Sample records for assessment combined power

  1. ITP Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power Market Assessment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Governor COMBINED HEAT AND POWER MARKET ASSESSMENT Prepared For: California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research Program Prepared By: ICF International,...

  2. Power combiner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Mobius; Ives, Robert Lawrence

    2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A power combiner for the combining of symmetric and asymmetric traveling wave energy comprises a feed waveguide having an input port and a launching port, a reflector for reflecting launched wave energy, and a final waveguide for the collection and transport of launched wave energy. The power combiner has a launching port for symmetrical waves which comprises a cylindrical section coaxial to the feed waveguide, and a launching port for asymmetric waves which comprises a sawtooth rotated about a central axis.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM"PREMIUM POWER" APPLICATIONS IN CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norwood, Zack; Lipman, Timothy; Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effectiveness of combined heat and power (CHP) systems for power interruption intolerant,"premium power," facilities is the focus of this study. Through three real-world case studies and economic cost minimization modeling, the economic and environmental performance of"premium power" CHP is analyzed. The results of the analysis for a brewery, data center, and hospital lead to some interesting conclusions about CHP limited to the specific CHP technologies installed at those sites. Firstly, facilities with high heating loads prove to be the most appropriate for CHP installations from a purely economic standpoint. Secondly, waste heat driven thermal cooling systems are only economically attractive if the technology for these chillers can increase above the current best system efficiency. Thirdly, if the reliability of CHP systems proves to be as high as diesel generators they could replace these generators at little or no additional cost if the thermal to electric (relative) load of those facilities was already high enough to economically justify a CHP system. Lastly, in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, the modeled CHP systems provide some degree of decreased emissions, estimated at approximately 10percent for the hospital, the application with the highest relative thermal load in this case

  4. Final Report: Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norwood, Zack; Lipman, Tim; Marnay, Chris; Kammen, Dan

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report analyzes the current economic and environmental performance of combined heat and power (CHP) systems in power interruption intolerant commercial facilities. Through a series of three case studies, key trade-offs are analyzed with regard to the provision of black-out ridethrough capability with the CHP systems and the resutling ability to avoid the need for at least some diesel backup generator capacity located at the case study sites. Each of the selected sites currently have a CHP or combined heating, cooling, and power (CCHP) system in addition to diesel backup generators. In all cases the CHP/CCHP system have a small fraction of the electrical capacity of the diesel generators. Although none of the selected sites currently have the ability to run the CHP systems as emergency backup power, all could be retrofitted to provide this blackout ride-through capability, and new CHP systems can be installed with this capability. The following three sites/systems were used for this analysis: (1) Sierra Nevada Brewery - Using 1MW of installed Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells operating on a combination of digestor gas (from the beer brewing process) and natural gas, this facility can produce electricty and heat for the brewery and attached bottling plant. The major thermal load on-site is to keep the brewing tanks at appropriate temperatures. (2) NetApp Data Center - Using 1.125 MW of Hess Microgen natural gas fired reciprocating engine-generators, with exhaust gas and jacket water heat recovery attached to over 300 tons of of adsorption chillers, this combined cooling and power system provides electricity and cooling to a data center with a 1,200 kW peak electrical load. (3) Kaiser Permanente Hayward Hospital - With 180kW of Tecogen natural gas fired reciprocating engine-generators this CHP system generates steam for space heating, and hot water for a city hospital. For all sites, similar assumptions are made about the economic and technological constraints of the power generation system. Using the Distributed Energy Resource Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we model three representative scenarios and find the optimal operation scheduling, yearly energy cost, and energy technology investments for each scenario below: Scenario 1 - Diesel generators and CHP/CCHP equipment as installed in the current facility. Scenario 1 represents a baseline forced investment in currently installed energy equipment. Scenario 2 - Existing CHP equipment installed with blackout ride-through capability to replace approximately the same capacity of diesel generators. In Scenario 2 the cost of the replaced diesel units is saved, however additional capital cost for the controls and switchgear for blackout ride-through capability is necessary. Scenario 3 - Fully optimized site analysis, allowing DER-CAM to specify the number of diesel and CHP/CCHP units (with blackout ride-through capability) that should be installed ignoring any constraints on backup generation. Scenario 3 allows DER-CAM to optimize scheduling and number of generation units from the currently available technologies at a particular site. The results of this analysis, using real data to model the optimal schedulding of hypothetical and actual CHP systems for a brewery, data center, and hospital, lead to some interesting conclusions. First, facilities with high heating loads will typically prove to be the most appropriate for CHP installation from a purely economic standpoint. Second, absorption/adsorption cooling systems may only be economically feasible if the technology for these chillers can increase above current best system efficiency. At a coefficient of performance (COP) of 0.8, for instance, an adsorption chiller paired with a natural gas generator with waste heat recovery at a facility with large cooling loads, like a data center, will cost no less on a yearly basis than purchasing electricity and natural gas directly from a utility. Third, at marginal additional cost, if the reliability of CHP systems proves to be at

  5. Life cycle assessment of a biomass gasification combined-cycle power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential environmental benefits from biomass power are numerous. However, biomass power may also have some negative effects on the environment. Although the environmental benefits and drawbacks of biomass power have been debated for some time, the total significance has not been assessed. This study serves to answer some of the questions most often raised in regard to biomass power: What are the net CO{sub 2} emissions? What is the energy balance of the integrated system? Which substances are emitted at the highest rates? What parts of the system are responsible for these emissions? To provide answers to these questions, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a hypothetical biomass power plant located in the Midwest United States was performed. LCA is an analytical tool for quantifying the emissions, resource consumption, and energy use, collectively known as environmental stressors, that are associated with converting a raw material to a final product. Performed in conjunction with a technoeconomic feasibility study, the total economic and environmental benefits and drawbacks of a process can be quantified. This study complements a technoeconomic analysis of the same process, reported in Craig and Mann (1996) and updated here. The process studied is based on the concept of power Generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) plant. Broadly speaking, the overall system consists of biomass production, its transportation to the power plant, electricity generation, and any upstream processes required for system operation. The biomass is assumed to be supplied to the plant as wood chips from a biomass plantation, which would produce energy crops in a manner similar to the way food and fiber crops are produced today. Transportation of the biomass and other materials is by both rail and truck. The IGCC plant is sized at 113 MW, and integrates an indirectly-heated gasifier with an industrial gas turbine and steam cycle. 63 refs., 34 figs., 32 tabs.

  6. Final Report: Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cooling and power system provides electricity and cooling to a data centercooling and power system provides electricity and cooling to a data centersystem with a high cooling load and no heating load (such as a data center)

  7. Final Report: Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Load Profile for a Typical Day in Each Month Electricity-only (week) Electricity-only (weekend) Heating (week) Heating (weekend) Power (Load Profile for a Typical Day in Each Month Electricity-only (week) Electricity-only (weekend) Cooling (week) Cooling (weekend) Power (Load Profile for a Typical Day in Each Month Electricity-only (week) Electricity-only (weekend) Heating (week) Heating (weekend) Power (

  8. ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM "PREMIUM POWER" APPLICATIONS IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling Heat and Power (CCHP) systems are being installed atand heating loads. These CCHP systems can also act as backupgenerators. In all cases the CCHP systems are rated at a

  9. Final Report: Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heating, cooling, and power (CCHP) system in addition toIn all cases the CHP/CCHP system have a small fraction of1 Diesel generators and CHP/CCHP equipment as installed in

  10. Combined Heat & Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    & Power (CHP) Michael Ellis Director AGL Energy Services Federal Utility Partnership Working Group May 7 - 8, 2014 Virginia Beach, VA "CHP is the most efficient way of generating...

  11. Combined Heat and Power

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1. FeedstockCLEANSprings Gets anColoring andCombined Heat

  12. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    opportunity fuel(s) for distributed energy resources and combined heat and power (DERCHP) applications, examine the DERCHP technologies that can use them, and assess the...

  13. Assessment of the Current Level of Automation in the Manufacture of Fuel Cell Systems for Combined Heat and Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulsh, M.; Wheeler, D.; Protopappas, P.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in supporting manufacturing research and development (R&D) for fuel cell systems in the 10-1,000 kilowatt (kW) power range relevant to stationary and distributed combined heat and power applications, with the intent to reduce manufacturing costs and increase production throughput. To assist in future decision-making, DOE requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide a baseline understanding of the current levels of adoption of automation in manufacturing processes and flow, as well as of continuous processes. NREL identified and visited or interviewed key manufacturers, universities, and laboratories relevant to the study using a standard questionnaire. The questionnaire covered the current level of vertical integration, the importance of quality control developments for automation, the current level of automation and source of automation design, critical balance of plant issues, potential for continuous cell manufacturing, key manufacturing steps or processes that would benefit from DOE support for manufacturing R&D, the potential for cell or stack design changes to support automation, and the relationship between production volume and decisions on automation.

  14. An integrated assessment of the energy savings and emissions-reduction potential of combined heat and power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaarsberg, T.M.; Elliott, R.N.; Spurr, M.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems, or cogeneration systems, generated electrical/mechanical and thermal energy simultaneously, recovering much of the energy normally lost in separate generation. This recovered energy can be used for heating or cooling purposes, eliminating the need for a separate boiler. Significant reductions in energy, criteria pollutants, and carbon emissions can be achieved from the improved efficiency of fuel use. Generating electricity on or near the point of use also avoids transmission and distribution losses and defers expansion of the electricity transmission grid. Several recent developments make dramatic expansion of CHP a cost-effective possibility over the next decade. First, advances in technologies such as combustion turbines, steam turbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells. and heat-recovery equipment have decreased the cost and improved the performance of CHP systems. Second, a significant portion of the nation's boiler stock will need to be replaced in the next decade, creating an opportunity to upgrade this equipment with clean and efficient CHP systems. Third, environmental policies, including addressing concerns about greenhouse gas emissions, have created pressures to find cleaner and more efficient means of using energy. Finally, electric power market restructuring is creating new opportunities for innovations in power generation and smaller-scale distributed systems such as CHP. The integrated analysis suggests that there is enormous potential for the installation of cost-effective CHP in the industrial, district energy, and buildings sectors. The projected additional capacity by 2010 is 73 GW with corresponding energy savings of 2.6 quadrillion Btus, carbon emissions reductions of 74 million metric tons, 1.4 million tons of avoided SO{sub 2} emissions, and 0.6 million tons of avoided NO{sub x} emissions. The authors estimate that this new CHP would require cumulative capital investments of roughly $47 billion over ten years.

  15. Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat & Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Information about the Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program and its Combined Heat and Power program.

  16. Midwest Region Combined Heat and Power Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships (CHP TAPs) have compiled a select number of combined heat and power (CHP) project profiles, which are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs. 

  17. Northwest Region Combined Heat and Power Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's Regional CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships (CHP TAPs) have compiled a select number of combined heat and power (CHP) project profiles, which are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs.

  18. Pacific Region Combined Heat and Power Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's Regional CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships (CHP TAPs) have compiled a select number of combined heat and power (CHP) project profiles, which are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs.

  19. Northeast Region Combined Heat and Power Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's Regional CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships (CHP TAPs) have compiled a select number of combined heat and power (CHP) project profiles, which are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs.

  20. Nuclear Power 2010 Program: Combined Construction and Operating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power 2010 Program: Combined Construction and Operating License & Design Certification Demonstration Projects Lessons Learned Report Nuclear Power 2010 Program: Combined...

  1. Wood Burning Combined Cycle Power Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Culley, J. W.; Bourgeois, H. S.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined cycle power plant utilizing wood waste products as a fuel has been designed. This plant will yield a 50% efficiency improvement compared to conventional wood-fueled steam power plants. The power plant features an externally-fired gas...

  2. The CO2 Reduction Potential of Combined Heat and Power in California's Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Darrow, K et al. (2009), “CHP Market Assessment” Integratedwith combined heat and power (CHP) capability deployment ingas emissions (GHG) reductions. CHP applications at large

  3. A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmoudi, Hossein, E-mail: mahmoudi@uni-hohenheim.de [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany) [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany); Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C. (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Renn, Ortwin [Department of Technology and Environmental Sociology (and DIALOGIK), University of Stuttgart (Germany)] [Department of Technology and Environmental Sociology (and DIALOGIK), University of Stuttgart (Germany); Vanclay, Frank [Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Hoffmann, Volker [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany)] [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany); Karami, Ezatollah [College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify the common features of social impact assessment (SIA) and social risk assessment (SRA), and discuss the merits of a combined approach. A hybrid model combining SIA and SRA to form a new approach called, ‘risk and social impact assessment’ (RSIA) is introduced. RSIA expands the capacity of SIA to evaluate and manage the social impacts of risky projects such as nuclear energy as well as natural hazards and disasters such as droughts and floods. We outline the three stages of RSIA, namely: impact identification, impact assessment, and impact management. -- Highlights: • A hybrid model to combine SIA and SRA namely RSIA is proposed. • RSIA can provide the proper mechanism to assess social impacts of natural hazards. • RSIA can play the role of ex-post as well as ex-ante assessment. • For some complicated and sensitive cases like nuclear energy, conducting a RSIA is necessary.

  4. Engine Driven Combined Heat and Power: Arrow Linen Supply, December...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Driven Combined Heat and Power: Arrow Linen Supply, December 2008 Engine Driven Combined Heat and Power: Arrow Linen Supply, December 2008 This paper describes the Arrow...

  5. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Integrated with Burners for Packaged...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers Providing Clean, Low-Cost,...

  6. Optimal combined wind power forecasts using exogeneous variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optimal combined wind power forecasts using exogeneous variables Fannar ¨Orn Thordarson Kongens of the thesis is combined wind power forecasts using informations from meteorological forecasts. Lyngby, January

  7. Combined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    Combined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine Steam Turbine Chiller Campus Heat Load Steam (recovered waste heat) Gas Turbine University Substation High Pressure Natural Gas Campus Electric Load Southern Generator Heat Recovery Alternative Uses: 1. Campus heating load 2. Steam turbine chiller to campus cooling

  8. Combined cycle power plant incorporating coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liljedahl, Gregory N. (Tariffville, CT); Moffat, Bruce K. (Simsbury, CT)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined cycle power plant incorporating a coal gasifier as the energy source. The gases leaving the coal gasifier pass through a liquid couplant heat exchanger before being used to drive a gas turbine. The exhaust gases of the gas turbine are used to generate both high pressure and low pressure steam for driving a steam turbine, before being exhausted to the atmosphere.

  9. Probabilistic Wind Resource Assessment and Power Predictions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Probabilistic Wind Resource Assessment and Power Predictions Luca Delle Monache (lucadm Accurate wind resource assessment and power forecasts and reliable quanXficaXon of their uncertainty Mo5va5on · Power forecast: o Increase wind energy penetra

  10. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentation by FuelCell Energy, June 2011 Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentation by FuelCell Energy, June...

  11. National CHP Roadmap: Doubling Combined Heat and Power Capacity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CHP Roadmap: Doubling Combined Heat and Power Capacity in the United States by 2010, March 2001 National CHP Roadmap: Doubling Combined Heat and Power Capacity in the United States...

  12. Alaska Gateway School District Adopts Combined Heat and Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alaska Gateway School District Adopts Combined Heat and Power Alaska Gateway School District Adopts Combined Heat and Power May 7, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis In Tok, Alaska, the...

  13. Combined Heat and Power Systems (CHP): Capabilities (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D&MT Capabilities fact sheet that describes the NREL capabilities related to combined heat and power (CHP).

  14. assessing combined effects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Duane E. 3 Commissioning Residential Ventilation Systems: A Combined Assessment of Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: to assess the impact on occupant...

  15. Lossless multi-way power combining and outphasing for radio frequency power amplifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jurkov, Alexander S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For applications requiring the use of power amplifiers (PAs) operating at high frequencies and power levels, it is often preferable to construct multiple low power PAs and combine their output powers to form a high-power ...

  16. Model Predictive Control of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Wayne Bequette; Priyadarshi Mahapatra

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary project objectives were to understand how the process design of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant affects the dynamic operability and controllability of the process. Steady-state and dynamic simulation models were developed to predict the process behavior during typical transients that occur in plant operation. Advanced control strategies were developed to improve the ability of the process to follow changes in the power load demand, and to improve performance during transitions between power levels. Another objective of the proposed work was to educate graduate and undergraduate students in the application of process systems and control to coal technology. Educational materials were developed for use in engineering courses to further broaden this exposure to many students. ASPENTECH software was used to perform steady-state and dynamic simulations of an IGCC power plant. Linear systems analysis techniques were used to assess the steady-state and dynamic operability of the power plant under various plant operating conditions. Model predictive control (MPC) strategies were developed to improve the dynamic operation of the power plants. MATLAB and SIMULINK software were used for systems analysis and control system design, and the SIMULINK functionality in ASPEN DYNAMICS was used to test the control strategies on the simulated process. Project funds were used to support a Ph.D. student to receive education and training in coal technology and the application of modeling and simulation techniques.

  17. HVDC power transmission technology assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauth, R.L.; Tatro, P.J.; Railing, B.D. [New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (United States); Johnson, B.K.; Stewart, J.R. [Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States); Fink, J.L.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment of the national utility system`s needs for electric transmission during the period 1995-2020 that could be met by future reduced-cost HVDC systems. The assessment was to include an economic evaluation of HVDC as a means for meeting those needs as well as a comparison with competing technologies such as ac transmission with and without Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers. The role of force commutated dc converters was to be assumed where appropriate. The assessment begins by identifying the general needs for transmission in the U.S. in the context of a future deregulated power industry. The possible roles for direct current transmission are then postulated in terms of representative scenarios. A few of the scenarios are illustrated with the help of actual U.S. system examples. non-traditional applications as well as traditional applications such as long lines and asynchronous interconnections are discussed. The classical ``break-even distance`` concept for comparing HVDC and ac lines is used to assess the selected scenarios. The impact of reduced-cost converters is reflected in terms of the break-even distance. This report presents a comprehensive review of the functional benefits of HVDC transmission and updated cost data for both ac and dc system components. It also provides some provocative thoughts on how direct current transmission might be applied to better utilize and expand our nation`s increasingly stressed transmission assets.

  18. Combined Pollution Prevention Assessments 98-MP13B.02

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Combined Pollution Prevention Assessments 98-MP13B.02 Harry W. Edwards Department of Mechanical-97 Colorado State University Industrial Assessment Center (CSU IAC) combined pollution prevention assessments, pollution prevention, and productivity improvement. The total number of assessment recommendations is 176

  19. GUIDELINES FOR CERTIFICATION OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION GUIDELINES FOR CERTIFICATION OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEMS for Certification of Combined Heat and Power Systems Pursuant to the Waste Heat and Carbon Emissions Reduction Act Heat and Power System Pursuant to the Waste Heat and Carbon Emissions Reduction Act, Public Utilities

  20. Characterization of the Solar Power Resource in Europe and Assessing Benefits of Co-Location with Wind Power Installations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bozonnat, C.

    The extent, availability and reliability of solar power generation are assessed over Europe, and—following a previously developed methodology—special attention is given to the intermittency of solar power. Combined with ...

  1. Understanding Emissions from Combined Heat and Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shipley, A. M.; Greene, N.; Carter, S.; Elliott, R. N.

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is more energy efficient than separate generation of electricity and thermal energy. In CHP, heat that is normally wasted in conventional power generation is recovered as useful energy for satisfying an existing thermal...

  2. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    goals chpaccomplishmentsbooklet.pdf More Documents & Publications High Efficiency Microturbine with Integral Heat Recovery - Fact Sheet, 2014 Combined Heat and Power - A Decade...

  3. Mid-Atlantic Region Combined Heat and Power Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships (CHP TAPs) have compiled a select number of combined heat and power (CHP) project profiles, which are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs.

  4. Combined Heat and Power with Your Local Utility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Fall 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—covers combined heat and power (CHP) and its uses, configurations, considerations, and more.

  5. Southwest Gas Corporation- Combined Heat and Power Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Southwest Gas Corporation (SWG) offers incentives to qualifying commercial and industrial facilities who install efficient Combined Heat and Power systems (CHP). CHP systems produce localized, on...

  6. The Market and Technical Potential for Combined Heat and Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Administration in determining the potential for cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) in the commercialinstitutional market. As part of this effort, in this report, OSEC...

  7. Combined Heat and Power (CHP): Essential for a Cost Effective...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for a Cost Effective Clean Energy Standard, April 2011 Combined Heat and Power (CHP): Essential for a Cost Effective Clean Energy Standard, April 2011 In March 2011, a...

  8. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Resource Guide for Hospital Applications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resource Guide for Hospital Applications, 2007 Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Resource Guide for Hospital Applications, 2007 The objective of this 2007 guidebook is to provide a...

  9. Guide to Using Combined Heat and Power for Enhancing Reliability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    after Hurricane Sandy, combined heat and power (CHP) enabled a number of critical infrastructure and other facilities to continue their operations when the electric grid went...

  10. Energy Department Actions to Deploy Combined Heat and Power,...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Department Actions to Deploy Combined Heat and Power, Boost Industrial Efficiency Wind Farm Brings Clean, Affordable Energy to Alaskan Cooperative U.S. Department of Energy...

  11. Combined Heat and Power, Waste Heat, and District Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Fall 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—covers combined heat and power (CHP) technologies and their applications.

  12. Combined Heat & Power Technology Overview and Federal Sector...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    electricity) from a single fuelenergy source Defining Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Steam Electricity Fuel Prime Mover & Generator Heat Recovery Steam Boiler Conventional CHP...

  13. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    combined heat and power systems. ASME Conference Proceedingsfor combined heat and power applications. ASME ConferenceRankine combined heat and power technology. ASME Conference

  14. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Technology Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    sector - Directed toward 1 - 10 MW systems including combined modes, e.g. solid oxide fuel cell plus turbine. Materials development and characterization Investigating...

  15. Combined Heat and Power Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CHP technologies are eligible for either a grant, loan or power purchase incentive under the initial round of solicitations for new renewable energy generating equipment  up to five megawatts at ...

  16. Combined Heat and Power Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CHP technologies are eligible for either a grant, loan or power purchase incentive under the initial round of solicitations for new renewable energy generating equipment  up to five megawatts at ...

  17. Combined Thermal and Power Energy Management Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahner, D. J.; Priestley, R. R.

    have heat recovery steam generators, one supplementary fired delivering power and process steam to the plant electrical and steam header distribution systems. The optimum dispatch of these gas turbine units under specified power and steam load... value. The dispatch of the units is determined by their relative incremental efficiency in delivering steam to the process header which results in the optimum dispatch condition of equal incremental heat recovery efficiencies. The equal incremental...

  18. CONSULTANT REPORT COMBINED HEAT AND POWER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and power to the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases as required by the California Global Warming Neff Project Manager Ivin Rhyne Office Manager Electricity Analysis Office Sylvia Bender Deputy Director Electricity Supply Analysis Division Robert Oglesby Executive Director DISCLAIMER This report

  19. ASSESSING POWER PLANT COOLING WATER INTAKE SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ASSESSING POWER PLANT COOLING WATER INTAKE SYSTEM ENTRAINMENT IMPACTS Prepared For: California be obvious that large studies like these require the coordinated work of many people. We would first like from the Duke Energy South Bay and Morro Bay power plants and the PG&E Diablo Canyon Power Plant

  20. Pacific Northwest Power Supply Adequacy Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Based on an assessment prepared by the Resource Adequacy Forum, the plan noted that relying only that this assessment is not a substitute for a comprehensive resource acquisition plan. The optimal amount and mixPacific Northwest Power Supply Adequacy Assessment for 2017 Final Report November 21, 2012 Council

  1. combined heat power | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron4 Self-Scrubbing:,, , ., ..., ,+ . :,2013 NETL CO2Development ofCombined

  2. Assessment of a satellite power system and six alternative technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolsko, T.; Whitfield, R.; Samsa, M.; Habegger, L.S.; Levine, E.; Tanzman, E.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The satellite power system is assessed in comparison to six alternative technologies. The alternatives are: central-station terrestrial photovoltaic systems, conventional coal-fired power plants, coal-gasification/combined-cycle power plants, light water reactor power plants, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors, and fusion. The comparison is made regarding issues of cost and performance, health and safety, environmental effects, resources, socio-economic factors, and insitutional issues. The criteria for selecting the issues and the alternative technologies are given, and the methodology of the comparison is discussed. Brief descriptions of each of the technologies considered are included. (LEW)

  3. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power Systemcombined heat and power systems . . . . . . . Verificationmyth eight – worldwide power systems are economically and

  4. Using a Balun Transformer Combiner for High Power Microwave Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaufman, Michael C [ORNL; Pesavento, Philip V [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel coaxial power combiner design has been duplicated that has distinct advantages over other combiner geometries that can handle high power. This design is being applied to combine four 3 kW power supplies to obtain a 10 kW, 5 MHz system for an ICRF antenna on HSX. In the past, Wilkinson type combiners have had limited application to high power systems because of the lack of non-inductive, high power, 100 Omega balance loads. With this new design, standard 50 Omega dummy loads can be used instead for the balance load. The cost is considerably lower than lumped element combiner designs which are dominated by capacitor costs. At such a relatively low frequency, a 3-dB quarter-wave coupled-line coupler becomes impractically long, and a conventional branch-line hybrid requires 35 Omega-line, which is commercially unavailable. The balun combiner uses less transmission line than a ring hybrid and has good bandwidth characteristics even away from its best line impedance. Theoretical calculations and modeling were performed for line impedances from 65 Omega to 75 Omega. Measurements from a low-power test device show excellent agreement with theory, and construction of the high power system is underway.

  5. Corrosion Investigations at Masned Combined Heat and Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corrosion Investigations at Masnedø Combined Heat and Power Plant Part VI Melanie Montgomery Company Ole Hede Larsen Elsam ­ Fynsværket Fælleskemikerne February 2001. #12;CORROSION INVESTIGATIONS.................................................................................................. 16 3.1. Measured corrosion attack

  6. A Ranking of State Combined Heat and Power Policies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chittum, A.; Kaufman, N.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) has been identified as a significant opportunity for greater energy efficiency and decreased environmental impacts of energy consumption. Despite this, the regulatory and policy landscape for CHP is often quite...

  7. Broadband High Power Amplifier using Spatial Power Combining Pengcheng Jia 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and low noise are among the most important features in amplifier design. Broadband spatial power combining the heat sinking in high power application. A high power amplifier using the compact combiner design maintaining good linearity and improving phase noise of the MMIC amplifiers. Coaxial waveguide was used

  8. Environmental Assessment for power marketing policy for Southwestern Power Administration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) needs to renew expiring power sales contracts with new term (10 year) sales contracts. The existing contracts have been in place for several years and many will expire over the next ten years. Southwestern completed an Environmental Assessment on the existing power allocation in June, 1979 (a copy of the EA is attached), and there are no proposed additions of any major new generation resources, service to discrete major new loads, or major changes in operating parameters, beyond those included in the existing power allocation. Impacts from a no action plan, proposed alternative, and market power for less than 10 years are described.

  9. GPGPUs: How to Combine High Computational Power with High Reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurumurthi, Sudhanva

    recent results derived from radiation experiments about the reliability of GPGPUs. Third, it describes of applications running on GPGPUs. Keywords--GPGPUs, reliability, HPC, fault injection, radiation experiments I their appearance on the market. Their very high computational power combined with low cost, reduced power

  10. CHP: It's Time for Combined Heat and Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herweck, R.

    of use Electricity Electricity Heat Heat Combined Heat and Power Conventional Generation Building Load Power Plant fuel (66 units of remote energy) Boiler fuel (34 units of on-site energy) CHP fuel (x units of on-site energy) Losses Losses 20 29 20... to 90% CHP DE can cut fuel consumption per unit of output to half or a third of conventional usage… especially natural gas supplies now in heavy demand Economic Development: Combined Heat and Power #0;9 Reduces the cost of new electricity T...

  11. A new power combining and outphasing modulation system for high-efficiency power amplification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, David J.

    This paper describes a new power combining and outphasing system that provides both high efficiency and linear output control. Whereas conventional outphasing systems utilize two power amplifiers, the system introduced ...

  12. A New Power Combining and Outphasing Modulation System for High-Efficiency Power Amplification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, David J.

    This paper describes a new power combining and outphasing system that provides both high efficiency and linear output control. Whereas conventional outphasing systems utilize two power amplifiers, the system introduced ...

  13. Commissioning Residential Ventilation Systems: A Combined Assessment of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Commissioning Residential Ventilation Systems: A Combined Assessment of Energy and Air Quality ventilation systems are being installed in new California homes. Few measurements are available of commissioning residential whole- house ventilation systems that are intended to comply

  14. Offshore Wind Power Farm Environmental Impact Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horns Rev Offshore Wind Power Farm Environmental Impact Assessment on Water Quality #12;Prepared with a planned 150 MW offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, an assessment was made of the effects the wind farm would for the preparation of EIA studies for offshore wind farms." Horns Rev is situated off Blåvands Huk, which is Denmark

  15. Structural Vulnerability Assessment of Electric Power Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koç, Yakup; Kooij, Robert E; Brazier, Frances M T

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cascading failures are the typical reasons of black- outs in power grids. The grid topology plays an important role in determining the dynamics of cascading failures in power grids. Measures for vulnerability analysis are crucial to assure a higher level of robustness of power grids. Metrics from Complex Networks are widely used to investigate the grid vulnerability. Yet, these purely topological metrics fail to capture the real behaviour of power grids. This paper proposes a metric, the effective graph resistance, as a vulnerability measure to de- termine the critical components in a power grid. Differently than the existing purely topological measures, the effective graph resistance accounts for the electrical properties of power grids such as power flow allocation according to Kirchoff laws. To demonstrate the applicability of the effective graph resistance, a quantitative vulnerability assessment of the IEEE 118 buses power system is performed. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the effect...

  16. Exxon Chemical's Coal-Fired Combined Cycle Power Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guide, J. J.

    EXXON CHEMICAL'S COAL-FIRED COMBINED CYCLE POWER TECHNOLOGY John J. Guide, P.E. Exxon Chemical Company Florham Park, New Jersey ABSTRACT Exxon Chemical's Central Engineering Divi sion has recently developed and patented CAT...-PAC for Industrial Cogeneration and Utility Power Plants. It involves the marriage of a conven tional direct pulverized coal-fired boiler radiant section with a convection section adapted ~rom our furnace experience. In particular, it 1S an open-cycle, hot air...

  17. Hybrid solar central receiver for combined cycle power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Bohn, Mark S. (Golden, CO); Williams, Thomas A. (Arvada, CO)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid combined cycle power plant including a solar central receiver for receiving solar radiation and converting it to thermal energy. The power plant includes a molten salt heat transfer medium for transferring the thermal energy to an air heater. The air heater uses the thermal energy to preheat the air from the compressor of the gas cycle. The exhaust gases from the gas cycle are directed to a steam turbine for additional energy production.

  18. Hybrid solar central receiver for combined cycle power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, D.; Bohn, M.S.; Williams, T.A.

    1995-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid combined cycle power plant is described including a solar central receiver for receiving solar radiation and converting it to thermal energy. The power plant includes a molten salt heat transfer medium for transferring the thermal energy to an air heater. The air heater uses the thermal energy to preheat the air from the compressor of the gas cycle. The exhaust gases from the gas cycle are directed to a steam turbine for additional energy production. 1 figure.

  19. Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    interruption intolerant commercial facilities in California.Through a series of three case studies, key trade-offs are analyzed with regard to the provision of black-out ride...

  20. Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is alwaysISOSource Heat 1PowerofSystems |AsApril 1,

  1. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power Systemfor Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Powerin parabolic trough solar power technology. Journal of Solar

  2. Encouraging Combined Heat and Power in California Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's research priorities include an additional 6.5 GW of combined heat and power (CHP) by 2030. As of 2009, roughly 0.25 GW of small natural gas and biogas fired CHP is documented by the Self-Generation Incentive on the development of 20 GW of renewable energy will influence the CHP adoption. Thus, an integrated optimization

  3. Corrosion Investigations at Masned Combined Heat and Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corrosion Investigations at Masnedø Combined Heat and Power Plant Part VII Melanie Montgomery Ole Hede Larsen Elsam ­ Fynsværket Fælleskemikerne December 2002. #12;CORROSION INVESTIGATIONS.................................................................................................... 6 3.1. Measured corrosion attack on the fireside

  4. Accepted Manuscript Carbon Footprint and emergy combination for Eco-Environmental assessment of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Accepted Manuscript Carbon Footprint and emergy combination for Eco- Environmental assessment Corre O, Feidt M, Carbon Footprint and emergy combination for Eco- Environmental assessment of cleaner ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT 1 CARBON FOOTPRINT AND EMERGY COMBINATION FOR ECO- ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF CLEANER

  5. Comparative Assessment of Coal-and Natural Gas-fired Power Plants under a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Comparative Assessment of Coal- and Natural Gas-fired Power Plants under a CO2 Emission Performance standard (EPS) for pulverized coal (PC) and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants; · Evaluate · Coal-fired Power Plant: Supercritical pulverized coal (SC PC) Illinois #6 Coal Capacity Factor 75

  6. Coherent beam combiner for a high power laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dane, C. Brent (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A phase conjugate laser mirror employing Brillouin-enhanced four wave mixing allows multiple independent laser apertures to be phase locked producing an array of diffraction-limited beams with no piston phase errors. The beam combiner has application in laser and optical systems requiring high average power, high pulse energy, and low beam divergence. A broad range of applications exist in laser systems for industrial processing, especially in the field of metal surface treatment and laser shot peening.

  7. FET active notch antennas for quasi-optical power combining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leverich, William Kent

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : Electrical Engineering FET ACTIVE NOTCH ANTENNAS FOR QUASI-OPTICAL POWER COMBINING A Thesis by WILLIAM KENT LEVERICH Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved... as to style and content by Kai Chang (Chair of Committee) g4;/Wgmu Mark H. Weichold (Member) Steven M. Wright Jianxin Zhou (Member) A D atton (Head of partment) August 1993 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering ABSTRACT FET Active Notch Antennas...

  8. Benefits of Combined Heat and Power | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergyDepartmentWind SitingVerificationCombined Heat & Power

  9. Cooling, Heating, and Power for Industry: A Market Assessment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industry: A Market Assessment, August 2003 Cooling, Heating, and Power for Industry: A Market Assessment, August 2003 Industrial applications of CHP have been around for decades,...

  10. INTEGRATED PYROLYSIS COMBINED CYCLE BIOMASS POWER SYSTEM CONCEPT DEFINITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Sandvig; Gary Walling; Robert C. Brown; Ryan Pletka; Desmond Radlein; Warren Johnson

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced power systems based on integrated gasification/combined cycles (IGCC) are often presented as a solution to the present shortcomings of biomass as fuel. Although IGCC has been technically demonstrated at full scale, it has not been adopted for commercial power generation. Part of the reason for this situation is the continuing low price for coal. However, another significant barrier to IGCC is the high level of integration of this technology: the gas output from the gasifier must be perfectly matched to the energy demand of the gas turbine cycle. We are developing an alternative to IGCC for biomass power: the integrated (fast) pyrolysis/ combined cycle (IPCC). In this system solid biomass is converted into liquid rather than gaseous fuel. This liquid fuel, called bio-oil, is a mixture of oxygenated organic compounds and water that serves as fuel for a gas turbine topping cycle. Waste heat from the gas turbine provides thermal energy to the steam turbine bottoming cycle. Advantages of the biomass-fueled IPCC system include: combined cycle efficiency exceeding 37 percent efficiency for a system as small as 7.6 MW{sub e}; absence of high pressure thermal reactors; decoupling of fuel processing and power generation; and opportunities for recovering value-added products from the bio-oil. This report provides a technical overview of the system including pyrolyzer design, fuel clean-up strategies, pyrolysate condenser design, opportunities for recovering pyrolysis byproducts, gas turbine cycle design, and Rankine steam cycle. The report also reviews the potential biomass fuel supply in Iowa, provide and economic analysis, and present a summery of benefits from the proposed system.

  11. Radiological Assessment of effects from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NNSA presentation on Radiological Assessment of effects from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant from May 13, 2011

  12. WORKING PARK-FUEL CELL COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allan Jones

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers the aims and objectives of the project which was to design, install and operate a fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) system in Woking Park, the first fuel cell CHP system in the United Kingdom. The report also covers the benefits that were expected to accrue from the work in an understanding of the full technology procurement process (including planning, design, installation, operation and maintenance), the economic and environmental performance in comparison with both conventional UK fuel supply and conventional CHP and the commercial viability of fuel cell CHP energy supply in the new deregulated energy markets.

  13. Standby Rates for Combined Heat and Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sedano, Richard [Regulatory Assistance Partnership; Selecky, James [Brubaker & Associates, Inc.; Iverson, Kathryn [Brubaker & Associates, Inc.; Al-Jabir, Ali [Brubaker & Associates, Inc.

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improvements in technology, low natural gas prices, and more flexible and positive attitudes in government and utilities are making distributed generation more viable. With more distributed generation, notably combined heat and power, comes an increase in the importance of standby rates, the cost of services utilities provide when customer generation is not operating or is insufficient to meet full load. This work looks at existing utility standby tariffs in five states. It uses these existing rates and terms to showcase practices that demonstrate a sound application of regulatory principles and ones that do not. The paper also addresses areas for improvement in standby rates.

  14. Combined Heat And Power Installation Market | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.png ElColumbia, North Carolina: EnergyCombined Heat And

  15. Combined heat and power (CHP or cogeneration) for saving energy and carbon in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaarsberg, T.; Fiskum, R.; Romm, J.; Rosenfeld, A.; Koomey, J.; Teagan, W.P.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems simultaneously deliver electric, thermal and mechanical energy services and thus use fuel very efficiently. Today's small-scale CHP systems already provide heat, cooling and electricity at nearly twice the fuel efficiency of heat and power based on power remote plants and onsite hot water and space heating. In this paper, the authors have refined and extended the assessments of small-scale building CHP previously done by the authors. They estimate the energy and carbon savings for existing small-scale CHP technology such as reciprocating engines and two promising new CHP technologies--microturbines and fuel cells--for commercial buildings. In 2010 the authors estimate that small-scale CHP will emit 14--65% less carbon than separate heat and power (SHP) depending on the technologies compared. They estimate that these technologies in commercial buildings could save nearly two-thirds of a quadrillion Btu's of energy and 23 million tonnes of carbon.

  16. Preliminary Estimates of Combined Heat and Power Greenhouse Gas Abatement Potential for California in 2020

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Ling, Frank; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007- CEC, 2007b “California Power Plants Database” http://power to California are a mix of high efficiency combined cycle plants

  17. Catalytic combustor for integrated gasification combined cycle power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bachovchin, Dennis M. (Mauldin, SC); Lippert, Thomas E. (Murrysville, PA)

    2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A gasification power plant 10 includes a compressor 32 producing a compressed air flow 36, an air separation unit 22 producing a nitrogen flow 44, a gasifier 14 producing a primary fuel flow 28 and a secondary fuel source 60 providing a secondary fuel flow 62 The plant also includes a catalytic combustor 12 combining the nitrogen flow and a combustor portion 38 of the compressed air flow to form a diluted air flow 39 and combining at least one of the primary fuel flow and secondary fuel flow and a mixer portion 78 of the diluted air flow to produce a combustible mixture 80. A catalytic element 64 of the combustor 12 separately receives the combustible mixture and a backside cooling portion 84 of the diluted air flow and allows the mixture and the heated flow to produce a hot combustion gas 46 provided to a turbine 48. When fueled with the secondary fuel flow, nitrogen is not combined with the combustor portion.

  18. Effects of a shortened depreciation schedule on the investment costs for combined heat and power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kranz, Nicole; Worrell, Ernst

    2001-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate and compare several generic depreciation methods to assess the effectiveness of possible policy measures with respect to the depreciation schedules for investments in combined heat and power plants in the United States. We assess the different depreciation methods for CHP projects of various sizes (ranging from 1 MW to 100 MW). We evaluate the impact of different depreciation schedules on the tax shield, and the resulting tax savings to potential investors. We show that a shorter depreciation cycle could have a substantial impact on the cost of producing power, making cogeneration more attractive. The savings amount to approximately 6-7 percent of capital and fixed operation and maintenance costs, when changing from the current system to a 7 year depreciation scheme with switchover from declining balance to straight line depreciation. Suggestions for further research to improve the analysis are given.

  19. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden Central Office Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden Central Office This is a case study...

  20. 1-10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1-10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical Potential: Independent Review 1-10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical...

  1. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators, July 2004 Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators, July 2004 Many owners and...

  2. Thermal Energy Corporation Combined Heat and Power Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Bruce Turner; Tim Brown; Ed Mardiat

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To meet the planned heating and cooling load growth at the Texas Medical Center (TMC), Thermal Energy Corporation (TECO) implemented Phase 1 of a Master Plan to install an additional 32,000 tons of chilled water capacity, a 75,000 ton-hour (8.8 million gallon) Thermal Energy Storage (TES) tank, and a 48 MW Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system. The Department of Energy selected TMC for a $10 million grant award as part of the Financial Assistance Funding Opportunity Announcement, U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology, Recovery Act: Deployment of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems, District Energy Systems, Waste Energy Recovery Systems, and Efficiency Industrial Equipment Funding Opportunity Number: DE-FOA-0000044 to support the installation of a new 48 MW CHP system at the TMC located just outside downtown Houston. As the largest medical center in the world, TMC is home to many of the nationâ??s best hospitals, physicians, researchers, educational institutions, and health care providers. TMC provides care to approximately six million patients each year, and medical instruction to over 71,000 students. A medical center the size of TMC has enormous electricity and thermal energy demands to help it carry out its mission. Reliable, high-quality steam and chilled water are of utmost importance to the operations of its many facilities. For example, advanced medical equipment, laboratories, laundry facilities, space heating and cooling all rely on the generation of heat and power. As result of this project TECO provides this mission critical heating and cooling to TMC utilizing a system that is both energy-efficient and reliable since it provides the capability to run on power independent of the already strained regional electric grid. This allows the medical center to focus on its primary mission â?? providing top quality medical care and instruction â?? without worrying about excessive energy costs or the loss of heating and cooling due to the risk of power outages. TECOâ??s operation is the largest Chilled Water District Energy System in the United States. The company used DOEâ??s funding to help install a new high efficiency CHP system consisting of a Combustion Turbine and a Heat Recovery Steam Generator. This CHP installation was just part of a larger project undertaken by TECO to ensure that it can continue to meet TMCâ??s growing needs. The complete efficiency overhaul that TECO undertook supported more than 1,000 direct and indirect jobs in manufacturing, engineering, and construction, with approximately 400 of those being jobs directly associated with construction of the combined heat and power plant. This showcase industrial scale CHP project, serving a critical component of the nationâ??s healthcare infrastructure, directly and immediately supported the energy efficiency and job creation goals established by ARRA and DOE. It also provided an unsurpassed model of a district energy CHP application that can be replicated within other energy intensive applications in the industrial, institutional and commercial sectors.

  3. Western Area Power Administration combined power system financial statements, 30 September 1995 and 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The attached report presents the results of the independent certified public accountant`s audit of the Department of Energy`s Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) combined financial statements as of September 30, 1995. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on Western`s 1995 statements. Their reports on Western`s internal control structure and on compliance with laws and regulations are also provided.

  4. Combined Heat and Power: A Federal Manager's Resource Guide,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Power Technology Overview and Federal Sector Deployment Local Power Empowers: CHP and District Energy The Future of Absorption Technology in America: A Critical Look at the...

  5. Economic Impact Assessment: Laser and Fiberoptic Power and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    00-3 Planning Report Economic Impact Assessment: NIST-EEEL Laser and Fiberoptic Power Office Strategic Planning and Economic Analysis Group August 2000 U.S Department of Commerce Technology Administration #12;FINAL REPORT ECONOMIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT: NIST-EEEL LASER AND FIBEROPTIC POWER AND ENERGY

  6. Anaerobic Digestion and Combined Heat and Power Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank J. Hartz; Rob Taylor; Grant Davies

    2011-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the underlying objectives of this study is to recover the untapped energy in wastewater biomass. Some national statistics worth considering include: (1) 5% of the electrical energy demand in the US is used to treat municipal wastewater; (2) This carbon rich wastewater is an untapped energy resource; (3) Only 10% of wastewater treatment plants (>5mgd) recover energy; (4) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to produce > 575 MW of energy nationwide; and (5) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to capture an additional 175 MW of energy from waste Fats, Oils and Grease. The WSSC conducted this study to determine the feasibility of utilizing anaerobic digestion and combined heat and power (AD/CHP) and/or biosolids gasification and drying facilities to produce and utilize renewable digester biogas. Digester gas is considered a renewable energy source and can be used in place of fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The project focus includes: (1) Converting wastewater Biomass to Electricity; (2) Using innovative technologies to Maximize Energy Recovery; and (3) Enhancing the Environment by reducing nutrient load to waterways (Chesapeake Bay), Sanitary Sewer Overflows (by reducing FOG in sewers) and Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The study consisted of these four tasks: (1) Technology screening and alternative shortlisting, answering the question 'what are the most viable and cost effective technical approaches by which to recover and reuse energy from biosolids while reducing disposal volume?'; (2) Energy recovery and disposal reduction potential verification, answering the question 'how much energy can be recovered from biosolids?'; (3) Economic environmental and community benefit analysis, answering the question 'what are the potential economic, environmental and community benefits/impacts of each approach?'; and (4) Recommend the best plan and develop a concept design.

  7. Encouraging Combined Heat and Power in California Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cooling, heating, and power, CCHP, commercial buildings,bln $ CAA CAISO Cal/EPA CARB CCHP CEUS CHP CSI CPP DER DER-heating, and electric power (CCHP) adoption in California’s

  8. Start-up Optimization of a Combined Cycle Power Plant A. Linda, E. Sllberga,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Keywords: Combined Cycle Power Plants, Start-up, Dynamic optimization, Optimica, Control, Modelica are obtained by simulating Modelica power plant models. The study has been carried out to de- velop simplified

  9. A Preliminary Study on Designing Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System for the University Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozman, T. A.; Reynolds, C. M.; Lee, J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined heat and power (CHP) systems are an evolving technology that is at the front of the energy conservation movement. With the reduction in energy consumption and green house gas emissions, CHP systems are improving the efficiency of power...

  10. CMB anisotropy power spectrum using linear combinations of WMAP maps Rajib Saha,1,2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Souradeep, Tarun

    CMB anisotropy power spectrum using linear combinations of WMAP maps Rajib Saha,1,2,3 Simon Prunet year WMAP data by Saha et al. 2006. All previous estimates of the power spectrum of the CMB are based

  11. Pacific Northwest Power Supply Adequacy Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ), the LOLP rises to about 11 percent. The Council's adequacy assessment only counts existing resources and planned resources that are already sited and licensed for operation in the year assessed. There are other years that is not included in this assessment. #12;3 The Resource Adequacy Standard and What it Means

  12. Combined Heat and Power - A Decade of Progress, A Vision for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Combined heat and power (CHP) technology holds enormous potential to improve the nation's energy security and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper describes DOE's...

  13. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the Department of Energy to improve steam system performance. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators (July 2004) More Documents & Publications...

  14. administration combined power: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: incentive (W) wind turbine waste heat to power pressurewind turbines, fuel cells, organic rankine cyclewaste heat capture, pressure reduction turbines,...

  15. Using and Measuring the Combined Heat and Power Advantage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, T.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    compared to other power generation systems. Fuel Charged to Power (FCP) is the fuel, net of credit for thermal output, required to produce a kilowatt-hour of electricity. This provides a metric that is used for comparison to the heat rate of other types...

  16. Opportunities for Combined Heat and Power in Data Centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darrow, Ken [ICF International; Hedman, Bruce [ICF International

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data centers represent a rapidly growing and very energy intensive activity in commercial, educational, and government facilities. In the last five years the growth of this sector was the electric power equivalent to seven new coal-fired power plants. Data centers consume 1.5% of the total power in the U.S. Growth over the next five to ten years is expected to require a similar increase in power generation. This energy consumption is concentrated in buildings that are 10-40 times more energy intensive than a typical office building. The sheer size of the market, the concentrated energy consumption per facility, and the tendency of facilities to cluster in 'high-tech' centers all contribute to a potential power infrastructure crisis for the industry. Meeting the energy needs of data centers is a moving target. Computing power is advancing rapidly, which reduces the energy requirements for data centers. A lot of work is going into improving the computing power of servers and other processing equipment. However, this increase in computing power is increasing the power densities of this equipment. While fewer pieces of equipment may be needed to meet a given data processing load, the energy density of a facility designed to house this higher efficiency equipment will be as high as or higher than it is today. In other words, while the data center of the future may have the IT power of ten data centers of today, it is also going to have higher power requirements and higher power densities. This report analyzes the opportunities for CHP technologies to assist primary power in making the data center more cost-effective and energy efficient. Broader application of CHP will lower the demand for electricity from central stations and reduce the pressure on electric transmission and distribution infrastructure. This report is organized into the following sections: (1) Data Center Market Segmentation--the description of the overall size of the market, the size and types of facilities involved, and the geographic distribution. (2) Data Center Energy Use Trends--a discussion of energy use and expected energy growth and the typical energy consumption and uses in data centers. (3) CHP Applicability--Potential configurations, CHP case studies, applicable equipment, heat recovery opportunities (cooling), cost and performance benchmarks, and power reliability benefits (4) CHP Drivers and Hurdles--evaluation of user benefits, social benefits, market structural issues and attitudes toward CHP, and regulatory hurdles. (5) CHP Paths to Market--Discussion of technical needs, education, strategic partnerships needed to promote CHP in the IT community.

  17. Combined fuel and air staged power generation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabovitser, Iosif K; Pratapas, John M; Boulanov, Dmitri

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for generation of electric power employing fuel and air staging in which a first stage gas turbine and a second stage partial oxidation gas turbine power operated in parallel. A first portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the first stage gas turbine which generates a first portion of electric power and a hot oxidant. A second portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the second stage partial oxidation gas turbine which generates a second portion of electric power and a hot syngas. The hot oxidant and the hot syngas are provided to a bottoming cycle employing a fuel-fired boiler by which a third portion of electric power is generated.

  18. Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    cells as a heat and electrical power source for residential combined heat and power (CHP characterization provided data to assess the CHP potential of the Nexa and validate the model used ambient temperature. #12;iv To improve performance as a CHP heat engine, the Nexa and other air-cooled PEM

  19. Combining Nuclear Power With Coal-to-Gasoline Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamel, H.J.; Jaeger, Walter; Termuehlen, Heinz

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With coal representing 95% and oil only 2.5% of the US fossil fuel reserves and with the abundant nuclear fuel reserves in the US, such combined plants should be built in the near future. (authors)

  20. A Ranking of State Combined Heat and Power Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chittum, A.; Kaufman, N.

    power systems (EPS). It provides requirements relevant to the performance, operation, testing, safety considerations, and maintenance of the interconnection. For more information, visit http://www.ieee.org/portal/site. ESL-IE-09-05-14 Proceedings...

  1. Understanding Emissions from Combined Heat and Power Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shipley, A. M.; Greene, N.; Carter, S.; Elliott, R. N.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    demand thus avoiding the losses that would otherwise be incurred from separate generation of power. Modeling analyses has demonstrated significant air emissions, transmission and price benefits of clean CHP technologies. Despite these benefits, CHP...

  2. Performance based incentive for Combined Heat and Power Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CHP technologies are eligible for either a grant, loan or power purchase incentive under the initial round of solicitations for new renewable energy generating equipment  up to five megawatts at ...

  3. Power System Online Stability Assessment using Synchrophasor Data Mining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Ce

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditional power system stability assessment based on full model computation shows its drawbacks in real-time applications where fast variations are present at both demand side and supply side. This work presents the use of data mining techniques...

  4. Exxon Chemical's Coal-Fired Combined Cycle Power Technology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guide, J. J.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the boiler. The air coil heats the 150 psig air from the standard gas turbine axial compressor to approximately, 1750°F. Today, CAT-PAC would require about 10% less fuel (or 1000 Btu/kwh) than the best coal-fired Utility Plant for the same net power output...

  5. National-Scale Wind Resource Assessment for Power Generation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation describes the current standards for conducting a national-scale wind resource assessment for power generation, along with the risk/benefit considerations to be considered when beginning a wind resource assessment. The presentation describes changes in turbine technology and viable wind deployment due to more modern turbine technology and taller towers and shows how the Philippines national wind resource assessment evolved over time to reflect changes that arise from updated technologies and taller towers.

  6. The need to perform early design studies that combine architectural simulation with power estimation has become critical as power has

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mudge, Trevor

    ABSTRACT The need to perform early design studies that combine architectural simulation with power. We also propose a more realistic power modeling technique for external I/O. In general, our approach includes more detailed microarchitectural and circuit modeling than has been the case in earlier simulators

  7. Vulnerability Assessment for Cascading Failures in Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldick, R.; Chowdhury, Badrul; Dobson, Ian; Dong, Zhao Yang; Gou, Bei; Hawkins, David L.; Huang, Zhenyu; Joung, Manho; Kim, Janghoon; Kirschen, Daniel; Lee, Stephen; Li, Fangxing; Li, Juan; Li, Zuyi; Liu, Chen-Ching; Luo, Xiaochuan; Mili, Lamine; Miller, Stephen; Nakayama, Marvin; Papic, Milorad; Podmore, Robin; Rossmaier, John; Schneider, Kevin P.; Sun, Hongbin; Sun, Kai; Wang, David; Wu, Zhigang; Yao, Liangzhong; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2008-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Cascading failures present severe threats to power grid security, and thus vulnerability assessment of power grids is of significant importance. Focusing on analytic methods, this paper reviews the state of the art of vulnerability assessment methods in the context of cascading failures in three categories: steady-state modeling based analysis; dynamic modeling analysis; and non-traditional modeling approaches. The impact of emerging technologies including phasor technology, high-performance computing techniques, and visualization techniques on the vulnerability assessment of cascading failures is then addressed, and future research directions are presented.

  8. A Flashing Binary Combined Cycle For Geothermal Power Generation | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 WindtheEnergy Information Flashing Binary Combined Cycle

  9. Probabilistic Vulnerability Assessment Based on Power Flow and Voltage Distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Jian; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.; Ferryman, Thomas A.

    2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Risk assessment of large scale power systems has been an important problem in power system reliability study. Probabilistic technique provides a powerful tool to solve the task. In this paper, we present the results of a study on probabilistic vulnerability assessment on WECC system. Cumulant based expansion method is applied to obtain the probabilistic distribution function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of power flows on transmission lines and voltage. Overall risk index based on the system vulnerability analysis is calculated using the WECC system. The simulation results based on WECC system is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The methodology can be applied to the risk analysis on large scale power systems.

  10. Novel Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The emergence of technologies that efficiently convert heat into cooling, such as absorption chillers, has opened up many new opportunities and markets for combined heat and power systems. These...

  11. Renewable Energy and Combined Heat and Power Resources in the UK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    .......................................................................................................30 4. Combined Heat and Power (CHP)...................................................................................32 4.1 Current CHP Capacity and Short-term Projections ...................................................32 4.2 The Long-term Potential for CHP in the UK

  12. Combined source-channel coding for a power and bandwidth constrained noisy channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raja, Nouman Saeed

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis proposes a framework for combined source-channel coding under power and bandwidth constrained noisy channel. The framework is then applied to progressive image coding transmission using constant envelope M-ary Phase Shift Key (MPSK...

  13. National Association of Counties Webinar- Combined Heat and Power: Resiliency Strategies for Critical Facilities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Combined heat and power (CHP), also known as cogeneration, is a method whereby energy is produced, and excess heat from the production process can be used for heating and cooling processes....

  14. Combined Heat and Power: A Vision for the Future of CHP in the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vision for the Future of CHP in the United States in 2020, June 1999 Combined Heat and Power: A Vision for the Future of CHP in the United States in 2020, June 1999 The U.S....

  15. REFORMING PROCESSES FOR MICRO COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM BASED ON SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    REFORMING PROCESSES FOR MICRO COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM BASED ON SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL University Denmark ABSTRACT Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising technology for decentralized power performance parameters will be identified. Keywords: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, Micro CHP System INTRODUCTION

  16. The Combined Effect of Process Variations and Power Supply Noise on Clock Skew and Jitter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Micheli, Giovanni

    The Combined Effect of Process Variations and Power Supply Noise on Clock Skew and Jitter Hu Xu and power supply noise on clock skew and jitter is investigated in this paper. A statistical model of skitter, which consists of skew and jitter, is proposed. Clock paths with different buffer insertion

  17. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat & Power Multifamily Performance Program-- Sea Park East 150 kW CHP System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Overview of Sea Park East 150 kilowatt (kW) Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System in Brooklyn, New York

  18. Assessing the Power Requirements for Sawtooth Control in ITER Through Modelling and Joint Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assessing the Power Requirements for Sawtooth Control in ITER Through Modelling and Joint Experiments

  19. Wind Power Resource Assessment in Ohio and Puerto Rico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Womeldorf, Carole

    Wind Power Resource Assessment in Ohio and Puerto Rico: A Motivational and Educational Tool Juan University, Athens, Ohio Abstract This paper presents an educational guide and example of a wind resource calculations. New data representing wind speed and direction for locations in Ohio and Puerto Rico

  20. The mediation of environmental assessment's influence: What role for power?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cashmore, Matthew, E-mail: cashmore@plan.aau.dk [Danish Centre for Environmental Assessment, Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University Copenhagen, A.C. Meyers Vaenge 15, DK-2450 Copenhagen SV (Denmark); Axelsson, Anna [Naturskyddsforeningen, Box 4625, 116 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Considerable empirical research has been conducted on why policy tools such as environmental assessment (EA) often appear to have 'little effect' (after Weiss) on policy decisions. This article revisits this debate but looks at a mediating factor that has received limited attention to-date in the context of EA - political power. Using a tripartite analytical framework, a comparative analysis of the influence and significance of power in mediating environmental policy integration is undertaken. Power is analysed, albeit partially, through an exploration of institutions that underpin social order. Empirically, the research examines the case of a new approach to policy-level EA (essentially a form of Strategic Environmental Assessment) developed by the World Bank and its trial application to urban environmental governance and planning in Dhaka mega-city, Bangladesh. The research results demonstrate that power was intimately involved in mediating the influence of the policy EA approach, in both positive (enabling) and negative (constraining) ways. It is suggested that the policy EA approach was ultimately a manifestation of a corporate strategy to maintain the powerful position of the World Bank as a leading authority on international development which focuses on knowledge generation. Furthermore, as constitutive of an institution and reflecting the worldviews of its proponents, the development of a new approach to EA also represents a significant power play. This leads us to, firstly, emphasise the concepts of strategy and intentionality in theorising how and why EA tools are employed, succeed and fail; and secondly, reflect on the reasons why power has received such limited attention to-date in EA scholarship. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conducts empirical research on the neglected issue of power. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Employs an interpretation of power in which it is viewed as a productive phenomenon. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analyses the influence of power in the trial application of a new approach to policy environmental assessment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstrates the importance of power dynamics in understanding the successes and failures of environmental assessment.

  1. Non-Destructive Whole Lung Assessment via Multi-scale Micro CT Imaging Combined with Stereology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ge

    Non-Destructive Whole Lung Assessment via Multi-scale Micro CT Imaging Combined with Stereology Tech, Virginia, USA Running head Non-Destructive Whole Lung Assessment via µCT Contact Information Eric-hoffman@uiowa.edu Phone: 319-353-6213 Fax: 319-356-1503 #12;Abstract Estimating volume fractions of the lung parenchyma

  2. Federal strategies to increase the implementation of combined heat and power technologies in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laitner, J.; Parks, W.; Schilling, J.; Scheer, R.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent interest in combined heat and power (CHP) is providing momentum to efforts aimed at increasing the capacity of this highly-efficient technology. Factors driving this increase in interest include the need to increase the efficiency of the nation's electricity generation infrastructure, DOE Assistant Secretary Dan Reicher's challenge to double the capacity of CHP by 2010, the success of DOE's Advanced Turbine Systems Program in supporting ultra-efficient CHP technologies, and the necessity of finding cost-effective solutions to address climate change and air quality issues. The federal government is committed to increasing the penetration of CHP technologies in the US. The ultimate goal is to build a competitive market for CHP in which policies and regulations support the implementation of a full suite of technologies for multiple applications. Specific actions underway at the federal level include technology strategies to improve CHP data collection and assessment and work with industry to encourage the development of advanced CHP technologies. Policy strategies include changes to federal environmental permitting procedures including CHP-friendly strategies in federal restructuring legislation, supporting tax credits and changes to depreciation requirements as economic incentives to CHP, working with industry to leverage resources in the development of advanced CHP technologies, educating state officials about the things they can do to encourage CHP, and increasing awareness about the benefits of CHP and the barriers limiting its increased implementation.

  3. Combined heat and power: How much carbon and energy can it save for manufacturers?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaarsberg, T.M.; Roop, J.M.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of a September 1997 National Laboratory study for the US Department of Energy, the authors estimated the potential for reducing industrial energy consumption and carbon emissions using advanced technologies for combined heat and power (CHP) for the year 2010. In this paper the authors re-analyze the potential for CHP in manufacturing only. The authors also refine the assessment by more accurately estimating the average efficiency of industrial boilers most likely to be replaced by CHP. The authors do this with recent GRI estimates of the age distribution of industrial boilers and standard age-efficiency equations. The previous estimate was based on use of the best CHP technology available, such as the about-to-be commercialized industrial advanced turbine system (ATS). This estimate assumes the use of existing off-the-shelf CHP technologies. Data is now available with which to develop a more realistic suite of penetration rates for existing and new CHP technologies. However, potential variation in actions of state and federal electricity and environmental regulators introduces uncertainties in the use of existing and potential new CHP far greater than those in previous technology penetration estimates. This is, thus, the maximum cost-effective technical potential for the frozen technology case. The authors find that if manufacturers in 1994 had generated all their steam and electric needs with existing CHP technologies, they could have reduced carbon equivalent (carbon dioxide) emissions by up to 30 million metric tons of carbon equivalent (MtC) or nearly 20%. This result is consistent with carbon and energy savings found in other studies. For example, the aforementioned laboratory study found that just three CHP technologies, fuel cells, advanced turbines, and integrated combined cycle technologies, accounted for nearly 10% of the study's projected carbon savings of 400 MtC by 2010--enough to reduce projected US 2010 emissions to 1990 levels.

  4. Bias-field controlled phasing and power combination of gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reale, D. V., E-mail: david.reale@ttu.edu; Bragg, J.-W. B.; Gonsalves, N. R.; Johnson, J. M.; Neuber, A. A.; Dickens, J. C.; Mankowski, J. J. [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Gyromagnetic Nonlinear Transmission Lines (NLTLs) generate microwaves through the damped gyromagnetic precession of the magnetic moments in ferrimagnetic material, and are thus utilized as compact, solid-state, frequency agile, high power microwave (HPM) sources. The output frequency of a NLTL can be adjusted by control of the externally applied bias field and incident voltage pulse without physical alteration to the structure of the device. This property provides a frequency tuning capability not seen in many conventional e-beam based HPM sources. The NLTLs developed and tested are mesoband sources capable of generating MW power levels in the L, S, and C bands of the microwave spectrum. For an individual NLTL the output power at a given frequency is determined by several factors including the intrinsic properties of the ferrimagnetic material and the transmission line structure. Hence, if higher power levels are to be achieved, it is necessary to combine the outputs of multiple NLTLs. This can be accomplished in free space using antennas or in a transmission line via a power combiner. Using a bias-field controlled delay, a transient, high voltage, coaxial, three port, power combiner was designed and tested. Experimental results are compared with the results of a transient COMSOL simulation to evaluate combiner performance.

  5. Use of Time-Aggregated Data in Economic Screening Analyses of Combined Heat and Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudson II, Carl Randy [ORNL

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined heat and power (CHP) projects (also known as cogeneration projects) usually undergo a series of assessments and viability checks before any commitment is made. A screening analysis, with electrical and thermal loads characterized on an annual basis, may be performed initially to quickly determine the economic viability of the proposed project. Screening analyses using time-aggregated data do not reflect several critical cost influences, however. Seasonal and diurnal variations in electrical and thermal loads, as well as time-of-use utility pricing structures, can have a dramatic impact on the economics. A more accurate economic assessment requires additional detailed data on electrical and thermal demand (e.g., hourly load data), which may not be readily available for the specific facility under study. Recent developments in CHP evaluation tools, however, can generate the needed hourly data through the use of historical data libraries and building simulation. This article utilizes model-generated hourly load data for four potential CHP applications and compares the calculated cost savings of a CHP system when evaluated on a time-aggregated (i.e., annual) basis to the savings when evaluated on an hour-by-hour basis. It is observed that the simple, aggregated analysis forecasts much greater savings (i.e., greater economic viability) than the more detailed hourly analysis. The findings confirm that the simpler tool produces results with a much more optimistic outlook, which, if taken by itself, might lead to erroneous project decisions. The more rigorous approach, being more reflective of actual requirements and conditions, presents a more accurate economic comparison of the alternatives, which, in turn, leads to better decision risk management.

  6. Technical Analysis of Installed Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel-Cell System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe

    2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a technical analysis of 5 kWe CHP-FCSs installed in different locations in the U.S. At some sites as many as five 5 kWe system is used to provide up to 25kWe of power. Systems in this power range are considered “micro”-CHP-FCS. To better assess performance of micro-CHP-FCS and understand their benefits, the U.S. Department of Energy worked with ClearEdge Power to install fifteen 5-kWe PBI high temperature PEM fuel cells (CE5 models) in the commercial markets of California and Oregon. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated these systems in terms of their economics, operations, and technical performance. These units were monitored from September 2011 until June 2013. During this time, about 190,000 hours of data were collected and more than 17 billion data points were analyzed. Beginning in July 2013, ten of these systems were gradually replaced with ungraded systems (M5 models) containing phosphoric acid fuel cell technology. The new units were monitored until June 2014 until they went offline because ClearEdge was bought by Doosan at the time and the new manufacturer did not continue to support data collection and maintenance of these units. During these two phases, data was collected at once per second and data analysis techniques were applied to understand behavior of these systems. The results of this analysis indicate that systems installed in the second phase of this demonstration performed much better in terms of availability, consistency in generation, and reliability. The average net electrical power output increased from 4.1 to 4.9 kWe, net heat recovery from 4.7 to 5.4 kWth, and system availability improved from 94% to 95%. The average net system electric efficiency, average net heat recovery efficiency, and overall net efficiency of the system increased respectively from 33% to 36%, from 38% to 41%, and from 71% to 76%. The temperature of water sent to sit however reduced by about 16% from 51?C to 43 ?C. This was a control strategy and the temperature can be controlled depending on building heat demands. More importantly, the number of shutdowns and maintenance events required to keep the systems running at the manufacturer’s rated performance specifications were substantially reduced by about 76% (for 8 to 10 units running over a one-year period). From July 2012 to June 2013, there were eight CE5 units in operation and a total of 134 scheduled and unscheduled shutdowns took place. From July 2013 to June 2014, between two to ten units were in operation and only 32 shutdowns were reported (all unscheduled). In summary, the number of shutdowns reduced from 10 shutdowns per month on average for eight CE5units to an average of 2.7 shutdowns per month for M5 units (between two to ten units).

  7. Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, S.D.; Shafer, J.R.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Tampa Electric Company (TEC) is in the construction phase for the new Polk Power Station, Unit {number_sign}1. This will be the first unit at a new site and will use Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology for power generation. The unit will utilize oxygen-blown entrained-flow coal gasification, along with combined cycle technology, to provide nominal net 26OMW of generation. As part of the environmental features of this process, the sulfur species in the coal will be recovered as a commercial grade sulfuric acid by-product. The sulfur will be removed from the synthesis gas utilizing a cold gas clean-up system (CGCU).

  8. Power and environmental assessment: Introduction to the special issue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cashmore, Matthew, E-mail: cashmore@plan.aau.dk [Danish Centre for Environmental Assessment, Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University Copenhagen, A.C. Meyers Vaenge 15, DK-2450 Copenhagen SV (Denmark); Richardson, Tim [Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University, Skibbrogade 5, DK-9000 Aalborg (Denmark)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The significance of politics and power dynamics has long been recognised in environmental assessment (EA) research, but there has not been sustained attention to power, either theoretically or empirically. The aim of this special issue is to encourage the EA community to engage more consistently with the issue of power. The introduction represents a ground-clearing exercise intended to clarify the terms of the debate about power in the EA field, and to contribute to the development of a research agenda. Research trends in the field are outlined, and potential analytic and normative lines of inquiry are identified. The contributions to this special issue represent contrasting conceptual and methodological approaches that navigate the analytical and normative terrain of power dynamics in EA. Together, they demonstrate that power cannot be removed from EA policy or practices, and is a necessary research focus for the development of the field. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Introduces the themed section on power Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Provides an overview of the papers in the themed section Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identifies research trends and directions for future research.

  9. Western Area Power Administration combined power system financial statements September 30, 1994 and 1993 and management overview and performance measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marwick, P.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The attached report presents the results of the independent certified public accountant`s audit of the Department of Energy`s Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) combined financial statements as of September 30, 1994. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on Western`s 1994 statements. Their reports on Western`s internal control structure and on compliance with laws and regulations are also provided. Western was established in December 1977, and has the responsibility for the Federal electric power marketing and transmission functions in 15 central and western states. Western markets power, as required by existing law, at the lowest possible rates consistent with sound business principles to recover the costs of operation and capital invested in power facilities.

  10. Fire models for assessment of nuclear power plant fires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicolette, V.F.; Nowlen, S.P.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in available fire models for the assessment of nuclear power plants fires. The advantages and disadvantages of three basic types of fire models (zone, field, and control volume) and Sandia's experience with these models will be discussed. It is shown that the type of fire model selected to solve a particular problem should be based on the information that is required. Areas of concern which relate to all nuclear power plant fire models are identified. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Biennial Assessment of the Fifth Power Plan Gas Turbine Power Plant Planning Assumptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -cycle units include a heat recovery steam generator on the exhaust to recover otherwise wasted energy. Steam from the heat recovery steam generator powers an additional steam turbine, providing extra electric to about 50 percent. In addition, the steam generator of combined-cycle units can be fitted with fuel

  12. Turbocharged PFBC Power Plant Technical and Economic Assessments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leppke, D.

    scale modularization techniques to both a bubbling-bed type PFBC, a circulating-bed type PFBC, and a 250MWe turbine-generator plant. Alternate PFBC designs using field construction techniques and prOViding more space for major maintenance...TURBOCHARGED PFBC POWER PLANT TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC ASSESSMENTS DELBERT M. LEPPKE Senior Technical Manager Fluor Daniel Chicago, Illinois Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) boilers are receiving considerable attention by the utility...

  13. Exergy method of power plant systems analysis and its application to a pressurized fluidized bed coal-fired combined-cycle power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghamarian, A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis surveys the concepts of exergy and extends the exergy method of analysis from the standpoint of its applications to the power plant systems. After a brief historical review of exergy concepts, the general exergy equation is derived from the combined equation of First and Second Law, and it is shown that any special case of exergy equation is a simplified form of the general exergy equation. The mathematical method for the exergy analysis of a steady-state, steady-flow system, analogous to that of the First Law, is given. The exergy losses in a power plant are discussed. Then in order to examine these losses, the Second Law performance of major processes of combustion, compression, heat transfer, mixing and throttling have been analyzed analytically, and the exergy efficiencies are defined that accurately assess the thermodynamic performance of the corresponding processes. The methods for computation of exergy loss and exergy efficiency are given and simplified for practical cases of the corresponding processes. Analytical methods for evaluating the exergy of coal, pure substances (air and water), and combustion gases are presented and the energy-exergy tables for corresponding working substances are constructed. Finally, a comprehensive thermodynamic analysis, with emphasis on the Second Law (exergy) consideration, of an actual coal-fired, combined-cycle (CFCC) power plant, being designed by the General Electric Company, is carried out and suggestions are made as to what (and where), if any, improvement might be made in the design.

  14. Combined Heat and Power (CHP), also known as cogeneration, is the concurrent production of electricity or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    About CHP Combined Heat and Power (CHP), also known as cogeneration, is the concurrent production of energy. CHP is a type of distributed generation, which, unlike central station generation, is located fuel in a furnace or boiler to produce thermal energy, consumers use CHP to provide these energy

  15. EA-1741: Seattle Steam Company Combined Heat and Power at Post Street in Downtown Seattle, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to provide an American Recovery Act and Reinvestment Act of 2009 financial assistance grant to Seattle Steam Company to facilitate the installation of a combined heat and power plant in downtown Seattle, Washington. NOTE: This Project has been cancelled.

  16. Linear Compositional Delay Model for the Timing Analysis of Sub-Powered Combinational Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linear Compositional Delay Model for the Timing Analysis of Sub-Powered Combinational Circuits the propagation delay through nanometer CMOS circuits is highly desirable. Statistical Static Timing Analysis to accurately capture the circuit behaviour. In view of this we introduce an Inverse Gaussian Distribution (IGD

  17. EA-1922: Combined Power and Biomass Heating System, Fort Yukon, Alaska

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE (lead agency), Denali Commission (cooperating agency) and USDA Rural Utilities Services (cooperating agency) are proposing to provide funding to support the final design and construction of a biomass combined heat and power plant and associated district heating system to the Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments and the Gwitchyaa Zhee Corporation. The proposed biomass district heating system would be located in Fort Yukon Alaska.

  18. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System Callaway Spring 2011 #12;Abstract A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar a leading choice for DCS-CHP systems, if operation on steam is successful and reliability issues can

  19. Combining lifecycle and risk assessments of mineral waste reuse scenarios for decision making support

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benetto, Enrico [ECOINNOVA France, 47 rue M. Flandin, 69003 Lyon Cedex 3 (France)]. E-mail: benetto@ecoinnova.it; Tiruta-Barna, Ligia [INSA Lyon-LAEPSI, 20 rue A.Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne cedex, since November 2005: INSA Toulouse-LIPE, 135 av. de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse cedex France (France)]. E-mail: ligia.barna@insa-toulouse.fr; Perrodin, Yves [ENTPE-LSE, rue M.Audin, 69518 Vaulx-en-Velin cedex (France)]. E-mail: perrodin@entpe.fr

    2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Lack of regulations and standards on mineral waste recycling makes Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) useful methods for environmental assessment of recycling scenarios. An unsolved problem arises whenever two scenarios of recycling have to be compared according to both ERA and LCA impact results considered simultaneously. A methodology to combine LCA and ERA results and tools toward Integrated Environmental Assessment (IEA) is proposed together with three application examples based on case studies. The most effective combination approach is to define further impact categories for ERA to be considered with the standard LCA ones. Then, the use of a multicriteria analysis method was proved to be an efficient way to rank alternative scenarios with respect to all the results. The key issues to be further researched are discussed and proposals are suggested.

  20. Assessment of Future ICE and Fuel-Cell Powered Vehicles and Their...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Assessment of Future ICE and Fuel-Cell Powered Vehicles and Their Potential Impacts Assessment of Future ICE and Fuel-Cell Powered Vehicles and Their Potential Impacts 2004 Diesel...

  1. Likelihood methods for the combined analysis of CMB temperature and polarisation power spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Will J. Percival; Michael L. Brown

    2006-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the shape of the likelihood and posterior surfaces to be used when fitting cosmological models to CMB temperature and polarisation power spectra measured from experiments. In the limit of an all-sky survey with Gaussian distributed pixel noise we show that the true combined likelihood of the four CMB power spectra (TT, TE, EE & BB) has a Wishart distribution and we discuss the properties of this function. We compare various fits to the posterior surface of the Cls, both in the case of a single auto-power spectrum and for a combination of temperature and polarisation data. In the latter case, it is important that the fits can accurately match the Wishart distribution in the limit of near full-sky coverage. Simple extensions of auto-power spectrum fits to include polarisation data generally fail to match correlations between the different power spectra in this limit. Directly fitting pixel values on large scales, as undertaken by the WMAP team in their analysis of the 3 year data, avoids the complications of characterising the shape of the posterior for the power spectra. Finally we demonstrate the importance of the likelihood distribution on analytic marginalisation, and provide a formula for analytic marginalisation over a calibration error given an all-sky survey.

  2. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California, Berkeley; Wei, Max; Lipman, Timothy; Mayyas, Ahmad; Chien, Joshua; Chan, Shuk Han; Gosselin, David; Breunig, Hanna; Stadler, Michael; McKone, Thomas; Beattie, Paul; Chong, Patricia; Colella, Whitney; James, Brian

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A total cost of ownership model is described for low temperature proton exchange membrane stationary fuel cell systems for combined heat and power (CHP) applications from 1-250kW and backup power applications from 1-50kW. System designs and functional specifications for these two applications were developed across the range of system power levels. Bottom-up cost estimates were made for balance of plant costs, and detailed direct cost estimates for key fuel cell stack components were derived using design-for-manufacturing-and-assembly techniques. The development of high throughput, automated processes achieving high yield are projected to reduce the cost for fuel cell stacks to the $300/kW level at an annual production volume of 100 MW. Several promising combinations of building types and geographical location in the U.S. were identified for installation of fuel cell CHP systems based on the LBNL modelling tool DER CAM. Life-cycle modelling and externality assessment were done for hotels and hospitals. Reduced electricity demand charges, heating credits and carbon credits can reduce the effective cost of electricity ($/kWhe) by 26-44percent in locations such as Minneapolis, where high carbon intensity electricity from the grid is displaces by a fuel cell system operating on reformate fuel. This project extends the scope of existing cost studies to include externalities and ancillary financial benefits and thus provides a more comprehensive picture of fuel cell system benefits, consistent with a policy and incentive environment that increasingly values these ancillary benefits. The project provides a critical, new modelling capacity and should aid a broad range of policy makers in assessing the integrated costs and benefits of fuel cell systems versus other distributed generation technologies.

  3. Online Sensor Calibration Assessment in Nuclear Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coble, Jamie B.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Hashemian, Hash

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Safe, efficient, and economic operation of nuclear systems (nuclear power plants, fuel fabrication and storage, used fuel processing, etc.) relies on transmission of accurate and reliable measurements. During operation, sensors degrade due to age, environmental exposure, and maintenance interventions. Sensor degradation can affect the measured and transmitted signals, including sensor failure, signal drift, sensor response time, etc. Currently, periodic sensor recalibration is performed to avoid these problems. Sensor recalibration activities include both calibration assessment and adjustment (if necessary). In nuclear power plants, periodic recalibration of safety-related sensors is required by the plant technical specifications. Recalibration typically occurs during refueling outages (about every 18 to 24 months). Non-safety-related sensors also undergo recalibration, though not as frequently. However, this approach to maintaining sensor calibration and performance is time-consuming and expensive, leading to unnecessary maintenance, increased radiation exposure to maintenance personnel, and potential damage to sensors. Online monitoring (OLM) of sensor performance is a non-invasive approach to assess instrument calibration. OLM can mitigate many of the limitations of the current periodic recalibration practice by providing more frequent assessment of calibration and identifying those sensors that are operating outside of calibration tolerance limits without removing sensors or interrupting operation. This can support extended operating intervals for unfaulted sensors and target recalibration efforts to only degraded sensors.

  4. Methods for Rapid Estimation of Motor Input Power in HVAC Assessments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christman, Kevin D.

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In preliminary building energy assessments, it is often desired to estimate a motor's input power. Motor power estimates in this context should be rapid, safe, and noninvasive. Existing methods for motor input power estimation, such as direct...

  5. A state, characteristics, and perspectives of the Czech combined heating and power (CHP) systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadrnozka, J. [Technical Univ. of Brno (Czech Republic)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The combined production of electricity and heat is a significant method for saving primary energy sources like fossil fuels, as well as reducing the production of CO{sub 2} and its emission to the atmosphere. The paper discusses the total efficiency of combined heat and power generation (CHP), comparing various types of CHP plants. The paper then describes the situation in the Czech Republic with regard to their centralized heat supply. The author concludes that there is no simple way to rebuild the Czech CHP systems, and that it would be better to start construction on more modern plants. He lists several starting principles to follow in the planning and design stage.

  6. Preliminary environmental assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS). Revision 1. Volume 2. Detailed assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is considering several options for generating electrical power to meet future energy needs. The satellite power system (SPS), one of these options, would collect solar energy through a system of satellites in space and transfer this energy to earth. A reference system has been described that would convert the energy to microwaves and transmit the microwave energy via directive antennas to large receiving/rectifying antennas (rectennas) located on the earth. At the rectennas, the microwave energy would be converted into electricity. The potential environmental impacts of constructing and operating the satellite power system are being assessed as a part of the Department of Energy's SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program. This report is Revision I of the Preliminary Environmental Assessment for the Satellite Power System published in October 1978. It refines and extends the 1978 assessment and provides a basis for a 1980 revision that will guide and support DOE recommendations regarding future SPS development. This is Volume 2 of two volumes. It contains the technical detail suitable for peer review and integrates information appearing in documents referenced herein. The key environmental issues associated with the SPS concern human health and safety, ecosystems, climate, and electromagnetic systems interactions. In order to address these issues in an organized manner, five tasks are reported: (I) microwave-radiation health and ecological effects; (II) nonmicrowave health and ecological effectss; (III) atmospheric effects; (IV) effects on communication systems due to ionospheric disturbance; and (V) electromagnetic compatibility. (WHK)

  7. Combined Heat And Power Installation Market Size | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.png ElColumbia, North Carolina: EnergyCombined Heat And Power

  8. Power plant system assessment. Final report. SP-100 Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.V.; Atkins, D.F.; Bost, D.S.; Berman, B.; Clinger, D.A.; Determan, W.R.; Drucker, G.S.; Glasgow, L.E.; Hartung, J.A.; Harty, R.B.

    1983-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this assessment was to provide system-level insights into 100-kWe-class space reactor electric systems. Using these insights, Rockwell was to select and perform conceptual design studies on a ''most attractive'' system that met the preliminary design goals and requirements of the SP-100 Program. About 4 of the 6 months were used in the selection process. The remaining 2 months were used for the system conceptual design studies. Rockwell completed these studies at the end of FY 1983. This report summarizes the results of the power plant system assessment and describes our choice for the most attractive system - the Rockwell SR-100G System (Space Reactor, 100 kWe, Growth) - a lithium-cooled UN-fueled fast reactor/Brayton turboelectric converter system.

  9. Experimental investigation of active microstrip patch antennas for power combiner applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hummer, Kenneth Andrew

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1988 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF ACTIVE MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNAS FOR POWER COMBINING APPLICATIONS A Thesis by KENNETH ANDREW HUMMER Approved as to style and content by... INTRODUCTION One goal of antenna engineers is to be able to connect antennas directly to their sources. Normally, antenna arrays are built by connecting the antennas to a lossy feed network and then to the source. If a solid state source could be integrated...

  10. Understanding the Impact of Large-Scale Penetration of Micro Combined Heat & Power Technologies within Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    of Micro Combined Heat & Power Technologies within Energy Systems by Karen de los Ángeles Tapia-based electricity generation technologies are considered, by energy experts and also policymakers, to be essentialUnderstanding the Impact of Large-Scale Penetration of Micro Combined Heat & Power Technologies

  11. Space nuclear-power reactor design based on combined neutronic and thermal-fluid analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenig, D.R.; Gido, R.G.; Brandon, D.I.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and performance analysis of a space nuclear-power system requires sophisticated analytical capabilities such as those developed during the nuclear rocket propulsion (Rover) program. In particular, optimizing the size of a space nuclear reactor for a given power level requires satisfying the conflicting requirements of nuclear criticality and heat removal. The optimization involves the determination of the coolant void (volume) fraction for which the reactor diameter is a minimum and temperature and structural limits are satisfied. A minimum exists because the critical diameter increases with increasing void fraction, whereas the reactor diameter needed to remove a specified power decreases with void fraction. The purpose of this presentation is to describe and demonstrate our analytical capability for the determination of minimum reactor size. The analysis is based on combining neutronic criticality calculations with OPTION-code thermal-fluid calculations.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM "PREMIUM POWER" APPLICATIONS IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    through capability of CHP equipment. Thomson Technology,Germany, 2008. Pacific Region CHP Application Center, EnergyMarnay ^ * Pacific Region CHP Application Center ^ Lawrence

  13. Final Report: Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    schedule. Of course, running CHP systems at the time ofride-through capability of CHP equipment, June 2007.Kammen* * Pacific Region CHP Application Center ^ Lawrence

  14. Final Report: Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What is the appropriate level of installed capacity of thesecost? • How should the installed capacity be operated so asand how much of the installed capacity will be running • the

  15. ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM "PREMIUM POWER" APPLICATIONS IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What is the appropriate level of installed capacity of thesecost? ? How should the installed capacity be operated so asand how much of the installed capacity will be running ? the

  16. Final Report: Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The actual cost of doing this for a fuel cell system couldaverage cost of adding this capability to a fuel cell systemcost would depend much more greatly on how steady the load was when the fuel cell

  17. ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM "PREMIUM POWER" APPLICATIONS IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    range of a fuel cell is limited, this cost would depend muchThe actual cost of doing this for a fuel cell system couldaverage cost of adding this capability to a fuel cell system

  18. Final Report: Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commission - FERC Definition) Fraction of Energy Demand MetCommission - FERC Definition) Fraction of Energy Demand MetCommission - FERC Definition) Fraction of Energy Demand Met

  19. Final Report: Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pdf/E-20.pdf, May 2008. PG&E natural gas tariffs. http://pdf/G-NT.pdf, May 2008. PG&E natural gas tariffs. http://than less expensive natural gas fired reciprocating engine

  20. ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM "PREMIUM POWER" APPLICATIONS IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and forecast 2008 natural gas cost data. IKUN Energy, 2008.fueled by either natural gas or solar energy providingelectricity tariff, natural gas prices, and other relevant

  1. ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM "PREMIUM POWER" APPLICATIONS IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CCP system provides electricity and cooling to a data centersystem with a high cooling load and no heating load (such as a data center)

  2. Final Report: Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    facility can produce electricty and heat for the brewery andfacility can produce electricty and heat for the brewery and

  3. Final Report: Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    investment in CHP could significantly benefit the facility in terms of both costcost, and energy technology investments for each scenario below: Scenario 1 Diesel generators and CHP/cost, and energy technology investments for each scenario below: Scenario 1 Diesel generators and CHP/

  4. ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM "PREMIUM POWER" APPLICATIONS IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    standpoint. Secondly, waste heat driven thermal coolingin the summer, when waste heat could be used for cooling,

  5. Final Report: Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    natural gas generator with waste heat recovery at a facilityCCHP locations that are using waste heat for cooling alsouse some of the waste heat directly for water or space

  6. Final Report: Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    substituting for diesel generation with a nearly equivalentreplacing existing diesel generation with CCHP systems withdiesel and CHP/CCHP units (with blackout ride-through capability) that should be installed ignoring any constraints on backup generation.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM "PREMIUM POWER" APPLICATIONS IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    substituting for diesel generation with a nearly equivalentreplacing existing diesel generation with CCHP systems withdiesel and CCHP units (with blackout ride-through capability) to minimize the total cost function ignoring any constraints on backup generation.

  8. Final Report: Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory Environmental Energy Technologies Division Juneenergy cost, and energy technology investments for eachenergy cost, and energy technology investments for each

  9. ITP Distributed Energy: Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGENDDepartmentSeptember 20092009 | UC Berkeley UC

  10. Op%mal Scheduling of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Plants1 under Time-sensi%ve Electricity Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 Op%mal Scheduling of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Plants1 under Time-sensi%ve Electricity Prices Summary In this case study, a CHP plant increases its profit%ons with the power grid 4 Power Grid CHP plant Typically mul%ple boilers and turbines

  11. A combined compensation method for the output voltage of an insulated core transformer power supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.; Yang, J., E-mail: jyang@mail.hust.edu.cn; Liu, K. F.; Qin, B.; Chen, D. Z. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An insulated core transformer (ICT) power supply is an ideal high-voltage generator for irradiation accelerators with energy lower than 3 MeV. However, there is a significant problem that the structure of the segmented cores leads to an increase in the leakage flux and voltage differences between rectifier disks. A high level of consistency in the output of the disks helps to achieve a compact structure by improving the utilization of both the rectifier components and the insulation distances, and consequently increase the output voltage of the power supply. The output voltages of the disks which are far away from the primary coils need to be improved to reduce their inhomogeneity. In this study, by investigating and comparing the existing compensation methods, a new combined compensation method is proposed, which increases the turns on the secondary coils and employs parallel capacitors to improve the consistency of the disks, while covering the entire operating range of the power supply. This method turns out to be both feasible and effective during the development of an ICT power supply. The non-uniformity of the output voltages of the disks is less than 3.5% from no-load to full-load, and the power supply reaches an output specification of 350 kV/60 mA.

  12. Combining Droop Curve Concepts with Control Systems for Wind Turbine Active Power Control: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckspan, A.; Aho, J.; Pao, L.; Fleming, P.; Jeong, Y.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wind energy is becoming a larger portion of the global energy portfolio and wind penetration has increased dramatically in certain regions of the world. This increasing wind penetration has driven the need for wind turbines to provide active power control (APC) services to the local utility grid, as wind turbines do not intrinsically provide frequency regulation services that are common with traditional generators. It is common for large scale wind turbines to be decoupled from the utility grid via power electronics, which allows the turbine to synthesize APC commands via control of the generator torque and blade pitch commands. Consequently, the APC services provided by a wind turbine can be more flexible than those provided by conventional generators. This paper focuses on the development and implementation of both static and dynamic droop curves to measure grid frequency and output delta power reference signals to a novel power set point tracking control system. The combined droop curve and power tracking controller is simulated and comparisons are made between simulations using various droop curve parameters and stochastic wind conditions. The tradeoffs involved with aggressive response to frequency events are analyzed. At the turbine level, simulations are performed to analyze induced structural loads. At the grid level, simulations test a wind plant's response to a dip in grid frequency.

  13. Wabash River Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project: Clean Coal Technology Program. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed project would result in a combined-cycle power plant with lower emissions and higher efficiency than most existing coal-fired power plants of comparable size. The net plant heat rate (energy content of the fuel input per useable electrical generation output; i.e., Btu/kilowatt hour) for the new repowered unit would be a 21% improvement over the existing unit, while reducing SO{sub 2} emissions by greater than 90% and limiting NO{sub x} emissions by greater than 85% over that produced by conventional coal-fired boilers. The technology, which relies on gasified coal, is capable of producing as much as 25% more electricity from a given amount of coal than today`s conventional coal-burning methods. Besides having the positive environmental benefit of producing less pollutants per unit of power generated, the higher overall efficiency of the proposed CGCC project encourages greater utilization to meet base load requirements in order to realize the associated economic benefits. This greater utilization (i.e., increased capacity factor) of a cleaner operating plant has global environmental benefits in that it is likely that such power would replace power currently being produced by less efficient plants emitting a greater volume of pollutants per unit of power generated.

  14. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oland, CB

    2004-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined heat and power (CHP) or cogeneration is the sequential production of two forms of useful energy from a single fuel source. In most CHP applications, chemical energy in fuel is converted to both mechanical and thermal energy. The mechanical energy is generally used to generate electricity, while the thermal energy or heat is used to produce steam, hot water, or hot air. Depending on the application, CHP is referred to by various names including Building Cooling, Heating, and Power (BCHP); Cooling, Heating, and Power for Buildings (CHPB); Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power (CCHP); Integrated Energy Systems (IES), or Distributed Energy Resources (DER). The principal technical advantage of a CHP system is its ability to extract more useful energy from fuel compared to traditional energy systems such as conventional power plants that only generate electricity and industrial boiler systems that only produce steam or hot water for process applications. By using fuel energy for both power and heat production, CHP systems can be very energy efficient and have the potential to produce electricity below the price charged by the local power provider. Another important incentive for applying cogeneration technology is to reduce or eliminate dependency on the electrical grid. For some industrial processes, the consequences of losing power for even a short period of time are unacceptable. The primary objective of the guide is to present information needed to evaluate the viability of cogeneration for new or existing industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boiler installations and to make informed CHP equipment selection decisions. Information presented is meant to help boiler owners and operators understand the potential benefits derived from implementing a CHP project and recognize opportunities for successful application of cogeneration technology. Topics covered in the guide follow: (1) an overview of cogeneration technology with discussions about benefits of applying cogeneration technology and barriers to implementing cogeneration technology; (2) applicable federal regulations and permitting issues; (3) descriptions of prime movers commonly used in CHP applications, including discussions about design characteristics, heat-recovery options and equipment, fuels and emissions, efficiency, maintenance, availability, and capital cost; (4) electrical generators and electrical interconnection equipment; (5) cooling and dehumidification equipment; (6) thermodynamic cycle options and configurations; (7) steps for evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of applying cogeneration technology; and (8) information sources.

  15. Assessment of instrumentation needs for advanced coal power plant applications: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, E.T.; Fischer, W.H.; Lipka, J.V.; Rutkowski, M.D.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to identify contaminants, identify instrumentation needs, assess available instrumentation and identify instruments that should be developed for controlling and monitoring gas streams encountered in the following power plants: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion, and Gasification Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell. Emphasis was placed on hot gas cleanup system gas stream analysis, and included process control, research and environmental monitoring needs. Commercial process analyzers, typical of those currently used for process control purposes, were reviewed for the purpose of indicating commercial status. No instrument selection guidelines were found which were capable of replacing user interaction with the process analyzer vendors. This study leads to the following conclusions: available process analyzers for coal-derived gas cleanup applications satisfy current power system process control and regulatory requirements, but they are troublesome to maintain; commercial gas conditioning systems and in situ analyzers continue to be unavailable for hot gas cleanup applications; many research-oriented gas stream characterization and toxicity assessment needs can not be met by commercially available process analyzers; and greater emphasis should be placed on instrumentation and control system planning for future power plant applications. Analyzers for specific compounds are not recommended other than those needed for current process control purposes. Instead, some generally useful on-line laser-based and inductively coupled plasma methods are recommended for further development because of their potential for use in present hot gas cleanup research and future optimization, component protection and regulation compliance activities. 48 refs., 21 figs., 26 tabs.

  16. Assessing the wind field over the continental shelf as a resource for electric power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Assessing the wind field over the continental shelf as a resource for electric power by Richard W. Garvine1,2 and Willett Kempton1,3,4 ABSTRACT To assess the wind power resources of a large continental for the comparison period) that the near-coast phase advantage is obviated. We also find more consistent wind power

  17. Reliability assessment of autonomous power systems incorporating HVDC interconnection links

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dialynas, E.N.; Koskolos, N.C. [National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering] [National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Agoris, D. [Public Power Corp., Athens (Greece)] [Public Power Corp., Athens (Greece)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this paper is to present an improved computational method for the overall reliability assessment of autonomous power systems that may or may not contain HVdc interconnection links. This is a hybrid method based on a Monte-Carlo simulation sequential approach which incorporates an analytical approach for the reliability modeling of the HVdc transmission links. The developed models and techniques have been implemented into a computer program that can be used to simulate the operational practices and characteristics of the overall system under study efficiently and realistically. A set of reliability indices are calculated for each load-point of interest and the entire system while a set of additional indices is calculated for quantifying the reliability performance of the interconnection links under the specified operating requirements. The analysis of a practical system is also included for a number of studies representing its various operating and design characteristics.

  18. Combined Power Generation and Carbon Sequestration Using Direct FuelCell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The unique chemistry of carbonate fuel cell offers an innovative approach for separation of carbon dioxide from greenhouse gases (GHG). The carbonate fuel cell system also produces electric power at high efficiency. The simultaneous generation of power and sequestration of greenhouse gases offer an attractive scenario for re-powering the existing coal-fueled power plants, in which the carbonate fuel cell would separate the carbon dioxide from the flue gas and would generate additional pollutant-free electric power. Development of this system is concurrent with emergence of Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) technology for generation of electric power from fossil fuels. DFC is based on carbonate fuel cell featuring internal reforming. This technology has been deployed in MW-scale power plants and is readily available as a manufactured product. This final report describes the results of the conceptualization study conducted to assess the DFC-based system concept for separation of CO2 from GHG. Design and development studies were focused on integration of the DFC systems with coal-based power plants, which emit large amounts of GHG. In parallel to the system design and simulation activities, operation of laboratory scale DFC verified the technical concept and provided input to the design activity. The system was studied to determine its effectiveness in capturing more than ninety percent of CO2 from the flue gases. Cost analysis was performed to estimate the change in cost of electricity for a 200 MW pulverized coal boiler steam cycle plant retrofitted with the DFC-based CO2 separation system producing an additional 127 MW of electric power. The cost increments as percentage of levelized cost of electricity were estimated for a range of separation plant installations per year and a range of natural gas cost. The parametric envelope meeting the goal (<20% increase in COE) was identified. Results of this feasibility study indicated that DFC-based separation systems have the potential for capturing at least 90% of the emissions from the greenhouse gases generated by power plants and other industrial exhaust streams, and yet entail in less than 20% increase in the cost of energy services for long-term deployment (beyond 2012). The anticipated cost of energy increase is in line with DOE's goal for post-combustion systems as outlined in the ''Carbon Capture and Sequestration Systems Analysis Guidelines'', published by NETL, April 2005. During the course of this study certain enabling technologies were identified and the needs for further research and development were discussed.

  19. The use of combined heat and power (CHP) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asrael, J.; Milmoe, P.H.; Haydel, J.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cogeneration or Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is the sequential production of electric power and thermal energy. It is a more efficient way of providing electricity and process heat than producing them independently. Average overall efficiencies can range from 70% to more than 80%. CHP decisions often present an opportunity to switch to a cleaner fuel. CHP systems are an attractive opportunity to save money, increase overall efficiency, reduce net emissions, and improve environmental performance. Climate Wise, a US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) program helping industrial Partners turn energy efficiency and pollution prevention into a corporate asset, has increased awareness of CHP by providing implementation and savings information, providing peer exchange opportunities for its Partners, and recognizing the achievements of Partners that have implemented CHP at their facilities. This paper profiles Climate Wise Partners that have invested in CHP systems, including describing how CHP is used in their facilities and the resulting cost and emission reductions.

  20. Combined Base Station Association and Power Control in Multi-channel Cellular Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Chandramani; Sundaresan, Rajesh

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined base station association and power control problem is studied for the uplink of multichannel multicell cellular networks, in which each channel is used by exactly one cell (i.e., base station). A distributed association and power update algorithm is proposed and shown to converge to a Nash equilibrium of a noncooperative game. We consider network models with discrete mobiles (yielding an atomic congestion game), as well as a continuum of mobiles (yielding a population game). We find that the equilibria need not be Pareto efficient, nor need they be system optimal. To address the lack of system optimality, we propose pricing mechanisms. It is shown that these mechanisms can be implemented in a distributed fashion.

  1. Preliminary Estimates of Combined Heat and Power Greenhouse GasAbatement Potential for California in 2020

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firestone, Ryan; Ling, Frank; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi LaCommare,Kristina

    2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this scoping project is to help the California Energy Commission's (CEC) Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program determine where it should make investments in research to support combined heat and power (CHP) deployment. Specifically, this project will: {sm_bullet} Determine what impact CHP might have in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, {sm_bullet} Determine which CHP strategies might encourage the most attractive early adoption, {sm_bullet} Identify the regulatory and technological barriers to the most attractive CHP strategies, and {sm_bullet} Make recommendations to the PIER program as to research that is needed to support the most attractive CHP strategies.

  2. Combined Heat And Power Installation Market Trends | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.png ElColumbia, North Carolina: EnergyCombined Heat And

  3. Effect of Gas Turbine Exhaust Temperature, Stack Temperature and Ambient Temperature on Overall Efficiency of Combine Cycle Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Abstract—The gas turbine exhaust temperature, stack temperature and ambient temperature play a very important role during the predication of the performance of combine cycle power plant. This paper covers parametric analysis of effects of gas turbine exhaust temperature, stack temperature and ambient temperature on the overall efficiency of combine cycle power plant keeping the gas turbine efficiency as well as steam turbine efficiency constant. The results shows that out of three variables i.e. turbine exhaust temperature, stack temperature and ambient temperature, the most dominating factor of increasing the overall efficiency of the combine cycle power plant is the stack temperature.

  4. Nuclear power plant performance assessment pertaining to plant aging in France and the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guyer, Brittany (Brittany Leigh)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of aging on nuclear power plant performance has come under increased scrutiny in recent years. The approaches used to make an assessment of this effect strongly influence the economics of nuclear power plant ...

  5. Assessing the costs of solar power plants for the Island of Roatàn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huwe, Ethan (Ethan L.)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is an analysis assessing the installation costs of different solar power plant technologies and the current commercial availability for installation on the Island or Roatàn. Commercial large-scale power plants have ...

  6. Preferences, Knowledge, and Citizen Probability Assessments of the Terrorism Risk of Nuclear Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Quan; Fuhrmann, Matthew; Early, Bryan R.; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    support using nuclear power to meet rising energy demands, who are generally less concerned with terrorism, or who are more knowledgeable about terrorism and nuclear security tend to provide lower assessments of the likelihood that nuclear power plants...

  7. Preferences, Knowledge, and Citizen Probability Assessments of the Terrorism Risk of Nuclear Power 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Quan; Fuhrmann, Matthew; Early, Bryan R.; Vedlitz, Arnold

    How does the American public assess risk when it comes to national security issues? This paper addresses this question by analyzing variation in citizen probability assessments of the terrorism risk of nuclear power plants. Drawing on the literature...

  8. Web-based Tool for Preliminary Assessment of Wind Power Plant Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mustakerov, Ivan

    Web-based Tool for Preliminary Assessment of Wind Power Plant Design Daniela Borissova1 and Ivan. Designing of reliable and cost-effective industrial wind power plant is a prerequisite for the effective use of wind power as an alternative resource. The design of a wind power plant includes the determination

  9. A Set-Theoretic Framework to Assess the Impact of Variable Generation on the Power Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    penetration of renewable resources of electricity, such as wind and solar, into existing power systems. Since renewable resources vary in rated power output and point of grid interconnection, they affect power systems1 A Set-Theoretic Framework to Assess the Impact of Variable Generation on the Power Flow Xichen

  10. Assessment of Future ICE and Fuel-Cell Powered Vehicles and Their...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    San Diego, CA August 29 - September 2, 2004 Assessment of Future ICE and Fuel-Cell Powered Vehicles and Their Potential Impacts 082904 "The fundamental problem is that...

  11. A comparison of ground source heat pumps and micro-combined heat and power as residential greenhouse gas reduction strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guyer, Brittany (Brittany Leigh)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both ground source heat pumps operating on electricity and micro-combined heat and power systems operating on fossil fuels offer potential for the reduction of green house gas emissions in comparison to the conventional ...

  12. RELIABILITY OF WIND POWER FROM DISPERSED SITES: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahn, E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ON METHODOLOGY: FROM WIND POWER FREQUENCY TO LOSS-OF-LOADJ.P. , "Some Aspects of Wind Power Statistics, " J. of Appl.J • J METHODOLOGY: FROM WIND POWER FREQUENCY TO LOSS-OF-LOAD

  13. RELIABILITY OF WIND POWER FROM DISPERSED SITES: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahn, E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ON METHODOLOGY: FROM WIND POWER FREQUENCY TO LOSS-OF-LOADJ.P. , "Some Aspects of Wind Power Statistics, " J. of Appl.S£CTION Reliability of Wind Power From Dispersed Sites: A Pr

  14. Environmental Assessment for the Warren Station externally fired combined cycle demonstration project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed Penelec project is one of 5 projects for potential funding under the fifth solicitation under the Clean Coal Technology program. In Penelec, two existing boilers would be replaced at Warren Station, PA; the new unit would produce 73 MW(e) in a combined cycle mode (using both gas-fired and steam turbines). The project would fill the need for a full utility-size demonstration of externally fire combined cycle (EFCC) technology as the next step toward commercialization. This environmental assessment was prepared for compliance with NEPA; its purpose is to provide sufficient basis for determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement or to issue a finding of no significant impact. It is divided into the sections: purpose and need for proposed action; alternatives; brief description of affected environment; environmental consequences, including discussion of commercial operation beyond the demonstration period.

  15. Validation of seismic probabilistic risk assessments of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingwood, B. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of a nuclear plant requires identification and information regarding the seismic hazard at the plant site, dominant accident sequences leading to core damage, and structure and equipment fragilities. Uncertainties are associated with each of these ingredients of a PRA. Sources of uncertainty due to seismic hazard and assumptions underlying the component fragility modeling may be significant contributors to uncertainty in estimates of core damage probability. Design and construction errors also may be important in some instances. When these uncertainties are propagated through the PRA, the frequency distribution of core damage probability may span three orders of magnitude or more. This large variability brings into question the credibility of PRA methods and the usefulness of insights to be gained from a PRA. The sensitivity of accident sequence probabilities and high-confidence, low probability of failure (HCLPF) plant fragilities to seismic hazard and fragility modeling assumptions was examined for three nuclear power plants. Mean accident sequence probabilities were found to be relatively insensitive (by a factor of two or less) to: uncertainty in the coefficient of variation (logarithmic standard deviation) describing inherent randomness in component fragility; truncation of lower tail of fragility; uncertainty in random (non-seismic) equipment failures (e.g., diesel generators); correlation between component capacities; and functional form of fragility family. On the other hand, the accident sequence probabilities, expressed in the form of a frequency distribution, are affected significantly by the seismic hazard modeling, including slopes of seismic hazard curves and likelihoods assigned to those curves.

  16. System vulnerability as a concept to assess power system dynamic security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fouad, A.A.; Qin Zhou; Vittal, V. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States))

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of system vulnerability is introduced as a new framework for power system dynamic security assessment. This new concept combines information on the level of security and its trend with changing system condition. In this paper the transient energy function (TEF) method is used as a tool of analysis. The energy margin [Delta]V is used as an indicator of the level of security, and its sensitivity ([partial derivative][Delta]V/[partial derivative]p) to a changing system parameter p as an indicator of its trend. The thresholds for acceptable levels of the security indicator ([Delta]V) and its trend ([partial derivative][Delta]V/[partial derivative]p) are related to the stability limits of a critical system parameter. A method is proposed to determine these thresholds using heuristic techniques derived from operating practices and policies for a change in plant generation. Results from the IEEE 50 generator test system are presented to illustrate the procedure.

  17. Western Area Power Administration combined power system financial statements, September 30, 1996 and 1995 (with independent auditors` report thereon)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Department of Energy`s Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) combined financial statements as of September 30, 1996. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on the 1996 statements. The auditors` report on Western`s internal control structure disclosed two new reportable conditions and discussed the status of an unresolved condition from prior years. The new conditions involved the write-off of aging accounts receivable and the understatement of interest expense for inactive construction work orders. These reportable conditions are not considered to be material weaknesses. Western concurred with the audit recommendations and is responsible for necessary corrective actions. The auditors also considered the overview and performance measure data for completeness and material consistency with the basic financial statements as noted in the internal control report. The report also disclosed an additional reportable condition directed to the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) which is not considered to be a material weakness. Reclamation concurred with the audit recommendation and is responsible for necessary corrective action. The auditors` report on Western`s compliance with laws and regulations disclosed two new instances of noncompliance involving interest charges on all construction costs funded with Federal appropriations and other capitalized costs. The report also discussed the status of one instance of noncompliance from prior years. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans for all of these instances of noncompliance.

  18. GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER WITH DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PRIME MOVERS - ASME 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, Scott [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Bunce, Michael [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pending or recently enacted greenhouse gas regulations and mandates are leading to the need for current and feasible GHG reduction solutions including combined heat and power (CHP). Distributed generation using advanced reciprocating engines, gas turbines, microturbines and fuel cells has been shown to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) compared to the U.S. electrical generation mix due to the use of natural gas and high electrical generation efficiencies of these prime movers. Many of these prime movers are also well suited for use in CHP systems which recover heat generated during combustion or energy conversion. CHP increases the total efficiency of the prime mover by recovering waste heat for generating electricity, replacing process steam, hot water for buildings or even cooling via absorption chilling. The increased efficiency of CHP systems further reduces GHG emissions compared to systems which do not recover waste thermal energy. Current GHG mandates within the U.S Federal sector and looming GHG legislation for states puts an emphasis on understanding the GHG reduction potential of such systems. This study compares the GHG savings from various state-of-the- art prime movers. GHG reductions from commercially available prime movers in the 1-5 MW class including, various industrial fuel cells, large and small gas turbines, micro turbines and reciprocating gas engines with and without CHP are compared to centralized electricity generation including the U.S. mix and the best available technology with natural gas combined cycle power plants. The findings show significant GHG saving potential with the use of CHP. Also provided is an exploration of the accounting methodology for GHG reductions with CHP and the sensitivity of such analyses to electrical generation efficiency, emissions factors and most importantly recoverable heat and thermal recovery efficiency from the CHP system.

  19. Effects of a carbon tax on microgrid combined heat and power adoption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Firestone, Ryan M.; Ghosh, Srijay; Stadler, Michael

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the economically optimal adoption and operation of distributed energy resources (DER) by a hypothetical California microgrid consisting of a group of commercial buildings over an historic test year, 1999. The optimization is conducted using a customer adoption model (DER-CAM) developed at Berkeley Lab and implemented in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). A microgrid is a semiautonomous grouping of electricity and heat loads interconnected to the existing utility grid (macrogrid) but able to island from it. The microgrid minimizes the cost of meeting its energy requirements (consisting of both electricity and heat loads) by optimizing the installation and operation of DER technologies while purchasing residual energy from the local combined natural gas and electricity utility. The available DER technologies are small-scale generators (< 500 kW), such as reciprocating engines, microturbines, and fuel cells, with or without combined heat and power (CHP) equipment, such as water and space heating and/or absorption cooling. By introducing a tax on carbon emissions, it is shown that if the microgrid is allowed to install CHP-enabled DER technologies, its carbon emissions are mitigated more than without CHP, demonstrating the potential benefits of small-scale CHP technology for climate change mitigation. Reciprocating engines with heat recovery and/or absorption cooling tend to be attractive technologies for the mild southern California climate, but the carbon mitigation tends to be modest compared to purchasing utility electricity because of the predominance of relatively clean central station generation in California.

  20. AC system stability analysis and assessment for Shipboard Power Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, Li

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric power systems in U.S. Navy ships supply energy to sophisticated systems for weapons, communications, navigation and operation. The reliability and survivability of a Shipboard Power System (SPS) are critical ...

  1. DOE/EA-1247; Environmental Assessment for Electrical Power System...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Transmission Cooperative, Inc. PM particulate matter PNM Public Service Company of New Mexico Power Pool Los Alamos Power Pool PRS potential release site ROW right-of-way SDP...

  2. AC system stability analysis and assessment for Shipboard Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, Li

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric power systems in U.S. Navy ships supply energy to sophisticated systems for weapons, communications, navigation and operation. The reliability and survivability of a Shipboard Power System (SPS) are critical to the mission of a Navy...

  3. Distributed energy resources customer adoption modeling with combined heat and power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Firestone, Ryan M.; Ghosh, Srijay; Stadler, Michael; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, an economic model of customer adoption of distributed energy resources (DER) is developed. It covers progress on the DER project for the California Energy Commission (CEC) at Berkeley Lab during the period July 2001 through Dec 2002 in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Distributed Energy Resources Integration (DERI) project. CERTS has developed a specific paradigm of distributed energy deployment, the CERTS Microgrid (as described in Lasseter et al. 2002). The primary goal of CERTS distributed generation research is to solve the technical problems required to make the CERTS Microgrid a viable technology, and Berkeley Lab's contribution is to direct the technical research proceeding at CERTS partner sites towards the most productive engineering problems. The work reported herein is somewhat more widely applicable, so it will be described within the context of a generic microgrid (mGrid). Current work focuses on the implementation of combined heat and power (CHP) capability. A mGrid as generically defined for this work is a semiautonomous grouping of generating sources and end-use electrical loads and heat sinks that share heat and power. Equipment is clustered and operated for the benefit of its owners. Although it can function independently of the traditional power system, or macrogrid, the mGrid is usually interconnected and exchanges energy and possibly ancillary services with the macrogrid. In contrast to the traditional centralized paradigm, the design, implementation, operation, and expansion of the mGrid is meant to optimize the overall energy system requirements of participating customers rather than the objectives and requirements of the macrogrid.

  4. Business Case for a Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System in Commercial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Anderson, David M.; Amaya, Jodi P.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Srivastava, Viraj; Upton, Jaki F.

    2013-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a business case for CHP-FCSs in the range of 5 to 50 kWe. Systems in this power range are considered micro-CHP-FCS. For this particular business case, commercial applications rather than residential or industrial are targeted. To understand the benefits of implementing a micro-CHP-FCS, the characteristics that determine their competitive advantage must first be identified. Locations with high electricity prices and low natural gas prices are ideal locations for micro-CHP-FCSs. Fortunately, these high spark spread locations are generally in the northeastern area of the United States and California where government incentives are already in place to offset the current high cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs. As a result of the inherently high efficiency of a fuel cell and their ability to use the waste heat that is generated as a CHP, they have higher efficiency. This results in lower fuel costs than comparable alternative small-scale power systems (e.g., microturbines and reciprocating engines). A variety of markets should consider micro-CHP-FCSs including those that require both heat and baseload electricity throughout the year. In addition, the reliable power of micro-CHP-FCSs could be beneficial to markets where electrical outages are especially frequent or costly. Greenhouse gas emission levels from micro-CHP-FCSs are 69 percent lower, and the human health costs are 99.9 percent lower, than those attributed to conventional coal-fired power plants. As a result, FCSs can allow a company to advertise as environmentally conscious and provide a bottom-line sales advantage. As a new technology in the early stages of adoption, micro-CHP-FCSs are currently more expensive than alternative technologies. As the technology gains a foothold in its target markets and demand increases, the costs will decline in response to improved manufacturing efficiencies, similar to trends seen with other technologies. Transparency Market Research forecasts suggest that the CHP-FCS market will grow at a compound annual growth rate of greater than 27 percent over the next 5 years. These production level increases, coupled with the expected low price of natural gas, indicate the economic payback period will move to less than 5 years over the course of the next 5 years. To better understand the benefits of micro-CHP-FCSs, The U.S. Department of Energy worked with ClearEdge Power to install fifteen 5-kWe fuel cells in the commercial markets of California and Oregon. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is evaluating these systems in terms of economics, operations, and their environmental impact in real-world applications. As expected, the economic analysis has indicated that the high capital cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs results in a longer payback period than typically is acceptable for all but early-adopter market segments. However, a payback period of less than 3 years may be expected as increased production brings system cost down, and CHP incentives are maintained or improved.

  5. Initial Maintenance Assessment for ARIES-CS Power Plant X. R. Wang, S. Malang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    Initial Maintenance Assessment for ARIES-CS Power Plant X. R. Wang, S. Malang a , A. R. Raffray that will result in the detailed design study of a compact stellarator power plant. The first year engineering and maintenance scheme is quite challenging for a compact stellerator power plant because of the helical plasma

  6. ASSESSMENT OF OPTIONS FOR ATTRACTIVE COMMERCIAL AND DEMONSTRATION TOKAMAK FUSION POWER PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    ASSESSMENT OF OPTIONS FOR ATTRACTIVE COMMERCIAL AND DEMONSTRATION TOKAMAK FUSION POWER PLANTS Power Plant based on toka- mak confinement concept. It is obvious that the Fusion Demo should demonstrate that a commercial fusion power plant would be accepted by utility and industry (i

  7. Models for Assessing Power Fluctuations from Large Wind Farms N. A. Cutululis1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that the active power supplied from the first large 160 MW offshore wind farm in this system, Horns Rev today). Figure 1. Power generation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm and onshore turbines, January 18 2005Models for Assessing Power Fluctuations from Large Wind Farms N. A. Cutululis1) , P. Sørensen1) , A

  8. ASSESSING NUCLEAR POWER PLANT SAFETY AND RECOVERY FROM EARTHQUAKES USING A SYSTEM-OF-SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    by Monte Carlo simulation the probability that the nuclear power plant enters in an unsafe stateASSESSING NUCLEAR POWER PLANT SAFETY AND RECOVERY FROM EARTHQUAKES USING A SYSTEM in which the plant is embedded. As a test system, we consider the impacts produced on a nuclear power plant

  9. Assessing Power Substation Network Security and Survivability: A Work in Progress Report1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krings, Axel W.

    critical infrastructure systems identified was the electric power grid since this system supports all other: Cyber security, electric power security, assessment techniques 1. Introduction The on-going problem non-military infrastructures. Power grid vulnerabilities and mitigations were documented in the PCCIP

  10. TO APPEAR IN IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS 1 Vulnerability Assessment of Cybersecurity for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manimaran, Govindarasu

    TO APPEAR IN IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS 1 Vulnerability Assessment of Cybersecurity standards for electric power systems. The purpose is to study the impact of a cyber attack on supervisory was supported by Electric Power Research Center (EPRC) at Iowa State University. C.-W. Ten, C.-C. Liu, and M

  11. 1836 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 23, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2008 Vulnerability Assessment of Cybersecurity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manimaran, Govindarasu

    1836 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 23, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2008 Vulnerability Assessment's cybersecurity standards for electric power systems. The purpose is to study the impact of a cyber attack was supported by the Electric Power Research Center (EPRC) at Iowa State University. Paper no. TPWRS-00963- 2007

  12. September 4-5, 2008/ARR TRL Assessment of Fusion Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    September 4-5, 2008/ARR 1 TRL Assessment of Fusion Power Plant Subsystems A. René Raffray of tritium throughout the entire plant, including breeding and recovery. 12. Power Extraction: Understand how the readiness level of the blanket subsystem for a fusion power plant (DEMO and beyond) · In order to develop

  13. An Assessment of Converter Modelling Needs for Offshore Wind Power Plants Connected via VSC-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bak, Claus Leth

    An Assessment of Converter Modelling Needs for Offshore Wind Power Plants Connected via VSC- HVDC, especially in case of connection of offshore wind power plants (OWPPs). Modelling challenges are faced Networks Jakob Glasdam, Lorenzo Zeni, Jesper Hjerrild, Lukasz Kocewiak, Bo Hesselbaek Wind Power

  14. RELIABILITY OF WIND POWER FROM DISPERSED SITES: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahn, E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coincidence of Demand and Wind Resource Diurnal PowerOutput Variations for Three Wind Regimes List of TablesCAPACITY CREDIT FOR WIND ARRAYS: THE PROBLEM . . . . . . .

  15. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project, Polk Power Station -- Unit No. 1. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This describes the Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit 1 (PPS-1) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project which will use a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasifier to convert approximately 2,300 tons per day of coal (dry basis) coupled with a combined cycle power block to produce a net 250 MW electrical power output. Coal is slurried in water, combined with 95% pure oxygen from an air separation unit, and sent to the gasifier to produce a high temperature, high pressure, medium-Btu syngas with a heat content of about 250 Btu/scf (LHV). The syngas then flows through a high temperature heat recovery unit which cools the syngas prior to its entering the cleanup systems. Molten coal ash flows from the bottom of the high temperature heat recovery unit into a water-filled quench chamber where it solidifies into a marketable slag by-product.

  16. assessment statistical power: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Statistical Downscaling of GCM Projections Materials Science Websites Summary: Assessment of Statistical Downscaling of GCM Projections for Water Resource Applications...

  17. Real-Time Combined Heat and Power Operational Strategy Using a Hierarchical Optimization Algorithm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Kyung Tae; Cho, Heejin; Luck, Rogelio; Mago, Pedro J.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Existing attempts to optimize the operation of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems for building applications have two major limitations: the electrical and thermal loads are obtained from historical weather profiles; and the CHP system models ignore transient responses by using constant equipment efficiencies. This paper considers the transient response of a building combined with a hierarchical CHP optimal control algorithm to obtain a real-time integrated system that uses the most recent weather and electric load information. This is accomplished by running concurrent simulations of two transient building models. The first transient building model uses current as well as forecast input information to obtain short term predictions of the thermal and electric building loads. The predictions are then used by an optimization algorithm, i.e., a hierarchical controller, that decides the amount of fuel and of electrical energy to be allocated at the current time step. In a simulation, the actual physical building is not available and, hence, to simulate a real-time environment, a second, building model with similar but not identical input loads are used to represent the actual building. A state-variable feedback loop is completed at the beginning of each time step by copying, i.e., measuring, the state variable from the actual building and restarting the predictive model using these ?measured? values as initial conditions. The simulation environment presented in this paper features nonlinear effects such as the dependence of the heat exchanger effectiveness on their operating conditions. The results indicate that the CHP engine operation dictated by the proposed hierarchical controller with uncertain weather conditions have the potential to yield significant savings when compared to conventional systems using current values of electricity and fuel prices.

  18. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    output P e Electrical power output of system Q Solar CHP to1.5, the CHP system cost of electrical power is obtained.thermal to electrical power output R of this system is (1 ?

  19. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar CHP system supplying arbitrary heat and power outputs.e Electrical power output of system Q Solar CHP to PV yearlysolar Rankine CHP system, sized equally in terms of peak power output,

  20. CoalFleet RD&D augmentation plan for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To help accelerate the development, demonstration, and market introduction of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and other clean coal technologies, EPRI formed the CoalFleet for Tomorrow initiative, which facilitates collaborative research by more than 50 organizations from around the world representing power generators, equipment suppliers and engineering design and construction firms, the U.S. Department of Energy, and others. This group advised EPRI as it evaluated more than 120 coal-gasification-related research projects worldwide to identify gaps or critical-path activities where additional resources and expertise could hasten the market introduction of IGCC advances. The resulting 'IGCC RD&D Augmentation Plan' describes such opportunities and how they could be addressed, for both IGCC plants to be built in the near term (by 2012-15) and over the longer term (2015-25), when demand for new electric generating capacity is expected to soar. For the near term, EPRI recommends 19 projects that could reduce the levelized cost-of-electricity for IGCC to the level of today's conventional pulverized-coal power plants with supercritical steam conditions and state-of-the-art environmental controls. For the long term, EPRI's recommended projects could reduce the levelized cost of an IGCC plant capturing 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced from the carbon in coal (for safe storage away from the atmosphere) to the level of today's IGCC plants without CO{sub 2} capture. EPRI's CoalFleet for Tomorrow program is also preparing a companion RD&D augmentation plan for advanced-combustion-based (i.e., non-gasification) clean coal technologies (Report 1013221). 7 refs., 30 figs., 29 tabs., 4 apps.

  1. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M. (2006). Dynamic life cycle assessment (LCA) of renewableutilize methods for life-cycle assessment (LCA) of emergingPerforming a life cycle assessment (LCA) is a useful way of

  2. Application of artificial neural networks in power system security and vulnerability assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin Zhou; Davidson, J.; Fouad, A.A.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a companion paper the concept of system vulnerability is introduced as a new framework for power system dynamic security assessment. Using the TEF method of transient stability analysis, the energy margin [Delta]V is used as an indicator of the level of security, and its sensitivity to a changing system parameter p ([partial derivative][Delta]V/[partial derivative]p) as indicator of its trend with changing system conditions. These two indicators are combined to determine the degree of system vulnerability to contingent disturbances in a stability-limited power system. Thresholds for acceptable levels of the security indicator and its trend are related to the stability limits of a critical system parameter (plant generation limits). Operating practices and policies are used to determine these thresholds. In this paper the artificial neural networks (ANNs) technique is applied to the concept of system vulnerability within the recently developed framework, for fast pattern recognition and classification of system dynamic security status. A suitable topology for the neural network is developed, and the appropriate training method and input and output signals are selected. The procedure developed is successfully applied to the IEEE 50-generator test system. Data previously obtained by heuristic techniques are used for training the ANN.

  3. Reliability assessment of electrical power systems using genetic algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samaan, Nader Amin Aziz

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    of the dissertation, a GA based method for state sampling of composite generation-transmission power systems is introduced. Binary encoded GA is used as a state sampling tool for the composite power system network states. A linearized optimization load flow model...

  4. 48.8 mW Multi-cell InP HBT Amplifier with on-wafer power combining at 220 GHz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    @teledyne-si.com Abstract-- We report 220 GHz Solid State Power Amplifier (SSPA) using a 250nm Indium Phosphide HBT-InP HBT, MMIC, Power amplifier, On-wafer power combining I. INTRODUCTION Solid-state Power Amplifiers associated with rain, humidity, and fog. To date, the highest reported output power for a solid state G

  5. Improved Electrical Load Match In California By Combining Solar Thermal Power Plants with Wind Farms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vick, B. D.; Clark, R. N.; Mehos, M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    California with its hydro, geothermal, wind, and solar energy is the second largest producer of renewable electricity in the United States (Washington state is the largest producer of renewable energy electricity due to high level of hydro power). Replacing fossil fuel electrical generation with renewable energy electrical generation will decrease the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere which will slow down the rapid increase in global warming (a goal of the California state government). However, in order for a much larger percentage of the total electrical generation in California to be from renewable energies like wind and solar, a better match between renewable energy generation and utility electrical load is required. Using wind farm production data and predicted production from a solar thermal power plant (with and without six hours of storage), a comparison was made between the renewable energy generation and the current utility load in California. On a monthly basis, wind farm generated electricity at the three major wind farm areas in California (Altamont Pass, east of San Francisco Bay area; Tehachapi Pass in the high desert between Tehachapi and Mojave; and San Gorgonio Pass in the low desert near Palm Springs) matches the utility load well during the highest electrical load months (May through September). Prediction of solar thermal power plant output also indicates a good match with utility load during these same high load months. Unfortunately, the hourly wind farm output during the day is not a very good match to the utility electrical load (i.e. in spring and summer the lowest wind speed generally occurs during mid-day when utility load is highest). If parabolic trough solar thermal power plants are installed in the Mojave Desert (similar to the 354 MW of plants that have been operating in Mojave Desert since 1990) then the solar electrical generation will help balance out the wind farm generation since highest solar generated electricity will be during mid-day. Adding six hours of solar thermal storage improved the utility load match significantly in the evening and reliability was also improved. Storage improves reliability because electrical production can remain at a high level even when there are lulls in the wind or clouds decrease the solar energy striking the parabolic trough mirrors. The solar energy from Mojave Desert and wind energy in the major wind farm areas are not a good match to utility load during the winter in California, but if the number of wind farms were increased east of San Diego, then the utility renewable energy match would be improved (this is because the wind energy is highest during the winter in this area). Currently in California, wind electrical generation only contributes 1.8% of total electricity and solar electrical generation only contributes 0.2%. Combining wind farms and solar thermal power plants with storage would allow a large percentage of the electrical load in California to be met by wind and solar energy due to a better match with utility load than by either renewable resource separately.

  6. A safety and regulatory assessment of generic BWR and PWR permanently shutdown nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Travis, R.J.; Davis, R.E.; Grove, E.J.; Azarm, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The long-term availability of less expensive power and the increasing plant modification and maintenance costs have caused some utilities to re-examine the economics of nuclear power. As a result, several utilities have opted to permanently shutdown their plants. Each licensee of these permanently shutdown (PSD) plants has submitted plant-specific exemption requests for those regulations that they believe are no longer applicable to their facility. This report presents a regulatory assessment for generic BWR and PWR plants that have permanently ceased operation in support of NRC rulemaking activities in this area. After the reactor vessel is defueled, the traditional accident sequences that dominate the operating plant risk are no longer applicable. The remaining source of public risk is associated with the accidents that involve the spent fuel. Previous studies have indicated that complete spent fuel pool drainage is an accident of potential concern. Certain combinations of spent fuel storage configurations and decay times, could cause freshly discharged fuel assemblies to self heat to a temperature where the self sustained oxidation of the zircaloy fuel cladding may cause cladding failure. This study has defined four spent fuel configurations which encompass all of the anticipated spent fuel characteristics and storage modes following permanent shutdown. A representative accident sequence was chosen for each configuration. Consequence analyses were performed using these sequences to estimate onsite and boundary doses, population doses and economic costs. A list of candidate regulations was identified from a screening of 10 CFR Parts 0 to 199. The continued applicability of each regulation was assessed within the context of each spent fuel storage configuration and the results of the consequence analyses.

  7. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    power to local residences or businesses. Although it may seem that the decreased efficiency of solar-

  8. The Confusing Allure of Combined Heat and Power: The Financial Attraction and Management Challenge of Reducing Energy Spend and Resulting Carbon Emissions Through Onsite Power Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, R.

    —from the perspective of reducing energy spending and energy-related carbon emissions—is combined heat and power ("CHP"), sometimes referred to as cogeneration. However, the results of CHP deployment to date have been mixed—largely because companies do not fully...

  9. Safety Assessment of PowerBeam Flywheel Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starbuck, J Michael [ORNL; Hansen, James Gerald [ORNL

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The greatest technical challenge facing the developer of vehicular flywheel systems is the issue of safety. The PowerBeam flywheel system concept, developed by HyKinesys Inc., employs a pair of high aspect ratio, counter-rotating flywheels to provide surge power for hybrid vehicle applications. The PowerBeam approach to safety is to design flywheels conservatively so as to avoid full rotor burst failure modes. A conservative point design was sized for use in a mid-size sedan such as a Chevrolet Malibu. The PowerBeam rotor rims were designed with a steel tube covered by a carbon fiber reinforced composite tube. ORNL conducted rotor design analyses using both nested ring and finite element analysis design codes. The safety factor of the composite material was 7, while that of the steel was greater than 3. The design exceeded the PNGV recommendation for a safety factor of at least 4 for composite material to prevent flywheel burst.

  10. Preliminary assessment of high power, NERVA-class dual-mode space nuclear propulsion and power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buksa, J.J.; Kirk, W.L.; Cappiello, M.W. (Nuclear Technology and Engineering Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (US))

    1991-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary assessment of the technical feasibility and mass competitiveness of a dual-mode nuclear propulsion and power system based on the NERVA rocket engine has been completed. Results indicate that the coupling of the ROVER reactor to a direct Brayton power conversion system can be accomplished through a number of design features. Furthermore, based on previously published and independently calculated component masses, the dual-mode system was found to have the potential to be mass competitive with propulsion/power systems that use separate reactors. The uncertainties of reactor design modification and shielding requirements were identified as important issues requiring future investigation.

  11. Radiological Assessment for the Removal of Legacy BPA Power Lines that Cross the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millsap, William J. [Mission Support Alliance, Richland, WA (United States); Brush, Daniel J. [Mission Support Alliance, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses some radiological field monitoring and assessment methods used to assess the components of an old electrical power transmission line that ran across the Hanford Site between the production reactors area (100 Area) and the chemical processing area (200 Area). This task was complicated by the presence of radon daughters -- both beta and alpha emitters -- residing on the surfaces, particularly on the surfaces of weathered metals and metals that had been electrically-charged. In many cases, these activities were high compared to the DOE Surface Contamination Guidelines, which were used as guides for the assessment. These methods included the use of the Toulmin model of argument, represented using Toulmin diagrams, to represent the combined force of several strands of evidences, rather than a single measurement of activity, to demonstrate beyond a reasonable doubt that no or very little Hanford activity was present and mixed with the natural activity. A number of forms of evidence were used: the overall chance of Hanford contamination; measurements of removable activity, beta and alpha; 1-minute scaler counts of total surface activity, beta and alpha, using "background makers"; the beta activity to alpha activity ratios; measured contamination on nearby components; NaI gamma spectral measurements to compare uncontaminated and potentially-contaminated spectra, as well as measurements for the sentinel radionuclides, Am- 241 and Cs-137 on conducting wire; comparative statistical analyses; and in-situ measurements of alpha spectra on conducting wire showing that the alpha activity was natural Po-210, as well as to compare uncontaminated and potentially-contaminated spectra.

  12. Calculating the offshore wind power resource: Robust assessment methods applied to the U.S. Atlantic Coast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Calculating the offshore wind power resource: Robust assessment methods applied to the U 2011 Available online xxx Keywords: Wind power Offshore wind power Resource assessment Marine spatial, annual energy output is calculated for a representative offshore wind turbine. The average power resource

  13. Improved assessment of population doses and risk factors for a nuclear power plant under accident conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Christopher Martin

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1985 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering IMPROVED ASSESSMENT OF POPULATION DOSES AND RISK FACTORS FOR A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT UNDER ACCIDENT CONDITIONS A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER MARTIN MEYER Approved... as to style and content by: G. A. Schlapper (Chair of Committee R. B. Ko zen (Member) R. R. Hart (Member) . Erdman (Head of Department) August 1985 ABSTRACT Improved Assessment of Population Doses and Risk Factors for a Nuclear Power Plant Under...

  14. The CO2 Reduction Potential of Combined Heat and Power in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Lipman, Tim; Megel, Olivier; Ganguly, Srirupa; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the potential role of commercial sector distributed generation (DG) with combined heat and power (CHP) capability deployment in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reductions. CHP applications at large industrial sites are well known, and a large share of their potential has already been harvested. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the potential of medium-sized commercial buildings, i.e., ones with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how this sector might implement DG with CHP in cost minimizing microgrids that are able to adopt and operate various energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), on-site thermal generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We apply a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that minimizes a site's annual energy costs as its objective. Using 138 representative mid-sized commercial sites in California (CA), existing tariffs of three major electricity distribution ultilities plus a natural gas company, and performance data of available technology in 2020, we find the GHG reduction potential for this CA commercial sector segment, which represents about 35percent of total statewide commercial sector sales. Under the assumptions made, in a reference case, this segment is estimated to be capable of economically installing 1.4 GW of CHP, 35percent of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) statewide 4 GW goal for total incremental CHP deployment by 2020. However, because CARB's assumed utilization is far higherthan is found by the MILP, the adopted CHP only contributes 19percent of the CO2 target. Several sensitivity runs were completed. One applies a simple feed-in tariff similar to net metering, and another includes a generous self-generation incentive program (SGIP) subsidy for fuel cells. The feed-in tariff proves ineffective at stimulating CHP deployment, while the SGIP buy down is more powerful. The attractiveness of CHP varies widely by climate zone and service territory, but in general, hotter inland areas and San Diego are the more attractive regions because high cooling loads achieve higher equipment utilization. Additionally, large office buildings are surprisingly good hosts for CHP, so large office buildings in San Diego and hotter urban centers emerge as promising target hosts. Overall the effect on CO2 emissions is limited, never exceeding 27percent of the CARB target. Nonetheless, results suggest that the CO2 emissions abatement potential of CHP in mid-sized CA buildings is significant, and much more promising than is typically assumed.

  15. 1?10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical Potential: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maru, H. C.; Singhal, S. C.; Stone, C.; Wheeler, D.

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This independent review examines the status and technical potential of 1-10 kW stationary combined heat and power fuel cell systems and analyzes the achievability of the DOE cost, efficiency, and durability targets for 2012, 2015, and 2020.

  16. Dynamics, Optimization and Control of a Fuel Cell Based Combined Heat Power (CHP) System for Shipboard Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Dynamics, Optimization and Control of a Fuel Cell Based Combined Heat Power (CHP) System, a natural gas fuel processor system (FPS), a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM-FC) and a catalytic) systems based on fuel cells and fuel processing technologies have great potential for future shipboard

  17. Development of a dynamic simulator for a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plant with post-combustion carbon capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liese, E.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The AVESTAR Center located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory and West Virginia University is a world-class research and training environment dedicated to using dynamic process simulation as a tool for advancing the safe, efficient and reliable operation of clean energy plants with CO{sub 2} capture. The AVESTAR Center was launched with a high-fidelity dynamic simulator for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant with pre-combustion carbon capture. The IGCC dynamic simulator offers full-scope Operator Training Simulator (OTS) Human Machine Interface (HMI) graphics for realistic, real-time control room operation and is integrated with a 3D virtual Immersive Training Simulator (ITS), thus allowing joint control room and field operator training. The IGCC OTS/ITS solution combines a “gasification with CO{sub 2} capture” process simulator with a “combined cycle” power simulator into a single high-performance dynamic simulation framework. This presentation will describe progress on the development of a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) dynamic simulator based on the syngas-fired combined cycle portion of AVESTAR’s IGCC dynamic simulator. The 574 MW gross NGCC power plant design consisting of two advanced F-class gas turbines, two heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs), and a steam turbine in a multi-shaft 2x2x1 configuration will be reviewed. Plans for integrating a post-combustion carbon capture system will also be discussed.

  18. Combined Heat and Power: Effective Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shipley, Ms. Anna [Sentech, Inc.; Hampson, Anne [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., an ICF Company; Hedman, Mr. Bruce [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., an ICF Company; Garland, Patricia W [ORNL; Bautista, Paul [Sentech, Inc.

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) solutions represent a proven and effective near-term energy option to help the United States enhance energy efficiency, ensure environmental quality, promote economic growth, and foster a robust energy infrastructure. Using CHP today, the United States already avoids more than 1.9 Quadrillion British thermal units (Quads) of fuel consumption and 248 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions annually compared to traditional separate production of electricity and thermal energy. This CO{sub 2} reduction is the equivalent of removing more than 45 million cars from the road. In addition, CHP is one of the few options in the portfolio of energy alternatives that combines environmental effectiveness with economic viability and improved competitiveness. This report describes in detail the four key areas where CHP has proven its effectiveness and holds promise for the future as an: (1) Environmental Solution: Significantly reducing CO{sub 2} emissions through greater energy efficiency; (2) Competitive Business Solution: Increasing efficiency, reducing business costs, and creating green-collar jobs; (3) Local Energy Solution: Deployable throughout the US; and (4) Infrastructure Modernization Solution: Relieving grid congestion and improving energy security. CHP should be one of the first technologies deployed for near-term carbon reductions. The cost-effectiveness and near-term viability of widespread CHP deployment place the technology at the forefront of practical alternative energy solutions such as wind, solar, clean coal, biofuels, and nuclear power. Clear synergies exist between CHP and most other technologies that dominate the energy and environmental policy dialogue in the country today. As the Nation transforms how it produces, transports, and uses the many forms of energy, it must seize the clear opportunity afforded by CHP in terms of climate change, economic competitiveness, energy security, and infrastructure modernization. The energy efficiency benefits of CHP offer significant, realistic solutions to near- and long-term energy issues facing the Nation. With growing demand for energy, tight supply options, and increasing environmental constraints, extracting the maximum output from primary fuel sources through efficiency is critical to sustained economic development and environmental stewardship. Investment in CHP would stimulate the creation of new 'green-collar' jobs, modernize aging energy infrastructure, and protect and enhance the competitiveness of US manufacturing industries. The complementary roles of energy efficiency, renewable energy, and responsible use of traditional energy supplies must be recognized. CHP's proven performance and potential for wider use are evidence of its near-term applicability and, with technological improvements and further elimination of market barriers, of its longer term promise to address the country's most important energy and environmental needs. A strategic approach is needed to encourage CHP where it can be applied today and address the regulatory and technical challenges preventing its long-term viability. Experience in the United States and other countries shows that a balanced set of policies, incentives, business models, and investments can stimulate sustained CHP growth and allow all stakeholders to reap its many well-documented benefits.

  19. Combinational logic optimization for low power using implication-based transformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swarna, Madhukiran V.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , Minpower, which reduces power consumption is presented. Heuristics and methods which help in guiding the optimization procedure towards a circuit with minimal power cost will be presented. Finally, experimental results on the ISCAS85 benchmark set and a...

  20. Combinational logic optimization for low power using implication-based transformations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swarna, Madhukiran V.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The demand for portable equipment has increased the emphasis on low-power designs. Higher power consumption results in shorter battery-lifetime of portable electronic devices. As a result larger batteries are required for ...

  1. Technical and Political Assessment of Peaceful Nuclear Power Program Prospects in North Africa and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PNNL-16840 Technical and Political Assessment of Peaceful Nuclear Power Program Prospects in North and application of resources towards developing nuclear-generated electricity and nuclear-powered desalination nations have recently expressed interest in developing nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Many

  2. Biennial Assessment of the Fifth Power Plan Interim Report on Electric Price Forecasts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    because natural gas fired electric generating plants are on the margin much of the time in Western marketsBiennial Assessment of the Fifth Power Plan Interim Report on Electric Price Forecasts Electricity prices in the Council's Power Plan are forecast using the AURORATM Electricity Market Model of the entire

  3. Assessing the Impact of Wind Variability on Power System Small-Signal Reachability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    Assessing the Impact of Wind Variability on Power System Small-Signal Reachability Yu Christine-signal and transient stability [6]. In this regard, it has been acknowledged that, as the presence of wind in the power balancing in near real time [7]. This paper focuses on this last problem--the impact of wind penetration

  4. Combined Borehole Seismic and Electromagnetic Inversion For High-Resolution Petrophysical Assessment Of Hydocarbon Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlos Torres-Verdin; G. Michael Hoversten; Ki Ha Lee; Gregory Newman; Kurt Nihei

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed between January 2005 and December 2007, under DOE research contract DE-FC26-04NT15507. The project is was performed by the Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering of The University of Texas at Austin and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under the auspices of the National Energy Technology Office (NETL) and the Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO). During the three-year project, we developed new methods to combine borehole sonic and electromagnetic (EM) measurements for the improved assessment of elastic and petrophysical properties of rock formations penetrated by a well. Sonic measurements consisted of full waveform acoustic amplitudes acquired with monopole and dipole sources, whereas EM measurements consisted of frequency-domain voltages acquired with multi-coil induction systems. The combination of sonic and EM measurements permitted the joint estimation of elastic and petrophysical properties in the presence of mud-filtrate invasion. It was conclusively shown that the combined interpretation of sonic and EM measurements reduced non-uniqueness in the estimation of elastic and petrophysical properties and improved the spatial resolution of the estimations compared to estimations yielded separately from the two types of measurements. Moreover, this approach enabled the assessment of dynamic petrophysical properties such as permeability, as it incorporated the physics of mud-filtrate invasion in the interpretation of the measurements. The first part of the project considered the development of fast and reliable numerical algorithms to simulate borehole sonic waveforms in 2D, 3D, and radial 1D media. Such algorithms were subsequently used in the quantitative estimation of elastic properties jointly from borehole sonic and EM measurements. In the second part of the project we developed a new algorithm to estimate water saturation, porosity, and dry-rock elastic moduli jointly from borehole sonic and EM measurements. This algorithm assumed radial 1D variations of fluid saturation due to mud-filtrate invasion. Subsequently, we adapted the estimation method to interpret borehole field measurements acquired in both a shaly-sand sedimentary sequence and a tight-gas sandstone formation. In the two cases, we simulated the process of mud-filtrate invasion and concomitantly honored sonic and EM measurements. We produced reliable estimates of permeability and dry-rock moduli that were successfully validated with rock-core measurements. Finally, we introduced a new stochastic inversion procedure to estimate elastic, electrical, and petrophysical properties of layered media jointly from waveform sonic and frequency-domain EM measurements. The procedure was based on Bayesian statistical inversion and delivered estimates of uncertainty under various forms of a-priori information about the unknown properties. Tests on realistic synthetic models confirmed the reliability of this procedure to estimate elastic and petrophysical properties jointly from sonic and EM measurements. Several extended abstracts and conference presentations stemmed from this project, including 2 SEG extended abstracts, 1 SPE extended abstract, and 2 SPWLA extended abstracts. Some of these extended abstracts have been submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals.

  5. Wind power resource assessment in complex urban environments: MIT campus case-study using CFD Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wind power resource assessment in complex urban environments: MIT campus case-study using CFD of Technology, 2Meteodyn Objectives Conclusions References [1] TopoWind software, User Manual [2] Wind Resource Assessment Handbook: Fundamentals for Conducting a Successful Wind Monitoring Program, AWS Scientific, Inc

  6. Assessment of Metal Media Filters for Advanced Coal-Based Power Generation Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvin, M.A.

    2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced coal and biomass-based gas turbine power generation technologies (IGCC, PFBC, PCFBC, and Hipps) are currently under development and demonstration. Efforts at Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) have been focused on the development and demonstration of hot gas filter systems as an enabling technology for power generation. This paper reviews SWPC's material and component assessment efforts, identifying the performance, stability, and life of porous metal, advanced alloy, and intermetallic filters under simulated, pressurized fluidized-bed combustion conditions.

  7. Wind power resource assessment in complex urban environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods holds potential for the advancement of wind energy resource buildings. CFD simulations have been used to evaluate the wind energy potential on the campus. 2 Objectives The aim of this study is to assess wind energy resource on the MIT campus for potential

  8. Treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of electricity power transmission lines: A Finnish case review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soederman, Tarja [Senior Researcher, Lic. Phil., Finnish Environment Institute, Nature Division, P.O. Box 140, FIN-00251 Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: tarja.soderman@ymparisto.fi

    2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process concerning the route of a 400 kV power transmission line between Loviisa and Hikiae in southern Finland was reviewed in order to assess how biodiversity issues are treated and to provide suggestions on how to improve the effectiveness of treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of linear development projects. The review covered the whole assessment process, including interviews of stakeholders, participation in the interest group meetings and review of all documents from the project. The baseline studies and assessment of direct impacts in the case study were detailed but the documentation, both the assessment programme and the assessment report, only gave a partial picture of the assessment process. All existing information, baseline survey and assessment methods should be addressed in the scoping phase in order to promote interaction between all stakeholders. In contrast to the assessment of the direct effects, which first emphasized impacts on the nationally important and protected flying squirrel but later expanded to deal with the assessment of impacts on ecologically important sites, the indirect and cumulative impacts of the power line were poorly addressed. The public was given the opportunity to become involved in the EIA process. However, they were more concerned with impacts on their properties and less so on biodiversity and species protection issues. This suggests that the public needs to become more informed about locally important features of biodiversity.

  9. Analysis of combined hydrogen, heat, and power as a bridge to a hydrogen transition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahalik, M.; Stephan, C. (Decision and Information Sciences)

    2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined hydrogen, heat, and power (CHHP) technology is envisioned as a means to providing heat and electricity, generated on-site, to large end users, such as hospitals, hotels, and distribution centers, while simultaneously producing hydrogen as a by-product. The hydrogen can be stored for later conversion to electricity, used on-site (e.g., in forklifts), or dispensed to hydrogen-powered vehicles. Argonne has developed a complex-adaptive-system model, H2CAS, to simulate how vehicles and infrastructure can evolve in a transition to hydrogen. This study applies the H2CAS model to examine how CHHP technology can be used to aid the transition to hydrogen. It does not attempt to predict the future or provide one forecast of system development. Rather, the purpose of the model is to understand how the system works. The model uses a 50- by 100-mile rectangular grid of 1-square-mile cells centered on the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The major expressways are incorporated into the model, and local streets are considered to be ubiquitous, except where there are natural barriers. The model has two types of agents. Driver agents are characterized by a number of parameters: home and job locations, income, various types of 'personalities' reflective of marketing distinctions (e.g., innovators, early adopters), willingness to spend extra money on 'green' vehicles, etc. At the beginning of the simulations, almost all driver agents own conventional vehicles. They drive around the metropolitan area, commuting to and from work and traveling to various other destinations. As they do so, they observe the presence or absence of facilities selling hydrogen. If they find such facilities conveniently located along their routes, they are motivated to purchase a hydrogen-powered vehicle when it becomes time to replace their present vehicle. Conversely, if they find that they would be inconvenienced by having to purchase hydrogen earlier than necessary or if they become worried that they would run out of fuel before encountering a facility, their motivation to purchase a hydrogen-powered vehicle decreases. At vehicle purchase time, they weigh this experience, as well as other factors such as social influence by their peers, fuel cost, and capital cost of a hydrogen vehicle. Investor agents build full-service hydrogen fueling stations (HFSs) at different locations along the highway network. They base their decision to build or not build a station on their (imperfect) estimates of the sales the station would immediately generate (based on hydrogen-powered vehicle traffic past the location and other factors), as well as the growth in hydrogen sales they could expect throughout their investment horizon. The interaction between driver and investor agents provides the basis for growth in both the number of hydrogen vehicles and number of hydrogen stations. For the present report, we have added to this mix smaller, 'bare-bones' hydrogen dispensing facilities (HDFs) of the type that owners of CHHP facilities could provide to the public. The locations of these stations were chosen to match existing facilities that might reasonably incorporate CHHP plants in the future. Unlike the larger commercial stations, these facilities are built according to exogenously supplied timetables, and no attempt has been made to model the financial basis for the facilities. Rather, our objective is to understand how the presence of these additional stations might facilitate the petroleum-to-hydrogen transition. We discuss a base case in which the HDFs are not present, and then investigate the effects of introducing HDFs in various numbers; according to different timetables; with various production capacities; and with hydrogen selling at prices above, equal to, and below the commercial stations selling price. We conclude that HDFs can indeed be helpful in accelerating a petroleum-to-hydrogen transition. Placed in areas where investors might not be willing to install large for-profit HFSs, HDFs can serve as a bridge until demand for hydrogen increases to the point where l

  10. Energy Storage for Power Systems Applications: A Regional Assessment for the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Balducci, Patrick J.; Jin, Chunlian; Nguyen, Tony B.; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Guo, Xinxin; Tuffner, Francis K.

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wind production, which has expanded rapidly in recent years, could be an important element in the future efficient management of the electric power system; however, wind energy generation is uncontrollable and intermittent in nature. Thus, while wind power represents a significant opportunity to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), integrating high levels of wind resources into the power system will bring great challenges to generation scheduling and in the provision of ancillary services. This report addresses several key questions in the broader discussion on the integration of renewable energy resources in the Pacific Northwest power grid. More specifically, it addresses the following questions: a) how much total reserve or balancing requirements are necessary to accommodate the simulated expansion of intermittent renewable energy resources during the 2019 time horizon, and b) what are the most cost effective technological solutions for meeting load balancing requirements in the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP).

  11. Assessment of safety-critical software in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parnas, D.L.; Madey, J. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Asmis, G.J.K. [Atomic Energy Control Board, Ottawa (Canada)

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article outlines an approach in the design, documentation, and evaluation of computer systems. This allows the use of software in many safety-critical applications because it enables the systematic comparison of the program behavior with the engineering specifications of the computer system. Many of the ideas in this article have been used by the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada in its safety assessment of the software for the shutdown systems of the Darlington Station. The four main elements of this approach follow: (1) Formal Documentation of Software Requirements: Most of the details of a complex environment can be ignored by system implementers and reviewers if they are given a complete and precise statement of the behavioral requirements for the computer system. We describe five mathematical relations that specify the requirements for the software in a computerized control system. (2) Design and Documentation of the Module Structure: Complexity caused by interactions between separately written components can be reduced by applying Data Abstraction, Abstract Data Types, and Object-Oriented Programming if the interfaces are precisely and completely documented. (3) Program Function Documentation: Software executions are lengthy sequences of state changes described by algorithms. The effects of these executive sequences can be precisely specified documented with tabular presentations of the program functions. Also, large programs can be decomposed and presented at a collection of well-documented smaller programs. (4) Tripod Approach to Assessment: There are three basic approaches to the assessment of complex software products: (i) testing, (ii) systematic inspection, and (iii) certification of people and processes. Assessment of a complex system cannot depend on any one of these alone. The approach used on the Darlington shutdown software, which included systematic inspection as well as planned and statistically designed random testing, is outlined.

  12. Assessment of Evaporative Cooling Enhancement Methods for Air-Cooled Geothermal Power Plants: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.; Costenaro, D.

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many binary-cycle geothermal power plants are air cooled because insufficient water is available to provide year-round water cooling. The performance of air-cooled geothermal plants is highly dependent on the dry bulb temperature of the air (much more so than fossil fuel plants that operate at higher boiler temperatures), and plant electric output can drop by 50% or more on hot summer days, compared to winter performance. This problem of reduced summer performance is exacerbated by the fact that electricity has a higher value in the summer. This paper describes a spreadsheet model that was developed to assess the cost and performance of four methods for using supplemental evaporative cooling to boost summer performance: (1) pre-cooling with spray nozzles, (2) pre-cooling with Munters media, (3) a hybrid combination of nozzles and Munters media, and (4) direct deluge cooling of the air-cooled condenser tubes. Although all four options show significant benefit, deluge cooling has the potential to be the most economic. However, issues of scaling and corrosion would need to be addressed.

  13. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    working fluid to power a remote heat engine, as the fluidCHP options. Having a remote heat engine has many advantages

  14. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heating a high temperature working fluid to power a remoteand heating for a significant portion of the developed and developing world, including those in remote

  15. Combined Heat and Power for Federal Facilities and the DOE CHP...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and Power for Federal Facilities and the DOE CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR May 7 - 8, 2014 Virginia Beach, VA...

  16. An engineering-economic analysis of combined heat and power technologies in a (mu)grid application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, Owen; Ouaglal, Boubekeur; Bartholomew, Emily; Marnay, Chris; Bourassa, Norman

    2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes an investigation at Ernesto Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) of the potential for coupling combined heat and power (CHP) with on-site electricity generation to provide power and heating, and cooling services to customers. This research into distributed energy resources (DER) builds on the concept of the microgrid (mGrid), a semiautonomous grouping of power-generating sources that are placed and operated by and for the benefit of its members. For this investigation, a hypothetical small shopping mall (''Microgrid Oaks'') was developed and analyzed for the cost effectiveness of installing CHP to provide the mGrid's energy needs. A mGrid consists of groups of customers pooling energy loads and installing a combination of generation resources that meets the particular mGrid's goals. This study assumes the mGrid is seeking to minimize energy costs. mGrids could operate independently of the macrogrid (the wider power network), but they are usually assumed to be connected, through power electronics, to the macrogrid. The mGrid in this study is assumed to be interconnected to the macrogrid, and can purchase some energy and ancillary services from utility providers.

  17. Preliminary materials assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teeter, R.R.; Jamieson, W.M.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presently, there are two SPS reference design concepts (one using silicon solar cells; the other using gallium arsenide solar cells). A materials assessment of both systems was performed based on the materials lists set forth in the DOE/NASA SPS Reference System Report: Concept Development and Evaluation Program. This listing identified 22 materials (plus miscellaneous and organics) used in the SPS. Tracing the production processes for these 22 materials, a total demand for over 20 different bulk materials (copper, silicon, sulfuric acid, etc.) and nealy 30 raw materials (copper ore, sand, sulfur ore, etc.) was revealed. Assessment of these SPS material requirements produced a number of potential material supply problems. The more serious problems are those associated with the solar cell materials (gallium, gallium arsenide, sapphire, and solar grade silicon), and the graphite fiber required for the satellite structure and space construction facilities. In general, the gallium arsenide SPS option exhibits more serious problems than the silicon option, possibly because gallium arsenide technology is not as well developed as that for silicon. Results are presented and discussed in detail. (WHK)

  18. Combined heat and power has the potential to significantly increase energy production efficiency and thus reduce greenhouse gas emissions, however current market penetration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    1 Combined heat and power has the potential to significantly increase energy production efficiency and thus reduce greenhouse gas emissions, however current market penetration analyses suggest that California will not reach the targets for combined heat and power set for it by the Air Resources Board (ARB

  19. Effects of a carbon tax on microgrid combined heat and power adoption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Firestone, Ryan M.; Ghosh, Srijay; Stadler, Michael

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Name DER Type Rated Power (kW) microturbine, low pressureMTH-30 microturbine, high pressure PAFC-200 fuel cell GA-25natural gas engine microturbine microturbine photovoltaics

  20. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed solar-thermal/electric generation. Technicalthermal load to absorb the energy rejected from the electric power generationthermal efficiency, (2) solar-electric efficiency, (3) fraction of Carnot efficiency for electrical generation, (

  1. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With their clean and quiet operation, fuel cells represent a promising means of implementing small-scale distributed power generation in the future. Waste heat from the fuel cell can be harnessed...

  2. Assessment of the Economic Potential of Microgrids for Reactive Power Supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appen, Jan von; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Momber, Ilan; Klapp, David; Scheven, Alexander von

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As power generation from variable distributed energy resources (DER) grows, energy flows in the network are changing, increasing the requirements for ancillary services, including voltage support. With the appropriate power converter, DER can provide ancillary services such as frequency control and voltage support. This paper outlines the economic potential of DERs coordinated in a microgrid to provide reactive power and voltage support at its point of common coupling. The DER Customer Adoption Model assesses the costs of providing reactive power, given local utility rules. Depending on the installed DER, the cost minimizing solution for supplying reactive power locally is chosen. Costs include the variable cost of the additional losses and the investment cost of appropriately over-sizing converters or purchasing capacitors. A case study of a large health care building in San Francisco is used to evaluate different revenue possibilities of creating an incentive for microgrids to provide reactive power.

  3. Demonstration of Recessed Downlight Technologies: Power and Illumination Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Steven A.; Beeson, Tracy A.

    2009-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid state lighting (SSL), specifically light-emitting diodes (LED), has been advancing at a rapid pace, and there are presently multiple products available that serve as direct replacements for traditional luminaires. In this demonstration, conventional recessed lights in a conference room were used to compare conventional incandescent A-lamps, incandescent reflector R-lamps, dimming compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), to an LED replacement product. The primary focus during the study was on light delivered to the task plane as provided by the power required by the lighting system. Vertical illuminance, dimming range, and color shift are also important indicators of lighting quality and are discussed in the report. The results clearly showed that LEDs, with dimming-capable drivers, are much more efficient than incandescent and CFLs. Further, LEDs provide much smoother and consistent dimming than dimmable CFLs. On the potential negative side, it is important that the dimming switch be identified as compatible with the LED driver. A wide variety of dimmer switches are capable of dimming LEDs down to 15% of full light output, while select others can be capable of dimming LEDs down to 5%. In addition, LEDs can be intensive light sources, which can result in uncomfortable glare in some applications and to some occupants. Higher ceiling (9-foot or greater) or non-specular reflectors can act to alleviate the potential for glare.

  4. Aging assessment of large electric motors in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villaran, M.; Subudhi, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large electric motors serve as the prime movers to drive high capacity pumps, fans, compressors, and generators in a variety of nuclear plant systems. This study examined the stressors that cause degradation and aging in large electric motors operating in various plant locations and environments. The operating history of these machines in nuclear plant service was studied by review and analysis of failure reports in the NPRDS and LER databases. This was supplemented by a review of motor designs, and their nuclear and balance of plant applications, in order to characterize the failure mechanisms that cause degradation, aging, and failure in large electric motors. A generic failure modes and effects analysis for large squirrel cage induction motors was performed to identify the degradation and aging mechanisms affecting various components of these large motors, the failure modes that result, and their effects upon the function of the motor. The effects of large motor failures upon the systems in which they are operating, and on the plant as a whole, were analyzed from failure reports in the databases. The effectiveness of the industry`s large motor maintenance programs was assessed based upon the failure reports in the databases and reviews of plant maintenance procedures and programs.

  5. Combined Fire Hazards Analysis/Assessment, Building 9116- Y12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This assessment/analysis is intended to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the risks from fire and fire related perils in Building 9116 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The assessment/analysis has been prepared in accordance with the criteria listed in DOE Order 5480.7A.

  6. Energy Storage for Variable Renewable Energy Resource Integration - A Regional Assessment for the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Jin, Chunlian; Balducci, Patrick J.; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Guo, Xinxin; Nguyen, Tony B.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.

    2011-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper addresses the following key questions in the discussion on the integration of renewable energy resources in the Pacific Northwest power grid: a) what will be the future balancing requirement to accommodate a simulated expansion of wind energy resources from 3.3 GW in 2008 to 14.4 GW in 2019 in the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP), and b) what are the most cost effective technological solutions for meeting the balancing requirements in the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP). A life-cycle analysis was performed to assess the least-cost technology option for meeting the new balancing requirement. The technologies considered in this study include conventional turbines (CT), sodium sulfur (NaS) batteries, lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries, pumped hydro energy storage (PH), and demand response (DR). Hybrid concepts that combine 2 or more of the technologies above are also evaluated. This analysis was performed with collaboration by the Bonneville Power Administration and funded by the Energy Storage Systems Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  7. Transient Stability Assessment of Power System with Large Amount of Wind Power Penetration: the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bak, Claus Leth

    the transient stability. In Denmark, the onshore and offshore wind farms are connected to distribution system and transmission system respectively. The control and protection methodologies of onshore and offshore wind farms definitely affect the transient stability of power system. In this paper, the onshore and offshore wind farms

  8. Report to Congress on Assessment of Potential Impact of Concentrating Solar Power for Electriicty Generation (EPACT 2005--Section 934(c))

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkins, F.

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summary of DOE's assessment of issues regarding EPAct 2005, which requires the Secretary of Energy to assess conflicting guidance on the economic potential of concentrating solar power for electricity production.

  9. Thermionic combustor application to combined gas and steam turbine power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miskolczy, G.; Wang, C.C.; Lieb, D.P.; Margulies, A.E.; Fusegni, L.J.; Lovell, B.J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The engineering and economic feasibility of a thermionic converter topped combustor for a gas turbine is evaluated in this paper. A combined gas and steam turbine system was chosen for this study with nominal outputs of the gas and steam turbines of 70 MW and 30 MW, respectively. 7 refs.

  10. The importance of combined cycle generating plants in integrating large levels of wind power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puga, J. Nicolas

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Integration of high wind penetration levels will require fast-ramping combined cycle and steam cycles that, due to higher operating costs, will require proper pricing of ancillary services or other forms of compensation to remain viable. Several technical and policy recommendations are presented to help realign the generation mix to properly integrate the wind. (author)

  11. Preliminary Estimates of Combined Heat and Power Greenhouse Gas Abatement Potential for California in 2020

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Ling, Frank; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    generation: 50% of electricity from central grid natural gas plantsgeneration: 100% of electricity from central grid natural gas plantselectricity comes from central station natural-gas- fired combined cycle generation, and the other half comes from natural-gas-fired single cycle plants. •

  12. Environmental assessment for presidential permit applications for Baja California Power Inc and Sempra Energy Resources PP-234 and PP-235

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Environmental assessment for presidential permit applications for Baja California Power Inc and Sempra Energy Resources. December 2001 PP-234 and PP-235

  13. OSIRIS and SOMBRERO Inertial Fusion Power Plant Designs, Volume 2: Designs, Assessments, and Comparisons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W. R.; Bieri, R. L.; Monsler, M. J.; Hendricks, C. D.; Laybourne, P.; Shillito, K. R.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a comprehensive design study of two Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) electric power plants. Conceptual designs are presented for a fusion reactor (called Osiris) using an induction-linac heavy-ion beam driver, and another (called SOMBRERO) using a KrF laser driver. The designs covered all aspects of IFE power plants, including the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, balance-of-plant facilities, target fabrication, target injection and tracking, as well as the heavy-ion and KrF drivers. The point designs were assessed and compared in terms of their environmental & safety aspects, reliability and availability, economics, and technology development needs.

  14. Preliminary Feasibility Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential for TVA's John Sevier and Kingston Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Ellen D [ORNL; Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a preliminary assessment of the potential for geologic carbon sequestration for the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) John Sevier and Kingston power plants. The purpose of this assessment is to make a 'first cut' determination of whether there is sufficient potential for geologic carbon sequestration within 200 miles of the plants for TVA and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to proceed with a joint proposal for a larger project with a strong carbon management element. This assessment does not consider alternative technologies for carbon capture, but assumes the existence of a segregated CO{sub 2} stream suitable for sequestration.

  15. FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR A COMBINED POWER AND BIOMASS HEATING SYSTEM

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 FederalTexasManager FAQS Reference Guide|FFATA sub reporting71ENVIRONMENTAL

  16. FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR A COMBINED POWER AND BIOMASS HEATING SYSTEM

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 FederalTexasManager FAQS Reference Guide|FFATA sub

  17. DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR A COMBINED POWER AND BIOMASS HEATING SYSTEM

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197 This work was performed under0, 2012 RolandEMB O N N E

  18. Assessing the Benefits of On-Site Combined Heat and Power During the August

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments from Tarasa U.S.LLC |AquionMr. EdwardArticleofthe FUSRAP14,

  19. Assessment of Large Combined Heat and Power Market, April 2004 | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments from Tarasa U.S.LLC |AquionMr.August 4,EnergywithAssistedof

  20. Risk Analysis and Probabilistic Survivability Assessment (RAPSA): An Assessment Approach for Power Substation Hardening1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krings, Axel W.

    the US's vulnerability to cyber terrorism we need to ask two questions: Are there infrastructure targets terrorism? [7] Several authors believe overwelmingly that our infrastructure systems are vulnerable to cyber [7,23]. Examining the threat of cyber terrorism to the electric power industry raises several issues

  1. Assessment of wind power predictability as a decision factor in the investment phase of wind farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Assessment of wind power predictability as a decision factor in the investment phase of wind farms on market revenue of, respectively, the predictability and the capacity factor of a wind farm or a cluster of wind farms. This is done through a real-life case study in West Denmark, including wind farm production

  2. A Unifying Approach to Assessing Market Power in Deregulated Electricity Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    A Unifying Approach to Assessing Market Power in Deregulated Electricity Markets Chenye Wu1 of Technology, 3University of California, Riverside Abstract--A competitive deregulated electricity market with increasingly active market players is foreseen to be the future of the electricity industry. In such settings

  3. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritterbusch, Stanley; Golay, Michael; Duran, Felicia; Galyean, William; Gupta, Abhinav; Dimitrijevic, Vesna; Malsch, Marty

    2003-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    OAK B188 Summary of methods proposed for risk informing the design and regulation of future nuclear power plants. All elements of the historical design and regulation process are preserved, but the methods proposed for new plants use probabilistic risk assessment methods as the primary decision making tool.

  4. Combined Heating and Power Using Microturbines in a Major Urban Hotel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweetser, Richard [Exergy Partners Corp.] [Exergy Partners Corp.; Wagner, Timothy [United Technologies Research Center (UTRC)] [United Technologies Research Center (UTRC); Leslie, Neil [Gas Technology Institute] [Gas Technology Institute; Stovall, Therese K [ORNL] [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results of a cooperative effort to install and operate a Cooling, Heating and Power (CHP) System at a major hotel in San Francisco, CA. The packaged CHP System integrated four microturbines, a double-effect absorption chiller, two fuel gas boosters, and the control hardware and software to ensure that the system operated predictably, reliably, and safely. The chiller was directly energized by the recycled hot exhaust from the microturbines, and could be configured to provide either chilled or hot water. As installed, the system was capable of providing up to 227 kW of net electrical power and 142 Refrigeration Tons (RT) of chilled water at a 59oF (15oC) ambient temperature. For the year, the CHP efficiency was 54 percent. Significant lessons learned from this test and verification project are discussed as well as measured performance and economic considerations.

  5. State Opportunities for Action: Review of States' Combined Heat and Power Activities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, E.; Scott, K.; Elliott, R. N.

    Council for an Energy Efficient Economy Washington, D.C covered in this report are utility-owned CHP facilities and large investor-owned utilities (lOUs). Background Distributed generation (DG) is defined as any technology that produces power off... the electric grid (Shipley and Elliott 2000). About 60% of CHP installations are considered DG-only large central generation CHP is not included. Because this report focuses on smaller CHP, we can consider the barriers for these installations...

  6. Satellite power system concept development and evaluation program system definition technical assessment report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of the system definition studies conducted by NASA as a part of the Department of Energy/National Aeronautics and Space Administration SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program are summarized. The purpose of the system definition efforts was to identify and define candidate SPS concepts and to evaluate the concepts in terms of technical and cost factors. Although the system definition efforts consisted primarily of evaluation and assessment of alternative technical approaches, a reference system was also defined to facilitate economic, environmental, and societal assessments by the Department of Energy. This reference system was designed to deliver 5 GW of electrical power to the utility grid. Topics covered include system definition; energy conversion and power management; power transmission and reception; structures, controls, and materials; construction and operations; and space transportation.

  7. Study to assess the effects of electromagnetic pulse on electric power systems. Phase I. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Legro, J.R.; Abi-Samra, N.C.; Crouse, J.C.; Hileman, A.R.; Kruse, V.J.; Taylor, E.R. Jr.; Tesche, F.M.

    1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The high-altitude detonation of a nuclear device over the continental United States can expose electric utility power systems to intense, transient electromagnetic pulses (EMP). In addition to the initial transient fields designated as early-time, high-altitude EMP and intermediate-time, high-altitude EMP, electromagnetic signals are also produced at times from seconds to hundreds of seconds after the burst. Nuclear detonations at or near the earth's surface can also produce transient EMP. This volume presents an executive summary of the preliminary research effort to investigate the nature and coupling of EMP environments to electric power systems, define the construction of approximate system response models, and document the development of a methodology to assess equipment and system vulnerability. The research to date does not include an attempt to quantify power system performance in EMP environments. This effort has been to define the analytical methods and techniques necessary to conduct such assessments at a later time.

  8. Assessing Long-Term Wind Conditions by Combining Different Measure-Correlate-Predict Algorithms: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.; Chowdhury, S.; Messac, A.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper significantly advances the hybrid measure-correlate-predict (MCP) methodology, enabling it to account for variations of both wind speed and direction. The advanced hybrid MCP method uses the recorded data of multiple reference stations to estimate the long-term wind condition at a target wind plant site. The results show that the accuracy of the hybrid MCP method is highly sensitive to the combination of the individual MCP algorithms and reference stations. It was also found that the best combination of MCP algorithms varies based on the length of the correlation period.

  9. A methodology for understanding the impacts of large-scale penetration of micro-combined heat and power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tapia-Ahumada, K. [MIT Energy Initiative, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Pérez-Arriaga, I. J. [Institute for Research in Technology, Comillas Pontifical University (Spain); Moniz, Ernest J. [MIT Energy Initiative, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Co-generation at small kW-e scale has been stimulated in recent years by governments and energy regulators as one way to increasing energy efficiency and reducing CO2emissions. If a widespread adoption should be realized, their effects from a system's point of view are crucial to understand the contributions of this technology. Based on a methodology that uses long-term capacity planning expansion, this paper explores some of the implications for an electric power system of having a large number of micro-CHPs. Results show that fuel cells-based micro-CHPs have the best and most consistent performance for different residential demands from the customer and system's perspectives. As the penetration increases at important levels, gas-based technologies - particularly combined cycle units - are displaced in capacity and production, which impacts the operation of the electric system during summer peak hours. Other results suggest that the tariff design impacts the economic efficiency of the system and the operation of micro-CHPs under a price-based strategy. Finally, policies aimed at micro-CHPs should consider the suitability of the technology (in size and heat-to-power ratio) to meet individual demands, the operational complexities of a large penetration, and the adequacy of the economic signals to incentivize an efficient and sustainable operation. Highlights: Capacity displacements and daily operation of an electric power system are explored; Benefits depend on energy mix, prices, and micro-CHP technology and control scheme; Benefits are observed mostly in winter when micro-CHP heat and power are fully used; Micro-CHPs mostly displace installed capacity from natural gas combined cycle units; and, Tariff design impacts economic efficiency of the system and operation of micro-CHPs.

  10. Negotiating river ecosystems: Impact assessment and conflict mediation in the cases of hydro-power construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karjalainen, Timo P., E-mail: timopauli.karjalainen@oulu.f [Thule Institute, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 7300, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Jaervikoski, Timo, E-mail: timo.jarvikoski@oulu.f [Unit of Sociology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 2000, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we discuss how the legitimacy of the impact assessment process is a key issue in conflict mediation in environmental impact assessment. We contrast two EIA cases in hydro-power generation plans made for the Ii River, Finland in different decades, and evaluate how impact assessment in these cases has contributed to the creation, mediation and resolution of conflicts. We focus on the elements of distributional and procedural justice that made the former EIA process more legitimate and consensual and the latter more conflictual. The results indicate that it is crucial for conflict mediation to include all the values and interests of the parties in the goal-setting process and in the definition and assessment of alternatives. The analysis also indicates that procedural justice is the most important to help the people and groups involved to accept the legitimacy of the impact assessment process: how different parties and their values and interests are recognized, and how participation and distribution of power are organized in an impact assessment process. It is confirmed in this article that SIA may act as a mediator or a forum providing a process through which competing knowledge claims, various values and interests can be discussed and linked to the proposed alternatives and interventions.

  11. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1. FeedstockCLEANSprings Gets anColoring andCombined Heat|

  12. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels, August 2004

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1. FeedstockCLEANSprings Gets anColoring andCombined Heat||

  13. Combined Heat and Power System Achieves Millions in Cost Savings at Large

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1. FeedstockCLEANSprings Gets anColoring andCombined

  14. Combined Heat and Power System Enables 100% Reliability at Leading Medical

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1. FeedstockCLEANSprings Gets anColoring andCombinedCampus

  15. Combined Heat and Power: Expanding CHP in Your State | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platformBuildingCoal Combustion Products CoalEnergyColumbusCombined Heat and

  16. Combined Heat and Power: Is It Right For Your Facility? | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platformBuildingCoal Combustion Products CoalEnergyColumbusCombined Heat

  17. Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would likeConstitution4 Department of EnergyCross-SectorDepartmentReplace

  18. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe Solar Power Project Ground BreakingWaterSites

  19. Combined Heat And Power Installation Market Analysis | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.png ElColumbia, North Carolina: Energy ResourcesWindMarket

  20. Combined Heat And Power Installation Market Forecast | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.png ElColumbia, North Carolina: Energy

  1. Day, night and all-weather security surveillance automation synergy from combining two powerful technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morellas, Vassilios; Johnson, Andrew [Honeywell Labs, 3660, Technology Drive, Minneapolis MN 5518 (United States); Johnston, Chris [Honeywell ACS, 1985 Douglas Drive North, Golden Valley MN 55422 (United States); Roberts, Sharon D.; Francisco, Glen L. [L-3 Communications Infrared Products, 13532 N. Central Expressway, Dallas TX 75243 (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal imaging is rightfully a real-world technology proven to bring confidence to daytime, night-time and all weather security surveillance. Automatic image processing intrusion detection algorithms are also a real world technology proven to bring confidence to system surveillance security solutions. Together, day, night and all weather video imagery sensors and automated intrusion detection software systems create the real power to protect early against crime, providing real-time global homeland protection, rather than simply being able to monitor and record activities for post event analysis. These solutions, whether providing automatic security system surveillance at airports (to automatically detect unauthorized aircraft takeoff and landing activities) or at high risk private, public or government facilities (to automatically detect unauthorized people or vehicle intrusion activities) are on the move to provide end users the power to protect people, capital equipment and intellectual property against acts of vandalism and terrorism. As with any technology, infrared sensors and automatic image intrusion detection systems for global homeland security protection have clear technological strengths and limitations compared to other more common day and night vision technologies or more traditional manual man-in-the-loop intrusion detection security systems. This paper addresses these strength and limitation capabilities. False Alarm (FAR) and False Positive Rate (FPR) is an example of some of the key customer system acceptability metrics and Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) and Minimum Resolvable Temperature are examples of some of the sensor level performance acceptability metrics. (authors)

  2. A methodology to assess the effects of high altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, E.R. Jr.; Eichler, C.H.; Barnes, P.R.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) from high altitude nuclear detonations (HEMP) has the potential to seriously disrupt electric power systems. A methodology has been developed to assess the vulnerability of electric power systems to this phenomena for any specified nuclear burst scenario. The methodology is based on a structured approach whereby the power system is broken down into subsystems, functional groups, and circuits and devices. Vulnerability (likelihood of failure) is assessed for individual equipment (circuits and devices) for each nuclear burst scenario. These effects are then evaluated for their performance impact on successively higher system levels. This forms the input for classical load flow, short circuit and transient stability studies to evaluate system stability and survivability. Applicability of the assessment methodology is not dependent on the quality of component/equipment vulnerability data. Susceptibility of power equipment to HEMP damage may be determined by established technical analysis, by intepretation of equipment design and testing standards, and by laboratory testing. This paper has been written not only for the electric utility engineer, but also for experts in EMP who may not be knowledgeable in electric utility systems. 12 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Model predictive control system and method for integrated gasification combined cycle power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Aditya; Shi, Ruijie; Kumar, Rajeeva; Dokucu, Mustafa

    2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Control system and method for controlling an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant are provided. The system may include a controller coupled to a dynamic model of the plant to process a prediction of plant performance and determine a control strategy for the IGCC plant over a time horizon subject to plant constraints. The control strategy may include control functionality to meet a tracking objective and control functionality to meet an optimization objective. The control strategy may be configured to prioritize the tracking objective over the optimization objective based on a coordinate transformation, such as an orthogonal or quasi-orthogonal projection. A plurality of plant control knobs may be set in accordance with the control strategy to generate a sequence of coordinated multivariable control inputs to meet the tracking objective and the optimization objective subject to the prioritization resulting from the coordinate transformation.

  4. Performance Analysis of Fully Joint Diversity Combining, Adaptive Modulation, and Power Control Schemes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouida, Zied

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Pl,n denotes the probability that mode n is used with l combined branches. Based on the mode of operation of the BES-FD-FJAMDC, the expression of Pl,n is given, for n = N, by 22 Pl,N = ?? ?? ?? 1?FL/1?GSC?c (?TN/Gmax), l = 1; FL/(l?1)?GSC?c (?TN.../Gmax)?FL/l?GSC?c (?TN/Gmax), 1 < l ? L; (4.14) = ? ??? ??? summationtextL?1 k=1 L parenleftbigL?1 k parenrightbig (?1)k k+1 e ?(k+1) ?TN?Gmax , l = 1; FL/(l?1)?GSC?c (?TN/Gmax)?FL/l?GSC?c (?TN/Gmax), 1 < l ? L; (4.15) and for n < N by Pl,n (4...

  5. Subcontract Report: Modular Combined Heat & Power System for Utica College: Design Specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rouse, Greg [Gas Technology Institute

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utica College, located in Utica New York, intends to install an on-site power/cogeneration facility. The energy facility is to be factory pre-assembled, or pre- assembled in modules, to the fullest extent possible, and ready to install and interconnect at the College with minimal time and engineering needs. External connections will be limited to fuel supply, electrical output, potable makeup water as required and cooling and heat recovery systems. The proposed facility will consist of 4 self-contained, modular Cummins 330kW engine generators with heat recovery systems and the only external connections will be fuel supply, electrical outputs and cooling and heat recovery systems. This project was eventually cancelled due to changing DOE budget priorities, but the project engineers produced this system design specification in hopes that it may be useful in future endeavors.

  6. Dose assessment for various coals in the coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antic, D.; Sokcic-Kostic, M. (Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiation exposure of the public in the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant has been studied. The experimental data on uranium, thorium, and potassium content in selected coals from Serbia and Bosnia have been used to calculate the release rates of natural radionuclides from the power plant. A generalized model for analysis of radiological impact of an energy source that includes the two-dimensional version of the cloud model simulates the transport of radionuclides released to the atmosphere. The inhalation dose rates are assessed for various meteorological conditions.

  7. IMPACTS ASSESSMENT OF PLUG-IN HYBRID VEHICLES ON ELECTRIC UTILITIES AND REGIONAL U.S. POWER GRIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    National Laboratory(a) ABSTRACT The U.S. electric power infrastructure is a strategic national asset.S. electric infrastructure is designed to meet the highest expected demand for power and, as a resultIMPACTS ASSESSMENT OF PLUG-IN HYBRID VEHICLES ON ELECTRIC UTILITIES AND REGIONAL U.S. POWER GRIDS

  8. Assessment of the Flue Gas Recycle Strategies on Oxy-Coal Power Plants using an Exergy-based Methodology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Assessment of the Flue Gas Recycle Strategies on Oxy- Coal Power Plants using an Exergy to be competitive with post-combustion for carbon capture on coal-fired power plants. In order to achieve is produced from coal (IEA 2012b), the development of CO2 capture technology on coal-fired power plants

  9. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 22, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2007 85 A Reinforcement Learning Model to Assess Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    to Assess Market Power Under Auction-Based Energy Pricing Vishnuteja Nanduri, Student Member, IEEE segments of a deregulated power industry. In day-ahead (DA) energy markets, strategies such as uniform offer different levels of market power. In this paper, we present a nonzero sum stochastic game

  10. Effects of a carbon tax on combined heat and power adoption by a microgrid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Firestone, Ryan M.; Ghosh, Srijay; Siddidqui, Afzal S.; Stadler, Michael

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the economically optimal adoption and operation of distributed energy resources (DER) by a hypothetical California microgrid ((mu)Grid) consisting of a group of commercial buildings over an historic test year, 1999. The optimization is conducted using a customer adoption model (DER-CAM) developed at Berkeley Lab and implemented in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). A (mu)Grid is a semiautonomous grouping of electricity and heat loads interconnected to the existing utility grid (macrogrid) but able to island from it. The (mu)Grid minimizes the cost of meeting its energy requirements (consisting of both electricity and heat loads) by optimizing the installation and operation of DER technologies while purchasing residual energy from the local combined natural gas and electricity utility. The available DER technologies are small-scale generators (< 500 kW), such as reciprocating engines, microturbines, and fuel cells, with or without CHP equipment, such as water- and space-heating and/or absorption cooling. By introducing a tax on carbon emissions, it is shown that if the (mu)Grid is allowed to install CHP-enabled DER technologies, its carbon emissions are mitigated more than without CHP, demonstrating the potential benefits of small-scale CHP technology for climate change mitigation. Reciprocating engines with heat recovery and/or absorption cooling tend to be attractive technologies for the mild southern California climate, but the carbon mitigation tends to be modest compared to purchasing utility electricity because of the predominance of relatively clean generation in California.

  11. Published assessments bearing on the future use of ceramic superconductors by the electric power sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giese, R.F.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1992-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Much has been written about ceramic superconductors since their discovery in 1986. Most of this writing reports and describes scientific research. However, some authors have sought to put this research in context: to assess where the field stands, what might be technically feasible, what might be economically feasible, and what potential impacts ceramic superconductors will bring to the electric power sector. This report`s purpose is to make the results of already published assessments readily available. To that end, this report lists and provides abstracts for various technical and economic assessments related to applications of High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) to the electric power sector. Those studies deemed most important are identified and summarized. These assessments were identified by two means. First, members of the Executive Committee identified some reports as worthy of consideration and forwarded them to Argonne National Laboratory. Twelve assessments were selected. Each of these is listed and summarized in the following section. Second, a bibliographic search was performed on five databases: INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, Energy Science & Technology, and Electric Power Database. The search consisted of first selecting all papers related to High Temperature Superconductors. Then papers related to SMES, cables, generators, motors, fault current limiters, or electric utilities were selected. When suitable variants of the above terms were included, this resulted in a selection of 493 citations. These citations were subjected to review by the authors. A number of citations were determined to be inappropriate (e.g. a number referred to digital transmission lines for electronics and communications applications). The reduced list consisted of 200 entries. Each of these citations, with an abstract, is presented in the following sections.

  12. Published assessments bearing on the future use of ceramic superconductors by the electric power sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giese, R.F.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1992-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Much has been written about ceramic superconductors since their discovery in 1986. Most of this writing reports and describes scientific research. However, some authors have sought to put this research in context: to assess where the field stands, what might be technically feasible, what might be economically feasible, and what potential impacts ceramic superconductors will bring to the electric power sector. This report's purpose is to make the results of already published assessments readily available. To that end, this report lists and provides abstracts for various technical and economic assessments related to applications of High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) to the electric power sector. Those studies deemed most important are identified and summarized. These assessments were identified by two means. First, members of the Executive Committee identified some reports as worthy of consideration and forwarded them to Argonne National Laboratory. Twelve assessments were selected. Each of these is listed and summarized in the following section. Second, a bibliographic search was performed on five databases: INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, Energy Science Technology, and Electric Power Database. The search consisted of first selecting all papers related to High Temperature Superconductors. Then papers related to SMES, cables, generators, motors, fault current limiters, or electric utilities were selected. When suitable variants of the above terms were included, this resulted in a selection of 493 citations. These citations were subjected to review by the authors. A number of citations were determined to be inappropriate (e.g. a number referred to digital transmission lines for electronics and communications applications). The reduced list consisted of 200 entries. Each of these citations, with an abstract, is presented in the following sections.

  13. An assessment of mercury emissions and health risks from a coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Lipfert, F.; Moskowitz, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Analytical Sciences Div.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Title 3 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) mandated that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluate the need to regulate mercury emissions from electric utilities. In support of this forthcoming regulatory analysis the U.S. DOE, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the US MeHg is the predominant way of exposure to mercury originated in the atmosphere. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1,000 MW coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. This study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Even at these more elevated exposure levels, the attributable incidence in mild neurological symptoms was estimated to be quite small, especially when compared with the estimated background incidence in the population. The current paper summarizes the basic conclusions of this assessment and highlights issues dealing with emissions control and environmental transport.

  14. Assessment of research directions for high-voltage direct-current power systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, W F

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High voltage direct current (HVDC) power transmission continues to be an emerging technology nearly thirty years after its introduction into modern power systems. To date its use has been restricted to either specialized applications having identifiable economic advantages (e.g., breakeven distance) or, rarely, applications where decoupling is needed. Only recently have the operational advantages (e.g., power modulation) of HVDC been realized on operating systems. A research project whose objective was to identify hardware developments and, where appropriate, system applications which can exemplify cost and operational advantages of integrated ac/dc power systems is discussed. The three principal tasks undertaken were: assessment of equipment developments; quantification of operational advantages; and interaction with system planners. Interest in HVDC power transmission has increased markedly over the past several years, and many new systems are now being investigated. The dissemination of information about HVDC, including specifically the symposium undertaken for Task 3, is a critical factor in fostering an understanding of this important adjunct to ac power transmission.

  15. Assessment of the status of fuel cell/battery vehicle power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Escher, W.J.D.; Foster, R.W.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An assessment of the status of the integrated fuel cell/battery power system concept for electric vehicle propulsion is reported. The fuel cell, operating on hydrogen or methanol (indirectly), acts as a very high capacity energy battery for vehicle sustaining operation, while a special power battery provides over-capacity transient power on demand, being recharged by the fuel cell, e.g., during cruising. A focused literature search and a set of industrial and Government contacts were carried out to establish views, outlooks, and general status concerning the concept. It is evident that, although vehicle battery R and D is being actively pursued, little of today's fuel cell work is directed to transportation usage. Only very limited attention has been, and is being, given to the fuel cell/battery power system concept itself. However, judging largely from computer-simulated driving cycle results, the concept can provide needed range capabilities and general operating flexibility to electric vehicles. New transportation applications, conventionally viewed as beyond the capability of electric vehicles, may thereby be practical, e.g., rail, trucks. In view of these potential and important benefits, and the absence of any comprehensive research, development, and demonstration activities which are supportive of the fuel cell/battery system concept, the initiation of an appropriate effort is recommended by the Assessment Team. This general recommendation is supported by applicable findings, observations, and conclusions.

  16. Worldwide assessment of steam-generator problems in pressurized-water-reactor nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, H.H.; Lu, S.C.

    1981-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Objective is to assess the reliability of steam generators of pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants in the United States and abroad. The assessment is based on operation experience of both domestic and foreign PWR plants. The approach taken is to collect and review papers and reports available from the literature as well as information obtained by contacting research institutes both here and abroad. This report presents the results of the assessment. It contains a general background of PWR plant operations, plant types, and materials used in PWR plants. A review of the worldwide distribution of PWR plants is also given. The report describes in detail the degradation problems discovered in PWR steam generators: their causes, their impacts on the performance of steam generators, and the actions to mitigate and avoid them. One chapter is devoted to operating experience of PWR steam generators in foreign countries. Another discusses the improvements in future steam generator design.

  17. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with CombinedHeat and Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of solar thermal and heat storage systems can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems, e.g. fuel cells with or without combined heat and power (CHP) and contribute to enhanced CO2 reduction. However, the interactions between solar thermal collection and storage systems and CHP systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of solar thermal and heat storage on CO2 emissions and annual energy costs, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program. The objective is minimization of annual energy costs. This paper focuses on analysis of the optimal interaction of solar thermal systems, which can be used for domestic hot water, space heating and/or cooling, and micro-CHP systems in the California service territory of San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). Contrary to typical expectations, our results indicate that despite the high solar radiation in southern California, fossil based CHP units are dominant, even with forecast 2020 technology and costs. A CO2 pricing scheme would be needed to incent installation of combined solar thermal absorption chiller systems, and no heat storage systems are adopted. This research also shows that photovoltaic (PV) arrays are favored by CO2 pricing more than solar thermal adoption.

  18. Assessing human exposure to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaune, W.T. [EM Factors, Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews published literature and current problems relating to the assessment of occupational and residential human exposures to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields. Available occupational exposure data suggest that the class of job titles known as electrical workers may be an effective surrogate for time-weighted-average (TWA) magnetic-field (but not electric-field) exposure. Current research in occupational-exposure assessment is directed to the construction of job-exposure matrices based on electric- and magnetic-field measurements and estimates of worker exposures to chemicals and other factors of interest. Recent work has identified five principal sources of residential magnetic fields: electric power transmission lines, electric power distribution lines, ground currents, home wiring, and home appliances. Existing residential-exposure assessments have used one or more of the following techniques: questionnaires, wiring configuration coding, theoretical field calculations, spot electric- and magnetic-field measurements, fixed-site magnetic-field recordings, personal-exposure measurements, and geomagnetic-field measurements. Available normal-power magnetic-field data for residences differ substantially between studies. It is not known if these differences are due to geographical differences, differences in measurement protocols, or instrumentation differences. Available data suggest, but are far from proving, that spot measurements may be more effective than wire codes as predictors of long-term historical magnetic-field exposure. Two studies find that away-from-home TWA magnetic-field exposures are less variable than at home exposures. The importance of home appliances as contributors to total residential magnetic-field exposure is not known at this time. It also is not known what characteristics (if any) of residential electric and magnetic fields are determinants of human health effects. 41 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 1: National assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tesche, F.M. [6714 Norway Road, Dallas, TX (United States); Zaininger, H.W. [Zaininger Engineering Co., San Jose, CA (United States)

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaic, solar thermal electricity, and wind turbine power are environmentally beneficial sources of electric power generation. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems can provide additional economic benefits because of a reduction in the losses associated with transmission and distribution lines. Benefits associated with the deferment of transmission and distribution investment may also be possible for cases where there is a high correlation between peak circuit load and renewable energy electric generation, such as photovoltaic systems in the Southwest. Case studies were conducted with actual power distribution system data for seven electric utilities with the participation of those utilities. Integrating renewable energy systems into electric power distribution systems increased the value of the benefits by about 20 to 55% above central station benefits in the national regional assessment. In the case studies presented in Vol. II, the range was larger: from a few percent to near 80% for a case where costly investments were deferred. In general, additional savings of at least 10 to 20% can be expected by integrating at the distribution level. Wind energy systems were found to be economical in good wind resource regions, whereas photovoltaic systems costs are presently a factor of 2.5 too expensive under the most favorable conditions.

  20. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite. Task 3.6, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US has invested heavily in research, development, and demonstration of efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the use of coal. The US has the opportunity to use its leadership position to market a range of advanced coal-based technologies internationally. For example, coal mining output in the Czech Republic has been decreasing. This decrease in demand can be attributed mainly to the changing structure of the Czech economy and to environmental constraints. The continued production of energy from indigenous brown coals is a major concern for the Czech Republic. The strong desire to continue to use this resource is a challenge. The Energy and Environmental Research Center undertook two major efforts recently. One effort involved an assessment of opportunities for commercialization of US coal technologies in the Czech Republic. This report is the result of that effort. The technology assessment focused on the utilization of Czech brown coals. These coals are high in ash and sulfur, and the information presented in this report focuses on the utilization of these brown coals in an economically and environmentally friendly manner. Sections 3--5 present options for utilizing the as-mined coal, while Sections 6 and 7 present options for upgrading and generating alternative uses for the lignite. Contents include Czech Republic national energy perspectives; powering; emissions control; advanced power generation systems; assessment of lignite-upgrading technologies; and alternative markets for lignite.

  1. Assessment of the radiological impact of a decommissioning nuclear power plant in Italy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Petraglia; C. Sabbarese; M. De Cesare; N. De Cesare; F. Quinto; F. Terrasi; A. D'Onofrio; P. Steier; L. K. Fifield; A. M. Esposito

    2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The assessment of the radiological impact of a decommissioning Nuclear Power Plant is presented here through the results of an environmental monitoring survey carried out in the area surrounding the Garigliano Power Plant. The levels of radioactivity in soil, water, air and other environmental matrices are shown, in which {\\alpha}, {\\beta} and {\\gamma} activity and {\\gamma} equivalent dose rate are measured. Radioactivity levels of the samples from the Garigliano area are analyzed and then compared to those from a control zone situated more than 100 km away. Moreover, a comparison is made with a previous survey held in 2001. The analyses and comparisons show no significant alteration in the radiological characteristics of the area surroundings the plant, with an overall radioactivity depending mainly from the global fallout and natural sources.

  2. Assessment of the radiological impact of a decommissioning nuclear power plant in Italy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petraglia, A; De Cesare, M; De Cesare, N; Quinto, F; Terrasi, F; D'Onofrio, A; Steier, P; Fifield, L K; Esposito, A M; 10.1051/radiopro/2012010

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The assessment of the radiological impact of a decommissioning Nuclear Power Plant is presented here through the results of an environmental monitoring survey carried out in the area surrounding the Garigliano Power Plant. The levels of radioactivity in soil, water, air and other environmental matrices are shown, in which {\\alpha}, {\\beta} and {\\gamma} activity and {\\gamma} equivalent dose rate are measured. Radioactivity levels of the samples from the Garigliano area are analyzed and then compared to those from a control zone situated more than 100 km away. Moreover, a comparison is made with a previous survey held in 2001. The analyses and comparisons show no significant alteration in the radiological characteristics of the area surroundings the plant, with an overall radioactivity depending mainly from the global fallout and natural sources.

  3. A Cyber Security Self-Assessment Method for Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glantz, Clifford S.; Coles, Garill A.; Bass, Robert B.

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cyber security self-assessment method (the Method) has been developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The development of the Method was sponsored and directed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Members of the Nuclear Energy Institute Cyber Security Task Force also played a substantial role in developing the Method. The Method's structured approach guides nuclear power plants in scrutinizing their digital systems, assessing the potential consequences to the plant of a cyber exploitation, identifying vulnerabilities, estimating cyber security risks, and adopting cost-effective protective measures. The focus of the Method is on critical digital assets. A critical digital asset is a digital device or system that plays a role in the operation, maintenance, or proper functioning of a critical system (i.e., a plant system that can impact safety, security, or emergency preparedness). A critical digital asset may have a direct or indirect connection to a critical system. Direct connections include both wired and wireless communication pathways. Indirect connections include sneaker-net pathways by which software or data are manually transferred from one digital device to another. An indirect connection also may involve the use of instructions or data stored on a critical digital asset to make adjustments to a critical system. The cyber security self-assessment begins with the formation of an assessment team, and is followed by a six-stage process.

  4. Collaborative National Program for the Development and Performance Testing of Distributed Power Technologies with Emphasis on Combined Heat and Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soinski, Arthur; Hanson, Mark

    2006-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A current barrier to public acceptance of distributed generation (DG) and combined heat and power (CHP) technologies is the lack of credible and uniform information regarding system performance. Under a cooperative agreement, the Association of State Energy Research and Technology Transfer Institutions (ASERTTI) and the U.S. Department of Energy have developed four performance testing protocols to provide a uniform basis for comparison of systems. The protocols are for laboratory testing, field testing, long-term monitoring and case studies. They have been reviewed by a Stakeholder Advisory Committee made up of industry, public interest, end-user, and research community representatives. The types of systems covered include small turbines, reciprocating engines (including Stirling Cycle), and microturbines. The protocols are available for public use and the resulting data is publicly available in an online national database and two linked databases with further data from New York State. The protocols are interim pending comments and other feedback from users. Final protocols will be available in 2007. The interim protocols and the national database of operating systems can be accessed at www.dgdata.org. The project has entered Phase 2 in which protocols for fuel cell applications will be developed and the national and New York databases will continue to be maintained and populated.

  5. Analysis of integrating compressed air energy storage concepts with coal gasification/combined-cycle systems for continuous power production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakhamkin, M.; Patel, M.; Andersson, L. (Energy Storage and Power Consultants, Inc., Mountainside, NJ (United States))

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A previous study sponsored by EPRI concluded that integrating a compressed-air energy storage (CAES) plant with a coal-gasification system (CGS) can reduce the required capacity and cost of the expensive gasification system. The results showed that when compared at an equal plant capacity, the capital cost of the CGS portion of the integrated CAES/CGS plant can be reduced by as much as 30% relative to the same portion of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant. Furthermore, the capital cost of the CAES/CGS.plant, configured as a peaking unit, was found to be slightly lower than that of the base-load IGCC plant. However, the overall economics of the CAES/CGS plant were adversely affected by the low capacity factor of the peak-load service, and ultimately, were found to be less attractive than the IGCC plant. The main objective of this study was to develop and analyze integrated CAES/CGS power plant concepts which provide for continuous (around-the-clock) operation of both the CAES reheat turboexpander train and the CGS facility. The developed concepts also provide utility-load management functions by driving the CAES compressor trains with off-peak electricity supplied through the grid. EPRI contracted with Energy Storage Power Consultants, Inc. (ESPC) to develop conceptual designs, optimized performance characteristics, and preliminary cost data for these CAES/CGS concepts, and to provide a technical and cost comparison to the IGCC plant. The CAES/CGS concepts developed by ESPC for the current study contrast from those of Reference 1.

  6. A Synergistic Combination of Advanced Separation and Chemical Scale Inhibitor Technologies for Efficient Use of Imparied Water As Cooling Water in Coal-based Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasbir Gill

    2010-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Nalco Company is partnering with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in this project to jointly develop advanced scale control technologies that will provide cost-effective solutions for coal-based power plants to operate recirculating cooling water systems at high cycles using impaired waters. The overall approach is to use combinations of novel membrane separations and scale inhibitor technologies that will work synergistically, with membrane separations reducing the scaling potential of the cooling water and scale inhibitors extending the safe operating range of the cooling water system. The project started on March 31, 2006 and ended in August 30, 2010. The project was a multiyear, multi-phase project with laboratory research and development as well as a small pilot-scale field demonstration. In Phase 1 (Technical Targets and Proof of Concept), the objectives were to establish quantitative technical targets and develop calcite and silica scale inhibitor chemistries for high stress conditions. Additional Phase I work included bench-scale testing to determine the feasibility of two membrane separation technologies (electrodialysis ED and electrode-ionization EDI) for scale minimization. In Phase 2 (Technology Development and Integration), the objectives were to develop additional novel scale inhibitor chemistries, develop selected separation processes, and optimize the integration of the technology components at the laboratory scale. Phase 3 (Technology Validation) validated the integrated system's performance with a pilot-scale demonstration. During Phase 1, Initial evaluations of impaired water characteristics focused on produced waters and reclaimed municipal wastewater effluents. Literature and new data were collected and evaluated. Characteristics of produced waters vary significantly from one site to another, whereas reclaimed municipal wastewater effluents have relatively more uniform characteristics. Assessment to date confirmed that calcite and silica/silicate are two common potential cycle-limiting minerals for using impaired waters. For produced waters, barium sulfate and calcium sulfate are two additional potential cycle-limiting minerals. For reclaimed municipal wastewater effluents, calcium phosphate scaling can be an issue, especially in the co-presence of high silica. Computational assessment, using a vast amount of Nalco's field data from coal fired power plants, showed that the limited use and reuse of impaired waters is due to the formation of deposit caused by the presence of iron, high hardness, high silica and high alkalinity in the water. Appropriate and cost-effective inhibitors were identified and developed - LL99B0 for calcite and gypsum inhibition and TX-15060 for silica inhibition. Nalco's existing dispersants HSP-1 and HSP-2 has excellent efficacy for dispersing Fe and Mn. ED and EDI were bench-scale tested by the CRADA partner Argonne National Laboratory for hardness, alkalinity and silica removal from synthetic make-up water and then cycled cooling water. Both systems showed low power consumption and 98-99% salt removal, however, the EDI system required 25-30% less power for silica removal. For Phase 2, the EDI system's performance was optimized and the length of time between clean-in-place (CIP) increased by varying the wafer composition and membrane configuration. The enhanced EDI system could remove 88% of the hardness and 99% of the alkalinity with a processing flux of 19.2 gal/hr/m{sup 2} and a power consumption of 0.54 kWh/100 gal water. Bench tests to screen alternative silica/silicate scale inhibitor chemistries have begun. The silica/silicate control approaches using chemical inhibitors include inhibition of silicic acid polymerization and dispersion of silica/silicate crystals. Tests were conducted with an initial silica concentration of 290-300 mg/L as SiO{sub 2} at pH 7 and room temperature. A proprietary new chemistry was found to be promising, compared with a current commercial product commonly used for silica/silicate control. Additional pilot cooling tower testing confirmed

  7. White Paper to California Energy Commission on Assessment of Concentrated Solar Power David Barlev, Ruxandra Vidu, Pieter Stroeve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Islam, M. Saif

    1 White Paper to California Energy Commission on Assessment of Concentrated Solar Power David Barlev, Ruxandra Vidu, Pieter Stroeve California Solar Energy Collaborative, University of California is put into the harvest and storage of solar energy for power generation. There are two mainstream

  8. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 3, AUGUST 2000 1137 A Fast Voltage Security Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkatasubramanian, Mani V.

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 3, AUGUST 2000 1137 A Fast Voltage Security--This paper presents a fast method for use in on-line voltage security assessment. The objective here from Static Security Analysis (SSA). Index Terms--Adaptive bounding, electrical distance, power flow

  9. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 0, NO. 0, MONTH YEAR 1 On-line Dynamic Security Assessment with Missing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reisslein, Martin

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 0, NO. 0, MONTH YEAR 1 On-line Dynamic Security Assessment is proposed for on-line dynamic security assessment (DSA), with the objective of mitigating the impact of viable small DTs. The security classification decision for on-line DSA is obtained via a weighted voting

  10. Combined cycle power plant of SVZ Schwarze Pumpe GmbH operating experience gained with low calorific value fuel resulting from gasification processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotschenreuther, H.; Hauptmann, W.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supported by experience gained over many years, Schwarze Pumpe GmbH (SVZ), the secondary raw material recycling centre, operates autothermal compression-type gasification plants with oxygen according to the fixed-bed and the entrained flow process, in which apart from lignite as the fuel to be gasified, residues containing C/H of varying consistency are gasified in an environmentally friendly manner. The purified gas acquired after scrubbing, partial conversion and desulfurization is mainly used as a synthesis gas for methanol synthesis and thus provided with a material use. For covering auxiliary requirements in electrical and process power, a combined-cycle power plant is operated, the main fuel of which is a low calorific value dual-process gas, primarily consisting of purified and purge gas. The volumes of purified and purge gases available to the combined-cycle power plant from the SVZ process equipment and their grades cannot be influenced by the combined-cycle power plant. It is shown that from a targeted modification of the dual-process gas temperature the Wobbe Index of dual-process gases with considerably varying parameters (calorific value, density) can be brought into the range required for running the gas turbine. Furthermore what is also shown is the operating strategy and control concept by which the combined-cycle power plant can maintain the pressure in the SVZ purified gas system and thus ultimately the gasification reactor operating pressure.

  11. EIS-0409: Kemper County Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project, Mississippi

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE's decision to provide funding for the Kemper County Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project in Kemper County, Mississippi to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of a project proposed by Southern Power Company, through its affiliate Mississippi Power Company, which has been selected by DOE for consideration under the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) program.

  12. A Bayesian Prognostic Algorithm for Assessing Remaining Useful Life of Nuclear Power Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Dixit, Mukul; Henager, Charles H.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A central issue in life extension for the current fleet of light water nuclear power reactors is the early detection and monitoring of significant materials degradation. To meet this need nondestructive measurement methods that are suitable for on-line, continuous, in-plant monitoring over extended time periods (months to years) are needed. A related issue is then, based on a condition assessment or degradation trend, to have the ability to estimate the remaining useful life based of components, structures and systems based on the available materials degradation information. Such measurement and modeling methods form the basis for a new range of advanced diagnostic and prognostic approaches. Prognostic methods that predict remaining life based on large crack growth, and phenomena that can be described by linear elastic fracture mechanics, have been reported by several researchers. The challenge of predicting remaining life for earlier phases of degradation is largely unsolved. Monitoring for early detection of materials degradation requires novel and enhanced sensors and data integration techniques. A recent review has considered the stages of degradation and sensing methods that can potentially be employed to detect and monitor early degradation for nuclear power plant applications. An experimental assessment of selected diagnostic techniques was also reported recently. However, the estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) determined from nondestructive diagnostic measurements for early degradation is still an unsolved problem. This present paper will discuss the application of Bayesian prognostic algorithms applied to the early degradation- life problem.

  13. Impact of structural aging on seismic risk assessment of reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingwood, B.; Song, J. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Structural Aging Program is addressing the potential for degradation of concrete structural components and systems in nuclear power plants over time due to aging and aggressive environmental stressors. Structures are passive under normal operating conditions but play a key role in mitigating design-basis events, particularly those arising from external challenges such as earthquakes, extreme winds, fires and floods. Structures are plant-specific and unique, often are difficult to inspect, and are virtually impossible to replace. The importance of structural failures in accident mitigation is amplified because such failures may lead to common-cause failures of other components. Structural condition assessment and service life prediction must focus on a few critical components and systems within the plant. Components and systems that are dominant contributors to risk and that require particular attention can be identified through the mathematical formalism of a probabilistic risk assessment, or PRA. To illustrate, the role of structural degradation due to aging on plant risk is examined through the framework of a Level 1 seismic PRA of a nuclear power plant. Plausible mechanisms of structural degradation are found to increase the core damage probability by approximately a factor of two.

  14. Southeast Regional Assessment Study: an assessment of the opportunities of solar electric power generation in the Southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to identify and assess opportunities for demonstration and large scale deployment of solar electric facilities in the southeast region and to define the technical, economic, and institutional factors that can contribute to an accelerated use of solar energy for electric power generation. Graphs and tables are presented indicating the solar resource potential, siting opportunities, energy generation and use, and socioeconomic factors of the region by state. Solar electric technologies considered include both central station and dispersed solar electric generating facilities. Central stations studied include solar thermal electric, wind, photovoltaic, ocean thermal gradient, and biomass; dispersed facilities include solar thermal total energy systems, wind, and photovoltaic. The value of solar electric facilities is determined in terms of the value of conventional facilities and the use of conventional fuels which the solar facilities can replace. Suitable cost and risk sharing mechanisms to accelerate the commercialization of solar electric technologies in the Southeast are identified. The major regulatory and legal factors which could impact on the commercialization of solar facilities are reviewed. The most important factors which affect market penetration are reviewed, ways to accelerate the implementation of these technologies are identified, and market entry paths are identified. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. (WHK)

  15. Assessment of groundwater usage at Chalk Point power plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to quantify the usage of ground water in an operating electric power plant, a study was initiated in 1978 aimed at determining where in the energy conversion process ground water is used and to suggest, if possible, alternate means for providing this water and/or methods to reduce consumption. The Chalk Point Plant was selected for this study because of its difference in fuel source (coal and oil), and because of its high consumption of ground water (approximately 800,000 to 1,200,000 gallons per day). Located at the confluence of the Patuxent River and Swanson Creek in the southeast corner of Prince George's County, Maryland, it consists of three operating units, with a fourth unit under construction during the survey time. (unit 4 has recently become operational). With the cooperation of the Potomac Electric Power Company, the plant was selected for study and was instrumented with several flow meters. Over a two-year period, this plant has been monitored to provide the information needed to make an assessment of the rates, nature, and methods of water usage in an operating power plant.

  16. Use of probabilistic risk assessment in expert system usage for nuclear power plant safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The introduction of probability risk assessments (PRA's) to nuclear power plants in the Rasmussen Report (WASH-1400) gave us a means of evaluating the risk to the public associated with the operation of nuclear power plants, at least on a relative basis. While the choice of the ''source term'' and methodology in a PRA significantly influence the absolute probability and the consequences of core melt, comparison of two PRA calculations for two configurations of the same plant, carried out on a consistent basis, can be readily identify the increase in risk associated with going from one configuration of a plant to another by removing components or systems from service. This ratio of core melt probabilities (assuming no recovery of failed systems) obtained from two PRA calculations for different configurations was the criterion (called ''risk factor'') chosen as a basis for making a decision in an expert system as to what mitigating action, if any, would be taken to avoid a trip situation from developing. PRISIM was developed by JBF Associates of Knoxville under the sponsorship of the NRC as a system for Resident Inspectors at nuclear power plants to provide them with a relative safety status of the plant under all configurations. PRISIM calculated the risk factor---the ration of core melt probabilities of the plant under the current configuration relative to the normal configuration with all systems functioning---using an algorithm that emulates the results of the original PRA. It also presents time and core melt (assuming no recovery of systems or components).

  17. Review of the Shoreham Nuclear Power Station Probabilistic Risk Assessment: internal events and core damage frequency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilberg, D.; Shiu, K.; Hanan, N.; Anavim, E.

    1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of the Probabilistic Risk Assessment of the Shoreham Nuclear Power Station was conducted with the broad objective of evaluating its risks in relation to those identified in the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400). The scope of the review was limited to the ''front end'' part, i.e., to the evaluation of the frequencies of states in which core damage may occur. Furthermore, the review considered only internally generated accidents, consistent with the scope of the PRA. The review included an assessment of the assumptions and methods used in the Shoreham study. It also encompassed a reevaluation of the main results within the scope and general methodological framework of the Shoreham PRA, including both qualitative and quantitative analyses of accident initiators, data bases, and accident sequences which result in initiation of core damage. Specific comparisons are given between the Shoreham study, the results of the present review, and the WASH-1400 BWR, for the core damage frequency. The effect of modeling uncertainties was considered by a limited sensitivity study so as to show how the results would change if other assumptions were made. This review provides an independently assessed point value estimate of core damage frequency and describes the major contributors, by frontline systems and by accident sequences. 17 figs., 81 tabs.

  18. Independent Safety Assessment of the TOPAZ-II space nuclear reactor power system (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Independent Safety Assessment described in this study report was performed to assess the safety of the design and launch plans anticipated by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) in 1993 for a Russian-built, U.S.-modified, TOPAZ-II space nuclear reactor power system. Its conclusions, and the bases for them, were intended to provide guidance for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) management in the event that the DOD requested authorization under section 91b. of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, for possession and use (including ground testing and launch) of a nuclear-fueled, modified TOPAZ-II. The scientists and engineers who were engaged to perform this assessment are nationally-known nuclear safety experts in various disciplines. They met with participants in the TOPAZ-II program during the spring and summer of 1993 and produced a report based on their analysis of the proposed TOPAZ-II mission. Their conclusions were confined to the potential impact on public safety and did not include budgetary, reliability, or risk-benefit analyses.

  19. "Potential for Combined Heat and Power and District Heating and Cooling from Waste-to-Energy Facilities in the U.S. Learning from the Danish Experience"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shepard, Kenneth

    "Potential for Combined Heat and Power and District Heating and Cooling from Waste- to Engineering Center and the Henry Krumb School of Mines May 2007 #12;1 Executive Summary In District Heating is used for the generation of electricity. The advantages of district heating using WTE plants are

  20. PVGIS approach for assessing the performances of the first PV grid-connected power plant in Morocco

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barhdadi, Abdelfettah

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we apply the PVGIS method for estimating the performance of the first grid-connected PV micro-power plant in Morocco. PVGIS approach provides analysis and assessment of in-site solar energy resources and predicts with good accuracy the potential of PV systems in term of electricity production. We find that annual total power generation of the micro-power is slightly higher than that initially expected at the installation stage and actually measured. The yearly predicted and measured power production values agree to about 2 %. However, individual monthly production can have larger discrepancy.

  1. Assessment of H/sub 2/S control technologies for geothermal power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Techniques for controlling hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) from geothermal development are analyzed. Several technologies for controlling H/sub 2/S emissions from power plants are examined. The Hydrogen Peroxide Combination System, Stretford System and possibly EIC or Coury upstream controls appear capable of compliance with the emission limitations of 100 grams per hour per gross megawatt in 1980 (and 50 q/hr/(g) MW in 1985 or 1990) at the Geysers Dry stream field in Northern California. Unresolved problems still plague all these options. Well field operations result in H/sub 2/S releases from well drilling, well venting and steam stacking. Hydrogen peroxide reduces H/sub 2/S emissions during drilling and venting can be controlled with vent gathering (condensation/reinjection) systems. Steam stacking during power plant outages emit more H/sub 2/S over shorter periods than other field operations. Potential controls for stacking are: (1) upstream abatement, (2) automated well operation, (3) computerized wellfield operation (as of PG and E's Geysers Unit No. 15), and (4) further steamfield interconnection (cross-overs).

  2. Long-term allocation of power from the Snettisham Project. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Alaska Power Administration (APA) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0839) evaluating the Final Marketing Plan for the Snettisham Project that establishes long-term allocation and sales of power. The proposed long-term sales contract will replace a 20-year sales agreement that expires at the end of December, 1993. The EA evaluates the proposed alternative and the no action alternative. The proposed alternative replaces the expiring contract with a new 20-year contract with the same terms, conditions and allocation as the previous long-term contract. No other alternatives were developed, as there is only one utility in the Juneau area. The divestiture of this Federal project is expected to be approved by Congress; the present contractor would then assume the ownership and operation of the Snettisham Project. The EA identified no actions associated with the proposal that will cause significant environmental or socioeconomic impacts. The Final Marketing Plan for the Snettisham Project deals with the replacement of an expiring contract. The Final Marketing Plan does not include the addition of any major new resources, service to discrete major new loads, or major changes in operating parameters. No changes in rates are proposed in the Final Marketing Plan.

  3. Data management for geospatial vulnerability assessment of interdependencies in US power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, C.Y.; Scown, C.D.; Soibelman, L.; Matthews, H.S.; Garrett, J.H.; Dodrill, K.; McSurdy, S. [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Critical infrastructures maintain our society's stability, security, and quality of life. These systems are also interdependent, which means that the disruption of one infrastructure system can significantly impact the operation of other systems. Because of the heavy reliance on electricity production, it is important to assess possible vulnerabilities. Determining the source of these vulnerabilities can provide insight for risk management and emergency response efforts. This research uses data warehousing and visualization techniques to explore the interdependencies between coal mines, rail transportation, and electric power plants. By merging geospatial and nonspatial data, we are able to model the potential impacts of a disruption to one or more mines, rail lines, or power plants, and visually display the results using a geographical information system. A scenario involving a severe earthquake in the New Madrid Seismic Zone is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the model when given input in the form of a potentially impacted area. This type of interactive analysis can help decision makers to understand the vulnerabilities of the coal distribution network and the potential impact it can have on electricity production.

  4. Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OAK B188 Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report. The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-formed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and/or confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRS) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go further by focusing on the design of new plants.

  5. The enhanced value of combining conventional and 'omics' analyses in early assessment of drug-induced hepatobiliary injury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, Heidrun, E-mail: heidrun.ellinger-ziegelbauer@bayerhealthcare.com [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Wuppertal (Germany); Adler, Melanie [University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Amberg, Alexander [Sanofi aventis R and D, Disposition, Safety and Animal Research, Frankfurt (Germany); Brandenburg, Arnd [Genedata AG, Basel (Switzerland); Callanan, John J. [UCD School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science and School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine, UCD Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Connor, Susan [MetaPro (United Kingdom); Fountoulakis, Michael [Hoffmann-La Roche AG, Basel (Switzerland); Gmuender, Hans [Genedata AG, Basel (Switzerland); Gruhler, Albrecht [Novo Nordisk A/S, Maaloev (Denmark); Hewitt, Philip [Merck KGaA Darmstadt (Germany); Hodson, Mark [MetaPro (United Kingdom); Matheis, Katja A. [Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co. KG, Biberach (Germany); McCarthy, Diane [Bio-Rad, Laboratories, Hercules, CA (United States); Raschke, Marian; Riefke, Bjoern [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Schmitt, Christina S. [Merck KGaA Darmstadt (Germany); Sieber, Max [University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Sposny, Alexandra [Merck KGaA Darmstadt (Germany); Suter, Laura [Hoffmann-La Roche AG, Basel (Switzerland); Sweatman, Brian [MetaPro (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The InnoMed PredTox consortium was formed to evaluate whether conventional preclinical safety assessment can be significantly enhanced by incorporation of molecular profiling ('omics') technologies. In short-term toxicological studies in rats, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics data were collected and analyzed in relation to routine clinical chemistry and histopathology. Four of the sixteen hepato- and/or nephrotoxicants given to rats for 1, 3, or 14 days at two dose levels induced similar histopathological effects. These were characterized by bile duct necrosis and hyperplasia and/or increased bilirubin and cholestasis, in addition to hepatocyte necrosis and regeneration, hepatocyte hypertrophy, and hepatic inflammation. Combined analysis of liver transcriptomics data from these studies revealed common gene expression changes which allowed the development of a potential sequence of events on a mechanistic level in accordance with classical endpoint observations. This included genes implicated in early stress responses, regenerative processes, inflammation with inflammatory cell immigration, fibrotic processes, and cholestasis encompassing deregulation of certain membrane transporters. Furthermore, a preliminary classification analysis using transcriptomics data suggested that prediction of cholestasis may be possible based on gene expression changes seen at earlier time-points. Targeted bile acid analysis, based on LC-MS metabonomics data demonstrating increased levels of conjugated or unconjugated bile acids in response to individual compounds, did not provide earlier detection of toxicity as compared to conventional parameters, but may allow distinction of different types of hepatobiliary toxicity. Overall, liver transcriptomics data delivered mechanistic and molecular details in addition to the classical endpoint observations which were further enhanced by targeted bile acid analysis using LC/MS metabonomics.

  6. Environmental assessment for the satellite power system-concept development and evaluation program-microwave health and ecological effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is concerned with the potential health and ecological effects of the microwave beam from the microwave power transmission system (MPTS) of the satellite power system (SPS). The report is written in the form of a detailed critical review of selected scientific articles from the published literature on the biological effects of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation, followed by an assessment of the possible effects of the SPS, based on exposure values for the reference system (US DOE and NASA, 1978).

  7. Southwestern Federal Power System combined financial statements and supplemental schedules for the years ended September 30, 1994 and 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marwick, P.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Southwestern Federal Power System encompasses the operation of 24 hydroelectric power plants by the US Army Corps of Engineers and the marketing of power and energy from those plants by Southwestern Power Administration of the US Department of Energy. To integrate the operation of these hydroelectric generating plants and to transmit power from the dams to its customers, Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) maintains 2,220 kilometers (1,380 miles) of high-voltage transmission lines, 24 substations, and 46 microwave and VHF radio sites. Southwestern`s headquarters are in Tulsa, Oklahoma; its dispatch center is in Springfield, Missouri; and its maintenance crews are based in Jonesboro, Arkansas, in Gore and Tupelo, Oklahoma, and in Springfield, Missouri. Three divisions - Administration and Rates, Power Marketing and Delivery, and Maintenance - are responsible for meeting Southwestern`s mission. Twelve of the 24 generating plants are scheduled directly by Southwestern, and a total of 19 contribute to the interconnected system operations. Generation at the five remaining projects (Denison, Narrows, Sam Rayburn, Whitney, and Willis) is used to serve specific customer loads. At the end of fiscal year 1994, Southwestern marketed power and energy to 10 generation and transmission cooperatives, one distribution cooperative, three military installations, 41 municipal utilities, and three municipal utility joint-action agencies. One of the joint-action agencies has its own allocation of power from Southwestern; the other two serve 34 municipal utilities to whom Southwestern has allocated power. The total number of power allocation customers is 92. Additionally, excess energy is occasionally sold to non-allocation utilities. The primary purposes of Southwestern are to market Federally generated hydroelectric power, operate a reliable and safe transmission system, and encourage energy efficiency for the benefit of the region.

  8. Abstract--An important aspect of the study of power system markets involves the assessment of strategic behavior of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldick, Ross

    is constructed by combining points from a limit cycle of calculations in a mathematical programming approach, the electric power industry has the characteristics of an oligopoly with imperfect competition, so is different from that in a centralized system. The individual objectives of participants are dependent

  9. Estimation of the reliability of space nuclear power systems by probabilistic risk assessment techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutner, Sophie Isabelle

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A successful space mission depends on the reliable operation of the spacecraft's electrical power system. For payloads requiring high power levels, various designs of space nuclear power systems (SNPS) are available. Designers have conducted limited...

  10. Assessment of the Economic Potential of Microgrids for Reactive Power Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appen, Jan von

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactive Power from Distributed Energy”, The Electricityvoltage. Electricity consumers’ demand for reactive power ison electricity supply security, the costs of local reactive

  11. CHP in ESPC: Implementing Combined Heat and Power Technologies Using Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPCs): Webinar Transcript

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kurmit Rockwell:Welcome.  I'm Kurmit Rockwell, the ESPC Program Manager for DOE's Federal Energy Management Program.  In this presentation we will introduce you to the basics of combined heat and...

  12. A comparative life cycle assessment of diesel and compressed natural gas powered refuse collection vehicles in a Canadian city

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    A comparative life cycle assessment of diesel and compressed natural gas powered refuse collection by the City of Surrey in British Columbia are utilized. c The life cycle energy use is similar for diesel and CNG RCVs. c A 24% reduction of GHG emissions (CO2-equivalent) may be realized by switching from diesel

  13. Comparative assessment of three approaches for deriving stream power plots along long profiles in the upper Hunter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Comparative assessment of three approaches for deriving stream power plots along long profiles in the upper Hunter River catchment, New South Wales, Australia Vikrant Jain a,*, Nicholas Preston b , Kirstie, Australia b School of Earth Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington, New

  14. Organizational analysis and safety for utilities with nuclear power plants: perspectives for organizational assessment. Volume 2. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osborn, R.N.; Olson, J.; Sommers, P.E.; McLaughlin, S.D.; Jackson, M.S.; Nadel, M.V.; Scott, W.G.; Connor, P.E.; Kerwin, N.; Kennedy, J.K. Jr.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This two-volume report presents the results of initial research on the feasibility of applying organizational factors in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety assessment. Volume 1 of this report contains an overview of the literature, a discussion of available safety indicators, and a series of recommendations for more systematically incorporating organizational analysis into investigations of nuclear power plant safety. The six chapters of this volume discuss the major elements in our general approach to safety in the nuclear industry. The chapters include information on organizational design and safety; organizational governance; utility environment and safety related outcomes; assessments by selected federal agencies; review of data sources in the nuclear power industry; and existing safety indicators.

  15. Combined Heat and Power: Connecting the Gap Between Markets and Utility Interconnection and Tariff Practices (Part 1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brooks, S.; Elswick, B.; Elliott, R. N.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , integrated system (Elliott and Spurr 1999). CHP is not a technology, but an approach to applying technologies. CHP is more energy efficient than separate generation of electricity and thermal energy. Heat that is normally wasted in conventional power... installations are considered DER—only large central generation CHP that focuses on wholesale power generation is not included. Because this report focuses on smaller CHP, we can consider the barriers for these installations to be largely the same...

  16. A Quantitative Assessment of Utility Reporting Practices for Reporting Electric Power Distribution Events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamachi La Commare, Kristina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard 1366-2003, IEEE Guide for Electric Power Distribution Reliability

  17. Assessment of the use of extended burnup fuel in light water power reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A.; Bailey, W.J.; Beyer, C.E.; Bold, F.C.; Tawil, J.J.

    1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study has been conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to review the environmental and economic impacts associated with the use of extended burnup nuclear fuel in light water power reactors. It has been proposed that current batch average burnup levels of 33 GWd/t uranium be increased to above 50 GWd/t. The environmental effects of extending fuel burnup during normal operations and during accident events and the economic effects of cost changes on the fuel cycle are discussed in this report. The physical effects of extended burnup on the fuel and the fuel assembly are also presented as a basis for the environmental and economic assessments. Environmentally, this burnup increase would have no significant impact over that of normal burnup. Economically, the increased burnup would have favorable effects, consisting primarily of a reduction: (1) total fuel requirements; (2) reactor downtime for fuel replacement; (3) the number of fuel shipments to and from reactor sites; and (4) repository storage requirements. 61 refs., 4 figs., 27 tabs.

  18. Behavior-based rules for fitness-for-duty assessment of nuclear power plant personnel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, R.S.; Turnage, J.J.; Price, H.E.; Lane, N.E.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants requires that plant personnel not be under the influence of any substance, legal or illegal, or mentally or physically impaired from any cause that in any way adversely affects their ability to safely and competently perform their duties. This goal has been formalized by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in their proposed rule for a fitness-for-duty program. The purpose of this paper is to describe a performance-based tool based on surrogate tests and dose equivalency methodologies that is a viable candidate for fitness-for-duty assessment. The automated performance test system (APTS) is a microcomputer-based human performance test battery that has been developed over a decade of research supported variously by the National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, US Department of Energy, and the US Navy and Army. Representing the most psychometrically sound test from evaluations of over 150 well-known tests of basic psychomotor and cognitive skills, the battery provides direct prediction of a worker's fitness for duty. Twenty-four tests are suitable for use, and a dozen have thus far been shown to be sensitive to the effects of legal and illegal drugs, alcohol, fatigue, stress, and other causes of impairment.

  19. Combined Fire Hazards Analysis/Assessment, Building 9203 & 9203A Complex- Y12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This assessment/analysis is intended to provide a comprehensive assessment of the risks from fire and fire related perils in the Building 9203 and 9203A Complex at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The analysis has been prepared in accordance with the criteria listed in DOE Order 5480.7A.

  20. National Account Energy Alliance Final Report for the Ritz Carlton, San Francisco Combined Heat and Power Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosfjord, Thomas J [UTC Power

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under collaboration between DOE and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), UTC Power partnered with Host Hotels and Resorts to install and operate a PureComfort 240M Cooling, Heating and Power (CHP) System at the Ritz-Carlton, San Francisco. This packaged CHP system integrated four microturbines, a double-effect absorption chiller, two fuel gas boosters, and the control hardware and software to ensure that the system operated predictably, reliably, and safely. The chiller, directly energized by the recycled hot exhaust from the microturbines, could be configured to provide either chilled or hot water. As installed, the system was capable of providing up to 227 kW of net electrical power and 142 RT of chilled water at a 59F ambient temperature.

  1. Sustainability Assessment of Coal-Fired Power Plants with Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Butner, R. Scott; Elliott, Michael L.; Freeman, Charles J.

    2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has the ability to dramatically reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from power production. Most studies find the potential for 70 to 80 percent reductions in CO2 emissions on a life-cycle basis, depending on the technology. Because of this potential, utilities and policymakers are considering the wide-spread implementation of CCS technology on new and existing coal plants to dramatically curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the power generation sector. However, the implementation of CCS systems will have many other social, economic, and environmental impacts beyond curbing GHG emissions that must be considered to achieve sustainable energy generation. For example, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), and particulate matter (PM) are also important environmental concerns for coal-fired power plants. For example, several studies have shown that eutrophication is expected to double and acidification would increase due to increases in NOx emissions for a coal plant with CCS provided by monoethanolamine (MEA) scrubbing. Potential for human health risks is also expected to increase due to increased heavy metals in water from increased coal mining and MEA hazardous waste, although there is currently not enough information to relate this potential to actual realized health impacts. In addition to environmental and human health impacts, supply chain impacts and other social, economic, or strategic impacts will be important to consider. A thorough review of the literature for life-cycle analyses of power generation processes using CCS technology via the MEA absorption process, and other energy generation technologies as applicable, yielded large variability in methods and core metrics. Nonetheless, a few key areas of impact for CCS were developed from the studies that we reviewed. These are: the impact of MEA generation on increased eutrophication and acidification from ammonia emissions and increased toxicity from MEA production and the impact of increased coal use including the increased generation of NOx from combustion and transportation, impacts of increased mining of coal and limestone, and the disposal of toxic fly ash and boiler ash waste streams. Overall, the implementing CCS technology could contribute to a dramatic decrease in global GHG emissions, while most other environmental and human health impact categories increase only slightly on a global scale. However, the impacts on human toxicity and ecotoxicity have not been studied as extensively and could have more severe impacts on a regional or local scale. More research is needed to draw strong conclusions with respect to the specific relative impact of different CCS technologies. Specifically, a more robust data set that disaggregates data in terms of component processes and treats a more comprehensive set of environmental impacts categories from a life-cycle perspective is needed. In addition, the current LCA framework lacks the required temporal and spatial scales to determine the risk of environmental impact from carbon sequestration. Appropriate factors to use when assessing the risk of water acidification (groundwater/oceans/aquifers depending on sequestration site), risk of increased human toxicity impact from large accidental releases from pipeline or wells, and the legal and public policy risk associated with licensing CO2 sequestration sites are also not currently addressed. In addition to identifying potential environmental, social, or risk-related issues that could impede the large-scale deployment of CCS, performing LCA-based studies on energy generation technologies can suggest places to focus our efforts to achieve technically feasible, economically viable, and environmentally conscious energy generation technologies for maximum impact.

  2. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants: Evaluation of the combined cost of makeup water treatment and increased condenser fouling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Michael E.; Theregowda, Ranjani B.; Safari, Iman; Abbasian, Javad; Arastoopour, Hamid; Dzombak, David A.; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Miller, David C.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology is presented to calculate the total combined cost (TCC) of water sourcing, water treatment and condenser fouling in the recirculating cooling systems of thermoelectric power plants. The methodology is employed to evaluate the economic viability of using treated municipal wastewater (MWW) to replace the use of freshwater as makeup water to power plant cooling systems. Cost analyses are presented for a reference power plant and five different tertiary treatment scenarios to reduce the scaling tendencies of MWW. Results indicate that a 550 MW sub-critical coal fired power plant with a makeup water requirement of 29.3 ML/day has a TCC of $3.0 - 3.2 million/yr associated with the use of treated MWW for cooling. (All costs USD 2009). This translates to a freshwater conservation cost of $0.29/kL, which is considerably lower than that of dry air cooling technology, $1.5/kL, as well as the 2020 conservation cost target set by the U.S. Department of Energy, $0.74/kL. Results also show that if the available price of freshwater exceeds that of secondarytreated MWW by more than $0.13-0.14/kL, it can be economically advantageous to purchase secondary MWW and treat it for utilization in the recirculating cooling system of a thermoelectric power plant.

  3. 2013 IREP Symposium-Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control -IX (IREP), August 25-30, 2013, Rethymnon, Greece A Probabilistic Approach to Power System Security Assessment under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    2013 IREP Symposium-Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control -IX (IREP), August 25-30, 2013, Rethymnon, Greece A Probabilistic Approach to Power System Security Assessment under Uncertainty D. D. Le, A uncer- tainty into power system operation and control. This added uncertainty, together

  4. Int. J. of Heavy Vehicle Systems, Vol. 11, Nos 3/4, 2004 372 Combined optimisation of design and power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    there is a significant body of work related to hybrid passenger cars and light commercial trucks, there are many open and power management of the hydraulic hybrid propulsion system for the 6 × 6 medium truck Z. Filipi*, L, MI 48109-2121, USA National Automotive Center, US Army RDECOM Abstract: Hybrid propulsion systems

  5. Work In Progress: Conquest--Combining Battery-Backed RAM and Threshold-Based Storage Scheme to Conserve Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Andy

    accesses, which account for 8% of the power usage for laptops, 20% for web servers, and up to 70% for disk, Computer Science Department, UCLA, popek@cs.ucla.edu Energy conservation has become a pressing re- search performance and more features. Due to rising energy costs, the server market is also becoming sensitive

  6. Assessment of the Economic Potential of Microgrids for Reactive Power Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appen, Jan von

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Load ( kW) June (Summer) December (Winter) Hours (h) Fig. 2: Representative weekday real power profiles

  7. Abstract--In this paper, a new methodology for stability assessment of a smart power system is proposed. The key to this

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    ANY of the public infrastructures like electric power network are subject to two types of threats networks approach to electric power network security would identify key vulnerabilities, assess vulnerability of the North American power grid was studied after the August 2003 blackout affecting the United

  8. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  9. Combined Heat and Power: Connecting the Gap Between Markets and Utility Interconnection and Tariff Practices (Part 1) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brooks, S.; Elswick, B.; Elliott, R. N.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    distribution lines, the potential exists to back- feed the grid, energizing a line that the utility thinks is shut down. An unintentionally energized line does pose a risk to utility workers and a potential legal liability for the utility, so the issue does... 2001). CHP systems provide three general categories of benefits—environmental, economic, and transmission and distribution (Shipley et al. 2001). DER is defined as any technology that produces power close to the point of use. About 60% of CHP...

  10. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume II. Proliferation resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this volume is limited to an assessment of the relative effects that particular choices of nuclear-power systems, for whatever reasons, may have on the possible spread of nuclear-weapons capabilities. This volume addresses the concern that non-nuclear-weapons states may be able to initiate efforts to acquire or to improve nuclear-weapons capabilities through civilian nuclear-power programs; it also addresses the concern that subnational groups may obtain and abuse the nuclear materials or facilities of such programs, whether in nuclear-weapons states (NWS's) or nonnuclear-weapons states (NNW's). Accordingly, this volume emphasizes one important factor in such decisions, the resistance of nuclear-power systems to the proliferation of nuclear-weapons capabilities.

  11. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 2, Designs, assessments, and comparisons, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was to provide the Office of Fusion Energy with an evaluation of the potential of inertial fusion for electric power production. The term reactor studies is somewhat of a misnomer since these studies included the conceptual design and analysis of all aspects of the IFE power plants: the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, other balance of plant facilities, target systems (including the target production, injection, and tracking systems), and the two drivers. The scope of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was quite ambitious. The majority of our effort was spent on the conceptual design of two IFE electric power plants, one using an induction linac heavy ion beam (HIB) driver and the other using a Krypton Fluoride (KrF) laser driver. After the two point designs were developed, they were assessed in terms of their (1) environmental and safety aspects; (2) reliability, availability, and maintainability; (3) technical issues and technology development requirements; and (4) economics. Finally, we compared the design features and the results of the assessments for the two designs.

  12. Portland Community College Celebrates Commissioning of Combined...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Portland Community College Celebrates Commissioning of Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System Portland Community College Celebrates Commissioning of Combined Heat and Power Fuel...

  13. LWR Sustainability: Assessment of Aging of Nuclear Power Plant Safety Related Concrete Strutures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves III, Herman [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Naus, Dan J [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current regulatory testing and inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of degradation experience is presented. Techniques commonly used to inspect NPP concrete structures to assess and quantify age-related degradation are summarized. An approach for conduct of condition assessments of structures in NPPs is presented. Criteria, based primarily on visual indications, are provided for use in classification and assessment of concrete degradation. Materials and techniques for repair of degraded structures are generally discussed.

  14. Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States: Assessment of Opportunities and Barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musial, W.; Ram, B.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper assesses the potential for U.S. offshore wind to meet the energy needs of many coastal and Great Lakes states.

  15. Optimizal design and control strategies for novel Combined Heat and Power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part II of II, case study results.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, Whitney G.

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Innovative energy system optimization models are deployed to evaluate novel fuel cell system (FCS) operating strategies, not typically pursued by commercial industry. Most FCS today are installed according to a 'business-as-usual' approach: (1) stand-alone (unconnected to district heating networks and low-voltage electricity distribution lines), (2) not load following (not producing output equivalent to the instantaneous electrical or thermal demand of surrounding buildings), (3) employing a fairly fixed heat-to-power ratio (producing heat and electricity in a relatively constant ratio to each other), and (4) producing only electricity and no recoverable heat. By contrast, models discussed here consider novel approaches as well. Novel approaches include (1) networking (connecting FCSs to electrical and/or thermal networks), (2) load following (having FCSs produce only the instantaneous electricity or heat demanded by surrounding buildings), (3) employing a variable heat-to-power ratio (such that FCS can vary the ratio of heat and electricity they produce), (4) co-generation (combining the production of electricity and recoverable heat), (5) permutations of these together, and (6) permutations of these combined with more 'business-as-usual' approaches.

  16. Optimal design and control strategies for novel combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part II of II, case study results.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, Whitney G.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Innovative energy system optimization models are deployed to evaluate novel fuel cell system (FCS) operating strategies, not typically pursued by commercial industry. Most FCS today are installed according to a 'business-as-usual' approach: (1) stand-alone (unconnected to district heating networks and low-voltage electricity distribution lines), (2) not load following (not producing output equivalent to the instantaneous electrical or thermal demand of surrounding buildings), (3) employing a fairly fixed heat-to-power ratio (producing heat and electricity in a relatively constant ratio to each other), and (4) producing only electricity and no recoverable heat. By contrast, models discussed here consider novel approaches as well. Novel approaches include (1) networking (connecting FCSs to electrical and/or thermal networks), (2) load following (having FCSs produce only the instantaneous electricity or heat demanded by surrounding buildings), (3) employing a variable heat-to-power ratio (such that FCS can vary the ratio of heat and electricity they produce), (4) co-generation (combining the production of electricity and recoverable heat), (5) permutations of these together, and (6) permutations of these combined with more 'business-as-usual' approaches. The detailed assumptions and methods behind these models are described in Part I of this article pair.

  17. Cascading Dynamics and Mitigation Assessment in Power System Disturbances via a Hidden Failure Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ; Protective Relaying hidden failures; Blackout mitigation Introduction An overriding factor in power system failures in protective relays and their impact on power transmission system reliability have been examined shown that over a long interval, more than 70% of the major disturbances involved relaying systems

  18. Biennial Assessment of the Fifth Power Plan Interim Report on Fuel Price Assumptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . In addition, the delivered price of coal to power plants located in the region will be affected by diesel fuel The Fifth Power Plan includes price forecasts for natural gas, oil, and coal. Natural gas prices have by far costs for trains that deliver coal to the plants. Recent higher prices for coal are partially related

  19. Preliminary assessment of alternative atmospheric fluidized-bed-combustion power-plant systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bianchini, J.; Rogali, R.; Wysocki, J.; Bradley, W.

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a technical and economic evaluation of alternative atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) power plant systems with nominal capacities of 1000 MWe. Both eastern and western coal-fired power plants are evaluated for the following systems: baseline AFBC power plants with limestone beds; AFBC power plants with inert beds and wet FGC systems; AFBC power plant with inert beds and a dry FGD system (western coal only); AFBC power plants with limestone beds and limestone precalcination; AFBC power plants with limestone beds and agglomeration and recycle of spent solids; AFBC power plant with limestone beds and sorbent regeneration (eastern coal only); and reference pulverized coal-fired (PCF) power plants with wet FGC systems. The eastern coal-fired plants burn Illinois bituminous coal with a higher heating value of 10,1000 Btu/lb and a sulfur content of 4%. The western coal-fired plants burn Wyoming subbituminous coal with a higher heating value of 8020 Btu/lb and a sulfur content of 0.48%. The capital and operating cost estimates are based on boiler designs developed by Babcock and Wilcox, Inc., and on sorbent requirements estimated by Westinghouse R and D Center. Sorbent requirements for the baseline AFBC power plants are based on a calcium to sulfur mole ratio of 5:1 for the eastern coal-fired plant and 0.7:1 for the western coal-fired plant. The Ca/S mole ratio for the western coal plant allows for 30 percent utilization of the alkaline coal ash to reduce sorbent requirements to the fluidized bed combustor. The economic analyses are based on a plant located in the East Central region of the United States with a 30-year life and a 70 percent capacity factor.

  20. Plasma wakefields driven by an incoherent combination of laser pulses: a path towards high-average power laser-plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benedetti, C.; Schroeder, C.B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    he wakefield generated in a plasma by incoherently combining a large number of low energy laser pulses (i.e.,without constraining the pulse phases) is studied analytically and by means of fully-self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations. The structure of the wakefield has been characterized and its amplitude compared with the amplitude of the wake generated by a single (coherent) laser pulse. We show that, in spite of the incoherent nature of the wakefield within the volume occupied by the laser pulses, behind this region the structure of the wakefield can be regular with an amplitude comparable or equal to that obtained from a single pulse with the same energy. Wake generation requires that the incoherent structure in the laser energy density produced by the combined pulses exists on a time scale short compared to the plasma period. Incoherent combination of multiple laser pulses may enable a technologically simpler path to high-repetition rate, high-average power laser-plasma accelerators and associated applications.

  1. Flexible Power System Operations Simulation Model for Assessing Wind Integration: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; O'Malley, M.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper a model was developed to mimic operator behavior using a combination of security-constrained unit commitment, security-constrained economic dispatch, and automatic generation control programs.

  2. An assessment of the economic, regulatory and technical implications of large-scale solar power deployment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merrick, James Hubert

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity from solar energy has many favorable attributes. Despite its current high cost relative to other technology options, a combination of cost reductions and policy support measures could lead to increasing deployment ...

  3. System study of an MHD/gas turbine combined-cycle baseload power plant. HTGL report No. 134

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annen, K.D.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The MHD/gas turbine combined-cycle system has been designed specifically for applications where the availability of cooling water is very limited. The base case systems which were studied consisted of an MHD plant with a gas turbine bottoming plant, and required no cooling water. The gas turbine plant uses only air as its working fluid and receives its energy input from the MHD exhaust gases by means of metal tube heat exchangers. In addition to the base case systems, vapor cycle variation systems were considered which included the addition of a vapor cycle bottoming plant to improve the thermal efficiency. These systems required a small amount of cooling water. The MHD/gas turbine systems were modeled with sufficient detail, using realistic component specifications and costs, so that the thermal and economic performance of the system could be accurately determined. Three cases of MHD/gas turbine systems were studied, with Case I being similar to an MHD/steam system so that a direct comparison of the performances could be made, with Case II being representative of a second generation MHD system, and with Case III considering oxygen enrichment for early commercial applications. The systems are nominally 800 MW/sub e/ to 1000 MW/sub e/ in size. The results show that the MHD/gas turbine system has very good thermal and economic performances while requiring either little or no cooling water. Compared to the MHD/steam system which has a cooling tower heat load of 720 MW, the Base Case I MHD/gas turbine system has a heat rate which is 13% higher and a cost of electricity which is only 7% higher while requiring no cooling water. Case II results show that an improved performance can be expected from second generation MHD/gas turbine systems. Case III results show that an oxygen enriched MHD/gas turbine system may be attractive for early commercial applications in dry regions of the country.

  4. Clinch River Breeder Reactor: an assessment of need for power and regulatory issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamblin, D M; Tepel, R C; Bjornstad, D J; Hill, L J; Cantor, R A; Carroll, P J; Cohn, S M; Hadder, G R; Holcomb, B D; Johnson, K E

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a research effort designed to assist the US Department of Energy in: (1) reviewing the need for power from the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) in the Southeastern Electric Reliability Council (SERC) region, not including Florida, and (2) isolating specific regulatory and institutional issues and physical transmission capacities that may constrain the market for CRBR power. A review of existing electric power wheeling arrangements in the Southeast and specific federal and state regulatory obstacles that may affect power sales from the CRBR was undertaken. This review was a contributing factor to a decision to target the service territory to SERC-less Florida.

  5. Assessment of helical-cruciform fuel rods for high power density LWRs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conboy, Thomas M

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to significantly increase the power density of Light Water Reactors (LWRs), the helical-cruciform (HC) fuel rod assembly has been proposed as an alternative to traditional fuel geometry. The HC assembly is a ...

  6. Assessment of the Economic Potential of Microgrids for Reactive Power Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appen, Jan von

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power supplied by PV Inverters – Cost-Benefit-Analysis,” 22over-sizing an inverter for 100 kW PV system by 5 percentlike PV typically produce DC, and use inverters to connect

  7. Probabilistic methods in seismic risk assessment for nuclear power plants: proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The state-of-the-art in seismic risk analysis applied to the design and siting of nuclear power plants was addressed in this meeting. Presentations were entered individually into the date base. (ACR)

  8. Safety culture in the nuclear power industry : attributes for regulatory assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, Erin L

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Safety culture refers to the attitudes, behaviors, and conditions that affect safety performance and often arises in discussions following incidents at nuclear power plants. As it involves both operational and management ...

  9. Assessment of geothermal energy as a power source for US aluminum reduction plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enderlin, W.I.; Blahnik, D.E.; Davis, A.E.; Jacobson, J.J.; Schilling, A.H.; Weakley, S.A.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical and economic feasibility of using hydrothermal resources as a primary power source for both existing and future aluminum reduction plants in the United States is explored. Applicable hydrothermal resources that should be considered by the aluminum industry for this purpose were identified and evaluated. This work also identified the major institutional parameters to be considered in developing geothermal energy resources for aluminum industry use. Based on the findings of this study, it appears technically and economically feasible to power existing aluminum reduction plants in the Pacific Northwest using electricity generated at Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah. It may also be feasible to power existing plants located on the Gulf Coast from Roosevelt Hot Springs, depending on the cost of transmitting the power.

  10. Environmental Assessment for Electrical Power System Upgrades at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico - Final Document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2000-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The ''National Environmental Policy Act of 1969'' (NEPA) requires Federal agency officials to consider the environmental consequences of their proposed actions before decisions are made. In complying with NEPA, the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) follows the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 1500-1508) and DOE's NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021). The purpose of an Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide Federal decision makers with sufficient evidence and analysis to determine whether to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact. In this case, the DOE decision to be made is whether to construct and operate a 19.5-mile (mi) (31-kilometer [km]) electric transmission line (power line) reaching from the Norton Substation, west across the Rio Grande, to locations within the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Areas (TAs) 3 and 5 at Los Alamos, New Mexico. The construction of one electric substation at LANL would be included in the project as would the construction of two line segments less than 1,200 feet (ft) (366 meters [m]) long that would allow for the uncrossing of a portion of two existing power lines. Additionally, a fiber optics communications line would be included and installed concurrently as part of the required overhead ground conductor for the power line. The new power line would improve the reliability of electric service in the LANL and Los Aktrnos County areas as would the uncrossing of the crossed segments of the existing lines. Additionally, installation of the new power line would enable the LANL and the Los Alamos County electric grid, which is a shared resource, to be adapted to accommodate the future import of increased power when additional power service becomes available in the northern New Mexico area. Similarly, the fiber optics line would allow DOE to take advantage of future opportunities in enhanced communications services. The objectives of this EA are to (1) describe the baseline environmental conditions at the proposed power line location, (2) analyze the potential effects to the existing environment from construction, operation, and maintenance of a new power line, and (3) compare the effects of the Proposed Action and the four action alternatives to the No Action Alternative. In addition, the EA provides DOE with environmental information that could be used in developing mitigative actions to minimize or avoid adverse effects to the integrity of the human environment and natural ecosystems should DOE decide to proceed with construction and operation of the new power line. Ultimately, the goal of NEPA and this EA is to aid DOE officials in making decisions based on understanding the environmental consequences of their decision.

  11. DOE Environmental Assessment EA-1391 for Presidential Permit Applications for Baja California Power Inc and Sempra Energy Resources PP-234 and PP-235: Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has determined in its Environmental Assessment EA-1391 for Presidential Permit Applications for Baja California Power Inc and Sempra Energy Resources PP-234 and PP-235 a...

  12. Methodology to assess the effects of magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) on power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Legro, J.R.; Abi-Samra, N.C.; Crouse, J.C.; Tesche, F.M.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes a method to evaluate the possible effects of magnetohydrodynamic-electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) on power systems. This method is based on the approach adapted to study the impact of geomagnetic storms on power systems. The paper highlights the similarities and differences between the two phenomena. Also presented are areas of concern which are anticipated from MHD-EMP on the overall system operation. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Dworshak Dam Impact Assessment and Fishery Investigation and Trout, Bass and Forage Species: Combined Project Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiolie, Melo; Statler, David P.; Elam, Steve

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) entered into separate intergovernmental agreements with the Bonneville Power Administration in a cooperative four-year effort to study impacts of Dworshak Dam operation on resident fisheries. The NPT Department of Fisheries Management focused on rainbow trout, smallmouth bass and forage fish. The IDFG's segment of the project was to document kokanee population dynamics, relate it to the changing nutrient status of the reservoir, evaluate kokanee losses through Dworshak Dam, and make kokanee management recommendations. This final report includes findings for 1990 and 1991 and relates these data to information previously presented in annual reports for 1987, 1988 and 1989.

  14. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VIII. Advanced concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program has been to provide recommendations for the development and deployment of more proliferation-resistant civilian nuclear-power systems without jeopardizing the development of nuclear energy. In principle, new concepts for nuclear-power systems could be designed so that materials and facilities would be inherently more proliferation-resistant. Such advanced, i.e., less-developed systems, are the subject of this volume. Accordingly, from a number of advanced concepts that were proposed for evaluation, six representative concepts were selected: the fast mixed-spectrum reactor; the denatured molten-salt reactor; the mixed-flow gaseous-core reactor; the linear-accelerator fuel-regenerator reactor; the ternary metal-fueled electronuclear fuel-producer reactor; and the tokamak fusion-fission hybrid reactor.

  15. Assessment of environmental effects of the coal used in the Seyitomer thermal power plant (Turkey) on white willow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cicek, A.; Koparal, A.S. [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Applied Research Center for Environmental Problems

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal power plants increase local pollution through SOx, NOx, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and oils containing primarily particulates (including heavy metals) and increase global pollution through CO{sub 2}, the greenhouse gas that causes global warming. These strong pollutants have harmful effects on living organisms and the entire ecosystem. In this study, we analysed the heavy metals iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and sulfur (S) induced by sulfur dioxide found in both the washed and unwashed leaves of Salix alba L. tree, grown in six distinct localities in the vicinity of the Seyitomer thermal power plant, to assess the environmental impact. All parameters were examined in the surface soils (0-30 cm), and the most intense concentration of the pollutants in both soils and leaves was observed to be in the direction of the prevailing wind.

  16. Air quality analysis and related risk assessment for the Bonneville Power Administration's Resource Program Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glantz, C S; Burk, K W; Driver, C J; Liljegren, J C; Neitzel, D A; Schwartz, M N; Dana, M T; Laws, G L; Mahoney, L A; Rhoads, K

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering 12 different alternatives for acquiring energy resources over the next 20 years. Each of the alternatives utilizes a full range of energy resources (e.g., coal, cogeneration, conservation, and nuclear); however, individual alternatives place greater emphases on different types of power-producing resources and employ different timetables for implementing these resources. The environmental impacts that would result from the implementation of each alternative and the economic valuations of these impacts, will be an important consideration in the alternative selection process. In this report we discuss the methods used to estimate environmental impacts from the resource alternatives. We focus on pollutant emissions rates, ground-level air concentrations of basic criteria pollutants, the acidity of rain, particulate deposition, ozone concentrations, visibility attenuation, global warming, human health effects, agricultural and forest impacts, and wildlife impacts. For this study, pollutant emission rates are computed by processing BPA data on power production and associated pollutant emissions. The assessment of human health effects from ozone indicated little variation between the resource alternatives. Impacts on plants, crops, and wildlife populations from power plant emissions are projected to be minimal for all resource alternatives.

  17. Study to assess the effects of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse on electric power systems. Phase I, final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Legro, J.R.; Abi-Samra, N.C.; Crouse, J.C.; Hileman, A.R.; Kruse, V.J.; Taylor, E.R. Jr.; Tesche, F.M.

    1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The high-altitude burst of a nuclear device over the continental United States can expose civilian electric utility systems to transient electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The electromagnetic fields experienced within one second after the burst have been collectively defined by the term high-altitude EMP (HEMP). The phenomena has been subdivided, for this report, into an early-time HEMP field followed by an intermediate-time HEMP field. This volume documents a preliminary research effort to: investigate the nature and coupling of the HEMP environments to electric power systems, define the construction of approximate system response models, and document the development of a methodology to assess equipment and system vulnerability.

  18. Natural Circulation in Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants Phenomena, models, and methodology for system reliability assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jose Reyes

    2005-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e., those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially to improved economics of new nuclear power plant designs. In 1991 the IAEA Conference on ''The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future'' noted that for new plants the use of passive safety features is a desirable method of achieving simplification and increasing the reliability of the performance of essential safety functions, and should be used wherever appropriate''.

  19. Hydrogen Resource Assessment: Hydrogen Potential from Coal, Natural Gas, Nuclear, and Hydro Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milbrandt, A.; Mann, M.

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper estimates the quantity of hydrogen that could be produced from coal, natural gas, nuclear, and hydro power by county in the United States. The study estimates that more than 72 million tonnes of hydrogen can be produced from coal, natural gas, nuclear, and hydro power per year in the country (considering only 30% of their total annual production). The United States consumed about 396 million tonnes of gasoline in 2007; therefore, the report suggests the amount of hydrogen from these sources could displace about 80% of this consumption.

  20. Optimal design and control strategies for novel combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part I of II, datum design conditions and approach.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, Whitney G.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy network optimization (ENO) models identify new strategies for designing, installing, and controlling stationary combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems (FCSs) with the goals of (1) minimizing electricity and heating costs for building owners and (2) reducing emissions of the primary greenhouse gas (GHG) - carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). A goal of this work is to employ relatively inexpensive simulation studies to discover more financially and environmentally effective approaches for installing CHP FCSs. ENO models quantify the impact of different choices made by power generation operators, FCS manufacturers, building owners, and governments with respect to two primary goals - energy cost savings for building owners and CO{sub 2} emission reductions. These types of models are crucial for identifying cost and CO{sub 2} optima for particular installations. Optimal strategies change with varying economic and environmental conditions, FCS performance, the characteristics of building demand for electricity and heat, and many other factors. ENO models evaluate both 'business-as-usual' and novel FCS operating strategies. For the scenarios examined here, relative to a base case of no FCSs installed, model results indicate that novel strategies could reduce building energy costs by 25% and CO{sub 2} emissions by 80%. Part I of II articles discusses model assumptions and methodology. Part II of II articles illustrates model results for a university campus town and generalizes these results for diverse communities.

  1. An assessment of using oil shale for power production in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, L.J.; Holcomb, R.S.; Petrich, C.H.; Roop, R.D.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses the oil shale-for-power-production option in Jordan. Under consideration are 20- and 50-MW demonstration units and a 400-MW, commercial-scale plant with, at the 400-MW scale, a mining operation capable of supplying 7.8 million tonnes per year of shale fuel and also capable of disposal of up to 6.1 million tonnes per year of wetted ash. The plant would be a direct combustion facility, burning crushed oil shale through use of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. The report emphasizes four areas: (1) the need for power in Jordan, (2) environmental aspects of the proposed oil shale-for-power plant(s), (3) the engineering feasibility of using Jordan's oil shale in circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boiler, and (4) the economic feasibility of the proposed plant(s). A sensitivity study was conducted to determine the economic feasibility of the proposed plant(s) under different cost assumptions and revenue flows over the plant's lifetime. The sensitivity results are extended to include the major extra-firm benefits of the shale-for-power option: (1) foreign exchange savings from using domestic energy resources, (2) aggregate income effects of using Jordan's indigenous labor force, and (3) a higher level of energy security. 14 figs., 47 tabs.

  2. Biocomplexity Analysis of Alternative Biomass Routes for Power Generation: Environmental, Economic, and Technical Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    ) as a replacement for coal in power generation. We utilize an environmental biocomplexity approach and examine the transformation of switchgrass to electricity are being quantified using material and energy balances. #12 pollution loadings. Thus, if the role of biomass were to expand some mix of technological, market and policy

  3. An assessment of crew exposures during nuclear-powered manned Mars missions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delisle, Christine Louise

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -of-life, full-power operation. This data is then used as the source terms for particle transport in MCNP. The total gamma and neutron fluxes exiting the reactor shields are recorded and separate transport calculations are then performed for a 10 g cm-2 crew...

  4. Fusion Energy for Power Production: Status Assessment, Identification of Challenges and Strategic Plan for Commercialization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the Technical Assessment Committee (TAC) and 4) EPRI being the Program Manager for the project. Establish, Program Manager (EPRI) · Mike Sellman (Sellman Consulting) · Joe Turnage (Constellation) Task 2. Conduct-proprietary manner. In advance of the workshop, EPRI and the AC members will conduct a briefing with each

  5. An integrated assessment of electric power resource options in the US Virgin Islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, L.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chronowski, R.A. [Alternative Energy Development, Inc., Silver Springs, MD (United States); Shapiro, A.M. [Vermont Energy Investment Corp., Burlington, VT (United States)

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As with other island-based, insular power systems, the avoided cost of power for the Water and Power Authority (WAPA) of the US Virgin Islands (USVI) is high relative to that of US mainland electric utilities. First, the need to produce potable water requires that WAPA`s electric generating system operate at efficiency levels lower than would result in the absence of the need to jointly produce water and power. Second, the inability to purchase power from neighboring utilities necessitates higher reserve margins. These two operating conditions suggest that integrated resource planning (IRP) should be especially attractive to WAPA. IRP is a planning paradigm that gives electric utilities more options to choose from when making resource selections and, therefore, generally results in lower costs. Utilities look to the demand side as a source of resources--i.e., demand side management (DSM)--in this planning process. They then select the least-cost mix of resource options. In this study, we take the first steps toward implementing an IRP process in the USVI. Using its existing resource base and the supply and DSM options that it has in the future, we simulated WAPA`s resource selection process over a 20-year planning horizon using SafePlan, an IRP planning model. The results suggest that WAPA can significantly reduce its cost of providing electricity by implementing DSM programs. The cost of generating electricity and the amount of kWh needed can be reduced nearly nine percent by implementing cost-effective DSM programs. Cost and kWh savings are greater under less favorable assumptions about (1) the input costs for generating electricity and (2) other conditions that WAPA will confront in the future. The results also indicate that DSM programs targeted at the residential sector can save, 500 gallons of water annually for participants in the program.

  6. Message passing for integrating and assessing renewable generation in a redundant power grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zdeborova, Lenka [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simplified model of a redundant power grid is used to study integration of fluctuating renewable generation. The grid consists of large number of generator and consumer nodes. The net power consumption is determined by the difference between the gross consumption and the level of renewable generation. The gross consumption is drawn from a narrow distribution representing the predictability of aggregated loads, and we consider two different distributions representing wind and solar resources. Each generator is connected to D consumers, and redundancy is built in by connecting R {le} D of these consumers to other generators. The lines are switchable so that at any instance each consumer is connected to a single generator. We explore the capacity of the renewable generation by determining the level of 'firm' generation capacity that can be displaced for different levels of redundancy R. We also develop message-passing control algorithm for finding switch sellings where no generator is overloaded.

  7. Swift Creek Hydroelectric Project rehabilitation, Swift Creek Power Company, Inc. Final Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to re-evaluate and update the original environmental analysis of the Swift Crook Hydroelectric Project rehabilitation. That analysis and the decision to allow the proponent toproceed with the project as described in the EA alternatives 3, 4, and 5 was completed an May 8, 1981. Since that decision, no action has been taken and no special-use permit has ever been issued. The Bridger-Trton National Forest completed a Forest Plan in March of 1990 which sets current direction for all lands within the Forest and new and significant issues pertaining to the amount of water to be bypassed have been raised by the public in response to this proposed project. The original proponent, Lower Valley Power and Light, sold the project and existing facilities to Swift Crack Power Company Inc. in 1984. Swift Crock Power Company has submitted a proposal to rehabilitate the existing power generation facility in Swift Creek Canyon, which will involve some significant construction and alteration of the river corridor. Theyhave also submitted an application for relicense to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission who has asked for the Forest Service to comment on the application and to submit recommended conditions for approval (4e requirements). The proposed rehabilitation of existing facilities includes replacement of the existing damaged penstock (pipe) with a new, larger one; dredging two existing reservoirs and removal, refurbishment, and reinstallation of the turbines and generators in the two powerhouses with relocation and reconstruction of the lower powerhouse that is located on privately owned land below the Forest boundary.

  8. An Assessment of the Economics of Future Electric Power Generation Options and the Implications for Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delene, J.G.; Hadley, S.; Reid, R.L.; Sheffield, J.; Williams, K.A.

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines the potential range of electric power costs for some major alternatives to fusion electric power generation when it is ultimately deployed in the middle of the 21st century and, thus, offers a perspective on the cost levels that fusion must achieve to be competitive. The alternative technologies include coal burning, coal gasification, natural gas, nuclear fission, and renewable energy. The cost of electricity (COE) from the alternatives to fusion should remain in the 30-50 mils/kWh (1999 dollars) range of today in carbon sequestration is not needed, 30-60 mils/kWh if sequestration is required, or as high as 75 mils/kWh for the worst-case scenario for cost uncertainty. The reference COE range for fusion was estimated at 70-100 nmils/kWh for 1- to 1.3-GW(e) scale power plants. Fusion costs will have to be reduced and/or alternative concepts derived before fusion will be competitive with the alternatives for the future production of electricity. Fortunately, there are routes to achieve this goal.

  9. Environmental assessment of the atlas bio-energy waste wood fluidized bed gasification power plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holzman, M.I.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atlas Bio-Energy Corporation is proposing to develop and operate a 3 MW power plant in Brooklyn, New York that will produce electricity by gasification of waste wood and combustion of the produced low-Btu gas in a conventional package steam boiler coupled to a steam-electric generator. The objectives of this project were to assist Atlas in addressing the environmental permit requirements for the proposed power plant and to evaluate the environmental and economic impacts of the project compared to more conventional small power plants. The project`s goal was to help promote the commercialization of biomass gasification as an environmentally acceptable and economically attractive alternative to conventional wood combustion. The specific components of this research included: (1) Development of a permitting strategy plan; (2) Characterization of New York City waste wood; (3) Characterization of fluidized bed gasifier/boiler emissions; (4) Performance of an environmental impact analysis; (5) Preparation of an economic evaluation; and (6) Discussion of operational and maintenance concerns. The project is being performed in two phases. Phase I, which is the subject of this report, involves the environmental permitting and environmental/economic assessment of the project. Pending NYSERDA participation, Phase II will include development and implementation of a demonstration program to evaluate the environmental and economic impacts of the full-scale gasification project.

  10. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous ari pollutants registered and and unregistered stack (powered exhaust) source assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, W.E.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On February 3, 1993, US DOE Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Div. of US EPA, Region X. The compliance order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford site to determine which are subject to the continuous emission measurement requirements in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. The Information Request required The provision of a written compliance plan to meet the requirements of the compliance order. A compliance plan was submitted to EPA, Region X, on April 30, 1993. It set as one of the milestones, the complete assessment of the Hanford Site 84 stacks registered with the Washington State Department of Health, by December 17, 1993. This milestone was accomplished. The compliance plan also called for reaching a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement; this was reached on February 7, 1994, between DOE Richland Operations and EPA, Region X. The milestone to assess the unregistered stacks (powered exhaust) by August 31, 1994, was met. This update presents assessments for 72 registered and 22 unregistered stacks with potential emissions > 0.1 mrem/yr.

  11. Accelerating Combined Heat & Power Deployment

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Reduced electric grid congestion Pollution reduction Most institutionalregulatorybusiness models do not incentivize CHP deployment in a manner that helps optimize energy...

  12. Combined Heat and Power Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships (CHP TAPs) have compiled a select number of CHP project profiles.

  13. Damodar Valley Corporation, Chandrapura Unit 2 Thermal Power Station Residual Life Assessment Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The BHEL/NTPC/PFC/TVA teams assembled at the DVC`s Chadrapura station on July 19, 1994, to assess the remaining life of Unit 2. The workscope was expanded to include major plant systems that impact the unit`s ability to sustain generation at 140 MW (Units 1-3 have operated at average rating of about 90 MW). Assessment was completed Aug. 19, 1994. Boiler pressure parts are in excellent condition except for damage to primary superheater header/stub tubes and economizer inlet header stub tubes. The turbine steam path is in good condition except for damage to LP blading; the spar rotor steam path is in better condition and is recommended for Unit 2. Nozzle box struts are severely cracked from the flame outs; the cracks should not be repaired. HP/IP rotor has surface cracks at several places along the steam seal areas; these cracks are shallow and should be machined out. Detailed component damage assessments for above damaged components have been done. The turbine auxiliary systems have been evaluated; cooling tower fouling/blockage is the root cause for the high turbine back pressure. The fuel processing system is one of the primary root causes for limiting unit capacity. The main steam and hot reheat piping systems were conservatively designed and have at least 30 years left;deficiencies needing resolution include restoration of insulation, replacement of 6 deformed hanger clamp/bolts, and adjustment of a few hanger settings. The cold reheat piping system is generally in good condition; some areas should be re-insulated and the rigid support clamps/bolts should be examined. The turbine extraction piping system supports all appeared to be functioning normally.

  14. Program assessment report, statement of findings. Satellite power systems concept development and evaluation program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What is known, uncertain, and unknown about the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) concept is stated. The important technical, environmental, and cost goal questions that must be answered prior to making a commitment to the SPS concept are discussed. Although significant technological, environmental and economic questions remain to be answered, the preliminary investigations undertaken in the CDEP do provide a basis for a policy decision on further commitment. Also, areas of research and experimentation required to acquire the knowledge by which a series of informed, time-phased decisions may be made concerning the possibility of the SPS concept playing a major role in the United States' energy future are suggested.

  15. DOE/EA-1753 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE BEACON POWER CORPORATION

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration wouldDECOMPOSITION OF CALCIUMCOSTDOENuclear1 ofDOE Office of4 Volume153 FINAL

  16. Hydrogen Resource Assessment: Hydrogen Potential from Coal, Natural Gas, Nuclear, and Hydro Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School footballHydrogen and Fuel CellFew-LayerGas Streamsof the

  17. Microsoft PowerPoint - Biomass Resource Assessments and What do you need to know [Compatibility Mode]

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312),Microgrid WorkshopApproved forResource Assessments What

  18. Assessment of solar options for small power systems applications. Volume III. Analysis of concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laity, W.W.; Aase, D.T.; Apley, W.J.; Bird, S.P.; Drost, M.K.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Williams, T.A.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comparative analysis of solar thermal conversion concepts that are potentially suitable for development as small electric power systems (1 to 10 MWe) is given. Seven generic types of collectors, together with associated subsystems for electric power generation, were considered. The collectors can be classified into three categories: (1) two-axis tracking (with compound-curvature reflecting surfaces; (2) one-axis tracking (with single-curvature reflecting suraces; and (3) nontracking (with low-concentration reflecting surfaces). All seven collectors were analyzed in conceptual system configurations with Rankine-cycle engines. In addition, two of the collectors (the Point Focus Central Receiver and the Point Focus Distributed Receiver) were analyzed with Brayton-cycle engines, and the latter of the two also was analyzed with Stirling-cycle engines. This volume describes the systems analyses performed on all the alternative configurations of the seven generic collector concepts and the results obtained. The SOLSTEP computer code used to determine each configuration's system cost and performance is briefly described. The collector and receiver performance calculations used are also presented. The capital investment and related costs that were obtained from the systems studies are presented, and the levelized energy costs are given as a function of capacity factor obtained from the systems studies. Included also are the values of the other attributes used in the concepts' final ranking. The comments, conclusions, and recommendations developed by the PNL study team during the concept characterization and systems analysis tasks of the study are presented. (WHK)

  19. Preliminary Physics Motivation and Engineering Design Assessment of the National High Power Torus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert D. Woolley

    2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In April 2006, Dr. Ray Orbach, Director of the DOE Office of Science, challenged the fusion community to "propose a new facility... which will put the U.S. at the lead in world fusion science." Analysis of the gaps between expected ITER performance and the requirements of a demonstration power plant (Demo) pointed to the critical and urgent need to develop fusion-relvant plasma-material interface (PMI) solutions consistent with sustained high plasma performance. A survey of world fusion program indicated that present and planned experimental devices do not advance the PMI issue beyond ITER, and a major dedicated experimental facility is warranted. Such a facility should provide the flexibility and access needed to solve plasma boundary challenges related to divertor heat flux and particle exhaust while also developing methods to minimize hydrogenic isotope retention and remaining compatible with high plasma performance.

  20. Review of Methods Related to Assessing Human Performance in Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katya L Le Blanc; Ronald L Boring; David I Gertman

    2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the increased use of digital systems in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) control rooms comes a need to thoroughly understand the human performance issues associated with digital systems. A common way to evaluate human performance is to test operators and crews in NPP control room simulators. However, it is often challenging to characterize human performance in meaningful ways when measuring performance in NPP control room simulations. A review of the literature in NPP simulator studies reveals a variety of ways to measure human performance in NPP control room simulations including direct observation, automated computer logging, recordings from physiological equipment, self-report techniques, protocol analysis and structured debriefs, and application of model-based evaluation. These methods and the particular measures used are summarized and evaluated.

  1. Structural aging program to assess the adequacy of critical concrete components in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naus, D.J.; Marchbanks, M.F.; Oland, C.B.; Arndt, E.G.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Structural Aging (SAG) Program is carried out by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under sponsorship of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). The Program has evolved from preliminary studies conducted to evaluate the long-term environmental challenges to light-water reactor safety-related concrete civil structures. An important conclusion of these studies was that a damage methodology, which can provide a quantitative measure of a concrete structure's durability with respect to potential future requirements, needs to be developed. Under the SAG Program, this issue is being addressed through: establishment of a structural materials information center, evaluation of structural component assessment and repair technologies, and development of a quantitative methodology for structural aging determinations. Progress to date of each of these activities is presented as well as future plans. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Study to assess the effects of magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse on electric power systems. Phase I, final report. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Legro, J.R.; Abi-Samra, N.C.; Tesche, F.M.

    1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In addition to the initial transients designated as fast transient high-altitude EMP (HEMP) and intermediate time EMP, electromagnetic signals are also perceived at times from seconds to hundreds of seconds after a high-altitude nuclear burst. This signal has been defined by the term magnetohydrodynamic-electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP). The MHD-EMP phenomena has been both detected in actual weapon tests and predicted from theoretical models. This volume documents a preliminary research effort to investigate the nature and coupling of the MHD-EMP environments to electric power systems, define the construction of approximate system response network models, and document the development of a unified methodology to assess equipment and systematic vulnerability. The MHD-EMP environment is compared to a qualitatively similar natural event, the electromagnetic environment produced by geomagnetic storms.

  3. Development and Demonstration of a Modeling Framework for Assessing the Efficacy of Using Mine Water for Thermoelectric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectric power plants use large volumes of water for condenser cooling and other plant operations. Traditionally, this water has been withdrawn from the cleanest water available in streams and rivers. However, as demand for electrical power increases it places increasing demands on freshwater resources resulting in conflicts with other off stream water users. In July 2002, NETL and the Governor of Pennsylvania called for the use of water from abandoned mines to replace our reliance on the diminishing and sometimes over allocated surface water resource. In previous studies the National Mine Land Reclamation Center (NMLRC) at West Virginia University has demonstrated that mine water has the potential to reduce the capital cost of acquiring cooling water while at the same time improving the efficiency of the cooling process due to the constant water temperatures associated with deep mine discharges. The objectives of this project were to develop and demonstrate a user-friendly computer based design aid for assessing the costs, technical and regulatory aspects and potential environmental benefits for using mine water for thermoelectric generation. The framework provides a systematic process for evaluating the hydrologic, chemical, engineering and environmental factors to be considered in using mine water as an alternative to traditional freshwater supply. A field investigation and case study was conducted for the proposed 300 MW Beech Hollow Power Plant located in Champion, Pennsylvania. The field study based on previous research conducted by NMLRC identified mine water sources sufficient to reliably supply the 2-3,000gpm water supply requirement of Beech Hollow. A water collection, transportation and treatment system was designed around this facility. Using this case study a computer based design aid applicable to large industrial water users was developed utilizing water collection and handling principals derived in the field investigation and during previous studies of mine water and power plant cooling. Visual basic software was used to create general information/evaluation modules for a range of power plant water needs that were tested/verified against the Beech Hollow project. The program allows for consideration of blending mine water as needed as well as considering potential thermal and environmental benefits that can be derived from using constant temperature mine water. Users input mine water flow, quality, distance to source, elevations to determine collection, transport and treatment system design criteria. The program also evaluates low flow volumes and sustainable yields for various sources. All modules have been integrated into a seamless user friendly computer design aid and user's manual for evaluating the capital and operating costs of mine water use. The framework will facilitate the use of mine water for thermoelectric generation, reduce demand on freshwater resources and result in environmental benefits from reduced emissions and abated mine discharges.

  4. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies – Task 5 Report Use of Fuel Cell Technology in Electric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

    2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this work was to assess the performance of high temperature membranes and observe the impact of different parameters, such as water-to-carbon ratio, carbon formation, hydrogen formation, efficiencies, methane formation, fuel and oxidant utilization, sulfur reduction, and the thermal efficiency/electrical efficiency relationship, on fuel cell performance. A 250 KW PEM fuel cell model was simulated [in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) with the help of the fuel cell computer software model (GCtool)] which would be used to produce power of 250 kW and also produce steam at 120oC that can be used for industrial applications. The performance of the system was examined by estimating the various electrical and thermal efficiencies achievable, and by assessing the effect of supply water temperature, process water temperature, and pressure on thermal performance. It was concluded that increasing the fuel utilization increases the electrical efficiency but decreases the thermal efficiency. The electrical and thermal efficiencies are optimum at ~85% fuel utilization. The low temperature membrane (70oC) is unsuitable for generating high-grade heat suitable for useful cogeneration. The high temperature fuel cells are capable of producing steam through 280oC that can be utilized for industrial applications. Increasing the supply water temperature reduces the efficiency of the radiator. Increasing the supply water temperature beyond the dew point temperature decreases the thermal efficiency with the corresponding decrease in high-grade heat utilization. Increasing the steam pressure decreases the thermal efficiency. The environmental impacts of fuel cell use depend upon the source of the hydrogen rich fuel used. By using pure hydrogen, fuel cells have virtually no emissions except water. Hydrogen is rarely used due to problems with storage and transportation, but in the future, the growth of a “solar hydrogen economy” has been projected. Photovoltaic cells convert sunlight into electricity. This electricity can be used to split water (electrolysis) into hydrogen and oxygen, to store the sun's energy as hydrogen fuel. In this scenario, fuel cell powered vehicles or generating stations have no real emissions of greenhouse or acid gases, or any other pollutants. It is predominantly during the fuel processing stage that atmospheric emissions are released by a fuel cell power plant. When methanol from biomass is used as a fuel, fuel cells have no net emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2, a greenhouse gas) because any carbon released was recently taken from the atmosphere by photosynthetic plants. Any high temperature combustion, such as that which would take place in a spark ignition engine fueled by methanol, produces nitrous oxides (NOx), gases which contribute to acid rain. Fuel cells virtually eliminate NOx emissions because of the lower temperatures of their chemical reactions. Fuel cells, using processed fossil fuels, have emissions of CO2 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) but these emissions are much lower than those from traditional thermal power plants or spark ignition engines due to the higher efficiency of fuel cell power plants. Higher efficiencies result in less fuel being consumed to produce a given amount of electricity or to travel a given distance. This corresponds to lower CO2 and SO2 emissions. Fuel cell power plants also have longer life expectancies and lower maintenance costs than their alternatives.

  5. Life Cycle Assessment of a Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Power Plant and Impacts of Key Design Alternatives: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.; Turchi, C. S.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate change and water scarcity are important issues for today's power sector. To inform capacity expansion decisions, hybrid life cycle assessment is used to evaluate a reference design of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) facility located in Daggett, California, along four sustainability metrics: life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). This wet-cooled, 103 MW plant utilizes mined nitrate salts in its two-tank, thermal energy storage (TES) system. Design alternatives of dry-cooling, a thermocline TES, and synthetically-derived nitrate salt are evaluated. During its life cycle, the reference CSP plant is estimated to emit 26 g CO2eq per kWh, consume 4.7 L/kWh of water, and demand 0.40 MJeq/kWh of energy, resulting in an EPBT of approximately 1 year. The dry-cooled alternative is estimated to reduce life cycle water consumption by 77% but increase life cycle GHG emissions and CED by 8%. Synthetic nitrate salts may increase life cycle GHG emissions by 52% compared to mined. Switching from two-tank to thermocline TES configuration reduces life cycle GHG emissions, most significantly for plants using synthetically-derived nitrate salts. CSP can significantly reduce GHG emissions compared to fossil-fueled generation; however, dry-cooling may be required in many locations to minimize water consumption.

  6. Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

  7. Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

  8. Regional power systems planning: a state of the art assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report was to define regional power systems planning problems, the tools available and their shortcomings, and to document all of the above in a concise readable form. The approach consisted of a survey and literature search. The survey determined the tools being used by utilities, the tools they had rejected, and the tools they planned to try out. The literature search was conducted for the purpose of documenting the tools available, and performing a comparative analysis of these tools. The project included a mix of utility, university, and consulting organizations. Several organizations were consulted in the selection of the participants. A non-profit organization, The University of Oklahoma, was selected to manage the project. The results were reviewed in a series of four one day meetings by known authorities in each field. This report consists of the results of this project. Perhaps its major finding is that several aspects of the regional planning problem are not well defined, the roles of the various participants in regional planning is not clear, and certainly research is needed for the development of new methodology.

  9. Dynamic simulation and load-following control of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharyya, D,; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Load-following control of future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture is expected to be far more challenging as electricity produced by renewable energy is connected to the grid and strict environmental limits become mandatory requirements. To study control performance during load following, a plant-wide dynamic simulation of a coal-fed IGCC plant with CO{sub 2} capture has been developed. The slurry-fed gasifier is a single-stage, downward-fired, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow type with a radiant syngas cooler (RSC). The syngas from the outlet of the RSC goes to a scrubber followed by a two-stage sour shift process with inter-stage cooling. The acid gas removal (AGR) process is a dual-stage physical solvent-based process for selective removal of H{sub 2}S in the first stage and CO{sub 2} in the second stage. Sulfur is recovered using a Claus unit with tail gas recycle to the AGR. The recovered CO{sub 2} is compressed by a split-shaft multistage compressor and sent for sequestration after being treated in an absorber with triethylene glycol for dehydration. The clean syngas is sent to two advanced “F”-class gas turbines (GTs) partially integrated with an elevated-pressure air separation unit. A subcritical steam cycle is used for heat recovery steam generation. A treatment unit for the sour water strips off the acid gases for utilization in the Claus unit. The steady-state model developed in Aspen Plus® is converted to an Aspen Plus Dynamics® simulation and integrated with MATLAB® for control studies. The results from the plant-wide dynamic model are compared qualitatively with the data from a commercial plant having different configuration, operating condition, and feed quality than what has been considered in this work. For load-following control, the GT-lead with gasifier-follow control strategy is considered. A modified proportional–integral–derivative (PID) control is considered for the syngas pressure control. For maintaining the desired CO{sub 2} capture rate while load-following, a linear model predictive controller (LMPC) is implemented in MATLAB®. A combined process and disturbance model is identified by considering a number of model forms and choosing the final model based on an information-theoretic criterion. The performance of the LMPC is found to be superior to the conventional PID control for maintaining CO{sub 2} capture rates in an IGCC power plant while load following.

  10. ‘Back to the drawing board!’ Can failed technological innovations for sustainability play a role in socio-technical transitions? The case of Combined Heat and Power and District Heating in Edinburgh. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott-Mearns, Naomi

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation regards Combined Heat and Power (CHP) and District Heating (DH) technology (CHP-DH) as a technological innovation for sustainability which is currently under-utilized in the UK as DH meets less than 2% of heat demand (Delta Energy...

  11. Novel Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) Systems - Fact Sheet, 2011 Novel Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power...

  12. Survey of Emissions Models for Distributed Combined Heat and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Survey of Emissions Models for Distributed Combined Heat and Power Systems, 2007 Survey of Emissions Models for Distributed Combined Heat and Power Systems, 2007 The models...

  13. Sixth Power Plan northwest Power and Conservation Council

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Fired Generating Resources #12;Sixth Power Plan AssessMenT reporT Resource Adequacy 40Sixth Power Plan northwest Power and Conservation Council March 13, 2013 Mid-term assessment report #12;PaGe 2 > Mid-TerM AssessMenT reporT > Sixth Power Plan Contents 04 Executive Summary 06 Situation

  14. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 code using loss of offsite power transient data of KNU (Korea Nuclear Unit) No. 1 Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Bud-Dong; Kim, Hho-Jung (Korea Advanced Energy Research Inst., Daeduk-Danji (Republic of Korea). Korea Nuclear Safety Center); Lee, Young-Jin (Seoul National Univ. (Republic of Korea))

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a code assessment study based on a real plant transient that occurred on June 9, 1981 at the KNU {number sign}1 (Korea Nuclear Unit Number 1). KNU {number sign}1 is a two-loop Westinghouse PWR plant of 587 Mwe. The loss of offsite power transient occurred at the 77.5% reactor power with 0.5%/hr power ramp. The real plant data were collected from available on-line plant records and computer diagnostics. The transient was simulated by RELAP5/MOD2/36.05 and the results were compared with the plant data to assess the code weaknesses and strengths. Some nodalization studies were performed to contribute to developing a guideline for PWR nodalization for the transient analysis. 5 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Assessment of energy and economic impacts of particulate-control technologies in coal-fired power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under contract to Argonne National Laboratory, Midwest Research Institute has derived models to assess the economic and energy impacts of particulate-control systems for coal-fired power plants. The models take into account the major functional variables, including plant size and location, coal type, and applicable particulate-emission standards. The algorithms obtained predict equipment and installation costs, as well as operating costs (including energy usage), for five control devices: (1) cold-side electrostatic precipitators, (2) hot-side electrostatic precipitators, (3) reverse-flow baghouses, (4) shake baghouses, and (5) wet scrubbers. A steam-generator performance model has been developed, and the output from this model has been used as input for the control-device performance models that specify required design and operating parameters for the control systems under study. These parameters then have been used as inputs to the cost models. Suitable guideline values have been provided for independent variables wherever necessary, and three case studies are presented to demonstrate application of the subject models. The control-equipment models aggregate the following cost items: (1) first costs (capital investment), (2) total, first-year annualized costs, and (3) integrated cost of ownership and operation over any selected plant lifetime. Although the models have been programmed for rapid computation, the algorithms can be solved with a hand calculator.

  16. An Overview of strategic measures to assess workforce needs and ensure technology transfer to meet current and future nuclear power operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vincenti, J.R. [acuri.net, 1344 Curtin Street, State College, PA (United States); Stigers, R.A. [Senior Health Physicist-Radwaste, PPL Susquehanna, Berwick, PA (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Between 1956 and 1989, the number of operating commercial nuclear power plants in the United States increased from none to 109. With the exception of a few plants that were still in final construction, no new nuclear power plants were ordered in the United States as the new millennium began. In 2005, the federal government pronounced the need for new electric power generating systems during the first quarter of the 21. century. The need comes from a desire to curb our reliance on fossil fuels, as well as to provide for a cleaner environment. One of those fuel systems noted was nuclear energy. Given the time between the last active period of nuclear power plant development and construction, there is a need to supply a talented and well-prepared workforce to operate the new plants. It will also be necessary to assess the needs of our current fleet of operating nuclear power plants, of which many are in the process of re-licensing, yet also facing an aging plant workforce. This paper will review and discuss measures to assess diverse workforce needs and technology transfer to meet current licensing requirements as that of future nuclear power plant development in the United States. (authors)

  17. Sensor placement algorithm development to maximize the efficiency of acid gas removal unit for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with CO{sub 2} capture will face stricter operational and environmental constraints. Accurate values of relevant states/outputs/disturbances are needed to satisfy these constraints and to maximize the operational efficiency. Unfortunately, a number of these process variables cannot be measured while a number of them can be measured, but have low precision, reliability, or signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, a sensor placement (SP) algorithm is developed for optimal selection of sensor location, number, and type that can maximize the plant efficiency and result in a desired precision of the relevant measured/unmeasured states. In this work, an SP algorithm is developed for an selective, dual-stage Selexol-based acid gas removal (AGR) unit for an IGCC plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. A comprehensive nonlinear dynamic model of the AGR unit is developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics® (APD) and used to generate a linear state-space model that is used in the SP algorithm. The SP algorithm is developed with the assumption that an optimal Kalman filter will be implemented in the plant for state and disturbance estimation. The algorithm is developed assuming steady-state Kalman filtering and steady-state operation of the plant. The control system is considered to operate based on the estimated states and thereby, captures the effects of the SP algorithm on the overall plant efficiency. The optimization problem is solved by Genetic Algorithm (GA) considering both linear and nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. Due to the very large number of candidate sets available for sensor placement and because of the long time that it takes to solve the constrained optimization problem that includes more than 1000 states, solution of this problem is computationally expensive. For reducing the computation time, parallel computing is performed using the Distributed Computing Server (DCS®) and the Parallel Computing® toolbox from Mathworks®. In this presentation, we will share our experience in setting up parallel computing using GA in the MATLAB® environment and present the overall approach for achieving higher computational efficiency in this framework.

  18. Sensor placement algorithm development to maximize the efficiency of acid gas removal unit for integrated gasifiction combined sycle (IGCC) power plant with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with CO{sub 2} capture will face stricter operational and environmental constraints. Accurate values of relevant states/outputs/disturbances are needed to satisfy these constraints and to maximize the operational efficiency. Unfortunately, a number of these process variables cannot be measured while a number of them can be measured, but have low precision, reliability, or signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, a sensor placement (SP) algorithm is developed for optimal selection of sensor location, number, and type that can maximize the plant efficiency and result in a desired precision of the relevant measured/unmeasured states. In this work, an SP algorithm is developed for an selective, dual-stage Selexol-based acid gas removal (AGR) unit for an IGCC plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. A comprehensive nonlinear dynamic model of the AGR unit is developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics® (APD) and used to generate a linear state-space model that is used in the SP algorithm. The SP algorithm is developed with the assumption that an optimal Kalman filter will be implemented in the plant for state and disturbance estimation. The algorithm is developed assuming steady-state Kalman filtering and steady-state operation of the plant. The control system is considered to operate based on the estimated states and thereby, captures the effects of the SP algorithm on the overall plant efficiency. The optimization problem is solved by Genetic Algorithm (GA) considering both linear and nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. Due to the very large number of candidate sets available for sensor placement and because of the long time that it takes to solve the constrained optimization problem that includes more than 1000 states, solution of this problem is computationally expensive. For reducing the computation time, parallel computing is performed using the Distributed Computing Server (DCS®) and the Parallel Computing® toolbox from Mathworks®. In this presentation, we will share our experience in setting up parallel computing using GA in the MATLAB® environment and present the overall approach for achieving higher computational efficiency in this framework.

  19. Power Electronics for Distributed Energy Systems and Transmission and Distribution Applications: Assessing the Technical Needs for Utility Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolbert, L.M.

    2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Power electronics can provide utilities the ability to more effectively deliver power to their customers while providing increased reliability to the bulk power system. In general, power electronics is the process of using semiconductor switching devices to control and convert electrical power flow from one form to another to meet a specific need. These conversion techniques have revolutionized modern life by streamlining manufacturing processes, increasing product efficiencies, and increasing the quality of life by enhancing many modern conveniences such as computers, and they can help to improve the delivery of reliable power from utilities. This report summarizes the technical challenges associated with utilizing power electronics devices across the entire spectrum from applications to manufacturing and materials development, and it provides recommendations for research and development (R&D) needs for power electronics systems in which the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) could make a substantial impact toward improving the reliability of the bulk power system.

  20. Identification and Assessment of Material Models for Age-Related Degradation of Structures and Passive Components in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nie,J.; Braverman, J.; Hofmayer, C.; Kim, M. K.; Choi, I-K.

    2009-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    When performing seismic safety assessments of nuclear power plants (NPPs), the potential effects of age-related degradation on structures, systems, and components (SSCs) should be considered. To address the issue of aging degradation, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has embarked on a five-year research project to develop a realistic seismic risk evaluation system which will include the consideration of aging of structures and components in NPPs. Three specific areas that are included in the KAERI research project, related to seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), are probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, seismic fragility analysis including the effects of aging, and a plant seismic risk analysis. To support the development of seismic capability evaluation technology for degraded structures and components, KAERI entered into a collaboration agreement with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in 2007. The collaborative research effort is intended to continue over a five year period with the goal of developing seismic fragility analysis methods that consider the potential effects of age-related degradation of SSCs, and using these results as input to seismic PRAs. In the Year 1 scope of work BNL collected and reviewed degradation occurrences in US NPPs and identified important aging characteristics needed for the seismic capability evaluations that will be performed in the subsequent evaluations in the years that follow. This information is presented in the Annual Report for the Year 1 Task, identified as BNL Report-81741-2008 and also designated as KAERI/RR-2931/2008. The report presents results of the statistical and trending analysis of this data and compares the results to prior aging studies. In addition, the report provides a description of U.S. current regulatory requirements, regulatory guidance documents, generic communications, industry standards and guidance, and past research related to aging degradation of SSCs. This report describes the research effort performed by BNL for the Year 2 scope of work. This research focused on methods that could be used to represent the long-term behavior of materials used at NPPs. To achieve this BNL reviewed time-dependent models which can approximate the degradation effects of the key materials used in the construction of structures and passive components determined to be of interest in the Year 1 effort. The intent was to review the degradation models that would cover the most common time-dependent changes in material properties for concrete and steel components.

  1. Plant Design and Cost Assessment of Forced Circulation Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor with Conventional Power Conversion Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dostal, Vaclav

    Cost of electricity is the key factor that determines competitiveness of a power plant. Thus the proper selection, design and optimization of the electric power generating cycle is of main importance. This report makes an ...

  2. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 16, NO. 3, AUGUST 2001 427 Direct Assessment of Protection Operation and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    and islanding; · voltage dips, which may cause motors to stall, contac- tors to open, and power electronic

  3. Preprint for Space Weather Journal (2014) Assessing the impact of space weather on the electric power grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrijver, Karel

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    power grid based on insurance claims for industrial electrical equipment C. J. Schrijver1 , R. Dobbins2 disturbances in the electric power grid. Here, we perform a statistical analysis of 11,242 insurance claims the electrical power grids. The storm-related GICs run on a background of daily variations associated with solar

  4. Hawaii International Conference on System Science, January 2003, Hawaii, 2003 IEEE Blackout Mitigation Assessment in Power Transmission Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    @engr.wisc.edu Abstract Electric power transmission systems are a key infrastructure and blackouts of these systems have Electrical Reliability Council blackout data suggests the existence of blackout size distributions with power by the dynamics. 1. Introduction Electric power transmission systems are an important element of the national

  5. Tracking the Reliability of the U.S. Electric Power System: An Assessment of Publicly Available Information Reported to State Public Utility Commissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaCommare, Kristina H.; Eto, Joseph H.

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Large blackouts, such as the August 14-15, 2003 blackout in the northeasternUnited States and Canada, focus attention on the importance of reliable electric service. As public and private efforts are undertaken to improve reliability and prevent power interruptions, it is appropriate to assess their effectiveness. Measures of reliability, such as the frequency and duration of power interruptions, have been reported by electric utilities to state public utility commissions for many years. This study examines current state and utility practices for collecting and reporting electricity reliability information and discusses challenges that arise in assessing reliability because of differences among these practices. The study is based primarily on reliability information for 2006 reported by 123 utilities to 37 state public utility commissions.

  6. Feasibility Assessment of Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas G. Hall

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MW) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MW) projects. The methodologies for performing the feasibility assessment and estimating hydropower potential are described. The results for the country in terms of the number of feasible sites, their total gross power potential, and their total hydropower potential are presented. The spatial distribution of the feasible potential projects is presented on maps of the conterminous U.S. and Alaska and Hawaii. Results summaries for each of the 50 states are presented in an appendix. The results of the study are also viewable using a Virtual Hydropower Prospector geographic information system application accessible on the Internet at: http://hydropower.inl.gov/prospector.

  7. EA-1741: Draft Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Seattle Steam Company Combined Heat and Power at Post Street in Downtown Seattle, Washington (June 2010)

  8. Nuclear power plant cable materials : review of qualification and currently available aging data for margin assessments in cable performance.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostlyinert' aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section - a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on original qualification testing data alone. The non-availability of conclusive predictions for the aging conditions of 40-year-old cables implies that the same levels of uncertainty will remain for any re-qualification or extended operation of these cables. The highly variable aging behavior of the range of materials employed also implies that simple, standardized aging tests are not sufficient to provide the required aging data and performance predictions for all materials. It is recommended that focused studies be conducted that would yield the material aging parameters needed to predict aging behaviors under low dose, low temperature plant equivalent conditions and that appropriately aged specimens be prepared that would mimic oxidatively-aged 40- to 60- year-old materials for confirmatory LOCA performance testing. This study concludes that it is not sufficient to expose materials to rapid, high radiation and high temperature levels with subsequent LOCA qualification testing in order to predictively quantify safety margins of existing infrastructure with regard to LOCA performance. We need to better understand how cable jacketing and insulation materials have degraded over decades of power plant operation and how this aging history relates to service life prediction and the performance of existing equipment to withstand a LOCA situation.

  9. Grid Impacts of Wind Power Variability: Recent Assessments from a Variety of Utilities in the United States (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsons, B.

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentation for the European Wind Energy Conference held February 27--March 2, 2006, in Athens, Greece, showing grid impacts of wind power variability.

  10. Final Report, Wind Power Resource Assessment on the Warm Springs Reservation Tribal Lands, Report No. DOE/GO/12103

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jim Manion, Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises; David McClain, McClain & Associates; HDR Engineering; Dr. Stel Walker, Oregon State University

    2007-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This report concludes a five-year assessment of wind energy potential on the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon lands.

  11. Abstract--This paper aims at assessing the impact of massive wind power penetration on the calculation of Available Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Indeed it is required to reduce available transmission capacities to keep the power system safe despite be maximal without breaching network security. I. INTRODUCTION imited transmission interconnection capacities the uncertainty about wind power. The use of suboptimal transmission capacity allocation methods explains

  12. Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, Leroy Omar (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

  13. Assessing business models arising from the integration of distributed energy systems in the Chilean electric power system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le Dantec, Jorge I. (Jorge Ignacio)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric power systems are more than just networks of generation, transmission and distribution assets. They are socio-technical systems, involving regulation, markets and technology availability. Presently, the dynamic ...

  14. Wavelet-Based Combined Signal Filtering and Olivier Renaud, Jean-Luc Starck, and Fionn Murtagh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murtagh, Fionn

    1 Wavelet-Based Combined Signal Filtering and Prediction Olivier Renaud, Jean-Luc Starck, and Fionn Murtagh Abstract-- We survey a number of applications of the wavelet transform in time series prediction experimental assessment, we demonstrate the powerfulness of this methodology. Index Terms-- Wavelet transform

  15. Maximum Entropy Method and Charge Flipping, a Powerful Combination to Visualize the True Nature of Structural Disorder from in situ X-ray Powder Diffraction Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samy, A.; Dinnebier, R; van Smaalen, S; Jansen, M

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a systematic approach, the ability of the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) to reconstruct the most probable electron density of highly disordered crystal structures from X-ray powder diffraction data was evaluated. As a case study, the ambient temperature crystal structures of disordered {alpha}-Rb{sub 2}[C{sub 2}O{sub 4}] and {alpha}-Rb{sub 2}[CO{sub 3}] and ordered {delta}-K{sub 2}[C{sub 2}O{sub 4}] were investigated in detail with the aim of revealing the 'true' nature of the apparent disorder. Different combinations of F (based on phased structure factors) and G constraints (based on structure-factor amplitudes) from different sources were applied in MEM calculations. In particular, a new combination of the MEM with the recently developed charge-flipping algorithm with histogram matching for powder diffraction data (pCF) was successfully introduced to avoid the inevitable bias of the phases of the structure-factor amplitudes by the Rietveld model. Completely ab initio electron-density distributions have been obtained with the MEM applied to a combination of structure-factor amplitudes from Le Bail fits with phases derived from pCF. All features of the crystal structures, in particular the disorder of the oxalate and carbonate anions, and the displacements of the cations, are clearly obtained. This approach bears the potential of a fast method of electron-density determination, even for highly disordered materials. All the MEM maps obtained in this work were compared with the MEM map derived from the best Rietveld refined model. In general, the phased observed structure factors obtained from Rietveld refinement (applying F and G constraints) were found to give the closest description of the experimental data and thus lead to the most accurate image of the actual disorder.

  16. 2010 Manufacturing Readiness Assessment Update to the 2008 Report for Fuel Cell Stacks and Systems for the Backup Power and Materials Handling Equipment Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler, D.; Ulsh, M.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2008, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), conducted a manufacturing readiness assessment (MRA) of fuel cell systems and fuel cell stacks for back-up power and material handling applications (MHE). To facilitate the MRA, manufacturing readiness levels (MRL) were defined that were based on the Technology Readiness Levels previously established by the US Department of Energy (DOE). NREL assessed the extensive existing hierarchy of MRLs developed by Department of Defense (DoD) and other Federal entities, and developed a MRL scale adapted to the needs of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program (FCTP) and to the status of the fuel cell industry. The MRL ranking of a fuel cell manufacturing facility increases as the manufacturing capability transitions from laboratory prototype development through Low Rate Initial Production to Full Rate Production. DOE can use MRLs to address the economic and institutional risks associated with a ramp-up in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell production. In 2010, NREL updated this assessment, including additional manufacturers, an assessment of market developments since the original report, and a comparison of MRLs between 2008 and 2010.

  17. A research needs assessment for the capture, utilization and disposal of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel-fired power plants. Volume 2, Topical reports: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study, identifies and assesses system approaches in order to prioritize research needs for the capture and non-atmospheric sequestering of a significant portion of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emitted from fossil fuel-fired electric power plants (US power plants presently produce about 7% of the world`s CO{sub 2} emissions). The study considers capture technologies applicable either to existing plants or to those that optimistically might be demonstrated on a commercial scale over the next twenty years. The research needs that have high priority in establishing the technical, environmental, and economic feasibility of large-scale capture and disposal of CO{sub 2} from electric power plants are:(1) survey and assess the capacity, cost, and location of potential depleted gas and oil wells that are suitable CO{sub 2} repositories (with the cooperation of the oil and gas industry); (2) conduct research on the feasibility of ocean disposal, with objectives of determining the cost, residence time, and environmental effects for different methods of CO{sub 2} injection; (3) perform an in-depth survey of knowledge concerning the feasibility of using deep, confined aquifers for disposal and, if feasible, identify potential disposal locations (with the cooperation of the oil and gas industry); (4) evaluate, on a common basis, system and design alternatives for integration of CO{sub 2} capture systems with emerging and advanced technologies for power generation; and prepare a conceptual design, an analysis of barrier issues, and a preliminary cost estimate for pipeline networks necessary to transport a significant portion of the CO{sub 2} to potentially feasible disposal locations.

  18. Business interruption and loss of assets risk assessment in support of the design of an innovative Concentrating Solar Power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Power (CSP) plants are a promising technology of renewable energy production, as witnessed of fossil fuels), in the last years a growing attention has been paid to the renewable energies measures, which puts particular emphasis on the use of renewable energies and on the development of new

  19. A radiological assessment of nuclear power and propulsion operations near Space Station Freedom. Contract report, January 1988-January 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolch, W.E.; Thomas, J.K.; Peddicord, K.L.; Nelson, P.; Marshall, D.T.; Busche, D.M.

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scenarios were identified which involve the use of nuclear power systems in the vicinity of Space Station Freedom (SSF) and their radiological impact on the SSF crew was quantified. Several of the developed scenarios relate to the use of SSF as an evolutionary transportation node for lunar and Mars missions. In particular, radiation doses delivered to SSF crew were calculated for both the launch and subsequent return of a Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) cargo vehicle and a Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) personnel vehicle to low earth orbit. The use of nuclear power on co-orbiting platforms and the storage and handling issues associated with radioisotope power systems were also explored as they relate to SSF. A central philosophy in these analyses was the utilization of a radiation dose budget, defined as the difference between recommended dose limits from all radiation sources and estimated doses received by crew members from natural space radiations. Consequently, for each scenario examined, the dose budget concept was used to identify and quantify constraints on operational parameters such as launch separation distances, returned vehicle parking distances, and reactor shutdown times prior to vehicle approach. The results indicate that realistic scenarios do not exist which would preclude the use of nuclear power sources in the vicinity of SSF. The radiation dose to the SSF crew can be maintained at safe levels solely by implementing proper and reasonable operating procedures.

  20. Central power generation versus distributed generation e An air quality assessment in the South Coast Air Basin of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    Keywords: Distributed generation Central generation Air quality modeling Reactivity a b s t r a c by the widespread installation of many stationary power generators close to the point of electricity use within from which electricity must be transmitted to end users. However, increasing electricity demand

  1. Technical and economic assessment of the use of ammonia expanders for energy recovery in air-cooled power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, S.G.; Hane, G.J.; Johnson, B.M.

    1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Binary cycle power plants have been the subject of much discussion among engineers and scientists for nearly 100 years. Current economic and environmental concerns have stimulated new interest and research. Ammonia has been recommended by other studies as the leading contender for use as simply the heat rejection medium in an air-cooled power plant. This study investigates the technical feasibility and economic potential of including an expander in the heat rejection system of an air-cooled power plant. The expander would be used during certain parts of the year to increase the total output of the power plant. Five different plant locations (Miami, San Francisco, Bakersfield, Chicago, Anchorage) were investigated to show the effect which climate has on the economic potential of this ammonia bottoming cycle. The study shows that the expected energy costs for the bottoming cycle only will be less than 50 mills/kWh for any of the five plant locations. This cost assumes that an ammonia phase-change heat rejection system is already a part of the existing plant. The colder climates of Chicago and Anchorage demonstrate an even smaller energy cost of less than 15 mills/kWh. Further investigation of the concept is merited to substantiate these costs and determine the needed technology.

  2. High-Efficiency and High-Power CMOS Power Amplifiers for Millimeter-Wave Applications /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agah, Amir

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    large output powers at the millimeter-wave regime has been mainly focused on power combining techniques, using Wilkinson combiners and transformer-

  3. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Retrofit Lamps at the Lobby of the Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology in the lobby of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) headquarters building in Portland, Oregon. The project involved a simple retrofit of 32 track lights used to illuminate historical black-and-white photos and printed color posters from the 1930s and 1940s. BPA is a federal power marketing agency in the Northwestern United States, and selected this prominent location to demonstrate energy efficient light-emitting diode (LED) retrofit options that not only can reduce the electric bill for their customers but also provide attractive alternatives to conventional products, in this case accent lighting for BPA's historical artwork.

  4. Grid Impacts of Wind Power Variability: Recent Assessments from a Variety of Utilities in the United States; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsons, B.; Milligan, M.; Smith, J. C.; DeMeo, E.; Oakleaf, B.; Wolf, K.; Schuerger, M.; Zavadil, R.; Ahlstrom, M.; Nakafuji, D. Y.

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of wind power's unique characteristics, many concerns are based on the increased variability that wind contributes to the grid, and most U.S. studies have focused on this aspect of wind generation. Grid operators are also concerned about the ability to predict wind generation over several time scales. In this report, we quantify the physical impacts and costs of wind generation on grid operations and the associated costs.

  5. Assessing the impact of space weather on the electric power grid based on insurance claims for industrial electrical equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrijver, Carolus J; Murtagh, William; Petrinec, Stephen M

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geomagnetically induced currents are known to induce disturbances in the electric power grid. Here, we perform a statistical analysis of 11,242 insurance claims from 2000 through 2010 for equipment losses and related business interruptions in North-American commercial organizations that are associated with damage to, or malfunction of, electrical and electronic equipment. We find that claims rates are elevated on days with elevated geomagnetic activity by approximately 20% for the top 5%, and by about 10% for the top third of most active days ranked by daily maximum variability of the geomagnetic field. When focusing on the claims explicitly attributed to electrical surges (amounting to more than half the total sample), we find that the dependence of claims rates on geomagnetic activity mirrors that of major disturbances in the U.S. high-voltage electric power grid. The claims statistics thus reveal that large-scale geomagnetic variability couples into the low-voltage power distribution network and that relat...

  6. An assessment of the use of direct contact condensers with wet cooling systems for utility steam power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharathan, D.; Hoo, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); D`Errico, P. [Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (United States)] [Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (United States)

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Potential use of a direct contact condenser for steam recovery at the turbine exhaust of a utility power plant using a wet cooling system is investigated. To maintain condensate separate from the cooling water, a bank of plate heat exchangers is used. In a case study for a nominal 130-MW steam power plant, two heat rejection systems, one using a conventional surface condenser and another using a direct contact condenser together with a set of plate heat exchangers are compared on the basis of their performance, operation and maintenance, and system economics. Despite a higher initial cost for the direct contact system, the advantages it offers suggests that this system is viable both technically and economically. Key to the improvements the direct contact system offers is a higher equivalent availability for the power system. Reduction of dissolved oxygen and other metallic ions in the condensate, reduced use of chemical scavengers and polishers, and potential elimination of a plant floor are also major benefits of this system. Drawbacks include added plant components and higher initial cost. The potential for long-term cost reduction for the direct contact system is also identified.

  7. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Presidential Permit Applications for Baja California Power, Inc. and Sempra Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2001-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In separate actions, Sempra Energy Resources (SER) and Baja California Power, Inc. (BCP) have applied to the US Department of Energy (DOE) for Presidential permits pursuant to Executive Order (EO) No. 10485, as amended by EO 12038, and 10 CFR Section 205.320 et seq. (2000), to construct, operate, maintain, and connect electric power transmission facilities crossing the international border between the Us and Mexico. SER and BCP each propose constructing separate new double-circuit, 230,000 volt (230 kV) transmission lines extending about six miles south from the Imperial Valley Substation (IV Substation), owned and operated by San Diego Gas and Electric Company (SDG and E), to the US/Mexico international border. In each case, the objective is to connect the proposed transmission lines to natural gas fueled electric generating plants being constructed in Mexico for the purpose of importing electrical power into the US onto the southern California electrical grid. The proposed transmission lines would traverse about six miles of federal land administered by the US Department of the Interior's Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

  8. AMO Announces Successful Completion of Industrial-Scale Combined...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Announces Successful Completion of Industrial-Scale Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System AMO Announces Successful Completion of Industrial-Scale Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and...

  9. Correlated Topographic and Spectroscopic Imaging by Combined...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Combined Atomic Force Microscopy and Optical Microscopy. Abstract: Near-field scanning microscopy is a powerful approach to obtain topographic and spectroscopic...

  10. aortic dissection combined: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Encouraging Combined Heat andgrid to assess the CO 2 mitigate potential of CHP and CCHP and other DER Collected Data Memorandum Encouraging Combined Heat and Stadler, Michael...

  11. anesthetics combined: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Encouraging Combined Heat andgrid to assess the CO 2 mitigate potential of CHP and CCHP and other DER Collected Data Memorandum Encouraging Combined Heat and Stadler, Michael...

  12. acetylcysteine mannitol combination: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Encouraging Combined Heat andgrid to assess the CO 2 mitigate potential of CHP and CCHP and other DER Collected Data Memorandum Encouraging Combined Heat and Stadler, Michael...

  13. agrotis ipsilon combined: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Encouraging Combined Heat andgrid to assess the CO 2 mitigate potential of CHP and CCHP and other DER Collected Data Memorandum Encouraging Combined Heat and Stadler, Michael...

  14. atacama combining bioarchaeology: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Encouraging Combined Heat andgrid to assess the CO 2 mitigate potential of CHP and CCHP and other DER Collected Data Memorandum Encouraging Combined Heat and Stadler, Michael...

  15. abdominal hyperthermia combined: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Encouraging Combined Heat andgrid to assess the CO 2 mitigate potential of CHP and CCHP and other DER Collected Data Memorandum Encouraging Combined Heat and Stadler, Michael...

  16. artemisinin-based antimalarial combination: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Encouraging Combined Heat andgrid to assess the CO 2 mitigate potential of CHP and CCHP and other DER Collected Data Memorandum Encouraging Combined Heat and Stadler, Michael...

  17. arteriovenous malformation combined: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Encouraging Combined Heat andgrid to assess the CO 2 mitigate potential of CHP and CCHP and other DER Collected Data Memorandum Encouraging Combined Heat and Stadler, Michael...

  18. anthracycline-based combination chemotherapy: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Encouraging Combined Heat andgrid to assess the CO 2 mitigate potential of CHP and CCHP and other DER Collected Data Memorandum Encouraging Combined Heat and Stadler, Michael...

  19. High Efficiency Broadband Envelope-Tracking Power Amplifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Jonmei Johana

    of the combiner, power losses, and amplifier switchingand the power ). The power loss in the modulator can besuch that The dynamic power loss of the dynamic modulator

  20. Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Power Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Capstone Turbine Corporation, in collaboration with the University of California-Irvine, Packer...