Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment model gcam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Enhancement of Solar Energy Representation in the GCAM Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The representation of solar technologies in a research version of the GCAM (formerly MiniCAM) integrated assessment model have been enhanced to add technologies, improve the underlying data, and improve the interaction with the rest of the model. We find that the largest potential impact from the inclusion of thermal Concentrating Solar Power plants, which supply a substantial portion of electric generation in sunny regions of the world. Drawing on NREL research, domestic Solar Hot Water technologies have also been added in the United States region where this technology competes with conventional electric and gas technologies. PV technologies are as implemented in the CCTP scenarios, drawing on NREL cost curves for the United States, extrapolated to other world regions using a spatial analysis of population and solar resources.

Smith, Steven J.; Volke, April C.; Delgado Arias, Sabrina

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

US Renewable Futures in the GCAM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project examines renewable energy deployment in the United States using a version of the GCAM integrated assessment model with detailed a representation of renewables, the GCAM-RE. Electricity generation was modeled in four generation segments and 12-subregions. This level of regional and sectoral detail allows a more explicit representation of renewable energy generation. Wind, solar thermal power, and central solar PV plants are implemented in explicit resource classes with new intermittency parameterizations appropriate for each technology. A scenario analysis examines a range of assumptions for technology characteristics, climate policy, and long-distance transmission. We find that renewable generation levels grow over the century in all scenarios. As expected, renewable generation increases with lower renewable technology costs, more stringent climate policy, and if alternative low-carbon technology are not available. The availability of long distance transmission lowers policy costs and changes the renewable generation mix.

Smith, Steven J.; Mizrahi, Andrew H.; Karas, Joseph F.; Nathan, Mayda

2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

3

Economic and Physical Modeling of Land Use in GCAM 3.0 and an Application to Agricultural Productivity, Land, and Terrestrial Carbon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We explore the impact of changes in agricultural productivity on global land use and terrestrial carbon using the new agriculture and land use modeling approach developed for Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) version 3.0. This approach models economic land use decisions with regional, physical, and technological specificity while maintaining economic and physical integration with the rest of the GCAM model. Physical land characteristics and quantities are tracked explicitly, and crop production practices are modeled discretely to facilitate coupling with physical models. Economic land allocation is modeled with non-linear functions in a market equilibrium rather than through a constrained optimization. In this paper, we explore three scenarios of future agriculture productivity in all regions of the globe over this century, ranging from a high growth to a zero growth level. The higher productivity growth scenario leads to lower crop prices, increased production of crops in developing nations, preservation of global forested lands and lower terrestrial carbon emissions. The scenario with no productivity improvement results in higher crop prices, an expansion of crop production in the developed world, loss of forested lands globally, and higher terrestrial carbon emissions.

Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick; Edmonds, James A.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Implications of simultaneously mitigating and adapting to climate change: Initial experiments using GCAM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Historically climate impacts research and climate mitigation research have been two separate and independent domains of inquiry. Climate mitigation research has investigated greenhouse gas emissions assuming that climate is unchanging. At the same time climate mitigation research has investigated the implications of climate change on the assumption that climate mitigation will proceed without affecting the degree of climate impacts or the ability of human and natural systems to adapt. The Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) has largely been employed to study climate mitigation. Here we explore the development of capabilities to assess climate change impacts and adaptation within the GCAM model. These capabilities are being developed so as to be able to simultaneously reconcile the joint implications of climate change mitigation, impacts and adaptive potential. This is an important step forward in that it enables direct comparison between climate mitigation activities and climate impacts and the opportunity to understand interactions between the two.

Calvin, Katherine V.; Wise, Marshall A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick W.; Thomson, Allison M.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

GCAM 3.0 Agriculture and Land Use: Data Sources and Methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the data processing methods used in the GCAM 3.0 agriculture and land use component, starting from all source data used, and detailing all calculations and assumptions made in generating the model inputs. The report starts with a brief introduction to modeling of agriculture and land use in GCAM 3.0, and then provides documentation of the data and methods used for generating the base-year dataset and future scenario parameters assumed in the model input files. Specifically, the report addresses primary commodity production, secondary (animal) commodity production, disposition of commodities, land allocation, land carbon contents, and land values.

Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick; Calvin, Katherine V.; Emanuel, William R.; Nathan, Mayda; Zhou, Yuyu

2011-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

6

From land use to land cover: Restoring the afforestation signal in a coupled integrated assessment - earth system model and the implications for CMIP5 RCP simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Climate projections depend on scenarios of fossil fuel emissions and land use change, and the IPCC AR5 parallel process assumes consistent climate scenarios across Integrated Assessment and Earth System Models (IAMs and ESMs). To facilitate consistency, CMIP5 used a novel land use harmonization to provide ESMs with seamless, 1500-2100 land use trajectories generated by historical data and four IAMs. However, we have identified and partially addressed a major gap in the CMIP5 land coupling design. The CMIP5 Community ESM (CESM) global afforestation is only 22% of RCP4.5 afforestation from 2005 to 2100. Likewise, only 17% of the Global Change Assessment Model’s (GCAM’s) 2040 RCP4.5 afforestation signal, and none of the pasture loss, were transmitted to CESM within a newly integrated model. This is a critical problem because afforestation is necessary for achieving the RCP4.5 climate stabilization. We attempted to rectify this problem by modifying only the ESM component of the integrated model, enabling CESM to simulate 66% of GCAM’s afforestation in 2040, and 94% of GCAM’s pasture loss as grassland and shrubland losses. This additional afforestation increases vegetation carbon gain by 19 PgC and decreases atmospheric CO2 gain by 8 ppmv from 2005 to 2040, implying different climate scenarios between CMIP5 GCAM and CESM. Similar inconsistencies likely exist in other CMIP5 model results, primarily because land cover information is not shared between models, with possible contributions from afforestation exceeding model-specific, potentially viable forest area. Further work to harmonize land cover among models will be required to adequately rectify this problem.

Di Vittorio, Alan; Chini, Louise M.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Truesdale, John E.; Craig, Anthony P.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Jones, Andrew D.; Collins, William D.; Edmonds, James A.; Hurtt, George; Thornton, Peter E.; Thomson, Allison M.

2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

7

GCAM Bioenergy and Land Use Modeling  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject: Guidance for natural gas as a feedstock forMEETINGS

8

Development of a Future Representative Concentration Pathway for Use in the IPCC 5th Assessment Earth System Model Simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The representative concentration pathway to be delivered is a scenario of atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and other radiatively important atmospheric species, along with land-use changes, derived from the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). The particular representative concentration pathway (RCP) that the Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI) has been responsible for is a not-to-exceed pathway that stabilizes at a radiative forcing of 4.5Wm-2 in the year 2100.

None

2010-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

9

Global Deployment of Geothermal Energy Using a New Characterization in GCAM 1.0  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents modeling of geothermal energy in GCAM 1.0 (formerly MiniCAM) from FY2008 to FY2009, from the inputs to the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program report (Clarke et al., 2008a) to the present representation, which will be used in future work. To demonstrate the newest representation, we describe the procedure and outcome of six model runs that illustrate the potential role of geothermal energy in the U.S. and global regions through different futures climate policy, development and deployment of engineered, or enhanced, geothermal systems (EGS), and availability of other low-cost, low-carbon electricity generation technologies such as nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage (CCS).

Hannam, Phil; Kyle, G. Page; Smith, Steven J.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Climate Models from the Joint Global Change Research Institute  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Staff at the Joint Institute develop and use models to simulate the economic and physical impacts of global change policy options. The GCAM, for example, gives analysts insight into how regional and national economies might respond to climate change mitigation policies including carbon taxes, carbon trading, and accelerated deployment of energy technology. Three available models are Phoenix, GCAM, and EPIC. Phoenix is a global, dynamic recursive, computable general equilibrium model that is solved in five-year time steps from 2005 through 2100 and divides the world into twenty-four regions. Each region includes twenty-six industrial sectors. Particular attention is paid to energy production in Phoenix. There are nine electricity-generating technologies (coal, natural gas, oil, biomass, nuclear, hydro, wind, solar, and geothermal) and four additional energy commodities: crude oil, refined oil products, coal, and natural gas. Phoenix is designed to answer economic questions related to international climate and energy policy and international trade. Phoenix replaces the Second Generation Model (SGM) that was formerly used for general equilibrium analysis at JGCRI. GCAM is the Global Change Assessment Model, a partial equilibrium model of the world with 14 regions. GCAM operates in 5 year time steps from 1990 to 2095 and is designed to examine long-term changes in the coupled energy, agriculture/land-use, and climate system. GCAM includes a 151-region agriculture land-use module and a reduced form carbon cycle and climate module in addition to its incorporation of demographics, resources, energy production and consumption. The model has been used extensively in a number of assessment and modeling activities such as the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF), the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program, and the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and IPCC assessment reports. GCAM is now freely available as a community model. The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) Model is a process-based agricultural systems model composed of simulation components for weather, hydrology, nutrient cycling, pesticide fate, tillage, crop growth, soil erosion, crop and soil management and economics. Staff at PNNL have been involved in the development of this model by integrating new sub-models for soil carbon dynamics and nitrogen cycling.

11

Model Evaluation and Hindcasting: An Experiment with an Integrated Assessment Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Integrated assessment models have been extensively used for analyzing long term energy and greenhouse emissions trajectories and have influenced key policies on this subject. Though admittedly these models are focused on the long term trajectories, how well these models are able to capture historical dynamics is an open question. In a first experiment of its kind, we present a framework for evaluation of such integrated assessment models. We use Global Change Assessment Model for this zero order experiment, and focus on the building sector results for USA. We calibrate the model for 1990 and run it forward up to 2095 in five year time steps. This gives us results for 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010 which we compare to observed historical data at both fuel level and service level. We focus on bringing out the key insights for the wider process of model evaluation through our experiment with GCAM. We begin with highlighting that creation of an evaluation dataset and identification of key evaluation metric is the foremost challenge in the evaluation process. Our analysis highlights that estimation of functional form of the relationship between energy service demand, which is an unobserved variable, and its drivers is a significant challenge in the absence of adequate historical data for both the dependent and driver variables. Historical data availability for key metrics is a serious limiting factor in the process of evaluation. Interestingly, service level data against which such models need to be evaluated are itself a result of models. Thus for energy services, the best we can do is compare our model results with other model results rather than observed and measured data. We show that long term models, by the nature of their construction, will most likely underestimate the rapid growth in some services observed in a short time span. Also, we learn that modeling saturated energy services like space heating is easier than modeling unsaturated services like space cooling and understanding that how far a service is from its saturation level is a key question which we probably don’t have an answer to. Finally and most importantly, even if long term models partially miss the short term dynamics, the long term insights provides by these models is fairly robust. We conclude by highlighting that our work is the first step in the much wider process of integrated assessment model evaluation and will hence have its own limitations. Future evaluation research work should build upon this zero order experiment for improving our modeling of human and coupled earth systems.

Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Kim, Son H.; Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.; Zhou, Yuyu; Kyle, G. Page; Patel, Pralit L.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Integrated Assessment of Global Water Scarcity over the 21st Century under Multiple Climate Change Mitigation Policies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally are assessed in the context of climate change, by estimating both water availability and water demand within the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. To quantify changes in future water availability, a new gridded water-balance global hydrologic model – namely, the Global Water Availability Model (GWAM) – is developed and evaluated. Global water demands for six major demand sectors (irrigation, livestock, domestic, electricity generation, primary energy production, and manufacturing) are modeled in GCAM at the regional scale (14 geopolitical regions, 151 sub-regions) and then spatially downscaled to 0.5 o x 0.5o resolution to match the scale of GWAM. Using a baseline scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) and a global population of 14 billion by 2095, global annual water demand grows from about 9% of total annual renewable freshwater in 2005 to about 32% by 2095. This results in almost half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Regionally, the demand for water exceeds the amount of water availability in two GCAM regions, the Middle East and India. Additionally, in years 2050 and 2095, 20% and 27% of the global population, respectively, is projected to live in areas (grid cells) that will experience greater water demands than the amount of available water in a year (i.e., the water scarcity index (WSI) > 1.0). This study implies an increasingly prominent role for water in future human decisions, and highlights the importance of including water in integrated assessment of global change.

Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Wise, Marshall A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Calvin, Katherine V.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

LONG-TERM GLOBAL WATER USE PROJECTIONS USING SIX SOCIOECONOMIC SCENARIOS IN AN INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT MODELING FRAMEWORK  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we assess future water demands for the agricultural (irrigation and livestock), energy (electricity generation, primary energy production and processing), industrial (manufacturing and mining), and municipal sectors, by incorporating water demands into a technologically-detailed global integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, and climate change – the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). Base-year water demands—both gross withdrawals and net consumptive use—are assigned to specific modeled activities in a way that maximizes consistency between bottom-up estimates of water demand intensities of specific technologies and practices, and top-down regional and sectoral estimates of water use. The energy, industrial, and municipal sectors are represented in fourteen geopolitical regions, with the agricultural sector further disaggregated into as many as eighteen agro-ecological zones (AEZs) within each region. We assess future water demands representing six socioeconomic scenarios, with no constraints imposed by future water supplies. The scenarios observe increases in global water withdrawals from 3,578 km3 year-1 in 2005 to 5,987 – 8,374 km3 year-1 in 2050, and to 4,719 – 12,290 km3 year-1 in 2095. Comparing the projected total regional water withdrawals to the historical supply of renewable freshwater, the Middle East exhibits the highest levels of water scarcity throughout the century, followed by India; water scarcity increases over time in both of these regions. In contrast, water scarcity improves in some regions with large base-year electric sector withdrawals, such as the USA and Canada, due to capital stock turnover and the almost complete phase-out of once-through flow cooling systems. The scenarios indicate that: 1) water is likely a limiting factor in climate change mitigation policies, 2) many regions can be expected to increase reliance on non-renewable groundwater, water reuse, and desalinated water, but they also highlight an important role for development and deployment of water conservation technologies and practices.

Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Wise, Marshall A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Calvin, Katherine V.; Moss, Richard H.; Kim, Son H.

2014-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

14

Explicitly Accounting for Protected Lands within the GCAM 3.0  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Global Change Assessment Model Version 3.0 defines three different levels of “Protected Lands” within the agricultural and landuse component. These three different scenarios effectively cordon off 3.5% (5.0 million km2) of the Earth’s terrestrial lands in the de minimus Protected Land Scenario, 5.0% (7.20 million km2) in the Core Protected Land Scenario, and 8.2% (11.8 million km2) in the Expanded Protected Land Scenario. None of these scenarios represents the “right” level of Protected Lands for the planet today or tomorrow. Rather, the goal is to create a range of scenarios that can be used in modeling human responses to climate change and the impact those would have on managed and unmanaged terrestrial lands. These scenarios harness the wealth of information in the United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre’s World Database on Protected Areas and its categories of explicit degrees of protection.

Dooley, James J.; Zhou, Yuyu

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Modeling the effect of climate change on U.S. state-level buildings energy demands in an integrated assessment framework  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As long-term socioeconomic transformation and energy service expansion show large spatial heterogeneity, advanced understanding of climate impact on building energy use at the sub-national level will offer useful insights into climate policy and regional energy system planning. In this study, we presented a detailed building energy model with a U.S. state-level representation, nested in the GCAM integrated assessment framework. We projected state-level building energy demand and its spatial pattern over the century, considering the impact of climate change based on the estimates of heating and cooling degree days derived from downscaled USGS CASCaDE temperature data. The result indicates that climate change has a large impact on heating and cooling building energy and fuel use at the state level, exhibiting large spatial heterogeneity across states (ranges from -10% to +10%). The sensitivity analysis reveals that the building energy demand is subject to multiple key factors, such as the magnitude of climate change, the choice of climate models, and the growth of population and GDP, and that their relative contributions vary greatly across the space. The scale impact in building energy use modeling highlights the importance of constructing a building energy model with the spatially-explicit representation of socioeconomics, energy system development, and climate change. These findings will help the climate-based policy decision and energy system, especially utility planning related to building sector at the U.S. state and regional level facing the potential climate change.

Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon E.; Eom, Jiyong; Kyle, G. Page; Patel, Pralit L.; Kim, Son H.; Dirks, James A.; Jensen, Erik A.; Liu, Ying; Rice, Jennie S.; Schmidt, Laurel C.; Seiple, Timothy E.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Integrated Assessment Modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses the role of Integrated Assessment models (IAMs) in climate change research. IAMs are an interdisciplinary research platform, which constitutes a consistent scientific framework in which the large-scale interactions between human and natural Earth systems can be examined. In so doing, IAMs provide insights that would otherwise be unavailable from traditional single-discipline research. By providing a broader view of the issue, IAMs constitute an important tool for decision support. IAMs are also a home of human Earth system research and provide natural Earth system scientists information about the nature of human intervention in global biogeophysical and geochemical processes.

Edmonds, James A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; McJeon, Haewon C.

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

17

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric biomass integrated Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2.1 Integrated Assessment Modeling of Biomass Energy: the GCAM Model The Global Change... markets are integrated, along with unmanaged ecosystems and the ... Source: Hultman,...

18

Model Refinement for Economic Assessments of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model Refinement for Economic Assessments of Hawai`i Clean Energy Policies: Scenario Selection agency thereof. #12;Model Refinement for Economic Assessments of Hawaii Clean Energy Policies Selection

19

Land-use transition for bioenergy and climate stabilization: model comparison of drivers, impacts and interactions with other land use based mitigation options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study is a model comparison assessing the drivers and impacts of bioenergy production on the global land system and the interaction with other land use based mitigation options in the context of the EMF 27 project. We compare and evaluate results from three integrated assessment models (GCAM, IMAGE, and ReMIND/MAgPIE). All three models project that dedicated bioenergy crops and biomass residues are a potentially important and cost-effective component of the energy system. But bioenergy deployment levels and feedstock composition vary notably across models as do the implications for land-use and greenhouse gas emissions and the interaction with other land use based mitigation measures. Despite numerous model differences, we identify a few that are likely contributing to differences in land-use and emissions attributable to energy crop deployment.

Popp, Alexander; Rose, Steven K.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Dietrich, Jan P.; Wise, Marshall A.; Stehfest, Eike; Humpenoder, Florian; Kyle, G. Page; Van Vliet, Jasper; Bauer, Nico; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Klein, David; Kriegler, Elmar

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment - Preliminary Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Preliminary Assessment draft report will present the results of a literature search and preliminary assessment of the body of research, analysis methods, models and data deemed to be relevant to the Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment research. This report will provide: 1) a description of the problem space and the kinds of information pertinent to the problem space, 2) a discussion of key relevant or representative literature, 3) a discussion of models and modeling approaches judged to be potentially useful to the research, and 4) the next steps of this research that will be pursued based on this preliminary assessment. This draft report represents a technical deliverable for the NA-22 Simulations, Algorithms, and Modeling (SAM) program. Specifically this draft report is the Task 1 deliverable for project PL09-UtilSocial-PD06, Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment. This project investigates non-traditional use of social and cultural information to improve nuclear proliferation assessment, including nonproliferation assessment, proliferation resistance assessments, safeguards assessments and other related studies. These assessments often use and create technical information about the State’s posture towards proliferation, the vulnerability of a nuclear energy system to an undesired event, and the effectiveness of safeguards. This project will find and fuse social and technical information by explicitly considering the role of cultural, social and behavioral factors relevant to proliferation. The aim of this research is to describe and demonstrate if and how social science modeling has utility in proliferation assessment.

Coles, Garill A.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Brothers, Alan J.; Thompson, Sandra E.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment model gcam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Model Fire Protection Assessment Guide  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Assessment guide covers the implementation of the DOE's responsibility of assuring that DOE and the DOE Contractors have established Fire Protection Programs that are at the level required for the area being assessed.

22

An Impact Assessment Model for Distributed Adaptive Security Situation Assessment*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 An Impact Assessment Model for Distributed Adaptive Security Situation Assessment* Mark Heckman mechanism is not simply to stop attacks, but to protect a computing resource so that the resource can continue to perform its function. A computing resource, however, is only a component of a larger system

California at Davis, University of

23

China's Building Energy Demand: Long-Term Implications from a Detailed Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present here a detailed, service-based model of China’s building energy use, nested in the GCAM (Global Change Assessment Model) integrated assessment framework. Using the model, we explore long-term pathways of China’s building energy use and identify opportunities of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The inclusion of a structural model of building energy demands within an integrated assessment framework represents a major methodological advance. It allows for a structural understanding of the drivers of building energy consumption while simultaneously considering the other human and natural system interactions that influence changes in the global energy system and climate. We also explore a range of different scenarios to gain insights into how China’s building sector might evolve and what the implications might be for improved building energy technology and carbon policies. The analysis suggests that China’s building energy growth will not wane anytime soon, although technology improvement will put downward pressure on this growth. Also, regardless of the scenarios represented, the growth will involve the continued, rapid electrification of the buildings sector throughout the century, and this transition will be accelerated by the implementation of carbon policy.

Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Patel, Pralit L.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

China's Building Energy Use: A Long-Term Perspective based on a Detailed Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present here a detailed, service-based model of China's building energy use, nested in the GCAM (Global Change Assessment Model) integrated assessment framework. Using the model, we explore long-term pathways of China's building energy use and identify opportunities of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The inclusion of a structural model of building energy demands within an integrated assessment framework represents a major methodological advance. It allows for a structural understanding of the drivers of building energy consumption while simultaneously considering the other human and natural system interactions that influence changes in the global energy system and climate. We also explore a range of different scenarios to gain insights into how China's building sector might evolve and what the implications might be for improved building energy technology and carbon policies. The analysis suggests that China's building energy growth will not wane anytime soon, although technology improvement will put downward pressure on this growth. Also, regardless of the scenarios represented, the growth will involve the continued, rapid electrification of the buildings sector throughout the century, and this transition will be accelerated by the implementation of carbon policy.

Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Patel, Pralit L.

2012-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

25

Assessment of Molecular Modeling & Simulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report reviews the development and applications of molecular and materials modeling in Europe and Japan in comparison to those in the United States. Topics covered include computational quantum chemistry, molecular simulations by molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods, mesoscale modeling of material domains, molecular-structure/macroscale property correlations like QSARs and QSPRs, and related information technologies like informatics and special-purpose molecular-modeling computers. The panel's findings include the following: The United States leads this field in many scientific areas. However, Canada has particular strengths in DFT methods and homogeneous catalysis; Europe in heterogeneous catalysis, mesoscale, and materials modeling; and Japan in materials modeling and special-purpose computing. Major government-industry initiatives are underway in Europe and Japan, notably in multi-scale materials modeling and in development of chemistry-capable ab-initio molecular dynamics codes.

None

2002-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

26

ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF MODEL PREDICTIVE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL THROUGH VARIANCE/CONSTRAINT TUNING advanced process control (APC) strategies to deal with multivariable constrained control problems with an ultimate objective towards economic optimization. Any attempt to evaluate MPC performance should therefore

Huang, Biao

27

ORISE: Dose modeling and assessments  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

or state regulatory compliance requirements are being met during the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Dose modeling is an important step in the...

28

Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century under multiple climate change mitigation policies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally are assessed in the context of climate change and climate mitigation policies, by estimating both water availability and water demand within the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. To quantify changes in future water availability, a new gridded water-balance global hydrologic model – namely, the Global Water Availability Model (GWAM) – is developed and evaluated. Global water demands for six major demand sectors (irrigation, livestock, domestic, electricity generation, primary energy production, and manufacturing) are modeled in GCAM at the regional scale (14 geopolitical regions, 151 sub-regions) and then spatially downscaled to 0.5 o x 0.5o resolution to match the scale of GWAM. Using a baseline scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) and three climate policy scenarios with increasing mitigation stringency of 7.7, 5.5, and 4.2 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A2, B2, and B1 emission scenarios, respectively), we investigate the effects of emission mitigation policies on water scarcity. Two carbon tax regimes (a universal carbon tax (UCT) which includes land use change emissions, and a fossil fuel and industrial emissions carbon tax (FFICT) which excludes land use change emissions) are analyzed. The baseline scenario results in more than half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Additionally, in years 2050 and 2095, 36% (28%) and 44% (39%) of the global population, respectively, is projected to live in grid cells (in basins) that will experience greater water demands than the amount of available water in a year (i.e., the water scarcity index (WSI) > 1.0). When comparing the climate policy scenarios to the baseline scenario while maintaining the same baseline socioeconomic assumptions, water scarcity declines under a UCT mitigation policy but increases with a FFICT mitigation scenario by the year 2095 particularly with more stringent climate mitigation targets. Under the FFICT scenario, water scarcity is projected to increase driven by higher water demands for bio-energy crops.

Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Wise, Marshall A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Calvin, Katherine V.

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Models and parameters for environmental radiological assessments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This book presents a unified compilation of models and parameters appropriate for assessing the impact of radioactive discharges to the environment. Models examined include those developed for the prediction of atmospheric and hydrologic transport and deposition, for terrestrial and aquatic food-chain bioaccumulation, and for internal and external dosimetry. Chapters have been entered separately into the data base. (ACR)

Miller, C W [ed.] [ed.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

ORISE: Dose modeling and assessments  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recoveryLaboratory |CHEMPACK Mapping Application ORISECenterMakingDOEOakDose modeling

31

Model assessment of protective barriers: Part 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radioactive waste exists at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in a variety of locations, including subsurface grout and tank farms, solid waste burial grounds, and contaminated soil sites. Some of these waste sites may need to be isolated from percolating water to minimize the potential for transport of the waste to the ground water, which eventually discharges to the Columbia River. Multilayer protective barriers have been proposed as a means of limiting the flow of water through the waste sites (DOE 1987). A multiyear research program (managed jointly by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company for the DOE) is aimed at assessing the performance of these barriers. One aspect of this program involves the use of computer models to predict barrier performance. Three modeling studies have already been conducted and a test plan was produced. The simulation work reported here was conducted by PNL and extends the previous modeling work. The purpose of this report are to understand phenomena that have been observed in the field and to provide information that can be used to improve hydrologic modeling of the protective barrier. An improved modeling capability results in better estimates of barrier performance. Better estimates can be used to improve the design of barriers and the assessment of their long-term performance.

Fayer, M.J.; Rockhold, M.L.; Holford, D.J.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

A long-term, integrated impact assessment of alternative building energy code scenarios in China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

China is the second largest building energy user in the world, ranking first and third in residential and commercial energy consumption. Beginning in the early 1980s, the Chinese government has developed a variety of building energy codes to improve building energy efficiency and reduce total energy demand. This paper studies the impact of building energy codes on energy use and CO2 emissions by using a detailed building energy model that represents four distinct climate zones each with three building types, nested in a long-term integrated assessment framework GCAM. An advanced building stock module, coupled with the building energy model, is developed to reflect the characteristics of future building stock and its interaction with the development of building energy codes in China. This paper also evaluates the impacts of building codes on building energy demand in the presence of economy-wide carbon policy. We find that building energy codes would reduce Chinese building energy use by 13% - 22% depending on building code scenarios, with a similar effect preserved even under the carbon policy. The impact of building energy codes shows regional and sectoral variation due to regionally differentiated responses of heating and cooling services to shell efficiency improvement.

Yu, Sha; Eom, Jiyong; Evans, Meredydd; Clarke, Leon E.

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Assessing Uncertainty in Spatial Exposure Models for Air Pollution Health Effects Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Holgate S. 2002. Air pollution and health. Lancet Brunekreef2006. Bayesian modeling of air pollution health effects withExposure Models for Air Pollution Health Effects Assessment

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Model for assessing bronchial mucus transport  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors propose a scheme for the assessment of regional mucus transport using inhaled Tc-99m aerosol particles and quantitative analysis of serial gamma-camera images. The model treats input to inner and intermediate lung regions as the total of initial deposition there plus subsequent transport into these regions from more peripheral airways. It allows for interregional differences in the proportion of particles deposited on the mucus-bearing conducting airways, and does not require a gamma image 24 hr after particle inhalation. Instead, distribution of particles reaching the respiratory bronchioles or alveoli is determined from a Kr-81m ventilation image, while the total amount of such deposition is obtained from 24-hr Tc-99m retention measured with a sensitive counter system. The model is applicable to transport by mucociliary action or by cough, and has been tested in ten normal and ten asthmatic subjects.

Agnew, J.E.; Bateman, J.R.M.; Pavia, D.; Clarke, S.W.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Risk assessment compatible fire models (RACFMs)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A suite of Probabilistic Risk Assessment Compatible Fire Models (RACFMs) has been developed to represent the hazard posed by a pool fire to weapon systems transported on the B52-H aircraft. These models represent both stand-off (i.e., the weapon system is outside of the flame zone but exposed to the radiant heat load from fire) and fully-engulfing scenarios (i.e., the object is fully covered by flames). The approach taken in developing the RACFMs for both scenarios was to consolidate, reconcile, and apply data and knowledge from all available resources including: data and correlations from the literature, data from an extensive full-scale fire test program at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) at China Lake, and results from a fire field model (VULCAN). In the past, a single, effective temperature, T{sub f}, was used to represent the fire. The heat flux to an object exposed to a fire was estimated using the relationship for black body radiation, {sigma}T{sub f}{sup 4}. Significant improvements have been made by employing the present approach which accounts for the presence of temperature distributions in fully-engulfing fires, and uses best available correlations to estimate heat fluxes in stand-off scenarios.

Lopez, A.R.; Gritzo, L.A.; Sherman, M.P.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

ESD.864 Modeling and Assessment for Policy, Spring 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ESD.864 Modeling and Assessment for Policy explores how scientific information and quantitative models can be used to inform policy decision-making. Students will develop an understanding of quantitative modeling techniques ...

Selin, Noelle

37

Eutrophication risk assessment in coastal embayments using simple statistical models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Eutrophication risk assessment in coastal embayments using simple statistical models G. Arhonditsis for assessing the risk of eutrophication in marine coastal embayments. The procedure followed of exogenous nutrient loading. Ă? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Eutrophication; Coastal

Arhonditsis, George B.

38

assessment models risk: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

practice in the use of spreadsheets in business. Butler, Raymond J 2008-01-01 13 Eutrophication risk assessment in coastal embayments using simple statistical models...

39

Assessing the reliability of linear dynamic transformer thermal modelling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessing the reliability of linear dynamic transformer thermal modelling X. Mao, D.J. Tylavsky and G.A. McCulla Abstract: Improving the utilisation of transformers requires that the hot-spot and top. An alternative method for assessing transformer model reliability is provided. 1 Introduction The maximally

40

ASSESSING FRANCE AS A MODEL OF SOCIETAL SUCCESS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of this "French model": the French economy being heavily regulated, the well-oiled state tightly controls market crisis," "The French model: Vive la difference!"2 ), and also from free-market minded internationalASSESSING FRANCE AS A MODEL OF SOCIETAL SUCCESS �loi Laurent Sciences-Po Michèle Lamont Harvard

Boyer, Edmond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment model gcam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Wind resource assessment with a mesoscale non-hydrostatic model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wind resource assessment with a mesoscale non- hydrostatic model Vincent Guénard, Center for Energy is developed for assessing the wind resource and its uncertainty. The work focuses on an existing wind farm mast measurements. The wind speed and turbulence fields are discussed. It is shown that the k

Boyer, Edmond

42

Dioxins in San Francisco Conceptual Model/Impairment Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FINAL Dioxins in San Francisco Bay Conceptual Model/Impairment Assessment Prepared by Mike Connor Partnership November 12, 2004 SFEI Contribution #309 #12;Dioxins in San Francisco Bay: Impairment Assessment. This CM/IA report examines dioxins in San Francisco Bay. Dioxins comprise a group of several hundred

43

Binaural model-based speech intelligibility enhancement and assessment in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Binaural model-based speech intelligibility enhancement and assessment in hearing aids beamforming and the effect on binaural cues and speech intelligibility . . . . . . . . . . 31 2.3.4 Cepstral smoothing of masks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 2.4 Binaural CASA speech

44

Model-based Safety Risk Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

development life-cycle, in order to identify critical system requirements, such as safety requirements their effectiveness, early in the system development life-cycle, on models derived directly from natural language of functional requirements of arbitrary detail ­ whether it is very early in the life-cycle when functions

Lindsay, Peter

45

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessment modeling approach Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

OF ENGINEERING CYBERNETICS AND ROBOTICS, 60 Summary: , 60 2009 Sofia Service Oriented Architecture of Assessment Model1 Adelina Aleksieva... Assessment Model. To achieve...

46

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessing local model Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

OF ENGINEERING CYBERNETICS AND ROBOTICS, 60 Summary: , 60 2009 Sofia Service Oriented Architecture of Assessment Model1 Adelina Aleksieva... Assessment Model. To achieve...

47

Model and Analytic Processes for Export License Assessments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper represents the Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation Research and Development (NA-22) Simulations, Algorithms and Modeling (SAM) Program's first effort to identify and frame analytical methods and tools to aid export control professionals in effectively predicting proliferation intent; a complex, multi-step and multi-agency process. The report focuses on analytical modeling methodologies that alone, or combined, may improve the proliferation export control license approval process. It is a follow-up to an earlier paper describing information sources and environments related to international nuclear technology transfer. This report describes the decision criteria used to evaluate modeling techniques and tools to determine which approaches will be investigated during the final 2 years of the project. The report also details the motivation for why new modeling techniques and tools are needed. The analytical modeling methodologies will enable analysts to evaluate the information environment for relevance to detecting proliferation intent, with specific focus on assessing risks associated with transferring dual-use technologies. Dual-use technologies can be used in both weapons and commercial enterprises. A decision-framework was developed to evaluate which of the different analytical modeling methodologies would be most appropriate conditional on the uniqueness of the approach, data availability, laboratory capabilities, relevance to NA-22 and Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (NA-24) research needs and the impact if successful. Modeling methodologies were divided into whether they could help micro-level assessments (e.g., help improve individual license assessments) or macro-level assessment. Macro-level assessment focuses on suppliers, technology, consumers, economies, and proliferation context. Macro-level assessment technologies scored higher in the area of uniqueness because less work has been done at the macro level. An approach to developing testable hypotheses for the macro-level assessment methodologies is provided. The outcome of this works suggests that we should develop a Bayes Net for micro-level analysis and continue to focus on Bayes Net, System Dynamics and Economic Input/Output models for assessing macro-level problems. Simultaneously, we need to develop metrics for assessing intent in export control, including the risks and consequences associated with all aspects of export control.

Thompson, Sandra E.; Whitney, Paul D.; Weimar, Mark R.; Wood, Thomas W.; Daly, Don S.; Brothers, Alan J.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Cook, Diane; Holder, Larry

2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

48

Bayesian Model Averaging in Proportional Hazard Models: Assessing the Risk of a Stroke  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bayesian Model Averaging in Proportional Hazard Models: Assessing the Risk of a Stroke Chris T In the context of the Cardiovascular Health Study, a comprehensive investigation into the risk factors for stroke of assessing who is at high risk for stroke. 1 Introduction Stroke is the third leading cause of death among

Volinsky, Chris

49

An integrated assessment of global and regional water demands for electricity generation to 2095  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electric power plants currently account for approximately one-half of the global industrial water withdrawal. While continued expansion of the electric sector seems likely into the future, the consequent water demands are quite uncertain, and will depend on highly variable water intensities by electricity technologies, at present and in the future. Using GCAM, an integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, and climate change, we first establish lower-bound, median, and upper-bound estimates for present-day electric sector water withdrawals and consumption by individual electric generation technologies in each of 14 geopolitical regions, and compare them with available estimates of regional industrial or electric sector water use. We then explore the evolution of global and regional electric sector water use over the next century, focusing on uncertainties related to withdrawal and consumption intensities for a variety of electric generation technologies, rates of change of power plant cooling system types, and rates of adoption of a suite of water-saving technologies. Results reveal that the water withdrawal intensity of electricity generation is likely to decrease in the near term with capital stock turnover, as wet towers replace once-through flow cooling systems and advanced electricity generation technologies replace conventional ones. An increase in consumptive use accompanies the decrease in water withdrawal rates; however, a suite of water conservation technologies currently under development could compensate for this increase in consumption. Finally, at a regional scale, water use characteristics vary significantly based on characteristics of the existing capital stock and the selection of electricity generation technologies into the future.

Davies, Evan; Kyle, G. Page; Edmonds, James A.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Assessing streamaquifer interactions through inverse modeling of flow routing q  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessing stream­aquifer interactions through inverse modeling of flow routing q Jozsef Szilagyi a and Nieber, 1977; Troch et al., 1993; Brutsaert and Lopez, 1998; Szilagyi et al., 1998; Par- lange et al., 2001; Szilagyi, 2003a). Knowledge of this inter- action between streamflow and groundwater during flood

Szilagyi, Jozsef

51

Multi-attribute Model for Assessment of SMEs adoption of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multi-attribute Model for Assessment of SMEs adoption of High Performance Computing Cloud Services boosters for SMEs, particularly manufacturing. · Huge amount of and $ are currently being spent on simulation experiments through various initiatives. #12;Introduction · Technology adoptance is in its early

Bohanec, Marko

52

Groundwater Impacts of Radioactive Wastes and Associated Environmental Modeling Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article provides a review of the major sources of radioactive wastes and their impacts on groundwater contamination. The review discusses the major biogeochemical processes that control the transport and fate of radionuclide contaminants in groundwater, and describe the evolution of mathematical models designed to simulate and assess the transport and transformation of radionuclides in groundwater.

Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Liu, Chongxuan

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Radionuclide release rates from spent fuel for performance assessment modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a scenario of aqueous transport from a high-level radioactive waste repository, the concentration of radionuclides in water in contact with the waste constitutes the source term for transport models, and as such represents a fundamental component of all performance assessment models. Many laboratory experiments have been done to characterize release rates and understand processes influencing radionuclide release rates from irradiated nuclear fuel. Natural analogues of these waste forms have been studied to obtain information regarding the long-term stability of potential waste forms in complex natural systems. This information from diverse sources must be brought together to develop and defend methods used to define source terms for performance assessment models. In this manuscript examples of measures of radionuclide release rates from spent nuclear fuel or analogues of nuclear fuel are presented. Each example represents a very different approach to obtaining a numerical measure and each has its limitations. There is no way to obtain an unambiguous measure of this or any parameter used in performance assessment codes for evaluating the effects of processes operative over many millennia. The examples are intended to suggest by example that in the absence of the ability to evaluate accuracy and precision, consistency of a broadly based set of data can be used as circumstantial evidence to defend the choice of parameters used in performance assessments.

Curtis, D.B.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Fuel cycle assessment: A compendium of models, methodologies, and approaches  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this document is to profile analytical tools and methods which could be used in a total fuel cycle analysis. The information in this document provides a significant step towards: (1) Characterizing the stages of the fuel cycle. (2) Identifying relevant impacts which can feasibly be evaluated quantitatively or qualitatively. (3) Identifying and reviewing other activities that have been conducted to perform a fuel cycle assessment or some component thereof. (4) Reviewing the successes/deficiencies and opportunities/constraints of previous activities. (5) Identifying methods and modeling techniques/tools that are available, tested and could be used for a fuel cycle assessment.

Not Available

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Solar Resource Assessment: Databases, Measurements, Models, and Information Sources (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fact sheet for Solar Resource Assessment Workshop, Denver CO, Oct 29, 2008: ?Solar Resource Assessment Databases, Measurements, Models, and Information Sources

Not Available

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Literature Review and Assessment of Plant and Animal Transfer Factors Used in Performance Assessment Modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A literature review and assessment was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to update information on plant and animal radionuclide transfer factors used in performance-assessment modeling. A group of 15 radionuclides was included in this review and assessment. The review is composed of four main sections, not including the Introduction. Section 2.0 provides a review of the critically important issue of physicochemical speciation and geochemistry of the radionuclides in natural soil-water systems as it relates to the bioavailability of the radionuclides. Section 3.0 provides an updated review of the parameters of importance in the uptake of radionuclides by plants, including root uptake via the soil-groundwater system and foliar uptake due to overhead irrigation. Section 3.0 also provides a compilation of concentration ratios (CRs) for soil-to-plant uptake for the 15 selected radionuclides. Section 4.0 provides an updated review on radionuclide uptake data for animal products related to absorption, homeostatic control, approach to equilibration, chemical and physical form, diet, and age. Compiled transfer coefficients are provided for cow’s milk, sheep’s milk, goat’s milk, beef, goat meat, pork, poultry, and eggs. Section 5.0 discusses the use of transfer coefficients in soil, plant, and animal modeling using regulatory models for evaluating radioactive waste disposal or decommissioned sites. Each section makes specific suggestions for future research in its area.

Robertson, David E.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Sasser, Lyle B.

2003-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

57

The Paradoxes of Military Risk Assessment: Will the Enterprise Risk Assessment Model, Composite Risk Management and Associated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to assess the nation's military preparedness. However, risk management is not a panacea for the problemsThe Paradoxes of Military Risk Assessment: Will the Enterprise Risk Assessment Model, Composite Risk Management and Associated Techniques Provide the Predicted Benefits? Chris. W. Johnson, Glasgow

Johnson, Chris

58

Modeling issues associated with production reactor safety assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes several Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) modeling issues that are related to the unique design and operation of the production reactors. The identification of initiating events and determination of a set of success criteria for the production reactors is of concern because of their unique design. The modeling of accident recovery must take into account the unique operation of these reactors. Finally, a more thorough search and evaluation of common-cause events is required to account for combinations of unique design features and operation that might otherwise not be included in the PSA. It is expected that most of these modeling issues also would be encountered when modeling some of the other more unique reactor and nonreactor facilities that are part of the DOE nuclear materials production complex. 9 refs., 2 figs.

Stack, D.W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Thomas, W.R. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

CliCrop: a Crop Water-Stress and Irrigation Demand Model for an Integrated Global Assessment Model Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper describes the use of the CliCrop model in the context of climate change general assessment

Fant, C.A.

60

Methods for Developing Emissions Scenarios for Integrated Assessment Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this research was to contribute data and methods to support the future development of new emissions scenarios for integrated assessment of climate change. Specifically, this research had two main objectives: 1. Use historical data on economic growth and energy efficiency changes, and develop probability density functions (PDFs) for the appropriate parameters for two or three commonly used integrated assessment models. 2. Using the parameter distributions developed through the first task and previous work, we will develop methods of designing multi-gas emission scenarios that usefully span the joint uncertainty space in a small number of scenarios. Results on the autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI) parameter are summarized, an uncertainty analysis of elasticities of substitution is described, and the probabilistic emissions scenario approach is presented.

Prinn, Ronald [MIT; Webster, Mort [MIT

2007-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment model gcam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Examining emissions policy issues with an integrated assessment model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the policy analysis process of asking ``What if'' questions, there is considerable advantage in the analyst being able to address the questions directly rather than sending the questions to scientists in particular disciplines and awaiting answers. Obviously the former option is likely to produce speedier results than the latter; in addition, the questions can be easily modified as the issues change or become more focused. The primary potential shortcoming of an analyst addressing questions that may be beyond his or her particular expertise is that the policy analyst may not understand the limitations of the analysis. Here the author briefly describes a peer-reviewed integrated assessment model that can be exercised within minutes in a desktop environment, discuss some of the advantages and limitations of the approach, and exercise portions of the model to compare with observations. Because of the nature of the conference at which this paper is being presented, the discussion focuses on the air pollution modeling components of the integrated assessment.

Shannon, J. D.

1999-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

62

HVAC Modeling for Cost of Ownership Assessment in Biotechnology & Drugs Manufacturing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2000 Broomes, Peter. , “HVAC Modeling for Cost of Ownership2000 Broomes, Peter. , “HVAC Results Comparison”, April,HVAC Modeling for Cost of Ownership Assessment in

Broomes, Peter; Dornfeld, David A

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following analogous characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site: (1) Analogous source--UO{sub 2} uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geology--(i.e. fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs); (3) Analogous climate--Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous setting--Volcanic tuffs overlie carbonate rocks; and (5) Analogous geochemistry--Oxidizing conditions Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table.

G. Saulnier and W. Statham

2006-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

64

A next-generation modeling capability assesses wind turbine array fluid dynamics and aeroelastic simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A next-generation modeling capability assesses wind turbine array fluid dynamics and aeroelastic of multi-megawatt turbines requires a new generation of modeling capability to assess individual turbine. Key Result The work is generating several models, including actuator line models of several wind

65

Models for source term, flow, transport and dose assessment in NRC`s Iterative Performance Assessment, Phase 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The core consequence modules for the recently completed Phase 2 Iterative Performance Assessment (IPA) of the Yucca Mountain repository for high-level nuclear waste depend on models for releases from the engineered barrier system (source term), flow of liquid and gas, transport of radionuclides in the geosphere and assessment of dose to target populations. The source term model includes temperature and moisture phenomena in the near-field environment, general, pitting and crevice corrosion, contact of the waste form by water, dissolution and oxidation of the waste form, and transport of dissolved and gaseous radionuclides from the waste package by advection and diffusion. The liquid flow and transport models describe water flow through fractures and matrix in both the unsaturated and saturated zones. Models for flow of gas and transport of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} released from the engineered barrier system to the atmosphere take into account repository heat and the geothermal gradient. The dose assessment model calculates doses to a regional population and a farm family for an assumed reference biosphere in the vicinity of the repository. The Phase 2 IPA led to a number of suggestions for model improvement: (1) improve the ability of the models to include spatial and temporal variability in the parameters; (2) improve the coupling among processes, especially the effects of changing environments in the waste packages; (3) develop more mechanistic models, but abstracted for use in total system performance assessment; and (4) use more site specific parameters, especially for the dose assessments.

McCartin, T.; Codell, R.; Neel, R.; Ford, W.; Wescott, R.; Bradbury, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Sagar, B.; Walton, J. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

66

Automated Software Engineering Process Assessment: Supporting Diverse Models using an Ontology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, ISO 9001). It also provides an in-the-loop automated process assessment capability that can help, ISO 9001), and suitable performance and scalability. The approach can reduce the effort required assessment while simultaneously supporting diverse process assessment reference models (CMMI, ISO/IEC 15504

Ulm, Universität

67

Modelling of Stochastic Hybrid Systems with Applications to Accident Risk Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modelling of Stochastic Hybrid Systems with Applications to Accident Risk Assessment #12;The SYSTEMS WITH APPLICATIONS TO ACCIDENT RISK ASSESSMENT DISSERTATION to obtain the doctor's degree promotor Prof. dr. A. Bagchi #12;Contents 1 Introduction 3 1.1 Accident risk assessment

Del Moral , Pierre

68

Integrated Assessment Modeling of Carbon Sequestration and Land Use Emissions Using Detailed Model Results and Observations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report outlines the progress on the development and application of Integrated Assessment Modeling of Carbon Sequestrations and Land Use Emissions supported by the DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER), U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DOE-DE-FG02-01ER63069. The overall objective of this collaborative project between the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was to unite the latest advances in carbon cycle research with scientifically based models and policy-related integrated assessment tools that incorporate computationally efficient representations of the latest knowledge concerning science and emission trajectories, and their policy implications. As part of this research we accomplished the following tasks that we originally proposed: (1) In coordination with LLNL and ORNL, we enhanced the Integrated Science Assessment Model's (ISAM) parametric representation of the ocean and terrestrial carbon cycles that better represent spatial and seasonal variations, which are important to study the mechanisms that influence carbon sequestration in the ocean and terrestrial ecosystems; (2) Using the MiniCAM modeling capability, we revised the SRES (IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios; IPCC, 2000) land use emission scenarios; and (3) On the application front, the enhanced version of ISAM modeling capability is applied to understand how short- and long-term natural carbon fluxes, carbon sequestration, and human emissions contribute to the net global emissions (concentrations) trajectories required to reach various concentration (emission) targets. Under this grant, 21 research publications were produced. In addition, this grant supported a number of graduate and undergraduate students whose fundamental research was to learn a disciplinary field in climate change (e.g., ecological dynamics and ocean circulations) and then complete research on how this field could be linked to the other factors we need to consider in its dynamics (e.g., land use, ocean and terrestrial carbon sequestration and climate change).

Dr. Atul Jain

2005-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

69

Modeling Exposure to Persistent Chemicals in Hazard and Risk Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of organohalogen contaminants (dioxins, PCB, PBDE andInvestigation into levels of dioxins, furans, PCBs and PBDEsfor risk assessment of dioxin-contaminated sites. Ambio 36:

Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

A phenomenological muscle model to assess history dependent effects in human movement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A phenomenological muscle model to assess history dependent effects in human movement C.P. Mc of the history dependent effects. The phenomenological model of stretch-induced force enhancement was dependent

Ben-Yakar, Adela

71

Assessing the Potential of Using Traffic Simulation Model Results for Evaluating Automatic Incident Detection Algorithms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessing the Potential of Using Traffic Simulation Model Results for Evaluating Automatic Incident of such a test-bed would be the ability to incorporate synthetic data produced by a simulation model since

Hellinga, Bruce

72

Assessing nitrogen losses after sewage sludge spreading: A method based on simulation models and spreader  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Assessing nitrogen losses after sewage sludge spreading: A method based on simulation models performances. We define 45 sewage sludge spreading scenarios covering a wide range of situations in France. Several models are used to (i) assess nitrogen losses due to sewage sludge spreading and (ii) calculate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

73

Assessment of Managed Aquifer Recharge Site Suitability Using a GIS and Modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with a regional groundwater model to assess the hydrologic impact of potential MAR placement and operating planning, including evaluation of options for enhancing groundwater resources. Introduction ManagedAssessment of Managed Aquifer Recharge Site Suitability Using a GIS and Modeling by Tess A. Russo1

Fisher, Andrew

74

Computation Modeling and Assessment of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Forced outages and boiler unavailability of coal-fired fossil plants is most often caused by fire-side corrosion of boiler waterwalls and tubing. Reliable coatings are required for Ultrasupercritical (USC) application to mitigate corrosion since these boilers will operate at a much higher temperatures and pressures than in supercritical (565 C {at} 24 MPa) boilers. Computational modeling efforts have been undertaken to design and assess potential Fe-Cr-Ni-Al systems to produce stable nanocrystalline coatings that form a protective, continuous scale of either Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The computational modeling results identified a new series of Fe-25Cr-40Ni with or without 10 wt.% Al nanocrystalline coatings that maintain long-term stability by forming a diffusion barrier layer at the coating/substrate interface. The computational modeling predictions of microstructure, formation of continuous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale, inward Al diffusion, grain growth, and sintering behavior were validated with experimental results. Advanced coatings, such as MCrAl (where M is Fe, Ni, or Co) nanocrystalline coatings, have been processed using different magnetron sputtering deposition techniques. Several coating trials were performed and among the processing methods evaluated, the DC pulsed magnetron sputtering technique produced the best quality coating with a minimum number of shallow defects and the results of multiple deposition trials showed that the process is repeatable. scale, inward Al diffusion, grain growth, and sintering behavior were validated with experimental results. The cyclic oxidation test results revealed that the nanocrystalline coatings offer better oxidation resistance, in terms of weight loss, localized oxidation, and formation of mixed oxides in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale, than widely used MCrAlY coatings. However, the ultra-fine grain structure in these coatings, consistent with the computational model predictions, resulted in accelerated Al diffusion from the coating into the substrate. An effective diffusion barrier interlayer coating was developed to prevent inward Al diffusion. The fire-side corrosion test results showed that the nanocrystalline coatings with a minimum number of defects have a great potential in providing corrosion protection. The coating tested in the most aggressive environment showed no evidence of coating spallation and/or corrosion attack after 1050 hours exposure. In contrast, evidence of coating spallation in isolated areas and corrosion attack of the base metal in the spalled areas were observed after 500 hours. These contrasting results after 500 and 1050 hours exposure suggest that the premature coating spallation in isolated areas may be related to the variation of defects in the coating between the samples. It is suspected that the cauliflower-type defects in the coating were presumably responsible for coating spallation in isolated areas. Thus, a defect free good quality coating is the key for the long-term durability of nanocrystalline coatings in corrosive environments. Thus, additional process optimization work is required to produce defect-free coatings prior to development of a coating application method for production parts.

J. Shingledecker; D. Gandy; N. Cheruvu; R. Wei; K. Chan

2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

75

Model for a web based medical technology assessment system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will form the backbone of this system. Various queries can be run to produce the desired results. This system will provide a means for assessing the currently available medical technology. Based on the information present in the system clinical engineers...

Prabhu, Gopal

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Modeling toxic endpoints for improving human health risk assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Risk assessment procedures for mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present a problem due to the lack of available potency and toxicity data on mixtures and individual compounds. This study examines the toxicity of parent compound...

Bruce, Erica Dawn

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

77

[10-386] Assessing and Improving the Scale Dependence of Ecosystem Processes in Earth System Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Goodale Cornell U. *Overall Project Lead *Lead Institution Intellectual Merit: Earth system models include policies. Our research assesses and improves Earth system model simulations of the carbon cycle, ecosystem of the Community Climate System Model/Community Earth System Model, which includes statistical meteorological

78

A new analytic-adaptive model for EGS assessment, development...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination Imaging, Characterizing, and Modeling of Fracture Networks and Fluid Flow in EGS Reservoirs Predicting Stimulation Response...

79

The Niobrara River Basin Study: Using Various Models to Assess  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Seminar Series Brandi Flyr, Ph.D. Integrated Water Management Division Nebraska Department of Natural;#12;Integrated Water Management Identify Management Setting Assess Water Resources Understand & Predict Set effects of various water management strategies in order to develop water management tools #12;Goals

Farritor, Shane

80

Models used to assess the performance of photovoltaic systems.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the various photovoltaic (PV) performance models and software developed and utilized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in support of the Photovoltaics and Grid Integration Department. In addition to PV performance models, hybrid system and battery storage models are discussed. A hybrid system using other distributed sources and energy storage can help reduce the variability inherent in PV generation, and due to the complexity of combining multiple generation sources and system loads, these models are invaluable for system design and optimization. Energy storage plays an important role in reducing PV intermittency and battery storage models are used to understand the best configurations and technologies to store PV generated electricity. Other researcher's models used by SNL are discussed including some widely known models that incorporate algorithms developed at SNL. There are other models included in the discussion that are not used by or were not adopted from SNL research but may provide some benefit to researchers working on PV array performance, hybrid system models and energy storage. The paper is organized into three sections to describe the different software models as applied to photovoltaic performance, hybrid systems, and battery storage. For each model, there is a description which includes where to find the model, whether it is currently maintained and any references that may be available. Modeling improvements underway at SNL include quantifying the uncertainty of individual system components, the overall uncertainty in modeled vs. measured results and modeling large PV systems. SNL is also conducting research into the overall reliability of PV systems.

Stein, Joshua S.; Klise, Geoffrey T.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment model gcam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Conceptual design of an integrated technology model for carbon policy assessment.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the conceptual design of a technology choice model for understanding strategies to reduce carbon intensity in the electricity sector. The report considers the major modeling issues affecting technology policy assessment and defines an implementable model construct. Further, the report delineates the basis causal structure of such a model and attempts to establish the technical/algorithmic viability of pursuing model development along with the associated analyses.

Backus, George A.; Dimotakes, Paul E. (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Assessing the protective effect of mountain forests against rockfall using a 3D simulation model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessing the protective effect of mountain forests against rockfall using a 3D simulation model and compared the results obtained with the 3D simulation model RockyFor with empirical data on tree impacts; Rockfall; 3D simulation model; Swiss Alps 1. Introduction Many mountain forests effectively protect people

Stoffel, Markus

83

Cognitive Assessment Models with Few Assumptions, and Connections with Nonparametric IRT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cognitive Assessment Models with Few Assumptions, and Connections with Nonparametric IRT Brian of the monotonicity conditions discussed in Section 4. #12; Abstract In recent years, as cognitive theories and other cognitive features needed to perform tasks in a particular assess­ ment domain. Cognitive

Junker, Brian

84

Assessing resilience and state-transition models with historical records of cheatgrass Bromus tectorum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessing resilience and state-transition models with historical records of cheatgrass Bromus. Bestelmeyer2 and X. Ben Wu1 1 Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Texas A&M University, 2138 TAMU. This requires management frameworks that can assess ecosystem dynamics, both within and between alternative

85

A simplified physical model for assessing solar radiation over Brazil using GOES 8 visible imagery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A simplified physical model for assessing solar radiation over Brazil using GOES 8 visible imagery; published 30 January 2004. [1] Solar radiation assessment by satellite is constrained by physical Composition and Structure: Transmission and scattering of radiation; KEYWORDS: solar radiation, satellite

86

Assessing residential exposure to urban noise using environmental models: does the size of the local living  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Assessing residential exposure to urban noise using environmental models: does the size on the quantification of the exposure level in a surface defined as the subject's exposure area. For residential residential buildings. Twelve noise exposure indicators have been used to assess inhabitants' exposure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

87

U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY ASSESSMENT MODEL FOR UNDISCOVERED CONVENTIONAL OIL, GAS, AND NGL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AM-i Chapter AM U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY ASSESSMENT MODEL FOR UNDISCOVERED CONVENTIONAL OIL, GAS Survey (USGS) periodically conducts assessments of the oil, gas, and natural-gas liquids (NGL) resources by the USGS in1998 for undiscovered oil, gas, and NGL resources that reside in conventional accumulations

Laughlin, Robert B.

88

Climate Change Modeling and Downscaling Issues and Methodological Perspectives for the U.S. National Climate Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the full workshop report for the modeling workshop we did for the National Climate Assessment, with DOE support.

Janetos, Anthony C.; Collins, William D.; Wuebbles, D.J.; Diffenbaugh, Noah; Hayhoe, Katharine; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Hurtt, George

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

89

Using species distribution models to inform IUCN Red List assessments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to these as “SRLI species” because the occurrence data for these came from the plant component of the Sampled Red List Index (SRLI), an indicator to measure the current rate of loss of biodiversity by tracking trends in the conservation status of 6 a randomly... the Mesoamerica biodiversity hotspot (Myers et al. 2000). Many species in this region are poorly represented in the world’s herbaria, so limited knowledge of their true distribution exists; nonetheless, conservation assessments are urgently needed...

Syfert, Mindy M.; Joppa, Lucas; Smith, Matthew J.; Coomes, David A.; Bachman, Steven P.; Brummitt, Neil A.

2014-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

90

A Statistical Model to Assess Indirect CO2 Emissions of the UAE Residential Sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Determination of household energy using ?fingerprints? from energy billing data. Energy Research 10(4), pp: 393?405. [5] Snakin JPA, 2000. An engineering model for heating energy and emission assessment The case of North Karelia, Finland. Applied Energy...

Radhi, H.; Fikry, F.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Integrated modelling and assessment of regional groundwater resources in Germany and Benin, West Africa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Integrated modelling and assessment of regional groundwater resources in Germany and Benin, West.J.S. SONNEVELD [1] Institute of Hydraulic Engineering, Universitaet Stuttgart, Germany (Roland Conservation University of Bonn, Germany [3] Institute of Landscape Planning and Ecology, University

Cirpka, Olaf Arie

92

Using Noncompensatory Models in Cognitive Diagnostic Mathematics Assessments: An Evaluation Based on Empirical Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The present study evaluates the performance of four noncompensatory cognitive diagnostic models -- AHM, DINA, Fusion, and Bayesian Networks -- using both formative and large-scale mathematics assessments (Fraction dataset, ...

Zhao, Fei

2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

93

A new analytic-adaptive model for EGS assessment, development...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Investigator(s) George Danko, UNR Other Principal Investigators Jens Birkholzer, LBNL; Jaak Daemen, UNR Targets Milestones The model development work follows three main...

94

assessment models version: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Szilagyi a is modeled with a spatially and temporally discretized version of the linear kinematic wave equation written-aquifer interactions; Baseflow separation; Flow routing;...

95

assessment model version: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Szilagyi a is modeled with a spatially and temporally discretized version of the linear kinematic wave equation written-aquifer interactions; Baseflow separation; Flow routing;...

96

Modeling Exposure to Persistent Chemicals in Hazard and Risk Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

chlorinated pesticides, e.g. , DDT) based on Swedish marketInvestigating the global fate of DDT: Model evaluation anddichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and its degradation

Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Assessment of Combustion and Turbulence Models for the Simulation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

models were investigated along with chemical kinetic mechanisms simulating a biodiesel-fueled engine deer09ren.pdf More Documents & Publications Low Temperature...

98

An investigation into the use of biokinetic models when assessing intakes of plutonium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE USE OF BIOKINETIC MODELS WHEN ASSESSING INTAKES OF PLUTONIUM A Thesis by BRIAN ANDREW HRYCUSHKO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2008 Major Subject: Health Physics AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE USE OF BIOKINETIC MODELS WHEN ASSESSING INTAKES OF PLUTONIUM A Thesis by BRIAN ANDREW HRYCUSHKO Submitted...

Hrycushko, Brian Andrew

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

99

Statewide and Electricity-Sector Models for Economic Assessments of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

economic models applied to such diverse fields as climate change policy, alternative- fueled vehicles, fuel Economic Research Organization and Affiliate Faculty with the Public Policy Center UHM. Paul Bernstein, Ph....................................................................................................................... 6 2. The Hawaii Computable General Equilibrium Model (H-CGE)............................ 8 2.a. Data

100

Utility of Social Modeling in Assessment of a State’s Propensity for Nuclear Proliferation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is the third and final report out of a set of three reports documenting research for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Security Administration (NASA) Office of Nonproliferation Research and Development NA-22 Simulations, Algorithms, and Modeling program that investigates how social modeling can be used to improve proliferation assessment for informing nuclear security, policy, safeguards, design of nuclear systems and research decisions. Social modeling has not to have been used to any significant extent in a proliferation studies. This report focuses on the utility of social modeling as applied to the assessment of a State's propensity to develop a nuclear weapons program.

Coles, Garill A.; Brothers, Alan J.; Whitney, Paul D.; Dalton, Angela C.; Olson, Jarrod; White, Amanda M.; Cooley, Scott K.; Youchak, Paul M.; Stafford, Samuel V.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment model gcam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Assessment of reduced mechanisms using One Dimensional Stochastic Turbulence model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

turbulence model for a syngas jet flame. Proceeding of FallKerstein 2002), a turbulent syngas (CO/H2/NO) jet flame wasand DNS results of the syngas jet flame was recently done

Chien, Li-Chun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

A comparison of radiological risk assessment models: Risk assessment models used by the BEIR V Committee, UNSCEAR, ICRP, and EPA (for NESHAP)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radiological risk assessments and resulting risk estimates have been developed by numerous national and international organizations, including the National Research Council`s fifth Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR V), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). A fourth organization, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), has also performed a risk assessment as a basis for the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP). This paper compares the EPA`s model of risk assessment with the models used by the BEIR V Committee, UNSCEAR, and ICRP. Comparison is made of the values chosen by each organization for several model parameters: populations used in studies and population transfer coefficients, dose-response curves and dose-rate effects, risk projection methods, and risk estimates. This comparison suggests that the EPA has based its risk assessment on outdated information and that the organization should consider adopting the method used by the BEIR V Committee, UNSCEAR, or ICRP.

Wahl, L.E.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Towards an assessment of skill acquisition in student modelling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/her operational skill in dynamic and highly risky domains, such as Air Traffic Control, nuclear plant operations,leila]@cmis.csiro.au Abstract: This paper presents an approach to student modelling in the context of a simulation-based ITS of the expertise. Examples are given in the domain of Air Traffic Control simulation training for conflict

Yacef, Kalina

104

Random Forest-Based Protein Model Quality Assessment (RFMQA) Using Structural Features and Potential Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Random Forest-Based Protein Model Quality Assessment (RFMQA) Using Structural Features and Potential Energy Terms Balachandran Manavalan, Juyong Lee, Jooyoung Lee* Center for In Silico Protein in protein structure prediction. In this study, we present the first application of random forest based model

Lee, Jooyoung

105

A flow resistance model for assessing the impact of vegetation on flood routing mechanics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

control in urban storm water runoff [Kirby et al., 2005], and linking tidal hydrodynamic forcing to flow and field studies. The proposed model asymptotically recovers the flow resistance formulation when the waterA flow resistance model for assessing the impact of vegetation on flood routing mechanics Gabriel G

Katul, Gabriel

106

An Assessment of Converter Modelling Needs for Offshore Wind Power Plants Connected via VSC-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Assessment of Converter Modelling Needs for Offshore Wind Power Plants Connected via VSC- HVDC high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission is technically superior to other technologies of such complex devices. This paper presents an investigation of the modelling requirements of the MMCC HVDC

Bak, Claus Leth

107

Assessment of Transition Model and CFD Methodology for Wind Turbine Flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as fossil fuels are replaced by renewable alternatives. In the U.S., the Department of Energy has publishedAssessment of Transition Model and CFD Methodology for Wind Turbine Flows Aniket C. Aranake Vinod K Navier Stokes (RANS) solver with a transition model is performed for wind turbine applications

Alonso, Juan J.

108

Update and assessment of geothermal economic models, geothermal fluid flow and heat distribution models, and geothermal data bases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Numerical simulation models and data bases that were developed for DOE as part of a number of geothermal programs have been assessed with respect to their overall stage of development and usefulness. This report combines three separate studies that focus attention upon: (1) economic models related to geothermal energy; (2) physical geothermal system models pertaining to thermal energy and the fluid medium; and (3) geothermal energy data bases. Computerized numerical models pertaining to the economics of extracting and utilizing geothermal energy have been summarized and catalogued with respect to their availability, utility and function. The 19 models that are discussed in detail were developed for use by geothermal operators, public utilities, and lending institutions who require a means to estimate the value of a given resource, total project costs, and the sensitivity of these values to specific variables. A number of the models are capable of economically assessing engineering aspects of geothermal projects. Computerized simulations of heat distribution and fluid flow have been assessed and are presented for ten models. Five of the models are identified as wellbore simulators and five are described as reservoir simulators. Each model is described in terms of its operational characteristics, input, output, and other pertinent attributes. Geothermal energy data bases are reviewed with respect to their current usefulness and availability. Summaries of eight data bases are provided in catalogue format, and an overall comparison of the elements of each data base is included.

Kenkeremath, D. (ed.)

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

A Preliminary Study to Assess Model Uncertainties in Fluid Flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the fluid. ? The sound speed, c, is assumed to be constant even if it usually depends on the temperature and the pressure. This is a good approximation for liquids but not for gases. The sound speed is reactor-dependent. ? The Equation Of State (EOS... to the temperature. This parameter is assumed constant in this model. 7 ? ???P is the dilatation of the density due to the pressure. This parameter is also assumed constant but is different for different sound speeds. Its expression is as follows: ?? ?P = 1...

Delchini, Marc Olivier

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

110

Improvement of modelling capabilities for assessing urban contamination : The EMRAS Urban Remediation Working Group.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Urban Remediation Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS) programme was established to improve modeling and assessment capabilities for radioactively contaminated urban situations, including the effects of countermeasures. An example of the Working Group's activities is an exercise based on Chernobyl fallout data in Ukraine, which has provided an opportunity to compare predictions among several models and with available measurements, to discuss reasons for discrepancies, and to identify areas where additional information would be helpful.

Thiessen, K. M.; Batandjieva, B.; Andersson, K. G.; Arkhipov, A.; Charnock, T. W.; Gallay, F.; Gaschak, S.; Golikov, V.; Hwang, W. T.; Kaiser, J. C.; Kamboj, S.; Steiner, M.; Tomas, J.; Trifunovic, D.; Yu, C.; Ziemer, R. L.; Zlobenko, B.; Environmental Science Division; SENES Oak Ridge; IAEA; Riso National Lab.; Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety; Health Protection Agency; IRSN; Inst. of Radiation Hygene of the Ministry of Public Health, Russian Federation; KAERI, Republic of Korea; GSF, Germany; BfS, Germany; CPHR, Cuba; State Office for Radiation Protection, Croatia; AECL, Canada; National Academy of Science, Ukraine

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Comparative evaluation of life cycle assessment models for solid waste management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This publication compares a selection of six different models developed in Europe and America by research organisations, industry associations and governmental institutions. The comparison of the models reveals the variations in the results and the differences in the conclusions of an LCA study done with these models. The models are compared by modelling a specific case - the waste management system of Dresden, Germany - with each model and an in-detail comparison of the life cycle inventory results. Moreover, a life cycle impact assessment shows if the LCA results of each model allows for comparable and consecutive conclusions, which do not contradict the conclusions derived from the other models' results. Furthermore, the influence of different level of detail in the life cycle inventory of the life cycle assessment is demonstrated. The model comparison revealed that the variations in the LCA results calculated by the models for the case show high variations and are not negligible. In some cases the high variations in results lead to contradictory conclusions concerning the environmental performance of the waste management processes. The static, linear modelling approach chosen by all models analysed is inappropriate for reflecting actual conditions. Moreover, it was found that although the models' approach to LCA is comparable on a general level, the level of detail implemented in the software tools is very different.

Winkler, Joerg [Institute for Waste Management and Contaminated Sites Treatment, TU Dresden Faculty of Forestry, Geo and Hydro Sciences, Pratzschwitzer Str. 15, 01796 Pirna (Germany); Bilitewski, Bernd [Institute for Waste Management and Contaminated Sites Treatment, TU Dresden Faculty of Forestry, Geo and Hydro Sciences, Pratzschwitzer Str. 15, 01796 Pirna (Germany)], E-mail: abfall@rcs.urz.tu-dresden.de

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Computational Modeling and Assessment Of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Forced outages and boiler unavailability in conventional coal-fired fossil power plants is most often caused by fireside corrosion of boiler waterwalls. Industry-wide, the rate of wall thickness corrosion wastage of fireside waterwalls in fossil-fired boilers has been of concern for many years. It is significant that the introduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission controls with staged burners systems has increased reported waterwall wastage rates to as much as 120 mils (3 mm) per year. Moreover, the reducing environment produced by the low-NOx combustion process is the primary cause of accelerated corrosion rates of waterwall tubes made of carbon and low alloy steels. Improved coatings, such as the MCrAl nanocoatings evaluated here (where M is Fe, Ni, and Co), are needed to reduce/eliminate waterwall damage in subcritical, supercritical, and ultra-supercritical (USC) boilers. The first two tasks of this six-task project-jointly sponsored by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FC26-07NT43096)-have focused on computational modeling of an advanced MCrAl nanocoating system and evaluation of two nanocrystalline (iron and nickel base) coatings, which will significantly improve the corrosion and erosion performance of tubing used in USC boilers. The computational model results showed that about 40 wt.% is required in Fe based nanocrystalline coatings for long-term durability, leading to a coating composition of Fe-25Cr-40Ni-10 wt.% Al. In addition, the long term thermal exposure test results further showed accelerated inward diffusion of Al from the nanocrystalline coatings into the substrate. In order to enhance the durability of these coatings, it is necessary to develop a diffusion barrier interlayer coating such TiN and/or AlN. The third task 'Process Advanced MCrAl Nanocoating Systems' of the six-task project jointly sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FC26-07NT43096)- has focused on processing of advanced nanocrystalline coating systems and development of diffusion barrier interlayer coatings. Among the diffusion interlayer coatings evaluated, the TiN interlayer coating was found to be the optimum one. This report describes the research conducted under the Task 3 workscope.

David W. Gandy; John P. Shingledecker

2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

113

SUMO, System performance assessment for a high-level nuclear waste repository: Mathematical models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Following completion of the preliminary risk assessment of the potential Yucca Mountain Site by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in 1988, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) requested the Performance Assessment Scientific Support (PASS) Program at PNL to develop an integrated system model and computer code that provides performance and risk assessment analysis capabilities for a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. The system model that has been developed addresses the cumulative radionuclide release criteria established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and estimates population risks in terms of dose to humans. The system model embodied in the SUMO (System Unsaturated Model) code will also allow benchmarking of other models being developed for the Yucca Mountain Project. The system model has three natural divisions: (1) source term, (2) far-field transport, and (3) dose to humans. This document gives a detailed description of the mathematics of each of these three divisions. Each of the governing equations employed is based on modeling assumptions that are widely accepted within the scientific community.

Eslinger, P.W.; Miley, T.B.; Engel, D.W.; Chamberlain, P.J. II

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Assessment of PWR Steam Generator modelling in RELAP5/MOD2. International Agreement Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An assessment of Steam Generator (SG) modelling in the PWR thermal-hydraulic code RELAP5/MOD2 is presented. The assessment is based on a review of code assessment calculations performed in the UK and elsewhere, detailed calculations against a series of commissioning tests carried out on the Wolf Creek PWR and analytical investigations of the phenomena involved in normal and abnormal SG operation. A number of modelling deficiencies are identified and their implications for PWR safety analysis are discussed -- including methods for compensating for the deficiencies through changes to the input deck. Consideration is also given as to whether the deficiencies will still be present in the successor code RELAP5/MOD3.

Putney, J.M.; Preece, R.J. [National Power, Leatherhead (GB). Technology and Environment Centre

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Solving the problem of inadequate scoring rules for assessing probabilistic football forecast models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solving the problem of inadequate scoring rules for assessing probabilistic football forecast forecasting models, and the relative simplicity of the outcome of such forecasts (they require only three their forecast accuracy. Moreover, the various scoring rules used for validation in previous studies

Fenton, Norman

116

Use of models and observations to assess trends in the 19502005 water balance and climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) was about 50% of normal during 2000­2001. The ensuing drought-related water shortage led to seriousUse of models and observations to assess trends in the 1950­2005 water balance and climate of Upper-driven interannual (and longer) variability is evident. Evaporation and the other components of the water balance

117

Refinement of weed risk assessments for biofuels using Camelina sativa as a model species  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Refinement of weed risk assessments for biofuels using Camelina sativa as a model species Philip B and Environmental Sciences, Montana State University, PO Box 173120, Bozeman, MT 59717-3120, USA Summary 1. Biofuel. However, concerns have been raised on the invasiveness of biofuel feedstocks. Estimating invasion

Peterson, Robert K. D.

118

Cognitive Assessment Models with Few Assumptions, and Connections with Nonparametric IRT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cognitive Assessment Models with Few Assumptions, and Connections with Nonparametric IRT Brian of the monotonicity conditions discussed in Section 4. #12;Abstract In recent years, as cognitive theories of learning" on student achievement relative to theory-driven lists of examinee skills, beliefs and other cognitive

Junker, Brian

119

Assessing Seasonal Confounding and Model Selection Bias in Air Pollution Epidemiology Using Positive and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

July 15, 1999 #12;Abstract Much of the evidence for health e ects of particulate air pollution has come. We thus refer to the `air pollution hypothesis' to describe increased risk of health outcomes dueAssessing Seasonal Confounding and Model Selection Bias in Air Pollution Epidemiology Using

Washington at Seattle, University of

120

Ex-plant consequence assessment for NUREG-1150: Models, typical results, uncertainties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The assessment of ex-plant consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms was performed using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). This paper will briefly discuss the following elements of MACCS consequence calculations: input data, phenomena modeled, computational framework, typical results, controlling phenomena, and uncertainties. Wherever possible, NUREG-1150 results will be used to illustrate the discussion. 28 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

Sprung, J.L.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment model gcam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

A Multi-Model Assessment of Regional Climate Disparities Caused by Solar Geoengineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 A Multi-Model Assessment of Regional Climate Disparities Caused by Solar Geoengineering Normal University, Beijing, China. 9 School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University levels. G1 involves a reduction in solar irradiance to counteract the radiative forcing5 in abrupt4xCO2

Robock, Alan

122

NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE Surface Melting over Ice Shelves and Ice Sheets as Assessed from Modeled  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE Surface Melting over Ice Shelves and Ice Sheets as Assessed from Modeled of ice shelves and their progenitor ice sheets. To explore the magnitude of surface melt occurring over) and most of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) by the year 2500. Capping CO2 concentrations at present

Meissner, Katrin Juliane

123

Hydrodynamic Modeling, Optimization and Performance Assessment for Ducted and Non-ducted Tidal Turbines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Turbines by Michael Robert Shives B.Eng., Carleton University, 2008 A Thesis Submitted in Partial Hydrodynamic Modeling, Optimization and Performance Assessment for Ducted and Non-ducted Tidal Turbines examines methods for designing and analyzing kinetic turbines based on blade element momentum (BEM) theory

Victoria, University of

124

Hydrodynamic Modeling, Optimization and Performance Assessment for Ducted and Non-ducted Tidal Turbines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Turbines by Michael Robert Shives B.Eng., Carleton University, 2008 A Dissertation Submitted in Partial Hydrodynamic Modeling, Optimization and Performance Assessment for Ducted and Non-ducted Tidal Turbines) #12;iii ABSTRACT This thesis examines methods for designing and analyzing kinetic turbines based

Pedersen, Tom

125

Annual report, October 1980-September 1981 Multimedia radionuclide exposure assessment modeling.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are jointly developing a methodology for assessing exposures of the air, water, and plants to radionuclides as part of an overall development effort of a radionuclide disposal site evaluation methodology. Work in FY-1981 continued the development of the Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA) methodology and initiated an assessment of radionuclide migration in Los Alamos and Pueblo Canyons, New Mexico, using the methodology. The AIRTRAN model was completed, briefly tested, and documented. In addition, a literature search for existing validation data for AIRTRAN was performed. The feasibility and advisability of including the UNSAT moisture flow model as a submodel of the terrestrial code BIOTRAN was assessed. A preliminary application of the proposed MCEA methodology, as it related to the Mortandad-South Mortandad Canyon site in New Mexico is discussed. This preliminary application represented a scaled-down version of the methodology in which only the terrestrial, overland, and surface water components were used. An update describing the progress in the assessment of radionuclide migration in Los Alamos and Pueblo Canyons is presented. 38 references, 47 figures, 11 tables.

Whelan, G.; Onishi, Y.; Simmons, C.S.; Horst, T.W.; Gupta, S.K.; Orgill, M.M.; Newbill, C.A.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

An international land-biosphere model benchmarking activity for the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The need to capture important climate feedbacks in general circulation models (GCMs) has resulted in efforts to include atmospheric chemistry and land and ocean biogeochemistry into the next generation of production climate models, called Earth System Models (ESMs). While many terrestrial and ocean carbon models have been coupled to GCMs, recent work has shown that such models can yield a wide range of results (Friedlingstein et al., 2006). This work suggests that a more rigorous set of global offline and partially coupled experiments, along with detailed analyses of processes and comparisons with measurements, are needed. The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP) was designed to meet this need by providing a simulation protocol and model performance metrics based upon comparisons against best-available satellite- and ground-based measurements (Hoffman et al., 2007). Recently, a similar effort in Europe, called the International Land Model Benchmark (ILAMB) Project, was begun to assess the performance of European land surface models. These two projects will now serve as prototypes for a proposed international land-biosphere model benchmarking activity for those models participating in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). Initially used for model validation for terrestrial biogeochemistry models in the NCAR Community Land Model (CLM), C-LAMP incorporates a simulation protocol for both offline and partially coupled simulations using a prescribed historical trajectory of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Models are confronted with data through comparisons against AmeriFlux site measurements, MODIS satellite observations, NOAA Globalview flask records, TRANSCOM inversions, and Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) site measurements. Both sets of experiments have been performed using two different terrestrial biogeochemistry modules coupled to the CLM version 3 in the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3): the CASA model of Fung, et al., and the carbon-nitrogen (CN) model of Thornton. Comparisons of the CLM3 offline results against observational datasets have been performed and are described in Randerson et al. (2009). CLM version 4 has been evaluated using C-LAMP, showing improvement in many of the metrics. Efforts are now underway to initiate a Nitrogen-Land Model Intercomparison Project (N-LAMP) to better constrain the effects of the nitrogen cycle in biosphere models. Presented will be new results from C-LAMP for CLM4, initial N-LAMP developments, and the proposed land-biosphere model benchmarking activity.

Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Randerson, James T [ORNL; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Bonan, Gordon [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Erickson III, David J [ORNL; Fung, Inez [University of California, Berkeley

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Research priorities in land use and land-cover change for the Earth system and integrated assessment modelling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). Copyright ? 2010 Royal Meteorological Society and Crown Copyright. KEY WORDS land use; land cover; Earth system models; integrated assessment models; research priorities Received 12 January 2009; Revised 9 March 2010; Accepted 14 March 2010 1. Introduction 1... biogeophysical, socio- economic and human decision-making perspectives. The Earth System Modeling (ESM) and the Integrated Assessment Modeling (IAM) communities play an impor- tant role in understanding and quantifying Earth system analysis and, specifically...

Hibbard, Kathy; Janetos, Anthony; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Pongtatz, Julia; Rose, Steven K.; Betts, Richard; Herold, Martin; Feddema, Johannes J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

On the Use of Computational Models for Wave Climate Assessment in Support of the Wave Energy Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effective, economic extraction of ocean wave energy requires an intimate under- standing of the ocean waveOn the Use of Computational Models for Wave Climate Assessment in Support of the Wave Energy On the Use of Computational Models for Wave Climate Assessment in Support of the Wave Energy Industry

Victoria, University of

129

Discrete Fracture Network Models for Risk Assessment of Carbon Sequestration in Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A software package called DFNModeler has been developed to assess the potential risks associated with carbon sequestration in coal. Natural fractures provide the principal conduits for fluid flow in coal-bearing strata, and these fractures present the most tangible risks for the leakage of injected carbon dioxide. The objectives of this study were to develop discrete fracture network (DFN) modeling tools for risk assessment and to use these tools to assess risks in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama, where coal-bearing strata have high potential for carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. DFNModeler provides a user-friendly interface for the construction, visualization, and analysis of DFN models. DFNModeler employs an OpenGL graphics engine that enables real-time manipulation of DFN models. Analytical capabilities in DFNModeler include display of structural and hydrologic parameters, compartmentalization analysis, and fluid pathways analysis. DFN models can be exported to third-party software packages for flow modeling. DFN models were constructed to simulate fracturing in coal-bearing strata of the upper Pottsville Formation in the Black Warrior Basin. Outcrops and wireline cores were used to characterize fracture systems, which include joint systems, cleat systems, and fault-related shear fractures. DFN models were constructed to simulate jointing, cleating, faulting, and hydraulic fracturing. Analysis of DFN models indicates that strata-bound jointing compartmentalizes the Pottsville hydrologic system and helps protect shallow aquifers from injection operations at reservoir depth. Analysis of fault zones, however, suggests that faulting can facilitate cross-formational flow. For this reason, faults should be avoided when siting injection wells. DFN-based flow models constructed in TOUGH2 indicate that fracture aperture and connectivity are critical variables affecting the leakage of injected CO{sub 2} from coal. Highly transmissive joints near an injection well have potential to divert a large percentage of an injected CO{sub 2} stream away from a target coal seam. However, the strata-bound nature of Pottsville fracture systems is a natural factor that mitigates the risk of long-range leakage and surface seepage. Flow models indicate that cross-formational flow in strata-bound joint networks is low and is dissipated by about an order of magnitude at each successive bedding contact. These models help confirm that strata-bound joint networks are self-compartmentalizing and that the thick successions of interbedded shale and sandstone separating the Pottsville coal zones are confining units that protect shallow aquifers from injection operations at reservoir depth. DFN models are powerful tools for the simulation and analysis of fracture networks and can play an important role in the assessment of risks associated with carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. Importantly, the stochastic nature DFN models dictates that they cannot be used to precisely reproduce reservoir conditions in a specific field area. Rather, these models are most useful for simulating the fundamental geometric and statistical properties of fracture networks. Because the specifics of fracture architecture in a given area can be uncertain, multiple realizations of DFN models and DFN-based flow models can help define variability that may be encountered during field operations. Using this type of approach, modelers can inform the risk assessment process by characterizing the types and variability of fracture architecture that may exist in geologic carbon sinks containing natural fractures.

Jack Pashin; Guohai Jin; Chunmiao Zheng; Song Chen; Marcella McIntyre

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Model Components of the Certification Framework for Geologic Carbon Sequestration Risk Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed a framework for assessing the leakage risk of geologic carbon sequestration sites. This framework, known as the Certification Framework (CF), emphasizes wells and faults as the primary potential leakage conduits. Vulnerable resources are grouped into compartments, and impacts due to leakage are quantified by the leakage flux or concentrations that could potentially occur in compartments under various scenarios. The CF utilizes several model components to simulate leakage scenarios. One model component is a catalog of results of reservoir simulations that can be queried to estimate plume travel distances and times, rather than requiring CF users to run new reservoir simulations for each case. Other model components developed for the CF and described here include fault characterization using fault-population statistics; fault connection probability using fuzzy rules; well-flow modeling with a drift-flux model implemented in TOUGH2; and atmospheric dense-gas dispersion using a mesoscale weather prediction code.

Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Bryant, Steven L.; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Kumar, Navanit; Zhang, Yingqi; Jordan, Preston; Pan, Lehua; Granvold, Patrick; Chow, Fotini K.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Modelling risk and risking models: the diffusive boundary between science and policy in volcanic risk assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the appreciation that the eruptions may continue for 282 decades and should be regarded as a “chronic” problem for planning purposes (Donovan and 283 Oppenheimer, 2014). Managing this transition has required consistent yet innovative 284 approaches to scientific... to their advice. 524 There is abundant evidence of the political challenges of risk assessment and management on 525 Montserrat, and the complex boundaries and connectivities involved (Aspinall et al., 2002; 526 Haynes et al., 2007; Donovan and Oppenheimer...

Donovan, Amy R.; Oppenheimer, Clive

2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

132

Modeling threat assessments of water supply systems using markov latent effects methodology.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act emphasize efforts toward safeguarding our nation's water supplies against attack and contamination. Specifically, the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 established requirements for each community water system serving more than 3300 people to conduct an assessment of the vulnerability of its system to a terrorist attack or other intentional acts. Integral to evaluating system vulnerability is the threat assessment, which is the process by which the credibility of a threat is quantified. Unfortunately, full probabilistic assessment is generally not feasible, as there is insufficient experience and/or data to quantify the associated probabilities. For this reason, an alternative approach is proposed based on Markov Latent Effects (MLE) modeling, which provides a framework for quantifying imprecise subjective metrics through possibilistic or fuzzy mathematics. Here, an MLE model for water systems is developed and demonstrated to determine threat assessments for different scenarios identified by the assailant, asset, and means. Scenario assailants include terrorists, insiders, and vandals. Assets include a water treatment plant, water storage tank, node, pipeline, well, and a pump station. Means used in attacks include contamination (onsite chemicals, biological and chemical), explosives and vandalism. Results demonstrated highest threats are vandalism events and least likely events are those performed by a terrorist.

Silva, Consuelo Juanita

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Performance Assessment Modeling and Sensitivity Analyses of Generic Disposal System Concepts.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

directly, rather than through simplified abstractions. It also a llows for complex representations of the source term, e.g., the explicit representation of many individual waste packages (i.e., meter - scale detail of an entire waste emplacement drift). This report fulfills the Generic Disposal System Analysis Work Packa ge Level 3 Milestone - Performance Assessment Modeling and Sensitivity Analyses of Generic Disposal System Concepts (M 3 FT - 1 4 SN08080 3 2 ).

Sevougian, S. David; Freeze, Geoffrey A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Gardner, William Payton [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Mariner, Paul [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Development of Simplified Probabilistic Risk Assessment Model for Seismic Initiating Event  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ABSTRACT This paper discusses a simplified method to evaluate seismic risk using a methodology built on dividing the seismic intensity spectrum into multiple discrete bins. The seismic probabilistic risk assessment model uses Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) full power Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) model as the starting point for development. The seismic PRA models are integrated with their respective internal events at-power SPAR model. This is accomplished by combining the modified system fault trees from the full power SPAR model with seismic event tree logic. The peak ground acceleration is divided into five bins. The g-value for each bin is estimated using the geometric mean of lower and upper values of that particular bin and the associated frequency for each bin is estimated by taking the difference between upper and lower values of that bin. The component’s fragilities are calculated for each bin using the plant data, if available, or generic values of median peak ground acceleration and uncertainty values for the components. For human reliability analysis (HRA), the SPAR HRA (SPAR-H) method is used which requires the analysts to complete relatively straight forward worksheets that include the performance shaping factors (PSFs). The results are then used to estimate human error probabilities (HEPs) of interest. This work is expected to improve the NRC’s ability to include seismic hazards in risk assessments for operational events in support of the reactor oversight program (e.g., significance determination process).

S. Khericha; R. Buell; S. Sancaktar; M. Gonzalez; F. Ferrante

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Model assessment of protective barriers: Part 3. Status of FY 1990 work  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radioactive waste exists at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site in a variety of locations, including subsurface grout and tank farms, solid waste burial grounds, and contaminated soil sites. Some of these waste sites may need to be isolated from percolating water to minimize the potential for transport of the waste to the ground water, which eventually discharges to the Columbia River. Multilayer protective barriers have been proposed as a means of limiting the flow of water through the waste sites (DOE 1987). A multiyear research program [managed jointly by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company for the DOE] is aimed at assessing the performance of these barriers. One aspect of this program involves the use of computer models to predict barrier performance. Three modeling studies have already been conducted and a test plan was produced. The simulation work reported here was conducted by PNL and extends the previous modeling work. The purpose of this report are to understand phenomena that have been observed in the field and to provide information that can be used to improve hydrologic modeling of the protective barrier. An improved modeling capability results in better estimates of barrier performance. Better estimates can be used to improve the design of barriers and the assessment of their long-term performance.

Fayer, M.J.; Rockhold, M.L.; Holford, D.J.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

An Integrated Model for Assessment of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Limits for Bioenergy Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Agricultural residues have been identified as a significant potential resource for bioenergy production, but serious questions remain about the sustainability of harvesting residues. Agricultural residues play an important role in limiting soil erosion from wind and water and in maintaining soil organic carbon. Because of this, multiple factors must be considered when assessing sustainable residue harvest limits. Validated and accepted modeling tools for assessing these impacts include the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation Version 2 (RUSLE2), the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS), and the Soil Conditioning Index. Currently, these models do not work together as a single integrated model. Rather, use of these models requires manual interaction and data transfer. As a result, it is currently not feasible to use these computational tools to perform detailed sustainable agricultural residue availability assessments across large spatial domains or to consider a broad range of land management practices. This paper presents an integrated modeling strategy that couples existing datasets with the RUSLE2 water erosion, WEPS wind erosion, and Soil Conditioning Index soil carbon modeling tools to create a single integrated residue removal modeling system. This enables the exploration of the detailed sustainable residue harvest scenarios needed to establish sustainable residue availability. Using this computational tool, an assessment study of residue availability for the state of Iowa was performed. This study included all soil types in the state of Iowa, four representative crop rotation schemes, variable crop yields, three tillage management methods, and five residue removal methods. The key conclusions of this study are that under current management practices and crop yields nearly 26.5 million Mg of agricultural residue are sustainably accessible in the state of Iowa, and that through the adoption of no till practices residue removal could sustainably approach 40 million Mg. However, when considering the economics and logistics of residue harvest, yields below 2.25 Mg ha-1 are generally considered to not be viable for a commercial bioenergy system. Applying this constraint, the total agricultural residue resource available in Iowa under current management practices is 19 million Mg. Previously published results have shown residue availability from 22 million Mg to over 50 million Mg in Iowa.

D. Muth; K. M. Bryden

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Waste package performance assessment: Deterministic system model, program scope and specification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Integrated assessments of the performance of nuclear waste package designs must be made in order to qualify waste package designs with respect to containment time and release-rate requirements. PANDORA is a computer-based model of the waste package and of the processes affecting it over the long terms, specific to conditions at the proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site. The processes PANDORA models include: changes in inventories due to radioactive decay, gamma radiation dose rate in and near the package, heat transfer, mechanical behavior, groundwater contact, corrosion, waste form alteration, and radionuclide release. The model tracks the development and coupling of these processes over time. The process models are simplified ones that focus on major effects and on coupling. This report documents our conceptual model development and provides a specification for the computer program. The current model is the first in a series. Succeeding models will use guidance from results of preceding models in the PANDORA series and will incorporate results of recently completed experiments and calculations on processes affecting performance. 22 refs., 21 figs., 9 tabs.

O`Connell, W.J.; Drach, R.S.

1986-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

138

Soil-to-Plant Concentration Ratios for Assessing Food Chain Pathways in Biosphere Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes work performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report summarizes characteristics of samples of soils and groundwater from three geographical regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and analyses performed to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Because the uptake and behavior of radionuclides in plant roots, plant leaves, and animal products depends on the chemistry of the water and soil coming in contact with plants and animals, water and soil samples collected from these regions of the United States were used in experiments at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to determine radionuclide soil-to-plant concentration ratios. Crops and forage used in the experiments were grown in the soils, and long-lived radionuclides introduced into the groundwater provide the contaminated water used to water the grown plants. The radionuclides evaluated include 99Tc, 238Pu, and 241Am. Plant varieties include alfalfa, corn, onion, and potato. The radionuclide uptake results from this research study show how regional variations in water quality and soil chemistry affect radionuclide uptake. Section 3 summarizes the procedures and results of the uptake experiments, and relates the soil-to-plant uptake factors derived. In Section 4, the results found in this study are compared with similar values found in the biosphere modeling literature; the study’s results are generally in line with current literature, but soil- and plant-specific differences are noticeable. This food-chain pathway data may be used by the NRC staff to assess dose to persons in the reference biosphere (e.g., persons who live and work in an area potentially affected by radionuclide releases) of waste disposal facilities and decommissioning sites.

Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

A Hydro-Economic Approach to Representing Water Resources Impacts in Integrated Assessment Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Grant Number DE-FG02-98ER62665 Office of Energy Research of the U.S. Department of Energy Abstract Many Integrated Assessment Models (IAM) divide the world into a small number of highly aggregated regions. Non-OECD countries are aggregated geographically into continental and multiple-continental regions or economically by development level. Current research suggests that these large scale aggregations cannot accurately represent potential water resources-related climate change impacts. In addition, IAMs do not explicitly model the flow regulation impacts of reservoir and ground water systems, the economics of water supply, or the demand for water in economic activities. Using the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT) model of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) as a case study, this research implemented a set of methodologies to provide accurate representation of water resource climate change impacts in Integrated Assessment Models. There were also detailed examinations of key issues related to aggregated modeling including: modeling water consumption versus water withdrawals; ground and surface water interactions; development of reservoir cost curves; modeling of surface areas of aggregated reservoirs for estimating evaporation losses; and evaluating the importance of spatial scale in river basin modeling. The major findings include: - Continental or national or even large scale river basin aggregation of water supplies and demands do not accurately capture the impacts of climate change in the water and agricultural sector in IAMs. - Fortunately, there now exist gridden approaches (0.5 X 0.5 degrees) to model streamflows in a global analysis. The gridded approach to hydrologic modeling allows flexibility in aligning basin boundaries with national boundaries. This combined with GIS tools, high speed computers, and the growing availability of socio-economic gridded data bases allows assignment of demands to river basins to create hydro-economic zones that respect as much as possible both political and hydrologic integrity in different models. - To minimize pre-processing of data and add increased flexibility to modeling water resources and uses, it is recommended that water withdrawal demands be modeled, not consumptive requirements even though this makes the IAM more complex. - IAMs must consider changes in water availability for irrigation under climate change; ignoring them is more inaccurate than ignoring yield changes in crops under climate change. - Determining water availability and cost in river basins must include modeling streamflows, reservoirs and their operations, and ground water and its interaction with surface water. - Scale issues are important. The results from condensing demands and supplies in a large complex river basin to one node can be misleading for all uses under low flow conditions and instream flow uses under all conditions. Monthly is generally the most accurate scale for modeling river flows and demands. Challenges remain in integrating hydrologic units with political boundaries but the gridded approach to hydrologic modeling allows flexibility in aligning basin boundaries with political boundaries. - Using minimal reservoir cost data, it is possible to use basin topography to estimate reservoir storage costs. - Reservoir evaporation must be considered when assessing the usable water in a watershed. Several methods are available to estimate the relationship between aggregated storage surface area and storage volume. - For existing or future IAMs that can not use the appropriate aggregation for water, a water preprocessor may be required due the finer scale of hydrologic impacts.

Kirshen, Paul H.; Strzepek, Kenneth, M.

2004-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

140

Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models: Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 2004  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Annual Progress Report describes the work performed and summarizes some of the key observations to date on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report describes activities undertaken to collect samples of soils from three regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and perform analyses to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Section 3 summarizes information gathered regarding agricultural practices and common and unusual crops grown in each of these three areas. Section 4 describes progress in studying radionuclide uptake in several representative crops from the three soil types in controlled laboratory conditions. Section 5 describes a range of international coordination activities undertaken by Project staff in order to support the underlying data needs of the Project. Section 6 provides a very brief summary of the status of the GENII Version 2 computer program, which is a “client” of the types of data being generated by the Project, and for which the Project will be providing training to the US NRC staff in the coming Fiscal Year. Several appendices provide additional supporting information.

Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Fellows, Robert J.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Gilmore, Tyler J.

2004-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment model gcam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Object-Oriented Energy, Climate, and Technology Systems (ObjECTS) Global  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories onFocus AreaDataBusPFAN)Change Assessment Model (GCAM) | Open

142

Observatory of Renewable Energy for Latin America and the Caribbean | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories onFocus AreaDataBusPFAN)Change Assessment Model (GCAM) |

143

Occidental, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories onFocus AreaDataBusPFAN)Change Assessment Model (GCAM) |Occidental,

144

Ocean | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories onFocus AreaDataBusPFAN)Change Assessment Model (GCAM) |Occidental,

145

Ocmulgee Electric Member Corp | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories onFocus AreaDataBusPFAN)Change Assessment Model (GCAM)

146

Modeling gas and brine migration for assessing compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the request of the WIPP Project Integration Office (WPIO) of the DOE, the WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) Department of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has completed preliminary uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration away from the undisturbed repository. This paper contains descriptions of the numerical model and simulations, including model geometries and parameter values, and a summary of major conclusions from sensitivity analyses. Because significant transport of contaminants can only occur in a fluid (gas or brine) medium, two-phase flow modeling can provide an estimate of the distance to which contaminants can migrate. Migration of gas or brine beyond the RCRA ``disposal-unit boundary`` or the Standard`s accessible environment constitutes a potential, but not certain, violation and may require additional evaluations of contaminant concentrations.

Vaughn, P. [Applied Physics, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Butcher, B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Helton, J. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Swift, P. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Modelling the fate of nonylphenolic compounds in1 the Seine River -part 2: assessing the impact of2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the modelling of the global change10 influence on endocrine disruptor concentrations in surface water. Among1 Modelling the fate of nonylphenolic compounds in1 the Seine River - part 2: assessing the impact.09.0299 10 This study aims at modelling the daily concentrations of nonylphenolic compounds such as 4

Boyer, Edmond

148

Modeling and Quantification of Team Performance in Human Reliability Analysis for Probabilistic Risk Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) are important technical contributors to the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC) risk-informed and performance based approach to regulating U.S. commercial nuclear activities. Furthermore, all currently operating commercial NPPs in the U.S. are required by federal regulation to be staffed with crews of operators. Yet, aspects of team performance are underspecified in most HRA methods that are widely used in the nuclear industry. There are a variety of "emergent" team cognition and teamwork errors (e.g., communication errors) that are 1) distinct from individual human errors, and 2) important to understand from a PRA perspective. The lack of robust models or quantification of team performance is an issue that affects the accuracy and validity of HRA methods and models, leading to significant uncertainty in estimating HEPs. This paper describes research that has the objective to model and quantify team dynamics and teamwork within NPP control room crews for risk informed applications, thereby improving the technical basis of HRA, which improves the risk-informed approach the NRC uses to regulate the U.S. commercial nuclear industry.

Jeffrey C. JOe; Ronald L. Boring

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

A Home Ignition Assessment Model Applied to Structures in the Wildland-Urban Interface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The issue of exterior fire threat to buildings, from either wildfires in the wildland-urban interface or neighboring structure fires, is critically important. To address this, theWildfire Ignition Resistant Home Design (WIRHD) program was initiated. The WIRHD program developed a tool, theWildFIREWizard, that will allow homeowners to estimate the external fire threat to their homes based on specific features and characteristics of the homes and yards. The software then makes recommendations to reduce the threat. The inputs include the structural and material features of the home and information about any ignition sources or flammable objects in its immediate vicinity, known as the home ignition zone. The tool comprises an ignition assessment model that performs explicit calculations of the radiant and convective heating of the building envelope from the potential ignition sources. This article describes a series of material ignition and flammability tests that were performed to calibrate and/or validate the ignition assessment model. The tests involved exposing test walls with different external siding types to radiant heating and/or direct flame contact.The responses of the test walls were used to determine the conditions leading to melting, ignition, or any other mode of failure of the walls. Temperature data were used to verify the model predictions of temperature rises and ignition times of the test walls.

Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Werth, David [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC; Gupta, Narendra [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Multi-State Physics Models of Aging Passive Components in Probabilistic Risk Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multi-state Markov modeling has proved to be a promising approach to estimating the reliability of passive components - particularly metallic pipe components - in the context of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). These models consider the progressive degradation of a component through a series of observable discrete states, such as detectable flaw, leak and rupture. Service data then generally provides the basis for estimating the state transition rates. Research in materials science is producing a growing understanding of the physical phenomena that govern the aging degradation of passive pipe components. As a result, there is an emerging opportunity to incorporate these insights into PRA. This paper describes research conducted under the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization Pathway of the Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. A state transition model is described that addresses aging behavior associated with stress corrosion cracking in ASME Class 1 dissimilar metal welds – a component type relevant to LOCA analysis. The state transition rate estimates are based on physics models of weld degradation rather than service data. The resultant model is found to be non-Markov in that the transition rates are time-inhomogeneous and stochastic. Numerical solutions to the model provide insight into the effect of aging on component reliability.

Unwin, Stephen D.; Lowry, Peter P.; Layton, Robert F.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.

2011-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

151

Economic analysis and assessment of syngas production using a modeling approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Economic analysis and modeling are essential and important issues for the development of current feedstock and process technology for bio-gasification. The objective of this study was to develop an economic model and apply to predict the unit cost of syngas production from a micro-scale bio-gasification facility. An economic model was programmed in C++ computer programming language and developed using a parametric cost approach, which included processes to calculate the total capital costs and the total operating costs. The model used measured economic data from the bio-gasification facility at Mississippi State University. The modeling results showed that the unit cost of syngas production was $1.217 for a 60 Nm-3 h-1 capacity bio-gasifier. The operating cost was the major part of the total production cost. The equipment purchase cost and the labor cost were the largest part of the total capital cost and the total operating cost, respectively. Sensitivity analysis indicated that labor costs rank the top as followed by equipment cost, loan life, feedstock cost, interest rate, utility cost, and waste treatment cost. The unit cost of syngas production increased with the increase of all parameters with exception of loan life. The annual cost regarding equipment, labor, feedstock, waste treatment, and utility cost showed a linear relationship with percent changes, while loan life and annual interest rate showed a non-linear relationship. This study provides the useful information for economic analysis and assessment of the syngas production using a modeling approach.

Kim, Hakkwan; Parajuli, Prem B.; Yu, Fei; Columbus, Eugene P.

2011-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

152

Result Summary for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Performance Assessment Model Version 4.113  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preliminary results for Version 4.113 of the Nevada National Security Site Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site performance assessment model are summarized. Version 4.113 includes the Fiscal Year 2011 inventory estimate.

Shott, G. J.

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

153

Decision Making Under Conditions of Uncertainty: Experimental Assessment of Decision Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Letitia T. Alston, Ph.D. ? Institute for Science, Technology and Public Policy, Bush School C O L L A B O R AT O R S Steven B. Redd, Ph.D. ? Department of Political Science, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Mark K. Davis, Ph.D. ? National Defense..., Alex Mintz, Steven B. Redd, Xinsheng Liu, and Letitia T. Alston. Decision Making Under Conditions of Uncertainty: Experimental Assessment of Decision Models. (March 2005). A report to the National Defense University by the Institute for Science...

Vedlitz, Arnold; Mintz, Alex; Redd, Steven B.; Liu, Xinsheng; Alston, Letitia T.

2013-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

154

Modeling and Risk Assessment of CO{sub 2} Sequestration at the Geologic-basin Scale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Objectives. The overall objective of this proposal was to develop tools for better understanding, modeling and risk assessment of CO{sub 2} permanence in geologic formations at the geologic basin scale. The main motivation was that carbon capture and storage (CCS) will play an important role as a climate change mitigation technology only if it is deployed at scale of gigatonne per year injections over a period of decades. Continuous injection of this magnitude must be understood at the scale of a geologic basin. Specifically, the technical objectives of this project were: (1) to develop mathematical models of capacity and injectivity at the basin scale; (2) to apply quantitative risk assessment methodologies that will inform on CO{sub 2} permanence; (3) to apply the models to geologic basins across the continental United States. These technical objectives go hand-in-hand with the overarching goals of: (1) advancing the science for deployment of CCS at scale; and (2) contributing to training the next generation of scientists and engineers that will implement and deploy CCS in the United States and elsewhere. Methods. The differentiating factor of this proposal was to perform fundamental research on migration and fate of CO{sub 2} and displaced brine at the geologic basin scale. We developed analytical sharp-interface models of the evolution of CO{sub 2} plumes over the duration of injection (decades) and after injection (centuries). We applied the analytical solutions of CO{sub 2} plume migration and pressure evolution to specific geologic basins, to estimate the maximum footprint of the plume, and the maximum injection rate that can be sustained during a certain injection period without fracturing the caprock. These results have led to more accurate capacity estimates, based on fluid flow dynamics, rather than ad hoc assumptions of an overall “efficiency factor.” We also applied risk assessment methodologies to evaluate the uncertainty in our predictions of storage capacity and leakage rates. This was possible because the analytical mathematical models provide ultrafast forward simulation and they contain few parameters. Impact. The project has been enormously successful both in terms of its scientific output (journal publications) as well as impact in the government and industry. The mathematical models and uncertainty quantification methodologies developed here o?er a physically-based approach for estimating capacity and leakage risk at the basin scale. Our approach may also facilitate deployment of CCS by providing the basis for a simpler and more coherent regulatory structure than an “individual-point-of-injection” permitting approach. It may also lead to better science-based policy for post-closure design and transfer of responsibility to the State.

Juanes, Ruben

2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

155

Uncertainty analysis of an aviation climate model and an aircraft price model for assessment of environmental effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimating, presenting, and assessing uncertainties are important parts in assessment of a complex system. This thesis focuses on the assessment of uncertainty in the price module and the climate module in the Aviation ...

Jun, Mina

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Immunocompetent syngeneic cotton rat tumor models for the assessment of replication-competent oncolytic adenovirus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oncolytic adenoviruses as a treatment for cancer have demonstrated limited clinical activity. Contributing to this may be the relevance of preclinical animal models used to study these agents. Syngeneic mouse tumor models are generally non-permissive for adenoviral replication, whereas human tumor xenograft models exhibit attenuated immune responses to the vector. The cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) is susceptible to human adenovirus infection, permissive for viral replication and exhibits similar inflammatory pathology to humans with adenovirus replicating in the lungs, respiratory passages and cornea. We evaluated three transplantable tumorigenic cotton rat cell lines, CCRT, LCRT and VCRT as models for the study of oncolytic adenoviruses. All three cells lines were readily infected with adenovirus type-5-based vectors and exhibited high levels of transgene expression. The cell lines supported viral replication demonstrated by the induction of cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in tissue culture, increase in virus particle numbers and assembly of virions seen on transmission electron microscopy. In vivo, LCRT and VCRT tumors demonstrated delayed growth after injection with replicating adenovirus. No in vivo antitumor activity was seen in CCRT tumors despite in vitro oncolysis. Adenovirus was also rapidly cleared from the CCRT tumors compared to LCRT and VCRT tumors. The effect observed with the different cotton rat tumor cell lines mimics the variable results of human clinical trials highlighting the potential relevance of this model for assessing the activity and toxicity of oncolytic adenoviruses.

Steel, Jason C.; Morrison, Brian J.; Mannan, Poonam [Cancer Gene Therapy Section, Metabolism Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Mark O. Hatfield Clinical Research Center, Room 4-5330, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892-1457, National Institutes of Health, Maryland (United States); Abu-Asab, Mones S. [Ultrastructural Pathology, Laboratory of Pathology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Maryland (United States); Wildner, Oliver [Department of Molecular and Medical Virology, Ruhr University Bochum (Germany); Miles, Brian K.; Yim, Kevin C. [Virion Systems, Inc., Rockville, Maryland (United States); Ramanan, Vijay [Cancer Gene Therapy Section, Metabolism Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Mark O. Hatfield Clinical Research Center, Room 4-5330, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892-1457, National Institutes of Health, Maryland (United States); Prince, Gregory A. [Virion Systems, Inc., Rockville, Maryland (United States); Morris, John C. [Cancer Gene Therapy Section, Metabolism Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Mark O. Hatfield Clinical Research Center, Room 4-5330, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892-1457, National Institutes of Health, Maryland (United States)], E-mail: jmorris@mail.nih.gov

2007-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

157

Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 3, Model parameters: Sandia WIPP Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume documents model parameters chosen as of July 1992 that were used by the Performance Assessment Department of Sandia National Laboratories in its 1992 preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Ranges and distributions for about 300 modeling parameters in the current secondary data base are presented in tables for the geologic and engineered barriers, global materials (e.g., fluid properties), and agents that act upon the WIPP disposal system such as climate variability and human-intrusion boreholes. The 49 parameters sampled in the 1992 Preliminary Performance Assessment are given special emphasis with tables and graphics that provide insight and sources of data for each parameter.

Not Available

1992-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

158

Performance of corrosion inhibiting admixtures for structural concrete -- assessment methods and predictive modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the past fifteen years corrosion inhibiting admixtures (CIAs) have become increasingly popular for protection of reinforced components of highway bridges and other structures from damage induced by chlorides. However, there remains considerable debate about the benefits of CIAs in concrete. A variety of testing methods to assess the performance of CIA have been reported in the literature, ranging from tests in simulated pore solutions to long-term exposures of concrete slabs. The paper reviews the published techniques and recommends the methods which would make up a comprehensive CIA effectiveness testing program. The results of this set of tests would provide the data which can be used to rank the presently commercially available CIA and future candidate formulations utilizing a proposed predictive model. The model is based on relatively short-term laboratory testing and considers several phases of a service life of a structure (corrosion initiation, corrosion propagation without damage, and damage to the structure).

Yunovich, M.; Thompson, N.G. [CC Technologies Labs., Inc., Dublin, OH (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

159

Need to understand "Uncertainty Assessment" in the system development modeling process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the early stage of software life cycle project manager are inefficient to estimate the effort, schedule, cost estimation and its development approach .This in turn, confuses the manager to bid effectively on software project and choose incorrect development approach. That will directly effect on productivity cycle and increase level of uncertainty. This becomes a strong cause of project failure. So to avoid such problem if we know level and sources of uncertainty in model design, It will directive the developer to design accurate software cost and schedule estimation. Which are essential for software project success . However once the required efforts have estimated, little is done to recalibrate and reduce the uncertainty of the initial estimates. This paper demonstrates terminology and typology of uncertainty is presented together with a framework for the modeling process, Brief reviews have been made of 14 different (partly complementary) methods commonly used in uncertainty assessment its interaction w...

Kardile, Vilas Vasantrao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

PORFLOW MODELING FOR A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE PERFORMANCE OF NEW SALTSTONE DISPOSAL UNIT DESIGNS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the request of Savannah River Remediation (SRR), SRNL has analyzed the expected performance obtained from using seven 32 million gallon Saltstone Disposal Units (SDUs) in the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) to store future saltstone grout. The analysis was based on preliminary SDU final design specifications. The analysis used PORFLOW modeling to calculate the release of 20 radionuclides from an SDU and transport of the radionuclides and daughters through the vadose zone. Results from this vadose zone analysis were combined with previously calculated releases from existing saltstone vaults and FDCs and a second PORFLOW model run to calculate aquifer transport to assessment points located along a boundary 100 m from the nearest edge of the SDF sources. Peak concentrations within 12 sectors spaced along the 100 m boundary were determined over a period of evaluation extending 20,000 years after SDF closure cap placement. These peak concentrations were provided to SRR to use as input for dose calculations.

Smith, F.

2012-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment model gcam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Coupling GIS and LCA for biodiversity assessments of land use: Part 1: Inventory modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

explicit manner, while life cycle assessment (LCA) does notuse impacts in life cycle assessment. Int J LCA 11(5):363–Int J LCA Kim S, Dale BE (2005b) Life cycle assessment of

Geyer, Roland; Stoms, David M.; Lindner, Jan P.; Davis, Frank W.; Wittstock, Bastian

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

CONTAIN code analyses of direct containment heating (DCH) experiments: Model assessment and phenomenological interpretation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Models for direct containment heating (DCH) in the CONTAIN code for severe accident analysis have been reviewed and a standard input prescription for their use has been defined. The code has been exercised against a large subset of the available DCH data base. Generally good agreement with the experimental results for containment pressurization ({Delta}P) and hydrogen generation has been obtained. Extensive sensitivity studies have been performed which permit assessment of many of the strengths and weaknesses of specific model features. These include models for debris transport and trapping, DCH heat transfer and chemistry, atmosphere-structure heat transfer, interactions between nonairborne debris and blowdown steam, potential effects of debris-water interactions, and hydrogen combustion under DCH conditions. Containment compartmentalization is an important DCH mitigator in the calculations, in agreement with experimental results. The CONTAIN model includes partially parametric treatments for some processes that are not well understood. The importance of the associated uncertainties depends upon the details of the DCH scenario being analyzed. Recommended sensitivity studies are summarized that allow the user to obtain a reasonable estimate of the uncertainties in the calculated results.

Williams, D.C.; Griffith, R.O.; Tadios, E.L.; Washington, K.E.

1995-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

163

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessment models final Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

O N S E C U R I T Y INITIAL PUBLIC DRAFT Security Assessment Provider... Requirements and Customer Responsibilities: Building a Security Assessment Credentialing Program for...

164

CEMENTITIOUS BARRIERS MODELING FOR PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS OF SHALLOW LAND BURIAL OF LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE - 9243  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) was created to develop predictive capabilities for the aging of cementitious barriers over long timeframes. The CBP is a multi-agency, multi-national consortium working under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM-21) funded Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) as the lead laboratory. Members of the CBP are SRNL, Vanderbilt University, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), SIMCO Technologies, Inc. (Canada), and the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN). A first step in developing advanced tools is to determine the current state-of-the-art. A review has been undertaken to assess the treatment of cementitious barriers in Performance Assessments (PA). Representatives of US DOE sites which have PAs for their low level waste disposal facilities were contacted. These sites are the Idaho National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Nevada Test Site, and Hanford. Several of the more arid sites did not employ cementitious barriers. Of those sites which do employ cementitious barriers, a wide range of treatment of the barriers in a PA was present. Some sites used conservative, simplistic models that even though conservative still showed compliance with disposal limits. Other sites used much more detailed models to demonstrate compliance. These more detailed models tend to be correlation-based rather than mechanistically-based. With the US DOE's Low Level Waste Disposal Federal Review Group (LFRG) moving towards embracing a risk-based, best estimate with an uncertainties type of analysis, the conservative treatment of the cementitious barriers seems to be obviated. The CBP is creating a tool that adheres to the LFRG chairman's paradigm of continuous improvement.

Taylor, G

2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

165

Assessment of managed aquifer recharge site suitability and influence using a GIS and3 numerical modeling4  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

" for20 MAR. Results from the GIS analysis were used with a regional groundwater model to assess the groundwater flowing to the ocean over the long term. Modeling results28 illustrate considerable variability evaluation of options for32 enhancing groundwater resources.33 34 1. Introduction35 Groundwater

Fisher, Andrew

166

Model for cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of clinker production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A model for input- and technology-dependent cradle-to-gate life cycle assessments (LCA) was constructed to quantify emissions and resource consumption of various clinker production options. The model was compiled using data of more than 100 clinker production lines and complemented with literature data and best judgment from experts. It can be applied by the cement industry for the selection of alternative fuels and raw materials (AFR) and by authorities for decision-support regarding the permission of waste co-processing in cement kilns. In the field of sustainable construction, the model can be used to compare clinker production options. Two case studies are presented. First, co-processing of four different types of waste is analyzed at a modern precalciner kiln system. Second, clinker production is compared between five kiln systems. Results show that the use of waste (tires, prepared industrial waste, dried sewage sludge, blast furnace slag) led to reduced greenhouse gas emissions, decreased resource consumption, and mostly to reduced aggregated environmental impacts. Regarding the different kiln systems, the environmental impact generally increased with decreasing energy efficiency. 35 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Michael Elias Boesch; Annette Koehler; Stefanie Hellweg [ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland). Institute of Environmental Engineering

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Recommended Method To Account For Daughter Ingrowth For The Portsmouth On-Site Waste Disposal Facility Performance Assessment Modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 3-D STOMP model has been developed for the Portsmouth On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF) at Site D as outlined in Appendix K of FBP 2013. This model projects the flow and transport of the following radionuclides to various points of assessments: Tc-99, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Am-241, Np-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Th-228, and Th-230. The model includes the radioactive decay of these parents, but does not include the associated daughter ingrowth because the STOMP model does not have the capability to model daughter ingrowth. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provides herein a recommended method to account for daughter ingrowth in association with the Portsmouth OSWDF Performance Assessment (PA) modeling.

Phifer, Mark A.; Smith, Frank G. III

2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

168

Trace Metal Bioremediation: Assessment of Model Components from Laboratory and Field Studies to Identify Critical Variables  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to gain an insight into the modeling support needed for the understanding, design, and operation of trace metal/radionuclide bioremediation. To achieve this objective, a workshop was convened to discuss the elements such a model should contain. A ''protomodel'' was developed, based on the recommendations of the workshop, and was used to perform sensitivity analysis as well as some preliminary simulations in support for bioremediation test experiments at UMTRA sites. To simulate the numerous biogeochemical processes that will occur during the bioremediation of uranium contaminated aquifers, a time-dependent one-dimensional reactive transport model has been developed. The model consists of a set of coupled, steady state mass balance equations, accounting for advection, diffusion, dispersion, and a kinetic formulation of the transformations affecting an organic substrate, electron acceptors, corresponding reduced species, and uranium. This set of equations is solved numerically, using a finite element scheme. The redox conditions of the domain are characterized by estimating the pE, based on the concentrations of the dominant terminal electron acceptor and its corresponding reduced specie. This pE and the concentrations of relevant species are passed to a modified version of MINTEQA2, which calculates the speciation and solubilities of the species of interest. Kinetics of abiotic reactions are described as being proportional to the difference between the actual and equilibrium concentration. A global uncertainty assessment, determined by Random Sampling High Dimensional Model Representation (RS-HDMR), was performed to attain a phenomenological understanding of the origins of output variability and to suggest input parameter refinements as well as to provide guidance for field experiments to improve the quality of the model predictions. Results indicated that for the usually high nitrate contents found ate many DOE sites, overall bioremediation of trace metals was highly sensitive to the formulation of the denitrification process. Simulations were performed to illustrate the effect of biostimulation on the transport and precipitation of uranium in the subsurface, at conditions equivalent to UMTRA sites. These simulations predicted that uranium would precipitate in bands that are located relatively close to the acetate injection well. The simulations also showed the importance of properly determining U(IV) oxidative dissolution rates, in order to assess the stability of precipitates once oxygenated water reenters the aquifer after bioremediation is discontinued. The objective of this project was to provide guidance to NABIR's Systems Integration Element, on the development of models to simulate the bioremediation of trace metals and radionuclides. Such models necessarily need to integrate hydrological, geochemical, and microbiological processes. In order to gain a better understanding of the key processes that such a model should contain, it was deemed desirable to convene a workshop with experts from these different fields. The goal was to obtain a preliminary consensus on the required level of detail for the formulations of these different chemical, physical, and microbiological processes. The workshop was held on December 18, 1998.

Peter Jaffe; Herschel Rabitz

2003-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

169

An anticipatory integrated assessment of regional acidification: The RAINS-Asia model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Across large parts of Asia, air pollution problems are becoming more and more evident. Rainfall in some areas, including China, Japan, and Thailand, has been measured to be 10 times more acidic than unpolluted rain. Increasing evidence of acidification damage to ecosystems such as surface waters, soils, and economically important crops, is beginning to appear. In addition, urban air quality in many areas of the region continues to decrease. Current economic forecasts predict continued rapid economic growth in the region, which will bring with it increasing emissions of air pollutants, especially sulfur. The total primary energy demand in Asia currently doubles every twelve years (as compared to a world average of every 28 years). Coal is expected to continue to be the dominant energy source, with coal demand projected to increase by 65 percent per year, a rate that outpaces regional economic growth. If current trends in economic development and energy use in Asia continue, emissions of sulfur dioxide, one of the key components in acid rain, will more than triple within the next 30 years. Many ecosystems will be unable to continue to absorb these increased levels of pollution without harmful effects, thus creating a potential danger for irreversible environmental damage in many areas. In view of the potential environmental consequences of projected growth in Asian energy consumption, emissions, and air pollution, the World Bank, together with the Asian Development Bank, have funded a project to develop and implement an integrated assessment model for the acid deposition phenomenon in Asia. The Regional Air Pollution INformation and Simulation model for Asia (RAINS-Asia) is a software tool to help decision makers assess and project future trends in emissions, transport, and deposition of air pollutants, and their potential environmental effects.

Amann, M. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria); Carmichael, G.R. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Foell, W. [Resource Management Associates, Madison, WI (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

170

Repository Integration Program: RIP performance assessment and strategy evaluation model theory manual and user`s guide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the theory and capabilities of RIP (Repository Integration Program). RIP is a powerful and flexible computational tool for carrying out probabilistic integrated total system performance assessments for geologic repositories. The primary purpose of RIP is to provide a management tool for guiding system design and site characterization. In addition, the performance assessment model (and the process of eliciting model input) can act as a mechanism for integrating the large amount of available information into a meaningful whole (in a sense, allowing one to keep the ``big picture`` and the ultimate aims of the project clearly in focus). Such an integration is useful both for project managers and project scientists. RIP is based on a `` top down`` approach to performance assessment that concentrates on the integration of the entire system, and utilizes relatively high-level descriptive models and parameters. The key point in the application of such a ``top down`` approach is that the simplified models and associated high-level parameters must incorporate an accurate representation of their uncertainty. RIP is designed in a very flexible manner such that details can be readily added to various components of the model without modifying the computer code. Uncertainty is also handled in a very flexible manner, and both parameter and model (process) uncertainty can be explicitly considered. Uncertainty is propagated through the integrated PA model using an enhanced Monte Carlo method. RIP must rely heavily on subjective assessment (expert opinion) for much of its input. The process of eliciting the high-level input parameters required for RIP is critical to its successful application. As a result, in order for any project to successfully apply a tool such as RIP, an enormous amount of communication and cooperation must exist between the data collectors, the process modelers, and the performance. assessment modelers.

NONE

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN APPLICATIONS FOR MODELING AND ASSESSING CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN SALINE AQUIFERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was a computer modeling effort to couple reservoir simulation and ED/RSM using Sensitivity Analysis, Uncertainty Analysis, and Optimization Methods, to assess geologic, geochemical, geomechanical, and rock-fluid effects and factors on CO2 injectivity, capacity, and plume migration. The project objective was to develop proxy models to simplify the highly complex coupled geochemical and geomechanical models in the utilization and storage of CO2 in the subsurface. The goals were to investigate and prove the feasibility of the ED/RSM processes and engineering development, and bridge the gaps regarding the uncertainty and unknowns of the many geochemical and geomechanical interacting parameters in the development and operation of anthropogenic CO2 sequestration and storage sites. The bottleneck in this workflow is the high computational effort of reactive transport simulation models and large number of input variables to optimize with ED/RSM techniques. The project was not to develop the reactive transport, geomechanical, or ED/RSM software, but was to use what was commercially and/or publically available as a proof of concept to generate proxy or surrogate models. A detailed geologic and petrographic mineral assemblage and geologic structure of the doubly plunging anticline was defined using the USDOE RMOTC formations of interest data (e.g., Lower Sundance, Crow Mountain, Alcova Limestone, and Red Peak). The assemblage of 23 minerals was primarily developed from literature data and petrophysical (well log) analysis. The assemblage and structure was input into a commercial reactive transport simulator to predict the effects of CO2 injection and complex reactions with the reservoir rock. Significant impediments were encountered during the execution phase of the project. The only known commercial reactive transport simulator was incapable of simulating complex geochemistry modeled in this project. Significant effort and project funding was expended to determine the limitations of both the commercial simulator and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) R&D simulator, TOUGHREACT available to the project. A simplified layer cake model approximating the volume of the RMOTC targeted reservoirs was defined with 1-3 minerals eventually modeled with limited success. Modeling reactive transport in porous media requires significant computational power. In this project, up to 24 processors were used to model a limited mineral set of 1-3 minerals. In addition, geomechanical aspects of injecting CO2 into closed, semi-open, and open systems in various well completion methods was simulated. Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) as a storage method was not modeled. A robust and stable simulation dataset or base case was developed and used to create a master dataset with embedded instructions for input to the ED/RSM software. Little success was achieved toward the objective of the project using the commercial simulator or the LBNL simulator versions available during the time of this project. Several hundred realizations were run with the commercial simulator and ED/RSM software, most having convergence problems and terminating prematurely. A proxy model for full field CO2 injection sequestration utilization and storage was not capable of being developed with software available for this project. Though the chemistry is reasonably known and understood, based on the amount of effort and huge computational time required, predicting CO2 sequestration storage capacity in geologic formations to within the program goals of ±30% proved unsuccessful.

Rogers, John

2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

172

Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Aerosols on Pacific Storm Track Using a Multiscale Global Climate Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric aerosols impact weather and global general circulation by modifying cloud and precipitation processes, but the magnitude of cloud adjustment by aerosols remains poorly quantified and represents the largest uncertainty in estimated forcing of climate change. Here we assess the impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on the Pacific storm track using a multi-scale global aerosol-climate model (GCM). Simulations of two aerosol scenarios corresponding to the present day and pre-industrial conditions reveal long-range transport of anthropogenic aerosols across the north Pacific and large resulting changes in the aerosol optical depth, cloud droplet number concentration, and cloud and ice water paths. Shortwave and longwave cloud radiative forcing at the top of atmosphere are changed by - 2.5 and + 1.3 W m-2, respectively, by emission changes from pre-industrial to present day, and an increased cloud-top height indicates invigorated mid-latitude cyclones. The overall increased precipitation and poleward heat transport reflect intensification of the Pacific storm track by anthropogenic aerosols. Hence, this work provides for the first time a global perspective of the impacts of Asian pollution outflows from GCMs. Furthermore, our results suggest that the multi-scale modeling framework is essential in producing the aerosol invigoration effect of deep convective clouds on the global scale.

Wang, Yuan; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Renyi; Ghan, Steven J.; Lin, Yun; Hu, Jiaxi; Pan, Bowen; Levy, Misti; Jiang, Jonathan; Molina, Mario J.

2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

173

Assessment of CCFL model of RELAP5/MOD3 against simple vertical tubes and rod bundle tests. International Agreement Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CCFL model used in RELAP5/MOD3 version 5m5 has been assessed against simple vertical tubes and bundle tests performed at a facility of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The effect of changes in tube diameter and nodalization of tube section were investigated. The roles of interfacial drags on the flooding characteristics are discussed. Differences between the calculation and the experiment are also discussed. A comparison between model assessment results and the test data showed that the calculated value lay well on the experimental flooding curve specified by user, but the pressure jump before onset of flooding was not calculated.

Cho, S.; Arne, N. [Korea Electric Power Corp., Taejon (KR). Research Center; Chung, B.D.; Kim, H.J. [Korea Inst. of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (KR)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessment modeling productivity Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1; x has priority value and L is level of decision tree Summary: or productive 11f cough -> assess smoking history 11g cough -> assess cyanosis STATE Information If cough...

175

Framework for Modeling the Uncertainty of Future Events in Life Cycle Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INTRODUCTION Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a leadingLife Cycle Assessment by including predictable disruptions to the life cycle, thereby increasing the meaningfulness of LCALife Cycle Assessment is a very important factor to consider in order to ensure the accuracy of estimated emissions and meaningfulness of LCA

Chen, Yi-Fen; Simon, Rachel; Dornfeld, David

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Calibration of an EnergyPlus Building Energy Model to Assess the Impact of Demand Response Measures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Karine Lavigne Simon Sansregret Ahmed DaoudLouis-Alexandre Leclaire CALIBRATION OF AN ENERGYPLUS BUILDING ENERGY MODEL TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF DEMAND RESPONSE MEASURES ICEBO 2013, Montr?al Groupe ? Technologie2 ICEBO-2013 Contextualization... ICEBO-2013 Groupe ? Technologie Calibrated Results 22 ICEBO-2013 12 Groupe ? Technologie Conclusion 23 ICEBO-2013 > Calibrating model for a demand response objective : Challenging and High Effort > Capturing building and human erratic behaviour...

Lavigne, K.; Sansregret, S.; Daoud, A.; Leclair, L. A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 22, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2007 85 A Reinforcement Learning Model to Assess Market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 22, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2007 85 A Reinforcement Learning Model to Assess Market Power Under Auction-Based Energy Pricing Vishnuteja Nanduri, Student Member, IEEE, and Tapas K. Das, Member, IEEE Abstract--Auctions serve as a primary pricing mechanism in various market

Tesfatsion, Leigh

178

A Multi-State Model for the Reliability Assessment of a Distributed Generation System via Universal Generating Function  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Milan, Italy, Dipartimento di Energia Enrico.zio@polimi.it Abstract The current and future developments renewable technology (e.g. wind or solar, etc.) whose behavior is described by a binary state, working assessment, multi-state modeling, universal generating function #12;2 Notations Solar irradiance Total number

Boyer, Edmond

179

Assessment of the Value, Impact, and Validity of the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) Suite of Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), use input-output methodology to estimate gross (not net) jobs and economic impacts of building and operating selected types of renewable electricity generation and fuel plants. This analysis provides the DOE with an assessment of the value, impact, and validity of the JEDI suite of models. While the models produce estimates of jobs, earnings, and economic output, this analysis focuses only on jobs estimates. This validation report includes an introduction to JEDI models, an analysis of the value and impact of the JEDI models, and an analysis of the validity of job estimates generated by JEDI model through comparison to other modeled estimates and comparison to empirical, observed jobs data as reported or estimated for a commercial project, a state, or a region.

Billman, L.; Keyser, D.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

ASSESSMENT FOR THE SOUTHWEST  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SERVICE CLIMATE CHANGE & CULTURAL RESOURCE PLANNING PROGRAM 17 EARTH SYSTEM MODELS 18 CLIMATE ASSESSMENTS

Wong, Pak Kin

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment model gcam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Modeling and comparative assessment of municipal solid waste gasification for energy production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: • Study developed a methodology for the evaluation of gasification for MSW treatment. • Study was conducted comparatively for USA, UAE, and Thailand. • Study applies a thermodynamic model (Gibbs free energy minimization) using the Gasify software. • The energy efficiency of the process and the compatibility with different waste streams was studied. - Abstract: Gasification is the thermochemical conversion of organic feedstocks mainly into combustible syngas (CO and H{sub 2}) along with other constituents. It has been widely used to convert coal into gaseous energy carriers but only has been recently looked at as a process for producing energy from biomass. This study explores the potential of gasification for energy production and treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). It relies on adapting the theory governing the chemistry and kinetics of the gasification process to the use of MSW as a feedstock to the process. It also relies on an equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics solver tool (Gasify®) in the process of modeling gasification of MSW. The effect of process temperature variation on gasifying MSW was explored and the results were compared to incineration as an alternative to gasification of MSW. Also, the assessment was performed comparatively for gasification of MSW in the United Arab Emirates, USA, and Thailand, presenting a spectrum of socioeconomic settings with varying MSW compositions in order to explore the effect of MSW composition variance on the products of gasification. All in all, this study provides an insight into the potential of gasification for the treatment of MSW and as a waste to energy alternative to incineration.

Arafat, Hassan A., E-mail: harafat@masdar.ac.ae; Jijakli, Kenan

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

182

Research utilization in the building industry: decision model and preliminary assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Research Utilization Program was conceived as a far-reaching means for managing the interactions of the private sector and the federal research sector as they deal with energy conservation in buildings. The program emphasizes a private-public partnership in planning a research agenda and in applying the results of ongoing and completed research. The results of this task support the hypothesis that the transfer of R and D results to the buildings industry can be accomplished more efficiently and quickly by a systematic approach to technology transfer. This systematic approach involves targeting decision makers, assessing research and information needs, properly formating information, and then transmitting the information through trusted channels. The purpose of this report is to introduce elements of a market-oriented knowledge base, which would be useful to the Building Systems Division, the Office of Buildings and Community Systems and their associated laboratories in managing a private-public research partnership on a rational systematic basis. This report presents conceptual models and data bases that can be used in formulating a technology transfer strategy and in planning technology transfer programs.

Watts, R.L.; Johnson, D.R.; Smith, S.A.; Westergard, E.J.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Climate mitigation and the future of tropical landscapes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Land use change to meet 21st Century demands for food, fuel, and fiber will occur in the context of both a changing climate as well as societal efforts to mitigate climate change. This changing natural and human environment will have large consequences for forest resources, terrestrial carbon storage and emissions, and food and energy crop production over the next century. Any climate change mitigation policies enacted will change the environment under which land-use decisions are made and alter global land use change patterns. Here we use the GCAM integrated assessment model to explore how climate mitigation policies that achieve a climate stabilization at 4.5 W m-2 radiative forcing in 2100 and value carbon in terrestrial ecosystems interact with future agricultural productivity and food and energy demands to influence land use in the tropics. The regional land use results are downscaled from GCAM regions to produce gridded maps of tropical land use change. We find that tropical forests are preserved only in cases where a climate mitigation policy that values terrestrial carbon is in place, and crop productivity growth continues throughout the century. Crop productivity growth is also necessary to avoid large scale deforestation globally and enable the production of bioenergy crops. The terrestrial carbon pricing assumptions in GCAM are effective at avoiding deforestation even when cropland must expand to meet future food demand.

Thomson, Allison M.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Chini, Louise Parsons; Hurtt, George; Edmonds, James A.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Frolking, Steve; Wise, Marshall A.; Janetos, Anthony C.

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

184

Language Assessment as a System: Best Practices, Stakeholders, Models, and Testimonials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

language assessment. Mostafa Majidpour is a second-year PhDcoordinator), and Mostafa Majidpour (current UCLA electricalYoungsoon So and Mostafa Majidpour). When one considers the

Avineri, Netta; Londe, Zsuzsa; Hardacre, Bahiyyih; Carris, Lauren; So, Youngsoon; Majidpour, Mostafa

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Framework for Modeling the Uncertainty of Future Events in Life Cycle Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

M. , ( 2010), Product carbon footprint (PCF) assessment ofand Pflueger J. , (2012), Carbon footprint of a dell rackin 65% of the product carbon footprint of a laptop used in

Chen, Yi-Fen; Simon, Rachel; Dornfeld, David

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Model Components of the Certification Framework for Geologic Carbon Sequestration Risk Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to two geologic carbon sequestration sites, Energy Procedia,for Geologic Carbon Sequestration Based on Effectivefor geologic carbon sequestration risk assessment, Energy

Oldenburg, Curtis M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Coupling GIS and LCA for biodiversity assessments of land use: Part 1: Inventory modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of land use Part 1: Inventory modeling Roland Geyer & Davidthe use of GIS-based inventory modeling to generatedemonstrated that GIS-based inventory modeling of land use

Geyer, Roland; Stoms, David M.; Lindner, Jan P.; Davis, Frank W.; Wittstock, Bastian

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Cement Sector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Adoption of efficient end-use technologies is one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. How to effectively analyze and manage the costs associated with GHG reductions becomes extremely important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Energy-climate (EC) models are often used for analyzing the costs of reducing GHG emissions for various emission-reduction measures, because an accurate estimation of these costs is critical for identifying and choosing optimal emission reduction measures, and for developing related policy options to accelerate market adoption and technology implementation. However, accuracies of assessing of GHG-emission reduction costs by taking into account the adoption of energy efficiency technologies will depend on how well these end-use technologies are represented in integrated assessment models (IAM) and other energy-climate models.

Sathaye, J.; Xu, T.; Galitsky, C.

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Information on Hydrologic Conceptual Models, Parameters, Uncertainty Analysis, and Data Sources for Dose Assessments at Decommissioning Sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report addresses issues related to the analysis of uncertainty in dose assessments conducted as part of decommissioning analyses. The analysis is limited to the hydrologic aspects of the exposure pathway involving infiltration of water at the ground surface, leaching of contaminants, and transport of contaminants through the groundwater to a point of exposure. The basic conceptual models and mathematical implementations of three dose assessment codes are outlined along with the site-specific conditions under which the codes may provide inaccurate, potentially nonconservative results. In addition, the hydrologic parameters of the codes are identified and compared. A methodology for parameter uncertainty assessment is outlined that considers the potential data limitations and modeling needs of decommissioning analyses. This methodology uses generic parameter distributions based on national or regional databases, sensitivity analysis, probabilistic modeling, and Bayesian updating to incorporate site-specific information. Data sources for best-estimate parameter values and parameter uncertainty information are also reviewed. A follow-on report will illustrate the uncertainty assessment methodology using decommissioning test cases.

Meyer, Philip D.; Gee, Glendon W.; Nicholson, Thomas J.

2000-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

190

Assessing the prospective environmental impacts of photovoltaic systems based on a simplified LCA model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessing the prospective environmental impacts of photovoltaic systems based on a simplified LCA the environmental impacts of PV systems are small during their operating phase, they are more significant during the use of LCA to assess the environmental impacts of one electricity-production technology. To address

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

191

Home composting as an alternative treatment option for organic household waste in Denmark: An environmental assessment using life cycle assessment-modelling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An environmental assessment of the management of organic household waste (OHW) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the waste-life cycle assessment (LCA) model EASEWASTE. The focus was on home composting of OHW in Denmark and six different home composting units (with different input and different mixing frequencies) were modelled. In addition, incineration and landfilling was modelled as alternatives to home composting. The most important processes contributing to the environmental impact of home composting were identified as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (load) and the avoided emissions in relation to the substitution of fertiliser and peat when compost was used in hobby gardening (saving). The replacement of fertiliser and peat was also identified as one of the most sensible parameters, which could potentially have a significant environmental benefit. Many of the impact categories (especially human toxicity via water (HTw) and soil (HTs)) were affected by the heavy metal contents of the incoming OHW. The concentrations of heavy metals in the compost were below the threshold values for compost used on land and were thus not considered to constitute a problem. The GHG emissions were, on the other hand, dependent on the management of the composting units. The frequently mixed composting units had the highest GHG emissions. The environmental profiles of the home composting scenarios were in the order of -2 to 16 milli person equivalents (mPE) Mg{sup -1} wet waste (ww) for the non-toxic categories and -0.9 to 28 mPE Mg{sup -1} ww for the toxic categories. Home composting performed better than or as good as incineration and landfilling in several of the potential impact categories. One exception was the global warming (GW) category, in which incineration performed better due to the substitution of heat and electricity based on fossil fuels.

Andersen, J.K.; Boldrin, A.; Christensen, T.H. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Scheutz, C., E-mail: chas@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

192

Validity and sensitivity of a model for assessment of impacts of river floodplain reconstruction on protected and endangered species  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) must account for legally protected and endangered species. Uncertainties relating to the validity and sensitivity of EIA arise from predictions and valuation of effects on these species. This paper presents a validity and sensitivity analysis of a model (BIO-SAFE) for assessment of impacts of land use changes and physical reconstruction measures on legally protected and endangered river species. The assessment is based on links between species (higher plants, birds, mammals, reptiles and amphibians, butterflies and dragon- and damselflies) and ecotopes (landscape ecological units, e.g., river dune, soft wood alluvial forests), and on value assignment to protected and endangered species using different valuation criteria (i.e., EU Habitats and Birds directive, Conventions of Bern and Bonn and Red Lists). The validity of BIO-SAFE has been tested by comparing predicted effects of landscape changes on the diversity of protected and endangered species with observed changes in biodiversity in five reconstructed floodplains. The sensitivity of BIO-SAFE to value assignment has been analysed using data of a Strategic Environmental Assessment concerning the Spatial Planning Key Decision for reconstruction of the Dutch floodplains of the river Rhine, aimed at flood defence and ecological rehabilitation. The weights given to the valuation criteria for protected and endangered species were varied and the effects on ranking of alternatives were quantified. A statistically significant correlation (p < 0.01) between predicted and observed values for protected and endangered species was found. The sensitivity of the model to value assignment proved to be low. Comparison of five realistic valuation options showed that different rankings of scenarios predominantly occur when valuation criteria are left out of the assessment. Based on these results we conclude that linking species to ecotopes can be used for adequate impact assessments. Quantification of sensitivity of impact assessment to value assignment shows that a model like BIO-SAFE is relatively insensitive to assignment of values to different policy and legislation based criteria. Arbitrariness of the value assignment therefore has a very limited effect on assessment outcomes. However, the decision to include valuation criteria or not is very important.

Nooij, R.J.W. de [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Faculty of Science, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands) and Netherlands Centre for River Studies (NCR), P.O. Box 177, 2600 MH Delft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: R.deNooij@science.ru.nl; Lotterman, K.M. [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Faculty of Science, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Sande, P.H.J. van de [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Faculty of Science, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Pelsma, T. [Institute for Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment (RIZA), P.O. Box 17, 8200 AA Lelystad (Netherlands); Netherlands Centre for River Studies (NCR), P.O. Box 177, 2600 MH Delft (Netherlands); Leuven, R.S.E.W. [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Faculty of Science, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Netherlands Centre for River Studies (NCR), P.O. Box 177, 2600 MH Delft (Netherlands); Lenders, H.J.R. [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Faculty of Science, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Netherlands Centre for River Studies (NCR), P.O. Box 177, 2600 MH Delft (Netherlands)

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

193

Developing an Integrated Model Framework for the Assessment of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Limits for Bioenergy Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Agricultural residues have significant potential as a feedstock for bioenergy production, but removing these residues can have negative impacts on soil health. Models and datasets that can support decisions about sustainable agricultural residue removal are available; however, no tools currently exist capable of simultaneously addressing all environmental factors that can limit availability of residue. The VE-Suite model integration framework has been used to couple a set of environmental process models to support agricultural residue removal decisions. The RUSLE2, WEPS, and Soil Conditioning Index models have been integrated. A disparate set of databases providing the soils, climate, and management practice data required to run these models have also been integrated. The integrated system has been demonstrated for two example cases. First, an assessment using high spatial fidelity crop yield data has been run for a single farm. This analysis shows the significant variance in sustainably accessible residue across a single farm and crop year. A second example is an aggregate assessment of agricultural residues available in the state of Iowa. This implementation of the integrated systems model demonstrates the capability to run a vast range of scenarios required to represent a large geographic region.

David Muth, Jr.; Jared Abodeely; Richard Nelson; Douglas McCorkle; Joshua Koch; Kenneth Bryden

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Modeling mining economics and materials markets to inform criticality assessment and mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conventional criticality-assessment methods drawn from the existing literature are often limited to evaluations of scarcity risks, or rely on price as an indicator of criticality. Such approaches, however, are ill-suited ...

Poulizac, Claire Marie Franc?oise

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Development and assessment of a soot emissions model for aircraft gas turbine engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessing candidate policies designed to address the impact of aviation on the environment requires a simplified method to estimate pollutant emissions for current and future aircraft gas turbine engines under different ...

Martini, Bastien

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Assessment and preliminary model development of shape memory polymers mechanical counter pressure space suits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis seeks to assess the viability of a space qualified shape memory polymer (SMP) mechanical counter pressure (MCP) suit. A key development objective identified by the International Space Exploration Coordination ...

Wee, Brian (Brian J.)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Modifying the Soil and Water Assessment Tool to Simulate Cropland Carbon Flux: Model Development and Initial Evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Climate change is one of the most compelling modern issues and has important implications for almost every aspect of natural and human systems. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model has been applied worldwide to support sustainable land and water management in a changing climate. However, the inadequacies of the existing carbon algorithm in SWAT limit its application in assessing impacts of human activities on CO2 emission, one important source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that traps heat in the earth system and results in global warming. In this research, we incorporate a revised version of the CENTURY carbon model into SWAT to describe dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM)- residue and simulate land-atmosphere carbon exchange.

Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Arnold, Jeffrey; Williams, Jimmy R.; Srinivasan, Raghavan

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

ASSESSMENT OF INTERACTION BETWEEN NORTH PACIFIC ALBACORE, THUNNUS ALALUNGA, FISHERIES BY USE OF A SIMULATION MODEL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF A SIMULATION MODEL P. KLEIBER AND B. BAKER1 ABSTRACT Using a simulation model of a typical year in the North

199

The potential use of Chernobyl fallout data to test and evaluate the predictions of environmental radiological assessment models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of the Model Validation Committee were to collaborate with US and foreign scientists to collect, manage, and evaluate data for identifying critical research issues and data needs to support an integrated assessment of the Chernobyl nuclear accident; test environmental transport, human dosimetric, and health effects models against measured data to determine their efficacy in guiding decisions on protective actions and in estimating exposures to populations and individuals following a nuclear accident; and apply Chernobyl data to quantifications of key processes governing the environmental transport, fate and effects of radionuclides and other trace substances. 55 refs.

Richmond, C.R.; Hoffman, F.O.; Blaylock, B.G.; Eckerman, K.F.; Lesslie, P.A.; Miller, C.W.; Ng, Y.C.; Till, J.E.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Assessment of Dissolved Oxygen Mitigation at Hydropower Dams Using an Integrated Hydrodynamic/Water Quality/Fish Growth Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dissolved oxygen (DO) in rivers is a common environmental problem associated with hydropower projects. Approximately 40% of all FERC-licensed projects have requirements to monitor and/or mitigate downstream DO conditions. Most forms of mitigation for increasing DO in dam tailwaters are fairly expensive. One area of research of the Department of Energy's Hydropower Program is the development of advanced turbines that improve downstream water quality and have other environmental benefits. There is great interest in being able to predict the benefits of these modifications prior to committing to the cost of new equipment. In the case of turbine replacement or modification, there is a need for methods that allow us to accurately extrapolate the benefits derived from one or two turbines with better design to the replacement or modification of all turbines at a site. The main objective of our study was to demonstrate a modeling approach that integrates the effects of flow and water quality dynamics with fish bioenergetics to predict DO mitigation effectiveness over long river segments downstream of hydropower dams. We were particularly interested in demonstrating the incremental value of including a fish growth model as a measure of biological response. The models applied are a suite of tools (RMS4 modeling system) originally developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority for simulating hydrodynamics (ADYN model), water quality (RQUAL model), and fish growth (FISH model) as influenced by DO, temperature, and available food base. We parameterized a model for a 26-mile reach of the Caney Fork River (Tennessee) below Center Hill Dam to assess how improvements in DO at the dam discharge would affect water quality and fish growth throughout the river. We simulated different types of mitigation (i.e., at the turbine and in the reservoir forebay) and different levels of improvement. The model application successfully demonstrates how a modeling approach like this one can be used to assess whether a prescribed mitigation is likely to meet intended objectives from both a water quality and a biological resource perspective. These techniques can be used to assess the tradeoffs between hydropower operations, power generation, and environmental quality.

Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Coutant, Charles C [ORNL

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment model gcam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Users guide for the hydroacoustic coverage assessment model (HydroCAM)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A model for predicting the detection and localization performance of hydroacoustic monitoring networks has been developed. The model accounts for major factors affecting global-scale acoustic propagation in the ocean. including horizontal refraction, travel time variability due to spatial and temporal fluctuations in the ocean, and detailed characteristics of the source. Graphical user interfaces are provided to setup the models and visualize the results. The model produces maps of network detection coverage and localization area of uncertainty, as well as intermediate results such as predicted path amplitudes, travel time and travel time variance. This Users Guide for the model is organized into three sections. First a summary of functionality available in the model is presented, including example output products. The second section provides detailed descriptions of each of models contained in the system. The last section describes how to run the model, including a summary of each data input form in the user interface.

Farrell, T., LLNL

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Assessing the performance of thermospheric modelling with data assimilation throughout solar cycles 23 and 24  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Data assimilation procedures have been developed for thermospheric models using satellite density measurements as part of the EU Framework Package 7 ATMOP Project. Two models were studied; one a general circulation model, TIEGCM, and the other a semi-empirical drag temperature model, DTM. Results of runs using data assimilation with these models were compared with independent density observations from CHAMP and GRACE satellites throughout solar cycles 23 and 24. Time periods of 60 days were examined at solar minimum and maximum, including the 2003 Hallowe'en storms. The differences between the physical and the semi-empirical models have been characterised. Results indicate that both models tend to show similar behaviour; underestimating densities at solar maximum, and overestimating them at solar minimum. DTM performed better at solar minimum, with both models less accurate at solar maximum. A mean improvement of ~4% was found using data assimilation with TIEGCM. With further improvements, the use of general ...

Murray, Sophie A; Jackson, David R; Bruinsma, Sean L

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

ESD.864 / ESD.936 Systems Modeling and Assessment for Policy, Spring 2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This course explores how scientific information can be used to inform policy decision-making processes through the use of quantitative modeling techniques. It incorporates both hands-on analysis and practice using models ...

Selin, Noelle

204

Assessment of skill and portability in regional marine biogeochemical models: Role of multiple planktonic groups  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

radiation, and wind stress in a model simulation of the sea surface temperature seasonally cycle in the tropical Pacific Ocean,

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Ensemble operational air quality assessments in Europe Improving modeling platforms with statistical analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with statistical analysis Anthony Ung, Laure Malherbe, Frederik Meleux, Bertrand Bessagnet, Laurence Rouil and MACCII modeling team INERIS institut, Paris, France Corresponding author: Anthony.ung@ineris.fr Abstract/QC dossiers and available on the MACC project website for each model. All models have also very significant

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

206

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessment part ii Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Assessment Model The TENCompetence Assessment Model... , 60 2009 Sofia Service Oriented Architecture of Assessment Model1 Adelina Aleksieva... Assessment Model. To achieve...

207

numerical models & information Systems, Nice: France (2013)" Environmental impact for offshore wind farms: Geolocalized Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract. This paper presents an approach for Environmental Impact Assessment through the use of geolocalized LCA approach, for fixed and floating offshore wind farms. This work was undertaken within the EUsponsored EnerGEO project, aiming at providing a versatile modeling platform for stakeholders allowing calculation, forecasting and monitoring of environmental impacts of different sources of energy. This paper described the geolocalized LCA approach, and its use for the evaluation of environmental impacts of wind energy. The effects of offshore wind farms on global environnemental impacts are evaluated though the LCA approach. It takes into account the type of wind farm, the construction phase, all technical aspects, the operation and maintenance scheme and the decommissioning. It also includes geolocalized information such as wind resources, bathymetry, accessibility … Environmental impact parameters are accessible through a web service helping the decision makers in assessing the environnemental impacts. 1

Catherine Guermont; Lionel Ménard; Isabelle Blanc

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

E-Print Network 3.0 - analytical model assessing Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

systems with ceramic membranes 12;SAW - HydrogenRelatedAnalytical... , and modeling of gasification and petroleum refining ... Source: DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and...

209

MA3T Model Application at ORNL Assesses the Future of Fuel Cell...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

has developed a model for simulating the market potential of fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) and challenges to achieving success over time, including competition with...

210

Seismic Performance, Modeling, and Failure Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J.W. , (2009). Testing and Reinforced Concrete Coupling2010). "Testing and Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Couplingscale testing of four-story reinforced concrete and post-

Tuna, Zeynep

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

An Assessment of Interval Data and Their Potential Application to Residential Electricity End-Use Modeling  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone:short version)ecTotalnerrSpring:7)An Assessment

212

Spent nuclear fuel as a waste form for geologic disposal: Assessment and recommendations on data and modeling needs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study assesses the status of knowledge pertinent to evaluating the behavior of spent nuclear fuel as a waste form in geologic disposal systems and provides background information that can be used by the DOE to address the information needs that pertain to compliance with applicable standards and regulations. To achieve this objective, applicable federal regulations were reviewed, expected disposal environments were described, the status of spent-fuel modeling was summarized, and information regarding the characteristics and behavior of spent fuel was compiled. This compiled information was then evaluated from a performance modeling perspective to identify further information needs. A number of recommendations were made concerning information still needed to enhance understanding of spent-fuel behavior as a waste form in geologic repositories. 335 refs., 22 figs., 44 tabs.

Van Luik, A.E.; Apted, M.J.; Bailey, W.J.; Haberman, J.H.; Shade, J.S.; Guenther, R.E.; Serne, R.J.; Gilbert, E.R.; Peters, R.; Williford, R.E.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

A new analytic-adaptive model for EGS assessment, development and management support  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This project will develop an in depth model of EGS systems that will allow engineers, practitioners, and researchers to more accurately predict how new fluid technologies would work in a reservoir.

214

Climate Change Impacts for Conterminous USA: An Integrated Assessment Part 2. Models and Validation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases accumulate in the atmosphere and contribute to rising global temperatures, it is important to examine how a changing climate may affect natural and managed ecosystems. In this series of papers, we study the impacts of climate change on agriculture, water resources and natural ecosystems in the conterminous United States using a suite of climate change predictions from General Circulation Models (GCMs) as described in Part 1. Here we describe the agriculture model EPIC and the HUMUS water model and validate them with historical crop yields and streamflow data. We compare EPIC simulated grain and forage crop yields with historical crop yields from the US Department of Agriculture and find an acceptable level of agreement for this study. The validation of HUMUS simulated streamflow with estimates of natural streamflow from the US Geological Survey shows that the model is able to reproduce significant relationships and capture major trends.

Thomson, Allison M.; Rosenberg, Norman J.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Brown, Robert A.

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Advanced Technologies in Energy-Economy Models for Climate Change Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Considerations regarding the roles of advanced technologies are crucial in energy-economic modeling, as these technologies, while usually not yet commercially viable, could substitute for fossil energy when relevant policies ...

Morris, J.F.

216

Assessing Invariance of Factor Structures and Polytomous Item Response Model Parameter Estimates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.e., identical items, different people) for the homogenous graded response model (Samejima, 1969) and the partial credit model (Masters, 1982)? To evaluate measurement invariance using IRT methods, the item discrimination and item difficulty parameters... obtained from the GRM need to be equivalent across datasets. The YFCY02 and YFCY03 GRM item discrimination parameters (slope) correlation was 0.828. The YFCY02 and YFCY03 GRM item difficulty parameters (location) correlation was 0...

Reyes, Jennifer McGee

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

217

Seminar on Radioactive Waste, Modelling and Dose Assessment -Ris National Laboratory 2 -6 December 2002 Assessment of doses and environmental contamination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

December 2002 Assessment of doses and environmental contamination from decommissioning of the nuclear on the environment dur- ing the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risø and the assessed consequences facilities at Risø Per Hedemann Jensen Section of Applied Health Physics Risø Department of Decommissioning

218

Assessment of One- and Two-Equation Turbulence Models for Hypersonic Transitional Flows  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many Navier-Stokes codes require that the governing equations be written in conservation form with a source term. The Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model was originally developed in substantial derivative form and when rewritten in conservation form, a density gradient term appears in the source term. This density gradient term causes numerical problems and has a small influence on the numerical predictions. Further work has been performed to understand and to justify the neglect of this term. The transition trip term has been included in the one-equation eddy viscosity model of Spalart-Allmaras. Several problems with this model have been discovered when applied to high-speed flows. For the Mach 8 flat plate boundary layer flow with the standard transition method, the Baldwin-Barth and both k-{omega} models gave transition at the specified location. The Spalart-Allmaras and low Reynolds number k-{var_epsilon} models required an increase in the freestream turbulence levels in order to give transition at the desired location. All models predicted the correct skin friction levels in both the laminar and turbulent flow regions. For Mach 8 flat plate case, the transition location could not be controlled with the trip terms as given in the Spalart-Allmaras model. Several other approaches have been investigated to allow the specification of the transition location. The approach that appears most appropriate is to vary the coefficient that multiplies the turbulent production term in the governing partial differential equation for the eddy viscosity (Method 2). When this coefficient is zero, the flow remains laminar. The coefficient is increased to its normal value over a specified distance to crudely model the transition region and obtain fully turbulent flow. While this approach provides a reasonable interim solution, a separate effort should be initiated to address the proper transition procedure associated with the turbulent production term. Also, the transition process might be better modeled with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model with modification of the damping function f{sub v1}. The damping function could be set to zero in the laminar flow region and then turned on through the transition flow region.

ROY,CHRISTOPHER J.; BLOTTNER,FREDERICK G.

2000-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

219

One-way coupling of an integrated assessment model and a water resources model: evaluation and implications of future changes over the US Midwest  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An integrated model is being developed to advance our understanding of the interactions between human activities, terrestrial system and water cycle, and how system interactions will be affected by a changing climate at the regional scale. As a first step towards that goal, a global integrated assessment model including a waterdemand model is coupled offline with a land surface hydrology – routing – water resources management model. A spatial and temporal disaggregation approach is developed to project the annual regional water demand simulations into a daily time step and subbasin representation. The model demonstrated reasonable ability to represent the historical flow regulation and water supply over the Midwest (Missouri, Upper Mississippi and Ohio). Implications for the future flow regulation, water supply and supply deficit are investigated using a climate change projection with the B1 emission scenario which affects both natural flow and water demand. Over the Midwest, changes in flow regulation are mostly driven by the change in natural flow due to the limited storage capacity over the Ohio and Upper Mississippi river basins. The changes in flow and demand have a combined effect on the Missouri Summer regulated flow. The supply deficit tends to be driven by the change in flow over the region. Spatial analysis demonstrates the relationship between the supply deficit and the change in demand over urban areas not along a main river or with limited storage, and over areas upstream of groundwater dependent fields with therefore overestimated demand.

Voisin, Nathalie; Liu, Lu; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Tesfa, Teklu K.; Li, Hongyi; Huang, Maoyi; Liu, Ying; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

220

Model Developments for Development of Improved Emissions Scenarios: Developing Purchasing-Power Parity Models, Analyzing Uncertainty, and Developing Data Sets for Gridded Integrated Assessment Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the duration of this project, we finished the main tasks set up in the initial proposal. These tasks include: setting up the basic platform in GAMS language for the new RICE 2007 model; testing various model structure of RICE 2007; incorporating PPP data set in the new RICE model; developing gridded data set for IA modeling.

Yang, Zili; Nordhaus, William

2009-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment model gcam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

A novel QSAR model of Salmonella mutagenicity and its application in the safety assessment of drug impurities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As indicated in ICH M7 draft guidance, in silico predictive tools including statistically-based QSARs and expert analysis may be used as a computational assessment for bacterial mutagenicity for the qualification of impurities in pharmaceuticals. To address this need, we developed and validated a QSAR model to predict Salmonella t. mutagenicity (Ames assay outcome) of pharmaceutical impurities using Prous Institute's Symmetry?, a new in silico solution for drug discovery and toxicity screening, and the Mold2 molecular descriptor package (FDA/NCTR). Data was sourced from public benchmark databases with known Ames assay mutagenicity outcomes for 7300 chemicals (57% mutagens). Of these data, 90% was used to train the model and the remaining 10% was set aside as a holdout set for validation. The model's applicability to drug impurities was tested using a FDA/CDER database of 951 structures, of which 94% were found within the model's applicability domain. The predictive performance of the model is acceptable for supporting regulatory decision-making with 84 ± 1% sensitivity, 81 ± 1% specificity, 83 ± 1% concordance and 79 ± 1% negative predictivity based on internal cross-validation, while the holdout dataset yielded 83% sensitivity, 77% specificity, 80% concordance and 78% negative predictivity. Given the importance of having confidence in negative predictions, an additional external validation of the model was also carried out, using marketed drugs known to be Ames-negative, and obtained 98% coverage and 81% specificity. Additionally, Ames mutagenicity data from FDA/CFSAN was used to create another data set of 1535 chemicals for external validation of the model, yielding 98% coverage, 73% sensitivity, 86% specificity, 81% concordance and 84% negative predictivity. - Highlights: • A new in silico QSAR model to predict Ames mutagenicity is described. • The model is extensively validated with chemicals from the FDA and the public domain. • Validation tests show desirable high sensitivity and high negative predictivity. • The model predicted 14 reportedly difficult to predict drug impurities with accuracy. • The model is suitable to support risk evaluation of potentially mutagenic compounds.

Valencia, Antoni; Prous, Josep; Mora, Oscar [Prous Institute for Biomedical Research, Rambla de Catalunya, 135, 3-2, Barcelona 08008 (Spain); Sadrieh, Nakissa [Office of Pharmaceutical Science, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002 (United States); Valerio, Luis G., E-mail: luis.valerio@fda.hhs.gov [Office of Pharmaceutical Science, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002 (United States)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

222

Application of probabilistic safety assessment models to risk-based inspection of piping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From the beginning, one of the most useful applications of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is its use in evaluating the risk importance of changes to plant design, operations, or other plant conditions. Risk importance measures the impact of a change on the risk. Risk is defined as a combination of the likelihood of failure and consequence of the failure. The consequence can be safety system unavailability, core melt frequency, early release, or various other consequence measures. The goal in this PSA application is to evaluate the risk importance of an ISI process, as applied to plant piping systems. Two approaches can be taken in this evaluation: Current PSA Approach or the Blended Approach. Both are discussed here.

Chapman, J.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Overview of technology modeling in the Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are numerous hazardous waste sites under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy (DOE). To assist the cleanup of these sites in a more consistent, timely, and cost-effective manner, the Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS) is being developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). RAAS is a software tool designed to automate the initial technology selection within the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. The software does several things for the user: (1) provides information about available remedial technologies, (2) sorts possible technologies to recommend a list of technologies applicable to a given site, (3) points out technical issues that may prevent the implementation of a technology, and (4) provides an estimate of the effectiveness of a given technology at a particular site. Information from RAAS can be used to compare remediation options and guide selection of technologies for further study.

Johnson, C.D.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Chan, T.C.; Lamar, D.A.; Buelt, J.L.; Freeman, C.J.; Skeen, R.S.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Fish Passage Assessment of an Advanced Hydropower Turbine and Conventional Turbine Using Blade-strike Modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the Columbia and Snake River basins, several species of Pacific salmon were listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 due to significant declines of fish population. Dam operators and design engineers are thus faced with the task of making those hydroelectric facilities more ecologically friendly through changes in hydro-turbine design and operation. Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington, applied for re-licensing from the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to replace the 10 turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines that were designed to increase power generation and improve fish passage conditions. We applied both deterministic and stochastic blade-strike models to the newly installed turbine and an existing turbine. Modeled probabilities were compared to the results of a large-scale live fish survival study and a sensor fish study under the same operational parameters. Overall, injury rates predicted by the deterministic model were higher than experimental rates of injury while those predicted by the stochastic model were in close agreement with experiment results. Fish orientation at the time of entry into the plane of the leading edges of the turbine runner blades was an important factor contributing to uncertainty in modeled results. The advanced design turbine had slightly higher modeled injury rates than the existing turbine design; however, there was no statistical evidence that suggested significant differences in blade-strike injuries between the two turbines and the hypothesis that direct fish survival rate through the advanced hydropower turbine is equal or better than that through the conventional turbine could not be rejected.

Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Ploskey, Gene R.

2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

225

MELCOR 1.8.5 modeling aspects of fission product release, transport and deposition an assessment with recommendations.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Phebus and VERCORS data have played an important role in contemporary understanding and modeling of fission product release and transport from damaged light water reactor fuel. The data from these test programs have allowed improvement of MELCOR modeling of release and transport processes for both low enrichment uranium fuel as well as high burnup and mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. This paper discusses the synthesis of these findings in the MELCOR severe accident code. Based on recent assessments of MELCOR 1.8.5 fission product release modeling against the Phebus FPT-1 test and on observations from the ISP-46 exercise, modifications to the default MELCOR 1.8.5 release models are recommended. The assessments identified an alternative set of Booth diffusion parameters recommended by ORNL (ORNL-Booth), which produced significantly improved release predictions for cesium and other fission product groups. Some adjustments to the scaling factors in the ORNL-Booth model were made for selected fission product groups, including UO{sub 2}, Mo and Ru in order to obtain better comparisons with the FPT-1 data. The adjusted model, referred to as 'Modified ORNL-Booth,' was subsequently compared to original ORNL VI fission product release experiments and to more recently performed French VERCORS tests, and the comparisons was as favorable or better than the original CORSOR-M MELCOR default release model. These modified ORNL-Booth parameters, input to MELCOR 1.8.5 as 'sensitivity coefficients' (i.e. user input that over-rides the code defaults) are recommended for the interim period until improved release models can be implemented into MELCOR. For the case of ruthenium release in air-oxidizing conditions, some additional modifications to the Ru class vapor pressure are recommended based on estimates of the RuO{sub 2} vapor pressure over mildly hyperstoichiometric UO{sub 2}. The increased vapor pressure for this class significantly increases the net transport of Ru from the fuel to the gas stream. A formal model is needed. Deposition patterns in the Phebus FPT-1 circuit were also significantly improved by using the modified ORNL-Booth parameters, where retention of lower volatile Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} is now predicted in the heated exit regions of the FPT-1 test, bringing down depositions in the FPT-1 steam generator tube to be in closer alignment with the experimental data. This improvement in 'RCS' deposition behavior preserves the overall correct release of cesium to the containment that was observed even with the default CORSOR-M model. Not correctly treated however is the release and transport of Ag to the FPT-1 containment. A model for Ag release from control rods is presently not available in MELCOR. Lack of this model is thought to be responsible for the underprediction by a factor of two of the total aerosol mass to the FPT-1 containment. It is suggested that this underprediction of airborne mass led to an underprediction of the aerosol agglomeration rate. Underprediction of the agglomeration rate leads to low predictions of the aerosol particle size in comparison to experimentally measured ones. Small particle size leads low predictions of the gravitational settling rate relative to the experimental data. This error, however, is a conservative one in that too-low settling rate would result in a larger source term to the environment. Implementation of an interim Ag release model is currently under study. In the course of this assessment, a review of MELCOR release models was performed and led to the identification of several areas for future improvements to MELCOR. These include upgrading the Booth release model to account for changes in local oxidizing/reducing conditions and including a fuel oxidation model to accommodate effects of fuel stoichiometry. Models such as implemented in the French ELSA code and described by Lewis are considered appropriate for MELCOR. A model for ruthenium release under air oxidizing conditions is also needed and should be included as part of a fuel oxidation model since fuel stoichiometry is a fundamen

Gauntt, Randall O.

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Interactive 3D landscape assessment models Lewis GILL, Eckart LANGE, Ed MORGAN, Daniela ROMANO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, interactive 3D visualisations are also used as landscape design tools with the Google Sketchup1 software being that this will simplify the enhancement of the mental model of the designer. 1 http://www.sketchup.com #12;L.Gill, E

Romano, Daniela

227

Modeling Techniques to Assess Long-term Reliability of Environmental Flows in Basin Scale Planning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scale Planning Thesis directed by Edith Zagona One aspect of integrated water resources management of the rivers but management can help sustain the river ecosystem through modifications to reservoir operations be incorporated into the model to capture reservoir operations. Finally, after addressing the integration of new

228

Environmental Modeling and Assessment 6: 3555, 2001. 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to help guide air pollution legislation at the European level, harmful air pollution effects. Ozone has been labeled as the most serious of the damaging air pollutants to agriculture, where growth for Denmark. Keywords: air pollution models, AOT40 values for ozone, damaging effects, economical evaluations

Dimov, Ivan

229

QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF 3D MODELLING OF BUILDING STRUCTURES ON  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the firm's overall activity, because the greatest increase in productivity is achieved in this area; that construction companies can leverage the benefits in error reduction and logistics improvements that result PRODUCTIVITY Rafael Sacks1 and Ronen Barak2 ABSTRACT Parametric three-dimensional modelling of buildings

Sacks, Rafael

230

Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incinerator facility (east Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 4. Atmospheric dispersion and deposition modeling of emissions. Draft report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report constitutes a comprehensive site-specific risk assessment for the WTI incineration facility located in East Liverpool, OH. Volume IV describes the air dispersion model used to estimate air concentrations and particle deposition, as well as the results of the modeling exercise.

NONE

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Potential impacts of climate change on tropospheric ozone in California: a preliminary episodic modeling assessment of the Los Angeles basin and the Sacramento valley  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this preliminary and relatively short modeling effort, an initial assessment is made for the potential air quality implications of climate change in California. The focus is mainly on the effects of changes in temperature and related meteorological and emission factors on ozone formation. Photochemical modeling is performed for two areas in the state: the Los Angeles Basin and the Sacramento Valley.

Taha, Haider

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Paper presented at the 4th International Conference Working on Safety, Crete, Greece, 2008 Functional modeling for risk assessment of automation in a changing air  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Functional modeling for risk assessment of automation in a changing air traffic management environment R or to let automation act autonomously. The Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) provides a framework from ERASMUS automation. Various instantiations of a partial model resulting from the application

Zhao, Yuxiao

233

Assessing the Vulnerability of Large Critical Infrastructure Using Fully-Coupled Blast Effects Modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Structural failures, such as the MacArthur Maze I-880 overpass in Oakland, California and the I-35 bridge in Minneapolis, Minnesota, are recent examples of our national infrastructure's fragility and serve as an important reminder of such infrastructure in our everyday lives. These two failures, as well as the World Trade Center's collapse and the levee failures in New Orleans, highlight the national importance of protecting our infrastructure as much as possible against acts of terrorism and natural hazards. This paper describes a process for evaluating the vulnerability of critical infrastructure to large blast loads using a fully-coupled finite element approach. A description of the finite element software and modeling technique is discussed along with the experimental validation of the numerical tools. We discuss how such an approach can be used for specific problems such as modeling the progressive collapse of a building.

McMichael, L D; Noble, C R; Margraf, J D; Glascoe, L G

2009-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

234

Application of a Hydrodynamic Model for Assessing the Hydraulic Capacity and Flow Field at Willamette Falls Dam, Oregon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Willamette Falls Hydroelectric Power Dam, operated by Portland General Electric (PGE), is located on the Willamette River, Oregon. The Project site consists of T.W. Sullivan Power Plant and a 2,950-ft-long spillway located on the top of the Willamette Falls Dam. As part of the effort of protection and enhancement of environmental resources, a flow control structure at the dam was proposed to improve the flow field and enhance the downstream juvenile fish passage in the region just upstream of the forebay (pre-forebay). The flow in the pre-forebay of Willamette Falls Dam is affected by the complex geometry and bathymetry, powerhouse flow, fish ladder flow and the spillway around the dam. The expectation was that the flow would be sensitive to the proposed flow control structures and could be modified to enhance downstream migration. In this study, a three-dimensional, free-surface hydrodynamic model (EFDC) was developed for the pre-forebay region of Willamette Falls to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed alternative and its effect on the flow field in two different flow regimes (low and high river flow), as well as to assess the hydraulic capacity of flow control structures. One of the key challenges in this modeling study was to properly specify the free open boundary conditions along the 2,950-feet-long spillway. In this study, a pressure boundary condition based on hydraulic head rating curves was applied to the free spillway boundary. The numerical model was calibrated with ADP velocity measurements at 17 stations for the existing low flow condition. Good agreements between model results and measured data were obtained, indicating the successful application of pressure boundary condition on the free spillway boundary. The calibrated model was applied to simulate the flow field and free surface elevation in the high flow region near the control flow structures under different alternative conditions. The model results were used to evaluate the effectiveness of flow control structure alternative for downstream fish passage. The model was also used to estimate the hydraulic capacity based on the water surface head drops upstream of the structures. This model application demonstrated that a free surface coastal model can be used successfully to examine free surface hydraulic problems near high velocity regions upstream of spillways at dams.

Lee, Cheegwan; Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.; Divers, Arya-Behbehani

2006-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

235

Dose-Response Modeling for Life Cycle Impact Assessment: Findingsof the Portland Review Workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative aims at putting life cycle thinking into practice and at improving the supporting tools for this process through better data and indicators. The initiative has thus launched three programs with associated working groups (see http://www.uneptie.org/pc/sustain/lcinitiative/). The Task Force on Toxic Impacts was established under the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) program to establish recommended practice and guidance for use in human toxicity, ecosystem toxicity, and related categories with direct effects on human health and ecosystem health. The workshop consisted of three elements. (A) presentations summarizing (1) the goals of the LCIA Task Force (2) historical approaches to exposure and toxic impacts in LCIA (3) current alternative proposals for addressing human health impacts. Viewgraphs from two of these presentations are provided in Appendix B to this report. (B) Discussion among a panel of experts about the scientific defensibility of these historical and proposed approaches in the context of the goals of the LCIA Task Force 3 on toxicity impacts. (C) Development of the recommendations to the LCIA program and working group for optimum short- and long-term strategies for addressing human health impacts in LCA.

McKone, Thomas E.; Kyle, Amy D.; Jolliet, Olivier; Olsen, StigIrving; Hauschild, Michael

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

High-Resolution Modeling to Assess Tropical Cyclone Activity in Future Climate Regimes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Applied research is proposed with the following objectives: (i) to determine the most likely level of tropical cyclone intensity and frequency in future climate regimes, (ii) to provide a quantitative measure of uncertainty in these predictions, and (iii) to improve understanding of the linkage between tropical cyclones and the planetary-scale circulation. Current mesoscale weather forecasting models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, are capable of simulating the full intensity of tropical cyclones (TC) with realistic structures. However, in order to accurately represent both the primary and secondary circulations in these systems, model simulations must be configured with sufficient resolution to explicitly represent convection (omitting the convective parameterization scheme). Most previous numerical studies of TC activity at seasonal and longer time scales have not utilized such explicit convection (EC) model runs. Here, we propose to employ the moving nest capability of WRF to optimally represent TC activity on a seasonal scale using a downscaling approach. The statistical results of a suite of these high-resolution TC simulations will yield a realistic representation of TC intensity on a seasonal basis, while at the same time allowing analysis of the feedback that TCs exert on the larger-scale climate system. Experiments will be driven with analyzed lateral boundary conditions for several recent Atlantic seasons, spanning a range of activity levels and TC track patterns. Results of the ensemble of WRF simulations will then be compared to analyzed TC data in order to determine the extent to which this modeling setup can reproduce recent levels of TC activity. Next, the boundary conditions (sea-surface temperature, tropopause height, and thermal/moisture profiles) from the recent seasons will be altered in a manner consistent with various future GCM/RCM scenarios, but that preserves the large-scale shear and incipient disturbance activity. This will allow (i) a direct comparison of future TC activity that could be expected for an active or inactive season in an altered climate regime, and (ii) a measure of the level of uncertainty and variability in TC activity resulting from different carbon emission scenarios.

Lackmann, Gary

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

237

The Hierarchical Rater Model for Rated Test Items and its Application to Large-Scale Educational Assessment Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-ended (or "constructed response") test items have become a standard part of the educational assessment

238

Review and perspectives on spallings release models in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant was licensed for disposal of transuranic wastes generated by the US Department of Energy. The facility consists of a repository mined in a bedded salt formation, approximately 650 m below the surface. Regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency require that performance assessment calculations for the repository include the possibility that an exploratory drilling operation could penetrate the waste disposal areas at some time in the future. Release of contaminated solids could reach the surface during a drilling intrusion. One of the mechanisms for release, known as spallings, can occur if gas pressures in the repository exceed the hydrostatic pressure of a column of drilling mud. Calculation of solids releases for spallings depends critically on the conceptual models for the waste, for the spallings process, and assumptions regarding driller parameters and practices. The paper presents a review of the evolution of these models during regulatory review of the Compliance Certification Application for the repository. A summary and perspectives on the implementation of conservative assumptions in model development are also provided.

Knowles, M.K; Hansen, F.D.; Thompson, T.W.; Schatz, J.F.; Gross, M.

2000-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

239

A Qualitative Readiness-Requirements Assessment Model for Enterprise Big-Data Infrastructure Investment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the last three decades, there has been an exponential growth in the area of information technology providing the information processing needs of data-driven businesses in government, science, and private industry in the form of capturing, staging, integrating, conveying, analyzing, and transferring data that will help knowledge workers and decision makers make sound business decisions. Data integration across enterprise warehouses is one of the most challenging steps in the big data analytics strategy. Several levels of data integration have been identified across enterprise warehouses: data accessibility, common data platform, and consolidated data model. Each level of integration has its own set of complexities that requires a certain amount of time, budget, and resources to implement. Such levels of integration are designed to address the technical challenges inherent in consolidating the disparate data sources. In this paper, we present a methodology based on industry best practices to measure the readiness of an organization and its data sets against the different levels of data integration. We introduce a new Integration Level Model (ILM) tool, which is used for quantifying an organization and data system s readiness to share data at a certain level of data integration. It is based largely on the established and accepted framework provided in the Data Management Association (DAMA-DMBOK). It comprises several key data management functions and supporting activities, together with several environmental elements that describe and apply to each function. The proposed model scores the maturity of a system s data governance processes and provides a pragmatic methodology for evaluating integration risks. The higher the computed scores, the better managed the source data system and the greater the likelihood that the data system can be brought in at a higher level of integration.

Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL] [ORNL; McNair, Wade [ORNL] [ORNL; Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL] [ORNL; Nutaro, James J [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Observation Wells | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories onFocus AreaDataBusPFAN)Change Assessment Model (GCAM) | OpenWells

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment model gcam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Oconee Electric Member Corp | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories onFocus AreaDataBusPFAN)Change Assessment Model (GCAM)Oconee

242

Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based on Laboratory Research and Energy Simulation Models: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. Laboratory results demonstrate the efficiency of this technology under most of the conditions tested and show that differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the individual units. These results were used to understand current model limitations, and then to bracket the energy savings potential for HPWH technology in various US climate regions. Simulation results show that HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in many climate zones when compared to other types of water heaters (up to 64%, including impact on HVAC systems).

Hudon, K.; Sparn, B.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Impacts of cool cities on air quality: A preliminary modeling assessment for Nashville TN, Dallas TX and Atlanta GA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Previous atmospheric modeling efforts that concentrated on the Los Angeles Basin suggested beneficial and significant air quality impacts from cool cities strategies. This paper discusses an extension of similar modeling efforts to three regions, Atlanta GA, Dallas - Ft. Worth TX, and Nashville TN, that experience smog and air quality problems. According to the older ozone air quality standard (120 ppb), these regions were classified as serious, moderate, and marginal, respectively, but may be out of compliance with respect to the newer, 80-ppb/8-hours standard. Results from this exploratory modeling work suggest a range of possible impacts on meteorological and air quality conditions. For example, peak ozone concentrations during each region's respective episode could be decreased by 1-6 ppb (conservative and optimistic scenarios, respectively) in Nashville, 5-15 ppb in Dallas - Fort Worth, and 5-12 ppb in Atlanta following implementation of cool cities. The reductions are generally smaller than those obtained from simulating the Los Angeles Basin but are still significant. In all regions, the simulations suggest, the net, domain-wide effects of cool cities are reductions in ozone mass and improvements in air quality. In Atlanta, Nashville, and Dallas, urban areas benefiting from reduced smog reach up to 8460, 7350, and 12870 km{sup 2} in area, respectively. Results presented in this paper should be taken as exploratory and preliminary. These will most likely change during a more comprehensive modeling study to be started soon with the support of the US Environmental Protection Agency. The main purpose of the present project was to obtain the initial data (emission inventories) for these regions, simulate meteorological conditions, and perform preliminary sensitivity analysis. In the future, additional regions will be simulated to assess the potential of cool cities in improving urban air quality.

Taha, Haider

1998-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

244

NEW EXTENDED DEUTERIUM FRACTIONATION MODEL: ASSESSMENT AT DENSE ISM CONDITIONS AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Observations of deuterated species are useful in probing the temperature, ionization level, evolutionary stage, chemistry, and thermal history of astrophysical environments. The analysis of data from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array and other new telescopes requires an elaborate model of deuterium fractionation. This paper presents a publicly available chemical network with multi-deuterated species and an extended, up-to-date set of gas-phase and surface reactions. To test this network, we simulate deuterium fractionation in diverse interstellar sources. Two cases of initial abundances are considered: (1) atomic except for H{sub 2} and HD, and (2) molecular from a prestellar core. We reproduce the observed D/H ratios of many deuterated molecules, and sort the species according to their sensitivity to temperature gradients and initial abundances. We find that many multiply deuterated species produced at 10 K retain enhanced D/H ratios at temperatures {approx}< 100 K. We study how recent updates to reaction rates affect calculated D/H ratios, and perform a detailed sensitivity analysis of the uncertainties of the gas-phase reaction rates in the network. We find that uncertainties are generally lower in dark cloud environments than in warm infrared dark clouds and that uncertainties increase with the size of the molecule and number of D-atoms. A set of the most problematic reactions is presented. We list potentially observable deuterated species predicted to be abundant in low- and high-mass star-formation regions.

Albertsson, T.; Semenov, D. A.; Henning, Th. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Vasyunin, A. I.; Herbst, E. [Departments of Chemistry and Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

245

Solar Resource Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

A Multi-Methods Approach to HRA and Human Performance Modeling: A Field Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a research reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory is primarily designed and used to test materials to be used in other, larger-scale and prototype reactors. The reactor offers various specialized systems and allows certain experiments to be run at their own temperature and pressure. The ATR Canal temporarily stores completed experiments and used fuel. It also has facilities to conduct underwater operations such as experiment examination or removal. In reviewing the ATR safety basis, a number of concerns were identified involving the ATR canal. A brief study identified ergonomic issues involving the manual handling of fuel elements in the canal that may increase the probability of human error and possible unwanted acute physical outcomes to the operator. In response to this concern, that refined the previous HRA scoping analysis by determining the probability of the inadvertent exposure of a fuel element to the air during fuel movement and inspection was conducted. The HRA analysis employed the SPAR-H method and was supplemented by information gained from a detailed analysis of the fuel inspection and transfer tasks. This latter analysis included ergonomics, work cycles, task duration, and workload imposed by tool and workplace characteristics, personal protective clothing, and operational practices that have the potential to increase physical and mental workload. Part of this analysis consisted of NASA-TLX analyses, combined with operational sequence analysis, computational human performance analysis (CHPA), and 3D graphical modeling to determine task failures and precursors to such failures that have safety implications. Experience in applying multiple analysis techniques in support of HRA methods is discussed.

Jacques Hugo; David I Gertman

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

The Hierarchical Rater Model for Rated Test Items and its Application to LargeScale Educational Assessment Data 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­ended (or ``constructed response'') test items have become a standard part of the educational assessment

248

Software Quality Assurance Plan for GoldSim Models Supporting the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites Performance Assessment Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP) applies to the development and maintenance of GoldSim models supporting the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) performance assessments (PAs) and composite analyses (CAs). Two PA models have been approved by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as of November 2006 for the PA maintenance work undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). NNSA/NSO asked NSTec to assume the custodianship of the models for future development and maintenance. The models were initially developed by Neptune and Company (N&C).

Gregory J. Shott, Vefa Yucel

2007-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

249

Downscaling Global Land Cover Projections from an Integrated Assessment Model for Use in Regional Analyses: Results and Evaluation for the US from 2005 to 2095  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Projections of land cover change generated from Integrated Assessment Models (IAM) and other economic-based models can be applied for analyses of environmental impacts at subregional and landscape scales. For those IAM and economic models that project land use at the sub-continental or regional scale, these projections must be downscaled and spatially distributed prior to use in climate or ecosystem models. Downscaling efforts to date have been conducted at the national extent with relatively high spatial resolution (30m) and at the global extent with relatively coarse spatial resolution (0.5 degree).

West, Tristram O.; Le Page, Yannick LB; Huang, Maoyi; Wolf, Julie; Thomson, Allison M.

2014-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

250

Identification and Assessment of Material Models for Age-Related Degradation of Structures and Passive Components in Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When performing seismic safety assessments of nuclear power plants (NPPs), the potential effects of age-related degradation on structures, systems, and components (SSCs) should be considered. To address the issue of aging degradation, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has embarked on a five-year research project to develop a realistic seismic risk evaluation system which will include the consideration of aging of structures and components in NPPs. Three specific areas that are included in the KAERI research project, related to seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), are probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, seismic fragility analysis including the effects of aging, and a plant seismic risk analysis. To support the development of seismic capability evaluation technology for degraded structures and components, KAERI entered into a collaboration agreement with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in 2007. The collaborative research effort is intended to continue over a five year period with the goal of developing seismic fragility analysis methods that consider the potential effects of age-related degradation of SSCs, and using these results as input to seismic PRAs. In the Year 1 scope of work BNL collected and reviewed degradation occurrences in US NPPs and identified important aging characteristics needed for the seismic capability evaluations that will be performed in the subsequent evaluations in the years that follow. This information is presented in the Annual Report for the Year 1 Task, identified as BNL Report-81741-2008 and also designated as KAERI/RR-2931/2008. The report presents results of the statistical and trending analysis of this data and compares the results to prior aging studies. In addition, the report provides a description of U.S. current regulatory requirements, regulatory guidance documents, generic communications, industry standards and guidance, and past research related to aging degradation of SSCs. This report describes the research effort performed by BNL for the Year 2 scope of work. This research focused on methods that could be used to represent the long-term behavior of materials used at NPPs. To achieve this BNL reviewed time-dependent models which can approximate the degradation effects of the key materials used in the construction of structures and passive components determined to be of interest in the Year 1 effort. The intent was to review the degradation models that would cover the most common time-dependent changes in material properties for concrete and steel components.

Nie,J.; Braverman, J.; Hofmayer, C.; Kim, M. K.; Choi, I-K.

2009-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

251

OUMBE, Armel, WALD, Lucien, BLANC, Philippe, and SCHROEDTER-HOMSCHEIDT, Marion. Exploitation of radiative transfer model for assessing solar radiation: the relative importance of atmospheric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of radiative transfer model for assessing solar radiation: the relative importance of atmospheric constituents, Germany * Corresponding Author, armel.oumbe@ensmp.fr Abstract Solar radiation is modified in its way: solar radiation, atmospheric optics, satellite images, Heliosat method 1. Introduction A wealth

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

252

A Large-Scale, High-Resolution Hydrological Model Parameter Data Set for Climate Change Impact Assessment for the Conterminous US  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To extend geographical coverage, refine spatial resolution, and improve modeling efficiency, a computation- and data-intensive effort was conducted to organize a comprehensive hydrologic dataset with post-calibrated model parameters for hydro-climate impact assessment. Several key inputs for hydrologic simulation including meteorologic forcings, soil, land class, vegetation, and elevation were collected from multiple best-available data sources and organized for 2107 hydrologic subbasins (8-digit hydrologic units, HUC8s) in the conterminous United States at refined 1/24 (~4 km) spatial resolution. Using high-performance computing for intensive model calibration, a high-resolution parameter dataset was prepared for the macro-scale Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model. The VIC simulation was driven by DAYMET daily meteorological forcing and was calibrated against USGS WaterWatch monthly runoff observations for each HUC8. The results showed that this new parameter dataset may help reasonably simulate runoff at most US HUC8 subbasins. Based on this exhaustive calibration effort, it is now possible to accurately estimate the resources required for further model improvement across the entire conterminous United States. We anticipate that through this hydrologic parameter dataset, the repeated effort of fundamental data processing can be lessened, so that research efforts can emphasize the more challenging task of assessing climate change impacts. The pre-organized model parameter dataset will be provided to interested parties to support further hydro-climate impact assessment.

Oubeidillah, Abdoul A [ORNL] [ORNL; Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL] [ORNL; Ashfaq, Moetasim [ORNL] [ORNL; Naz, Bibi S [ORNL] [ORNL; Tootle, Glenn [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa] [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

An Assessment of Microwave Absorption Models and Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water Using Clear-Sky Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Passive microwave radiometers have a long history in the remote sensing of atmospheric liquid and water vapor. Retrievals of these quantities are sensitive to variations in pressure and temperature of the liquid and water vapor. Rather than use a statistical or climatological approach to account for the natural variability in atmospheric pressure and temperature, additional information on the atmospheric profile at the time of the radiometer measurements can be directly incorporated into the retrieval process. Such an approach has been referred to in the literature as a “physical-iterative” solution. This paper presents an assessment of the accuracy of the column liquid water path that can be expected using such an iterative technique as a result of uncertainties in the microwave emissions from oxygen and water vapor. It is shown that the retrieval accuracy is influenced by the accuracy of the instrument measurements and the quality of the atmospheric profiles of temperature and pressure, as one would expect. But also critical is the uncertainty in the absorption coefficients used in the underlying microwave radiative transfer model. The uncertainty in the absorption coefficients is particularly problematic in that it may well bias the liquid water retrieval. The differences between 3 absorption models examined in this paper are equivalent to a bias of 15 to 30 g/m2, depending on the total column water vapor. An examination of typical liquid water paths from the Southern Great Plains region of the United States shows that errors of this magnitude have significant implications for shortwave radiation and retrievals of cloud effective particle size.

Marchand, Roger T.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Westwater, Ed R.; Clough, Shepard A.; Cady-Pereira, Karen; Liljegren, James C.

2003-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

254

The contribution of future agricultural trends in the US Midwest to global climate change mitigation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Land use change is a complex response to changing environmental and socioeconomic systems. Historical drivers of land use change include changes in the natural resource availability of a region, changes in economic conditions for production of certain products and changing policies. Most recently, introduction of policy incentives for biofuel production have influenced land use change in the US Midwest, leading to concerns that bioenergy production systems may compete with food production and land conservation. Here we explore how land use may be impacted by future climate mitigation measures by nesting a high resolution agricultural model (EPIC – Environmental Policy Indicator Climate) for the US Midwest within a global integrated assessment model (GCAM – Global Change Assessment Model). This approach is designed to provide greater spatial resolution and detailed agricultural practice information by focusing on the climate mitigation potential of agriculture and land use in a specific region, while retaining the global economic context necessary to understand the far ranging effects of climate mitigation targets. We find that until the simulated carbon prices are very high, the US Midwest has a comparative advantage in producing traditional food and feed crops over bioenergy crops. Overall, the model responds to multiple pressures by adopting a mix of future responses. We also find that the GCAM model is capable of simulations at multiple spatial scales and agricultural technology resolution, which provides the capability to examine regional response to global policy and economic conditions in the context of climate mitigation.

Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page; Zhang, Xuesong; Bandaru, Varaprasad; West, Tristram O.; Wise, Marshall A.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Calvin, Katherine V.

2014-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

255

Regional groundwater flow and tritium transport modeling and risk assessment of the underground test area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The groundwater flow system of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding region was evaluated to estimate the highest potential current and near-term risk to the public and the environment from groundwater contamination downgradient of the underground nuclear testing areas. The highest, or greatest, potential risk is estimated by assuming that several unusually rapid transport pathways as well as public and environmental exposures all occur simultaneously. These conservative assumptions may cause risks to be significantly overestimated. However, such a deliberate, conservative approach ensures that public health and environmental risks are not underestimated and allows prioritization of future work to minimize potential risks. Historical underground nuclear testing activities, particularly detonations near or below the water table, have contaminated groundwater near testing locations with radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. Tritium was selected as the contaminant of primary concern for this phase of the project because it is abundant, highly mobile, and represents the most significant contributor to the potential radiation dose to humans for the short term. It was also assumed that the predicted risk to human health and the environment from tritium exposure would reasonably represent the risk from other, less mobile radionuclides within the same time frame. Other contaminants will be investigated at a later date. Existing and newly collected hydrogeologic data were compiled for a large area of southern Nevada and California, encompassing the Nevada Test Site regional groundwater flow system. These data were used to develop numerical groundwater flow and tritium transport models for use in the prediction of tritium concentrations at hypothetical human and ecological receptor locations for a 200-year time frame. A numerical, steady-state regional groundwater flow model was developed to serve as the basis for the prediction of the movement of tritium from the underground testing areas on a regional scale. The groundwater flow model was used in conjunction with a particle-tracking code to define the pathlines followed by groundwater particles originating from 415 points associated with 253 nuclear test locations. Three of the most rapid pathlines were selected for transport simulations. These pathlines are associated with three nuclear test locations, each representing one of the three largest testing areas. These testing locations are: BOURBON on Yucca Flat, HOUSTON on Central Pahute Mesa, and TYBO on Western Pahute Mesa. One-dimensional stochastic tritium transport simulations were performed for the three pathlines using the Monte Carlo method with Latin hypercube sampling. For the BOURBON and TYBO pathlines, sources of tritium from other tests located along the same pathline were included in the simulations. Sensitivity analyses were also performed on the transport model to evaluate the uncertainties associated with the geologic model, the rates of groundwater flow, the tritium source, and the transport parameters. Tritium concentration predictions were found to be mostly sensitive to the regional geology in controlling the horizontal and vertical position of transport pathways. The simulated concentrations are also sensitive to matrix diffusion, an important mechanism governing the migration of tritium in fractured carbonate and volcanic rocks. Source term concentration uncertainty is most important near the test locations and decreases in importance as the travel distance increases. The uncertainty on groundwater flow rates is as important as that on matrix diffusion at downgradient locations. The risk assessment was performed to provide conservative and bounding estimates of the potential risks to human health and the environment from tritium in groundwater. Risk models were designed by coupling scenario-specific tritium intake with tritium dose models and cancer and genetic risk estimates using the Monte Carlo method. Estimated radiation doses received by individuals from chronic exposure to tritium, and the corre

None

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

global integrated assessment model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, including emissions trading schemes and adaptation meas- ures. · Using GIAM, an illustrative long run include emissions trading schemes, carbon taxes, research and develop- ment schemes to encourage energy

Phipps, Steven J.

257

Hawaii demand-side management resource assessment. Final report, Reference Volume 3 -- Residential and commercial sector DSM analyses: Detailed results from the DBEDT DSM assessment model; Part 1, Technical potential  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hawaii Demand-Side Management Resource Assessment was the fourth of seven projects in the Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES) program. HES was designed by the Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism (DBEDT) to produce an integrated energy strategy for the State of Hawaii. The purpose of Project 4 was to develop a comprehensive assessment of Hawaii`s demand-side management (DSM) resources. To meet this objective, the project was divided into two phases. The first phase included development of a DSM technology database and the identification of Hawaii commercial building characteristics through on-site audits. These Phase 1 products were then used in Phase 2 to identify expected energy impacts from DSM measures in typical residential and commercial buildings in Hawaii. The building energy simulation model DOE-2.1E was utilized to identify the DSM energy impacts. More detailed information on the typical buildings and the DOE-2.1E modeling effort is available in Reference Volume 1, ``Building Prototype Analysis``. In addition to the DOE-2.1E analysis, estimates of residential and commercial sector gas and electric DSM potential for the four counties of Honolulu, Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai through 2014 were forecasted by the new DBEDT DSM Assessment Model. Results from DBEDTs energy forecasting model, ENERGY 2020, were linked with results from DOE-2.1E building energy simulation runs and estimates of DSM measure impacts, costs, lifetime, and anticipated market penetration rates in the DBEDT DSM Model. Through its algorithms, estimates of DSM potential for each forecast year were developed. Using the load shape information from the DOE-2.1E simulation runs, estimates of electric peak demand impacts were developed. Numerous tables and figures illustrating the technical potential for demand-side management are included.

NONE

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Applications of contaminant fate and bioaccumulation models in assessing ecological risks of chemicals: A case study for gasoline hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the composition of the gasoline inventory, and can beand exposure assessment for gasoline; Trent University:of Chemicals: A Case Study for Gasoline Hydrocarbons Matthew

MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Foster, Karen L.; Maddalena, Randy L.; Parkerton, Thomas F.; Mackay, Don

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Influence of climate model biases and daily-scale temperature and precipitation events on hydrological impacts assessment: A case study of the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fourth Assessment Report concludes that climate change is now unequivocal, and associated increases in evaporation and atmospheric water content could intensify the hydrological cycle. However, the biases and coarse spatial resolution of global climate models limit their usefulness in hydrological impact assessment. In order to reduce these limitations, we use a high-resolution regional climate model (RegCM3) to drive a hydrological model (variable infiltration capacity) for the full contiguous United States. The simulations cover 1961-1990 in the historic period and 2071-2100 in the future (A2) period. A quantile-based bias correction technique is applied to the times series of RegCM3-simulated precipitation and temperature. Our results show that biases in the RegCM3 fields not only affect the magnitude of hydrometeorological variables in the baseline hydrological simulation, but they also affect the response of hydrological variables to projected future anthropogenic increases in greenhouse forcing. Further, we find that changes in the intensity and occurrence of severe wet and hot events are critical in determining the sign of hydrologic change. These results have important implications for the assessment of potential future hydrologic changes, as well as for developing approaches for quantitative impacts assessment.

Ashfaq, Moetasim [ORNL; Bowling, Laura C. [Purdue University; Cherkauer, Keith [Purdue University; Pal, Jeremy [Loyola University; Diffenbaugh, Noah [Stanford University

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

method known as life?cycle assessment  (LCA), which is a Input?Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO? LCA) model.  Input?Output Life?Cycle  Assessment (EIO?LCA) model (

Masanet, Eric

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment model gcam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessment performance assessment Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

OF ENGINEERING CYBERNETICS AND ROBOTICS, 60 Summary: , 60 2009 Sofia Service Oriented Architecture of Assessment Model1 Adelina Aleksieva... Assessment Model. To achieve...

262

Summary of Conceptual Models and Data Needs to Support the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Performance Assessment and Composite Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An overview of the technical approach and data required to support development of the performance assessment, and composite analysis are presented for the remote handled low-level waste disposal facility on-site alternative being considered at Idaho National Laboratory. Previous analyses and available data that meet requirements are identified and discussed. Outstanding data and analysis needs are also identified and summarized. The on-site disposal facility is being evaluated in anticipation of the closure of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INL. An assessment of facility performance and of the composite performance are required to meet the Department of Energy’s Low-Level Waste requirements (DOE Order 435.1, 2001) which stipulate that operation and closure of the disposal facility will be managed in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety, and the environment. The corresponding established procedures to ensure these protections are contained in DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual (DOE M 435.1-1 2001). Requirements include assessment of (1) all-exposure pathways, (2) air pathway, (3) radon, and (4) groundwater pathway doses. Doses are computed from radionuclide concentrations in the environment. The performance assessment and composite analysis are being prepared to assess compliance with performance objectives and to establish limits on concentrations and inventories of radionuclides at the facility and to support specification of design, construction, operation and closure requirements. Technical objectives of the PA and CA are primarily accomplished through the development of an establish inventory, and through the use of predictive environmental transport models implementing an overarching conceptual framework. This document reviews the conceptual model, inherent assumptions, and data required to implement the conceptual model in a numerical framework. Available site-specific data and data sources are then addressed. Differences in required analyses and data are captured as outstanding data needs.

A. Jeff Sondrup; Annette L. Schafter; Arthur S. Rood

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Assessment of carbon sequestration and timber production of Scots pine across Scotland using the process-based model 3-PGN   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

detailed eco-physiological interpretation of the environmental factors affecting Scots pine growth and it provided an assessment of carbon sequestration under the scenario of sustainable, normal production and its effects from the environment. Finally...

Xenakis, Georgios

2007-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

264

Modeling and Assessing Student Activities in On-Line Discussions Jihie Kim Erin Shaw Donghui Feng Carole Beal Eduard Hovy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carole Beal Eduard Hovy Information Sciences Institute University of Southern California Marina del Rey such quantitative measures have been developed to assess on-line discussion activities (Kim and Beal 2006). Here we

Kim, Jihie

265

E-Print Network 3.0 - assess current standard Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Assessment Model The TENCompetence Assessment Model... , 60 2009 Sofia Service Oriented Architecture of Assessment Model1 Adelina Aleksieva... . In SOA, services may be...

266

Use of international data sets to evaluate and validate pathway assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities. Progress report, August 1993--January 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project, ``Use of International Data Sets to Evaluate and Validate Pathway Assessment Models Applicable to Exposure and Dose Reconstruction at DOE Facilities,`` grew out of several activities being conducted by the Principal Investigator Dr. F Owen Hoffman. One activity was originally part of the Chernobyl Studies Project and began as Task 7.1D, ``Internal Dose From Direct Contamination of Terrestrial Food Sources.`` The objective of Task 7.1D was to (1) establish a collaborative US USSR effort to improve and validate our methods of forecasting doses and dose commitments from the direct contamination of food sources, and (2) perform experiments and validation studies to improve our ability to predict rapidly and accurately the long-term internal dose from the contamination of agricultural soil. The latter was to include the consideration of remedial measures to block contamination of food grown on contaminated soil. The current objective of this project is to evaluate and validate pathway-assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities through use of international data sets. This project incorporates the activity of Task 7.1D into a multinational effort to evaluate data used for the prediction of radionuclide transfer through agricultural and aquatic systems to humans. It also includes participation in two multinational studies, BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) with the Swedish National Institute for Radiation Protection and VAMP (VAlidation of Model Predictions) with the International Atomic Energy Agency, that address testing the performance of models of radionuclide transport through foodchains.

Hendrickson, S.M. [ed.] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [ed.; Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hoffman, F.O. [Senes Oak Ridge, Inc., TN (United States). Center for Risk Analysis] [Senes Oak Ridge, Inc., TN (United States). Center for Risk Analysis

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Result Summary for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Performance Assessment Model Version 4.110  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results for Version 4.110 of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) performance assessment (PA) model are summarized. Version 4.110 includes the fiscal year (FY) 2010 inventory estimate, including a future inventory estimate. Version 4.110 was implemented in GoldSim 10.11(SP4). The following changes have been implemented since the last baseline model, Version 4.105: (1) Updated the inventory and disposal unit configurations with data through the end of FY 2010. (1) Implemented Federal Guidance Report 13 Supplemental CD dose conversion factors (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1999). Version 4.110 PA results comply with air pathway and all-pathways annual total effective dose (TED) performance objectives (Tables 2 and 3, Figures 1 and 2). Air pathways results decrease moderately for all scenarios. The time of the maximum for the air pathway open rangeland scenario shifts from 1,000 to 100 years (y). All-pathways annual TED increases for all scenarios except the resident scenario. The maximum member of public all-pathways dose occurs at 1,000 y for the resident farmer scenario. The resident farmer dose was predominantly due to technetium-99 (Tc-99) (82 percent) and lead-210 (Pb-210) (13 percent). Pb-210 present at 1,000 y is produced predominantly by radioactive decay of uranium-234 (U-234) present at the time of disposal. All results for the postdrilling and intruder-agriculture scenarios comply with the performance objectives (Tables 4 and 5, Figures 3 and 4). The postdrilling intruder results are similar to Version 4.105 results. The intruder-agriculture results are similar to Version 4.105, except for the Pit 6 Radium Disposal Unit (RaDU). The intruder-agriculture result for the Shallow Land Burial (SLB) disposal units is a significant fraction of the performance objective and exceeds the performance objective at the 95th percentile. The intruder-agriculture dose is due predominantly to Tc-99 (75 percent) and U-238 (9.5 percent). The acute intruder scenario results comply with all performance objectives (Tables 6 and 7, Figures 5 and 6). The acute construction result for the SLB disposal units decreases significantly with this version. The maximum acute intruder dose occurs at 1,000 y for the SLB disposal units under the acute construction scenario. The acute intruder dose is caused by multiple radionuclides including U-238 (31 percent), Th-229 (28 percent), plutonium-239 (8.6 percent), U-233 (7.8 percent), and U-234 (6.7 percent). All results for radon-222 (Rn-222) flux density comply with the performance objective (Table 8, Figure 7). The mean Pit 13 RaDU flux density is close to the 0.74 Bq m{sup -2} s{sup -1} limit.

NSTec Environmental Management

2011-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

268

RCP4.5: A Pathway for Stabilization of Radiative Forcing by 2100  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 is a scenario that stabilizes radiative forcing at 4.5 W m{sup -2} in the year 2100 without ever exceeding that value. Simulated with the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), RCP4.5 includes long-term, global emissions of greenhouse gases, short-lived species, and land-use-land-cover in a global economic framework. RCP4.5 was updated from earlier GCAM scenarios to incorporate historical emissions and land cover information common to the RCP process and follows a cost-minimizing pathway to reach the target radiative forcing. The imperative to limit emissions in order to reach this target drives changes in the energy system, including shifts to electricity, to lower emissions energy technologies and to the deployment of carbon capture and geologic storage technology. In addition, the RCP4.5 emissions price also applies to land use emissions; as a result, forest lands expand from their present day extent. The simulated future emissions and land use were downscaled from the regional simulation to a grid to facilitate transfer to climate models. While there are many alternative pathways to achieve a radiative forcing level of 4.5 W m{sup -2}, the application of the RCP4.5 provides a common platform for climate models to explore the climate system response to stabilizing the anthropogenic components of radiative forcing.

Thomson, Allison M.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Smith, Steven J.; Kyle, G. Page; Volke, April C.; Patel, Pralit L.; Delgado Arias, Sabrina; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Wise, Marshall A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.

2011-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

269

USEtox - The UNEP-SETAC toxicity model: recommended characterisation factors for human toxicity and freshwater ecotoxicity in Life Cycle Impact Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Background, Aim and Scope. In 2005 a comprehensive comparison of LCIA toxicity characterisation models was initiated by the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, directly involving the model developers of CalTOX, IMPACT 2002, USES-LCA, BETR, EDIP, WATSON, and EcoSense. In this paper we describe this model-comparison process and its results--in particular the scientific consensus model developed by the model developers. The main objectives of this effort were (i) to identify specific sources of differences between the models' results and structure, (ii) to detect the indispensable model components, and (iii) to build a scientific consensus model from them, representing recommended practice. Methods. A chemical test set of 45 organics covering a wide range of property combinations was selected for this purpose. All models used this set. In three workshops, the model comparison participants identified key fate, exposure and effect issues via comparison of the final characterisation factors and selected intermediate outputs for fate, human exposure and toxic effects for the test set applied to all models. Results. Through this process, we were able to reduce inter-model variation from an initial range of up to 13 orders of magnitude down to no more than 2 orders of magnitude for any substance. This led to the development of USEtox, a scientific consensus model that contains only the most influential model elements. These were, for example, process formulations accounting for intermittent rain, defining a closed or open system environment, or nesting an urban box in a continental box. Discussion. The precision of the new characterisation factors (CFs) is within a factor of 100-1000 for human health and 10-100 for freshwater ecotoxicity of all other models compared to 12 orders of magnitude variation between the CFs of each model respectively. The achieved reduction of inter-model variability by up to 11 orders of magnitude is a significant improvement.Conclusions. USEtox provides a parsimonious and transparent tool for human health and ecosystem CF estimates. Based on a referenced database, it has now been used to calculate CFs for several thousand substances and forms the basis of the recommendations from UNEP-SETAC's Life Cycle Initiative regarding characterization of toxic impacts in Life Cycle Assessment. Recommendations and Perspectives. We provide both recommended and interim (not recommended and to be used with caution) characterisation factors for human health and freshwater ecotoxicity impacts. After a process of consensus building among stakeholders on a broad scale as well as several improvements regarding a wider and easier applicability of the model, USEtox will become available to practitioners for the calculation of further CFs.

Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Bachmann, Till M.; Swirsky Gold, Lois; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Jolliet, Olivier; Juraske, Ronnie; Koehler, Annette; Larsen, Henrik F.; MacLeod, Matthew; Margni, Manuele; McKone, Thomas E.; Payet, Jerome; Schuhmacher, Marta; van de Meent, Dik; Hauschild, Michael Z.

2008-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

270

A.24 ENHANCING THE CAPABILITY OF COMPUTATIONAL EARTH SYSTEM MODELS AND NASA DATA FOR OPERATION AND ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A.24-1 A.24 ENHANCING THE CAPABILITY OF COMPUTATIONAL EARTH SYSTEM MODELS AND NASA DATA) computational support of Earth system modeling. #12;A.24-2 2.1 Acceleration of Operational Use of Research Data

271

A user's guide to the GoldSim/BLT-MS integrated software package:a low-level radioactive waste disposal performance assessment model.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), a U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratory, has over 30 years experience in the assessment of radioactive waste disposal and at the time of this publication is providing assistance internationally in a number of areas relevant to the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal systems. In countries with small radioactive waste programs, international technology transfer program efforts are often hampered by small budgets, schedule constraints, and a lack of experienced personnel. In an effort to surmount these difficulties, Sandia has developed a system that utilizes a combination of commercially available software codes and existing legacy codes for probabilistic safety assessment modeling that facilitates the technology transfer and maximizes limited available funding. Numerous codes developed and endorsed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and codes developed and maintained by United States Department of Energy are generally available to foreign countries after addressing import/export control and copyright requirements. From a programmatic view, it is easier to utilize existing codes than to develop new codes. From an economic perspective, it is not possible for most countries with small radioactive waste disposal programs to maintain complex software, which meets the rigors of both domestic regulatory requirements and international peer review. Therefore, revitalization of deterministic legacy codes, as well as an adaptation of contemporary deterministic codes, provides a credible and solid computational platform for constructing probabilistic safety assessment models. This document is a reference users guide for the GoldSim/BLT-MS integrated modeling software package developed as part of a cooperative technology transfer project between Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) in Taiwan for the preliminary assessment of several candidate low-level waste repository sites. Breach, Leach, and Transport-Multiple Species (BLT-MS) is a U.S. NRC sponsored code which simulates release and transport of contaminants from a subsurface low-level waste disposal facility. GoldSim is commercially available probabilistic software package that has radionuclide transport capabilities. The following report guides a user through the steps necessary to use the integrated model and presents a successful application of the paradigm of renewing legacy codes for contemporary application.

Knowlton, Robert G.; Arnold, Bill Walter; Mattie, Patrick D.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) : gap analysis for high fidelity and performance assessment code development.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a gap analysis performed in the process of developing the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with rigorous verification, validation, and software quality requirements. The gap analyses documented in this report were are performed during an initial gap analysis to identify candidate codes and tools to support the development and integration of the Waste IPSC, and during follow-on activities that delved into more detailed assessments of the various codes that were acquired, studied, and tested. The current Waste IPSC strategy is to acquire and integrate the necessary Waste IPSC capabilities wherever feasible, and develop only those capabilities that cannot be acquired or suitably integrated, verified, or validated. The gap analysis indicates that significant capabilities may already exist in the existing THC codes although there is no single code able to fully account for all physical and chemical processes involved in a waste disposal system. Large gaps exist in modeling chemical processes and their couplings with other processes. The coupling of chemical processes with flow transport and mechanical deformation remains challenging. The data for extreme environments (e.g., for elevated temperature and high ionic strength media) that are needed for repository modeling are severely lacking. In addition, most of existing reactive transport codes were developed for non-radioactive contaminants, and they need to be adapted to account for radionuclide decay and in-growth. The accessibility to the source codes is generally limited. Because the problems of interest for the Waste IPSC are likely to result in relatively large computational models, a compact memory-usage footprint and a fast/robust solution procedure will be needed. A robust massively parallel processing (MPP) capability will also be required to provide reasonable turnaround times on the analyses that will be performed with the code. A performance assessment (PA) calculation for a waste disposal system generally requires a large number (hundreds to thousands) of model simulations to quantify the effect of model parameter uncertainties on the predicted repository performance. A set of codes for a PA calculation must be sufficiently robust and fast in terms of code execution. A PA system as a whole must be able to provide multiple alternative models for a specific set of physical/chemical processes, so that the users can choose various levels of modeling complexity based on their modeling needs. This requires PA codes, preferably, to be highly modularized. Most of the existing codes have difficulties meeting these requirements. Based on the gap analysis results, we have made the following recommendations for the code selection and code development for the NEAMS waste IPSC: (1) build fully coupled high-fidelity THCMBR codes using the existing SIERRA codes (e.g., ARIA and ADAGIO) and platform, (2) use DAKOTA to build an enhanced performance assessment system (EPAS), and build a modular code architecture and key code modules for performance assessments. The key chemical calculation modules will be built by expanding the existing CANTERA capabilities as well as by extracting useful components from other existing codes.

Lee, Joon H.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Dewers, Thomas A.; Mariner, Paul E.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Fuller, Timothy J.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wang, Yifeng

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Property-Assessed Clean Energy Programs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Financing Financing Structures Property-Assessed Clean Energy Programs Property-Assessed Clean Energy Programs The property-assessed clean energy (PACE) model is an...

274

Probing Students' Ideas about Models Using Standards-Based Assessment Items Ted Willard and Jo Ellen Roseman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ellen Roseman American Association for Advancement of Science Project 2061 83rd NARST Annual of life science, earth science, and physical science content. However, as part of the MoDeLS Project Models are important both in science and in science education. Scientists' understanding of how nature

275

Assessing the Importance of Nonlinearities in the Development of a Substructure Model for the Wind Turbine CAE Tool FAST: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Design and analysis of wind turbines are performed using aero-servo-elastic tools that account for the nonlinear coupling between aerodynamics, controls, and structural response. The NREL-developed computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool FAST also resolves the hydrodynamics of fixed-bottom structures and floating platforms for offshore wind applications. This paper outlines the implementation of a structural-dynamics module (SubDyn) for offshore wind turbines with space-frame substructures into the current FAST framework, and focuses on the initial assessment of the importance of structural nonlinearities. Nonlinear effects include: large displacements, axial shortening due to bending, cross-sectional transverse shear effects, etc.

Damiani, R.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Song, H.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Assessment of the ocean circulation in the Azores region as predicted by a numerical model assimilating altimeter data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) on the new perspectives in data assimilation). In the SIMAN project (SIMulation de l'Atlantique Nord Stream area (Blayo et al., 1996). It has been shown that the model is able to reproduce

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

277

A Model-Based Assessment and Design of a Tropical Indian Ocean Mooring Array PETER R. OKE AND ANDREAS SCHILLER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

circulation model. This system produces maps of the depth of the 20°C isotherm (D20), representing interannual devices such as bottle casts or CTDs. Today, most ocean observations are gathered by satellite- borne

Oke, Peter

278

Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Cement Sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

developers also market ‘fuzzy logic’ control systems, e.g. ,so- called 'fuzzy logic' or expert control, or rule-basedsystems or fuzzy logic is model-predictive control using

Sathaye, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Life-cycle Assessment of Semiconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

yield. A hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) model is used;more accurate life-cycle assessment (LCA) of electronicthe purposes of life-cycle assessment (LCA). While it may be

Boyd, Sarah B.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

A GIS COST MODEL TO ASSESS THE AVAILABILITY OF FRESHWATER, SEAWATER, AND SALINE GROUNDWATER FOR ALGAL BIOFUEL PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A key advantage of using microalgae for biofuel production is the ability of some algal strains to thrive in waters unsuitable for conventional crop irrigation such as saline groundwater or seawater. Nonetheless, the availability of sustainable water supplies will provide significant challenges for scale-up and development of algal biofuels. We conduct a limited techno-economic assessment based on the availability of freshwater, saline groundwater, and seawater for use in open pond algae cultivation systems. We explore water issues through GIS-based models of algae biofuel production, freshwater supply, and cost models for supplying seawater and saline groundwater. We estimate that combined, within the coterminous US these resources can support production on the order of 9.46E+7 m3 yr-1 (25 billion gallons yr-1) of renewable biodiesel. Achievement of larger targets requires the utilization of less water efficient sites and relatively expensive saline waters. Geographically, water availability is most favorable for the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and Florida peninsula, where evaporation relative to precipitation is moderate and various saline waters are economically available. As a whole, barren and scrub lands of the southwestern US have limited freshwater supplies so accurate assessment of alternative waters is critical.

Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Coleman, Andre M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment model gcam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Mixing Cell Model: A One-Dimensional Numerical Model for Assessment of Water Flow and Contaminant Transport in the Unsaturated Zone  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the Mixing Cell Model code, a one-dimensional model for water flow and solute transport in the unsaturated zone under steady-state or transient flow conditions. The model is based on the principles and assumptions underlying mixing cell model formulations. The unsaturated zone is discretized into a series of independent mixing cells. Each cell may have unique hydrologic, lithologic, and sorptive properties. Ordinary differential equations describe the material (water and solute) balance within each cell. Water flow equations are derived from the continuity equation assuming that unit-gradient conditions exist at all times in each cell. Pressure gradients are considered implicitly through model discretization. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and moisture contents are determined by the material-specific moisture characteristic curves. Solute transport processes include explicit treatment of advective processes, first-order chain decay, and linear sorption reactions. Dispersion is addressed through implicit and explicit dispersion. Implicit dispersion is an inherent feature of all mixing cell models and originates from the formulation of the problem in terms of mass balance around fully mixed volume elements. Expressions are provided that relate implicit dispersion to the physical dispersion of the system. Two FORTRAN codes were developed to solve the water flow and solute transport equations: (1) the Mixing-Cell Model for Flow (MCMF) solves transient water flow problems and (2) the Mixing Cell Model for Transport (MCMT) solves the solute transport problem. The transient water flow problem is typically solved first by estimating the water flux through each cell in the model domain as a function of time using the MCMF code. These data are stored in either ASCII or binary files that are later read by the solute transport code (MCMT). Code output includes solute pore water concentrations, water and solute inventories in each cell and at each specified output time, and water and solute fluxes through each cell and specified output time. Computer run times for coupled transient water flow and solute transport were typically several seconds on a 2 GHz Intel Pentium IV desktop computer. The model was benchmarked against analytical solutions and finite-element approximations to the partial differential equations (PDE) describing unsaturated flow and transport. Differences between the maximum solute flux estimated by the mixing-cell model and the PDE models were typically less than two percent.

A. S. Rood

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Development of Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Iron and Steel Sector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Adoption of efficient end-use technologies is one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. With the working of energy programs and policies on carbon regulation, how to effectively analyze and manage the costs associated with GHG reductions become extremely important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Energy-climate (EC) models are often used for analyzing the costs of reducing GHG emissions (e.g., carbon emission) for various emission-reduction measures, because an accurate estimation of these costs is critical for identifying and choosing optimal emission reduction measures, and for developing related policy options to accelerate market adoption and technology implementation. However, accuracies of assessing of GHG-emission reduction costs by taking into account the adoption of energy efficiency technologies will depend on how well these end-use technologies are represented in integrated assessment models (IAM) and other energy-climate models. In this report, we first conduct brief overview on different representations of end-use technologies (mitigation measures) in various energy-climate models, followed by problem statements, and a description of the basic concepts of quantifying the cost of conserved energy including integrating non-regrets options. A non-regrets option is defined as a GHG reduction option that is cost effective, without considering their additional benefits related to reducing GHG emissions. Based upon these, we develop information on costs of mitigation measures and technological change. These serve as the basis for collating the data on energy savings and costs for their future use in integrated assessment models. In addition to descriptions of the iron and steel making processes, and the mitigation measures identified in this study, the report includes tabulated databases on costs of measure implementation, energy savings, carbon-emission reduction, and lifetimes. The cost curve data on mitigation measures are available over time, which allows an estimation of technological change over a decade-long historical period. In particular, the report will describe new treatment of technological change in energy-climate modeling for this industry sector, i.e., assessing the changes in costs and energy-savings potentials via comparing 1994 and 2002 conservation supply curves. In this study, we compared the same set of mitigation measures for both 1994 and 2002 -- no additional mitigation measure for year 2002 was included due to unavailability of such data. Therefore, the estimated potentials in total energy savings and carbon reduction would most likely be more conservative for year 2002 in this study. Based upon the cost curves, the rate of change in the savings potential at a given cost can be evaluated and be used to estimate future rates of change that can be the input for energy-climate models. Through characterizing energy-efficiency technology costs and improvement potentials, we have developed and presented energy cost curves for energy efficiency measures applicable to the U.S. iron and steel industry for the years 1994 and 2002. The cost curves can change significantly under various scenarios: the baseline year, discount rate, energy intensity, production, industry structure (e.g., integrated versus secondary steel making and number of plants), efficiency (or mitigation) measures, share of iron and steel production to which the individual measures can be applied, and inclusion of other non-energy benefits. Inclusion of other non-energy benefits from implementing mitigation measures can reduce the costs of conserved energy significantly. In addition, costs of conserved energy (CCE) for individual mitigation measures increase with the increases in discount rates, resulting in a general increase in total cost of mitigation measures for implementation and operation with a higher discount rate. In 1994, integrated steel mills in the U.S. produced 55.

Xu, T.T.; Sathaye, J.; Galitsky, C.

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

283

To cite this document : CHAUDEMAR Jean-Charles, BENSANA Eric, SEGUIN Christel. Model based system assessment: formalisation et valuation de systmes autonomes en Event-B. In: Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of autonomous systems by using Event-B formal method. The Event-B formalism well supports the rigorous design and the relevance of the models by discharging proof obligations. The application of the Event-B method

Mailhes, Corinne

284

Regional groundwater modeling of the saturated zone in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Iterative Performance Assessment, Phase 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of groundwater modeling of the saturated zone in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain are presented. Both a regional (200 {times} 200 km) and subregional (50 {times} 50 km) model were used in the analyses. Simulations were conducted to determine the impact of various disruptive that might take place over the life span of a proposed Yucca Mountain geologic conditions repository on the groundwater flow field, as well as changes in the water-table elevations. These conditions included increases in precipitation and groundwater recharge within the regional model, changes in permeability of existing hydrogeologic barriers, a:nd the vertical intrusion of volcanic dikes at various orientations through the saturated zone. Based on the regional analysis, the rise in the water-table under Yucca Mountain due to various postulated conditions ranged from only a few meters to 275 meters. Results of the subregional model analysis, which was used to simulate intrusive dikes approximately 4 kilometers in length in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, showed water-table rises ranging from a few meters to as much as 103 meters. Dikes oriented approximately north-south beneath Yucca Mountain produced the highest water-table rises. The conclusions drawn from this analysis are likely to change as more site-specific data become available and as the assumptions in the model are improved.

Ahola, M.; Sagar, B. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Use of international data sets to evaluate and validate pathway assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities. Progress report, March--May 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project described in this report was the result of a Memorandum of Cooperation between the US and the former-USSR following the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4. A joint program was established to improve the safety of nuclear power plants and to understand the implications of environmental releases. The task of Working Group 7 was ``to develop jointly methods to project rapidly the health effects of any future nuclear reactor accident.`` The current objective of this project is to evaluate and validate pathway-assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities through use of international data sets. This project incorporates data used for the prediction of radionuclide transfer through agricultural and aquatic systems to humans. It also includes participation in two multinational studies, BIOMOVS (Biospheric Model Validation Study) with the Swedish National Institute for Radiation Protection and VAMP (Validation of Model Predictions) with the International Atomic Energy Agency, that address testing the performance of models of radionuclide transport through foodchains. In the future, this project will be considered separately from the Chernobyl Studies Project and the essential activities of former Task 7.1D will be folded within the broader umbrella of the BIOMOVS and VAMP projects. The Working Group Leader of Task 7.1D will continue to provide oversight for this project.

Anspaugh, L.R.; Hendrickson, S.M. [eds.] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hoffman, F.O. [Senes Oak Ridge, Inc., TN (United States). Center for Risk Analysis

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Group Interaction Prompted by a Simple Assessed Open Learner Model that can be Optionally Released to Peers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to which these findings may be transferable to other settings. 1 Introduction Open learner models (OLM introduces OLMlets, a simple OLM to help users identify their learning needs. Based on UMPTEEN [4], OLMlets of OLMs. The aim in this paper is to provide an indication of what can be achieved with a simple OLM

Bull, Susan

287

ASSESSING THE BARGAINING MODEL OF WAR TERMINATION: AN EXAMINATION OF THE PHILIPPINE-AMERICAN WAR, 1899-1902  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Through a detailed case study of the Philippine-American War (1899-1902), this thesis presents a test of the bargaining model of war termination. The study begins with a review of the war termination theory literature, tracing the currently dominant...

Brown, Adam David

2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

288

A SCOPING STUDY: Development of Probabilistic Risk Assessment Models for Reactivity Insertion Accidents During Shutdown In U.S. Commercial Light Water Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the scoping study of developing generic simplified fuel damage risk models for quantitative analysis from inadvertent reactivity insertion events during shutdown (SD) in light water pressurized and boiling water reactors. In the past, nuclear fuel reactivity accidents have been analyzed both mainly deterministically and probabilistically for at-power and SD operations of nuclear power plants (NPPs). Since then, many NPPs had power up-rates and longer refueling intervals, which resulted in fuel configurations that may potentially respond differently (in an undesirable way) to reactivity accidents. Also, as shown in a recent event, several inadvertent operator actions caused potential nuclear fuel reactivity insertion accident during SD operations. The set inadvertent operator actions are likely to be plant- and operation-state specific and could lead to accident sequences. This study is an outcome of the concern which arose after the inadvertent withdrawal of control rods at Dresden Unit 3 in 2008 due to operator actions in the plant inadvertently three control rods were withdrawn from the reactor without knowledge of the main control room operator. The purpose of this Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) Model development project is to develop simplified SPAR Models that can be used by staff analysts to perform risk analyses of operating events and/or conditions occurring during SD operation. These types of accident scenarios are dominated by the operator actions, (e.g., misalignment of valves, failure to follow procedures and errors of commissions). Human error probabilities specific to this model were assessed using the methodology developed for SPAR model human error evaluations. The event trees, fault trees, basic event data and data sources for the model are provided in the report. The end state is defined as the reactor becomes critical. The scoping study includes a brief literature search/review of historical events, developments of a small set of comprehensive event trees and fault trees and recommendation for future work.

S. Khericha

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Enhance accuracy in Software cost and schedule estimation by using "Uncertainty Analysis and Assessment" in the system modeling process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Accurate software cost and schedule estimation are essential for software project success. Often it referred to as the "black art" because of its complexity and uncertainty, software estimation is not as difficult or puzzling as people think. In fact, generating accurate estimates is straightforward-once you understand the intensity of uncertainty and framework for the modeling process. The mystery to successful software estimation-distilling academic information and real-world experience into a practical guide for working software professionals. Instead of arcane treatises and rigid modeling techniques, this will guide highlights a proven set of procedures, understandable formulas, and heuristics that individuals and development teams can apply to their projects to help achieve estimation proficiency with choose appropriate development approaches In the early stage of software life cycle project manager are inefficient to estimate the effort, schedule, cost estimation and its development approach .This in tu...

Vasantrao, Kardile Vilas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Watershed Assessment Program Team  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­ Proposal to model urban storm-water control practices · Teach advanced graduate course ­ BASINS and SWAT · Monitoring Activities · Modeling Activities · Remote Sensing / GIS · Sources of Funding · What do We Need · Much more monitoring being done by cities and local governments ­ Source water assessment work done

291

Dust in brown dwarfs and extra-solar planets IV. Assessing TiO2 and SiO nucleation for cloud formation modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Clouds form in atmospheres of brown dwarfs and planets. The cloud particle formation processes are similar to the dust formation process studied in circumstellar shells of AGB stars and in Supernovae. Cloud formation modelling in substellar objects requires gravitational settling and element replenishment in addition to element depletion. All processes depend on the local conditions, and a simultaneous treatment is required. We apply new material data in order to assess our cloud formation model results regarding the treatment of the formation of condensation seeds. We re-address the question of the primary nucleation species in view of new (TiO2)_N-cluster data and new SiO vapour pressure data. We apply the density functional theory using the computational chemistry package Gaussian 09 to derive updated thermodynamical data for (TiO2)_N-clusters as input for our TiO2 seed formation model. We test different nucleation treatments and their effect on the overall cloud structure by solving a system of dust momen...

Lee, G; Giles, H; Bromley, S T

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Calculating Impacts of Energy Standards on Energy Demand in U.S. Buildings under Uncertainty with an Integrated Assessment Model: Technical Background Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents data and assumptions employed in an application of PNNL’s Global Change Assessment Model with a newly-developed Monte Carlo analysis capability. The model is used to analyze the impacts of more aggressive U.S. residential and commercial building-energy codes and equipment standards on energy consumption and energy service costs at the state level, explicitly recognizing uncertainty in technology effectiveness and cost, socioeconomics, presence or absence of carbon prices, and climate impacts on energy demand. The report provides a summary of how residential and commercial buildings are modeled, together with assumptions made for the distributions of state–level population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per worker, efficiency and cost of residential and commercial energy equipment by end use, and efficiency and cost of residential and commercial building shells. The cost and performance of equipment and of building shells are reported separately for current building and equipment efficiency standards and for more aggressive standards. The report also details assumptions concerning future improvements brought about by projected trends in technology.

Scott, Michael J.; Daly, Don S.; Hathaway, John E.; Lansing, Carina S.; Liu, Ying; McJeon, Haewon C.; Moss, Richard H.; Patel, Pralit L.; Peterson, Marty J.; Rice, Jennie S.; Zhou, Yuyu

2014-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

293

Development of a Kelp-type Structure Module in a Coastal Ocean Model to Assess the Hydrodynamic Impact of Seawater Uranium Extraction Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In recent years, with the rapid growth of global energy demand, the interest in extracting uranium from seawater for nuclear energy has been renewed. While extracting seawater uranium is not yet commercially viable, it serves as a “backstop” to the conventional uranium resources and provides an essentially unlimited supply of uranium resource. With recent advances in seawater uranium extraction technology, extracting uranium from seawater could be economically feasible when the extraction devices are deployed at a large scale (e.g., several hundred km2). There is concern however that the large scale deployment of adsorbent farms could result in potential impacts to the hydrodynamic flow field in an oceanic setting. In this study, a kelp-type structure module was incorporated into a coastal ocean model to simulate the blockage effect of uranium extraction devices on the flow field. The module was quantitatively validated against laboratory flume experiments for both velocity and turbulence profiles. The model-data comparison showed an overall good agreement and validated the approach of applying the model to assess the potential hydrodynamic impact of uranium extraction devices or other underwater structures in coastal oceans.

Wang, Taiping; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Long, Wen; Gill, Gary A.

2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

294

SIMULATION MODEL ANALYSIS OF THE MOST PROMISING GEOLOGIC SEQUESTRATION FORMATION CANDIDATES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGION, USA, WITH FOCUS ON UNCERTAINTY ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to report results of reservoir model simulation analyses for forecasting subsurface CO2 storage capacity estimation for the most promising formations in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. A particular emphasis of this project was to assess uncertainty of the simulation-based forecasts. Results illustrate how local-scale data, including well information, number of wells, and location of wells, affect storage capacity estimates and what degree of well density (number of wells over a fixed area) may be required to estimate capacity within a specified degree of confidence. A major outcome of this work was development of a new workflow of simulation analysis, accommodating the addition of “random pseudo wells” to represent virtual characterization wells.

Lee, Si-Yong; Zaluski, Wade; Will, Robert; Eisinger, Chris; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Assessment of Uncertainties in the Response of the African Monsoon Precipitation to Land Use change simulated by a regional model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Land use and land cover over Africa have changed substantially over the last sixty years and this change has been proposed to affect monsoon circulation and precipitation. This study examines the uncertainties on the effect of these changes on the African Monsoon system and Sahel precipitation using an ensemble of regional model simulations with different combinations of land surface and cumulus parameterization schemes. Although the magnitude of the response covers a broad range of values, most of the simulations show a decline in Sahel precipitation due to the expansion of pasture and croplands at the expense of trees and shrubs and an increase in surface air temperature.

Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Xue, Yongkang; Boone, Aaron; de Sales, Fernando; Neupane, Naresh; Huang, Maoyi; Yoon, Jin-Ho

2014-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

296

Project OPTEX: Field study at a petrochemical facility to assess optical remote sensing and dispersion modeling techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The American Petroleum Inst. has conducted a field study at a petrochemical facility for the purpose of (1) testing the ability of optical remote sensing (ORS) techniques to characterize fugitive emissions, and (2) assembling ambient and tracer sampler data for evaluating air dispersion models. The study, referred to as the OPTEX (Operational Petrochemical Tracer Experiment) Project, took place during October 1996 at a Texas petrochemical facility. This paper reports on the design of the field study and summarizes the measurements that were obtained in the field. Several aspects of the field study are described in the paper: the types and locations of the emission releases and tracer gases that were used, the deployment of tracer samplers at various downwind distances, the use of open-path FTIR (OP-FTIR) equipment at the site to quantify tracer gas emissions, special short-term tracer gas emissions designed to test the ability of the ORS systems to detect accidental releases, and the use of a Doppler sodar to evaluate vertical profiles of wind and turbulence upwind and downwind of the facility. The data base for this study, as well as that from an earlier field study that took place at the Duke Forest green field site in North Carolina, will be used for evaluating air dispersion model performance and the ability of ORS measurements to quantify fugitive emissions.

Paien, R.J. [ENSR Corp., Acton, MA (United States); Zwicker, J.O. [Remote Sensing Air, Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States); Feldman, H. [American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

297

Development and Demonstration of a Modeling Framework for Assessing the Efficacy of Using Mine Water for Thermoelectric Power Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermoelectric power plants use large volumes of water for condenser cooling and other plant operations. Traditionally, this water has been withdrawn from the cleanest water available in streams and rivers. However, as demand for electrical power increases it places increasing demands on freshwater resources resulting in conflicts with other off stream water users. In July 2002, NETL and the Governor of Pennsylvania called for the use of water from abandoned mines to replace our reliance on the diminishing and sometimes over allocated surface water resource. In previous studies the National Mine Land Reclamation Center (NMLRC) at West Virginia University has demonstrated that mine water has the potential to reduce the capital cost of acquiring cooling water while at the same time improving the efficiency of the cooling process due to the constant water temperatures associated with deep mine discharges. The objectives of this project were to develop and demonstrate a user-friendly computer based design aid for assessing the costs, technical and regulatory aspects and potential environmental benefits for using mine water for thermoelectric generation. The framework provides a systematic process for evaluating the hydrologic, chemical, engineering and environmental factors to be considered in using mine water as an alternative to traditional freshwater supply. A field investigation and case study was conducted for the proposed 300 MW Beech Hollow Power Plant located in Champion, Pennsylvania. The field study based on previous research conducted by NMLRC identified mine water sources sufficient to reliably supply the 2-3,000gpm water supply requirement of Beech Hollow. A water collection, transportation and treatment system was designed around this facility. Using this case study a computer based design aid applicable to large industrial water users was developed utilizing water collection and handling principals derived in the field investigation and during previous studies of mine water and power plant cooling. Visual basic software was used to create general information/evaluation modules for a range of power plant water needs that were tested/verified against the Beech Hollow project. The program allows for consideration of blending mine water as needed as well as considering potential thermal and environmental benefits that can be derived from using constant temperature mine water. Users input mine water flow, quality, distance to source, elevations to determine collection, transport and treatment system design criteria. The program also evaluates low flow volumes and sustainable yields for various sources. All modules have been integrated into a seamless user friendly computer design aid and user's manual for evaluating the capital and operating costs of mine water use. The framework will facilitate the use of mine water for thermoelectric generation, reduce demand on freshwater resources and result in environmental benefits from reduced emissions and abated mine discharges.

None

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Methodology to assess potential glint and glare hazards from concentrating solar power plants : analytical models and experimental validation.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With growing numbers of concentrating solar power systems being designed and developed, glint and glare from concentrating solar collectors and receivers is receiving increased attention as a potential hazard or distraction for motorists, pilots, and pedestrians. This paper provides analytical methods to evaluate the irradiance originating from specularly and diffusely reflecting sources as a function of distance and characteristics of the source. Sample problems are provided for both specular and diffuse sources, and validation of the models is performed via testing. In addition, a summary of safety metrics is compiled from the literature to evaluate the potential hazards of calculated irradiances from glint and glare. Previous safety metrics have focused on prevention of permanent eye damage (e.g., retinal burn). New metrics used in this paper account for temporary flash blindness, which can occur at irradiance values several orders of magnitude lower than the irradiance values required for irreversible eye damage.

Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Ghanbari, Cheryl M.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Preliminary geohydrologic conceptual model of the Los Medanos region near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for the purpose of performance assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a geohydrologic conceptual model of the northern Delaware Basin to be used in modeling three-dimensional, regional ground-water flow for assessing the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the Los Medanos region near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Geochemical and hydrological evidence indicates that flow is transient in the Rustler Formation and the Capitan aquifer in response to changing geologic, hydrologic, and climatic conditions. Before the Pleistocene, ground-water flow in the Rustler Formation was generally eastward, but uneven tilting of the Delaware Basin lowered the regional base level and formed fractures in the evaporitic sequence of rocks approximately parallel to the basin axis. Dissolution along the fractures, coupled with erosion, formed Nash Draw. Also, the drop in base level resulted in an increase in the carrying power of the Pecos River, which began incising the Capitan/aquifer near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Erosion and downcutting released hydraulic pressure that caused a reversal in Rustler ground-water flow direction near the WIPP. Flow in the Rustler west of the WIPP is toward Nash Draw and eventually toward Malaga Bend; flow south of the WIPP is toward Malaga Bend. 126 refs., 70 figs., 18 tabs.

Brinster, K.F. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Comparisons of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry based on physical input-output life-cycle assessment model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using crop straws and wood wastes for paper production should be promoted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bagasse and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imports of scrap paper should be encouraged. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensitivity analysis, uncertainties and policy implications are discussed. - Abstract: Waste recycling for paper production is an important component of waste management. This study constructs a physical input-output life-cycle assessment (PIO-LCA) model. The PIO-LCA model is used to investigate environmental impacts of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry: crop straws, bagasse, textile wastes and scrap paper. Crop straw recycling and wood utilization for paper production have small total intensity of environmental impacts. Moreover, environmental impacts reduction of crop straw recycling and wood utilization benefits the most from technology development. Thus, using crop straws and wood (including wood wastes) for paper production should be promoted. Technology development has small effects on environmental impacts reduction of bagasse recycling, textile waste recycling and scrap paper recycling. In addition, bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling have big total intensity of environmental impacts. Thus, the development of bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Other pathways for reusing bagasse and textile wastes should be explored and evaluated. Moreover, imports of scrap paper should be encouraged to reduce large indirect impacts of scrap paper recycling on domestic environment.

Liang Sai [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Tianzhu, E-mail: zhangtz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu Yijian [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Academy of Urban Planning and Design, Beijing 100037 (China)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment model gcam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Technology Assessment  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Roll to Roll (R2R) Processing 1 Technology Assessment 2 3 Contents 4 1. Introduction to the TechnologySystem ......

302

Trapped Between Two Tails: Trading Off Scientific Uncertainties via Climate Targets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Climate change policies must trade off uncertainties about future warming, about the social and ecological impacts of warming, and about the cost of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We show that laxer carbon targets produce broader distributions for climate damages, skewed towards severe outcomes. However, if potential low-carbon technologies fill overlapping niches, then more stringent carbon targets produce broader distributions for the cost of reducing emissions, skewed towards high-cost outcomes. We use the technology- rich GCAM integrated assessment model to assess the robustness of 450 ppm and 500 ppm carbon targets to each uncertain factor. The 500 ppm target provides net benefits across a broad range of futures. The 450 ppm target provides net benefits only when impacts are greater than conventionally assumed, when multiple technological breakthroughs lower the cost of abatement, or when evaluated with a low discount rate. Policy evaluations are more sensitive to uncertainty about abatement technology and impacts than to uncertainty about warming.

Lemoine, Derek M.; McJeon, Haewon C.

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

303

Development of a Model, Metal-reducing Microbial Community for a System Biology Level Assessment of Desulfovibrio vulgaris as part of a Community  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the largest experimental gaps is between the simplicity of pure cultures and the complexity of open environmental systems, particularly in metal-contaminated areas. These microbial communities form ecosystem foundations, drive biogeochemical processes, and are relevant for biotechnology and bioremediation. A model, metal-reducing microbial community was constructed as either syntrophic or competitive to study microbial cell to cell interactions, cell signaling and competition for resources. The microbial community was comprised of the metal-reducing Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA. Additionally, Methanococcus maripaludis S2 was added to study complete carbon reduction and maintain a low hydrogen partial pressure for syntrophism to occur. Further, considerable work has been published on D. vulgaris and the D. vulgaris/ Mc. maripaludis co-culture both with and without stress. We are extending this work by conducting the same stress conditions on the model community. Additionally, this comprehensive investigation includes physiological and metabolic analyses as well as specially designed mRNA microarrays with the genes for all three organisms on one slide so as to follow gene expression changes in the various cultivation conditions as well as being comparable to the co- and individual cultures. Further, state-of -the-art comprehensive AMT tag proteomics allows for these comparisons at the protein level for a systems biology assessment of a model, metal-reducing microbial community. Preliminary data revealed that lactate oxidation by D. vulgaris was sufficient to support both G. sulfurreducens and M. maripaludis via the excretion of H2 and acetate. Fumarate was utilized by G. sulfurreducens and reduced to succinate since neither of the other two organisms can reduce fumarate. Methane was quantified, suggesting acetate and H2 concentrations were sufficient for M. maripaludis. Steady state community cultivation will allow for a comprehensive, system biology level analysis of a metal-reducing microbial community.

Elias, Dwayne; Schadt, Christopher; Miller, Lance; Phelps, Tommy; Brown, S. D.; Arkin, Adam; Hazen, Terry; Drake, Megin; Yang, Z.K.; Podar, Mircea

2010-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

304

Development of the Conceptual Models for Chemical Conditions and Hydrology Used in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations specify that the DOE must demonstrate on a sound basis that the WIPP disposal system will effectively contain long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides within its boundaries for 10,000 years following closure. In 1996, the DOE submitted the ''40 CFR Part 191 Compliance Certification Application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant'' (CCA) to the EPA. The CCA proposed that the WIPP site complies with EPA's regulatory requirements. Contained within the CCA are descriptions of the scientific research conducted to characterize the properties of the WIPP site and the probabilistic performance assessment (PA) conducted to predict the containment properties of the WIPP disposal system. In May 1998, the EPA certified that the TRU waste disposal at the WIPP complies with its regulations. Waste disposal operations at WIPP commenced on March 28, 1999. The 1996 WIPP PA model of the disposal system included conceptual and mathematical representations of key hydrologic and geochemical processes. These key processes were identified over a 22-year period involving data collection, data interpretation, computer models, and sensitivity studies to evaluate the importance of uncertainty and of processes that were difficult to evaluate by other means. Key developments in the area of geochemistry were the evaluation of gas generation mechanisms in the repository; development of a model of chemical conditions in the repository and actinide concentrations in brine; selecting MgO backfill and demonstrating its effects experimentally; and determining the chemical retardation capability of the Culebra. Key developments in the area of hydrology were evacuating the potential for groundwater to dissolve the Salado Formation (the repository host formation), development of a regional model for hydrologic conditions, development of a stochastic, probabilistic representation of hydraulic properties in the Culebra Member of the Rustler Formation; characterization of physical transport in the Culebra, and the evaluation of brine and gas flow in the Salado. Additional confidence in the conceptual models used in the 1996 WIPP PA was gained through independent peer review in many stages of their development.

LARSON, KURT W.

2000-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

305

Consequence Assessment  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This volume focuses on the process of performing timely initial assessments necessary to support critical first decisions and the continuous process of refining those initial assessments as more information and resources become available. Canceled by DOE G 151.1-4.

1997-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

306

The Development of an Effective Transportation Risk Assessment Model for Analyzing the Transport of Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste to the Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Past approaches for assessing the impacts of transporting spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste have not been effectively implemented or have used relatively simple approaches. The Yucca Mountain Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) analysis considers 83 origins, 34 fuel types, 49,914 legal weight truck shipments, 10,911 rail shipments, consisting of 59,250 shipment links outside Nevada (shipment kilometers and population density pairs through urban, suburban or rural zones by state), and 22,611 shipment links in Nevada. There was additional complexity within the analysis. The analysis modeled the behavior of 41 isotopes, 1091 source terms, and used 8850 food transfer factors (distinct factors by isotope for each state). The model also considered different accident rates for legal weight truck, rail, and heavy haul truck by state, and barge by waterway. To capture the all of the complexities of the transportation analysis, a Microsoft{reg_sign} Access database was created. In the Microsoft{reg_sign} Access approach the data is placed in individual tables and equations are developed in queries to obtain the overall impacts. While the query might be applied to thousands of table entries, there is only one equation for a particular impact. This greatly simplifies the validation effort. Furthermore, in Access, data in tables can be linked automatically using query joins. Another advantage built into MS Access is nested queries, or the ability to develop query hierarchies. It is possible to separate the calculation into a series of steps, each step represented by a query. For example, the first query might calculate the number of shipment kilometers traveled through urban, rural and suburban zones for all states. Subsequent queries could join the shipment kilometers query results with another table containing the state and mode specific accident rate to produce accidents by state. One of the biggest advantages of the nested queries is in validation. Temporarily restricting the query to one origin, one shipment, or one state and validating that the query calculation is returning the expected result allows simple validation. The paper will show the flexibility of the assessment tool to consider a wide variety of impacts. Through the use of pre-designed queries, impacts by origin, mode, fuel type or many other parameters can be obtained.

McSweeney; Thomas; Winnard; Ross; Steven B.; Best; Ralph E.

2001-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

307

A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify the common features of social impact assessment (SIA) and social risk assessment (SRA), and discuss the merits of a combined approach. A hybrid model combining SIA and SRA to form a new approach called, ‘risk and social impact assessment’ (RSIA) is introduced. RSIA expands the capacity of SIA to evaluate and manage the social impacts of risky projects such as nuclear energy as well as natural hazards and disasters such as droughts and floods. We outline the three stages of RSIA, namely: impact identification, impact assessment, and impact management. -- Highlights: • A hybrid model to combine SIA and SRA namely RSIA is proposed. • RSIA can provide the proper mechanism to assess social impacts of natural hazards. • RSIA can play the role of ex-post as well as ex-ante assessment. • For some complicated and sensitive cases like nuclear energy, conducting a RSIA is necessary.

Mahmoudi, Hossein, E-mail: mahmoudi@uni-hohenheim.de [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany) [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany); Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C. (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Renn, Ortwin [Department of Technology and Environmental Sociology (and DIALOGIK), University of Stuttgart (Germany)] [Department of Technology and Environmental Sociology (and DIALOGIK), University of Stuttgart (Germany); Vanclay, Frank [Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Hoffmann, Volker [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany)] [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany); Karami, Ezatollah [College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

308

Meeting the Radiative Forcing Targets of the Representative Concentration Pathways in a World with Agricultural Climate Impacts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study assesses how climate impacts on agriculture may change the evolution of the agricultural and energy systems in meeting the end-of-century radiative forcing targets of the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). We build on the recently completed ISI-MIP exercise that has produced global gridded estimates of future crop yields for major agricultural crops using climate model projections of the RCPs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). For this study we use the bias-corrected outputs of the HadGEM2-ES climate model as inputs to the LPJmL crop growth model, and the outputs of LPJmL to modify inputs to the GCAM integrated assessment model. Our results indicate that agricultural climate impacts generally lead to an increase in global cropland, as compared with corresponding emissions scenarios that do not consider climate impacts on agricultural productivity. This is driven mostly by negative impacts on wheat, rice, other grains, and oil crops. Still, including agricultural climate impacts does not significantly increase the costs or change the technological strategies of global, whole-system emissions mitigation. In fact, to meet the most aggressive climate change mitigation target (2.6 W/m2 in 2100), the net mitigation costs are slightly lower when agricultural climate impacts are considered. Key contributing factors to these results are (a) low levels of climate change in the low-forcing scenarios, (b) adaptation to climate impacts, simulated in GCAM through inter-regional shifting in the production of agricultural goods, and (c) positive average climate impacts on bioenergy crop yields.

Kyle, G. Page; Mueller, C.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

309

The PLATO End-to-End CCD Simulator -- Modelling space-based ultra-high precision CCD photometry for the assessment study of the PLATO Mission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The PLATO satellite mission project is a next generation ESA Cosmic Vision satellite project dedicated to the detection of exo-planets and to asteroseismology of their host-stars using ultra-high precision photometry. The main goal of the PLATO mission is to provide a full statistical analysis of exo-planetary systems around stars that are bright and close enough for detailed follow-up studies. Many aspects concerning the design trade-off of a space-based instrument and its performance can best be tackled through realistic simulations of the expected observations. The complex interplay of various noise sources in the course of the observations made such simulations an indispensable part of the assessment study of the PLATO Payload Consortium. We created an end-to-end CCD simulation software-tool, dubbed PLATOSim, which simulates photometric time-series of CCD images by including realistic models of the CCD and its electronics, the telescope optics, the stellar field, the pointing uncertainty of the satellite ...

Zima, W; De Ridder, J; Salmon, S; Catala, C; Kjeldsen, H; Aerts, C

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Risk Assessment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A set of issues that state and local governments should carefully consider, with the goal of helping them assess and anticipate solutions for some worst case or unfortunate case scenarios as they...

311

Integrating Human Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure within Life Cycle Impact Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

currently done in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), may result inexposure models; Life Cycle Assessment; LCA; intake fractionneglected in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Such an omission

Hellweg, Stefanie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Development of Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Iron and Steel Sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessment of Electric Steel making Through the Year 2000,by Injection Technology” Steel Times, October 1994 pp.391-Hanes, C. , 1999. USS/Kobe Steel, Personal communication,

Xu, T.T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Assess in-depth contributions of selected scenarios to goals...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Resource Assessment (SWERA) SolarDS Stochastic Energy Deployment System (SEDS) System Advisor Model (SAM) Tool for Rapid Assessment of City Energy (TRACE) UNDP-Energy Costing Tool...

314

A method for the assessment of site-specific economic impacts of commercial and industrial biomass energy facilities. A handbook and computer model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A handbook on ``A Method for the Assessment of Site-specific Econoomic Impacts of Industrial and Commercial Biomass Energy Facilities`` has been prepared by Resource Systems Group Inc. under contract to the Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program (SERBEP). The handbook includes a user-friendly Lotus 123 spreadsheet which calculates the economic impacts of biomass energy facilities. The analysis uses a hybrid approach, combining direct site-specific data provided by the user, with indirect impact multipliers from the US Forest Service IMPLAN input/output model for each state. Direct economic impacts are determined primarily from site-specific data and indirect impacts are determined from the IMPLAN multipliers. The economic impacts are given in terms of income, employment, and state and federal taxes generated directly by the specific facility and by the indirect economic activity associated with each project. A worksheet is provided which guides the user in identifying and entering the appropriate financial data on the plant to be evaluated. The WLAN multipliers for each state are included in a database within the program. The multipliers are applied automatically after the user has entered the site-specific data and the state in which the facility is located. Output from the analysis includes a summary of direct and indirect income, employment and taxes. Case studies of large and small wood energy facilities and an ethanol plant are provided as examples to demonstrate the method. Although the handbook and program are intended for use by those with no previous experience in economic impact analysis, suggestions are given for the more experienced user who may wish to modify the analysis techniques.

Not Available

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Diffusion of low-carbon technologies and the feasibility of long-term climate targets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stabilizing the global climate will require large-scale global deployment of low-carbon technologies. Even in the presence of aggressive climate policies, however, the diffusion of such technologies may be limited by several, institutional, behavioral, and social factors. In this paper, we review the literature on the sources of such diffusion constraints, and explore the potential implications of such non-economic constraints based on the GCAM integrated assessment model. Our analysis highlights that non-economic factors that limit technology deployment may have sizeable impacts on the feasibility and mitigation costs of achieving stringent stabilization targets. And such impacts are greatly amplified with major delays in serious climate policies. The results generally indicate that constraints on the expansions of CCS and renewables are more costly than those on nuclear or bioenergy, and jointly constraining these technologies leaves some scenarios infeasible.

Iyer, Gokul C.; Hultman, Nathan; Eom, Jiyong; McJeon, Haewon C.; Patel, Pralit L.; Clarke, Leon E.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Analysis of methods and models for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes in the agricultural sector of the US economy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alternative methods for quantifying the economic impacts associated with future increases in the ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/ were examined. A literature search was undertaken, both to gain a better understanding of the ways in which CO/sub 2/ buildup could affect crop growth and to identify the different methods available for assessing the impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes on crop yields. The second task involved identifying the scope of both the direct and indirect economic impacts that could occur as a result of CO/sub 2/-induced changes in crop yields. The third task then consisted of a comprehensive literature search to identify what types of economic models could be used effectively to assess the kinds of direct and indirect economic impacts that could conceivably occur as a result of CO/sub 2/ buildup. Specific attention was focused upon national and multi-regional agricultural sector models, multi-country agricultural trade models, and macroeconomic models of the US economy. The fourth and final task of this research involved synthesizing the information gathered in the previous tasks into a systematic framework for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes related to agricultural production.

Callaway, J.M.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Integrated Environmental Assessment Part III: Exposure Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

issues such as life cycle assessment (LCA) fosters the needlife-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) process within in LCA is

McKone, Thomas E.; Small, Mitchell J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessment framework meraf Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

OF ENGINEERING CYBERNETICS AND ROBOTICS, 60 Summary: , 60 2009 Sofia Service Oriented Architecture of Assessment Model1 Adelina Aleksieva... Assessment Model. To achieve...

319

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessment open issues Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

OF ENGINEERING CYBERNETICS AND ROBOTICS, 60 Summary: , 60 2009 Sofia Service Oriented Architecture of Assessment Model1 Adelina Aleksieva... Assessment Model. To achieve...

320

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessment part iii Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Indicator Score for each candidate. III. Research... , 60 2009 Sofia Service Oriented Architecture of Assessment Model1 Adelina Aleksieva... Assessment Model. To achieve...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment model gcam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessment rate niear Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Item Construction Response Rating WSDLWSDL SOAP... , 60 2009 Sofia Service Oriented Architecture of Assessment Model1 Adelina Aleksieva... Assessment Model. To achieve...

322

Analysis of methods and models for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes in the agricultural sector of the US economy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall purpose of this research was to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) in developing methods for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts due to the effects of increases in the ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/ on agricultural production. First, a comprehensive literature search was undertaken to determine what types of models and methods have been developed, which could be effectively used to conduct assessments of the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. Specific attention was focused upon models and methods for assessing the physical impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes on crop yields; national and multi-regional agricultural sector models; and macroeconomic models of the US economy. The second task involved a thorough investigation of the research efforts being conducted by other public and private sector organizations in order to determine how more recent analytical methods being developed outside of DOE could be effectively integrated into a more comprehensive analysis of the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. The third and final task involved synthesizing the information gathered in the first two tasks into a systematic framework for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes originating in the agricultural sector of the US economy. It is concluded that the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ on the agricultural sector and the indirect economic impacts caused by spillover effects from agriculture to other sectors of the economy will be pervasive; however, the direction and magnitude of these impacts on producers and consumers cannot be determined a priori.

Callaway, J.M.; Cronin, F.J.; Currie, J.W.; Tawil, J.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incineration facility (East Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 4. Atmospheric dispersion and deposition modeling of emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contents: Introduction; Technical Description of ISC-COMPDEP; Modeling Input Parameters; Discussion of Modeling Results; Summary and Major Assumptions; and References.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Modeling  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

an implementation of a single-fluid inter- face model in the ALE-AMR code to simulate surface tension effects. The model does not require explicit information on the physical...

325

Financial Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We would like to thank everyone who helped us with this report, including but not limited to: John Bolduc, Steve Lenkauskas, George Fernandes, and the staff at the City of Cambridge and Danehy Park who helped shape this report and made on-site instrument installation and data collection possible. Mark Lipson, Jack Clarke and Jean Rogers for their guidance with the environmental and community impact assessment. Bob Paine and Scott Abbett for their thoughts and experiences with the Medford McGlynn School wind turbine. This preliminary assessment report investigates the wind resource available at Danehy Park in the City of Cambridge, providing estimated power generation figures as well as cost and revenue estimates and

Cy Chan; Pamela Silva; Chao Zhang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

iEMSs 2008:International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software Integrating Sciences and Information Technology for Environmental Assessment and Decision Making  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to be based on results from integrated Earth System Models (ESMs), C-LAMP is helping to establish the metadata

Hoffman, Forrest M.

327

ELSEVIER Journal of Nuclear Materials 212-215 (1994)1003-1009 An assessment of models for tritium release from ceramic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

release from ceramic breeders for blanket analysis applications G. Federici a, A.R. Raffray b, M proposed and used to analyse the tritium release from ceramic breeder blankets. The transient models range from single-mechanism types of models to comprehensive, fully integrated models over a blanket spatial

Abdou, Mohamed

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Assessment of subgrid-scale models with an LES-dedicated experimental database: the pulsatile impinging jet in turbulent cross-flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Hence, two eddy-viscosity-based SGS models are investigated: the dynamic Smagorinsky model1 geometries. Since the pioneering work of Smagorinsky3 , numerous subgrid-scale (SGS) viscosity models1) many physical mechanisms interact in a time-varying geometry: combustion, spray atomization, multiphase

Boyer, Edmond

329

Model-data Fusion Approaches for Retrospective and Predictive Assessment of the Pan-Arctic Scale Permafrost Carbon Feedback to Global Climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

representation of the Arctic system carbon cycle in Earth System Modeling frameworks. This proposed study of permafrost carbon processes in terrestrial biogeochemistry models, to operate within coupled Earth system modeling frameworks. PROJECT SIGNIFICANCE This work will provide a critical bridge between the abundant

330

Evaluating sub-national building-energy efficiency policy options under uncertainty: Efficient sensitivity testing of alternative climate, technolgical, and socioeconomic futures in a regional intergrated-assessment model.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improving the energy efficiency of the building stock, commercial equipment and household appliances can have a major impact on energy use, carbon emissions, and building services. Subnational regions such as U.S. states wish to increase their energy efficiency, reduce carbon emissions or adapt to climate change. Evaluating subnational policies to reduce energy use and emissions is difficult because of the uncertainties in socioeconomic factors, technology performance and cost, and energy and climate policies. Climate change may undercut such policies. Assessing these uncertainties can be a significant modeling and computation burden. As part of this uncertainty assessment, this paper demonstrates how a decision-focused sensitivity analysis strategy using fractional factorial methods can be applied to reveal the important drivers for detailed uncertainty analysis.

Scott, Michael J.; Daly, Don S.; Zhou, Yuyu; Rice, Jennie S.; Patel, Pralit L.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Kyle, G. Page; Kim, Son H.; Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Modeling  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a single-fluid diffuse interface model in the ALE-AMR hydrodynamics code to simulate surface tension effects. We show simula- tions and compare them to other surface tension...

332

Modeling  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sion effects. We show the result of a test case, and compare it to the result without surface tension. The model describes droplet formation nicely. Application The ARRA-funded...

333

Flibe assessments.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An assessment of the issues on using flibe for fusion applications has been made. It is concluded that sufficient tritium breeding can be achieved for a flibe blanket, especially if a few cm of Be is include in the blanket design. A key issue is the control of the transmutation products such as TF and F{sub 2}. A REDOX (Reducing-Oxidation) reaction has to be demonstrated which is compatible to the blanket design. Also, MHD may have strong impact on heat transfer if the flow is perpendicular to the magnetic field. The issues associated with the REDOX reaction and the MHD issues have to be resolved by both experimental program and numerical solutions.

Sze, D. K.; McCarthy, K.; Sawan, M.; Tillack, M.; Ying, A.; Zinkle, S.

2000-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Geologic-simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau. Volume 2: results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains the input data and computer results for the Geologic Simulation Model. This model is described in detail in the following report: Petrie, G.M., et. al. 1981. Geologic Simulation Model for a Hypothetical Site in the Columbia Plateau, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington. The Geologic Simulation Model is a quasi-deterministic process-response model which simulates, for a million years into the future, the development of the geologic and hydrologic systems of the ground-water basin containing the Pasco Basin. Effects of natural processes on the ground-water hydrologic system are modeled principally by rate equations. The combined effects and synergistic interactions of different processes are approximated by linear superposition of their effects during discrete time intervals in a stepwise-integration approach.

Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.; Baldwin, A.J.; Craig, R.G.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Assessor Training Assessment Techniques  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NVLAP Assessor Training Assessment Techniques: Communication Skills and Conducting an Assessment listener ·Knowledgeable Assessor Training 2009: Assessment Techniques: Communication Skills & Conducting, truthful, sincere, discrete · Diplomatic · Decisive · Selfreliant Assessor Training 2009: Assessment

336

Use of international data sets to evaluate and validate pathway assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities. Monthly progress reports and final report, October--December 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of Task 7.lD was to (1) establish a collaborative US-USSR effort to improve and validate our methods of forecasting doses and dose commitments from the direct contamination of food sources, and (2) perform experiments and validation studies to improve our ability to predict rapidly and accurately the long-term internal dose from the contamination of agricultural soil. At early times following an accident, the direct contamination of pasture and food stuffs, particularly leafy vegetation and grain, can be of great importance. This situation has been modeled extensively. However, models employed then to predict the deposition, retention and transport of radionuclides in terrestrial environments employed concepts and data bases that were more than a decade old. The extent to which these models have been tested with independent data sets was limited. The data gathered in the former-USSR (and elsewhere throughout the Northern Hemisphere) offered a unique opportunity to test model predictions of wet and dry deposition, agricultural foodchain bioaccumulation, and short- and long-term retention, redistribution, and resuspension of radionuclides from a variety of natural and artificial surfaces. The current objective of this project is to evaluate and validate pathway-assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities through use of international data sets. This project incorporates the activity of Task 7.lD into a multinational effort to evaluate models and data used for the prediction of radionuclide transfer through agricultural and aquatic systems to humans. It also includes participation in two studies, BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) with the Swedish National Institute for Radiation Protection and VAMP (VAlidation of Model Predictions) with the International Atomic Energy Agency, that address testing the performance of models of radionuclide transport through foodchains.

Hoffman, F.O. [Senes Oak Ridge, Inc., TN (United States). Center for Risk Analysis

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Assessment 101: The Assessment Cycle, Clear and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessment 101: The Assessment Cycle, Clear and Simple October 1, 2014 Kellogg West Conference Center, Pomona, CA Resource Binder #12;2014-2015 WASC Senior College and University Commission is pleased expectations. Assessment 101: The Assessment Cycle, Clear and Simple October 1, 2014. Kellogg West, Pomona, CA

Su, Xiao

338

The feasibility assessment of a U.S. natural gas production reporting system uniform production reporting model. Final report, July 1993--June 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Uniform Production Reporting Model (UPRM) project was charged with identifying the best practices and procedures of the natural gas producing states related to the gathering, management, and dissemination of production data. It is recommended that the producing states begin the process of upgrading state systems using the concepts embodied in the UPRM model.

NONE

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Modelling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling of technical machines became a standard technique since computer became powerful enough to handle the amount of data relevant to the specific system. Simulation of an existing physical device requires the knowledge of all relevant quantities. Electric fields given by the surrounding boundary as well as magnetic fields caused by coils or permanent magnets have to be known. Internal sources for both fields are sometimes taken into account, such as space charge forces or the internal magnetic field of a moving bunch of charged particles. Used solver routines are briefly described and some bench-marking is shown to estimate necessary computing times for different problems. Different types of charged particle sources will be shown together with a suitable model to describe the physical model. Electron guns are covered as well as different ion sources (volume ion sources, laser ion sources, Penning ion sources, electron resonance ion sources, and H$^-$-sources) together with some remarks on beam transport.

Spädtke, P

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

An integrated assessment modeling framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change: the MIT IGSM-CAM (version 1.0)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper describes a computationally efficient framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change. In this framework, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Integrated Global System Model ...

Monier, Erwan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment model gcam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Species for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of the risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to the environment. The objective of the ecological risk assessment is to determine whether contaminants from the Columbia River pose a significant threat to selected receptor species that exist in the river and riparian communities of the study area. This report (1) identifies the receptor species selected for the screening assessment of ecological risk and (2) describes the selection process. The species selection process consisted of two tiers. In Tier 1, a master species list was developed that included many plant and animal species known to occur in the aquatic and riparian systems of the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and the Columbia River estuary. This master list was reduced to 368 species that occur in the study area (Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam). In Tier 2, the 181 Tier 1 species were qualitatively ranked based on a scoring of their potential exposure and sensitivity to contaminants using a conceptual exposure model for the study area.

Becker, J.M.; Brandt, C.A.; Dauble, D.D.; Maughan, A.D.; O`Neil, T.K.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Assessing the CAM5 Physics Suite in the WRF-Chem Model: Implementation, Resolution Sensitivity, and a First Evaluation for a Regional Case Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A suite of physical parameterizations (deep and shallow convection, turbulent boundary layer, aerosols, cloud microphysics, and cloud fraction) from the global climate model Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5) has been implemented in the regional model Weather Research and Forecasting with chemistry (WRF-Chem). A downscaling modeling framework with consistent physics has also been established in which both global and regional simulations use the same emissions and surface fluxes. The WRF-Chem model with the CAM5 physics suite is run at multiple horizontal resolutions over a domain encompassing the northern Pacific Ocean, northeast Asia, and northwest North America for April 2008 when the ARCTAS, ARCPAC, and ISDAC field campaigns took place. These simulations are evaluated against field campaign measurements, satellite retrievals, and ground-based observations, and are compared with simulations that use a set of common WRF-Chem Parameterizations. This manuscript describes the implementation of the CAM5 physics suite in WRF-Chem provides an overview of the modeling framework and an initial evaluation of the simulated meteorology, clouds, and aerosols, and quantifies the resolution dependence of the cloud and aerosol parameterizations. We demonstrate that some of the CAM5 biases, such as high estimates of cloud susceptibility to aerosols and the underestimation of aerosol concentrations in the Arctic, can be reduced simply by increasing horizontal resolution. We also show that the CAM5 physics suite performs similarly to a set of parameterizations commonly used in WRF-Chem, but produces higher ice and liquid water condensate amounts and near-surface black carbon concentration. Further evaluations that use other mesoscale model parameterizations and perform other case studies are needed to infer whether one parameterization consistently produces results more consistent with observations.

Ma, Po-Lun; Rasch, Philip J.; Fast, Jerome D.; Easter, Richard C.; Gustafson, William I.; Liu, Xiaohong; Ghan, Steven J.; Singh, Balwinder

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

343

Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incineration facility (East Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 8. Additional analysis in response to peer review recommendations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contents: Introduction; Combustion Engineering; Air Dispersion and Deposition Modeling; Accident Analysis; Exposure Assessment; Toxicology; and Ecological Risk Assessment.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Mesoscale model cloud scheme assessment using satellite observations Jean-Pierre Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre Cammas, Patrick J. Mascart, and Jean-Pierre Pinty  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, tests made with three different values of an ice to snow autoconversion threshold reveal a profound-scale cloudiness in the model. A similar test conducted on the ice water and the liquid water paths confirms and water vapor. Once cloud is formed, however, it is the role of the microphysical scheme to parameterize

Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre

345

Explanation of Significant Differences Between Models used to Assess Groundwater Impacts for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Greater-Than-Class C-Like Waste Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0375-D) and the  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Models have been used to assess the groundwater impacts to support the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) Low-Level Radioactive Waste and GTCC-Like Waste (DOE-EIS 2011) for a facility sited at the Idaho National Laboratory and the Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project (INL 2011). Groundwater impacts are primarily a function of (1) location determining the geologic and hydrologic setting, (2) disposal facility configuration, and (3) radionuclide source, including waste form and release from the waste form. In reviewing the assumptions made between the model parameters for the two different groundwater impacts assessments, significant differences were identified. This report presents the two sets of model assumptions and discusses their origins and implications for resulting dose predictions. Given more similar model parameters, predicted doses would be commensurate.

Annette Schafer; Arthur S. Rood; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Final report on activities and findings under DOE grant “Interactive Photochemistry in Earth System Models to Assess Uncertainty in Ozone and Greenhouse Gases”  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric chemistry controls the abundances and hence climate forcing of important greenhouse gases including N2O, CH4, HFCs, CFCs, and O3. Attributing climate change to human activities requires, at a minimum, accurate models of the chemistry and circulation of the atmosphere that relate emissions to abundances. This DOE-funded research provided realistic, yet computationally optimized and affordable, photochemical modules to the Community Earth System Model (CESM) that augment the CESM capability to explore the uncertainty in future stratospheric-tropospheric ozone, stratospheric circulation, and thus the lifetimes of chemically controlled greenhouse gases from climate simulations. To this end, we have successfully implemented Fast-J (radiation algorithm determining key chemical photolysis rates) and Linoz v3.0 (linearized photochemistry for interactive O3, N2O, NOy and CH4) packages in LLNL-CESM and for the first time demonstrated how change in O2 photolysis rate within its uncertainty range can significantly impact on the stratospheric climate and ozone abundances. From the UCI side, this proposal also helped LLNL develop a CAM-Superfast Chemistry model that was implemented for the IPCC AR5 and contributed chemical-climate simulations to CMIP5.

Prather, Michael J. [UCI

2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

347

Macromodel for assessing residential concentrations of combustion-generated pollutants: Model development and preliminary predictions for CO, NO/sub 2/, and respirable suspended particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simulation model (also called a ''macromodel'') has been developed to predict residential air pollutant concentration distributions for specified populations. The model inputs include the market penetration of pollution sources, pollution source characteristics (e.g., emission rates, source usage rates), building characteristics (e.g., house volume, air exchange rates), and meteorological parameters (e.g., outside temperature). Four geographically distinct regions of the US have been modeled using Monte Carlo and deterministic simulation techniques. Single-source simulations were also conducted. The highest predicted CO and NO/sub 2/ residential concentrations were associated with the winter-time use of unvented gas and kerosene space heaters. The highest predicted respirable suspended particulate concentrations were associated with indoor cigarette smoking and the winter-time use of non-airtight wood stoves, radiant kerosene heaters, convective unvented gas space heaters, and oil forced-air furnaces. Future field studies in this area should (1) fill information gaps identified in this report, and (2) collect information on the macromodel input parameters to properly interpret the results. It is almost more important to measure the parameters that affect indoor concentration than it is to measure the concentrations themselves.

Traynor, G.W.; Aceti, J.C.; Apte, M.G.; Smith, B.V.; Green, L.L.; Smith-Reiser, A.; Novak, K.M.; Moses, D.O.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

ORISE: Hazard Assessments  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

assesses both chemical and radiation exposures, and conducts both internal and external radiation dose assessments. Our capabililities include: Linkage of exposure data to site...

349

Privacy Impact Assessment  

Energy Savers [EERE]

PRIVACY IMPACT ASSESSMENT: ORG NAME - SYSTEM NAME PIA Template Version 3 - May, 2009 1 Department of Energy Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) Guidance is provided in the template....

350

Integrated Assessment of Hadley Centre (HadCM2) Climate Change Projections on Agricultural Productivity and Irrigation Water Supply in the Conterminous United States.I. Climate change scenarios and impacts on irrigation water supply simulated with the HUMUS model.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes methodology and results of a study by researchers at PNNL contributing to the water sector study of the U.S. National Assessment of Climate Change. The vulnerability of water resources in the conterminous U.S. to climate change in 10-y periods centered on 2030 and 2095--as projected by the HadCM2 general circulation model--was modeled with HUMUS (Hydrologic Unit Model of the U.S.). HUMUS consists of a GIS that provides data on soils, land use and climate to drive the hydrology model Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The modeling was done at the scale of the 2101 8-digit USGS hydrologic unit areas (HUA). Results are aggregated to the 4-digit and 2-digit (Major Water Resource Region, MWRR) scales for various purposes. Daily records of temperature and precipitation for 1961-1990 provided the baseline climate. Water yields (WY)--sum of surface and subsurface runoff--increases from the baseline period over most of the U.S. in 2030 and 2095. In 2030, WY increases in the western US and decreases in the central and southeast regions. Notably, WY increases by 139 mm from baseline in the Pacific NW. Decreased WY is projected for the Lower Mississippi and Texas Gulf basins, driven by higher temperatures and reduced precipitation. The HadCM2 2095 scenario projects a climate significantly wetter than baseline, resulting in WY increases of 38%. WY increases are projected throughout the eastern U.S. WY also increases in the western U.S. Climate change also affects the seasonality of the hydrologic cycle. Early snowmelt is induced in western basins, leading to dramatically increased WYs in late winter and early spring. The simulations were run at current (365 ppm) and elevated (560 ppm) atmospheric CO2 concentrations to account for the potential impacts of the CO2-fertilization effect. The effects of climate change scenario were considerably greater than those due to elevated CO2 but the latter, overall, decreased losses and augmented increases in water yield.

Rosenberg, Norman J.; Brown, Robert A.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Thomson, Allison M.

2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

351

INEEL Source Water Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will protect the INEEL’s public water systems yet not too conservative to inhibit the INEEL from carrying out its missions.

Sehlke, Gerald

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

TEPP Planning Products Model Needs Assessment Self Assessment Document  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomen Owned Small BusinessEMPLOYMENT VERIFICATION1 - In the Matter ofFollowing

353

Sensitivity of North American agriculture to ENSO-based climate scenarios and their socio-economic consequences: Modeling in an integrated assessment framework  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A group of Canadian, US and Mexican natural resource specialists, organized by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under its North American Energy, Environment and Economy (NA3E) Program, has applied a simulation modeling approach to estimating the impact of ENSO-driven climatic variations on the productivity of major crops grown in the three countries. Methodological development is described and results of the simulations presented in this report. EPIC (the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator) was the agro-ecosystem model selected-for this study. EPIC uses a daily time step to simulate crop growth and yield, water use, runoff and soil erosion among other variables. The model was applied to a set of so-called representative farms parameterized through a specially-assembled Geographic Information System (GIS) to reflect the soils, topography, crop management and weather typical of the regions represented. Fifty one representative farms were developed for Canada, 66 for the US and 23 for Mexico. El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) scenarios for the EPIC simulations were created using the historic record of sea-surface temperature (SST) prevailing in the eastern tropical Pacific for the period October 1--September 30. Each year between 1960 and 1989 was thus assigned to an ENSO category or state. The ENSO states were defined as El Nino (EN, SST warmer than the long-term mean), Strong El Nino (SEN, much warmer), El Viejo (EV, cooler) and Neutral (within {+-}0.5 C of the long-term mean). Monthly means of temperature and precipitation were then calculated at each farm for the period 1960--1989 and the differences (or anomalies) between the means in Neutral years and EN, SEN and EV years determined. The average monthly anomalies for each ENSO state were then used to create new monthly statistics for each farm and ENSO-state combination. The adjusted monthly statistics characteristic of each ENSO state were then used to drive a stochastic-weather simulator that provided 30 years of daily-weather data needed to run EPIC. Maps and tables of the climate anomalies by farm show climatic conditions that differ considerably by region, season and ENSO state.

Rosenberg, N.J.; Izaurralde, R.C.; Brown, R.A.; Sands, R.D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Legler, D. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Center for Ocean Atmosphere Prediction Studies; Srinivasan, R. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Blacklands Research Center; Tiscareno-Lopez, M.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Portsmouth Needs Assessment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Needs Assessment for former Oak Ridge K-25, Paducah, and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant production workers.

355

Paducah Needs Assessment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Needs Assessment for former Oak Ridge K-25, Paducah, and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant production workers.

356

Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process: Laboratory scale studies modelling and technical assessment. Final report, [October 1, 1988--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reported herein are the details and results of Laboratory-Scale experiments using sub-bituminous and bituminous coal concluded at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE Contract No. AC22-88PCB8818 during the period October 1, 1988 to June 30, 1993. The work described in this report is primarily concerned with tests on a Laboratory Scale primarily using microautoclaves. Experiments were conducted evaluating coal, solvents, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatments, C0{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects. Other microautoclave tests are included in the companion topical reports for this contract, DE-88818-TOP-01 & 02 on Sub-Bituminous and Bituminous Bench-Scale and PDU activities. In addition to the Laboratory Scale Studies, kinetic data and modelling results from Bench-Scale and Microautoclave tests are interpreted and presented along with some economic updates and sensitivity studies.

Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Lee, L.K.; Popper, G.A.; Smith, T.O.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Life Cycle Assessment of Pavements: A Critical Review of Existing Literature and Research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tools related to life- cycle assessment (LCA) applied toaccomplished using a life-cycle assessment (LCA) approach.EIO-LCA (Economic Input-Output Life-Cycle Assessment) model

Santero, Nicholas

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Development of Science-Based Permitting Guidance for Geological Sequestration of CO2 in Deep Saline Aquifers Based on Modeling and Risk Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Underground carbon storage may become one of the solutions to address global warming. However, to have an impact, carbon storage must be done at a much larger scale than current CO{sub 2} injection operations for enhanced oil recovery. It must also include injection into saline aquifers. An important characteristic of CO{sub 2} is its strong buoyancy--storage must be guaranteed to be sufficiently permanent to satisfy the very reason that CO{sub 2} is injected. This long-term aspect (hundreds to thousands of years) is not currently captured in legislation, even if the U.S. has a relatively well-developed regulatory framework to handle carbon storage, especially in the operational short term. This report proposes a hierarchical approach to permitting in which the State/Federal Government is responsible for developing regional assessments, ranking potential sites (''General Permit'') and lessening the applicant's burden if the general area of the chosen site has been ranked more favorably. The general permit would involve determining in the regional sense structural (closed structures), stratigraphic (heterogeneity), and petrophysical (flow parameters such as residual saturation) controls on the long-term fate of geologically sequestered CO{sub 2}. The state-sponsored regional studies and the subsequent local study performed by the applicant will address the long-term risk of the particular site. It is felt that a performance-based approach rather than a prescriptive approach is the most appropriate framework in which to address public concerns. However, operational issues for each well (equivalent to the current underground injection control-UIC-program) could follow regulations currently in place. Area ranking will include an understanding of trapping modes. Capillary (due to residual saturation) and structural (due to local geological configuration) trappings are two of the four mechanisms (the other two are solubility and mineral trappings), which are the most relevant to the time scale of interest. The most likely pathways for leakage, if any, are wells and faults. We favor a defense-in-depth approach, in which storage permanence does not rely upon a primary seal only but assumes that any leak can be contained by geologic processes before impacting mineral resources, fresh ground water, or ground surface. We examined the Texas Gulf Coast as an example of an attractive target for carbon storage. Stacked sand-shale layers provide large potential storage volumes and defense-in-depth leakage protection. In the Texas Gulf Coast, the best way to achieve this goal is to establish the primary injection level below the total depth of most wells (>2,400 m-8,000 ft). In addition, most faults, particularly growth faults, present at the primary injection level do not reach the surface. A potential methodology, which includes an integrated approach comprising the whole chain of potential events from leakage from the primary site to atmospheric impacts, is also presented. It could be followed by the State/Federal Government, as well as by the operators.

Jean-Philippe Nicot; Renaud Bouroullec; Hugo Castellanos; Susan Hovorka; Srivatsan Lakshminarasimhan; Jeffrey Paine

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

359

Risk assessment in environmental management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This book is a straightforward exposition of US EPA-based procedures for the risk assessment and risk management of contaminated land, interwoven with discussions on some of the key fundamentals on the fate and transport of chemicals in the environment and the toxic action of environmental chemicals. The book is logically structured, commencing with a general overview of the principles of risk assessment and the interface with environmental legislation. There follows an introduction to environmental fate and transport, modeling, toxicology and uncertainty analysis, and a discussion of the elements of a risk assessment (site characterization, exposure analysis, toxic action and risk characterization), intake of a chemical with its environmental concentration and activity-related parameters such as inhalation rate and exposure time. The book concludes with a discussion on the derivation of risk-based action levels and remediation goals.

Asante-Duah, D.K.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper aims at conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes through the development of a literature-based framework of criteria to measure impact assessment effectiveness. Four categories of effectiveness were established: procedural, substantive, transactive and normative, each containing a number of criteria; no studies have previously brought together all four of these categories into such a comprehensive, criteria-based framework and undertaken systematic evaluation of practice. The criteria can be mapped within a cycle/or cycles of evaluation, based on the ‘logic model’, at the stages of input, process, output and outcome to enable the identification of connections between the criteria across the categories of effectiveness. This framework is considered to have potential application in measuring the effectiveness of many impact assessment processes, including strategic environmental assessment (SEA), environmental impact assessment (EIA), social impact assessment (SIA) and health impact assessment (HIA). -- Highlights: • Conceptualising effectiveness of impact assessment processes. • Identification of factors influencing effectiveness of impact assessment processes. • Development of criteria within a framework for evaluating IA effectiveness. • Applying the logic model to examine connections between effectiveness criteria.

Chanchitpricha, Chaunjit, E-mail: chaunjit@g.sut.ac.th [School of Environmental Health, Suranaree University of Technology, 111 University Avenue, Maung District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand)] [School of Environmental Health, Suranaree University of Technology, 111 University Avenue, Maung District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Bond, Alan, E-mail: alan.bond@uea.ac.uk [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom) [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, Internal Box 375, North West University (Potchefstroom campus) (South Africa)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment model gcam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Assessing the impacts of climate change on natural resource systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume is a collection of papers addressing the theme of potential impacts of climatic change. Papers are entitled Integrated Assessments of the Impacts of Climatic Change on Natural Resources: An Introductory Editorial; Framework for Integrated Assessments of Global Warming Impacts; Modeling Land Use and Cover as Part of Global Environmental Change; Assessing Impacts of Climatic Change on Forests: The State of Biological Modeling; Integrating Climatic Change and Forests: Economic and Ecological Assessments; Environmental Change in Grasslands: Assessment using Models; Assessing the Socio-economic Impacts of Climatic Change on Grazinglands; Modeling the Effects of Climatic Change on Water Resources- A Review; Assessing the Socioeconomic Consequences of Climate Change on Water Resources; and Conclusions, Remaining Issues, and Next Steps.

Frederick, K.D.; Rosenberg, N.J. [eds.

1994-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

362

A Resilient Condition Assessment Monitoring System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An architecture and supporting methods are presented for the implementation of a resilient condition assessment monitoring system that can adaptively accommodate both cyber and physical anomalies to a monitored system under observation. In particular, the architecture includes three layers: information, assessment, and sensor selection. The information layer estimates probability distributions of process variables based on sensor measurements and assessments of the quality of sensor data. Based on these estimates, the assessment layer then employs probabilistic reasoning methods to assess the plant health. The sensor selection layer selects sensors so that assessments of the plant condition can be made within desired time periods. Resilient features of the developed system are then illustrated by simulations of a simplified power plant model, where a large portion of the sensors are under attack.

Humberto Garcia; Wen-Chiao Lin; Semyon M. Meerkov

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

automatic quality assessment: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Improvement Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Quality Assessment and Quality Improvement for UML Models Dissertation zur Erlangung des problems...

364

applications market assessment: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Meteorological models - Remote sensing Paciorek, Chris 83 Review Application of life cycle assessment to chemical processes CiteSeer Summary: The literature on the application...

365

Distributed road assessment system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

366

Integrated Environmental Assessment Part III: ExposureAssessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Human exposure assessment is a key step in estimating the environmental and public health burdens that result chemical emissions in the life cycle of an industrial product or service. This column presents the third in a series of overviews of the state of the art in integrated environmental assessment - earlier columns described emissions estimation (Frey and Small, 2003) and fate and transport modeling (Ramaswami, et al., 2004). When combined, these first two assessment elements provide estimates of ambient concentrations in the environment. Here we discuss how both models and measurements are used to translate ambient concentrations into metrics of human and ecological exposure, the necessary precursors to impact assessment. Exposure assessment is the process of measuring and/or modeling the magnitude, frequency and duration of contact between a potentially harmful agent and a target population, including the size and characteristics of that population (IPCS, 2001; Zartarian, et al., 2005). Ideally the exposure assessment process should characterize the sources, routes, pathways, and uncertainties in the assessment. Route of exposure refers to the way that an agent enters the receptor during an exposure event. Humans contact pollutants through three routes--inhalation, ingestion, and dermal uptake. Inhalation occurs in both outdoor environments and indoor environments where most people spend the majority of their time. Ingestion includes both water and food, as well as soil and dust uptake due to hand-to-mouth activity. Dermal uptake occurs through contacts with consumer products; indoor and outdoor surfaces; the water supply during washing or bathing; ambient surface waters during swimming or boating; soil during activities such as work, gardening, and play; and, to a lesser extent, from the air that surrounds us. An exposure pathway is the course that a pollutant takes from an ambient environmental medium (air, soil, water, biota, etc), to an exposure medium (indoor air, food, tap water, etc.) and to an exposed individual. Exposure scenarios are used to define plausible pathways for human contact. Recognition of the multiple pathways possible for exposure highlights the importance of a multimedia, multipathway exposure framework.

McKone, Thomas E.; Small, Mitchell J.

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

1 Copyright 2003 by ASME IMPROVING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT BY INCLUDING SPATIAL, DYNAMIC AND PLACE-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Drawing from the substantial body of literature on life cycle assessment / analysis (LCA), the article models is suggested as a means of improving the impact assessment phase of LCA. Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment, Life Cycle Analysis, Life Cycle Impact Assessment, LCA, Environmental Impact Assessment

368

Nuclear Nonproliferation Ontology Assessment Team Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Final Report for the NA22 Simulations, Algorithm and Modeling (SAM) Ontology Assessment Team's efforts from FY09-FY11. The Ontology Assessment Team began in May 2009 and concluded in September 2011. During this two-year time frame, the Ontology Assessment team had two objectives: (1) Assessing the utility of knowledge representation and semantic technologies for addressing nuclear nonproliferation challenges; and (2) Developing ontological support tools that would provide a framework for integrating across the Simulation, Algorithm and Modeling (SAM) program. The SAM Program was going through a large assessment and strategic planning effort during this time and as a result, the relative importance of these two objectives changed, altering the focus of the Ontology Assessment Team. In the end, the team conducted an assessment of the state of art, created an annotated bibliography, and developed a series of ontological support tools, demonstrations and presentations. A total of more than 35 individuals from 12 different research institutions participated in the Ontology Assessment Team. These included subject matter experts in several nuclear nonproliferation-related domains as well as experts in semantic technologies. Despite the diverse backgrounds and perspectives, the Ontology Assessment team functioned very well together and aspects could serve as a model for future inter-laboratory collaborations and working groups. While the team encountered several challenges and learned many lessons along the way, the Ontology Assessment effort was ultimately a success that led to several multi-lab research projects and opened up a new area of scientific exploration within the Office of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Verification.

Strasburg, Jana D.; Hohimer, Ryan E.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Writing Assessment: Additional Resources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

29 Appendix A Writing Assessment: Additional Resources #12;30 Where can I find out more into the assessment process. On-campus resources give you with a "real person" to contact should you have questions Resources for Higher Education Outcomes Assessment http://www2.acs.ncsu.edu/UPA/survey/resource.htm Ohio

Schweik, Charles M.

370

Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our findings and APICD Gen II subsystems for automated collection, deposition and detection of ambient particulate matter. Key findings from the APTA Program include: Ambient biological PM taxonomy; Demonstration of key subsystems needed for autonomous bioaerosol detection; System design; Efficient electrostatic collection; Automated bioagent recognition; Raman analysis performance validating Td<9 sec; Efficient collection surface regeneration; and Development of a quantitative bioaerosol defection model. The objective of the APTA program was to advance the state of our knowledge of ambient background PM composition. Operation of an automated aerosol detection system was enhanced by a more accurate assessment of background variability, especially for sensitive and specific sensing strategies like Raman detection that are background-limited in performance. Based on this improved knowledge of background, the overall threat detection performance of Raman sensors was improved.

Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

371

Scenarios of Global Municipal Water-Use Demand Projections over the 21st Century  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper establishes three future projections of global municipal water use to the end of the 21st century: A reference business-as usual (BAU) scenario, a High Technological Improvement (High Tech) scenario and a Low Technological Improvement (Low Tech) scenario. A global municipal water demand model is constructed using global water use statistics at the country-scale, calibrated to the base year of 2005, and simulated to the end of the 21st century. Since the constructed water demand model hinges on socioeconomic variables (population, income), water price, and end-use technology and efficiency improvement rates, projections of those input variables are adopted to characterize the uncertainty in future water demand estimates. The water demand model is linked to the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a global change integrated assessment model. Under the reference scenario, the global total water withdrawal increases from 466 km3/year in 2005 to 941 km3/year in 2100,while withdrawals in the high and low tech scenarios are 321 km3/ year and 2000 km3/ year, respectively. This wide range (321-2000 km3/ year) indicates the level of uncertainty associated with such projections. The simulated global municipal demand projections are most sensitive to population and income projections, then to end-use technology and efficiency projections, and finally to water price. Thus, using water price alone as a policy measure to reduce municipal water use may substantiate the share of municipal water price of people’s annual incomes.

Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Davies, Evan; Eom, Jiyong

2013-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

372

Management Assessment and Independent Assessment Guide  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The revision to this Guide reflects current assessment practices, international standards, and changes in the Department of Energy expectations. Cancels DOE G 414.1-1. Canceled by DOE G 414.1-1B.

2001-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

373

Assessing the assessments: Pharmaceuticals in the environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The relatively new issue of pharmaceutical contamination of the environment offers the opportunity to explore the application of values to the construction, communication and management of risk. The still-developing regulatory policies regarding environmental contamination with pharmaceuticals provide fertile ground for the introduction of values into the definition and management of risk. In this report, we summarize the current knowledge regarding pharmaceutical contamination of the environment and discuss specific attributes of pharmaceuticals that require special consideration. We then present an analysis showing that if values are incorporated into assessing, characterizing and managing risk, the results of risk assessments will more accurately reflect the needs of various stakeholders. Originating from an acknowledgement of the inherent uncertainty and value-laden nature of risk assessment, the precautionary principle (and later, the multi-criteria, integrated risk assessment), provides a direction for further research and policy development.

Enick, O.V. [Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada)], E-mail: oana.enick@gov.bc.ca; Moore, M.M. [Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada)], E-mail: mmoore@sfu.ca

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

374

Environmental Life-cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation: A Detailed Methodology for Energy, Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Pollutant Inventories of Automobiles, Buses, Light Rail, Heavy Rail and Air v.2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Life-cycle Assessment (LCA)..comprehensive life-cycle assessment (LCA) models to quantifyat each stage. Life-cycle Assessment (LCA) The vehicles,

Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

FOR ASSESSING ROOM ACOUSTICS Jasper van Dorp Schuitman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AUDITORY MODELLING FOR ASSESSING ROOM ACOUSTICS Jasper van Dorp Schuitman #12;Auditory modelling Promoties, in het openbaar te verdedigen op donderdag 15 september 2011 om 10:00 uur door Jasper VAN DORP

376

Home Energy Assessments  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

A home energy assessment, also known as a home energy audit, is the first step to assess how much energy your home consumes and to evaluate what measures you can take to make your home more energy efficient. An assessment will show you problems that may, when corrected, save you significant amounts of money over time. This video shows some of the ways that a contractor may test your home during an assessment, and helps you understand how an assessment can help you move toward energy savings. Find out more at: http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/energy_audits/index.cfm/mytopic=11160

Dispenza, Jason

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

377

Home Energy Assessments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A home energy assessment, also known as a home energy audit, is the first step to assess how much energy your home consumes and to evaluate what measures you can take to make your home more energy efficient. An assessment will show you problems that may, when corrected, save you significant amounts of money over time. This video shows some of the ways that a contractor may test your home during an assessment, and helps you understand how an assessment can help you move toward energy savings. Find out more at: http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/energy_audits/index.cfm/mytopic=11160

Dispenza, Jason

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessment network plan Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Robustness SCN Model Fin. Net. Model Conclusions Network EfficiencyPerformance Measurement Summary: Total Cost Index Environmental Impact Assessment Index 5 Supply Chain...

379

Assessment and Propagation of Model Uncertainty  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1982). Outlook for World Oil Prices. Washington DC: U. S.run. But, in view of the oil price example, which is worse—Case N-2524-RC, of Oil Prices. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.

David Draper

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Appendix MASS: Performance Assessment Modeling Assumptions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmes LaboratoryAntonyaAppeals4 STANDARD TERMSEIM

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment model gcam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment Capabilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment Capabilities in APEC Economies Energy ...................................................................................................................................4 Biomass Resource Assessment Products and Assessment Methodologies, Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources, Australia Ms. Siti Hafsah, Office of the Minister of Energy

382

Industrial Assessment Center  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Dayton (UD) performed energy assessments, trained students and supported USDOE objectives. In particular, the UD Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) performed 96 industrial energy assessment days for mid-sized manufacturers. The average identified and implemented savings on each assessment were $261,080 per year and $54,790 per year. The assessments served as direct training in industrial energy efficiency for 16 UD IAC students. The assessments also served as a mechanism for the UD IAC to understand manufacturing energy use and improve upon the science of manufacturing energy efficiency. Specific research results were published in 16 conference proceedings and journals, disseminated in 22 additional invited lectures, and shared with the industrial energy community through the UD IAC website.

J. Kelly Kissock; Becky Blust

2007-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

383

A. World Summit on Sustainable Development : A First Critical Assessment, here p. 1-3 B. Lecture at the University of Bonn, BIMUN/Bonn International Model United Nations,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A. World Summit on Sustainable Development : A First Critical Assessment, here p. 1-3 B. Lecture / NACHLESE World Summit on Sustainable Development: A First Critical Assessment By Prof. Dr. Uwe Holtz on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg was a failure, an opportunity wasted, the triumph of "hard" neo

Franz, Sven Oliver

384

NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT PRELIMINARY RESULTS In Support.................................................................................... 6 Chapter 2: Natural Gas Demand.................................................................................................. 10 Chapter 3: Natural Gas Supply

385

Hoisting & Rigging Assessment Form  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

  Assess the institutional and department/division hoisting and rigging (including forklift, overhead cranes small hoists, and mobile cranes) requirements, policies, procedures, and work practices...

386

TECHNOLOGY READINESS ASSESSMENT  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

DECEMBER 2012 Pathway for readying the next generation of affordable clean energy technology -Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) 2012 TECHNOLOGY READINESS ASSESSMENT...

387

Computable General Equilibrium Models for Sustainability Impact...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Screenshot References: Computable general equilibrium models1 Abstract "Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA) of economic, environmental, and social effects triggered by...

388

Training Needs Assessment Presentation  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The TNA PowerPoint Presentation is targeted for the training points of contacts whose organization's participate in the DOE training needs assessment (TNA). This presentation goes over how the training needs assessment (TNA) is done and the components of the TNA data collection tool.

389

INTERMOUNTAIN INDUSTRIAL ASSESSMENT CENTER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U. S. Department of Energy’s Intermountain Industrial Assessment Center (IIAC) at the University of Utah has been providing eligible small- and medium-sized manufacturers with no-cost plant assessments since 2001, offering cost-effective recommendations for improvements in the areas of energy efficiency, pollution prevention, and productivity improvement.

MELINDA KRAHENBUHL

2010-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

390

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Assessment during aggressive contests between  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In mutual assessment models, individuals assess their own resource holding potential (RHP) relativeAvailable online at www.sciencedirect.com Assessment during aggressive contests between male; final acceptance 28 January 2008; published online 30 June 2008; MS. number: A10907) Assessment

Lovejoy, Nathan

391

Preliminary melter performance assessment report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Melter Performance Assessment activity, a component of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL) Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) effort, was designed to determine the impact of noble metals on the operational life of the reference Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) melter. The melter performance assessment consisted of several activities, including a literature review of all work done with noble metals in glass, gradient furnace testing to study the behavior of noble metals during the melting process, research-scale and engineering-scale melter testing to evaluate effects of noble metals on melter operation, and computer modeling that used the experimental data to predict effects of noble metals on the full-scale melter. Feed used in these tests simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) feed. This report summarizes the results of the melter performance assessment and predicts the lifetime of the HWVP melter. It should be noted that this work was conducted before the recent Tri-Party Agreement changes, so the reference melter referred to here is the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter design.

Elliott, M.L.; Eyler, L.L.; Mahoney, L.A.; Cooper, M.F.; Whitney, L.D.; Shafer, P.J.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Environmental assessment of electricity scenarios with Life Cycle Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

been assessed with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies [1], [2], [3] and [4]. However environmentalEnvironmental assessment of electricity scenarios with Life Cycle Assessment Touria Larbi1 impacts assessment of scenarios is very rarely evaluated through a life cycle perspective partly because

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

393

River Protection Project information systems assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Information Systems Assessment Report documents the results from assessing the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Hanford Data Integrator 2000 (HANDI 2000) system, Business Management System (BMS) and Work Management System phases (WMS), with respect to the System Engineering Capability Assessment Model (CAM). The assessment was performed in accordance with the expectations stated in the fiscal year (FY) 1999 Performance Agreement 7.1.1, item (2) which reads, ''Provide an assessment report on the selected Integrated Information System by July 31, 1999.'' This report assesses the BMS and WMS as implemented and planned for the River Protection Project (RPP). The systems implementation is being performed under the PHMC HANDI 2000 information system project. The project began in FY 1998 with the BMS, proceeded in FY 1999 with the Master Equipment List portion of the WMS, and will continue the WMS implementation as funding provides. This report constitutes an interim quality assessment providing information necessary for planning RPP's information systems activities. To avoid confusion, HANDI 2000 will be used when referring to the entire system, encompassing both the BMS and WMS. A graphical depiction of the system is shown in Figure 2-1 of this report.

JOHNSON, A.L.

1999-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

394

Biomass Gasification Technology Assessment: Consolidated Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Harris Group Inc. (HGI) was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to assess gasification and tar reforming technologies. Specifically, the assessments focused on gasification and tar reforming technologies that are capable of producing a syngas suitable for further treatment and conversion to liquid fuels. HGI gathered sufficient information to analyze three gasification and tar reforming systems. This report summarizes the equipment, general arrangement of the equipment, operating characteristics, and operating severity for each technology. The order of magnitude capital cost estimates are supported by a basis-of-estimate write-up, which is also included in this report. The report also includes Microsoft Excel workbook models, which can be used to design and price the systems. The models can be used to analyze various operating capacities and pressures. Each model produces a material balance, equipment list, capital cost estimate, equipment drawings and preliminary general arrangement drawings. Example outputs of each model are included in the Appendices.

Worley, M.; Yale, J.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

An Analysis of Two Industrial Assessment Center Extended Assessments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Industrial Assessment Center at Texas A&M University extended assessments by spending about two extra days at each of three manufacturing plants. The extended assessments are characterized by use of sophisticated electronic monitoring equipment...

Farouz, H. E.; Gafford, G. D.; Eggebrecht, J. A.; Heffington, W. M.

396

COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF MATERIAL PERFORMANCE IN DEMO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for sufficient time. Reliable estimates of component lifetimes are an important part of power plant design The basic DEMO design used in the present study is a 1.8 GW device (2.2 GW total thermal power ­ including simulation models and capabilities to assess material performance under the neutron irradiation conditions

397

Towards sustainability assessment follow-up  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper conceptualises what sustainability assessment follow-up might entail for three models of sustainability assessment: EIA-driven integrated assessment, objectives-led integrated assessment and the contribution to sustainability model. The first two are characterised by proponent monitoring and evaluation of individual impacts and indicators while the latter takes a holistic view based around focused sustainability criteria relevant to the context. The implications of three sustainability challenges on follow-up are also examined: contested time horizons and value changes, trade-offs, and interdisciplinarity. We conclude that in order to meet these challenges some form of adaptive follow-up is necessary and that the contribution to sustainability approach is the best approach. -- Highlights: • We explore sustainability follow-up for three different sustainability models. • Long-time frames require adaptive follow-up and are a key follow-up challenge. • Other key challenges include interdisciplinarity, and trade-offs. • Sustainability follow-up should be a direction of travel and not an outcome. • Only the follow-up for contribution to sustainability model addresses sustainability challenges sufficiently.

Morrison-Saunders, Angus, E-mail: a.morrison-saunders@murdoch.edu.au [Murdoch University (Australia) [Murdoch University (Australia); North-West University (South Africa); Pope, Jenny, E-mail: jenny@integral-sustainability.net [North-West University (South Africa) [North-West University (South Africa); Integral Sustainability (Australia) [Australia; Curtin University (Australia); Bond, Alan, E-mail: alan.bond@uea.ac.uk [North-West University (South Africa) [North-West University (South Africa); University of East Anglia (United Kingdom); Retief, Francois, E-mail: francois.retief@nwu.ac.za [North-West University (South Africa)] [North-West University (South Africa)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

398

Technology Readiness Assessment Guide  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The Guide assists individuals and teams involved in conducting Technology Readiness Assessments (TRAs) and developing Technology Maturation Plans (TMPs) for the DOE capital asset projects subject to DOE O 413.3B. Cancels DOE G 413.3-4.

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

399

Environmental Assessment of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental Assessment of Geologic Storage of CO2 December 2003 REVISED: March 2004 MIT LFEE 2003........................................................................................ 23 4.4 CO2 Pipeline Transportation........................................................................................ 16 4.2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR

400

DOEEA-1203 Environmental Assessment  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Radi o l ogi cal Control Manual low-level b u r i a l grounds 1 ow- 1 eve1 m i xed waste low-level waste National Environmental Policy Act o f 1969 performance assessment Resource...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment model gcam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Assessing Renewable Energy Options  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Federal agencies should assess renewable energy options for each specific project when integrating renewable energy in new building construction or major renovations. This section covers the preliminary screening, screening, feasibility study, and sizing and designing systems phases.

402

assessment ioa assessment: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Websites Summary: technology analysis Noon Lunch 1:15 California off-shore wind technology assessment 1:45 Technical assessmentRESEARCH RESULTS FORUM FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY...

403

Colorado Statewide Forest Resource Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Colorado Statewide Forest Resource Assessment A Foundation for Strategic Discussion and Private Forestry Redesign Initiative 2 National Guidance for Statewide Forest Resource Assessments 4 The Colorado Statewide Resource Assessment and all appendices are available online on the Colorado State Forest

404

Communicating Performance Assessments Results - 13609  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The F-Area Tank Farms (FTF) and H-Area Tank Farm (HTF) are owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by Savannah River Remediation LLC (SRR), Liquid Waste Operations contractor at DOE's Savannah River Site (SRS). The FTF and HTF are active radioactive waste storage and treatment facilities consisting of 51 carbon steel waste tanks and ancillary equipment such as transfer lines, evaporators and pump tanks. Performance Assessments (PAs) for each Tank Farm have been prepared to support the eventual closure of the underground radioactive waste tanks and ancillary equipment. PAs provide the technical bases and results to be used in subsequent documents to demonstrate compliance with the pertinent requirements for final closure of the Tank Farms. The Tank Farms are subject to a number of regulatory requirements. The State regulates Tank Farm operations through an industrial waste water permit and through a Federal Facility Agreement approved by the State, DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Closure documentation will include State-approved Tank Farm Closure Plans and tank-specific closure modules utilizing information from the PAs. For this reason, the State of South Carolina and the EPA must be involved in the performance assessment review process. The residual material remaining after tank cleaning is also subject to reclassification prior to closure via a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005. PAs are performance-based, risk-informed analyses of the fate and transport of FTF and HTF residual wastes following final closure of the Tank Farms. Since the PAs serve as the primary risk assessment tools in evaluating readiness for closure, it is vital that PA conclusions be communicated effectively. In the course of developing the FTF and HTF PAs, several lessons learned have emerged regarding communicating PA results. When communicating PA results it is important to stress that the primary goal of the PA results is to provide risk understanding, recognizing the magnitude of risk and identifying the conceptual model decisions and critical assumptions that most impact the results. Conceptual models that describe reality using simplified, mathematical approaches, and their roles in arriving at the PA results, must also be communicated. When presenting PA results, evaluations will typically be focused on a single baseline (or Base Case) to provide a foundation for discussion. The PA results are supplemented by other studies (alternate configurations, uncertainty analyses, and sensitivity analyses) which provide a breadth of modeling to supplement the Base Case. The suite of information offered by the various modeling cases and studies provides confidence that the overall risk is understood along with the underlying parameters and conditions that contribute to risk. (author)

Layton, Mark [Savannah River Remediation LLC, Building 705-1C, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Remediation LLC, Building 705-1C, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

A unified point process probabilistic framework to assess heartbeat dynamics and autonomic cardiovascular control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In recent years, time-varying inhomogeneous point process models have been introduced for assessment of instantaneous heartbeat dynamics as well as specific cardiovascular control mechanisms and hemodynamics. Assessment ...

Chen, Zhe

406

National Geothermal Resource Assessment and Classification |...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Geothermal Resource Assessment and Classification National Geothermal Resource Assessment and Classification National Geothermal Resource Assessment and Classification presentation...

407

Cognitive-Developmental Assessments 1 Designing Cognitive-Developmental Assessments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cognitive-Developmental Assessments 1 Designing Cognitive-Developmental Assessments: A Case Study or quote without permission of the authors. #12;Cognitive-Developmental Assessments 2 Designing Cognitive in designing this assessment system is establishing a cognitive-developmental map in which age

Junker, Brian

408

Image Utility Assessment and a Relationship with Image Quality Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Image Utility Assessment and a Relationship with Image Quality Assessment David M. Rouse , Romuald information to humans, and this paper investigates the utility assessment task, where human observers evaluate the usefulness of a natural image as a surrogate for a reference. Current QA algorithms implicitly assess utility

Hemami, Sheila S.

409

Farm Assessment for Water Resource Protection Field Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Farm Assessment for Water Resource Protection WQ-42 Field Assessment for Water Resource Protection Extension Service · West Lafayette, IN 47907 Introduction The Field Assessment for Water Resource Protection management practices. You decide what actions to take. Field Assessment for Water Resource Protection

Holland, Jeffrey

410

Model Fire Protection Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

To facilitate conformance with its fire safety directives and the implementation of a comprehensive fire protection program, DOE has developed a number of "model" program documents. These include a comprehensive model fire protection program, model fire hazards analyses and assessments, fire protection system inspection and testing procedures, and related material.

411

Multi-hazard Reliability Assessment of Offshore Wind Turbines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A probabilistic framework is developed to assess the structural reliability of offshore wind turbines. Probabilistic models are developed to predict the deformation, shear force and bending moment demands on the support structure of wind turbines...

Mardfekri Rastehkenari, Maryam 1981-

2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

412

Power System Online Stability Assessment using Synchrophasor Data Mining  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Traditional power system stability assessment based on full model computation shows its drawbacks in real-time applications where fast variations are present at both demand side and supply side. This work presents the use of data mining techniques...

Zheng, Ce

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

413

An efficient Bayesian approach to history matching and uncertainty assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conditioning reservoir models to production data and assessment of uncertainty can be done by Bayesian theorem. This inverse problem can be computationally intensive, generally requiring orders of magnitude more computation time compared...

Yuan, Chengwu

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

414

Transportation barriers to health care: assessing the Texas Medicaid program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

interviewing based survey was administered to Medicaid recipients selected from a representative sample through a stratified sampling scheme. Binary logistic regression models were used to assess and predict factors associated with utilization of the Texas...

Borders, Stephen Boyce

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

415

Integrated assessment of quality of supply in future electricity networks   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Although power system reliability analysis is a mature research area, there is a renewed interest in updating available network models and formulating improved reliability assessment procedures. The main driver of this ...

Hernando Gil, Ignacio

2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

416

Assessment of U.S. cap-and-trade proposals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis model is applied to an assessment of a set of cap-and-trade proposals being considered by the U.S. Congress in spring 2007. The bills specify emissions reductions to be ...

Paltsev, Sergey V.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Assessment of U.S. Cap-and-Trade Proposals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis model is applied to an assessment of a set of cap-and-trade proposals being considered by the U.S. Congress in spring 2007. The bills specify emissions reductions to be ...

Paltsev, Sergey

418

Life-cycle assessment of wastewater treatment plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents a general model for the carbon footprints analysis of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. In previous research, the issue of global warming is often related ...

Dong, Bo, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Windows technology assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This assessment estimates that energy loss through windows is approximately 15 percent of all the energy used for space heating and cooling in residential and commercial buildings in New York State. The rule of thumb for the nation as a whole is about 25 percent. The difference may reflect a traditional assumption of single-pane windows while this assessment analyzed installed window types in the region. Based on the often-quoted assumption, in the United States some 3.5 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of primary energy, costing some $20 billion, is annually consumed as a result of energy lost through windows. According to this assessment, in New York State, the energy lost due to heat loss through windows is approximately 80 trillion Btu at an annual cost of approximately $1 billion.

Baron, J.J.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Industrial Assessment Center  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since its inception, the University of Florida Industrial Assessment Center has successfully completed close to 400 energy assessments of small to medium manufacturing facilities in Florida, southern Georgia and southern Alabama. Through these efforts, recommendations were made that would result in savings of about $5 million per year, with an implementation rate of 20-25%. Approximately 80 engineering students have worked for the UF-IAC, at least 10 of whom went on to work in energy related fields after graduation. Additionally, through the popular course in Industrial Energy Management, many students have graduated from the University of Florida with a strong understanding and support of energy conservation methods.

Dr. Diane Schaub

2007-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment model gcam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

EA-1207: Final Environmental Assessment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Pit Disassembly and Conversion Demonstration Environmental Assessment and Research and Development Activities

422

University Assessment Contacts Academic Units  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.j.arp@oregonstate.edu 541-737-2331 Notes: Agricultural and Resource Economics Assessment Rep: Email: Phone: Penelope DiebelUniversity Assessment Contacts Academic Units COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES Assessment Rep.Capalbo@oregonstate.edu 541-737-5639 Notes: Agricultural Education and Agricultural Sciences Assessment Rep: Email: Phone

Escher, Christine

423

Environmental Life-cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation: A Detailed Methodology for Energy, Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Pollutant Inventories of Automobiles, Buses, Light Rail, Heavy Rail and Air  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Life-cycle Assessment (LCA)comprehensive life-cycle assessment (LCA) models to quantifyUCB-ITS-VWP-2007-7 Life-cycle Assessment (LCA) The vehicles,

Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Geothermal industry assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An assessment of the geothermal industry is presented, focusing on industry structure, corporate activities and strategies, and detailed analysis of the technological, economic, financial, and institutional issues important to government policy formulation. The study is based principally on confidential interviews with executives of 75 companies active in the field. (MHR)

Not Available

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Generating Resourcesg Assessment Methodology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fixed Cost (annual basis) Fuel Price Forecasts Natural gas, coal, oil Transmission, Integration Costs resource assessment informs the resource strategy R t d t h l i Resource types and technologies and information Review draft plan resource assumptions with the Power Committee/Council for approval to use

426

ESPA Deltas: Assessing Health,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

weather events and sea-level rise, coupled with population growth and urbanisation. The Project The ESPAEcosystems Livelihood Services Poverty Community ESPA Deltas: Assessing Health, Livelihoods www.espadeltas.net@EspaDeltas Who are the poor? Who are the key stakeholders and what are their roles

Sóbester, András

427

Final Draft ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the anticipated completion of the Constellation Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement in June 2008Final Draft ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE CONSTRUCTION, MODIFICATION, AND OPERATION OF THREE CENTER, FL 32899 February 2007 #12;THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK #12;FINAL DRAFT DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL

Waliser, Duane E.

428

Assessments A Training Manual  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for industrial clients has always been tied to the cost of energy resources. Beginning with the oil embargo the initial investment by the manufacturing concern now makes the full industrial assessment attractive, and indexing the final document took the better part of a year. This investment of time and effort has yielded

429

Graduate Assessment Strategies 1. Sample assessment plans are online at http://inside.mines.edu/Assessment-Resources. The  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graduate Assessment Strategies Resources: 1. Sample assessment plans are online at http://inside.mines.edu/Assessment-Resources. The graduate level assessment plans from OSU may be particularly helpful: http://oregonstate.edu/admin/aa/apaa/assessment/graduate-assessment/graduate- assessment-plans 2. A list of best practices is online at http://inside.mines.edu/UserFiles/File/Assessment

430

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessment system mepas Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sewage Sludge: Modeling to Assess Radiation Doses Developed... survey of radioactivity in sewage sludge across the United States. Concurrently, to ... Source: Yucca Mountain...

431

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessment integrated approaches Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

composite applications that automate and integrate... , 60 2009 Sofia Service Oriented Architecture of Assessment Model1 Adelina Aleksieva... the principles of Service...

432

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessment methods iii Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

conditions. The Trait is an abstract object used... , 60 2009 Sofia Service Oriented Architecture of Assessment Model1 ... Source: Borissova, Daniela - Institute of...

433

E-Print Network 3.0 - adaptation assessments conference Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

OF ENGINEERING CYBERNETICS AND ROBOTICS, 60 Summary: , 60 2009 Sofia Service Oriented Architecture of Assessment Model1 Adelina Aleksieva... demand for applications to be...

434

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessment concepts methods Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

conditions. The Trait is an abstract object used... , 60 2009 Sofia Service Oriented Architecture of Assessment Model1 Adelina Aleksieva... . Introduction A Service...

435

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessing biomechanical exposures Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

. Biomechanics of cortical and trabecular bone: implications for assessment of fracture risk 3. Modeling... BME 473 Applied Biomechanics Every Spring Semester 2004-2005...

436

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessing soil carbon Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of potential soil carbon change with an Integrated Assessment model... change on soil carbon sequestration Contact: Tris West, westto@ornl.gov, 865-574-7322 Field...

437

Wind Resource Assessment of Gujarat (India)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

India is one of the largest wind energy markets in the world. In 1986 Gujarat was the first Indian state to install a wind power project. In February 2013, the installed wind capacity in Gujarat was 3,093 MW. Due to the uncertainty around existing wind energy assessments in India, this analysis uses the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the wind at current hub heights for one year to provide more precise estimates of wind resources in Gujarat. The WRF model allows for accurate simulations of winds near the surface and at heights important for wind energy purposes. While previous resource assessments published wind power density, we focus on average wind speeds, which can be converted to wind power densities by the user with methods of their choice. The wind resource estimates in this study show regions with average annual wind speeds of more than 8 m/s.

Draxl, C.; Purkayastha, A.; Parker, Z.

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Scenarios of Future Socio-Economics, Energy, Land Use, and Radiative Forcing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter explores uncertainty in future scenarios of energy, land use, emissions and radiative forcing that span the range in the literature for radiative forcing, but also consider uncertainty in two other dimensions, challenges to mitigation and challenges to adaptation. We develop a set of six scenarios that we explore in detail including the underlying the context in which they are set, assumptions that drive the scenarios, the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), used to produce quantified implications for those assumptions, and results for the global energy and land-use systems as well as emissions, concentrations and radiative forcing. We also describe the history of scenario development and the present state of development of this branch of climate change research. We discuss the implications of alternative social, economic, demographic, and technology development possibilities, as well as potential stabilization regimes for the supply of and demand for energy, the choice of energy technologies, and prices of energy and agricultural commodities. Land use and land cover will also be discussed with the emphasis on the interaction between the demand for bioenergy and crops, crop yields, crop prices, and policy settings to limit greenhouse gas emissions.

Eom, Jiyong; Moss, Richard H.; Edmonds, James A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.; Kopp, Roberrt; Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick W.; Patel, Pralit L.; Thomson, Allison M.; Wise, Marshall A.; Zhou, Yuyu

2013-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

439

Bioenergy and the importance of land use policy in a carbon-constrained world  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Policies aimed at limiting anthropogenic climate change would result in significant transformations of the energy and land-use systems. However, increasing the demand for bioenergy could have a tremendous impact on land use, and can result in land clearing and deforestation. Wise et al. (2009a,b) analyzed an idealized policy to limit the indirect land use change emissions from bioenergy. The policy, while effective, would be difficult, if not impossible, to implement in the real world. In this paper, we consider several different land use policies that deviate from this first-best, using the Joint Global Change Research Institute’s Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). Specifically, these new frameworks are (1) a policy that focuses on just the above-ground or vegetative terrestrial carbon rather than the total carbon, (2) policies that focus exclusively on incentivizing and protecting forestland, and (3) policies that apply an economic penalty on the use of biomass as a proxy to limit indirect land use change emissions. For each policy, we examine its impact on land use, land-use change emissions, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, agricultural supply, and food prices.

Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Wise, Marshall A.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Composite heat damage assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of heat damage were determined on the residual mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of IM6/3501-6 laminates, and potential nondestructive techniques to detect and assess material heat damage were evaluated. About one thousand preconditioned specimens were exposed to elevated temperatures, then cooled to room temperature and tested in compression, flexure, interlaminar shear, shore-D hardness, weight loss, and change in thickness. Specimens experienced significant and irreversible reduction in their residual properties when exposed to temperatures exceeding the material upper service temperature of this material (350{degrees}F). The Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform and Laser-Pumped Fluorescence techniques were found to be capable of rapid, in-service, nondestructive detection and quantitation of heat damage in IM6/3501- 6. These techniques also have the potential applicability to detect and assess heat damage effects in other polymer matrix composites.

Janke, C.J.; Wachter, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Philpot, H.E. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Powell, G.L. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment model gcam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

PUREX facility hazards assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Operation of PUREX is the responsibility of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for PUREX. DOE Order 5500.3A requires an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification. In October of 1990, WHC was directed to place PUREX in standby. In December of 1992 the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management authorized the termination of PUREX and directed DOE-RL to proceed with shutdown planning and terminal clean out activities. Prior to this action, its mission was to reprocess irradiated fuels for the recovery of uranium and plutonium. The present mission is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration at the PUREX facility and to preserve that condition for 10 years. The ten year time frame represents the typical duration expended to define, authorize and initiate follow-on decommissioning and decontamination activities.

Sutton, L.N.

1994-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

442

Life cycle assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a technical, data-based and holistic approach to define and subsequently reduce the environmental burdens associated with a product, process, or activity by identifying and quantifying energy and material usage and waste discharges, assessing the impact of those wastes on the environment, and evaluating and implementing opportunities to effect environmental improvements. The assessment includes the entire life-cycle of the product, process or activity encompassing extraction and processing of raw materials, manufacturing, transportation and distribution, use/reuse, recycling and final disposal. LCA is a useful tool for evaluating the environmental consequences of a product, process, or activity, however, current applications of LCA have not been performed in consistent or easily understood ways. This inconsistency has caused increased criticism of LCA. The EPA recognized the need to develop an LCA framework which could be used to provide consistent use across the board. Also, additional research is needed to enhance the understanding about the steps in the performance of an LCA and its appropriate usage. This paper will present the research activities of the EPA leading toward the development of an acceptable method for conducting LCA`s. This research has resulted in the development of two guidance manuals. The first manual is intended to be a practical guide to conducting and interpreting the life-cycle inventory. A nine-step approach to performing a comprehensive inventory is presented along with the general issues to be addressed. The second manual addresses life-cycle design.

Curran, M.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

443

Waste minimization assessment procedure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Perry Nuclear Power Plant began developing a waste minimization plan early in 1991. In March of 1991 the plan was documented following a similar format to that described in the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. Initial implementation involved obtaining management's commitment to support a waste minimization effort. The primary assessment goal was to identify all hazardous waste streams and to evaluate those streams for minimization opportunities. As implementation of the plan proceeded, non-hazardous waste streams routinely generated in large volumes were also evaluated for minimization opportunities. The next step included collection of process and facility data which would be useful in helping the facility accomplish its assessment goals. This paper describes the resources that were used and which were most valuable in identifying both the hazardous and non-hazardous waste streams that existed on site. For each material identified as a waste stream, additional information regarding the materials use, manufacturer, EPA hazardous waste number and DOT hazard class was also gathered. Once waste streams were evaluated for potential source reduction, recycling, re-use, re-sale, or burning for heat recovery, with disposal as the last viable alternative.

Kellythorne, L.L. (Centerior Energy, Cleveland, OH (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Statistical assessment of Monte Carlo distributional tallies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Four tests are developed to assess the statistical reliability of distributional or mesh tallies. To this end, the relative variance density function is developed and its moments are studied using simplified, non-transport models. The statistical tests are performed upon the results of MCNP calculations of three different transport test problems and appear to show that the tests are appropriate indicators of global statistical quality.

Kiedrowski, Brian C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Solomon, Clell J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

445

Standards and Conformity Assessment Training  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Standards and Conformity Assessment Training Workshops for Government Agencies Fundamentals of Standards and Conformity Assessment Training for all levels of government NIST offers interactive workshops and seminars for federal, state, and local government agencies on the fundamentals of standards, conformity

446

Uncertainties in energy technology assessments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to make important contributions, energy technology assessments must be large, interdisciplinary projects, generally becoming very time consuming and expensive. This small project does not involve a large assessment, ...

Coate, David

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Dual Rater Competency Assessment FAQ  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The purpose of the dual rater competency assessment is to provide a clearer picture of the individual’s developmental needs by combining self-assessment and supervisory input. Together, these two...

448

DOE limited standard: Operations assessments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose of this standard is to provide DOE Field Element assessors with a guide for conducting operations assessments, and provide DOE Field Element managers with the criteria of the EM Operations Assessment Program. Sections 6.1 to 6.21 provide examples of how to assess specific areas; the general techniques of operations assessments (Section 5) may be applied to other areas of health and safety (e.g. fire protection, criticality safety, quality assurance, occupational safety, etc.).

NONE

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

ORISE: Radiological program assessment services  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Environmental monitoring programs Operational environments Decontamination and decommissioning projects Compliance assessments Radiological release programs ORISE is actively...

450

Fort Drum integrated resource assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Drum. This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company. It will identify and evaluate all electric and fossil fuel cost-effective energy projects; develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk's primary federal facilities, the FORSCOM Fort Drum facility located near Watertown, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Drum by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, central systems, and applicable losses.

Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Di Massa, F.V.; Keller, J.M.; Richman, E.E.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

The future of FRMAC assessment.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

FRMAC was born out of circumstances 25 years ago when 17 federal agencies descended on the states with good intention during the Three-Mile Island nuclear power plant incident. At that time it quickly became evident that a better way was needed to support state and local governments in their time of emergency and recovery process. FRMAC's single voice of Federal support coordinates the multiple agencies that respond to a radiological event. Over the years, FRMAC has exercised, evaluated, and honed its ability to quickly respond to the needs of our communities. As the times have changed, FRMAC has expanded its focus from nuclear power plant incidents, to threats of a terrorist radiological dispersal device (RDD), to the unthinkable - an Improvised nuclear device (IND). And just as having the right tools are part of any trade, FRMAC's tool set has and is evolving to meet contemporary challenges - not just to improve the time it takes to collect data and assess the situation, but to provide a quality and comprehensive product that supports a stressed decision maker, responsible for the protection of the public. Innovations in the movement of data and information have changed our everyday lives. So too, FRMAC is capitalizing on industry innovations to improve the flow of information: from the early predictive models, to streamlining the process of getting data out of the field; to improving the time it takes to get assessed products in to the hands of the decision makers. FRMAC is focusing on the future through the digital age of electronic data processing. Public protective action and dose avoidance is the challenge.

Laiche, Thomas P.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Griffiss AFB integrated resource assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Air Force Air Combat Command has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Griffiss Air Force Base (AFB). This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company (Niagara Mohawk). It will (1) identify and evaluate all electric cost-effective energy projects; (2) develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk's primary federal facilities, Griffiss AFB, an Air Combat Command facility located near Rome, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Electric Resource Assessment. The analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. The results include energy-use intensities for the facilities at Griffiss AFB by building type and electric energy end use. A complete electric energy consumption reconciliation is presented that accounts for the distribution of all major electric energy uses and losses among buildings, utilities, and central systems.

Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Keller, J.M.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

"" EPAT# Risk Assessments Environmental Impact  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"" EPAT# Risk Assessments Appendixes Environmental Impact Statement NESHAPS for Radionuclides for Hazardous Air Pollutants Risk Assessments Environmental Impact Statement for NESHAPS Radionuclides VOLUME 2 for Hazardous Air Pollutants EPA 520.1'1.-89-006,-2 Risk Assessments Environmental Impact Statement for NESHAPS

454

Assessment of Demand Response Resource  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessment of Demand Response Resource Potentials for PGE and Pacific Power Prepared for: Portland January 15, 2004 K:\\Projects\\2003-53 (PGE,PC) Assess Demand Response\\Report\\Revised Report_011504.doc #12;#12;quantec Assessment of Demand Response Resource Potentials for I-1 PGE and Pacific Power I. Introduction

455

Assessor Training NVLAP Assessment Forms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NVLAP Assessor Training NVLAP Assessment Forms #12;Assessor Training 2009: NVLAP Assessment Forms 2 Summary ·Test Method Review Summary ·ProgramSpecific Checklists Examples #12;Assessor Training 2009: NVLAP are completed · Assessor Names, Dates, Lab Code #12;Assessor Training 2009: NVLAP