate adaptation. The Study concerns packet-switching equipment, routers and switches; such equipment forms the backbone of the modern Internet. The focus of the study is on algorithms and protocols that can be implemented in software or firmware to exploit hardware power-control mechanisms. Hardware power-control mechanisms are widely used in the computer industry, and are beginning to be available for networking equipment as well. Network equipment has different performance requirements than computer equipment because of the very fast rate of packet arrival; hence novel power-control algorithms are required for networking. This study resulted in five published papers, one internal report, and two patent applications, documented below. The specific technical accomplishments are the following: • A model for the power consumption of switching equipment used in service-provider telecommunication networks as a function of operating state, and measured power-consumption values for typical current equipment. • An algorithm for use in a router that adapts packet processing rate and hence power consumption to traffic load while maintaining performance guarantees on delay and throughput. • An algorithm that performs network-wide traffic routing with the objective of minimizing energy consumption, assuming that routers have less-than-ideal rate adaptivity. • An estimate of the potential energy savings in service-provider networks using feasibly-implementable rate adaptivity. • A buffer-management algorithm that is designed to reduce the size of router buffers, and hence energy consumed. • A packet-scheduling algorithm designed to minimize packet-processing energy requirements. Additional research is recommended in at least two areas: further exploration of rate-adaptation in network switching equipment, including incorporation of rate-adaptation in actual hardware, allowing experimentation in operational networks; and development of control protocols that allow parts of networks to be shut down while minimizing disruption to traffic flow in the network. The research is an integral part of a large effort within Bell Laboratories, Alcatel-Lucent, aimed at dramatic improvements in the energy efficiency of telecommunication networks. This Study did not explicitly consider any commercialization opportunities.

  2. Modeling of Shape Memory Alloys Considering Rate-independent and Rate-dependent Irrecoverable Strains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartl, Darren J.

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation addresses new developments in the constitutive modeling and structural analysis pertaining to rate-independent and rate-dependent irrecoverable inelasticity in Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs). A new model for fully recoverable SMA...

  3. adrenomedullin affects growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    based on the growth index analysis we find that the growth data favor the clustered dark energy scenario. Basilakos, Spyros 2014-01-01 96 THE GROWTH OF EUPHRASIA IN CULTIVATION...

  4. The loss rates of O{sup +} in the inner magnetosphere caused by both magnetic field line curvature scattering and charge exchange reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji, Y., E-mail: yji@spaceweather.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); College of Earth Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shen, C. [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    With consideration of magnetic field line curvature (FLC) pitch angle scattering and charge exchange reactions, the O{sup +} (>300?keV) in the inner magnetosphere loss rates are investigated by using an eigenfunction analysis. The FLC scattering provides a mechanism for the ring current O{sup +} to enter the loss cone and influence the loss rates caused by charge exchange reactions. Assuming that the pitch angle change is small for each scattering event, the diffusion equation including a charge exchange term is constructed and solved; the eigenvalues of the equation are identified. The resultant loss rates of O{sup +} are approximately equal to the linear superposition of the loss rate without considering the charge exchange reactions and the loss rate associated with charge exchange reactions alone. The loss time is consistent with the observations from the early recovery phases of magnetic storms.

  5. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Final Proposal : Wholesale Power Rate Development Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS) serves two primary purposes. It synthesizes information supplied by the other final studies that comprise the BPA rate proposal and shows the actual calculations for BPA's power rates. In addition, the WPRDS is the primary source for certain information used in establishing the power rates. Information developed in the WPRDS includes rate design (including seasonal and diurnal shapes for energy rates, demand, and load variance rates), the risk mitigation tools (Cost Recovery Adjustment Clause (CRAC), along with the [N]ational Marine Fisheries Service [F]ederal Columbia River Power System [B]iological Opinion (NFB) Adjustment, the Emergency NFB Surcharge, and Dividend Distribution Clause (DDC)), development of the Slice rate, and all discounts and other adjustments that are included in the rate schedules and the General Rate Schedule Provisions. The WPRDS also includes the description of the methodology for the Cost of Service Analysis (COSA), and the various rate design steps necessary to establish BPA's power rates. The WPRDS also shows the calculations for inter-business line revenues and expenses, the revenue forecast and, finally, includes a description of all of the rate schedules. The actual rate schedules are shown in ''Administrator's Final Record of Decision (ROD), Appendix A: 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions, WP-07-A-02''. The WPRDS also includes the Partial Resolution of Issues, shown in Attachment 1 of the ROD. The Partial Resolution of Issues affected many of the features described in this study. These are noted where appropriate.

  6. Considerations for How to Rate CPV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Miller, M.; Marion, B.; Emery, K.; McConnell, R.; Surendran, S.; Kimber, A.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) industry is introducing multiple products into the marketplace, but, as yet, the; community has not embraced a unified method for assessing a nameplate rating. The choices of whether to use 850,; 900, or 1000 W/m2 for the direct-normal irradiance and whether to link the rating to ambient or cell temperature will; affect how CPV modules are rated and compared with other technologies. This paper explores the qualitative and; quantitative ramifications of these choices using data from two multi-junction CPV modules and two flat-plate; modules.

  7. Measuring Degradation Rates Without Irradiance Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pulver, S.; Cormode, D.; Cronin, A.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Smith, R.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to report PV system degradation rates without using irradiance data is demonstrated. First, a set of relative degradation rates are determined by comparing daily AC final yields from a group of PV systems relative to the average final yield of all the PV systems. Then, the difference between relative and absolute degradation rates is found from a statistical analysis. This approach is verified by comparing to methods that utilize irradiance data. This approach is significant because PV systems are often deployed without irradiance sensors, so the analysis method described here may enable measurements of degradation using data that were previously thought to be unsuitable for degradation studies.

  8. Multiverse rate equation including bubble collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael P. Salem

    2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The volume fractions of vacua in an eternally inflating multiverse are described by a coarse-grain rate equation, which accounts for volume expansion and vacuum transitions via bubble formation. We generalize the rate equation to account for bubble collisions, including the possibility of classical transitions. Classical transitions can modify the details of the hierarchical structure among the volume fractions, with potential implications for the staggering and Boltzmann-brain issues. Whether or not our vacuum is likely to have been established by a classical transition depends on the detailed relationships among transition rates in the landscape.

  9. Smokeless Control of Flare Steam Flow Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agar, J.; Balls, B. W.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the First Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 22-25, 1979 FLARE GAS FLOW RATE MEASUREMENT "Accurate measurement of the very low flow rates which are normally present is very difficult" 0, p 15-8). "It is generally considered too...-04-91 Proceedings from the First Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 22-25, 1979 to calibration conditions. Turndown is 40:1 and pressure loss is negligible. APPLICATION FLOW RATE The mass flow meter described has been applied to a wide...

  10. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > Utility Rate > PostsUtility Rate

  11. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > Utility Rate >Utility Rate Home

  12. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > Utility Rate >Utility Rate

  13. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > Utility RateGlobalUtility Rate Home

  14. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home > Utility RateGlobalUtility Rate

  15. Modeling of Interaction Layer Growth Between U-Mo Particles and an Al Matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeon Soo Kim; G. L. Hofman; Ho Jin Ryu; Jong Man Park; A. B. Robinson; D. M. Wachs

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interaction layer growth between U-Mo alloy fuel particles and Al in a dispersion fuel is a concern due to the volume expansion and other unfavorable irradiation behavior of the interaction product. To reduce interaction layer (IL) growth, a small amount of Si is added to the Al. As a result, IL growth is affected by the Si content in the Al matrix. In order to predict IL growth during fabrication and irradiation, empirical models were developed. For IL growth prediction during fabrication and any follow-on heating process before irradiation, out-of-pile heating test data were used to develop kinetic correlations. Two out-of-pile correlations, one for the pure Al matrix and the other for the Al matrix with Si addition, respectively, were developed, which are Arrhenius equations that include temperature and time. For IL growth predictions during irradiation, the out-of-pile correlations were modified to include a fission-rate term to consider fission enhanced diffusion, and multiplication factors to incorporate the Si addition effect and the effect of the Mo content. The in-pile correlation is applicable for a pure Al matrix and an Al matrix with the Si content up to 8 wt%, for fuel temperatures up to 200 degrees C, and for Mo content in the range of 6 – 10wt%. In order to cover these ranges, in-pile data were included in modeling from various tests, such as the US RERTR-4, -5, -6, -7 and -9 tests and Korea’s KOMO-4 test, that were designed to systematically examine the effects of the fission rate, temperature, Si content in Al matrix, and Mo content in U-Mo particles. A model converting the IL thickness to the IL volume fraction in the meat was also developed.

  16. Contractor Rating and Feedback Systems | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Contractor Rating and Feedback Systems Contractor Rating and Feedback Systems Better Buildings Residential Workforce Business Partners Peer Exchange Call Series: Contractor Rating...

  17. Transition Path Sampling of Water Exchange Rates and Mechanisms...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Path Sampling of Water Exchange Rates and Mechanisms around Aqueous Ions . Transition Path Sampling of Water Exchange Rates and Mechanisms around Aqueous Ions . Abstract: The rates...

  18. Low-temperature GaN growth on silicon substrates by single gas-source epitaxy and photo-excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trivedi, R.A.; Tolle, J.; Chizmeshya, A.V.G.; Roucka, R.; Ritter, Cole; Kouvetakis, J.; Tsong, I.S.T. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States)

    2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a unique low-temperature growth method for epitaxial GaN on Si(111) substrates via a ZrB{sub 2}(0001) buffer layer. The method utilizes the decomposition of a single gas-source precursor (D{sub 2}GaN{sub 3}){sub 3} on the substrate surface to form GaN. The film growth process is further promoted by irradiation of ultraviolet light to enhance the growth rate and ordering of the film. The best epitaxial film quality is achieved at a growth temperature of 550 deg. C with a growth rate of 3 nm/min. The films exhibit intense photoluminescence emission at 10 K with a single peak at 3.48 eV, indicative of band-edge emission for a single-phase hexagonal GaN film. The growth process achieved in this study is compatible with low Si processing temperatures and also enables direct epitaxy of GaN on ZrB{sub 2} in contrast to conventional metalorganic chemical vapor deposition based approaches.

  19. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Wholesale Power Rate Development Study Documentation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Documentation for Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS) shows the details of the calculation of the proposed rates. It contains the source data, the calculation, and the results. Section 1 contains an overview of the information used and developed in the various models used in the rate development process. Section 2 contains the documentation of the Rate Analysis Model (RAM2007). The RAM2007 is a group of computer applications that performs most of the computations that determine BPA's proposed rates. The output tables of RAM2007 show the source data, calculations (in sequence), and the results (rate charges) of the rate development process. Section 3 provides documentation of revenue forecasts for the 3-year rate test period FY 2007 through FY 2009 at both current and proposed rates and at current rates for the period immediately preceding the rate test period. Section 4 includes supporting data for rate calculations not performed in RAM2007 or revenue analyses. Each section draws data from difference sources and thus tables and/or charts are not always numbered in sequence. For purposes of this document, omitted tables will be listed as such in the Table of Contents.

  20. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Final Proposal : Wholesale Power Rate Development Study Documentation, Volume 2.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Documentation for Wholesale Power Rate Development Study shows the details of the calculation of the proposed rates. It contains the source data, the calculation, and the results. There are 2 Volumes, the first containing Sections 1, 2, and 3; the second containing Section 4 and 3 appendices. Section 1 contains an overview of the information used and developed in the various models used in the rate development process. Section 2 contains the documentation of the Rate Analysis Model (RAM2007). The RAM2007 is a group of computer applications that performs most of the computations that determine BPA's proposed rates. The output tables of RAM2007 show the source data, calculations (in sequence), and the results (rate charges) of the rate development process. Section 3 provides documentation of revenue forecasts for the three-year rate test period FY 2007 through FY 2009 at both current and proposed rates and at current rates for the period immediately preceding the rate test period. Section 4 includes supporting data for rate calculations not performed in RAM2007 or revenue analyses.

  1. Cooling rate, heating rate, and aging effects in glassy water Nicolas Giovambattista,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sciortino, Francesco

    be glassified by cooling using hyper- quenching techniques (i.e., with rates of the order of 105 K/s [8Cooling rate, heating rate, and aging effects in glassy water Nicolas Giovambattista,1 H. Eugene of water molecules during the process of generating a glass by cooling, and during the process

  2. Eucalyptus kraft black liquor enhances growth and productivity of Spirulina in outdoor cultures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chauhan, V.S.; Singh, G.; Ramamurthy, V. [Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala (India)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mass cultivation of microalgae for commercial applications suffers from poor productivities when measured against laboratory results or theoretical projections. In an effort to reduce this gap it was discovered that addition of eucalyptus kraft black liquor (BL) enhanced biomass productivity in outdoor cultures of Spirulina by increasing growth rate by 38% and biomass yield by 43%. BL treatment resulted in elevation of nitrogen assimilating enzyme activities and efficiency of phosphate utilization. Analyses of forenoon and afternoon oxygen production rates (OPRs) indicated higher photosynthetic and respiratory activity in BL-treated cultures compared to untreated cultures. 20 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. UNLEASHING POSITIVE FEEDBACK: LINKING THE RATES OF STAR FORMATION, SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE ACCRETION, AND OUTFLOWS IN DISTANT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silk, Joseph [Institut d'Astrophysique, UMR 7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98bis Blvd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Beecroft Institute of Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressure-regulated star formation is a simple variant on the usual supernova-regulated star formation efficiency that controls the global star formation rate as a function of cold gas content in star-forming galaxies, and accounts for the Schmidt-Kennicutt law in both nearby and distant galaxies. Inclusion of active galactic nucleus (AGN) induced pressure, by jets and/or winds that flow back onto a gas-rich disk, can lead, under some circumstances, to significantly enhanced star formation rates, especially at high redshift and most likely followed by the more widely accepted phase of star formation quenching. Simple expressions are derived that relate supermassive black hole growth, star formation, and outflow rates. The ratios of black hole to spheroid mass and of both black hole accretion and outflow rates to star formation rate are predicted as a function of time. I suggest various tests of the AGN-triggered star formation hypothesis.

  4. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sortino, Orazio [Dipartimento di Scienze Agronomiche Agrochimiche e delle Produzioni Animali, Universita degli Studi di Catania, Via Valdisavoia 5, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipasquale, Mauro [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Montoneri, Enzo, E-mail: enzo.montoneri@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Valorizzazione e Protezione delle Risorse Agroforestali, Universita di Torino, Via L. da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  5. Black hole evolution: I. Supernova-regulated black hole growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dubois, Yohan; Silk, Joseph; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Teyssier, Romain

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth of a supermassive black hole (BH) is determined by how much gas the host galaxy is able to feed it, which in turn is controlled by the cosmic environment, through galaxy mergers and accretion of cosmic flows that time how galaxies obtain their gas, but also by internal processes in the galaxy, such as star formation and feedback from stars and the BH itself. In this paper, we study the growth of a 10^12 Msun halo at z=2, which is the progenitor of an archetypical group of galaxies at z=0, and of its central BH by means of a high-resolution zoomed cosmological simulation, the Seth simulation. We study the evolution of the BH driven by the accretion of cold gas in the galaxy, and explore the efficiency of the feedback from supernovae (SNe). For a relatively inefficient energy input from SNe, the BH grows at the Eddington rate from early times, and reaches self-regulation once it is massive enough. We find that at early cosmic times z>3.5, efficient feedback from SNe forbids the formation of a settled...

  6. Giant planet formation: episodic impacts vs. gradual core growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broeg, Christopher

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the growth of gas giant planets in the core accretion scenario. The core growth is not modeled as a gradual accretion of planetesimals but as episodic impacts of large mass ratios, i.e. we study impacts of 0.02 - 1 Earth masses onto cores of 1-15 Earth masses. Such impacts could deliver the majority of solid matter in the giant impact regime. We focus on the thermal response of the envelope to the energy delivery. Previous studies have shown that sudden shut off of core accretion can dramatically speed up gas accretion. We therefore expect that giant impacts followed by periods of very low core accretion will result in a net increase in gas accretion rate. This study aims at modelling such a sequence of events and to understand the reaction of the envelope to giant impacts in more detail. To model this scenario, we spread the impact energy deposition over a time that is long compared to the sound crossing time, but very short compared to the Kelvin-Helmholtz time. The simulations are done in spher...

  7. Multi-level effects of low dose rate ionizing radiation on southern toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E.; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P.; Hinton, Thomas G.; Amendola, Roberto

    2015-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development –embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of ¹³?Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d?¹, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did notmore »affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21mGy d?¹ and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.« less

  8. Multi-level effects of low dose rate ionizing radiation on southern toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stark, Karolina [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Scott, David E. [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Tsyusko, Olga [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Coughlin, Daniel P. [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Hinton, Thomas G. [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Inst. of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, Cadarache (France); Amendola, Roberto [ENEA, (Italy)

    2015-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development –embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of ¹³?Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d?¹, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21mGy d?¹ and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.

  9. Geothermal Energy Growth Continues, Industry Survey Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A survey released by the Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) shows continued growth in the number of new geothermal power projects under development in the United States, a 20% increase since January of this year.

  10. Economic Redevelopment and Growth Program (New Jersey)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Economic Redevelopment and Growth program (ERG) is an incentive for real estate development projects that have a financing gap, defined as having insufficient revenues to support the project debt...

  11. New Jersey Business Growth Fund (New Jersey)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Creditworthy small or mid-sized companies that are creating or retaining jobs in New Jersey can apply for financing through the New Jersey Business Growth Fund, a joint program of the EDA and PNC...

  12. Selective anisotropic growth of zeolite crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desai, Tasha April

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Precise control over particle size and morphology is emerging as a critical issue in the design of nanostructured materials. The explosive growth of nanoparticle synthesis is a good example of this. As material chemists have developed the ability...

  13. Growth of the NGV Market: Lessons Learned Roadmap for Infrastructure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Growth of the NGV Market: Lessons Learned Roadmap for Infrastructure Development Growth of the NGV Market: Lessons Learned Roadmap for Infrastructure Development Presented at...

  14. Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111): Observation of a Hydrophobic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111): Observation of a Hydrophobic Water Monolayer. Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111): Observation of a Hydrophobic Water Monolayer. Abstract: The...

  15. Epitaxial Growth and Properties of Doped Transition Metal and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of crystalline oxide film growth using vacuum methods is reviewed and discussed with an eye toward gaining fundamental insights into the relationships between growth process and...

  16. Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium Deposition by in situ Electrochemical Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium...

  17. allometric appendage growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 PERSPECTIVES Allometric growth, life-history invariants and population energetics Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: IDEAS AND PERSPECTIVES Allometric growth,...

  18. Low-Carbon Growth Country Studies: Getting Started Experience...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low-Carbon Growth Country Studies: Getting Started Experience from Six Countries Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Low-Carbon Growth Country Studies:...

  19. aqueous chemical growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technische Universiteit Delft 36 Growth of Large-Area Aligned Molybdenum Nanowires by High Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition: Synthesis, Growth Mechanism, and Device...

  20. Electron Backscatter Diffraction Analysis of a CZT Growth Tip...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of a CZT Growth Tip from a Vertical Gradient Freeze Furnace. Electron Backscatter Diffraction Analysis of a CZT Growth Tip from a Vertical Gradient Freeze Furnace....