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1

UCSF Sustainability Baseline Assessment: Carbon Footprint Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UCSF Sustainability Baseline Assessment: Carbon Footprint Analysis Final Issue Date: March 21, 2010 #12;Carbon Footprint Analysis Background This chapter of the Sustainability Assessment focuses on UCSF

Yamamoto, Keith

2

Background  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Background Solar panels are designed as a photovoltaic module. The energy producing aspect of the photovoltaic module has two primary steps. The first is a semiconducting material...

3

Basin-Scale Opportunity Assessment Initiative Background Literature Review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As called for in the March 24, 2010, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental stakeholders, and the hydropower industry are collaborating to identify opportunities to simultaneously increase electricity generation and improve environmental services in river basins of the United States. New analytical tools provide an improved ability to understand, model, and visualize environmental and hydropower systems. Efficiencies and opportunities that might not be apparent in site-by-site analyses can be revealed through assessments at the river-basin scale. Information from basin-scale assessments could lead to better coordination of existing hydropower projects, or to inform siting decisions (e.g., balancing the removal of some dams with the construction of others), in order to meet renewable energy production and environmental goals. Basin-scale opportunity assessments would inform energy and environmental planning and address the cumulative effects of hydropower development and operations on river basin environmental quality in a way that quantifies energy-environment tradeoffs. Opportunity assessments would create information products, develop scenarios, and identify specific actions that agencies, developers, and stakeholders can take to locate new sustainable hydropower projects, increase the efficiency and environmental performance of existing projects, and restore and protect environmental quality in our nation's river basins. Government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO) have done significant work to understand and assess opportunities for both hydropower and environmental protection at the basin scale. Some initiatives have been successful, others less so, and there is a need to better understand the legacy of work on which this current project can build. This background literature review is intended to promote that understanding. The literature review begins with a discussion in Section 2.0 of the Federal regulatory processes and mission areas pertaining to hydropower siting and licensing at the basin scale. This discussion of regulatory processes and mission areas sets the context for the next topic in Section 3.0, past and ongoing basin-scale hydropower planning and assessment activities. The final sections of the literature review provide some conclusions about past and ongoing basin-scale activities and their relevance to the current basin-scale opportunity assessment (Section 4.0), and a bibliography of existing planning and assessment documents (Section 5.0).

Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL; Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

BACKGROUND  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAboutScience Program CumulusA t i o n dataWhatNationalBACKGROUND The safe

5

Background and Reflections on the Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Despite the ever-growing body of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature on electricity generation technologies, inconsistent methods and assumptions hamper comparison across studies and pooling of published results. Synthesis of the body of previous research is necessary to generate robust results to assess and compare environmental performance of different energy technologies for the benefit of policy makers, managers, investors, and citizens. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory initiated the LCA Harmonization Project in an effort to rigorously leverage the numerous individual studies to develop collective insights. The goals of this project were to: (1) understand the range of published results of LCAs of electricity generation technologies, (2) reduce the variability in published results that stem from inconsistent methods and assumptions, and (3) clarify the central tendency of published estimates to make the collective results of LCAs available to decision makers in the near term. The LCA Harmonization Project's initial focus was evaluating life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from electricity generation technologies. Six articles from this first phase of the project are presented in a special supplemental issue of the Journal of Industrial Ecology on Meta-Analysis of LCA: coal (Whitaker et al. 2012), concentrating solar power (Burkhardt et al. 2012), crystalline silicon photovoltaics (PVs) (Hsu et al. 2012), thin-film PVs (Kim et al. 2012), nuclear (Warner and Heath 2012), and wind (Dolan and Heath 2012). Harmonization is a meta-analytical approach that addresses inconsistency in methods and assumptions of previously published life cycle impact estimates. It has been applied in a rigorous manner to estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from many categories of electricity generation technologies in articles that appear in this special supplemental supplemental issue, reducing the variability and clarifying the central tendency of those estimates in ways useful for decision makers and analysts. Each article took a slightly different approach, demonstrating the flexibility of the harmonization approach. Each article also discusses limitations of the current research, and the state of knowledge and of harmonization, pointing toward a path of extending and improving the meta-analysis of LCAs.

Heath, G. A.; Mann, M. K.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Analysis of alpha backgrounds in the DEAP-1 detector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DEAP-1 is a 7 kg liquid argon dark matter detector used to prototype the tonne scale DEAP-3600 detector at SNOLAB.We present an analysis of the alpha particle backgrounds in DEAP-1 and isolate the radiations from various 222Rn daughters at various locations within the detector. The backgrounds will be removed by event position reconstruction and strict controls of material purity.

Kevin S. Olsen

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Historical Background on Assessment the Performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1979, six years after selecting the Delaware Basin as a potential disposal area, Congress authorized the US Department of Energy to build the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, as a research and development facility for the safe management, storage, and disposal of waste contaminated with transuranic radioisotopes. In 1998, 19 years after authorization and 25 years after site selection, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified that the WIPP disposal system complied with its regulations. The EPA's decision was primarily based on the results from a performance assessment conducted in 1996. This performance assessment was the culmination of four preliminary performance assessments conducted between 1989 and 1992. This report provides a historical setting and context for how the performance of the deep geologic repository at the WIPP was analyzed. Also included is background on political forces acting on the project. For example, the federal requirement to provide environmental impact statements and negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico influenced the type of scientific areas that were investigated and the engineering analysis prior to 1989 for the WIPP.

Rechard, R.P.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Global, exact cosmic microwave background data analysis using Gibbs sampling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe an efficient and exact method that enables global Bayesian analysis of cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. The method reveals the joint posterior density (or likelihood for flat priors) of the power spectrum C{sub l} and the CMB signal. Foregrounds and instrumental parameters can be simultaneously inferred from the data. The method allows the specification of a wide range of foreground priors. We explicitly show how to propagate the non-Gaussian dependency structure of the C{sub l} posterior through to the posterior density of the parameters. If desired, the analysis can be coupled to theoretical (cosmological) priors and can yield the posterior density of cosmological parameter estimates directly from the time-ordered data. The method does not hinge on special assumptions about the survey geometry or noise properties, etc., It is based on a Monte Carlo approach and hence parallelizes trivially. No trace or determinant evaluations are necessary. The feasibility of this approach rests on the ability to solve the systems of linear equations which arise. These are of the same size and computational complexity as the map-making equations. We describe a preconditioned conjugate gradient technique that solves this problem and demonstrate in a numerical example that the computational time required for each Monte Carlo sample scales as n{sub p}{sup 3/2} with the number of pixels n{sub p}. We use our method to analyze the data from the Differential Microwave Radiometer on the Cosmic Background Explorer and explore the non-Gaussian joint posterior density of the C{sub l} from the Differential Microwave Radiometer on the Cosmic Background Explorer in several projections.

Wandelt, Benjamin D. [Department of Physics, UIUC, 1110 W Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Astronomy, UIUC, 1002 W Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Larson, David L.; Lakshminarayanan, Arun [Department of Physics, UIUC, 1110 W Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2004-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

9

Historical Background on the Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1979, six years after selecting the Delaware Basin as a potential disposal area, Congress authorized the U.S. Department of Energy to build the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, as a Research and development facility for the safe management storage, and disposal of waste contaminated with transuranic radioisotopes. In 1998, 19 years after authorization and after site selection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified that the WIPP disposal system complied with its regulations. The EPA's decision was primarily based on the results from a performance. assessment conducted in 1996, which is summarized in this special issue of Reliability Engineering and System Safety. This performance assessment was the culmination of four preliminary performance assessments conducted between 1989 and 1992. This paper provides a historical setting and context for how the performance of the deep geologic repository at the WIPP was analyzed. Also included is background on political forces acting on the project.

RECHARD,ROBERT P.

1999-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

10

Micro-Raman Spectroscopy of Algae: Composition Analysis and Fluorescence Background Behavior  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ARTICLE Micro-Raman Spectroscopy of Algae: Composition Analysis and Fluorescence Background performed using Stokes Raman scattering for compositional analysis of algae. Two algal species, Chlorella while acquiring Raman signals from the algae. The time dependence of fluorescence background is char

11

Fast Illumination-invariant Background Subtraction using Two Views: Error Analysis, Sensor Placement and Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fast Illumination-invariant Background Subtraction using Two Views: Error Analysis, Sensor£ Abstract Background modeling and subtraction to detect new or moving objects in a scene is an important a detailed analysis of such errors. Then, we propose a sensor configuration that eliminates false de

Paragios, Nikos

12

US National Climate Assessment (NCA) Scenarios for Assessing Our Climate Future: Issues and Methodological Perspectives Background Whitepaper for Participants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This whitepaper is intended to provide a starting point for discussion at a workshop for the National Climate Assessment (NCA) that focuses on the use and development of scenarios. The paper will provide background needed by participants in the workshop in order to review options for developing and using scenarios in NCA. The paper briefly defines key terms and establishes a conceptual framework for developing consistent scenarios across different end uses and spatial scales. It reviews uses of scenarios in past U.S. national assessments and identifies potential users of and needs for scenarios for both the report scheduled for release in June 2013 and to support an ongoing distributed assessment process in sectors and regions around the country. Because scenarios prepared for the NCA will need to leverage existing research, the paper takes account of recent scientific advances and activities that could provide needed inputs. Finally, it considers potential approaches for providing methods, data, and other tools for assessment participants. We note that the term 'scenarios' has many meanings. An important goal of the whitepaper (and portions of the workshop agenda) is pedagogical (i.e., to compare different meanings and uses of the term and make assessment participants aware of the need to be explicit about types and uses of scenarios). In climate change research, scenarios have been used to establish bounds for future climate conditions and resulting effects on human and natural systems, given a defined level of greenhouse gas emissions. This quasi-predictive use contrasts with the way decision analysts typically use scenarios (i.e., to consider how robust alternative decisions or strategies may be to variation in key aspects of the future that are uncertain). As will be discussed, in climate change research and assessment, scenarios describe a range of aspects of the future, including major driving forces (both human activities and natural processes), changes in climate and related environmental conditions (e.g., sea level), and evolution of societal capability to respond to climate change. This wide range of scenarios is needed because the implications of climate change for the environment and society depend not only on changes in climate themselves, but also on human responses. This degree of breadth introduces and number of challenges for communication and research.

Moss, Richard H.; Engle, Nathan L.; Hall, John; Jacobs, Kathy; Lempert, Rob; Mearns, L. O.; Melillo, Jerry; Mote, Phil; O'Brien, Sheila; Rosenzweig, C.; Ruane, Alex; Sheppard, Stephen; Vallario, Robert W.; Wiek, Arnim; Wilbanks, Thomas

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessment study background Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

December 2010 Assessing Competition Policy W: www.uea.ac.ukccp T: +44 (0... )1603 593715 A: UEA, Norwich, NR4 7TJ Assessing Competition Policy: Methodologies, Gaps and...

14

Structural analysis and assessment of Guastavino vaulting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis studies the behavior and pathologies of the masonry tile structures built by the R. Guastavino Company in order to provide recommendations on their analysis and assessment. Structural analyses of two specific ...

Reese, Megan L

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico: Background information for ecological risk assessments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report reviews ecological risk assessment concepts and methods; describes important biological resources in the Gulf of Mexico of potential concern for produced water impacts; and summarizes data available to estimate exposure and effects of produced water discharges. The emphasis is on data relating to produced water discharges in the central and western Gulf of Mexico, especially in Louisiana. Much of the summarized data and cited literature are relevant to assessments of impacts in other regions. Data describing effects on marine and estuarine fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and benthic invertebrates are emphasized. This review is part of a series of studies of the health and ecological risks from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico. These assessments will provide input to regulators in the development of guidelines and permits, and to industry in the use of appropriate discharge practices.

Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.; DePhillips, M.P.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

assessment ioa analysis: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Websites Summary: technology analysis Noon Lunch 1:15 California off-shore wind technology assessment 1:45 Technical assessmentRESEARCH RESULTS FORUM FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY...

17

An Analysis of Two Industrial Assessment Center Extended Assessments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Industrial Assessment Center at Texas A&M University extended assessments by spending about two extra days at each of three manufacturing plants. The extended assessments are characterized by use of sophisticated electronic monitoring equipment...

Farouz, H. E.; Gafford, G. D.; Eggebrecht, J. A.; Heffington, W. M.

18

Applied Ecosystem Analysis - Background : EDT the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment Method.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume consists of eight separate reports. We present them as background to the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) methodology. They are a selection from publications, white papers, and presentations prepared over the past two years. Some of the papers are previously published, others are currently being prepared for publication. In the early to mid 1980`s the concern for failure of both natural and hatchery production of Columbia river salmon populations was widespread. The concept of supplementation was proposed as an alternative solution that would integrate artificial propagation with natural production. In response to the growing expectations placed upon the supplementation tool, a project called Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) was initiated in 1990. The charge of RASP was to define supplementation and to develop guidelines for when, where and how it would be the appropriate solution to salmon enhancement in the Columbia basin. The RASP developed a definition of supplementation and a set of guidelines for planning salmon enhancement efforts which required consideration of all factors affecting salmon populations, including environmental, genetic, and ecological variables. The results of RASP led to a conclusion that salmon issues needed to be addressed in a manner that was consistent with an ecosystem approach. If the limitations and potentials of supplementation or any other management tool were to be fully understood it would have to be within the context of a broadly integrated approach - thus the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) method was born.

Mobrand, Lars E.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Cosmic microwave background constraints on dark energy dynamics: analysis beyond the power spectrum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the distribution of the non-Gaussian signal induced by weak lensing on the primary total intensity cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. Our study focuses on the three point statistics exploiting an harmonic analysis based on the CMB bispectrum. By considering the three multipoles as independent variables, we reveal a complex structure of peaks and valleys determined by the re-projection of the primordial acoustic oscillations through the lensing mechanism. We study the dependence of this system on the expansion rate at the epoch in which the weak lensing power injection is relevant, probing the dark energy equation of state at redshift corresponding to the equivalence with matter or higher ($w_\\infty$). We evaluate the impact of the bispectrum observable on the CMB capability of constraining the dark energy dynamics. We perform a maximum likelihood analysis by varying the dark energy abundance, the present equation of state $w_0$ and $w_\\infty$. We show that the projection degeneracy affecting a pure power spectrum analysis in total intensity is broken if the bispectrum is taken into account. For a Planck-like experiment, assuming nominal performance, no foregrounds or systematics, and fixing all the parameters except $w_0$, $w_\\infty$ and the dark energy abundance, a percent and ten percent precision measure of $w_0$ and $w_\\infty$ is achievable from CMB data only. These results indicate that the detection of the weak lensing signal by the forthcoming CMB probes may be relevant to gain insight into the dark energy dynamics at the onset of cosmic acceleration.

Fabio Giovi; Carlo Baccigalupi; Francesca Perrotta

2005-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

20

HANFORD SAFETY ANALYSIS & RISK ASSESSMENT HANDBOOK (SARAH)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) is to support the development of safety basis documentation for Hazard Category 2 and 3 (HC-2 and 3) U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, ''Nuclear Safety Management''. Subpart B, ''Safety Basis Requirements.'' Consistent with DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 2, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'' (STD-3009), and DOE-STD-3011-2002, ''Guidance for Preparation of Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) Documents'' (STD-3011), the Hanford SARAH describes methodology for performing a safety analysis leading to development of a Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and derivation of Technical Safety Requirements (TSR), and provides the information necessary to ensure a consistently rigorous approach that meets DOE expectations. The DSA and TSR documents, together with the DOE-issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER), are the basic components of facility safety basis documentation. For HC-2 or 3 nuclear facilities in long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M), for decommissioning activities, where source term has been eliminated to the point that only low-level, residual fixed contamination is present, or for environmental remediation activities outside of a facility structure, DOE-STD-1120-98, ''Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities'' (STD-1120), may serve as the basis for the DSA. HC-2 and 3 environmental remediation sites also are subject to the hazard analysis methodologies of this standard.

EVANS, C B

2004-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment background analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT/REGULATORY IMPACT REVIEW/ FINAL REGULATORY FLEXIBILITY ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT/REGULATORY IMPACT REVIEW/ FINAL REGULATORY FLEXIBILITY ANALYSIS.0 NEPA REQUIREMENTS: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE ALTERNATIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.1 Environmental Impacts of the Alternatives

22

Empirical Correction of Crosstalk in a Low-Background Germanium ?–? Analysis System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ABSTRACT The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is currently developing a custom software suite capable of automating many of the tasks required to accurately analyze coincident signals within gamma spectrometer arrays. During the course of this work, significant crosstalk was identified in the energy determination for spectra collected with a new low-background intrinsic germanium (HPGe) array at PNNL. The HPGe array is designed for high detection efficiency, ultra-low-background performance, and sensitive gamma gamma coincidence detection. The first half of the array, a single cryostat containing 7 HPGe crystals, was recently installed into a new shallow underground laboratory facility. This update will present a brief review of the germanium array, describe the observed crosstalk, and present a straight-forward empirical correction that significantly reduces the impact of this crosstalk on the spectroscopic performance of the system.

Keillor, Martin E.; Erikson, Luke E.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Day, Anthony R.; Fuller, Erin S.; Glasgow, Brian D.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Mizouni, Leila K.; Myers, Allan W.; Overman, Cory T.; Seifert, Allen; Stavenger, Timothy J.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

The photovoltaic market analysis program : background, model development, applications and extensions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The purpose of this report is to describe and motivate the market analysis program for photovoltaics that has developed over the last several years. The main objective of the program is to develop tools and procedures to ...

Lilien, Gary L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Ten channel background alpha radiometer for nondestructive analysis of low activity samples  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The description of a ten-channel alpha-radiometer based on large-area semiconductor detectors is presented in this paper. The radiometer is intended for determination of soil pollution by alpha-active radionuclides using thick samples. The analysis of isotopes is also provided. The concentrations of Pu and Am isotopes in soil samples are determined.

Pugatch, V.M.; Pavlenko, Y.N.; Vasiliev, Y.O.; Nenakhov, A.N.; Tkatch, N.M.; Barabash, L.I.; Berdnichenko, S.V.; Litovchenko, P.G.; Rosenfeld, A.B.; Zinets, O.S. (Inst. for Nuclear Research, Kiev (USSR))

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Background Suppression Using Pulse Shape Analysis with a BEGe Detector for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Search with GERDA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A pulse shape analysis for distinguishing between double beta decay-like interactions and multiple-scattered photons was performed for the first time using a BEGe-type detector. This discrimination method is included in the research and development for the second phase of the GERDA experiment, since active background suppression techniques are necessary to reach sensitivity for the {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless double beta decay half life of >10{sup 26} years. A suppression of backgrounds in the energy region of interest around the {sup 76}Ge Q{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} = 2039 keV is demonstrated, with (0.93{+-}0.08)% survival probability for events from {sup 60}Co, (21{+-}3)% for {sup 226}Ra, and (40{+-}2)% for {sup 228}Th. This performance is achieved with (89{+-}1)% acceptance of {sup 228}Th double escape events, which are analogous to double beta decay.

Budjas, Dusan; Schoenert, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Chkvorets, Oleg [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Physics, Laurentian University, Ramsey Lake Road, P3E 2C6 Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)

2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

26

Blind background prediction using a bifurcated analysis scheme J. Nix, J. Ma, G.N. Perdue, Y. Zheng, Y.W. Wah  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Blind background prediction using a bifurcated analysis scheme J. Nix, J. Ma, G.N. Perdue, Y. Zheng In this paper we describe a bifurcation analysis procedure for data driven background prediction in a blind. Our set of cuts defines a multidimensional signal region which we wish to keep blind. If two cuts show

27

Energy Analysis and Diagnostics Data Analysis From Industrial Energy Assessments for Manufacturing Industries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

collected as a result of these assessments. Although waste minimization and productivity improvements have been recommended on some of these assessments in addition to energy savings, this paper focuses on energy analysis and diagnostics information...

Gopalakrishnan, B.; Plummer, R. W.; Srinath, S.; Meffe, C. M.; Ipe, J. J.; Veena, R.

28

Commercial Property Assessed Clean Energy: A Comparative Analysis  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hosted by the Technical Assistance Program (TAP), this webinar, held on Feb. 26, 2015, focused on a comparative analysis of program design elements of existing Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) programs across the country.

29

Material Analysis for a Fire Assessment.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report consolidates technical information on several materials and material classes for a fire assessment. The materials include three polymeric materials, wood, and hydraulic oil. The polymers are polystyrene, polyurethane, and melamine- formaldehyde foams. Samples of two of the specific materials were tested for their behavior in a fire - like environment. Test data and the methods used to test the materials are presented. Much of the remaining data are taken from a literature survey. This report serves as a reference source of properties necessary to predict the behavior of these materials in a fire.

Brown, Alexander; Nemer, Martin

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Trace Assessment for BWR ATWS Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A TRACE/PARCS input model has been developed in order to be able to analyze anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) in a boiling water reactor. The model is based on one developed previously for the Browns Ferry reactor for doing loss-of-coolant accident analysis. This model was updated by adding the control systems needed for ATWS and a core model using PARCS. The control systems were based on models previously developed for the TRAC-B code. The PARCS model is based on information (e.g., exposure and moderator density (void) history distributions) obtained from General Electric Hitachi and cross sections for GE14 fuel obtained from an independent source. The model is able to calculate an ATWS, initiated by the closure of main steam isolation valves, with recirculation pump trip, water level control, injection of borated water from the standby liquid control system and actuation of the automatic depres-surization system. The model is not considered complete and recommendations are made on how it should be improved.

Cheng, L.Y.; Diamond, D.; Arantxa Cuadra, Gilad Raitses, Arnold Aronson

2010-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

31

Cable Hot Shorts and Circuit Analysis in Fire Risk Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under existing methods of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), the analysis of fire-induced circuit faults has typically been conducted on a simplistic basis. In particular, those hot-short methodologies that have been applied remain controversial in regards to the scope of the assessments, the underlying methods, and the assumptions employed. To address weaknesses in fire PRA methodologies, the USNRC has initiated a fire risk analysis research program that includes a task for improving the tools for performing circuit analysis. The objective of this task is to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms linking fire-induced cable damage to potentially risk-significant failure modes of power, control, and instrumentation cables. This paper discusses the current status of the circuit analysis task.

LaChance, Jeffrey; Nowlen, Steven P.; Wyant, Frank

1999-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

32

Hanford safety analysis and risk assessment handbook (SARAH)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) is to support the development of safety basis documentation for Hazard Category 1,2, and 3 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. SARAH describes currently acceptable methodology for development of a Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and derivation of technical safety requirements (TSR) based on 10 CFR 830, ''Nuclear Safety Management,'' Subpart B, ''Safety Basis Requirements,'' and provides data to ensure consistency in approach.

GARVIN, L.J.

2003-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

33

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT/REGULATORY IMPACT REVIEW/ FINAL REGULATORY FLEXIBILITY ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT/REGULATORY IMPACT REVIEW/ FINAL REGULATORY FLEXIBILITY ANALYSIS Amendment and Need The purpose of the non-AFA crab sideboard limits was to prevent vessels with crab QS from paper of all GOA sideboards for non-American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels. In April 2007

34

ASSESSMENT OF SEISMIC ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED NPP STRUCTURES.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several of the new generation nuclear power plant designs have structural configurations which are proposed to be deeply embedded. Since current seismic analysis methodologies have been applied to shallow embedded structures (e.g., ASCE 4 suggest that simple formulations may be used to model embedment effect when the depth of embedment is less than 30% of its foundation radius), the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a program at the Brookhaven National Laboratory with the objective of investigating the extent to which procedures acceptable for shallow embedment depths are adequate for larger embedment depths. This paper presents the results of a study comparing the response spectra obtained from two of the more popular analysis methods for structural configurations varying from shallow embedment to complete embedment. A typical safety related structure embedded in a soil profile representative of a typical nuclear power plant site was utilized in the study and the depths of burial (DOB) considered range from 25-100% the height of the structure. Included in the paper are: (1) the description of a simplified analysis and a detailed approach for the SSI analyses of a structure with various DOB, (2) the comparison of the analysis results for the different DOBs between the two methods, and (3) the performance assessment of the analysis methodologies for SSI analyses of deeply embedded structures. The resulting assessment from this study has indicated that simplified methods may be capable of capturing the seismic response for much deeper embedded structures than would be normally allowed by the standard practice.

XU, J.; MILLER, C.; COSTANTINO, C.; HOFMAYER, C. (BNL); GRAVES, H. (US NRC).

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Intergranular degradation assessment via random grain boundary network analysis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed for determining the resistance of polycrystalline materials to intergranular degradation or failure (IGDF), by analyzing the random grain boundary network connectivity (RGBNC) microstructure. Analysis of the disruption of the RGBNC microstructure may be assess the effectiveness of materials processing in increasing IGDF resistance. Comparison of the RGBNC microstructures of materials exposed to extreme operating conditions to unexposed materials may be used to diagnose and predict possible onset of material failure due to

Kumar, Mukul (San Ramon, CA); Schwartz, Adam J. (Pleasanton, CA); King, Wayne E. (San Ramon, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Integrated Molecular Analysis Indicates Undetectable Change in DNA Damage in Mice after Continuous Irradiation at ~ 400-fold Natural Background Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Background: In the event of a nuclear accident, people are exposed to elevated levels of continuous low dose-rate radiation. Nevertheless, most of the literature describes the biological effects of acute radiation.

Olipitz, Werner

37

Assessing the influence of environmental impact assessments on science and policy: An analysis of the Three Gorges Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessing the influence of environmental impact assessments on science and policy: An analysis Keywords: Environmental impact assessment Dams Three Gorges Project Uncertainty Prioritization a b s t r exist between the scientific interest (via number of publications) in environmental impacts and (a

Tullos, Desiree

38

A Monte Carlo based spent fuel analysis safeguards strategy assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Safeguarding nuclear material involves the detection of diversions of significant quantities of nuclear materials, and the deterrence of such diversions by the risk of early detection. There are a variety of motivations for quantifying plutonium in spent fuel assemblies by means of nondestructive assay (NDA) including the following: strengthening the capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agencies ability to safeguards nuclear facilities, shipper/receiver difference, input accountability at reprocessing facilities and burnup credit at repositories. Many NDA techniques exist for measuring signatures from spent fuel; however, no single NDA technique can, in isolation, quantify elemental plutonium and other actinides of interest in spent fuel. A study has been undertaken to determine the best integrated combination of cost effective techniques for quantifying plutonium mass in spent fuel for nuclear safeguards. A standardized assessment process was developed to compare the effective merits and faults of 12 different detection techniques in order to integrate a few techniques and to down-select among the techniques in preparation for experiments. The process involves generating a basis burnup/enrichment/cooling time dependent spent fuel assembly library, creating diversion scenarios, developing detector models and quantifying the capability of each NDA technique. Because hundreds of input and output files must be managed in the couplings of data transitions for the different facets of the assessment process, a graphical user interface (GUI) was development that automates the process. This GUI allows users to visually create diversion scenarios with varied replacement materials, and generate a MCNPX fixed source detector assessment input file. The end result of the assembly library assessment is to select a set of common source terms and diversion scenarios for quantifying the capability of each of the 12 NDA techniques. We present here the generalized assessment process, the techniques employed to automate the coupled facets of the assessment process, and the standard burnup/enrichment/cooling time dependent spent fuel assembly library. We also clearly define the diversion scenarios that will be analyzed during the standardized assessments. Though this study is currently limited to generic PWR assemblies, it is expected that the results of the assessment will yield an adequate spent fuel analysis strategy knowledge that will help the down-select process for other reactor types.

Fensin, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, Nathan P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Calculating Impacts of Energy Standards on Energy Demand in U.S. Buildings under Uncertainty with an Integrated Assessment Model: Technical Background Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents data and assumptions employed in an application of PNNL’s Global Change Assessment Model with a newly-developed Monte Carlo analysis capability. The model is used to analyze the impacts of more aggressive U.S. residential and commercial building-energy codes and equipment standards on energy consumption and energy service costs at the state level, explicitly recognizing uncertainty in technology effectiveness and cost, socioeconomics, presence or absence of carbon prices, and climate impacts on energy demand. The report provides a summary of how residential and commercial buildings are modeled, together with assumptions made for the distributions of state–level population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per worker, efficiency and cost of residential and commercial energy equipment by end use, and efficiency and cost of residential and commercial building shells. The cost and performance of equipment and of building shells are reported separately for current building and equipment efficiency standards and for more aggressive standards. The report also details assumptions concerning future improvements brought about by projected trends in technology.

Scott, Michael J.; Daly, Don S.; Hathaway, John E.; Lansing, Carina S.; Liu, Ying; McJeon, Haewon C.; Moss, Richard H.; Patel, Pralit L.; Peterson, Marty J.; Rice, Jennie S.; Zhou, Yuyu

2014-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

40

Scientific Analysis Is Essential to Assess Biofuel Policy Effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Land-use change (LUC) estimated by economic models has sparked intense international debate. Models estimate how much LUC might be induced under prescribed scenarios and rely on assumptions to generate LUC values. It is critical to test and validate underlying assumptions with empirical evidence. Furthermore, this modeling approach cannot answer if any specific indirect effects are actually caused by biofuel policy. The best way to resolve questions of causation is via scientific methods. Kim and Dale attempt to address the question of if, rather than how much, market-induced land-use change is currently detectable based on the analysis of historic evidence, and in doing so, explore some modeling assumptions behind the drivers of change. Given that there is no accepted approach to estimate the global effects of biofuel policy on land-use change, it is critical to assess the actual effects of policies through careful analysis and interpretation of empirical data. Decision makers need a valid scientific basis for policy decisions on energy choices.

Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; McBride, Allen [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment background analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

The use of an English language assessment test on South African English additional language (EAL) speakers from an indigenous language and cultural background : a critical evaluation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The aim of the study is to provide an in-depth interrogation and critique of the use of language assessment tools on populations from indigenous language… (more)

Mdlalo, Thandeka.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Assessing and Improving the Accuracy of Energy Analysis for Residential Buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) methodology to assess and improve the accuracy of whole-building energy analysis for residential buildings.

Polly, B.; Kruis, N.; Roberts, D.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

LAVA (Los Alamos Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Methodology): A conceptual framework for automated risk analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed an original methodology for performing risk analyses on subject systems characterized by a general set of asset categories, a general spectrum of threats, a definable system-specific set of safeguards protecting the assets from the threats, and a general set of outcomes resulting from threats exploiting weaknesses in the safeguards system. The Los Alamos Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Methodology (LAVA) models complex systems having large amounts of ''soft'' information about both the system itself and occurrences related to the system. Its structure lends itself well to automation on a portable computer, making it possible to analyze numerous similar but geographically separated installations consistently and in as much depth as the subject system warrants. LAVA is based on hierarchical systems theory, event trees, fuzzy sets, natural-language processing, decision theory, and utility theory. LAVA's framework is a hierarchical set of fuzzy event trees that relate the results of several embedded (or sub-) analyses: a vulnerability assessment providing information about the presence and efficacy of system safeguards, a threat analysis providing information about static (background) and dynamic (changing) threat components coupled with an analysis of asset ''attractiveness'' to the dynamic threat, and a consequence analysis providing information about the outcome spectrum's severity measures and impact values. By using LAVA, we have modeled our widely used computer security application as well as LAVA/CS systems for physical protection, transborder data flow, contract awards, and property management. It is presently being applied for modeling risk management in embedded systems, survivability systems, and weapons systems security. LAVA is especially effective in modeling subject systems that include a large human component.

Smith, S.T.; Lim, J.J.; Phillips, J.R.; Tisinger, R.M.; Brown, D.C.; FitzGerald, P.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Combined Fire Hazards Analysis/Assessment, Building 9116- Y12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This assessment/analysis is intended to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the risks from fire and fire related perils in Building 9116 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The assessment/analysis has been prepared in accordance with the criteria listed in DOE Order 5480.7A.

45

Environmental Assessment LEAD TEST ASSEMBLY IRRADIATION AND ANALYSIS  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Administrative Code Watts Bar Nuclear Plant State of Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Environmental Assessment ii July 1997 U . S . Department of Energy Metric...

46

Technical change to the work plan for the remedial investigation of the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi: Sampling and analysis plan background soil and groundwater study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Salmon Site, formerly known as the Tatum Dome Test Site, is located in south-central Mississippi, southwest of the city of Hattiesburg, in Lamar County. Between 1964 and 1970, two nuclear and two non-nuclear gas explosions were conducted deep underground in the Tatum Salt Dome beneath the site. The tests were performed as part of the former US Atomic Energy Commission`s Vela Uniform Program which was conducted to improve the United States` capability to detect underground nuclear explosions. This document details technical changes to the existing work plan for the remedial investigation of the Salmon Site. A previously conducted Remedial Investigation for the Salmon Site involved the preparation of ecological and human health risk assessments. These risk assessments, which are incorporated into the Remedial Investigation Report, identified several constituents of potential concern (COPC) that could potentially have a negative impact on ecological and human health. These COPC are the primary risk drivers for the Salmon Site; they include arsenic and naturally occurring, gamma-emitting radionuclides. If it can be demonstrated that similar concentrations of these COPCs occur naturally in surrounding areas, they can be removed from consideration in the risk assessments. The purpose of this sampling effort is to collect enough data to prove that the COPCs are naturally occurring and are not a result of the explosives testing activities conducted at the site. This will be accomplished by collecting enough soil samples to have a statistically valid population that can be used to produce defensible comparisons that prove the concentrations identified on site are the same as the background concentrations in surrounding areas.

NONE

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The determination of soil background is one of the most important activities supporting environmental restoration and waste management on the Hanford Site. Background compositions serve as the basis for identifying soil contamination, and also as a baseline in risk assessment processes used to determine soil cleanup and treatment levels. These uses of soil background require an understanding of the extent to which analytes of concern occur naturally in the soils. This report documents the results of sampling and analysis activities designed to characterize the composition of soil background at the Hanford Site, and to evaluate the feasibility for use as Sitewide background. The compositions of naturally occurring soils in the vadose Zone have been-determined for-nonradioactive inorganic and organic analytes and related physical properties. These results confirm that a Sitewide approach to the characterization of soil background is technically sound and is a viable alternative to the determination and use of numerous local or area backgrounds that yield inconsistent definitions of contamination. Sitewide soil background consists of several types of data and is appropriate for use in identifying contamination in all soils in the vadose zone on the Hanford Site. The natural concentrations of nearly every inorganic analyte extend to levels that exceed calculated health-based cleanup limits. The levels of most inorganic analytes, however, are well below these health-based limits. The highest measured background concentrations occur in three volumetrically minor soil types, the most important of which are topsoils adjacent to the Columbia River that are rich in organic carbon. No organic analyte levels above detection were found in any of the soil samples.

Not Available

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

AC system stability analysis and assessment for Shipboard Power Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

due to reconfiguration might cause voltage instability, such as progressive voltage decreases or voltage oscillations. SPS stability thus should be assessed to ensure the stable operation of a system during reconfiguration. In this dissertation, time...

Qi, Li

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

49

Radiological assessment. A textbook on environmental dose analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radiological assessment is the quantitative process of estimating the consequences to humans resulting from the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. It is a multidisciplinary subject requiring the expertise of a number of individuals in order to predict source terms, describe environmental transport, calculate internal and external dose, and extrapolate dose to health effects. Up to this time there has been available no comprehensive book describing, on a uniform and comprehensive level, the techniques and models used in radiological assessment. Radiological Assessment is based on material presented at the 1980 Health Physics Society Summer School held in Seattle, Washington. The material has been expanded and edited to make it comprehensive in scope and useful as a text. Topics covered include (1) source terms for nuclear facilities and Medical and Industrial sites; (2) transport of radionuclides in the atmosphere; (3) transport of radionuclides in surface waters; (4) transport of radionuclides in groundwater; (5) terrestrial and aquatic food chain pathways; (6) reference man; a system for internal dose calculations; (7) internal dosimetry; (8) external dosimetry; (9) models for special-case radionuclides; (10) calculation of health effects in irradiated populations; (11) evaluation of uncertainties in environmental radiological assessment models; (12) regulatory standards for environmental releases of radionuclides; (13) development of computer codes for radiological assessment; and (14) assessment of accidental releases of radionuclides.

Till, J.E.; Meyer, H.R. (eds.)

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

A Key Review On Exergetic Analysis And Assessment Of Renewable...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

thermodynamic parameters, such as fuel depletion ratio, relative irreversibility, productivity lack and exergetic factor) used in the analysis are presented first. Next,...

51

Technology assessment and market analysis of solid state ultracapacitors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This report provides quantitative analysis of Solid State Ultracapacitors (SSUs) from technological and financial perspectives. SSUs are Ultracapacitors with solid electrolytes predicted to have huge application potential ...

Jiang, Zibo

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

An Image Analysis System for the Assessment of Retinal Microcirculation in Hypertension and Its Clinical Evaluation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Image Analysis System for the Assessment of Retinal Microcirculation in Hypertension and Its, Greece Abstract-- A system for the assessment of hypertension through the measurement of retinal vessels worldwide [4]. Hypertension (high blood pressure) is one of the most important, highly prevalent

Markatos, Evangelos P.

53

Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining at Kraft Pulp and Paper Mills in the United States, Part A: Background and Assumptions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Commercialization of black liquor and biomass gasification technologies is anticipated in the 2010-2015 time frame, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are already commercially established in the gas-to-liquids or coal-to-liquids industries. This set of two papers describes key results from a major assessment of the prospective energy, environmental, and financial performance of commercial gasification-based biorefineries integrated with kraft pulp and paper mills [1]. Seven detailed biorefinery designs were developed for a reference mill in the southeastern United States, together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which could be refined to vehicle fuels at an existing petroleum refinery), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or propane substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. This paper describes the key assumptions that underlie the biorefinery designs. Part B will present analytical results.

Larson, E. D.; Consonni, S.; Katofsky, R. E.; Iisa, K.; Frederick, W. J., Jr.

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incineration facility (East Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 8. Additional analysis in response to peer review recommendations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contents: Introduction; Combustion Engineering; Air Dispersion and Deposition Modeling; Accident Analysis; Exposure Assessment; Toxicology; and Ecological Risk Assessment.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incineration facility (East Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 1. Executive summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contents: Introduction and Summary of Results; Facility Background; Facility Emissions; Atmospheric Dispersion and Deposition Modeling of Emissions; Human Health Risk Assessment; Screening Ecological Risk Assessment; Accident Analysis; Additional Analysis in Response to Peer Review Recommendations; References.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Risk Analysis and Probabilistic Survivability Assessment (RAPSA): An Assessment Approach for Power Substation Hardening1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Substation Hardening1 Carol Taylor, Axel Krings and Jim Alves-Foss Computer Science Department University is currently being developed for power industry cyber security assessment and hardening. A substation example is presented, with hypothetical risks and costs from several attack scenarios. Our technique features self

Krings, Axel W.

57

Evaluation of safety assessment methodologies in Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide (1985) and Building 707 Final Safety Analysis Report (1987)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

FSARs. Rockwell International, as operating contractor at the Rocky Flats plant, conducted a safety analysis program during the 1980s. That effort resulted in Final Safety Analysis Reports (FSARs) for several buildings, one of them being the Building 707 Final Safety Analysis Report, June 87 (707FSAR) and a Plant Safety Analysis Report. Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide, March 1985 (RFRAG85) documents the methodologies that were used for those FSARs. Resources available for preparation of those Rocky Flats FSARs were very limited. After addressing the more pressing safety issues, some of which are described below, the present contractor (EG&G) intends to conduct a program of upgrading the FSARs. This report presents the results of a review of the methodologies described in RFRAG85 and 707FSAR and contains suggestions that might be incorporated into the methodology for the FSAR upgrade effort.

Walsh, B.; Fisher, C.; Zigler, G.; Clark, R.A. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1990-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

58

Multi Criteria Analysis for bioenergy systems assessments Thomas Buchholz a,, Ewald Rametsteiner b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multi Criteria Analysis for bioenergy systems assessments Thomas Buchholz a,Ã?, Ewald Rametsteiner b Available online 11 November 2008 Keywords: Multi Criteria Analysis Bioenergy Sustainability a b s t r a c t Sustainable bioenergy systems are, by definition, embedded in social, economic, and environmental contexts

Vermont, University of

59

Durability Assessment of an Arch Dam using Inverse Analysis with Neural Networks and High Performance Computing.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the viscoelastic parameters; 3D FEM analysis using High Performance Computing (parallel and vector features) to run Performance Computing. E. M. R. Fairbairn, E. Goulart, A. L. G. A. Coutinho, N. F. F. Ebecken COPPEDurability Assessment of an Arch Dam using Inverse Analysis with Neural Networks and High

Coutinho, Alvaro L. G. A.

60

Socio-economic analysis: a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Socio-economic analysis: a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies Jean-Marc Brignon the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation important asset of SEA regarding nanomaterials, is the comparison with alternatives in socio-economic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment background analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VIII - Risk Assessment Documentation Package  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Volume VIII of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the risk assessment documentation. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

None

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

National Climate Assessment Indicators: Background, Development, & Examples  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Indicators are usually thought of as measurements or calculations that represent important features of the status, trend, or performance of a system of interest (e.g. the economy, agriculture, air quality). They are often used for the most practical of reasons – one cannot measure everything important about systems of interest, so there is a practical need to identify major features that can be reported periodically and used to guide both research and decisions (NRC 2000).

Janetos, Anthony C.; Chen, Robert; Arndt, Deke; Kenney, Melissa A.; Abbasi, Daniel; Armstrong, Tom; Bartuska, Ann; Blair, Maria; Buizer, Jim; Dietz, Tom; Easterling, Dave; Kaye, Jack; Kolian, Michael; McGeehin, Michael; O'Connor, Robert; Pulwarty, Roger; Running, Steve; Schmalensee, Dick; Webb, Robert; Weltzin, Jake; Baptista, Sandra; Enquist, Carolyn A.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Chen, Robert; Arndt, Deke; Hatfield, Jerry; Hayes, Mark L.; Jones, K. Burce; McNutt, Chad; Meier, Wayne R.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Svoboda, Mark

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

63

Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis in Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic (deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. This development has been supported by a sequence of performance assessments (PAs) carried out by Sandla National Laboratories (SNL) to assess what is known about the WIPP and to provide .tidance for future DOE research and development activities. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis procedures based on Latin hypercube sampling and regression techniques play an important role in these PAs by providing an assessment of the uncertainty in important analysis outcomes and identi~ing the sources of thk uncertainty. Performance assessments for the WIPP are conceptually and computational] y interesting due to regulatory requirements to assess and display the effects of both stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty, where stochastic uncertainty arises from the possible disruptions that could occur over the 10,000 yr regulatory period associated with the WIPP and subjective uncertainty arises from an inability to unambi-aously characterize the many models and associated parameters required in a PA for the WIPP. The interplay between uncertainty analysis, sensitivity analysis, stochastic uncertainty and subjective uncertainty are discussed and illustrated in the context of a recent PA carried out by SNL to support an application by the DOE to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the certification of the WIPP for the disposal of TRU waste.

Helton, J.C.

1998-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

64

Prioritizing JUnit Test Cases: An Empirical Assessment and Cost-Benefits Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Prioritizing JUnit Test Cases: An Empirical Assessment and Cost-Benefits Analysis Hyunsook Do - Lincoln {dohy,grother,akinneer}@cse.unl.edu August 2, 2005 Abstract Test case prioritization provides a way to run test cases with the highest priority earliest. Numerous empirical studies have shown

Rothermel, Gregg

65

Environmental Assessment/Regulatory Impact Review/Final Regulatory Flexibility Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental Assessment/Regulatory Impact Review/Final Regulatory Flexibility Analysis (EA . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.0 NEPA REQUIREMENTS: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE ALTERNATIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.1 Environmental Impacts of the Alternatives . . . . . 15 2.2 Whale watching activity in Alaska

66

Multi observation PET image analysis for patient follow-up quantitation and therapy assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Multi observation PET image analysis for patient follow-up quantitation and therapy assessment S Institut Telecom - Telecom Bretagne, Brest, F-29200 France. Abstract. In Positron Emission Tomography (PET-quantitative parameters restricted to maximum SUV measured in PET scans during the treatment. Such measurements do

Brest, Université de

67

Assessment of Climate Change Effect to Regional and Global Biodiversity: a MetaAnalysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessment of Climate Change Effect to Regional and Global Biodiversity: a Meta­Analysis Talk given on biodiversity main- tenance in regional ecosystems. Based on works by Hans van Houwelingen and colleagues, we. The effect of this change on biodiversity has been widely discussed where peer-review publications have

Breuer, Florian

68

Comparative analysis of spectra of the background of the proportional counter filled with Kr, enriched in Kr-78, and with Kr of natural content  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The results of the experiment searching for 2K-capture with large low-background proportional counter are presented. The comparison of spectra of the background of the proportional counter filled with Kr enriched in $^{78}$Kr (8400 hr) and with natural Kr (3039 hr) is given. A new limit on the half-life of $^{78}$Kr with regard to 2K-capture, T$_{1/2}\\geq2.0\\cdot10^{21}$ yrs (95% C.L.) has been obtained.

Yu. M. Gavriljuk; V. N. Gavrin; A. M. Gangapshev; V. V. Kazalov; V. V. Kuzminov; S. I. Panasenko; S. S. Ratkevich

2007-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

69

-Successful Integration of Life Cycle Assessment in to Civil Engineering Course -CIVL 498C Life Cycle Analysis of UBC Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to teaching the science-based environmental impact assessment method of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA). Through, through being capable of; · Completing a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study in accordance with ISO 14040- Successful Integration of Life Cycle Assessment in to Civil Engineering Course - CIVL 498C Life

70

The Cosmic Background Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We summarise the current status of cosmic microwave background spectrum and anisotropy measurements, and their theoretical interpretation. This is the update of the mini-review for the 1997 web-version of the Review of Particle Properties.

George Smoot; Douglas Scott

1997-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

71

Combined Fire Hazards Analysis/Assessment, Building 9203 & 9203A Complex- Y12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This assessment/analysis is intended to provide a comprehensive assessment of the risks from fire and fire related perils in the Building 9203 and 9203A Complex at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The analysis has been prepared in accordance with the criteria listed in DOE Order 5480.7A.

72

Approach to proliferation risk assessment based on multiple objective analysis framework  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The approach to the assessment of proliferation risk using the methods of multi-criteria decision making and multi-objective optimization is presented. The approach allows the taking into account of the specifics features of the national nuclear infrastructure, and possible proliferation strategies (motivations, intentions, and capabilities). 3 examples of applying the approach are shown. First, the approach has been used to evaluate the attractiveness of HEU (high enriched uranium)production scenarios at a clandestine enrichment facility using centrifuge enrichment technology. Secondly, the approach has been applied to assess the attractiveness of scenarios for undeclared production of plutonium or HEU by theft of materials circulating in nuclear fuel cycle facilities and thermal reactors. Thirdly, the approach has been used to perform a comparative analysis of the structures of developing nuclear power systems based on different types of nuclear fuel cycles, the analysis being based on indicators of proliferation risk.

Andrianov, A.; Kuptsov, I. [Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering of NNRU MEPhI (Russian Federation); Studgorodok 1, Obninsk, Kaluga region, 249030 (Russian Federation)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

EBSD Images Theoretical Background  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Motivation EBSD Images Theoretical Background Defects in the Weld Grain Growth Low Speed Welding High Speed Welding Conclusion Heat-Affected Zone Observations Welding Experiments The low density in the transportation industries. Reproducibility and the low cost make welding a major large scale assembly process

Candea, George

74

Local microwave background radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

Domingos Soares

2014-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

75

David Smith Academic background  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

David Smith Academic background Ph.D. in Mathematics (Algebra), Université de Sherbrooke, Canada project program (I. Assem, F. Bergeron, C. Reutenauer, D. Smith) $132,000 ($44,000 per year for 3 years. Schiffler and D. Smith, Friezes, strings and cluster variables, to appear in Glasgow Mathematcal Journal. 2

76

Annual Performance Assessment and Composite Analysis Review for the ICDF Landfill FY 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report addresses low-level waste disposal operations at the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) landfill from the start of operations in Fiscal Year 2003 through Fiscal Year 2008. The ICDF was authorized in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision for disposal of waste from the Idaho National Laboratory Site CERCLA environmental restoration activities. The ICDF has been operating since 2003 in compliance with the CERCLA requirements and the waste acceptance criteria developed in the CERCLA process. In developing the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision, U.S. Department of Energy Order (DOE) 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management', was identified as a 'to be considered' requirement for the ICDF. The annual review requirement under DOE Order 435.1 was determined to be an administrative requirement and, therefore, annual reviews were not prepared on an annual basis. However, the landfill has been operating for 5 years and, since the waste forms and inventories disposed of have changed from what was originally envisioned for the ICDF landfill, the ICDF project team has decided that this annual review is necessary to document the changes and provide a basis for any updates in analyses that may be necessary to continue to meet the substantive requirements of DOE Order 435.1. For facilities regulated under DOE Order 435.1-1, U.S. DOE Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management', IV.P.(4)(c) stipulates that annual summaries of low-level waste disposal operations shall be prepared with respect to the conclusions and recommendations of the performance assessment and composite analysis. Important factors considered in this review include facility operations, waste receipts, and results from monitoring and research and development programs. There have been no significant changes in operations at the landfill in respect to the disposal geometry, the verification of waste characteristics, and the tracking of inventories against total limits that would affect the results and conclusions of the performance assessment. Waste receipts to date and projected waste receipts through Fiscal Year 2012 are both greater than the inventory assessed in the performance assessment and composite analysis. The waste forms disposed of to the landfill are different from the waste form (compacted soil) assessed in the performance assessment. The leak detection system and groundwater monitoring results indicate the landfill has not leaked. The results of the performance assessment/composite analysis are valid (i.e., there is still a reasonable expectation of meeting performance objectives) but the new information indicates less conservatism in the results than previously believed.

Karen Koslow

2009-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

77

A Comparative Assessment of Malware Classification using Binary Texture Analysis and Dynamic Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.ucsb.edu Vinod Yegneswaran SRI International Menlo Park, USA vinod@csl.sri.com Phillip Porras SRI International features. Further, feature extraction requires a time investment per binary that does not scale well and efficient complement to dynamic analysis. Categories and Subject Descriptors D.4.6 [Security and Protection

California at Santa Barbara, University of

78

ARM - Methane Background Information  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearchWarmingMethane Background Information Outreach Home Room News

79

Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 1: Main report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume is the first of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the European Commission to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This document reports on an ongoing project to assess uncertainty in the MACCS and COSYMA calculations for the offsite consequences of radionuclide releases by hypothetical nuclear power plant accidents. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain variables that affect calculations of offsite consequences. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. Other panels were formed to consider uncertainty in other aspects of the codes. Their results are described in companion reports. Volume 1 contains background information and a complete description of the joint consequence uncertainty study. Volume 2 contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures for both panels, (3) the rationales and results for the panels on soil and plant transfer and animal transfer, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

Brown, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)] [and others

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Comparative analysis of the life cycle impact assessment of available cement inventories in the EU  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is one of basic steps in life cycle assessment methodology (LCA). This paper presents a comparative study of the LCIA of different life cycle inventories (LCI) for EU cements. The analysis unit used is the manufacture of 1 kg of cement, from 'cradle to gate'. The impact categories considered are those resulting from the manufacture of cement and include greenhouse effects, acidification, eutrophication and summer and winter smog, amongst others. The results of the study highlighted some inconsistencies in existing inventories. As for the LCIA, the main environmental interventions related to cement manufacture were classified and characterised and their effect on different impact categories analysed. Differences observed in evaluation of the impact of cement type were essentially related to their clinker content.

Josa, Alejandro [Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), School of Civil Engineering (ETSECCPB), C/Jordi Girona 1-3 Modul D2/C1, Barcelona 08034 (Spain)]. E-mail: alejandro.josa@upc.edu; Aguado, Antonio [Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), School of Civil Engineering (ETSECCPB), C/Jordi Girona 1-3 Modul D2/C1, Barcelona 08034 (Spain); Cardim, Arnaldo [Civil Engineering Department, Polytechnic School of Penambuco University, Rua Benfica, 455-Madalena, CEP 50.750-410 (Brazil); Byars, Ewan [Centre for Cement and Concrete, Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sir Frederick Mappin Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment background analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Proteome Profiling for Assessing Diversity: Analysis of Individual Heads of Drosophila melanogaster Using LC-Ion Mobility-MS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proteome Profiling for Assessing Diversity: Analysis of Individual Heads of Drosophila melanogaster dimensions of condensed-phase separations with mass spec- trometry (MS).4 In this approach, mass-to-charge (m-speed, gas-phase sep

Clemmer, David E.

82

LTS Background - Hanford Site  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickrinformationPostdocs space control News & EventsModelingBackground

83

OVERVIEW ON BNL ASSESSMENT OF SEISMIC ANALYSIS METHODS FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED NPP STRUCTURES.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under the sponsorship of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), to determine the applicability of established soil-structure interaction analysis methods and computer programs to deeply embedded and/or buried (DEB) nuclear power plant (NPP) structures. This paper provides an overview of the BNL study including a description and discussions of analyses performed to assess relative performance of various SSI analysis methods typically applied to NPP structures, as well as the importance of interface modeling for DEB structures. There are four main elements contained in the BNL study: (1) Review and evaluation of existing seismic design practice, (2) Assessment of simplified vs. detailed methods for SSI in-structure response spectrum analysis of DEB structures, (3) Assessment of methods for computing seismic induced earth pressures on DEB structures, and (4) Development of the criteria for benchmark problems which could be used for validating computer programs for computing seismic responses of DEB NPP structures. The BNL study concluded that the equivalent linear SSI methods, including both simplified and detailed approaches, can be extended to DEB structures and produce acceptable SSI response calculations, provided that the SSI response induced by the ground motion is very much within the linear regime or the non-linear effect is not anticipated to control the SSI response parameters. The BNL study also revealed that the response calculation is sensitive to the modeling assumptions made for the soil/structure interface and application of a particular material model for the soil.

XU,J.; COSTANTINO, C.; HOFMAYER, C.; GRAVES, H.

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Semantic Pattern Analysis for Verbal Fluency Based Assessment of Neurological Disorders  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we present preliminary results of semantic pattern analysis of verbal fluency tests used for assessing cognitive psychological and neuropsychological disorders. We posit that recent advances in semantic reasoning and artificial intelligence can be combined to create a standardized computer-aided diagnosis tool to automatically evaluate and interpret verbal fluency tests. Towards that goal, we derive novel semantic similarity (phonetic, phonemic and conceptual) metrics and present the predictive capability of these metrics on a de-identified dataset of participants with and without neurological disorders.

Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL] [ORNL; Ainsworth, Keela C [ORNL] [ORNL; Brown, Tyler C [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Method of assessing a lipid-related health risk based on ion mobility analysis of lipoproteins  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A medical diagnostic method and instrumentation system for analyzing noncovalently bonded agglomerated biological particles is described. The method and system comprises: a method of preparation for the biological particles; an electrospray generator; an alpha particle radiation source; a differential mobility analyzer; a particle counter; and data acquisition and analysis means. The medical device is useful for the assessment of human diseases, such as cardiac disease risk and hyperlipidemia, by rapid quantitative analysis of lipoprotein fraction densities. Initially, purification procedures are described to reduce an initial blood sample to an analytical input to the instrument. The measured sizes from the analytical sample are correlated with densities, resulting in a spectrum of lipoprotein densities. The lipoprotein density distribution can then be used to characterize cardiac and other lipid-related health risks.

Benner, W. Henry (Danville, CA); Krauss, Ronald M. (Berkeley, CA); Blanche, Patricia J. (Berkeley, CA)

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

86

[Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993]. Selected topics in risk analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is becoming increasingly clear that human health is intricately related to our chemical and physical surroundings. Recognizing the interdependence between health and environment, the Medical University of South Carolina has begun to implement a graduate program in Environmental Risk Assessment. While the infrastructure for such a program had been in place for quite a while, providing education in biostatistics, epidemiology, and mathematical modeling, specific courses in risk assessment were not available. To expedite the educational process in this area, the Department of Biometry and Epidemiology offered the course Special Topics in Risk Analysis in the Spring semester of 1993. This course was intended as an introduction for graduate students, but one faculty and one postdoctoral fellow also enrolled. The course was organized in the form of a seminar, with students or faculty presenting selected materials from the literature that covered some of the central issues in risk analysis. The presentations were subsequently written up as reports and revised according to suggestions by the instructor. This technical report comprises the presentations and reflects what has been learned in the course Special Topics in Risk Analysis. It also may serve as an easy to read introduction to the complex area of risk analysis. By the very nature of the course and this report, most of the presented material is not original. It does not necessarily reflect the authors` or the editor`s opinion and is not intended for citation. Nonetheless, the students and the instructor have paid attention to citing relevant literature in order to enable the reader to trace ideas back to the original sources. As an Appendix, this volume contains the course syllabus as well as hand-out material that the students prepared independently and that has not been edited or revised.

Voit, E.O. [ed.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Review and analysis of parameters for assessing transport of environmentally released radionuclides through agriculture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most of the default parameters incorporated into the TERRA computer code are documented including a literature review and systematic analysis of element-specific transfer parameters B/sub v/, B/sub r/, F/sub m/, F/sub f/, and K/sub d/. This review and analysis suggests default values which are consistent with the modeling approaches taken in TERRA and may be acceptable for most assessment applications of the computer code. However, particular applications of the code and additional analysis of elemental transport may require alternative default values. Use of the values reported herein in other computer codes simulating terrestrial transport is not advised without careful interpretation of the limitations and scope these analyses. An approach to determination of vegetation-specific interception fractions is also discussed. The limitations of this approach are many, and its use indicates the need for analysis of deposition, interception, and weathering processes. Judgement must be exercised in interpretation of plant surface concentrations generated. Finally, the location-specific agricultural, climatological, and population parameters in the default SITE data base documented. These parameters are intended as alternatives to average values currently used. Indeed, areas in the United States where intensive crop, milk, or beef production occurs will be reflected in the parameter values as will areas where little agricultural activity occurs. However, the original information sources contained some small error and the interpolation and conversion methods used will add more. Parameters used in TERRA not discussed herein are discussed in the companion report to this one - ORNL-5785. In the companion report the models employed in and the coding of TERRA are discussed. These reports together provide documentation of the TERRA code and its use in assessments. 96 references, 78 figures, 21 tables.

Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Shor, R.W.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incinerator facility (east Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 7. Accident analysis: Selection and assessment of potential release scenarios. Draft report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report constitutes a comprehensive site-specific risk assessment for the WTI incineration facility located in East Liverpool, OH. The Accident Analysis is an evaluation of the likelihood of occurrence and resulting consequences from several general classes of accidents that could potentially occur during operation of the facility. The Accident Analysis also evaluates the effectiveness of existing mitigation measures in reducing off-site impacts. Volume VII describes in detail the methods used to conduct the Accident Analysis and reports the results of evaluations of likelihood and consequence for the selected accident scenarios.

NONE

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy is our richest source of cosmological information; the standard cosmological model was largely established thanks to study of the temperature anisotropies. By the end of the decade, the Planck satellite will close this important chapter and move us deeper into the new frontier of polarization measurements. Numerous ground--based and balloon--borne experiments are already forging into this new territory. Besides providing new and independent information on the primordial density perturbations and cosmological parameters, polarization measurements offer the potential to detect primordial gravity waves, constrain dark energy and measure the neutrino mass scale. A vigorous experimental program is underway worldwide and heading towards a new satellite mission dedicated to CMB polarization.

James G. Bartlett

2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

90

Applications of life cycle assessment and cost analysis in health care waste management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three Health Care Waste (HCW) scenarios were assessed through environmental and cost analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HCW treatment using microwave oven had the lowest environmental impacts and costs in comparison with autoclave and lime. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lime had the worst environmental and economic results for HCW treatment, in comparison with autoclave and microwave. - Abstract: The establishment of rules to manage Health Care Waste (HCW) is a challenge for the public sector. Regulatory agencies must ensure the safety of waste management alternatives for two very different profiles of generators: (1) hospitals, which concentrate the production of HCW and (2) small establishments, such as clinics, pharmacies and other sources, that generate dispersed quantities of HCW and are scattered throughout the city. To assist in developing sector regulations for the small generators, we evaluated three management scenarios using decision-making tools. They consisted of a disinfection technique (microwave, autoclave and lime) followed by landfilling, where transportation was also included. The microwave, autoclave and lime techniques were tested at the laboratory to establish the operating parameters to ensure their efficiency in disinfection. Using a life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis, the decision-making tools aimed to determine the technique with the best environmental performance. This consisted of evaluating the eco-efficiency of each scenario. Based on the life cycle assessment, microwaving had the lowest environmental impact (12.64 Pt) followed by autoclaving (48.46 Pt). The cost analyses indicated values of US$ 0.12 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated with microwaves, US$ 1.10 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated by the autoclave and US$ 1.53 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated with lime. The microwave disinfection presented the best eco-efficiency performance among those studied and provided a feasible alternative to subsidize the formulation of the policy for small generators of HCW.

Soares, Sebastiao Roberto, E-mail: soares@ens.ufsc.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Finotti, Alexandra Rodrigues, E-mail: finotti@ens.ufsc.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Prudencio da Silva, Vamilson, E-mail: vamilson@epagri.sc.gov.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); EPAGRI, Rod. Admar Gonzaga 1347, Itacorubi, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina 88034-901 (Brazil); Alvarenga, Rodrigo A.F., E-mail: alvarenga.raf@gmail.com [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Ghent University, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, Coupure Links 653/9000 Gent (Belgium)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

91

A 10-year content analysis to assess research theme areas in agricultural education: gap analysis of future research priorities in the discipline.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A 10?YEAR CONTENT ANALYSIS TO ASSESS RESEARCH THEME AREAS IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION: GAP ANALYSIS OF FUTURE RESEARCH PRIORITIES IN THE DISCIPLINE A Dissertation by LESLIE DAWN JENKINS EDGAR Submitted to the Office of Graduate... IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION: GAP ANALYSIS OF FUTURE RESEARCH PRIORITIES IN THE DISCIPLINE A Dissertation by LESLIE DAWN JENKINS EDGAR Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

Edgar, Leslie Dawn

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

92

Economic analysis and assessment of syngas production using a modeling approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Economic analysis and modeling are essential and important issues for the development of current feedstock and process technology for bio-gasification. The objective of this study was to develop an economic model and apply to predict the unit cost of syngas production from a micro-scale bio-gasification facility. An economic model was programmed in C++ computer programming language and developed using a parametric cost approach, which included processes to calculate the total capital costs and the total operating costs. The model used measured economic data from the bio-gasification facility at Mississippi State University. The modeling results showed that the unit cost of syngas production was $1.217 for a 60 Nm-3 h-1 capacity bio-gasifier. The operating cost was the major part of the total production cost. The equipment purchase cost and the labor cost were the largest part of the total capital cost and the total operating cost, respectively. Sensitivity analysis indicated that labor costs rank the top as followed by equipment cost, loan life, feedstock cost, interest rate, utility cost, and waste treatment cost. The unit cost of syngas production increased with the increase of all parameters with exception of loan life. The annual cost regarding equipment, labor, feedstock, waste treatment, and utility cost showed a linear relationship with percent changes, while loan life and annual interest rate showed a non-linear relationship. This study provides the useful information for economic analysis and assessment of the syngas production using a modeling approach.

Kim, Hakkwan; Parajuli, Prem B.; Yu, Fei; Columbus, Eugene P.

2011-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

93

Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The social cost of carbon (SCC) is a monetized metric for evaluating the benefits associated with marginal reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. It represents the expected welfare loss from the future damages caused by the release of one tonne of CO2 in a given year, expressed in consumption equivalent terms. It is intended to be a comprehensive measure, taking into account changes in agricultural productivity, human health risks, loss of ecosystem services and biodiversity, and the frequency and severity of flooding and storms, among other possible impacts. Estimating the SCC requires long-term modeling of global economic activity, the climate system, and the linkages between the two through anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the effects of changing climatic conditions on economic activity and human well-being. The United States government currently uses the SCC in regulatory benefit-cost analyses to assess the welfare effects of changes in CO2 emissions. Consistent application of the SCC to federal rulemaking analyses began in 2009-2010 with the development of a set of global SCC estimates that employed three prominent integrated assessment models (IAMs) -- DICE, FUND, and PAGE. The U.S. government report identified a number of limitations associated with SCC estimates in general and its own assumptions in particular: an incomplete treatment of damages, including potential “catastrophic” impacts; uncertainty regarding the extrapolation of damage functions to high temperatures; incomplete treatment of adaptation and technological change; and the evaluation of uncertain outcomes in a risk-neutral fashion. External experts have identified other potential issues, including how best to model long-term socio-economic and emissions pathways, oversimplified physical climate and carbon cycle modeling within the IAMs, and an inconsistency between non-constant economic growth scenarios and constant discount rates. The U.S. government has committed to updating the estimates regularly as modeling capabilities and scientific and economic knowledge improves. To help foster further improvements in estimating the SCC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy hosted a pair of workshops on “Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis.” The first focused on conceptual and methodological issues related to integrated assessment modeling and the second brought together natural and social scientists to explore methods for improving damage assessment for multiple sectors. These two workshops provide the basis for the 13 papers in this special issue.

Marten, Alex; Kopp, Robert E.; Shouse, Kate C.; Griffiths, Charles; Hodson, Elke L.; Kopits, Elizabeth; Mignone, Bryan K.; Moore, Chris; Newbold, Steve; Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Wolverton, Ann

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Assessment of TEES reg sign applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

DECISION ANALYSIS AND TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENTS FOR METAL AND MASONRY DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a comparative analysis of innovative technologies for the non-aggressive removal of coatings from metal and masonry surfaces and the aggressive removal of one-quarter to one-inch thickness of surface from structural masonry. The technologies tested should be capable of being used in nuclear facilities. Innovative decontamination technologies are being evaluated under standard, non-nuclear conditions at the FIU-HCET technology assessment site in Miami, Florida. This study is being performed to support the OST, the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) Focus Area, and the environmental restoration of DOE facilities throughout the DOE complex by providing objective evaluations of currently available decontamination technologies.

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Radiological Assessment System for Consequence Analysis (RASCAL) Version 3.0  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Radiological Assessment System for Consequence AnaLysis, Version 3.0 (RASCAL 3.0) is the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission?s (NRC) main computational tool for use during radiological emergencies. RASCAL estimates doses from radiological accidents for comparison with Protective Action Guides and acute health effects thresholds. It includes six computational tools: ST-Dose, FM-Dose, Decay, BackCalc, UF6Plume, and MetProc. ST-Dose computes time-dependent nuclide release rates, atmospheric transport, radiological decay, and doses. FM-Dose computes doses from environmental concentrations of nuclides. Decay computes radiological decay and daughter in-growth. BackCalc estimates a distribution of possible release rates from field measurements. UF6Plume computes uranium exposures and HF concentrations from a UF6 release. MetProc prepares meteorological data for use by ST-Dose and UF6Plume.

Athey, G.F.; Fosmire, C.; Mohseni, A.; Ramsdell, J.V., Jr.; Sjoreen, A.

1999-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

97

Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis Project, 1987-1997 Project Review.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis Project (Bonneville Power Administration Project 87-401) monitored attributes of salmonid smolt physiology in the Columbia and Snake River basins from 1987 to 1997, under the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program, in cooperation with the Smolt Monitoring Program of the Fish Passage Center. The primary goal of the project was to investigate the physiological development of juvenile salmonids related to migration rates. The assumption was made that the level of smolt development, interacting with environmental factos such as flow, would be reflected in travel times. The Fish Passage Center applied the physiological measurements of smolt condition to Water Budget management, to regulate flows so as to decrease travel time and increase survival.

Schrock, Robin M.; Hans, Karen M.; Beeman, John W. [US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Assessment of thermal analysis software for the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This assessment uses several recent assessments and the more general code compilations that have been completed to produce a list of 116 codes that can be used for thermal analysis. This list is then compared with criteria prepared especially for the Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (DOE/OCRWM). Based on these criteria, fifteen codes are narrowed to three primary codes and four secondary codes for use by the OCRWM thermal analyst. The analyst is cautioned that since no single code is sufficient for all applications, a code must be selected based upon the predominate heat transfer mode of the problem to be solved, but the codes suggested in this report have been used successfully for a range of OCRWM applications. The report concludes with a series of recommendations for additional work of which the major points include the following: The codes suggested by this report must be benchmarked with the existing US and international problems and validated when possible; An interactive code selection tool could be developed or, perhaps even more useful, a users group could be supported to ensure the proper selection of thermal codes and dissemination of information on the latest version; The status of the 116 codes identified by this report should be verified, and methods for maintaining the still active codes must be established; and special capabilities of each code in phase change, convection and radiation should be improved to better enable the thermal analyst to model OCRWM applications. 37 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

Williams, P.T.; Graham, R.F.; Lagerberg, G.N.; Chung, T.C.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

accelerator related backgrounds: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the first years... Drozhdin, A I; Mokhov, N V 1996-01-01 2 Cosmic acceleration without dark energy: Background tests and thermodynamic analysis General Relativity & Quantum...

100

Performance Assessment Uncertainty Analysis for Japan's HLW Program Feasibility Study (H12)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most HLW programs in the world recognize that any estimate of long-term radiological performance must be couched in terms of the uncertainties derived from natural variation, changes through time and lack of knowledge about the essential processes. The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute followed a relatively standard procedure to address two major categories of uncertainty. First, a FEatures, Events and Processes (FEPs) listing, screening and grouping activity was pursued in order to define the range of uncertainty in system processes as well as possible variations in engineering design. A reference and many alternative cases representing various groups of FEPs were defined and individual numerical simulations performed for each to quantify the range of conceptual uncertainty. Second, parameter distributions were developed for the reference case to represent the uncertainty in the strength of these processes, the sequencing of activities and geometric variations. Both point estimates using high and low values for individual parameters as well as a probabilistic analysis were performed to estimate parameter uncertainty. A brief description of the conceptual model uncertainty analysis is presented. This paper focuses on presenting the details of the probabilistic parameter uncertainty assessment.

BABA,T.; ISHIGURO,K.; ISHIHARA,Y.; SAWADA,A.; UMEKI,H.; WAKASUGI,K.; WEBB,ERIK K.

1999-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment background analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our findings and APICD Gen II subsystems for automated collection, deposition and detection of ambient particulate matter. Key findings from the APTA Program include: Ambient biological PM taxonomy; Demonstration of key subsystems needed for autonomous bioaerosol detection; System design; Efficient electrostatic collection; Automated bioagent recognition; Raman analysis performance validating Td<9 sec; Efficient collection surface regeneration; and Development of a quantitative bioaerosol defection model. The objective of the APTA program was to advance the state of our knowledge of ambient background PM composition. Operation of an automated aerosol detection system was enhanced by a more accurate assessment of background variability, especially for sensitive and specific sensing strategies like Raman detection that are background-limited in performance. Based on this improved knowledge of background, the overall threat detection performance of Raman sensors was improved.

Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

102

Preliminary Analysis of Grande Ronde Basalt Formation Flow Top Transmissivity as it Relates to Assessment and Site Selection Applications for Fluid/Energy Storage and Sequestration Projects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preliminary Analysis of Grande Ronde Basalt Formation Flow Top Transmissivity as it Relates to Assessment and Site Selection Applications for Fluid/Energy Storage and Sequestration Projects

Spane, Frank A.

2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

103

Cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis, a non-destructive technique for hydrogen level assessment in zirconium alloys  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

embrittlement by decreasing overall corrosion and/or by decreasing the amount of hydrogen ingress for a givenCold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis, a non-destructive technique for hydrogen level to quantitatively assess hydrogen concentration in zirconium alloys. The technique, called Cold Neutron Prompt Gamma

Motta, Arthur T.

104

FTIR ANALYSIS OF AEROGEL KEYSTONES FROM THE STARDUST INTERSTELLAR DUST COLLECTOR: ASSESSMENT OF TERRESTRIAL ORGANIC CONTAMINATION AND X-RAY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FTIR ANALYSIS OF AEROGEL KEYSTONES FROM THE STARDUST INTERSTELLAR DUST COLLECTOR: ASSESSMENT was composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the collecting area) and aluminum foils and was exposed are expected to be exceedingly small. Here, we present a summary of FTIR analyses of over 20 aerogel keystones

Nittler, Larry R.

105

Assessment of peat quality by molecular and bulk geochemical analysis: Application to the Holocene record of the Chautagne  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessment of peat quality by molecular and bulk geochemical analysis: Application to the Holocene in general from a limited variety of local plants, peat is however sensitive to physicochemical changes the information on peat quality provided by various families of biochemical components (lipids, lignin, sugars

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

106

High-level and transuranic radioactive wastes: Background information document for amendments to 40 CFR part 191  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report provides the necessary background information technical analyses, and justifications in support of the proposed amendments to 40 CFR Part 191. The scope of the report encompasses the conceptual framework for assessing radiation exposures and associated health risks. In general terms, this assessment examines the radioactive source term characterization, analysis of the movement of radionuclides from the repository through the appropriate environmental exposure pathways and doses received by members of the general public. The report used transuranic waste for individual dose and ground-water protection analysis.

Not Available

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Background  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

This concern is based on PTPC's interpretation of section 3.2 of BPA's Regional Dialogue Load Following Power Sales Agreement (Power Sales Agreement) template: 3.2 Take or Pay...

108

Background  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

maintenance personnel, and film crews use small, portable lighting systems known as "mobile lighting." Traditionally, mobile lighting units are powered by diesel fuel generators...

109

Background  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and the Bureau of Reclamation signed 10-year agreements - known as the Columbia Basin Fish Accords - with four Northwest tribes and two states on May 2, 2008. These historic...

110

Background:  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

files in future will now work correctly with that setting. (back to TOC) Importing the SSL Certificate in MSIE7 on Windows Vista Connecting to a Secure Socket Layer (SSL) enabled...

111

Background  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

solutions in the area to meet its space needs and increase employee efficiency and productivity For the past 10 years, BPA has provided work space for area employees through a...

112

Background  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

operations through another supplier if BPA was unable to supply Alcoa's Intalco smelter. In such circumstances, the demand shift would not materialize because the Intalco...

113

Background  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Administration, January 14, 2011 Figure 2 - Natural Gas Rig Count U.S. Natural Gas Rotary Rigs in Operation (Count) 0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 J a n - 0 7 M a r - 0 7 M a y -...

114

Background  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

V. RESPONSE TO COMMENTS: SPECIFIC CONTRACT ISSUES ... 14 a. Whether the ten year term of the Agreement is reasonable and consistent with sound business...

115

Background  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAboutScience Program CumulusAMarch-6,-2015BSCmemo.pdfDECEMBERE P T E M0

116

Background  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAboutScience Program CumulusAMarch-6,-2015BSCmemo.pdfDECEMBERE P T E M0Tech

117

Background  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAboutScience Program CumulusAMarch-6,-2015BSCmemo.pdfDECEMBERE P T E

118

Background  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAboutScience Program CumulusAMarch-6,-2015BSCmemo.pdfDECEMBERE P T

119

Background  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAboutScience Program CumulusAMarch-6,-2015BSCmemo.pdfDECEMBERE P TBPA, the

120

Background  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAboutScience Program CumulusAMarch-6,-2015BSCmemo.pdfDECEMBERE P TBPA,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment background analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Background  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAboutScience Program CumulusAMarch-6,-2015BSCmemo.pdfDECEMBERE P

122

Background  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAboutScience Program CumulusAMarch-6,-2015BSCmemo.pdfDECEMBERE P

123

Background  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAboutScience Program CumulusAMarch-6,-2015BSCmemo.pdfDECEMBERE PAGENCY

124

Background  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinan antagonist Journal Article: Crystal structureComposite JC-118794ArgonneAnalysing the EffectEnergy Star

125

Background:  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone6 M. Babzien, I. Ben-Zvi, P. Study ofJ U LY 2 9

126

Background  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartment ofDepartment ofof EnergyYou$0.C. 20545 OCTTO:March_

127

Background  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Renewable energy sources are critical to the nation's future, and hydrogen-powered fuel cells offer an attractive alternative to current technologies. However, fuel cell...

128

Background modeling for the GERDA experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The neutrinoless double beta (0???) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0??? decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Q{sub ??} come from {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Th, {sup 42}K, {sup 60}Co and ? emitting isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

Becerici-Schmidt, N. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

129

Information on Hydrologic Conceptual Models, Parameters, Uncertainty Analysis, and Data Sources for Dose Assessments at Decommissioning Sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report addresses issues related to the analysis of uncertainty in dose assessments conducted as part of decommissioning analyses. The analysis is limited to the hydrologic aspects of the exposure pathway involving infiltration of water at the ground surface, leaching of contaminants, and transport of contaminants through the groundwater to a point of exposure. The basic conceptual models and mathematical implementations of three dose assessment codes are outlined along with the site-specific conditions under which the codes may provide inaccurate, potentially nonconservative results. In addition, the hydrologic parameters of the codes are identified and compared. A methodology for parameter uncertainty assessment is outlined that considers the potential data limitations and modeling needs of decommissioning analyses. This methodology uses generic parameter distributions based on national or regional databases, sensitivity analysis, probabilistic modeling, and Bayesian updating to incorporate site-specific information. Data sources for best-estimate parameter values and parameter uncertainty information are also reviewed. A follow-on report will illustrate the uncertainty assessment methodology using decommissioning test cases.

Meyer, Philip D.; Gee, Glendon W.; Nicholson, Thomas J.

2000-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

130

Methodology assessment and recommendations for the Mars science laboratory launch safety analysis.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy has assigned to Sandia National Laboratories the responsibility of producing a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the plutonium-dioxide fueled Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) proposed to be used in the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. The National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) is anticipating a launch in fall of 2009, and the SAR will play a critical role in the launch approval process. As in past safety evaluations of MMRTG missions, a wide range of potential accident conditions differing widely in probability and seventy must be considered, and the resulting risk to the public will be presented in the form of probability distribution functions of health effects in terms of latent cancer fatalities. The basic descriptions of accident cases will be provided by NASA in the MSL SAR Databook for the mission, and on the basis of these descriptions, Sandia will apply a variety of sophisticated computational simulation tools to evaluate the potential release of plutonium dioxide, its transport to human populations, and the consequent health effects. The first step in carrying out this project is to evaluate the existing computational analysis tools (computer codes) for suitability to the analysis and, when appropriate, to identify areas where modifications or improvements are warranted. The overall calculation of health risks can be divided into three levels of analysis. Level A involves detailed simulations of the interactions of the MMRTG or its components with the broad range of insults (e.g., shrapnel, blast waves, fires) posed by the various accident environments. There are a number of candidate codes for this level; they are typically high resolution computational simulation tools that capture details of each type of interaction and that can predict damage and plutonium dioxide release for a range of choices of controlling parameters. Level B utilizes these detailed results to study many thousands of possible event sequences and to build up a statistical representation of the releases for each accident case. A code to carry out this process will have to be developed or adapted from previous MMRTG missions. Finally, Level C translates the release (or ''source term'') information from Level B into public risk by applying models for atmospheric transport and the health consequences of exposure to the released plutonium dioxide. A number of candidate codes for this level of analysis are available. This report surveys the range of available codes and tools for each of these levels and makes recommendations for which choices are best for the MSL mission. It also identities areas where improvements to the codes are needed. In some cases a second tier of codes may be identified to provide supporting or clarifying insight about particular issues. The main focus of the methodology assessment is to identify a suite of computational tools that can produce a high quality SAR that can be successfully reviewed by external bodies (such as the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel) on the schedule established by NASA and DOE.

Sturgis, Beverly Rainwater; Metzinger, Kurt Evan; Powers, Dana Auburn; Atcitty, Christopher B.; Robinson, David B; Hewson, John C.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Dodson, Brian W.; Potter, Donald L.; Kelly, John E.; MacLean, Heather J.; Bergeron, Kenneth Donald (Sala & Associates); Bessette, Gregory Carl; Lipinski, Ronald J.

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Aluminum as a source of background in low background experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutrinoless double beta decay would be a key to understanding the nature of neutrino masses. The next generation of High Purity Germanium experiments will have to be operated with a background rate of better than 10^-5 counts/(kg y keV) in the region of interest around the Q value of the decay. Therefore, so far irrelevant sources of background have to be considered. The metalization of the surface of germanium detectors is in general done with aluminum. The background from the decays of 22Na, 26Al, 226Ra and 228Th introduced by this metalization is discussed. It is shown that only a special selection of aluminum can keep these background contributions acceptable.

B. Majorovits; I. Abt; M. Laubenstein; O. Volynets

2011-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

132

Quality assurance guidance for laboratory assessment plates in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is one of several guidance documents developed to support the EM (DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management) Analytical Services program. Its purpose is to introduce assessment plates that can be used to conduct performance assessments of an organization`s or project`s ability to meet quality goals for analytical laboratory activities. These assessment plates are provided as non-prescriptive guidance to EM-support organizations responsible for collection of environmental data for remediation and waste management programs at DOE facilities. The assessments evaluate objectively all components of the analytical laboratory process to determine their proper selection and use.

Not Available

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program: Analysis of residential refrigerator/freezer performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) is conducting a large end-use data acquisition program in an effort to understand how energy is utilized in buildings with permanent electric space heating equipment in the Pacific Northwest. The initial portion of effort, known as the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP), was conducted for Bonneville by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The collection of detailed end-use data provided an opportunity to analyze the amount of energy consumed by both refrigerators and separate freezers units located in residential buildings. By obtaining this information, the uncertainty of long- term regional end-use forecasting can be improved and potential utility marketing programs for new appliances with a reduced overall energy demand can be identified. It was found that standby loads derived from hourly averages between 4 a.m. and 5 a.m. reflected the minimum consumption needed to maintain interior refrigerator temperatures at a steady-state condition. Next, an average 24-hour consumption that included cooling loads from door openings and cooling food items was also determined. Later, analyses were conducted to develop a model capable of predicting refrigerator standby loads and 24-hour consumption for comparison with national refrigerator label ratings. Data for 140 residential sites with a refrigeration end-use were screened to develop a sample of 119 residences with pure refrigeration for use in this analysis. To identify those refrigerators that were considered to be pure (having no other devices present on the circuit) in terms of their end-use classification, the screening procedure used a statistical clustering technique that was based on standby loads with 24-hour consumption. 5 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

Ross, B.A.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Significant ELCAP analysis results: Summary report. [End-use Load and Consumer Assessment Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The evolution of the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP) since 1983 at Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has been eventful and somewhat tortuous. The birth pangs of a data set so large and encompassing as this have been overwhelming at times. The early adolescent stage of data set development and use has now been reached and preliminary results of early analyses of the data are becoming well known. However, the full maturity of the data set and the corresponding wealth of analytic insights are not fully realized. This document is in some sense a milestone in the brief history of the program. It is a summary of the results of the first five years of the program, principally containing excerpts from a number of previous reports. It is meant to highlight significant accomplishments and analytical results, with a focus on the principal results. Many of the results have a broad application in the utility load research community in general, although the real breadth of the data set remains largely unexplored. The first section of the document introduces the data set: how the buildings were selected, how the metering equipment was installed, and how the data set has been prepared for analysis. Each of the sections that follow the introduction summarize a particular analytic result. A large majority of the analyses to date involve the residential samples, as these were installed first and had highest priority on the analytic agenda. Two exploratory analyses using commercial data are included as an introduction to the commercial analyses that are currently underway. Most of the sections reference more complete technical reports which the reader should refer to for details of the methodology and for more complete discussion of the results. Sections have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Pratt, R.G.; Conner, C.C.; Drost, M.K.; Miller, N.E.; Cooke, B.A.; Halverson, M.A.; Lebaron, B.A.; Lucas, R.G.; Jo, J.; Richman, E.E.; Sandusky, W.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Ritland, K.G. (Ritland Associates, Seattle, WA (USA)); Taylor, M.E. (USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (USA)); Hauser, S.G. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA))

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Evidence for a non-zero Lambda and a low matter density from a combined analysis of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey and Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We perform a joint likelihood analysis of the power spectra of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies under the assumptions that the initial fluctuations were adiabatic, Gaussian and well described by power laws with scalar and tensor indices of n_s and n_t. On its own, the 2dFGRS sets tight limits on the parameter combination Omega_m h, but relatively weak limits on the fraction of the cosmic matter density in baryons Omega_b/Omega_m. The CMB anisotropy data alone set poor constraints on the cosmological constant and Hubble constant because of a `geometrical degeneracy' among parameters. Furthermore, if tensor modes are allowed, the CMB data allow a wide range of values for the physical densities in baryons and cold dark matter. Combining the CMB and 2dFGRS data sets helps to break both the geometrical and tensor mode degeneracies. The values of the parameters derived here are consistent with the predictions of the simplest models of inflation, with the baryon density derived from primordial nucleosynthesis and with direct measurements of the Hubble parameter. In particular, we find strong evidence for a positive cosmological constant with a pm 2sigma range of 0.65 < Omega_Lambda < 0.85, completely independently of constraints on Omega_\\Lambda derived from Type Ia supernovae.

George Efstathiou; Stephen Moody; John A. Peacock; Will J. Percival; Carlton Baugh; Joss Bland-Hawthorn; Terry Bridges; Russell Cannon; Shaun Cole; Matthew Colless; Chris Collins; Warrick Couch; Gavin Dalton; Roberto De Propis; Simon P. Driver; Richard S. Ellis; Carlos S. Frenk; Karl Glazebrook; Carole Jackson; Ofer Lahav; Ian Lewis; Stuart Lumsden; Steve Maddox; Peder Norberg; Bruce A. Peterson; Will Sutherland; Keith Taylor

2001-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

137

Heart rate variability and respiratory sinus arrhythmia assessment of affective states by bivariate autoregressive spectral analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The study of emotions elicited by human-computer interactions is a promising field that could lead to the identification of specific patterns of affective states. We present a heart rate variability (HRV) assessment of the ...

Magagnin, Valentina

138

An analysis of community assessments: the perceived relationship between funding resourses and survey scope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interviews were conducted with spokespersons from graphics. seven area health service organizations regarding recent community assessments conducted by their organizations. Specifically, the participants were asked to explain the process by which...

Williams, Sarah Boswell

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

System level assessment of uncertainty in aviation environmental policy impact analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis demonstrates the assessment of uncertainty of a simulation model at the system level, which takes into account the interaction between the modules that comprise the system. Results from this system level ...

Liem, Rhea Patricia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Application of probabilistic consequence analysis to the assessment of potential radiological hazards of fusion reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A methodology has been developed to provide system reliability criteria based on an assessment of the potential radiological hazards associated with a fusion reactor design and on hazard constraints which prevent fusion ...

Sawdye, Robert William

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment background analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Large-Scale Pyrolysis Oil Production: A Technology Assessment and Economic Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A broad perspective of pyrolysis technology as it relates to converting biomass substrates to a liquid bio-oil product and a detailed technical and economic assessment of a fast pyrolysis plant.

Ringer, M.; Putsche, V.; Scahill, J.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Background field method and nonrelativistic QED matching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss the resolution of an inconsistency between lattice background field methods and nonrelativistic QED matching conditions. In particular, we show that lack of on-shell conditions in lattice QCD with time-dependent background fields generally requires that certain operators related by equations of motion should be retained in an effective field theory to correctly describe the behavior of Green's functions. The coefficients of such operators in a nonrelativistic hadronic theory are determined by performing a robust nonrelativistic expansion of QED for relativistic scalar and spin-half hadrons including nonminimal electromagnetic couplings. Provided that nonrelativistic QED is augmented with equation-of-motion operators, we find that the background field method can be reconciled with the nonrelativistic QED matching conditions without any inconsistency. We further investigate whether nonrelativistic QED can be employed in the analysis of lattice QCD correlation function in background fields, but we are confronted with difficulties. Instead, we argue that the most desirable approach is a hybrid one which relies on a relativistic hadronic theory with operators chosen based on their relevance in the nonrelativistic limit. Using this hybrid framework, we obtain practically useful forms of correlation functions for scalar and spin-half hadrons in uniform electric and magnetic fields.

Jong-Wan Lee; Brian C. Tiburzi

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

143

Technology Assessment: Strategic Energy Analysis Center (SEAC) 2012 Highlights (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet lists key analysis products produced by NREL in 2012. Like all NREL analysis products, these aim to increase the understanding of the current and future interactions and roles of energy policies, markets, resources, technologies, environmental impacts, and infrastructure. NREL analysis, data, and tools inform decisions as energy-efficient and renewable energy technologies advance from concept to commercial application.

Not Available

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Internal and External Radioactive Backgrounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 3 Internal and External Radioactive Backgrounds New physics is often discovered by pushing energies. With the current large mixing angle-MSW oscillation parameters, Borexino expects to observe 0.35 neutrino events per day per ton from 7Be in the energy window. Because there are so few events

145

REFERENCE AND BACKGROUND CHECK PROCESS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REFERENCE AND BACKGROUND CHECK PROCESS Workforce Planning | 408-924-2250 classcomp process. Workforce Planning will arrange this directly with the finalist(s) once the hiring manager has provided the finalist(s) name(s) to Workforce Planning. An exception to this process is for any candidates

Su, Xiao

146

Extracting cosmic microwave background polarization from satelliteastrophysical maps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the application of the fast independent component analysis (FASTICA) technique for blind component separation to polarized astrophysical emission. We study how the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarized signal, consisting of E and B modes, can be extracted from maps affected by substantial contamination from diffuse Galactic foreground emission and instrumental noise. We implement Monte Carlo chains varying the CMB and noise realizations in order to assess the average capabilities of the algorithm and their variance. We perform the analysis of all-sky maps simulated according to the Planck satellite capabilities, modeling the sky signal as a superposition of the CMB and of the existing simulated polarization templates of Galactic synchrotron. Our results indicate that the angular power spectrum of CMB E mode can be recovered on all scales up to lsimilar or equal to 1000, corresponding to the fourth acoustic oscillation, while the B-mode power spectrum can be detected, up to its turnover at lsimilar or equal to 100, if the ratio of tensor to scalar contributions to the temperature quadrupole exceeds 30 per cent. The power spectrum of the cross-correlation between total intensity and polarization, TE, can be recovered up to lsimilar or equal to 1200, corresponding to the seventh TE acoustic oscillation.

Baccigalpi, C.; Perrotta, F.; Zotti, G.D.; Smoot, G.F.; Burigana,C.; Maino, D.; Bedini, L.; Salerno, E.

2004-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

147

Organizational analysis and safety for utilities with nuclear power plants: perspectives for organizational assessment. Volume 2. [PWR; BWR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This two-volume report presents the results of initial research on the feasibility of applying organizational factors in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety assessment. Volume 1 of this report contains an overview of the literature, a discussion of available safety indicators, and a series of recommendations for more systematically incorporating organizational analysis into investigations of nuclear power plant safety. The six chapters of this volume discuss the major elements in our general approach to safety in the nuclear industry. The chapters include information on organizational design and safety; organizational governance; utility environment and safety related outcomes; assessments by selected federal agencies; review of data sources in the nuclear power industry; and existing safety indicators.

Osborn, R.N.; Olson, J.; Sommers, P.E.; McLaughlin, S.D.; Jackson, M.S.; Nadel, M.V.; Scott, W.G.; Connor, P.E.; Kerwin, N.; Kennedy, J.K. Jr.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Y. Yiliyasi and D. Berleant, "World oil reserves data: information quality assessment and analysis," 16th International Conference on Information Quality, Nov. 18-20, 2011, Adelaide, Australia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Y. Yiliyasi and D. Berleant, "World oil reserves data: information quality assessment and analysis a framework for assessing the information quality of world oil reserves data. The framework is applied of oil reserve data. Keywords: Data Quality, Information Quality, Information Quality Framework

Berleant, Daniel

149

An analysis of the impacts of use-value assessment on agricultural and open space land  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for taxation at its value in agriculture production, rather than at its market value. The main purpose of this study was to identify the distribution of benefits under current use-value assessment polimes and analyze the impacts on tax incidence, as well...

Gorman, Tia Dawn

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Performance assessment in support of the 1996 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: A decision analysis perspective  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is under development by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic disposal of transuranic waste. The primary regulatory requirements (i.e., 40 CFR 191 and 40 CFR 194) placed on the WIPP by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) involve a complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) for normalized radionuclide releases to the accessible environment. The interpretation and use of this CCDF from a decision analysis perspective is discussed and illustrated with results from the 1996 performance assessment for the WIPP, which was carried out to support a compliance certification application by the DOE to the EPA for the WIPP.

Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Anderson, D.R.; Jow, H.N.; Marietta, M.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Basabilvazo, G. [Dept. of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States)

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Computational Science Program Self-Assessment Report 0. Background  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

computer models (continuous vs. discrete, static vs. dynamic, and deterministic vs. stochastic) toward Elective courses in the major department; required COSC capstone project b. Use observation, modeling. MATH/COMP 260 and the required Elective courses in the major department; required COSC capstone project

Bogaerts, Steven

152

Results of Performance Assessments 34.A.1 BACKGROUND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of contaminated brine from the WIPP repository in the subsurface environment beyond the 1 The "controlled area

153

SYNTHESES Does phylogeny matter? Assessing the impact of phylogenetic information in ecological meta-analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in ecological meta-analysis Scott A. Chamberlain,1 * Stephen M. Hovick,1 Christopher J. Dibble,1 Nick L, in these fields this technique has an important limitation: phylogenetic non-independence exists among taxa

Lajeunesse, Marc J.

154

An Example Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis for Reactive Transport at the Horonobe Site for Performance Assessment Calculations.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Given pre-existing Groundwater Modeling System (GMS) models of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) at both the regional and site scales, this work performs an example uncertainty analysis for performance assessment (PA) applications. After a general overview of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques, the existing GMS site-scale model is converted to a PA model of the steady-state conditions expected after URL closure. This is done to examine the impact of uncertainty in site-specific data in conjunction with conceptual model uncertainty regarding the location of the Oomagari Fault. A heterogeneous stochastic model is developed and corresponding flow fields and particle tracks are calculated. In addition, a quantitative analysis of the ratio of dispersive to advective forces, the F-ratio, is performed for stochastic realizations of each conceptual model. Finally, a one-dimensional transport abstraction is modeled based on the particle path lengths and the materials through which each particle passes to yield breakthrough curves at the model boundary. All analyses indicate that accurate characterization of the Oomagari Fault with respect to both location and hydraulic conductivity is critical to PA calculations. This work defines and outlines typical uncertainty and sensitivity analysis procedures and demonstrates them with example PA calculations relevant to the Horonobe URL. Acknowledgement: This project was funded by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). This work was conducted jointly between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and JNC under a joint JNC/U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) work agreement. Performance assessment calculations were conducted and analyzed at SNL based on a preliminary model by Kashima, Quintessa, and JNC and include significant input from JNC to make sure the results are relevant for the Japanese nuclear waste program.

James, Scott; Cohan, Alexander [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis Results Obtained in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) is located in southeastern New Mexico and is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic (deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. A detailed performance assessment (PA) for the WIPP was carried out in 1996 and supports an application by the DOE to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the certification of the WIPP for the disposal of TRU waste. The 1996 WIPP PA uses a computational structure that maintains a separation between stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty, with stochastic uncertainty arising from the many possible disruptions that could occur over the 10,000 yr regulatory period that applies to the WIPP and subjective uncertainty arising from the imprecision with which many of the quantities required in the PA are known. Important parts of this structure are (1) the use of Latin hypercube sampling to incorporate the effects of subjective uncertainty, (2) the use of Monte Carlo (i.e., random) sampling to incorporate the effects of stochastic uncertainty, and (3) the efficient use of the necessarily limited number of mechanistic calculations that can be performed to support the analysis. The use of Latin hypercube sampling generates a mapping from imprecisely known analysis inputs to analysis outcomes of interest that provides both a display of the uncertainty in analysis outcomes (i.e., uncertainty analysis) and a basis for investigating the effects of individual inputs on these outcomes (i.e., sensitivity analysis). The sensitivity analysis procedures used in the PA include examination of scatterplots, stepwise regression analysis, and partial correlation analysis. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results obtained as part of the 1996 WIPP PA are presented and discussed. Specific topics considered include two phase flow in the vicinity of the repository, radionuclide release from the repository, fluid flow and radionuclide transport in formations overlying the repository, and complementary cumulative distribution functions used in comparisons with regulatory standards (i.e., 40 CFR 191, Subpart B).

Bean, J.E.; Berglund, J.W.; Davis, F.J.; Economy, K.; Garner, J.W.; Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; MacKinnon, R.J.; Miller, J.; O'Brien, D.G.; Ramsey, J.L.; Schreiber, J.D.; Shinta, A.; Smith, L.N.; Stockman, C.; Stoelzel, D.M.; Vaughn, P.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Assessment of the efficacy of laser hyperthermia and nanoparticle-enhanced therapies by heat shock protein analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tumor thermotherapy is a method of cancer treatment wherein cancer cells are killed by exposing the body tissues to high temperatures. Successful clinical implementation of this method requires a clear understanding and assessment of the changes of the tumor area after the therapy. In this study, we evaluated the effect of near-infrared laser tumor thermotherapy at the molecular, cellular, and physical levels. We used single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in combination with this thermotherapy. We established a mouse model for breast cancer and randomly divided the mice into four groups: mice with SWNT-assisted thermotherapy; mice heat treated without SWNT; mice injected with SWNTs without thermotherapy; and a control group. Tumors were irradiated using a near-infrared laser with their surface temperature remaining at approximately 45 °C. We monitored the tumor body growth trend closely by daily physical measurements, immunohistochemical staining, and H and E (hematoxylin-eosin) staining by stage. Our results showed that infrared laser hyperthermia had a significant inhibitory effect on the transplanted breast tumor, with an inhibition rate of 53.09%, and also significantly reduced the expression of the heat shock protein Hsp70. Furthermore, we have found that protein analysis and histological analysis can be used to assess therapeutic effects effectively, presenting broad application prospects for determining the effect of different treatments on tumors. Finally, we discuss the effects of SWNT-assisted near-infrared laser tumor thermotherapy on tumor growth at the molecular, cellular, and physical levels.

Tang, Fei [Department of Precision Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)] [Department of Precision Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Juan; Liu, Ran, E-mail: liuran@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)] [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Guo, Junwei [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)] [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

157

BEDES Background | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: Top Five EERE BlogAttachmentFlash2011-21 AuditInsulatedEnergyBackground BEDES

158

Evaluation and Parameter Analysis of Burn up Calculations for the Assessment of Radioactive Waste - 13187  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Burn up calculations facilitate a determination of the composition and nuclear inventory of spent nuclear fuel, if operational history is known. In case this information is not available, the total nuclear inventory can be determined by means of destructive or, even on industrial scale, nondestructive measurement methods. For non-destructive measurements however only a few easy-to-measure, so-called key nuclides, are determined due to their characteristic gamma lines or neutron emission. From these measured activities the fuel burn up and cooling time are derived to facilitate the numerical inventory determination of spent fuel elements. Most regulatory bodies require an independent assessment of nuclear waste properties and their documentation. Prominent part of this assessment is a consistency check of inventory declaration. The waste packages often contain wastes from different types of spent fuels of different history and information about the secondary reactor parameters may not be available. In this case the so-called characteristic fuel burn up and cooling time are determined. These values are obtained from a correlations involving key-nuclides with a certain bandwidth, thus with upper and lower limits. The bandwidth is strongly dependent on secondary reactor parameter such as initial enrichment, temperature and density of the fuel and moderator, hence the reactor type, fuel element geometry and plant operation history. The purpose of our investigation is to look into the scaling and correlation limitations, to define and verify the range of validity and to scrutinize the dependencies and propagation of uncertainties that affect the waste inventory declarations and their independent verification. This is accomplished by numerical assessment and simulation of waste production using well accepted codes SCALE 6.0 and 6.1 to simulate the cooling time and burn up of a spent fuel element. The simulations are benchmarked against spent fuel from the real reactor Obrigheim in Germany for which sufficiently precise experimental reference data are available. (authors)

Fast, Ivan; Aksyutina, Yuliya; Tietze-Jaensch, Holger [Product Quality Control Office for Radioactive Waste (PKS) at the Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety Research, IEK-6, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)] [Product Quality Control Office for Radioactive Waste (PKS) at the Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety Research, IEK-6, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Comparison of a Traditional Probabilistic Risk Assessment Approach with Advanced Safety Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Light Water Sustainability Program (LWRS) [1], the purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) [2] Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margin management with the aim to improve economics, reliability, and sustain safety of current NPPs. In this paper, we describe the RISMC analysis process illustrating how mechanistic and probabilistic approaches are combined in order to estimate a safety margin. We use the scenario of a “station blackout” (SBO) wherein offsite power and onsite power is lost, thereby causing a challenge to plant safety systems. We describe the RISMC approach, illustrate the station blackout modeling, and contrast this with traditional risk analysis modeling for this type of accident scenario. We also describe our approach we are using to represent advanced flooding analysis.

Smith, Curtis L; Mandelli, Diego; Zhegang Ma

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Application Of Elastic Perfectly Plastic Cyclic Analysis To Assessment Of Creep Strain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cyclic elastic-perfectly plastic analysis method is proposed which provides a conservative estimate to cyclic creep strain accumulation within the ratchet boundary. The method is to check for ratcheting based on an elastic-perfectly material with a temperature-dependent pseudo yield stress defined by temperature, time and stress to give 1% creep strain. It does not require stress classification and is also applicable to a full range of temperature above and below the creep regime. This simplified method could be used as a rapid screening calculation, with full time-dependent creep analysis used if necessary.

Carter, Peter [Stress Engineering Services Inc.] [Stress Engineering Services Inc.; Jetter, Robert I [Consultant] [Consultant; Sham, Sam [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment background analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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161

Background: how many people do you know? A model of overdispersion in social networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Overview Background: how many people do you know? A model of overdispersion in social networks for Bayesian Data Analysis #12;Overview Background: how many people do you know? A model of overdispersion their survey data Andrew Gelman Computation for Bayesian Data Analysis #12;Overview Background: how many people

Gelman, Andrew

162

Modeling and Quantification of Team Performance in Human Reliability Analysis for Probabilistic Risk Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) are important technical contributors to the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC) risk-informed and performance based approach to regulating U.S. commercial nuclear activities. Furthermore, all currently operating commercial NPPs in the U.S. are required by federal regulation to be staffed with crews of operators. Yet, aspects of team performance are underspecified in most HRA methods that are widely used in the nuclear industry. There are a variety of "emergent" team cognition and teamwork errors (e.g., communication errors) that are 1) distinct from individual human errors, and 2) important to understand from a PRA perspective. The lack of robust models or quantification of team performance is an issue that affects the accuracy and validity of HRA methods and models, leading to significant uncertainty in estimating HEPs. This paper describes research that has the objective to model and quantify team dynamics and teamwork within NPP control room crews for risk informed applications, thereby improving the technical basis of HRA, which improves the risk-informed approach the NRC uses to regulate the U.S. commercial nuclear industry.

Jeffrey C. JOe; Ronald L. Boring

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Ensemble operational air quality assessments in Europe Improving modeling platforms with statistical analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with statistical analysis Anthony Ung, Laure Malherbe, Frederik Meleux, Bertrand Bessagnet, Laurence Rouil and MACCII modeling team INERIS institut, Paris, France Corresponding author: Anthony.ung@ineris.fr Abstract/QC dossiers and available on the MACC project website for each model. All models have also very significant

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

164

Using Exergy Analysis Methodology to Assess the Heating Efficiency of an Electric Heat Pump  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The authors, using exergy analysis methodology, propose that it should consider not only the COP (coefficient of Performance) value of the electric power heat pump set (EPHPS/or HP set), but also the exergy loss at the heating exchanger of the HP...

Ao, Y.; Duanmu, L.; Shen, S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Biocomplexity Analysis of Alternative Biomass Routes for Power Generation: Environmental, Economic, and Technical Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) as a replacement for coal in power generation. We utilize an environmental biocomplexity approach and examineBiocomplexity Analysis of Alternative Biomass Routes for Power Generation: Environmental, Economic generation. Economics, emissions and energy consumption during the on farm stage of all processes between

McCarl, Bruce A.

166

1 | P a g e Domino Effect Analysis and Assessment of Industrial Sites: A Review of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Technology of Troyes (UTT), France Laboratory of Systems Modeling and Dependability UMR STMR/ICD CNRS N° 6279, the proximity of such industrial plant, the storage of dangerous substances and the transportation networks presents the main existing methods and software tools for analysis and modeling of domino effects

Boyer, Edmond

167

Environmental impacts of lighting technologies - Life cycle assessment and sensitivity analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With two regulations, 244/2009 and 245/2009, the European Commission recently put into practice the EuP Directive in the area of lighting devices, aiming to improve energy efficiency in the domestic lighting sector. This article presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment comparison of four different lighting technologies: the tungsten lamp, the halogen lamp, the conventional fluorescent lamp and the compact fluorescent lamp. Taking advantage of the most up-to-date life cycle inventory database available (ecoinvent data version 2.01), all life cycle phases were assessed and the sensitivity of the results for varying assumptions analysed: different qualities of compact fluorescent lamps (production phase), different electricity mixes (use phase), and end-of-life scenarios for WEEE recycling versus municipal solid waste incineration (disposal phase). A functional unit of 'one hour of lighting' was defined and the environmental burdens for the whole life cycle for all four lamp types were calculated, showing a clearly lower impact for the two gas-discharge lamps, i.e. the fluorescent and the compact fluorescent lamp. Differences in the product quality of the compact fluorescent lamps reveal to have only a very small effect on the overall environmental performance of this lamp type; a decline of the actual life time of this lamp type doesn't result in a change of the rank order of the results of the here examined four lamp types. It was also shown that the environmental break-even point of the gas-discharge lamps is reached long before the end of their expected life-span. All in all, it can be concluded that a change from today's tungsten lamp technology to a low-energy-consuming technology such as the compact fluorescent lamp results in a substantial environmental benefit.

Welz, Tobias; Hischier, Roland, E-mail: Roland.Hischier@empa.ch; Hilty, Lorenz M.

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

168

Gauging the cosmic microwave background  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We provide a new derivation of the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and find an exact expression that can be readily expanded perturbatively. Close attention is paid to gauge issues, with the motivation to examine the effect of super-Hubble modes on the CMB. We calculate a transfer function that encodes the behaviour of the dipole, and examine its long-wavelength behaviour. We show that contributions to the dipole from adiabatic super-Hubble modes are strongly suppressed, even in the presence of a cosmological constant, contrary to claims in the literature. We also introduce a naturally defined CMB monopole, which exhibits closely analogous long-wavelength behaviour. We discuss the geometrical origin of this super-Hubble suppression, pointing out that it is a simple reflection of adiabaticity, and hence argue that it will occur regardless of the matter content.

J. P. Zibin; Douglas Scott

2008-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

169

Background canceling surface alpha detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

170

Low Background Counting At SNOLAB  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

171

Low background aspects of GERDA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in {sup 76}Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from {sup 222}Rn. The main source of {sup 222}Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq {sup 228}Th.

Simgen, Hardy [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

172

Alveolar breath sampling and analysis to assess exposures to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) during motor vehicle refueling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study we present a sampling and analytical methodology that can be used to assess consumers` exposures to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) that may result from routine vehicle refueling operations. The method is based on the collection of alveolar breath samples using evacuated one-liter stainless steel canisters and analysis using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer equipped with a patented `valveless` cryogenic preconcentrator. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, a series of breath samples was collected from two individuals (the person pumping the fuel and a nearby observer) immediately before and for 64 min after a vehicle was refueled with premium grade gasoline. Results demonstrate low levels of MTBE in both subjects` breaths before refueling, and levels that increased by a factor of 35 to 100 after the exposure. Breath elimination models fitted to the post exposure measurements indicate that the half-life of MTBE in the first physiological compartment was between 1.3 and 2.9 min. Analysis of the resulting models suggests that breath elimination of MTBE during the 64 min monitoring period was approximately 155 {mu}g for the refueling subject while it was only 30 {mu}g for the nearby observer. This analysis also shows that the post exposure breath elimination of other gasoline constituents was consistent with previously published observations. 20 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Lindstrom, A.B.; Pleil, J.D. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Uncertainty analysis of an aviation climate model and an aircraft price model for assessment of environmental effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimating, presenting, and assessing uncertainties are important parts in assessment of a complex system. This thesis focuses on the assessment of uncertainty in the price module and the climate module in the Aviation ...

Jun, Mina

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Assessment of TEES{reg_sign} applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg_sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique.

Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S. III; Baum, J.W. [and others

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges. This report is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to assess the water consumption of geothermal technologies and identify areas where water availability may present a challenge to utility-scale geothermal development. Water consumption refers to the water that is withdrawn from a resource such as a river, lake, or nongeothermal aquifer that is not returned to that resource. The geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as EGSs that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists, but where water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 2 describes the approach and methods for this work and identifies the four power plant scenarios evaluated: a 20-MW EGS binary plant, a 50-MW EGS binary plant, a 10-MW hydrothermal binary plant, and a 50-MW hydrothermal flash plant. The methods focus on (1) the collection of data to improve estimation of EGS stimulation volumes, aboveground operational consumption for all geothermal technologies, and belowground operational consumption for EGS; and (2) the mapping of the geothermal and water resources of the western United States to assist in the identification of potential water challenges to geothermal growth. Chapters 3 and 4 present the water requirements for the power plant life cycle. Chapter 3 presents the results of the current data collection effort, and Chapter 4 presents the normalized volume of fresh water consumed at each life cycle stage per lifetime energy output for the power plant scenarios evaluated. Over the life cycle of a geothermal power plant, from construction through 30 years of operation, the majority of water is consumed by plant operations. For the EGS binary scenarios, where dry cooling was assumed, belowground operational water loss is the greatest contributor depending upon the physical and operational conditions of the reservoir. Total life cycle water consumption requirements for air-cooled EGS binary scenarios vary between 0.22 and 1.85 gal/kWh, depending upon the extent of belowground operational water consumption. The air-cooled hydrothermal binary and flash plants experience far less fresh water consumption over the life cycle, at 0.04 gal/kWh. Fresh water requirements associated with air- cooled binary operations are primarily from aboveground water needs, including dust control, maintenance, and domestic use. Although wet-cooled hydrothermal flash systems require water for cooling, these plants generally rely upon the geofluid, fluid from the geothermal reservoir, which typically has high salinity and total dissolved solids concentration and is much warmer than normal groundwater sources, for their cooling water needs; thus,

Clark, Corrie E. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Harto, Christopher B. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Schroeder, Jenna N. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Martino, Louis E. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Horner, Robert M. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

177

NEW EXTENDED DEUTERIUM FRACTIONATION MODEL: ASSESSMENT AT DENSE ISM CONDITIONS AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Observations of deuterated species are useful in probing the temperature, ionization level, evolutionary stage, chemistry, and thermal history of astrophysical environments. The analysis of data from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array and other new telescopes requires an elaborate model of deuterium fractionation. This paper presents a publicly available chemical network with multi-deuterated species and an extended, up-to-date set of gas-phase and surface reactions. To test this network, we simulate deuterium fractionation in diverse interstellar sources. Two cases of initial abundances are considered: (1) atomic except for H{sub 2} and HD, and (2) molecular from a prestellar core. We reproduce the observed D/H ratios of many deuterated molecules, and sort the species according to their sensitivity to temperature gradients and initial abundances. We find that many multiply deuterated species produced at 10 K retain enhanced D/H ratios at temperatures {approx}< 100 K. We study how recent updates to reaction rates affect calculated D/H ratios, and perform a detailed sensitivity analysis of the uncertainties of the gas-phase reaction rates in the network. We find that uncertainties are generally lower in dark cloud environments than in warm infrared dark clouds and that uncertainties increase with the size of the molecule and number of D-atoms. A set of the most problematic reactions is presented. We list potentially observable deuterated species predicted to be abundant in low- and high-mass star-formation regions.

Albertsson, T.; Semenov, D. A.; Henning, Th. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Vasyunin, A. I.; Herbst, E. [Departments of Chemistry and Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

178

GTRI Remote Monitoring System: Training and Operational Needs Assessment Analysis Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mission of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administrations (NNSA's) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is to identify, secure, recover and facilitate the disposition of vulnerable nuclear and high-risk radioactive materials around the world that pose a threat to the United States and the international community. The GTRI's unique mission to reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian sites worldwide directly addresses recommendations of the 9/11 Commission1, and is a vital part of the President's National Security Strategy and the Global Initiative. The GTRI Remote Monitoring System (RMS) is a standalone security system that includes radiation and tamper alarms, and CCTV; which can be transmitted securely over the Internet to multiple on-site and off-site locations. Through our experiences during installation of the system at 162 sites, plus feedback received from Alarm Response Training course participants, site input to project teams and analysis of trouble calls; indications were that current system training was lacking and inconsistent. A survey was undertaken to gather information from RMS users across the nation, to evaluate the current level of training and determine what if any improvements needed to be made. Additional questions were focused on the operation of the RMS software. The training survey was initially sent electronically to 245 users at the RMS sites and achieved a 37.6% return rate. Analysis of the resulting data revealed that 34.6% of the respondents had not received training or were unsure if they had, despite the fact that vendor engineers provide training at installation of the system. Any training received was referred to as minimal, and brief, not documented, and nothing in writing. 63.7% of respondents said they were either not at all prepared or only somewhat prepared to use the RMS software required to effectively operate the system. As a result of this analysis, a formal training curriculum will be designed and implemented to include several blended learning delivery options. This training will be piloted at RMS sites; initial training will become a required element of RMS installation and refresher training will be considered for sustainability of operations.

Day, Debra E.; Fox, Sorcha

2012-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

179

DarkLight radiation backgrounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-on, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW CW beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, field emission inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation.

Kalantarians, N. [Department of Physics, Hampton University, Hampton VA 23668 (United States); Collaboration: DarkLight Collaboration

2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

180

Analysis, optimization, and assessment of radioisotope thermophotovoltaic system design for an illustrative space mission  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A companion paper presented at this conference described the design of a Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) Generator for an illustrative space mission (Pluto Fast Flyby). It presented a detailed design of an integrated system consisting of a radioisotope heat source, a thermophotovoltaic converter, and an optimized heat rejection system. The present paper describes the thermal, electrical, and structural analyses which led to that optimized design, and compares the computed RTPV performance to that of a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) designed for the same mission. RTPVs are of course much less mature than RTGs, but our results indicate that---when fully developed---they could result in a 60% reduction of the heat source`s mass, cost, and fuel loading, a 50% reduction of generator mass, a tripling of the power system`s specific power, and a quadrupling of its efficiency. The paper concludes by briefly summarizing the RTPV`s current technology status and assessing its potential applicability for the PFF mission. For other power systems (e.g., RTGs), demonstrating their flight readiness for a long mission is a very time-consuming process to determine the long-term effect of temperature-induced degradation mechanisms. But for the case of the described RTPV design, the paper lists a number of factors, primarily its cold (0 to 10 {degree}C) converter temperature, that may greatly reduce the need for long-term tests to demonstrate generator lifetime. In any event, our analytical results suggest that the RTPV generator, when developed by DOE and/or NASA, would be quite valuable not only for the Pluto mission but also for other future missions requiring small, long-lived, low-mass generators. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

Schock, A.; Mukunda, M.; Or, C.; Summers, G. [Fairchild Space and Defense Corporation, Germantown, Maryland 20874 (United States)

1995-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment background analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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181

Analysis, Optimization, and Assessment of Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic System Design for an Illustrative Space Mission  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A companion paper presented at this conference described the design of a Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) Generator for an illustrative space mission (Pluto Fast Flyby). It presented a detailed design of an integrated system consisting of a radioisotope heat source, a thermophotovoltaic converter, and an optimized heat rejection system. The present paper describes the thermal, electrical, and structural analyses which led to that optimized design, and compares the computed RTPV performance to that of a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) designed for the same mission. RTPV's are of course much less mature than RTGs, but our results indicate that - when fully developed - they could result in a 60% reduction of the heat source's mass, cost, and fuel loading, a 50% reduction of generator mass, a tripling of the power system's specific power, and a quadrupling of its efficiency. The paper concludes by briefly summarizing the RTPV's current technology status and assessing its potential applicability for the PFF mission. For other power systems (e.g. RTGs), demonstrating their flight readiness for a long mission is a very time-consuming process to determine the long-term effect of temperature-induced degradation mechanisms. But for the case of the described RTPV design, the paper lists a number of factors, primarily its cold (0 to 10 degrees C) converter temperature, that may greatly reduce the need for long-term tests to demonstrate generator lifetime. In any event, our analytical results suggest that the RTPV generator, when developed by DOE and/or NASA, would be quite valuable not only for the Pluto mission but also for other future missions requiring small, long-lived, low mass generators. Another copy is in the Energy Systems files.

Schock, Alfred; Mukunda, Meera; Summers, G.

1994-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

182

Northern Cheyenne Reservation Coal Bed Natural Resource Assessment and Analysis of Produced Water Disposal Options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coalbed methane (CBM) development in the Powder River Basin (PRB) is currently one of the most active gas plays in the United States. Monthly production in 2002 reached about 26 BCF in the Wyoming portion of the basin. Coalbed methane reserves for the Wyoming portion of the basin are approximately 25 trillion cubic feet (TCF). Although coal beds in the Powder River Basin extend well into Montana, including the area of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, the only CBM development in Montana is the CX Field, operated by the Fidelity Exploration, near the Wyoming border. The Northern Cheyenne Reservation is located on the northwest flank of the PRB in Montana with a total land of 445,000 acres. The Reservation consists of five districts, Lame Deer, Busby, Ashland, Birney, and Muddy Cluster and has a population of 4,470 according to the 2000 Census. The CBM resource represents a significant potential asset to the Northern Cheyenne Indian Tribe. Methane gas in coal beds is trapped by hydrodynamic pressure. Because the production of CBM involves the dewatering of coalbed to allow the release of methane gas from the coal matrix, the relatively large volume of the co-produced water and its potential environmental impacts are the primary concerns for the Tribe. Presented in this report is a study conducted by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology (MBMG) in partnership with the Northern Cheyenne Tribe to assess the Tribe’s CBM resources and evaluate applicable water handling options. The project was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Native American Initiative of the National Petroleum Technology Office, under contract DEAC07- 99ID13727. Matching funds were granted by the MBMG in supporting the work of geologic study and mapping conducted at MBMG.

Shaochang Wo; David A. Lopez; Jason Whiteman Sr.; Bruce A. Reynolds

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 2: Appendices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume is the second of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project by the US Nuclear Regulatory and the Commission of European Communities to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This two-volume report, which examines mechanisms and uncertainties of transfer through the food chain, is the first in a series of five such reports. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain transfer that affect calculations of offsite radiological consequences. Seven of the experts reported on transfer into the food chain through soil and plants, nine reported on transfer via food products from animals, and two reported on both. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. This volume contains seven appendices. Appendix A presents a brief discussion of the MAACS and COSYMA model codes. Appendix B is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on soils and plants. Appendix C presents the rationales and responses of each of the members of the soils and plants expert panel. Appendix D is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on animal transfer. The rationales and responses of each of the experts on animal transfer are given in Appendix E. Brief biographies of the food chain expert panel members are provided in Appendix F. Aggregated results of expert responses are presented in graph format in Appendix G.

Brown, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)] [and others

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for internal dosimetry. Volume 1: Main report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA internal dosimetry models.

Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harrison, J.D. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Late health effects uncertainty assessment. Volume 1: Main report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA late health effects models.

Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Early health effects uncertainty assessment. Volume 1: Main report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA early health effects models.

Haskin, F.E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Grupa, J.B. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (Netherlands)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment, main report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of the joint effort was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. Experts developed their distributions independently. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. To validate the distributions generated for the dispersion code input variables, samples from the distributions and propagated through the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the first of a three-volume document describing the project.

Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Miller, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States); Lui, C.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Goossens, L.H.J.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Paesler-Sauer, J. [Research Center, Karlsruhe (Germany); Helton, J.C. [and others

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Heat Transfer Analysis and Assessment of Kinetics Systems for PBX 9501  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study of thermal decomposition in high explosive (HE) charges has been an ongoing process since the early 1900s. This work is specifically directed towards the analysis of PBX 9501. In the early 1970s, Dwight Jaeger of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a single-step, two-species kinetics system that was used in the development of one of the first finite element codes for thermal analyses known as EXPLO. Jaeger's research focused on unconfined spherical samples of HE charges to determine if varied heating ramps would cause detonation or deflagration. Tarver and McGuire of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) followed soon after with a three-step, four-species kinetics system that was developed for confined spheres under relatively fast heating conditions. Peter Dickson et al. of LANL then introduced a kinetics system with four steps and five species that included bimolecular products to capture the effects of the endothermic phase change that the HE undergoes. The results of four experiments are examined to study the effectiveness of these kinetics systems. The experiments are: (1) The LLNL scaled thermal explosion (STEX) experiments on confined cylindrical charges with long heating ramps in the range of 90 hours. (2) The LLNL one-dimensional time to explosion (ODTX) experiments on spherical charges that include confined, partially confined, and aged HE experiments. (3) The LANL unconfined one-dimensional experiments for small spheres. (4) The Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division at China Lake experiments on small confined cylinders. The three kinetics systems are applied to each of the four experiments with the use of the finite element analysis (FEA) heat conduction solver COYOTE. The numerical results using the kinetics systems are compared to each other and to the experimental data to determine which kinetics systems are best suited for analyzing conditions such as time to ignition, containment, heating time, and location of ignition.

Jeffrey W. Jorenby

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

189

INTELLIGENT COMPUTING SYSTEM FOR RESERVOIR ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE RED RIVER FORMATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Integrated software has been written that comprises the tool kit for the Intelligent Computing System (ICS). The software tools in ICS have been developed for characterization of reservoir properties and evaluation of hydrocarbon potential using a combination of inter-disciplinary data sources such as geophysical, geologic and engineering variables. The ICS tools provide a means for logical and consistent reservoir characterization and oil reserve estimates. The tools can be broadly characterized as (1) clustering tools, (2) neural solvers, (3) multiple-linear regression, (4) entrapment-potential calculator and (5) file utility tools. ICS tools are extremely flexible in their approach and use, and applicable to most geologic settings. The tools are primarily designed to correlate relationships between seismic information and engineering and geologic data obtained from wells, and to convert or translate seismic information into engineering and geologic terms or units. It is also possible to apply ICS in a simple framework that may include reservoir characterization using only engineering, seismic, or geologic data in the analysis. ICS tools were developed and tested using geophysical, geologic and engineering data obtained from an exploitation and development project involving the Red River Formation in Bowman County, North Dakota and Harding County, South Dakota. Data obtained from 3D seismic surveys, and 2D seismic lines encompassing nine prospective field areas were used in the analysis. The geologic setting of the Red River Formation in Bowman and Harding counties is that of a shallow-shelf, carbonate system. Present-day depth of the Red River formation is approximately 8000 to 10,000 ft below ground surface. This report summarizes production results from well demonstration activity, results of reservoir characterization of the Red River Formation at demonstration sites, descriptions of ICS tools and strategies for their application.

Mark A. Sippel; William C. Carrigan; Kenneth D. Luff; Lyn Canter

2003-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

190

Assessment of Non-traditional Isotopic Ratios by Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Nuclear Activities: Annual Report Year 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to identify isotopic ratios suitable for analysis via mass spectrometry that distinguish between commercial nuclear reactor fuel cycles, fuel cycles for weapons grade plutonium, and products from nuclear weapons explosions. Methods will also be determined to distinguish the above from medical and industrial radionuclide sources. Mass spectrometry systems will be identified that are suitable for field measurement of such isotopes in an expedient manner. Significant progress has been made with this project within the past year: (1) Isotope production from commercial nuclear fuel cycles and nuclear weapons fuel cycles have been modeled with the ORIGEN and MCNPX codes. (2) MCNPX has been utilized to calculate isotopic inventories produced in a short burst fast bare sphere reactor (to approximate the signature of a nuclear weapon). (3) Isotopic ratios have been identified that are good for distinguishing between commercial and military fuel cycles as well as between nuclear weapons and commercial nuclear fuel cycles. (4) Mass spectrometry systems have been assessed for analysis of the fission products of interest. (5) A short-list of forensic ratios have been identified that are well suited for use in portable mass spectrometry systems.

Biegalski, S; Buchholz, B

2009-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

191

Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incineration facility (East Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 7. Accident analysis; selection and assessment of potential release scenarios  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this part of the assessment, several accident scenarios are identified that could result in significant releases of chemicals into the environment. These scenarios include ruptures of storage tanks, large magnitude on-site spills, mixing of incompatible wastes, and off-site releases caused by tranpsortation accidents. In evaluating these scenarios, both probability and consequence are assessed, so that likelihood of occurrence is coupled with magnitude of effect in characterizing short term risks.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Early health effects uncertainty assessment. Volume 2: Appendices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA early health effects models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on early health effects, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

Haskin, F.E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for internal dosimetry. Volume 2: Appendices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA internal dosimetry models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on internal dosimetry, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harrison, J.D. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

INTELLIGENT COMPUTING SYSTEM FOR RESERVOIR ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE RED RIVER FORMATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Integrated software has been written that comprises the tool kit for the Intelligent Computing System (ICS). Luff Exploration Company is applying these tools for analysis of carbonate reservoirs in the southern Williston Basin. The integrated software programs are designed to be used by small team consisting of an engineer, geologist and geophysicist. The software tools are flexible and robust, allowing application in many environments for hydrocarbon reservoirs. Keystone elements of the software tools include clustering and neural-network techniques. The tools are used to transform seismic attribute data to reservoir characteristics such as storage (phi-h), probable oil-water contacts, structural depths and structural growth history. When these reservoir characteristics are combined with neural network or fuzzy logic solvers, they can provide a more complete description of the reservoir. This leads to better estimates of hydrocarbons in place, areal limits and potential for infill or step-out drilling. These tools were developed and tested using seismic, geologic and well data from the Red River Play in Bowman County, North Dakota and Harding County, South Dakota. The geologic setting for the Red River Formation is shallow-shelf carbonate at a depth from 8000 to 10,000 ft.

Kenneth D. Luff

2002-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

195

INTELLIGENT COMPUTING SYSTEM FOR RESERVOIR ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE RED RIVER FORMATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Integrated software has been written that comprises the tool kit for the Intelligent Computing System (ICS). Luff Exploration Company is applying these tools for analysis of carbonate reservoirs in the southern Williston Basin. The integrated software programs are designed to be used by small team consisting of an engineer, geologist and geophysicist. The software tools are flexible and robust, allowing application in many environments for hydrocarbon reservoirs. Keystone elements of the software tools include clustering and neural-network techniques. The tools are used to transform seismic attribute data to reservoir characteristics such as storage (phi-h), probable oil-water contacts, structural depths and structural growth history. When these reservoir characteristics are combined with neural network or fuzzy logic solvers, they can provide a more complete description of the reservoir. This leads to better estimates of hydrocarbons in place, areal limits and potential for infill or step-out drilling. These tools were developed and tested using seismic, geologic and well data from the Red River Play in Bowman County, North Dakota and Harding County, South Dakota. The geologic setting for the Red River Formation is shallow-shelf carbonate at a depth from 8000 to 10,000 ft.

Kenneth D. Luff

2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

196

Uncertainty analysis for an updated dose assessment for a US nuclear test site: Bikini Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed analysis of uncertainty and interindividual variability in estimated doses was conducted for a rehabilitation scenario for Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll, in which the top 40 cm of soil would be removed in the housing and village area, and the rest of the island is treated with potassium fertilizer, prior to an assumed resettlement date of 1999. Predicted doses were considered for the following fallout-related exposure pathways: ingested Cesium-137 and Strontium-90, external gamma exposure, and inhalation and ingestion of Americium-241 + Plutonium-239+240. Two dietary scenarios were considered: (1) imported foods are available (IA), and (2) imported foods are unavailable (only local foods are consumed) (IUA). Corresponding calculations of uncertainty in estimated population-average dose showed that after {approximately}5 y of residence on Bikini, the upper and lower 95% confidence limits with respect to uncertainty in this dose are estimated to be approximately 2-fold higher and lower than its population-average value, respectively (under both IA and IUA assumptions). Corresponding calculations of interindividual variability in the expected value of dose with respect to uncertainty showed that after {approximately}5 y of residence on Bikini, the upper and lower 95% confidence limits with respect to interindividual variability in this dose are estimated to be approximately 2-fold higher and lower than its expected value, respectively (under both IA and IUA assumptions). For reference, the expected values of population-average dose at age 70 were estimated to be 1.6 and 5.2 cSv under the IA and IUA dietary assumptions, respectively. Assuming that 200 Bikini resettlers would be exposed to local foods (under both IA and IUA assumptions), the maximum 1-y dose received by any Bikini resident is most likely to be approximately 2 and 8 mSv under the IA and IUA assumptions, respectively.

Bogen, K.T.; Conrado, C.L.; Robison, W.L.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Gravitational clustering in Static and Expanding Backgrounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A brief summary of several topics in the study of gravitational many body problem is given. The discussion covers both static backgrounds (applicable to astrophysical systems) as well as clustering in an expanding background (relevant for cosmology)

T. Padmanabhan

2003-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

198

Lovelock black holes in a string cloud background  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an exact static, spherically symmetric black hole solution to the third order Lovelock gravity with a string cloud background in seven dimensions for the special case when the second and third order Lovelock coefficients are related via $\\tilde{\\alpha}^2_2=3\\tilde{\\alpha}_3\\;(\\equiv\\alpha^2)$. Further, we examine thermodynamic properties of this black hole to obtain exact expressions for mass, temperature, entropy and also perform the thermodynamic stability analysis. We see that a string cloud background makes a profound influence on horizon structure, thermodynamic properties and the stability of black holes. Interestingly, the entropy of the black hole is unaffected due to a string cloud background. However, the critical solution for thermodynamic stability is being affected by a string cloud background.

Tae-Hun Lee; Dharmanand Baboolal; Sushant G. Ghosh

2014-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

199

Network Requirements Workshop - Documents and Background Materials  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Science Requirements Reviews Network Requirements Reviews Documents and Background Materials Science Engagement Move your data Programs & Workshops Science...

200

SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS PROTOCOLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radiological sampling and analyses are performed to collect data for a variety of specific reasons covering a wide range of projects. These activities include: Effluent monitoring; Environmental surveillance; Emergency response; Routine ambient monitoring; Background assessments; Nuclear license termination; Remediation; Deactivation and decommissioning (D&D); and Waste management. In this chapter, effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance programs at nuclear operating facilities and radiological sampling and analysis plans for remediation and D&D activities will be discussed.

Jannik, T; P Fledderman, P

2007-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment background analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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201

assessment ioa assessment: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Websites Summary: technology analysis Noon Lunch 1:15 California off-shore wind technology assessment 1:45 Technical assessmentRESEARCH RESULTS FORUM FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY...

202

Wind Resource Assessment in Europe Using Emergy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy in Vietnam: Resource assessment, development statusWind Resource Assessment in Europe Using Emergy Subodhspeed). Keywords: Wind resource assessment; Emergy Analysis;

Paudel, Subodh; Santarelli, Massimo; Martin, Viktoria; Lacarriere, Bruno; Le Corre, Olivier

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

A method for enhancement of background sounds in forensic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A method for enhancement of background sounds in forensic audio recordings Robert C. Maher;Outline · Introduction ­ Audio forensic analysis ­ Adaptive interference cancelling ­ Sinusoidal modeling · Test implementation · Example processing · Conclusion #12;Audio Forensics · Audio Forensics

Maher, Robert C.

204

Assessment of solar options for small power systems applications. Volume II. Identification and characterization of concepts for analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary purpose of this study is to provide DOE with an independent, objective assessment of the principal solar thermal conversion concepts that have the potential for achieving commercial success as small electric power sytems in the 1- to 10-MWe range. Seven generic types of collectors, together with associated subsystems for electric power generation, were considered in this study. The collectors can be classified into three categories: (1) two-axis tracking (with compound curvature reflecting surfaces); (2) one-axis tracking (with single-curvature reflecting surfaces); and (3) nontracking (with low-concentration reflecting surfaces). These collectors can be combined with energy transport, energy storage, and power conversion subsystems in a wide variety of ways to formulate conceptual systems for electric power generation. In this study, attention was restricted to configurations that are potentially suitable for development as small power systems (1 to 10 MWe) in the long term (1990 to 2000), with initial commercialization by the mid-1980s. Cogeneration and total energy systems were beyond the scope of this study. All seven types of collectors were analyzed in conceptual system configurations with Rankine-cycle engines. Because they can operate at particularly high concentration ratios, two of the collectors (the Point Focus Central Receiver and the Point Focus Distributed Receiver) were also analyzed with Brayton-cycle engines. In addition, the latter of the two was analyzed with Stirling-cycle engines. With these engine options, 10 conceptual systems were formulated for analysis. Results are presented in detail. (WHK)

Laity, W.W.; Aase, D.T.; Apley, W.J.; Bird, S.P.; Drost, M.K.; Williams, T.A.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Background-independent measurement of $?_{13}$ in Double Chooz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The oscillation results published by the Double Chooz collaboration in 2011 and 2012 rely on background models substantiated by reactor-on data. In this analysis, we present a background-model-independent measurement of the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ by including 7.53 days of reactor-off data. A global fit of the observed neutrino rates for different reactor power conditions is performed, yielding a measurement of both $\\theta_{13}$ and the total background rate. The results on the mixing angle are improved significantly by including the reactor-off data in the fit, as it provides a direct measurement of the total background rate. This reactor rate modulation analysis considers antineutrino candidates with neutron captures on both Gd and H, whose combination yields $\\sin^2(2\\theta_{13})=$ 0.102 $\\pm$ 0.028(stat.) $\\pm$ 0.033(syst.). The results presented in this study are fully consistent with the ones already published by Double Chooz, achieving a competitive precision. They provide, for the first time, a determination of $\\theta_{13}$ that does not depend on a background model.

Y. Abe; J. C. dos Anjos; J. C. Barriere; E. Baussan; I. Bekman; M. Bergevin; T. J. C. Bezerra; L. Bezrukov; E. Blucher; C. Buck; J. Busenitz; A. Cabrera; E. Caden; L. Camilleri; R. Carr; M. Cerrada; P. -J. Chang; E. Chauveau; P. Chimenti; A. P. Collin; E. Conover; J. M. Conrad; J. I. Crespo-Anadón; K. Crum; A. Cucoanes; E. Damon; J. V. Dawson; D. Dietrich; Z. Djurcic; M. Dracos; M. Elnimr; A. Etenko; M. Fallot; F. von Feilitzsch; J. Felde; S. M. Fernandes; V. Fischer; D. Franco; M. Franke; H. Furuta; I. Gil-Botella; L. Giot; M. Göger-Neff; L. F. G. Gonzalez; L. Goodenough; M. C. Goodman; C. Grant; N. Haag; T. Hara; J. Haser; M. Hofmann; G. A. Horton-Smith; A. Hourlier; M. Ishitsuka; J. Jochum; C. Jollet; F. Kaether; L. N. Kalousis; Y. Kamyshkov; D. M. Kaplan; T. Kawasaki; E. Kemp; H. de Kerret; T. Konno; D. Kryn; M. Kuze; T. Lachenmaier; C. E. Lane; T. Lasserre; A. Letourneau; D. Lhuillier; H. P. Lima Jr; M. Lindner; J. M. López-Castaño; J. M. LoSecco; B. K. Lubsandorzhiev; S. Lucht; J. Maeda; C. Mariani; J. Maricic; J. Martino; T. Matsubara; G. Mention; A. Meregaglia; T. Miletic; R. Milincic; A. Minotti; Y. Nagasaka; K. Nakajima; Y. Nikitenko; P. Novella; M. Obolensky; L. Oberauer; A. Onillon; A. Osborn; C. Palomares; I. M. Pepe; S. Perasso; P. Pfahler; A. Porta; G. Pronost; J. Reichenbacher; B. Reinhold; M. Röhling; R. Roncin; S. Roth; B. Rybolt; Y. Sakamoto; R. Santorelli; F. Sato; A. C. Schilithz; S. Schönert; S. Schoppmann; M. H. Shaevitz; R. Sharankova; S. Shimojima; V. Sibille; V. Sinev; M. Skorokhvatov; E. Smith; J. Spitz; A. Stahl; I. Stancu; L. F. F. Stokes; M. Strait; A. Stüken; F. Suekane; S. Sukhotin; T. Sumiyoshi; Y. Sun; R. Svoboda; K. Terao; A. Tonazzo; H. H. Trinh Thi; G. Valdiviesso; N. Vassilopoulos; C. Veyssiere; M. Vivier; S. Wagner; H. Watanabe; C. Wiebusch; L. Winslow; M. Wurm; G. Yang; F. Yermia; V. Zimmer

2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

206

Background reduction and sensitivity for germanium double beta decay experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Germanium detectors have very good capabilities for the investigation of rare phenomena like the neutrinoless double beta decay. Rejection of the background entangling the expected signal is one primary goal in this kind of experiments. Here, the attainable background reduction in the energy region where the neutrinoless double beta decay signal of 76Ge is expected to appear has been evaluated for experiments using germanium detectors, taking into consideration different strategies like the granularity of the detector system, the segmentation of each individual germanium detector and the application of Pulse Shape Analysis techniques to discriminate signal from background events. Detection efficiency to the signal is affected by background rejection techniques, and therefore it has been estimated for each of the background rejection scenarios considered. Finally, conditions regarding crystal mass, radiopurity, exposure to cosmic rays, shielding and rejection capabilities are discussed with the aim to achieve a background level of 10-3 c keV-1 kg-1 y-1 in the region of interest, which would allow to explore neutrino effective masses around 40 meV.

H. Gómez; S. Cebrián; J. Morales; J. A. Villar

2007-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

207

Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy Window Functions Revisited  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The primary results of most observations of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy are estimates of the angular power spectrum averaged through some broad band, called band-powers. These estimates are in turn what are used to produce constraints on cosmological parameters due to all CMB observations. Essential to this estimation of cosmological parameters is the calculation of the expected band-power for a given experiment, given a theoretical power spectrum. Here we derive the "band power" window function which should be used for this calculation, and point out that it is not equivalent to the window function used to calculate the variance. This important distinction has been absent from much of the literature: the variance window function is often used as the band-power window function. We discuss the validity of this assumed equivalence, the role of window functions for experiments that constrain the power in {\\it multiple} bands, and summarize a prescription for reporting experimental results. The analysis methods detailed here are applied in a companion paper to three years of data from the Medium Scale Anisotropy Measurement.

Lloyd Knox

1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

208

Characterization, propagation and analysis of aleatory and epistemic uncertainty in the 2008 performance assessment for the proposed repository for radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2008 performance assessment (PA) for the proposed repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, illustrates the conceptual structure of risk assessments for complex systems. The 2008 YM PA is based on the following three conceptual entities: a probability space that characterizes aleatory uncertainty; a function that predicts consequences for individual elements of the sample space for aleatory uncertainty; and a probability space that characterizes epistemic uncertainty. These entities and their use in the characterization, propagation and analysis of aleatory and epistemic uncertainty are described and illustrated with results from the 2008 YM PA.

Helton, Jon Craig; Sallaberry, Cedric M.; Hansen, Clifford W.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Stochastic Background Search Correlating ALLEGRO with LIGO Engineering Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe the role of correlation measurements between the LIGO interferometer in Livingston, LA, and the ALLEGRO resonant bar detector in Baton Rouge, LA, in searches for a stochastic background of gravitational waves. Such measurements provide a valuable complement to correlations between interferometers at the two LIGO sites, since they are sensitive in a different, higher, frequency band. Additionally, the variable orientation of the ALLEGRO detector provides a means to distinguish gravitational wave correlations from correlated environmental noise. We describe the analysis underway to set a limit on the strength of a stochastic background at frequencies near 900 Hz using ALLEGRO data and data from LIGO's E7 Engineering Run.

John T Whelan; Edward Daw; Ik Siong Heng; Martin P McHugh; Albert Lazzarini

2003-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

210

Stochastic Background Search Correlating ALLEGRO with LIGO Engineering Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe the role of correlation measurements between the LIGO interferometer in Livingston, LA, and the ALLEGRO resonant bar detector in Baton Rouge, LA, in searches for a stochastic background of gravitational waves. Such measurements provide a valuable complement to correlations between interferometers at the two LIGO sites, since they are sensitive in a different, higher, frequency band. Additionally, the variable orientation of the ALLEGRO detector provides a means to distinguish gravitational wave correlations from correlated environmental noise. We describe the analysis underway to set a limit on the strength of a stochastic background at frequencies near 900 Hz using ALLEGRO data and data from LIGO's E7 Engineering Run.

Whelan, J T; Heng, I S; McHugh, M P; Lazzarini, A; Whelan, John T; Daw, Edward; Heng, Ik Siong; Hugh, Martin P Mc; Lazzarini, Albert

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Solar Background Document 6 | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

6.pdf More Documents & Publications Solar Background Document 5 "Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid" Report (June 2012) Dams and Energy Sectors...

212

Final Conservation Billing Credit Policy Supplement Background...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

December 17, 2014 Page 1 Final Conservation Billing Credit Policy Supplement Background and Need: This Conservation Billing Credit Policy Supplement describes how Bonneville Power...

213

Assessing National Employment Impacts of Investment in Residential and Commercial Sector Energy Efficiency: Review and Example Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) modeled the employment impacts of a major national initiative to accelerate energy efficiency trends at one of two levels: • 15 percent savings by 2030. In this scenario, efficiency activities save about 15 percent of the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) Reference Case electricity consumption by 2030. It is assumed that additional energy savings in both the residential and commercial sectors begin in 2015 at zero, and then increase in an S-shaped market penetration curve, with the level of savings equal to about 7.0 percent of the AEO 2014 U.S. national residential and commercial electricity consumption saved by 2020, 14.8 percent by 2025, and 15 percent by 2030. • 10 percent savings by 2030. In this scenario, additional savings begin at zero in 2015, increase to 3.8 percent in 2020, 9.8 percent by 2025, and 10 percent of the AEO reference case value by 2030. The analysis of the 15 percent case indicates that by 2030 more than 300,000 new jobs would likely result from such policies, including an annual average of more than 60,000 jobs directly supporting the installation and maintenance of energy efficiency measures and practices. These are new jobs resulting initially from the investment associated with the construction of more energy-efficient new buildings or the retrofit of existing buildings and would be sustained for as long as the investment continues. Based on what is known about the current level of building-sector energy efficiency jobs, this would represent an increase of more than 10 percent from the current estimated level of over 450,000 such jobs. The more significant and longer-lasting effect comes from the redirection of energy bill savings toward the purchase of other goods and services in the general economy, with its attendant influence on increasing the total number of jobs. This example analysis utilized PNNL’s ImSET model, a modeling framework that PNNL has used over the past two decades to assess the economic impacts of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) energy efficiency programs in the buildings sector.

Anderson, David M.; Belzer, David B.; Livingston, Olga V.; Scott, Michael J.

2014-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

214

COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage): A thermal-hydraulic analysis computer code: Volume 3, Validation assessments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of the COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage) computer code validation effort. COBRA-SFS, while refined and specialized for spent fuel storage system analyses, is a lumped-volume thermal-hydraulic analysis computer code that predicts temperature and velocity distributions in a wide variety of systems. Through comparisons of code predictions with spent fuel storage system test data, the code's mathematical, physical, and mechanistic models are assessed, and empirical relations defined. The six test cases used to validate the code and code models include single-assembly and multiassembly storage systems under a variety of fill media and system orientations and include unconsolidated and consolidated spent fuel. In its entirety, the test matrix investigates the contributions of convection, conduction, and radiation heat transfer in spent fuel storage systems. To demonstrate the code's performance for a wide variety of storage systems and conditions, comparisons of code predictions with data are made for 14 runs from the experimental data base. The cases selected exercise the important code models and code logic pathways and are representative of the types of simulations required for spent fuel storage system design and licensing safety analyses. For each test, a test description, a summary of the COBRA-SFS computational model, assumptions, and correlations employed are presented. For the cases selected, axial and radial temperature profile comparisons of code predictions with test data are provided, and conclusions drawn concerning the code models and the ability to predict the data and data trends. Comparisons of code predictions with test data demonstrate the ability of COBRA-SFS to successfully predict temperature distributions in unconsolidated or consolidated single and multiassembly spent fuel storage systems.

Lombardo, N.J.; Cuta, J.M.; Michener, T.E.; Rector, D.R.; Wheeler, C.L.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Summary of Conceptual Models and Data Needs to Support the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Performance Assessment and Composite Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An overview of the technical approach and data required to support development of the performance assessment, and composite analysis are presented for the remote handled low-level waste disposal facility on-site alternative being considered at Idaho National Laboratory. Previous analyses and available data that meet requirements are identified and discussed. Outstanding data and analysis needs are also identified and summarized. The on-site disposal facility is being evaluated in anticipation of the closure of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INL. An assessment of facility performance and of the composite performance are required to meet the Department of Energy’s Low-Level Waste requirements (DOE Order 435.1, 2001) which stipulate that operation and closure of the disposal facility will be managed in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety, and the environment. The corresponding established procedures to ensure these protections are contained in DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual (DOE M 435.1-1 2001). Requirements include assessment of (1) all-exposure pathways, (2) air pathway, (3) radon, and (4) groundwater pathway doses. Doses are computed from radionuclide concentrations in the environment. The performance assessment and composite analysis are being prepared to assess compliance with performance objectives and to establish limits on concentrations and inventories of radionuclides at the facility and to support specification of design, construction, operation and closure requirements. Technical objectives of the PA and CA are primarily accomplished through the development of an establish inventory, and through the use of predictive environmental transport models implementing an overarching conceptual framework. This document reviews the conceptual model, inherent assumptions, and data required to implement the conceptual model in a numerical framework. Available site-specific data and data sources are then addressed. Differences in required analyses and data are captured as outstanding data needs.

A. Jeff Sondrup; Annette L. Schafter; Arthur S. Rood

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Position sensitive detection of neutrons in high radiation background field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the development of a high-resolution position sensitive device for detection of slow neutrons in the environment of extremely high ? and e{sup ?} radiation background. We make use of a planar silicon pixelated (pixel size: 55 × 55 ?m{sup 2}) spectroscopic Timepix detector adapted for neutron detection utilizing very thin {sup 10}B converter placed onto detector surface. We demonstrate that electromagnetic radiation background can be discriminated from the neutron signal utilizing the fact that each particle type produces characteristic ionization tracks in the pixelated detector. Particular tracks can be distinguished by their 2D shape (in the detector plane) and spectroscopic response using single event analysis. A Cd sheet served as thermal neutron stopper as well as intensive source of gamma rays and energetic electrons. Highly efficient discrimination was successful even at very low neutron to electromagnetic background ratio about 10{sup ?4}.

Vavrik, D., E-mail: vavrik@itam.cas.cz [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, Prague (Czech Republic); Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prosecka 76, 190 00 Prague 9 (Czech Republic); Jakubek, J.; Pospisil, S. [Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prosecka 76, 190 00 Prague 9 (Czech Republic)] [Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prosecka 76, 190 00 Prague 9 (Czech Republic); Vacik, J. [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rez, 250 68 Prague, Czech Republic (Czech Republic)] [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rez, 250 68 Prague, Czech Republic (Czech Republic)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

217

Cavern background measurement with the ATLAS RPC system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The measurement of cavern background has been carried out systematically since the beginning of LHC, as soon as the luminosity produced a detectable signal, from L = 10^28 cm^2s^1 of the early 2010 operation up to L=10^28 cm^2s^1 at the end of 2011 proton-proton run, which is just 1/3 of the nominal LHC luminosity. The reason for this is to early foresee the running condition for the detector for the nominal LHC luminosity and beyond, in view of the super-LHC upgrade. Background Montecarlo calculations have been validated against data and the background map analysis pointed out hotspots due to localized cracks in the radiation shielding. The RPCs participated to this effort since the earliest stages providing an accurate correlation between luminosity and background, a 3D background map in the barrel region and a direct measurement of the cavern activation. Moreover due to the high sensitivity and very good signal to noise ratio of the proposed method, based on the gap current, the measurement was provided in...

Aielli, G; The ATLAS collaboration

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Sources of the Radio Background Considered  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

Singal, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U. /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Lawrence, A.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

219

ECONOMICS WITHIN SOCIAL STUDIES: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF STUDENT PERFORMANCE ON THE 2012 KANSAS HISTORY-GOVERNMENT ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

research questions in order to: (1) determine the level of student knowledge of assessed economic indicators and concepts; (2) investigate how student demographics relate to economic understanding; (3) compare test results in economics with those in other...

Deplazes, Svetlana

2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

220

Faculty Appointment in Hydrometeorology & Climate Science Background and Further Details  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

change impacts; and, · Develop new decision support tools for water security analysis to enable policy and aquatic ecosystems; · Develop integrated decision-support tools for risk assessment and remediation, water quality, and aquatic ecology interactions; and, · Develop new decision support tools

Saskatchewan, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment background analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Stochastic Gravitational Wave Background from Exoplanets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent exoplanet surveys have predicted a very large population of planetary systems in our galaxy, more than one planet per star on the average, perhaps totalling about two hundred billion. These surveys, based on electro-magnetic observations, are limited to a very small neighbourhood of the solar system and the estimations rely on the observations of only a few thousand planets. On the other hand, orbital motions of planets around stars are expected to emit gravitational waves (GW), which could provide information about the planets not accessible to electro-magnetic astronomy. The cumulative effect of the planets, with periods ranging from few hours to several years, is expected to create a stochastic GW background (SGWB). We compute the characteristic GW strain of this background based on the observed distribution of planet parameters. We also show that the integrated extragalactic background is comparable or less than the galactic background at different frequencies. Our estimate shows that the net backg...

Ain, Anirban; Mitra, Sanjit

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Background and Motivation Biomass derived syngas contains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Background and Motivation · Biomass derived syngas contains: CO, H2, small hydrocarbons, H2S prepared by SEA contain smaller metal particle sizes and have higher dispersion · The quantity of reducible

Das, Suman

223

Environmental Permit Application Background Statement (Delaware)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The purpose of Chapter 79 of Delaware Title 7 is to ensure that the State has adequate information about the background of applicants or regulated parties for the purposes of processing permits and...

224

Low background counting techniques at SNOLAB  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many of the experiments currently searching for dark matter, studying properties of neutrinos or searching for neutrinoless double beta decay require very low levels of radioactive backgrounds both in their own construction materials and in the surrounding environment. These low background levels are required so that the experiments can achieve the required sensitivities for their searches. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to directly measure these radioactive backgrounds. This proceedings will describe SNOLAB's High Purity Germanium Detectors, one of which has been in continuous use for the past seven years measuring materials for many experiments in operation or under construction at SNOLAB. A description of the characterisation of SNOLAB's new germanium well detector will be presented. In addition, brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be presented and a description of SNOLAB's future low background counting laboratory will be given.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)] [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

225

Estimating radiological background using imaging spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optical imaging spectroscopy is investigated as a method to estimate radiological background by spectral identification of soils, sediments, rocks, minerals and building materials derived from natural materials and assigning tabulated radiological emission values to these materials. Radiological airborne surveys are undertaken by local, state and federal agencies to identify the presence of radiological materials out of regulatory compliance. Detection performance in such surveys is determined by (among other factors) the uncertainty in the radiation background; increased knowledge of the expected radiation background will improve the ability to detect low-activity radiological materials. Radiological background due to naturally occurring radiological materials (NORM) can be estimated by reference to previous survey results, use of global 40K, 238U, and 232Th (KUT) values, reference to existing USGS radiation background maps, or by a moving average of the data as it is acquired. Each of these methods has its drawbacks: previous survey results may not include recent changes, the global average provides only a zero-order estimate, the USGS background radiation map resolutions are coarse and are accurate only to 1 km – 25 km sampling intervals depending on locale, and a moving average may essentially low pass filter the data to obscure small changes in radiation counts. Imaging spectroscopy from airborne or spaceborne platforms can offer higher resolution identification of materials and background, as well as provide imaging context information. AVIRIS hyperspectral image data is analyzed using commercial exploitation software to determine the usefulness of imaging spectroscopy to identify qualitative radiological background emissions when compared to airborne radiological survey data.

Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean C.; Jordan, David V.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Stewart, Trevor N.; Seifert, Carolyn E.

2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

226

Fractal generation of textures and backgrounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FRACTAL GENERATION OF TEXTURES AND BACKGROUNDS A Thesis by KEVIN DUANE REUTER Subtnitted to the Oflice of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfilhnent of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1999... Major Subject; Visualization Sciences FRACTAL GENERATION OF TEXTURES AND BACKGROUNDS A Thesis by KEVIN DUANE REUTER Submitted to Texas ARM University in partial fulfilhnent of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved...

Reuter, Kevin Duane

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Background Assay and Rejection in DRIFT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The DRIFT-IId dark matter detector is a m$^3$-scale low-pressure TPC with directional sensitivity to WIMP-induced nuclear recoils. Its primary backgrounds were due to alpha decays from contamination on the central cathode. Efforts to reduce these backgrounds led to replacing the 20 \\mu m wire central cathode with one constructed from 0.9 \\mu m aluminized mylar, which is almost totally transparent to alpha particles. Detailed modeling of the nature and origin of the remaining backgrounds led to an in-situ, ppt-sensitive assay of alpha decay backgrounds from the central cathode. This led to further improvements in the thin-film cathode resulting in over 2 orders of magnitude reduction in backgrounds compared to the wire cathode. Finally, the addition of O$_2$ to CS$_2$ gas was found to produce multiple species of electronegative charge carriers, providing a method to determine the absolute position of nuclear recoils and reject all known remaining backgrounds while retaining a high efficiency for nuclear recoil detection.

Jeff Brack; Ed Daw; Alexei Dorofeev; Anthony Ezeribe; Jean-Luc Gauvreau; Michael Gold; John Harton; Randy Lafler; Robert Lauer; Eric R. Lee; Dinesh Loomba; John Matthews; Eric H. Miller; Alissa Monte; Alex Murphy; Sean Paling; Nguyen Phan; Steve Sadler; Andrew Scarff; Daniel Snowden-Ifft; Neil Spooner; Sam Telfer; Daniel Walker; Matt Williams; Leonid Yuriev

2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

228

Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for two-phase flow in the vicinity of the repository in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Undisturbed conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results obtained in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant are presented for two-phase flow the vicinity of the repository under undisturbed conditions. Techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, examination of scatterplots, stepwise regression analysis, partial correlation analysis and rank transformation are used to investigate brine inflow, gas generation repository pressure, brine saturation and brine and gas outflow. Of the variables under study, repository pressure is potentially the most important due to its influence on spallings and direct brine releases, with the uncertainty in its value being dominated by the extent to which the microbial degradation of cellulose takes place, the rate at which the corrosion of steel takes place, and the amount of brine that drains from the surrounding disturbed rock zone into the repository.

HELTON,JON CRAIG; BEAN,J.E.; ECONOMY,K.; GARNER,J.W.; MACKINNON,ROBERT J.; MILLER,JOEL D.; SCHREIBER,JAMES D.; VAUGHN,PALMER

2000-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

229

Effect of Background Emissivity on Gas Detection in Thermal Hyperspectral Imagery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detecting and identifying weak gaseous plumes using thermal imaging data is complicated by many factors. These include variability due to atmosphere, ground and plume temper- ature, and background clutter. This paper presents an analysis of one formulation of the physics-based radiance model, which describes at-sensor observed radiance. The background emissivity and plume/ground temperatures are isolated, and their effects on net chemical signal are described. This analysis shows that the plume’s physical state, emission or absorption, is directly dependent on the background emissivity. It then describes what conditions on the background emissivity have inhibiting effects on the net chemical signal. These claims are illustrated by analyzing synthetic hyperspectral imaging data with the Adaptive Matched Filter using four chemicals and three distinct background emissivities. Two chemicals (Carbontetrachloride and Tetraflourosilane) in the analysis had a very strong relationship with the background emissivities: they exhibited absorbance over a small range of wavenumbers and the background emissivities showed a consistent ordering at these wavenumbers. Analysis of simulated hyperspectral images containing these chemicals showed complete agreement with the analysis of the physics-based model that described when the background emissivities would have inhibiting effects on gas detection. The other chemicals considered (Ammonia and Tributylphosphate) exhibited very complex absorbance structure across the longwave infrared spectrum. Analysis of images containing these chemicals revealed that the the analysis of the physics-based model did not hold completely for these complex chemicals but did suggest that gas detection was dominated by their dominant absorbance features. These results provide some explanation of the effect of the background emissivity on gas detection and a more general exploration of gas absorbance/background emissivity variability and their effects on gas detection is warranted. i

Walsh, Stephen J.; Tardiff, Mark F.; Chilton, Lawrence K.; Metoyer, Candace N.

2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

230

PARTITION: A program for defining the source term/consequence analysis interface in the NUREG--1150 probabilistic risk assessments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The individual plant analyses in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's reassessment of the risk from commercial nuclear power plants (NUREG-1150) consist of four parts: systems analysis, accident progression analysis, source term analysis, and consequence analysis. Careful definition of the interfaces between these parts is necessary for both information flow and computational efficiency. This document has been designed for users of the PARTITION computer program developed by the authors at Sandia National Laboratories for defining the interface between the source term analysis (performed with the XXSOR programs) and the consequence analysis (performed with the MACCS program). This report provides a tutorial that details how the interactive partitioning is performed, along with detailed information on the partitioning process. The PARTITION program was written in ANSI standard FORTRAN 77 to make the code as machine-independent (i.e., portable) as possible. 9 refs., 4 figs.

Iman, R.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Helton, J.C. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA)); Johnson, J.D. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Environmental analysis and data report prepared for the environmental assessment of remedial action at the Lowman uranium mill tailings site near Lowman, Idaho. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document contains information and data gathered in support of the preparation of the environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed remedial action at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Lowman, Idaho. The Lowman EA was prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which requires Federal agencies to assess the effects of their actions on the environment. It examines the short-term and the long-term effects of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) proposed remedial action for the Lowman site as well as the no action alternative. The DOE will use the information and analyses presented in the EA to determine whether the proposed action would have a significant impact on the environment. If the impacts are determined to be significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the impacts are not judged to be significant, the DOE may issue a Finding of No Significant Impact and implement the proposed action. The information and data presented in this environmental analyses and data report are for background purposes only and are not required as part of the NEPA decision-making process.

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

FY2010 ANNUAL REVIEW E-AREA LOW-LEVEL WASTE FACILITY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT AND COMPOSITE ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) consists of a number of disposal units described in the Performance Assessment (PA)(WSRC, 2008b) and Composite Analysis (CA)(WSRC, 1997; WSRC, 1999): Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Vault, Intermediate Level (IL) Vault, Trenches (Slit Trenches [STs], Engineered Trenches [ETs], and Component-in-Grout [CIG] Trenches), and Naval Reactor Component Disposal Areas (NRCDAs). This annual review evaluates the adequacy of the approved 2008 ELLWF PA along with the Special Analyses (SAs) approved since the PA was issued. The review also verifies that the Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 low-level waste (LLW) disposal operations were conducted within the bounds of the PA/SA baseline, the Savannah River Site (SRS) CA, and the Department of Energy (DOE) Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS). Important factors considered in this review include waste receipts, results from monitoring and research and development (R&D) programs, and the adequacy of controls derived from the PA/SA baseline. Sections 1.0 and 2.0 of this review are a summary of the adequacy of the PA/SA and CA, respectively. An evaluation of the FY2010 waste receipts and the resultant impact on the ELLWF is summarized in Section 3.1. The results of the monitoring program, R&D program, and other relevant factors are found in Section 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4, respectively. Section 4.0 contains the CA annual determination similarly organized. SRS low-level waste management is regulated under DOE Order 435.1 (DOE, 1999a) and is authorized under a DAS as a federal permit. The original DAS was issued by the DOE-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) on September 28, 1999 (DOE, 1999b) for the operation of the ELLWF and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The 1999 DAS remains in effect for the regulation of the SDF. Those portions of that DAS applicable to the ELLWF were superseded by revision 1 of the DAS on July 15, 2008 (DOE, 2008b). The 2008 PA and DAS were officially implemented by the facility on October 31, 2008 and are the authorization documents for this FY2010 Annual Review. Department of Energy Headquarters approval of the 2008 DAS was subject to numerous conditions specified in the document. Two of those conditions are to update the ELLWF closure plan and monitoring plan to align with the conceptual model analyzed in the PA. Both of these conditions were met with the issuance of the PA Monitoring Plan (Millings, 2009a) and the Closure Plan (Phifer et al, 2009a). The PA Monitoring Plan was approved by DOE on July 22, 2009 and the Closure Plan was approved by DOE on May 21, 2009. Both will be updated as needed to remain consistent with the PA. The DAS also specifies that the maintenance plan include activities to resolve each of the secondary issues identified in the DOEHQ review of the 2008 PA that were not completely addressed either with supplemental material provided to the review team or in final revisions to the PA. These outstanding issues were originally documented in the 2008 update of the PA/CA Maintenance Plan (WSRC, 2008a) and in subsequent PA/CA Maintenance Plans (most recently SRNS, 2010a) as required and are actively being worked.

Butcher, T.; Swingle, R.; Crapse, K.; Millings, M.; Sink, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Analysis of the low-level waste radionuclide inventory for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a study to improve the estimates of the radionuclides in the low-level radioactive waste (LLW) inventory which is buried in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). The work is done to support the RWMC draft performance assessment (PA). Improved radionuclide inventory estimates are provided for the INEL LLW generators. Engineering, environmental assessment or other research areas may find use for the information in this report. It may also serve as a LLW inventory baseline for data quality assurance. The individual INEL LLW generators, their history and their activities are also described in detail.

Plansky, L.E.; Hoiland, S.A.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Optimal coherent control of CARS: signal enhancement and background elimination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ability to enhance resonant signals and eliminate the non-resonant background is analyzed for Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS). The analysis is done at a specific frequency as well as for broadband excitation using femtosecond pulse-shaping techniques. An appropriate objective functional is employed to balance resonant signal enhancement against non-resonant background suppression. Optimal enhancement of the signal and minimization of the background can be achieved by shaping the probe pulse alone while keeping the pump and Stokes pulses in transform-limited-form (TLF). In some cases analytical forms for the probe pulse can be found, and numerical simulations are carried out for other circumstances. It is found that a good approximate solution for the optimal pulse in the two-pulse CARS is a superposition of linear and arctangent type phases for the pump. The well-known probe delay method is shown to be a quasi-optimal scheme for background suppression. The results should provide a basis to improve the performance of CARS spectroscopy and microscopy.

Fang Gao; Feng Shuang; JunHui Shi; Herschel Rabitz; HaiFeng Wang; JiXin Cheng

2012-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

235

Detectability of Inflationary Gravitational Waves with Microwave Background Polarization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inflation predicts specific relations between the amplitudes and spectral indices of the primordial spectrum of density (scalar metric) perturbations and gravitational waves (tensor metric perturbations). Detection of a stochastic gravitational-wave background is essential for identifying this unmistakable signature. Polarization of the cosmic microwave background can isolate these tensor modes in a model-independent way and thereby circumvent the cosmic-variance limit to detecting a small tensor signal with only a temperature map. Here we assess the detectability of a gravity-wave background with a temperature and polarization map. For detector sensitivities better than $10-20 \\mu K \\sqrt{sec}$, the sensitivity to a tensor signal is always dominated by the polarization map. With a detector sensitivity of order $1 \\mu K \\sqrt{sec}$, polarization could improve on a temperature-map sensitivity to tensor modes by two to three orders of magnitude. Even a small amount of reionization substantially enhances tensor-mode detectability. We also argue that the sensitivity of the Planck Surveyor to tensor modes is significantly improved with polarization, even taking into account the resulting degradation of the intensity determination in the high-frequency channels.

Marc Kamionkowski; Arthur Kosowsky

1997-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

236

Cosmological origin of anomalous radio background  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ARCADE 2 collaboration has reported a significant excess in the isotropic radio background, whose homogeneity cannot be reconciled with clustered sources. This suggests a cosmological origin prior to structure formation. We investigate several potential mechanisms and show that injection of relativistic electrons through late decays of a metastable particle can give rise to the observed excess radio spectrum through synchrotron emission. However, constraints from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy, on injection of charged particles and on the primordial magnetic field, present a challenge. The simplest scenario is with a ?>9 GeV particle decaying into e{sup +}e{sup ?} at a redshift of z ? 5, in a magnetic field of ? 5?G, which exceeds the CMB B-field constraints, unless the field was generated after decoupling. Decays into exotic millicharged particles can alleviate this tension, if they emit synchroton radiation in conjunction with a sufficiently large background magnetic field of a dark U(1)' gauge field.

Cline, James M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montréal, Québec, H3A 2T8 Canada (Canada); Vincent, Aaron C., E-mail: jcline@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: vincent@ific.uv.es [Instituto de Física Corpuscular, Universitat de València - CSIC, 46071, Valencia (Spain)

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Cosmic Microwave Background Tests of Inflation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inflation provides a unified paradigm for understanding the isotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the flatness problem, and the origin of large-scale structure. Although the physics responsible for inflation is not yet well understood, slow-roll inflation generically makes several predictions: a flat Universe, primordial adiabatic density perturbations, and a stochastic gravity-wave background. Inflation further predicts specific relations between the amplitudes and shapes of the spectrum of density perturbations and gravity waves. There are now excellent prospects for testing precisely these predictions with forthcoming CMB temperature and polarization maps. Here I discuss these new CMB tests of inflation.

Marc Kamionkowski

1998-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

238

THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): A SOUNDING ROCKET PAYLOAD TO STUDY THE NEAR INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER) is a suite of four instruments designed to study the near infrared (IR) background light from above the Earth's atmosphere. The instrument package comprises two imaging telescopes designed to characterize spatial anisotropy in the extragalactic IR background caused by cosmological structure during the epoch of reionization, a low resolution spectrometer to measure the absolute spectrum of the extragalactic IR background, and a narrow band spectrometer optimized to measure the absolute brightness of the zodiacal light foreground. In this paper we describe the design and characterization of the CIBER payload. The detailed mechanical, cryogenic, and electrical design of the system are presented, including all system components common to the four instruments. We present the methods and equipment used to characterize the instruments before and after flight, and give a detailed description of CIBER's flight profile and configurations. CIBER is designed to be recoverable and has flown four times, with modifications to the payload having been informed by analysis of the first flight data. All four instruments performed to specifications during the subsequent flights, and the scientific data from these flights are currently being analyzed.

Zemcov, M.; Bock, J.; Hristov, V.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P. [Department of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Battle, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Cooray, A. [Center for Cosmology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Keating, B.; Renbarger, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Kim, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Sullivan, I. [Department of Physics, The University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Suzuki, K., E-mail: zemcov@caltech.edu [Instrument Development Group of Technical Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

239

Sources of machine-induced background in the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the CERN Large Hadron Collider  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One source of experimental background in the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is particles entering the detectors from the machine. These particles are created in cascades, caused by upstream interactions of beam protons with residual gas molecules or collimators. We estimate the losses on the collimators with SixTrack and simulate the showers with FLUKA and MARS to obtain the flux and distribution of particles entering the ATLAS and CMS detectors. We consider some machine configurations used in the first LHC run, with focus on 3.5 TeV operation as in 2011. Results from FLUKA and MARS are compared and a very good agreement is found. An analysis of logged LHC data provides, for different processes, absolute beam loss rates, which are used together with further simulations of vacuum conditions to normalize the results to rates of particles entering the detectors. We assess the relative importance of background from elastic and inelastic beam-gas interactions, and the leakage out of the LHC collimation system, and show that beam-gas interactions are the dominating source of machine-induced background for the studied machine scenarios. Our results serve as a starting point for the experiments to perform further simulations in order to estimate the resulting signals in the detectors.

Bruce, R.; et al.,

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

240

Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in the 2008 performance assessment for the proposed repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extensive work has been carried out by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in the development of a proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. As part of this development, an extensive performance assessment (PA) for the YM repository was completed in 2008 [1] and supported a license application by the DOE to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the construction of the YM repository [2]. This presentation provides an overview of the conceptual and computational structure of the indicated PA (hereafter referred to as the 2008 YM PA) and the roles that uncertainty analysis and sensitivity analysis play in this structure.

Helton, Jon Craig; Sallaberry, Cedric M.; Hansen, Clifford W.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment background analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Background Material Important Questions about Magnetism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Background Material Important Questions about Magnetism: 1) What is Magnetism?Magnetism is a force or repulsion due to charge is called the electric force. But what about magnetism, is there a fundamental property of some matter that makes things magnetic? The answer is: "sort of." Electric current

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

242

UCHC Lockout/Tagout Policy Background  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UCHC Lockout/Tagout Policy (4/09) Background: This safety policy is applicable to all Health Center: Lockout will be utilized for equipment which is designed with a lockout capability. A valve that can be locked out with a chain is considered as having a lockout capability. Only the Office of Research Safety

Kim, Duck O.

243

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background This thesis describes a multi-agent based architecture of the research and an outline plan for the rest of this thesis complete the chapter. 1.2 Software Project and monitor progress to check the development is on time and within budget. #12;3 1.3 Software Project

O'Connor, Rory

244

1 Introduction 1.1 Background  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;#12;3 1 Introduction 1.1 Background Research method is a relevant topic to anybody performing. 1.2 Classical Research, Technology and Technology Research The term research is defined in several different ways. According to Merriam-Webster [1], research is "investigation or experimentation aimed

Stølen, Ketil

245

Cosmic Background Radiation Due to Photon Condensation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is shown that a collection of photons with nearly the same frequency exhibits a Bose "condensation" type of phenomenon at about 3 degrees K corresponding to a peak intensity at a wave length of about 0.4cm. This could give a mechanism for the observed Cosmic Background Radiation, and also explain some curious features.

B. G. Sidharth

1998-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

246

Perturbations of supertube in KK monopole background  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study perturbations of supertube in KK monopole background, at both DBI and supergravity levels. We analyse both NS1-P as well as D0-F1 duality frames and study different profiles. This illuminates certain aspects of bound states of KK monopoles with supertubes.

Yogesh K. Srivastava

2006-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

247

Cosmic IR Backgrounds Ned Wright (UCLA)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cosmic IR Backgrounds by Ned Wright (UCLA) http://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/intro.html See: · http://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/cosmolog.htm · http://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/DIRBE · http://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/CIBR · http

Wright, Edward L. "Ned"

248

2013 National Geothermal Student Competition Background  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 2013 National Geothermal Student Competition Background: The 2013 National Geothermal Student, is designed to advance the understanding of geothermal energy as a valued resource by promoting innovation to engage students in a collaborative exercise to develop a business plan for developing a geothermal

Carrington, Emily

249

Background Simulations for the International Linear Collider  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on superconducting technology to collide bunches of electrons and positrons. The baseline configuration (about 31 km in a clean experimental environment with low backgrounds. The LHC will likely discover the Higgs boson accelerator directly. DESY FLC, 22603 Hamburg, Germany, adrian.vogel@desy.de 1 #12;Figure 1: Overall view

250

Multi-dimensional Meta-analysis for Assessment of Relationships between Asthma Rates and Particulate Air Pollution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multi-dimensional meta-analysis (MDMA) is an innovative technique for investigating complex scientific problems influenced by "external" factors, such as social, medical, economic, political or climatic trends. MDMA extends traditional meta-analysis by identifying significant data from diverse and independent disciplines ("orthogonal dimensions") and incorporating truth tables and non-parametric analysis methods in the interpretation protocol. In this paper, we outline the methodology of MDMA. We then demonstrates how to apply the method to a specific problem: the relationship between asthma and air particulates. The conclusions from the example show that the further reduction of atmospheric particulate levels is not necessarily the answer to the increasing asthma incidence. This example also demonstrates the strength of this method of analysis for complex problems.

J. I. Brand; M. S. Hallbeck; S. M. Ryan

2001-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

251

Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges.

Schroeder, Jenna N.

252

Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges.

Schroeder, Jenna N.

2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

253

Non-thermal Cosmic Backgrounds from Blazars: the contribution to the CMB, X-ray and gamma-ray Backgrounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new assessment of the contribution of Blazars to the extragalactic background radiation across the e.m. spectrum. Our calculations rely on deep Blazar radio counts that we derived combining several multifrequency surveys. The integrated Blazar emission yields a broad-band non-thermal background that in some parts of the e.m. spectrum dominates the extragalactic brightness. Blazars are the main point-like contributors to the CMB. Their integrated emission causes an apparent T increase of 5-50 muK in the 50-250 GHz range. The CMB fluctuation spectrum is sensibly contaminated at l>300, for a Poissonian source distribution, or at lower l values if spatial clustering is present. We estimate that well over 100,000 Blazars will produce a significant signal in the PLANCK CMB anisotropy maps. Because of the microwave-Xray flux correlation, these sources are expected to have flux > a few 10^{-15} erg/s in the soft X-ray band. Thus, a large fraction of the foreground sources in CMB anisotropy maps could be identified and removed using a multi frequency approach, provided that a sufficiently deep all sky X-ray survey will be available. We further show that Blazars are a major constituent of all high-E extragalactic backgrounds. Their contribution is 11-12% at X-ray frequencies and possibly 100% in the 0.5-50 MeV band. At E>100 MeV, the Blazar collective emission, obtained extrapolating their integrated micro-wave flux to the gamma-ray band using the SED of EGRET detected sources, over-predicts the extragalactic background by a large factor, implying that Blazars not only dominate the gamma-ray sky but also that their average duty cycle at these frequencies must be rather low. We also find that Blazars of the HBL type may produce a significant amount of flux at TeV energies.

P. Giommi; S. Colafrancesco; E. Cavazzuti; M. Perri; C. Pittori

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

assessments: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Websites Summary: technology analysis Noon Lunch 1:15 California off-shore wind technology assessment 1:45 Technical assessmentRESEARCH RESULTS FORUM FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY...

255

Assessment of Global Buckling and Fatigue Life for Steel Catenary RIser by Hull-Riser-Mooring Coupled Dynamic Analysis Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the related techniques, software, rules and regulations. They outlined the analysis flow in which the procedure is initiated by design basis and leads to fatigue analysis of SCR including VIV, VIM and motion fatigue, emphasizing 6 the shell element... compression, downward hang-off heave velocity is the target of measurement. Assuming the length is unit length, the equations for the parameter and the variables are as follows: 29 2 min 2 0net d drag Ter alF m g C D V?? ? ? ? ? ? ? 2 /Terminal d...

Eom, Taesung

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Assessment of Tidal Energy Removal Impacts on Physical Systems: Development of MHK Module and Analysis of Effects on Hydrodynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report we describe (1) the development, test, and validation of the marine hydrokinetic energy scheme in a three-dimensional coastal ocean model (FVCOM); and (2) the sensitivity analysis of effects of marine hydrokinetic energy configurations on power extraction and volume flux in a coastal bay. Submittal of this report completes the work on Task 2.1.2, Effects of Physical Systems, Subtask 2.1.2.1, Hydrodynamics and Subtask 2.1.2.3, Screening Analysis, for fiscal year 2011 of the Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy project.

Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Cosmic Microwave Background: Past, Future, and Present  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I explain the origin and evolution of anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and argue that upcoming experiments will measure cosmological and fundamental parameters very accurately. Most of the paper focuses on present data, which strongly suggest that the universe is flat. Several arguments are given to prove that present data sets are not contaminated by systematics. New techniques to compare different experiments visually are introduced. These are illustrated for two years of the MSAM and Python experiments.

Scott Dodelson

1999-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

258

Sideband Mixing in Intense Laser Backgrounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The electron propagator in a laser background has been shown to be made up of a series of sideband poles. In this paper we study this decomposition by analysing the impact of the residual gauge freedom in the Volkov solution on the sidebands. We show that the gauge transformations do not alter the location of the poles. The identification of the propagator from the two-point function is maintained but we show that the sideband structures mix under residual gauge transformations.

Martin Lavelle; David McMullan

2014-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

259

A background free double beta decay experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new detection scheme for rejecting backgrounds in neutrino less double beta decay experiments. It relies on the detection of Cherenkov light emitted by electrons in the MeV region. The momentum threshold is tuned to reach a good discrimination between background and good events. We consider many detector concepts and a range of target materials. The most promising is a high-pressure 136Xe emitter for which the required energy threshold is easily adjusted. Combination of this concept and a high pressure Time Projection Chamber could provide an optimal solution. A simple and low cost effective solution is to use the Spherical Proportional Counter that provides two delayed signals from ionization and Cherenkov light. In solid-state double beta decay emitters, because of their higher density, the considered process is out of energy range. An alternative solution could be the development of double decay emitters with lower density by using for instance the aerogel technique. It is surprising that a technology used for particle identification in high-energy physics becomes a powerful tool for rejecting backgrounds in such low-energy experiments.

Ioannis Giomataris

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

260

Dissimilar-welded failure analysis and development: Volume 6, Weld condition and remaining life assessment manual: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Step-by-step guidelines contained in a new engineering manual explain how to evaluate dissimilar metal weld loadings, assess the current state of damage, and predict remaining weld life. Suggested plant and operational modifications will help utility personnel identify root causes and avoid additional failures in a given boiler. Failure of dissimilar metal welds (DMWs) between the austenitic and ferritic steel tubing used in superheaters and reheaters constitutes a major cause of forced outages in fossil boilers. EPRI has undertaken a study of DMWs, reported in volumes 1-6 of this nine-volume series, to provide utilities with a systematic approach for identifying root causes, remedying identified problems, and estimating remaining DMW useful life. This manual follows the three-phase approach outlined in the EPRI guidelines for life extension (report CS-4778). The investigators subjected the samples to detailed metallurgical examination and established correlations among operating conditions, system stresses, and the extent of observed DMW cracking. These correlations were quantified in the PODIS computer code (prediction of damage in service code; EPRI report CS-4252, volume 7). The investigators documented this information in a manual explaining how to carry out life assessment of DMWs. These guidelines describe an analytic procedure that computes the current level of DMW damage based on operating temperature, the number and nature of cycles, and system stresses. They explain a procedure for supplementary destructive examinations to verify the analytic predictions. 10 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.

Not Available

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

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261

Ultrarelativistic electron states in a general background electromagnetic field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The feasibility of obtaining exact analytical results in the realm of QED in the presence of a background electromagnetic field is almost exclusively limited to a few tractable cases, where the Dirac equation in the corresponding background field can be solved analytically. This circumstance has restricted, in particular, the theoretical analysis of QED processes in intense laser fields to within the plane-wave approximation even at those high intensities, achievable experimentally only by tightly focusing the laser energy in space. Here, within the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) or eikonal approximation, we construct analytically single-particle electron states in the presence of a background electromagnetic field of general space-time structure in the realistic assumption that the initial energy of the electron is the largest dynamical energy scale in the problem. The relatively compact expression of these states opens, in particular, the possibility of investigating analytically strong-field QED processes in the presence of spatially focused laser beams, which is of particular relevance in view of the upcoming experimental campaigns in this field.

A. Di Piazza

2014-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

262

Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) : gap analysis for high fidelity and performance assessment code development.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a gap analysis performed in the process of developing the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with rigorous verification, validation, and software quality requirements. The gap analyses documented in this report were are performed during an initial gap analysis to identify candidate codes and tools to support the development and integration of the Waste IPSC, and during follow-on activities that delved into more detailed assessments of the various codes that were acquired, studied, and tested. The current Waste IPSC strategy is to acquire and integrate the necessary Waste IPSC capabilities wherever feasible, and develop only those capabilities that cannot be acquired or suitably integrated, verified, or validated. The gap analysis indicates that significant capabilities may already exist in the existing THC codes although there is no single code able to fully account for all physical and chemical processes involved in a waste disposal system. Large gaps exist in modeling chemical processes and their couplings with other processes. The coupling of chemical processes with flow transport and mechanical deformation remains challenging. The data for extreme environments (e.g., for elevated temperature and high ionic strength media) that are needed for repository modeling are severely lacking. In addition, most of existing reactive transport codes were developed for non-radioactive contaminants, and they need to be adapted to account for radionuclide decay and in-growth. The accessibility to the source codes is generally limited. Because the problems of interest for the Waste IPSC are likely to result in relatively large computational models, a compact memory-usage footprint and a fast/robust solution procedure will be needed. A robust massively parallel processing (MPP) capability will also be required to provide reasonable turnaround times on the analyses that will be performed with the code. A performance assessment (PA) calculation for a waste disposal system generally requires a large number (hundreds to thousands) of model simulations to quantify the effect of model parameter uncertainties on the predicted repository performance. A set of codes for a PA calculation must be sufficiently robust and fast in terms of code execution. A PA system as a whole must be able to provide multiple alternative models for a specific set of physical/chemical processes, so that the users can choose various levels of modeling complexity based on their modeling needs. This requires PA codes, preferably, to be highly modularized. Most of the existing codes have difficulties meeting these requirements. Based on the gap analysis results, we have made the following recommendations for the code selection and code development for the NEAMS waste IPSC: (1) build fully coupled high-fidelity THCMBR codes using the existing SIERRA codes (e.g., ARIA and ADAGIO) and platform, (2) use DAKOTA to build an enhanced performance assessment system (EPAS), and build a modular code architecture and key code modules for performance assessments. The key chemical calculation modules will be built by expanding the existing CANTERA capabilities as well as by extracting useful components from other existing codes.

Lee, Joon H.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Dewers, Thomas A.; Mariner, Paul E.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Fuller, Timothy J.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wang, Yifeng

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Separating Signal From Background Using Ensembles of Rules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Machine learning has emerged as a important tool for separating signal events from associated background in high energy particle physics experiments. This paper describes a new machine learning method based on ensembles of rules. Each rule consists of a conjuction of a small number of simple statements (''cuts'') concerning the values of individual input variables. These rule ensembles produce predictive accuracy comparable to the best methods. However their principal advantage lies in interpretation. Because of its simple form, each rule is easy to understand, as is its influence on the predictive model. Similarly, the degree of relevance of each of the respective input variables can be assessed. Graphical representations are presented that can be used to ascertain the dependence of the model jointly on the variables used for prediction.

Friedman, J.H.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Gravitational wave radiometry: Mapping a stochastic gravitational wave background  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The problem of the detection and mapping of a stochastic gravitational wave background (SGWB), either cosmological or astrophysical, bears a strong semblance to the analysis of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy and polarization, which too is a stochastic field, statistically described in terms of its correlation properties. An astrophysical gravitational wave background (AGWB) will likely arise from an incoherent superposition of unmodelled and/or unresolved sources and cosmological gravitational wave backgrounds (CGWB) are also predicted in certain scenarios. The basic statistic we use is the cross correlation between the data from a pair of detectors. In order to ''point'' the pair of detectors at different locations one must suitably delay the signal by the amount it takes for the gravitational waves (GW) to travel to both detectors corresponding to a source direction. Then the raw (observed) sky map of the SGWB is the signal convolved with a beam response function that varies with location in the sky. We first present a thorough analytic understanding of the structure of the beam response function using an analytic approach employing the stationary phase approximation. The true sky map is obtained by numerically deconvolving the beam function in the integral (convolution) equation. We adopt the maximum likelihood framework to estimate the true sky map using the conjugate gradient method that has been successfully used in the broadly similar, well-studied CMB map-making problem. We numerically implement and demonstrate the method on signal generated by simulated (unpolarized) SGWB for the GW radiometer consisting of the LIGO pair of detectors at Hanford and Livingston. We include 'realistic' additive Gaussian noise in each data stream based on the LIGO-I noise power spectral density. The extension of the method to multiple baselines and polarized GWB is outlined. In the near future the network of GW detectors, including the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors that will be sensitive to sources within a thousand times larger spatial volume, could provide promising data sets for GW radiometry.

Mitra, Sanjit [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Dhurandhar, Sanjeev; Souradeep, Tarun [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Lazzarini, Albert; Mandic, Vuk; Ballmer, Stefan [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Bose, Sukanta [Department of Physics, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814 (United States)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

265

Extracting cosmic microwave background polarisation from satellite astrophysical maps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the application of the Fast Independent Component Analysis technique for blind component separation to polarised astrophysical emission. We study how the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarised signal, consisting of $E$ and $B$ modes, can be extracted from maps affected by substantial contamination from diffuse Galactic foregrounds and instrumental noise. We perform the analysis of all sky maps simulated accordingly to the nominal performances of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) aboard the Planck satellite; the sky signal is modeled as a superposition of CMB, generated by a Gaussian, nearly scale invariant cosmological perturbation spectrum, and the existing simulated polarisation templates of Galactic synchrotron. Our results indicate that the angular power spectrum of CMB $E$ modes can be recovered on all scales up to $\\ell\\simeq 1000$, corresponding to the fourth acoustic oscillation, while $B$ modes can be detected, up to their turnover at $\\ell\\simeq 100$ if cosmological tensor amplitude...

Baccigalupi, C; De Zotti, G; Smoot, G F; Burigana, C; Maino, D; Bedini, L; Salerno, E

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

MCNP6 Results for the Phase III Sensitivity Benchmark of the OCED/NEA Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Within the last decade, there has been increasing interest in the calculation of cross section sensitivity coefficients of k{sub eff} for integral experiment design and uncertainty analysis. The OECD/NEA has an Expert Group devoted to Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis within the Working Party for Nuclear Criticality Safety. This expert group has developed benchmarks to assess code capabilities and performance for doing sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Phase III of a set of sensitivity benchmarks evaluates capabilities for computing sensitivity coefficients. MCNP6 has the capability to compute cross section sensitivities for k{sub eff} using continuous-energy physics. To help verify this capability, results for the Phase III benchmark cases are generated and submitted to the Expert Group for comparison. The Phase III benchmark has three cases: III.1, an array of MOX fuel pins, III.2, a series of infinite lattices of MOX fuel pins with varying pitches, and III.3 two spheres with homogeneous mixtures of UF{sub 4} and polyethylene with different enrichments.

Kiedrowski, Brian C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

267

New physics from the Cosmic Microwave Background  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I review the present status of the Cosmic Microwave Background, with some emphasis on the current and future implications for particle physics. Conclusions are: gravitational instability in a dark matter dominated universe grew today's structure; the Universe remained neutral until z<~50; the CMB power spectrum peaks at 150<~l<~350; the large-scale structure of spacetime appears to be simple; something like inflation is something like proven; we will learn a great deal about cosmology, astrophysics and particle physics from MAP and Planck.

Douglas Scott

1999-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

268

Superconducting Hair on Charged Black String Background  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Behaviour of Dirac fermions in the background of a charged black string penetrated by an Abelian Higgs vortex is elaborated. One finds the evidence that the system under consideration can support fermion fields acting like a superconducting cosmic string in the sence that a nontrivial Dirac fermion field can be carried by the system in question. The case of nonextremal and extremal black string vortex systems were considered. The influence of electric and Higgs charge, the winding number and the fermion mass on the fermion localization near the black string event horizon was studied. It turned out that the extreme charged black string expelled fermion fields more violently comparing to the nonextremal one.

Lukasz Nakonieczny; Marek Rogatko

2012-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

269

The social fabric of Jeans' Assessing the Social: Coupling social simulation and assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. For instance, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) (Guinée, 2002) focuses more on the embedded resources consumption many are not intended as major forms of assessment. Physical assessment (e.g. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)), monetary assessment (e.g. Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA)), scenario analysis (tools

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

270

A strategic analysis study-based approach to integrated risk assessment: Occupational health risks from environmental restoration and waste management activities at Hanford  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of environmental restoration and waste management activities is to reduce public health risks or to delay risks to the future when new technology will be available for improved cleanup solutions. Actions to remediate the wastes on the Hanford Site will entail risks to workers, the public, and the environment that do not currently exist. In some circumstances, remediation activities will create new exposure pathways that are not present without cleanup activities. In addition, cleanup actions will redistribute existing health risks over time and space, and will likely shift health risks to cleanup workers in the short term. This report describes an approach to occupational risk assessment based on the Hanford Strategic Analysis Study and illustrates the approach by comparing worker risks for two options for remediation of N/K fuels, a subcategory of unprocessed irradiated fuels at Hanford.

Mahaffey, J.A.; Doctor, P.G.; Buschbom, R.L.; Glantz, C.S.; Daling, P.M.; Sever, L.E.; Vargo, G.J. Jr.; Strachan, D.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Pajunen, A.L.; Hoyt, R.C.; Ludowise, J.D. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

SIMULATION MODEL ANALYSIS OF THE MOST PROMISING GEOLOGIC SEQUESTRATION FORMATION CANDIDATES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGION, USA, WITH FOCUS ON UNCERTAINTY ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to report results of reservoir model simulation analyses for forecasting subsurface CO2 storage capacity estimation for the most promising formations in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. A particular emphasis of this project was to assess uncertainty of the simulation-based forecasts. Results illustrate how local-scale data, including well information, number of wells, and location of wells, affect storage capacity estimates and what degree of well density (number of wells over a fixed area) may be required to estimate capacity within a specified degree of confidence. A major outcome of this work was development of a new workflow of simulation analysis, accommodating the addition of “random pseudo wells” to represent virtual characterization wells.

Lee, Si-Yong; Zaluski, Wade; Will, Robert; Eisinger, Chris; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

A background free double beta decay experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new detection scheme for rejecting backgrounds in neutrino less double beta decay experiments. It relies on the detection of Cherenkov light emitted by electrons in the MeV region. The momentum threshold is tuned to reach a good discrimination between background and good events. We consider many detector concepts and a range of target materials. The most promising is a high-pressure 136Xe emitter for which the required energy threshold is easily adjusted. Combination of this concept and a high pressure Time Projection Chamber could provide an optimal solution. A simple and low cost effective solution is to use the Spherical Proportional Counter that provides two delayed signals from ionization and Cherenkov light. In solid-state double beta decay emitters, because of their higher density, the considered process is out of energy range. An alternative solution could be the development of double decay emitters with lower density by using for instance the aerogel technique. It is surprising that a te...

Giomataris, Ioannis

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers including draft environmental assessment, regulatory impact analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-12) and by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-357), and by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486), provides energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products` covered by the Act, and authorizes the Secretary of Energy to prescribe amended or new energy standards for each type (or class) of covered product. The assessment of the proposed standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers presented in this document is designed to evaluate their economic impacts according to the criteria in the Act. It includes an engineering analysis of the cost and performance of design options to improve the efficiency of the products; forecasts of the number and average efficiency of products sold, the amount of energy the products will consume, and their prices and operating expenses; a determination of change in investment, revenues, and costs to manufacturers of the products; a calculation of the costs and benefits to consumers, electric utilities, and the nation as a whole; and an assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed standards.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Air quality analysis and related risk assessment for the Bonneville Power Administration's Resource Program Environmental Impact Statement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering 12 different alternatives for acquiring energy resources over the next 20 years. Each of the alternatives utilizes a full range of energy resources (e.g., coal, cogeneration, conservation, and nuclear); however, individual alternatives place greater emphases on different types of power-producing resources and employ different timetables for implementing these resources. The environmental impacts that would result from the implementation of each alternative and the economic valuations of these impacts, will be an important consideration in the alternative selection process. In this report we discuss the methods used to estimate environmental impacts from the resource alternatives. We focus on pollutant emissions rates, ground-level air concentrations of basic criteria pollutants, the acidity of rain, particulate deposition, ozone concentrations, visibility attenuation, global warming, human health effects, agricultural and forest impacts, and wildlife impacts. For this study, pollutant emission rates are computed by processing BPA data on power production and associated pollutant emissions. The assessment of human health effects from ozone indicated little variation between the resource alternatives. Impacts on plants, crops, and wildlife populations from power plant emissions are projected to be minimal for all resource alternatives.

Glantz, C S; Burk, K W; Driver, C J; Liljegren, J C; Neitzel, D A; Schwartz, M N; Dana, M T; Laws, G L; Mahoney, L A; Rhoads, K

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Taking Risk Assessment and Management to the Next Level: Program-Level Risk Analysis to Enable Solid Decision-Making on Priorities and Funding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A multi-level (facility and programmatic) risk assessment was conducted for the facilities in the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Readiness in Technical Base and Facilities (RTBF) Program and results were included in a new Risk Management Plan (RMP), which was incorporated into the fiscal year (FY) 2010 Integrated Plans. Risks, risk events, probability, consequence(s), and mitigation strategies were identified and captured, for most scope areas (i.e., risk categories) during the facilitated risk workshops. Risk mitigations (i.e., efforts in addition to existing controls) were identified during the facilitated risk workshops when the risk event was identified. Risk mitigation strategies fell into two broad categories: threats or opportunities. Improvement projects were identified and linked to specific risks they mitigate, making the connection of risk reduction through investments for the annual Site Execution Plan. Due to the amount of that was collected, analysis to be performed, and reports to be generated, a Risk Assessment/ Management Tool (RAMtool) database was developed to analyze the risks in real-time, at multiple levels, which reinforced the site-level risk management process and procedures. The RAMtool database was developed and designed to assist in the capturing and analysis of the key elements of risk: probability, consequence, and impact. The RAMtool calculates the facility-level and programmatic-level risk factors to enable a side-by-side comparison to see where the facility manager and program manager should focus their risk reduction efforts and funding. This enables them to make solid decisions on priorities and funding to maximize the risk reduction. A more active risk management process was developed where risks and opportunities are actively managed, monitored, and controlled by each facility more aggressively and frequently. risk owners have the responsibility and accountability to manage their assigned risk in real-time, using the RAMtool database.

Nelson, J. G.; Morton, R. L.; Castillo, C.; Dyer, G.; Johnson, N.; McSwain, J. T.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Safety assessment of historical masonry churches based on pre-assigned kinematic limit analysis, FE limit and pushover analyses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study presents some results of a comprehensive numerical analysis on three masonry churches damaged by the recent Emilia-Romagna (Italy) seismic events occurred in May 2012. The numerical study comprises: (a) pushover analyses conducted with a commercial code, standard nonlinear material models and two different horizontal load distributions; (b) FE kinematic limit analyses performed using a non-commercial software based on a preliminary homogenization of the masonry materials and a subsequent limit analysis with triangular elements and interfaces; (c) kinematic limit analyses conducted in agreement with the Italian code and based on the a-priori assumption of preassigned failure mechanisms, where the masonry material is considered unable to withstand tensile stresses. All models are capable of giving information on the active failure mechanism and the base shear at failure, which, if properly made non-dimensional with the weight of the structure, gives also an indication of the horizontal peak ground acceleration causing the collapse of the church. The results obtained from all three models indicate that the collapse is usually due to the activation of partial mechanisms (apse, façade, lateral walls, etc.). Moreover the horizontal peak ground acceleration associated to the collapse is largely lower than that required in that seismic zone by the Italian code for ordinary buildings. These outcomes highlight that structural upgrading interventions would be extremely beneficial for the considerable reduction of the seismic vulnerability of such kind of historical structures.

Milani, Gabriele, E-mail: milani@stru.polimi.it; Valente, Marco, E-mail: milani@stru.polimi.it [Department of Architecture, Built Environment and Construction Engineering (ABC), Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)

2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

277

Non-thermal Cosmic Backgrounds from Blazars: the contribution to the CMB, X-ray and gamma-ray Backgrounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new assessment of the contribution of Blazars to the extragalactic background radiation across the e.m. spectrum. Our calculations rely on deep Blazar radio counts that we derived combining several multifrequency surveys. The integrated Blazar emission yields a broad-band non-thermal background that in some parts of the e.m. spectrum dominates the extragalactic brightness. Blazars are the main point-like contributors to the CMB. Their integrated emission causes an apparent T increase of 5-50 muK in the 50-250 GHz range. The CMB fluctuation spectrum is sensibly contaminated at l>300, for a Poissonian source distribution, or at lower l values if spatial clustering is present. We estimate that well over 100,000 Blazars will produce a significant signal in the PLANCK CMB anisotropy maps. Because of the microwave-Xray flux correlation, these sources are expected to have flux > a few 10^{-15} erg/s in the soft X-ray band. Thus, a large fraction of the foreground sources in CMB anisotropy maps could be ...

Giommi, P; Cavazzuti, E; Perri, M; Pittori, C

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

apm background radiation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Extragalactic Background Radiation Astrophysics (arXiv) Summary: Attenuation of high--energy gamma rays by pair--production with UV, optical and IR background photons provides a...

279

Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for deposited material and external doses. Volume 1: Main report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA deposited material and external dose models.

Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Boardman, J. [AEA Technology (United Kingdom); Jones, J.A. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Assessment of the histopathological lesions and chemical analysis of feral cats to the smoke from the Kuwait oil fires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Twenty-six adult or subadult feral cats were collected from Kuwait approximately 8 months after the ignition of the Kuwait oil wells. These animals were obtained from two sources: 12 animals from Kuwait City, a relatively smoke-free area, and 14 from the city of Ahmadi, an area with heavy smoke. Animals were euthanized and a complete set of tissues consisting of all major organs was taken for histopathology. Samples of lung, liver, kidney, urine, and blood were also taken for toxicology. Histopathological lesions observed in the lung were mild accumulations of anthracotic pigment in the lungs of 17 cats. Hyperplasia of the bronchial and bronchiolar gland in 8 cats, and smooth muscle hyperplasia of bronchioles in 14 cats. Tracheal gland hyperplasia was observed in 7 cats, and minimal squamous metaplasia of the tracheal mucosa in 17 cats, Laryngeal lesions consisted of submucosal gland hyperplasia in 2 cats and squamous metaplasia of the mucosa in 5 cats. Hyperplasia of the nasal submucosal glands was observed in 6 animals. The pharyngeal mucosa as well as other organs and organ systems were normal in all cats. Atomic absorption analysis for 11 metals was performed; vanadium and nickel levels (two metals that were present in the smoke from the oil fires) are not indicative of substantial exposure to the oil fires. Based on the histopathological findings and toxicological analysis, it is felt that inhalation of air contaminated with smoke from the oil fires had little or no long-term effect on the animals examined. 36 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

Moeller, R.B. Jr.; Dick, E.J.; Pletcher, J.M. [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment background analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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281

Assessment of the histopathological lesions and chemical analysis of feral cats to the smoke from Kuwait oil fires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Twenty-six adult or subadult feral cats were collected from Kuwait approximately 8 months after the ignition of the Kuwait oil wells. These animals were obtained from two sources: 12 animals from Kuwait City, a relatively Co smoke-free area, and 14 from the city of Alimadi, an area with heavy smoke. Animals were euthanized and a complete set of tissues consisting of all 0 major organs was taken for histopathology. Samples of lung, liver, kidney, urine, and blood were also taken for toxicology. Histopathological lesions observed in the lung were mild accumulations of anthracotic pigment in the lungs of 17 cats. Hyperplasia of the bronchial and bronchiolar gland in 8 cats, and smooth muscle hyperplasia of bronchioles in 14 cats. Iracheal gland hyperplasia was observed in 7 cats, and minimal squamous metaplasia of the tracheal mucosa in 17 cats, Laryngeal lesions consisted of submucosal gland hyperplasia in 2 cats and squamous metaplasia of the mucosa in 5 cats. Hyperplasia of the nasal submucosal glands was observed in 6 animals. The pharyngeal mucosa as well as other organs and organ systems (a) were normal in all cats. Atomic absorption analysis for 11 metals was performed; vanadium and nickel levels (two metals that were present in the smoke from the oil fires) are not indicative of substantial exposure to the oil fires. Based on the histopathological findings and toxicological analysis, it is felt that inhalation of air contaminated with smoke from the oil fires had little or no long-term effect on the animals examined.

Moeller, R.B.; Kalasinsky, V.F.; Razzaque, M.; Centeno, J.A.; Dick, E.J.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

282

Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Test case release consequence analysis for a spent fuel repository in bedded salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geologic and geohydrologic data for the Paradox Basin have been used to simulate movement of ground water and radioacrtive contaminants from a hypothetical nuclear reactor spent fuel repository after an assumed accidental release. The pathlines, travel times and velocity of the ground water from the repository to the discharge locale (river) were determined after the disruptive event by use of a two-dimensional finite difference hydrologic model. The concentration of radioactive contaminants in the ground water was calculated along a series of flow tubes by use of a one-dimensional mass transport model which takes into account convection, dispersion, contaminant/media interactions and radioactive decay. For the hypothetical site location and specific parameters used in this demonstration, it is found that Iodine-129 (I-129) is tthe only isotope reaching the Colorado River in significant concentration. This concentration occurs about 8.0 x 10/sup 5/ years after the repository has been breached. This I-129 ground-water concentration is about 0.3 of the drinking water standard for uncontrolled use. The groundwater concentration would then be diluted by the Colorado River. None of the actinide elements reach more than half the distance from the repository to the Colorado River in the two-million year model run time. This exercise demonstrates that the WISAP model system is applicable for analysis of contaminant transport. The results presented in this report, however, are valid only for one particular set of parameters. A complete sensitivity analysis must be performed to evaluate the range of effects from the release of contaminants from a breached repository.

Raymond, J.R.; Bond, F.W.; Cole, C.R.; Nelson, R.W.; Reisenauer, A.E.; Washburn, J.F.; Norman, N.A.; Mote, P.A.; Segol, G.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background: Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) contain a wealth of information about the past history of the universe and the present values of cosmological parameters. I ouline some of the theoretical advances of the last few years. In particular, I emphasize that for a wide class of cosmological models, theorists can accurately calculate the spectrum to better than a percent. The specturm of anisotropies today is directly related to the pattern of inhomogeneities present at the time of recombination. This recognition leads to a powerful argument that will enable us to distinguish inflationary models from other models of structure formation. If the inflationary models turn out to be correct, the free parameters in these models will be determined to unprecedented accuracy by the upcoming satellite missions.

Scott Dodelson

1997-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

284

The Cosmic Microwave Background and Particle Physics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In forthcoming years, connections between cosmology and particle physics will be made increasingly important with the advent of a new generation of cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. Here, we review a number of these links. Our primary focus is on new CMB tests of inflation. We explain how the inflationary predictions for the geometry of the Universe and primordial density perturbations will be tested by CMB temperature fluctuations, and how the gravitational waves predicted by inflation can be pursued with the CMB polarization. The CMB signatures of topological defects and primordial magnetic fields from cosmological phase transitions are also discussed. Furthermore, we review current and future CMB constraints on various types of dark matter (e.g. massive neutrinos, weakly interacting massive particles, axions, vacuum energy), decaying particles, the baryon asymmetry of the Universe, ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, exotic cosmological topologies, and other new physics.

Marc Kamionkowski; Arthur Kosowsky

1999-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

285

RPV stops bump off the background  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the 8 TeV LHC reach on pair produced heavy flavored di-jet resonances. Motivated by theories of R-parity violation in supersymmetry we concentrate on a final state with two b-jets and two light jets. We exploit b-tagging to reject the background and discuss its importance at the trigger level to probe light stops. We present kinematical selections that can be used to isolate the signal as a bump in the mass distribution of the candidate resonances. We find that stops with R-parity violating couplings giving rise to fully hadronic final states can be observed in the current run of the LHC. Remarkably, the LHC can probe stop masses well within the range predicted by naturalness.

Roberto Franceschini; Riccardo Torre

2014-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

286

Characterisation and mitigation of beam-induced backgrounds observed in the ATLAS detector during the 2011 proton-proton run  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents a summary of beam-induced backgrounds observed in the ATLAS detector and discusses methods to tag and remove background contaminated events in data. Trigger-rate based monitoring of beam-related backgrounds is presented. The correlations of backgrounds with machine conditions, such as residual pressure in the beam-pipe, are discussed. Results from dedicated beam-background simulations are shown, and their qualitative agreement with data is evaluated. Data taken during the passage of unpaired, i.e. non-colliding, proton bunches is used to obtain background-enriched data samples. These are used to identify characteristic features of beam-induced backgrounds, which then are exploited to develop dedicated background tagging tools. These tools, based on observables in the Pixel detector, the muon spectrometer and the calorimeters, are described in detail and their efficiencies are evaluated. Finally an example of an application of these techniques to a monojet analysis is given, which demonstra...

Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Atkinson, Markus; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Cosmic Background Radiation Mini-Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This is a complete re-write of the mini-review for the Review of Particle Physics (a.k.a the Partcicle Data Book), which includes an assessment of the CMB anisotropy results and their interpretation up until the end of 2003. It forms a compact overview of the field at this time. Sections headings are: Introduction; Description of CMB Anisotropies; Cosmological Parameters; Physics of Anisotropies; Current Anisotropy Data; CMB Polarization; Complications; Constraints on Cosmologies; Particle Physics Constraints; Fundamental Lessons; and Future Directions.

Douglas Scott; George Smoot

2004-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

288

Final base case community analysis: Indian Springs, Nevada for the Clark County socioeconomic impact assessment of the proposed high- level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a base case description of the rural Clark County community of Indian Springs in anticipation of change associated with the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. As the community closest to the proposed site, Indian Springs may be seen by site characterization workers, as well as workers associated with later repository phases, as a logical place to live. This report develops and updates information relating to a broad spectrum of socioeconomic variables, thereby providing a `snapshot` or `base case` look at Indian Springs in early 1992. With this as a background, future repository-related developments may be analytically separated from changes brought about by other factors, thus allowing for the assessment of the magnitude of local changes associated with the proposed repository. Given the size of the community, changes that may be considered small in an absolute sense may have relatively large impacts at the local level. Indian Springs is, in many respects, a unique community and a community of contrasts. An unincorporated town, it is a small yet important enclave of workers on large federal projects and home to employees of small- scale businesses and services. It is a rural community, but it is also close to the urbanized Las Vega Valley. It is a desert community, but has good water resources. It is on flat terrain, but it is located within 20 miles of the tallest mountains in Nevada. It is a town in which various interest groups diverge on issues of local importance, but in a sense of community remains an important feature of life. Finally, it has a sociodemographic history of both surface transience and underlying stability. If local land becomes available, Indian Springs has some room for growth but must first consider the historical effects of growth on the town and its desired direction for the future.

NONE

1992-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

289

DCE-MRI defined subvolumes of a brain metastatic lesion by principle component analysis and fuzzy-c-means clustering for response assessment of radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To develop a pharmacokinetic modelfree framework to analyze the dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) data for assessment of response of brain metastases to radiation therapy. Methods: Twenty patients with 45 analyzable brain metastases had MRI scans prior to whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and at the end of the 2-week therapy. The volumetric DCE images covering the whole brain were acquired on a 3T scanner with approximately 5 s temporal resolution and a total scan time of about 3 min. DCE curves from all voxels of the 45 brain metastases were normalized and then temporally aligned. A DCE matrix that is constructed from the aligned DCE curves of all voxels of the 45 lesions obtained prior to WBRT is processed by principal component analysis to generate the principal components (PCs). Then, the projection coefficient maps prior to and at the end of WBRT are created for each lesion. Next, a pattern recognition technique, based upon fuzzy-c-means clustering, is used to delineate the tumor subvolumes relating to the value of the significant projection coefficients. The relationship between changes in different tumor subvolumes and treatment response was evaluated to differentiate responsive from stable and progressive tumors. Performance of the PC-defined tumor subvolume was also evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis in prediction of nonresponsive lesions and compared with physiological-defined tumor subvolumes. Results: The projection coefficient maps of the first three PCs contain almost all response-related information in DCE curves of brain metastases. The first projection coefficient, related to the area under DCE curves, is the major component to determine response while the third one has a complimentary role. In ROC analysis, the area under curve of 0.88 ± 0.05 and 0.86 ± 0.06 were achieved for the PC-defined and physiological-defined tumor subvolume in response assessment. Conclusions: The PC-defined subvolume of a brain metastasis could predict tumor response to therapy similar to the physiological-defined one, while the former is determined more rapidly for clinical decision-making support.

Farjam, Reza; Tsien, Christina I.; Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, SPC 5010, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5010 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, SPC 5010, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5010 (United States); Cao, Yue, E-mail: yuecao@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, SPC 5010, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5010 (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, SPC 5010, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5010 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Med Inn Building C478, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5842 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2200 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2099 (United States)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

290

The {ital COBE} Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment Search for the Cosmic Infrared Background. I. Limits and Detections  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) on the Cosmic Background Explorer ({ital COBE}) spacecraft was designed primarily to conduct a systematic search for an isotropic cosmic infrared background (CIB) in 10 photometric bands from 1.25 to 240 {mu}m. The results of that search are presented here. Conservative limits on the CIB are obtained from the minimum observed brightness in all-sky maps at each wavelength, with the faintest limits in the DIRBE spectral range being at 3.5 {mu}m ({nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} {lt} 64 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, 95{percent} confidence level) and at 240 {mu}m ({nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} {lt} 28 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, 95{percent} confidence level). The bright foregrounds from interplanetary dust scattering and emission, stars, and interstellar dust emission are the principal impediments to the DIRBE measurements of the CIB. These foregrounds have been modeled and removed from the sky maps. Assessment of the random and systematic uncertainties in the residuals and tests for isotropy show that only the 140 and 240 {mu}m data provide candidate detections of the CIB. The residuals and their uncertainties provide CIB upper limits more restrictive than the dark sky limits at wavelengths from 1.25 to 100 {mu}m. No plausible solar system or Galactic source of the observed 140 and 240 {mu}m residuals can be identified, leading to the conclusion that the CIB has been detected at levels of {nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} = 25 {plus_minus} 7 and 14 {plus_minus} 3 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1} at 140 and 240 {mu}m, respectively. The integrated energy from 140 to 240 {mu}m, 10.3 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, is about twice the integrated optical light from the galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field, suggesting that star formation might have been heavily enshrouded by dust at high redshift. The detections and upper limits reported here provide new constraints on models of the history of energy-releasing processes and dust production since the decoupling of the cosmic microwave background from matter. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

Hauser, M.G. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)] [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Arendt, R.G. [Raytheon STX, Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)] [Raytheon STX, Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kelsall, T.; Dwek, E. [Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)] [Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Odegard, N.; Weiland, J.L.; Freudenreich, H.T. [Raytheon STX, Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)] [Raytheon STX, Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Reach, W.T. [California Institute of Technology, IPAC/JPL, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)] [California Institute of Technology, IPAC/JPL, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Silverberg, R.F.; Moseley, S.H. [Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)] [Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Pei, Y.C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)] [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lubin, P. [Physics Department, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)] [Physics Department, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Mather, J.C.; Shafer, R.A. [Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)] [Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Smoot, G.F. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Space Sciences Laboratory, Department of Physics, UC Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Space Sciences Laboratory, Department of Physics, UC Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Weiss, R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Room 20F-001, Department of Physics, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)] [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Room 20F-001, Department of Physics, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wilkinson, D.T. [Princeton University, Department of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Box 708, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)] [Princeton University, Department of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Box 708, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Wright, E.L. [UCLA, Astronomy Department, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1562 (United States)] [UCLA, Astronomy Department, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1562 (United States)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Measurements of Worldwide Radioxenon Backgrounds - The "EU" Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), radioactive xenon (radioxenon) measurements are one of the principle techniques used to detect nuclear underground nuclear explosions, and specifically, the presence of one or more radioxenon isotopes allows one to determine whether a suspected event was a nuclear explosion or originated from an innocent source. During the design of the International Monitoring System (IMS), which was designed as the verification mechanism for the Treaty, it was determined that radioxenon measurements should be performed at 40 or more stations worldwide. At the time of the design of the IMS, however, very few details about the background of the xenon isotopes was known and it is now recognized that the backgrounds were probably evolving anyhow. This paper lays out the beginning of a study of the worldwide concentrations of xenon isotopes that can be used to detect nuclear explosions and several sources that also release radioxenons, and will have to be accounted for during analysis of atmospheric levels. Although the global concentrations of the xenon isotopes are the scope of a much larger activity that could span over several years, this study measures radioxenon concentrations in locations where there was either very little information or there was a unique opportunity to learn more about emissions from known sources. The locations where radioxenon levels were measured and reported are included.

Bowyer, Ted W.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Hayes, James C.; Forrester, Joel B.; Haas, Derek A.; Hansen, Randy R.; Keller, Paul E.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Lidey, Lance S.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Payne, Rosara F.; Saey, Paul R.; Thompson, Robert C.; Woods, Vincent T.; Williams, Richard M.

2009-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

292

Large-Angular-Scale Anisotropy in the Cosmic Background Radiation  

DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

We report the results of an extended series of airborne measurements of large-angular-scale anisotropy in the 3 K cosmic background radiation. Observations were carried out with a dual-antenna microwave radiometer operating at 33 GHz (.089 cm wavelength) flown on board a U-2 aircraft to 20 km altitude. In eleven flights, between December 1976 and May 1978, the radiometer measured differential intensity between pairs of directions distributed over most of the northern hemisphere with an rms sensitivity of 47 mK Hz{sup 1?}. The measurements how clear evidence of anisotropy that is readily interpreted as due to the solar motion relative to the sources of the radiation. The anisotropy is well fit by a first order spherical harmonic of amplitude 360{+ or -}50km sec{sup -1} toward the direction 11.2{+ or -}0.5 hours of right ascension and 19 {+ or -}8 degrees declination. A simultaneous fit to a combined hypotheses of dipole and quadrupole angular distributions places a 1 mK limit on the amplitude of most components of quadrupole anisotropy with 90% confidence. Additional analysis places a 0.5 mK limit on uncorrelated fluctuations (sky-roughness) in the 3 K background on an angular scale of the antenna beam width, about 7 degrees.

Gorenstein, M. V.; Smoot, G. F.

1980-05-00T23:59:59.000Z

293

Schwarzschild black hole in dark energy background  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we present an exact solution of Einstein's field equations describing the Schwarzschild black hole in dark energy background. It is also regarded as an embedded solution that the Schwarzschild black hole is embedded into the dark energy space producing Schwarzschild-dark energy black hole. It is found that the space-time geometry of Schwarzschild-dark energy solution is non-vacuum Petrov type $D$ in the classification of space-times. We study the energy conditions (like weak, strong and dominant conditions) for the energy-momentum tensor of the Schwarzschild-dark energy solution. We also find that the energy-momentum tensor of the Schwarzschild-dark energy solution violates the strong energy condition due to the negative pressure leading to a repulsive gravitational force of the matter field in the space-time. It is shown that the time-like vector field for an observer in the Schwarzschild-dark energy space is expanding, accelerating, shearing and non-rotating. We investigate the surface gravity and the area of the horizons for the Schwarzschild-dark energy black hole.

Ngangbam Ishwarchandra; Ng. Ibohal; K. Yugindro Singh

2014-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

294

Statistics of Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a formalism for analyzing a full-sky temperature and polarization map of the cosmic microwave background. Temperature maps are analyzed by expanding over the set of spherical harmonics to give multipole moments of the two-point correlation function. Polarization, which is described by a second-rank tensor, can be treated analogously by expanding in the appropriate tensor spherical harmonics. We provide expressions for the complete set of temperature and polarization multipole moments for scalar and tensor metric perturbations. Four sets of multipole moments completely describe isotropic temperature and polarization correlations; for scalar metric perturbations one set is identically zero, giving the possibility of a clean determination of the vector and tensor contributions. The variance with which the multipole moments can be measured in idealized experiments is evaluated, including the effects of detector noise, sky coverage, and beam width. Finally, we construct coordinate-independent polarization two-point correlation functions, express them in terms of the multipole moments, and derive small-angle limits.

Marc Kamionkowski; Arthur Kosowsky; Albert Stebbins

1996-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

ISO and the Cosmic Infrared Background  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ISO observed, for the first time to such a high sensitivity level, the mid- and far-infrared universe. A Number of deep surveys were performed to probe the cosmological evolution of galaxies. In this review, I discuss and summarize results of mid-infrared ISOCAM and far-infrared ISOPHOT surveys, and show how our vision of the extragalactic infrared universe has become more accurate. In particular, ISO allowed us to resolve into sources a significant fraction of the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) in the mid-infrared, and to probe a fainter population in the far-infrared with the detection of the CIB fluctuations. Together with other wavelength data sets, the nature of ISO galaxies is now in the process of being understood. I also show that the high quality of the ISO data put strong constraints on the scenarios of galaxy evolution. This induced a burst in the development of models, yielding to a more coherent picture of galaxy evolution. I finally emphasize the potential of the ISO data archive in the field of observational cosmology, and describe the next steps, in particular the forthcoming cosmological surveys to be carried out by SIRTF.

Herve Dole

2002-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

296

K-mouflage Cosmology: the Background Evolution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the cosmology of K-mouflage theories at the background level. We show that the effects of the scalar field are suppressed at high matter density in the early Universe and only play a role in the late time Universe where the deviations of the Hubble rate from its $\\Lambda$-CDM counterpart can be of the order five percent for redshifts $1 \\lesssim z \\lesssim 5$. Similarly, we find that the equation of state can cross the phantom divide in the recent past and even diverge when the effective scalar energy density goes negative and subdominant compared to matter, preserving the positivity of the squared Hubble rate. These features are present in models for which Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is not affected. We analyze the fate of K-mouflage when the nonlinear kinetic terms give rise to ghosts, particle excitations with negative energy. In this case, we find that the K-mouflage theories can only be considered as an effective description of the Universe at low energy below $1$ keV. In the safe ghost-free models, we find that the equation of state always diverges in the past and changes significantly by a few percent since $z\\lesssim 1$.

Philippe Brax; Patrick Valageas

2014-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

297

Assessing the assessments: Pharmaceuticals in the environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The relatively new issue of pharmaceutical contamination of the environment offers the opportunity to explore the application of values to the construction, communication and management of risk. The still-developing regulatory policies regarding environmental contamination with pharmaceuticals provide fertile ground for the introduction of values into the definition and management of risk. In this report, we summarize the current knowledge regarding pharmaceutical contamination of the environment and discuss specific attributes of pharmaceuticals that require special consideration. We then present an analysis showing that if values are incorporated into assessing, characterizing and managing risk, the results of risk assessments will more accurately reflect the needs of various stakeholders. Originating from an acknowledgement of the inherent uncertainty and value-laden nature of risk assessment, the precautionary principle (and later, the multi-criteria, integrated risk assessment), provides a direction for further research and policy development.

Enick, O.V. [Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada)], E-mail: oana.enick@gov.bc.ca; Moore, M.M. [Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada)], E-mail: mmoore@sfu.ca

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

298

Multiple concentric annuli for characterizing spatially nonuniform backgrounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A method is presented for estimating the background at a given location on a sky map by interpolating the estimated background from a set of concentric annuli which surround this location. If the background is nonuniform but smoothly varying, this method provides a more accurate (though less precise) estimate than can be obtained with a single annulus. Several applications of multi-annulus background estimation are discussed, including direct testing for point sources in the presence of a nonuniform background, the generation of "surrogate maps" for characterizing false alarm rates, and precise testing of the null hypothesis that the background is uniform.

James Theiler; Jeff Bloch

1999-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

299

Environmental Assessment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

... 49 22 Table 3-6. Comparison of 2009 Dose to Public from Hanford Site Versus Federal Standards 23 and Natural Background....

300

A comparison of geostatistically based inverse techniques for use in performance assessment analysis at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site: Results from Test Case No. 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The groundwater flow pathway in the Culebra Dolomite aquifer at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been identified as a potentially important pathway for radionuclide migration to the accessible environment. Consequently, uncertainties in the models used to describe flow and transport in the Culebra need to be addressed. A ``Geostatistics Test Problem`` is being developed to evaluate a number of inverse techniques that may be used for flow calculations in the WIPP performance assessment (PA). The Test Problem is actually a series of test cases, each being developed as a highly complex synthetic data set; the intent is for the ensemble of these data sets to span the range of possible conceptual models of groundwater flow at the WIPP site. The Test Problem analysis approach is to use a comparison of the probabilistic groundwater travel time (GWTT) estimates produced by each technique as the basis for the evaluation. Participants are given observations of head and transmissivity (possibly including measurement error) or other information such as drawdowns from pumping wells, and are asked to develop stochastic models of groundwater flow for the synthetic system. Cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) of groundwater flow (computed via particle tracking) are constructed using the head and transmissivity data generated through the application of each technique; one semi-analytical method generates the CDFs of groundwater flow directly. This paper describes the results from Test Case No. 1.

Zimmerman, D.A. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gallegos, D.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment background analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Extracting cosmic microwave background polarisation from satellite astrophysical maps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the application of the Fast Independent Component Analysis ({\\ica}) technique for blind component separation to polarized astrophysical emission. We study how the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarized signal, consisting of $E$ and $B$ modes, can be extracted from maps affected by substantial contamination from diffuse Galactic foreground emission and instrumental noise. {We implement Monte Carlo chains varying the CMB and noise realizations in order to asses the average capabilities of the algorithm and their variance.} We perform the analysis of all sky maps simulated according to the {\\sc Planck} satellite capabilities, modelling the sky signal as a superposition of the CMB and of the existing simulated polarization templates of Galactic synchrotron. Our results indicate that the angular power spectrum of CMB $E$-mode can be recovered on all scales up to $\\ell\\simeq 1000$, corresponding to the fourth acoustic oscillation, while the $B$-mode power spectrum can be detected, up to its turnover at $\\ell\\simeq 100$, if the ratio of tensor to scalar contributions to the temperature quadrupole exceeds 30%. The power spectrum of the cross correlation between total intensity and polarization, $TE$, can be recovered up to $\\ell\\simeq 1200$, corresponding to the seventh $TE$ acoustic oscillation.

C. Baccigalupi; F. Perrotta; G. De Zotti; G. F. Smoot; C. Burigana; D. Maino; L. Bedini; E. Salerno

2004-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

302

Passive background correction method for spatially resolved detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for passive background correction during spatially or angularly resolved detection of emission that is based on the simultaneous acquisition of both the passive background spectrum and the spectrum of the target of interest.

Schmitt, Randal L. (Tijeras, NM); Hargis, Jr., Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

303

Uniform Gauge for D1-brane in General Background  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We construct uniform gauge D1-brane action in general background. We also discuss how this action transforms under double Wick rotation and determine transformation properties of background fields.

Kluson, J

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

MARSAME Appendix B B. SOURCES OF BACKGROUND RADIOACTIVITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: · The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) provides information concerning background radioactivity in Background as a Residual Radioactivity Criterion for Decommissioning NUREG-1501 (NRC 1994). · The United Nations Scientific

305

Muon-induced backgrounds in the CUORICINO experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

background in the neutrinoless double beta decay region ofis searching for neutrinoless double beta decay (0???), a

Andreotti, E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying Guidance for Federal...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Material Underlying Guidance for Federal Agencies in Implementing Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying Guidance for...

307

NREL: Energy Analysis: Resource Assessment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions and Achievements ofLiz Torres Photo ofTravis

308

NABIR Assessment Element, Expanded Rapid, Comprehensive, Lipid Biomarker Analysis for Subsurface, Community Composition and Nutritional/Physiological Status as Monitors of Remediation and Detoxification Effectiveness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NABIR funding at the University of Tennessee Center for Biomarker Analysis (CBA) has led to several key contributions to the investigation of bioremediation of metals and radionuclides. This lab has played an integral part in assessing microbial communities at the field scale at the ORNL FRC (Istok et al., 2004) and two UMTRA sites (Anderson et al., 2003, Chang et al., 2001). Our work over the period of the grant has resulted in 42-peer reviewed publications, 62 presentations (14 of which were international), and one patent pending. Currently CBA has 2 papers in press. The main objectives relating to the field portion of this program were to provide comprehensive biomarker analysis for NABIR collaborators to enhance the understanding of microbial geo-bioprocesses involved in the effective immobilization of metals (We have worked with and published or currently are publishing with 10 groups of NAIBR investigators). The laboratory portion of our research centered on methods development and has led to three major innovations that could result in a systematic way of evaluating sites for potential bioremediation. The first of these is the development of an in situ sampling device (Peacock et al., 2004, Anderson et al., 2003, Istok et al., 2004) for the collection and concentration of microbial biomass. The second is the development of expanded lipid analysis based on the significantly greater sensitivity and selectivity of the LC/MS/MS that allows the analysis of respiratory quinones, diglycerides, sterols, intact phospholipids, poly-hydroxyalkonates, and potentially archaeol, and caldarchaeols from archea. These new analyses are accomplished more rapidly and with increased sensitivities and resolution than in the past (Lytle et al., 2000a, 2000b, 2001a, Geyer et al., 2004). The third advance is the coupling of lipid analysis with 13C enrichment experiments (Lytle et al., 2001b, Geyer et al. 2005). With this technique it is now possible to follow the active portion of the in situ microbial community with a resolution heretofore not possible. These three advances in technology have been initially demonstrated at the NABIR Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge, TN and at the UMTRA Old Rifle site in Colorado. Microbial communities are of primary importance in the use of bioimmobilization strategies for metals and radionuclides from contaminated groundwater and sediments. These communities represent a potentially transformable agent that is able to affect virtually all biogeochemical pathways. Microorganisms can alter metal chemistry and mobility through reduction, accumulation, and immobilization and have been shown to be responsible for mineral formation and dissolution. Research is directed to provide collaborating NABIR investigators a rapid, comprehensive, and cost-effective suite of biomarker measurements to quantify microbial community structure, activity, and effectiveness, thereby providing defensible evidence that a desired bioprocess is occurring or may occur at a given site.

David C. White

2005-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

309

Surface-wave-enabled darkfield aperture for background suppression during  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

can be directly incorporated onto optical sensors to accom- plish predetection background suppression if the sensor is fully capable of measuring the same weak signal in the absence of background (1, 2- trivial to employ. A sensor that can intrinsically cancel a strong background prior to signal detection

Yang, Changhuei

310

Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incineration facility (East Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 2. Introduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contents: Overview; Facility Background; Risk Assessment History at WTI; Peer Review Comments and Key Assumptions; and References.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

STATISTICS OF EXTREMES IN CLIMATOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY PART I: BACKGROUND AND TRADITIONAL APPROACHES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 STATISTICS OF EXTREMES IN CLIMATOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY PART I: BACKGROUND AND TRADITIONAL APPROACHES;3 Outline (1) Historical Perspective (2) Basic Characteristics of Climate/Hydrologic Extremes (3) Traditional Statistical Analysis of Climate/Hydrologic Extremes (4) Spatial/Temporal Dependence of Climate

Katz, Richard

312

Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 3: Project Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. ORR background soil characterization data will be used for two purposes. The first application will be in differentiating between naturally occurring constituents and site-related contamination. This is a very important step in a risk assessment because if sufficient background data are not available, no constituent known to be a contaminant can be eliminated from the assessment even if the sampled concentration is measured at a minimum level. The second use of the background data will be in calculating baseline risks against which site-specific contamination risks can be compared.

Hatmaker, T.L.; Hook, L.A.; Jackson, B.L. [and others

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Assess the Efficacy of an Aerial Distant Observer Tool Capable of Rapid Analysis of Large Sections of Collector Fields: FY 2008 CSP Milestone Report, September 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We assessed the feasibility of developing an aerial Distant Observer optical characterization tool for collector fields in concentrating solar power plants.

Jorgensen, G.; Burkholder, F.; Gray, A.; Wendelin, T.

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Assessment of technologies for hazardous waste site remediation: Non-treatment technologies and pilot scale facility implementation -- excavation -- storage technology -- safety analysis and review statement. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to assess the state-of-the-art of excavation technology as related to environmental remediation applications. A further purpose is to determine which of the excavation technologies reviewed could be used by the US Corp of Engineers in remediating contaminated soil to be excavated in the near future for construction of a new Lock and Dam at Winfield, WV. The study is designed to identify excavation methodologies and equipment which can be used at any environmental remediation site but more specifically at the Winfield site on the Kanawha River in Putnam County, West Virginia. A technical approach was determined whereby a functional analysis was prepared to determine the functions to be conducted during the excavation phase of the remediation operations. A number of excavation technologies were identified from the literature. A set of screening criteria was developed that would examine the utility and ranking of the technologies with respect to the operations that needed to be conducted at the Winfield site. These criteria were performance, reliability, implementability, environmental safety, public health, and legal and regulatory compliance. The Loose Bulk excavation technology was ranked as the best technology applicable to the Winfield site. The literature was also examined to determine the success of various methods of controlling fugitive dust. Depending upon any changes in the results of chemical analyses, or prior remediation of the VOCs from the vadose zone, consideration should be given to testing a new ``Pneumatic Excavator`` which removes the VOCs liberated during the excavation process as they outgas from the soil. This equipment however would not be needed on locations with low levels of VOC emissions.

Johnson, H.R.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Koperna, G.J. Jr.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

assessment ocimf avaliacao: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Websites Summary: technology analysis Noon Lunch 1:15 California off-shore wind technology assessment 1:45 Technical assessmentRESEARCH RESULTS FORUM FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY...

316

assessment olkiluodon kapselointi: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Websites Summary: technology analysis Noon Lunch 1:15 California off-shore wind technology assessment 1:45 Technical assessmentRESEARCH RESULTS FORUM FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY...

317

arteritis angiographic assessment: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Websites Summary: technology analysis Noon Lunch 1:15 California off-shore wind technology assessment 1:45 Technical assessmentRESEARCH RESULTS FORUM FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY...

318

assessment technical progress: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Websites Summary: technology analysis Noon Lunch 1:15 California off-shore wind technology assessment 1:45 Technical assessmentRESEARCH RESULTS FORUM FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY...

319

assessment smo 016e: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Websites Summary: technology analysis Noon Lunch 1:15 California off-shore wind technology assessment 1:45 Technical assessmentRESEARCH RESULTS FORUM FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY...

320

assessment workshop: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Websites Summary: technology analysis Noon Lunch 1:15 California off-shore wind technology assessment 1:45 Technical assessmentRESEARCH RESULTS FORUM FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment background analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wave Energy...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

States Ocean Wave Energy Resource Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wave Energy Resource This report describes the analysis and results of a rigorous assessment of...

322

assessing bed net: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Net Environmental Benefit Analysis: A New Assessment Methodology R. A. Efroymson 4 Assessing Debris Flow Hazard by Credal Nets A. Antonucci1 Computer Technologies and...

323

Assessment of Background E. coli Levels in Runoff from Grazed & Ungrazed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Three locations: · Welder Wildlife Refuge · Sinton · Chaparral-mixed grass communities · USDA

324

CARD No. 32 Scope of Performance Assessments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) will meet EPA's release limits is conducted through the useCARD No. 32 Scope of Performance Assessments 32.A.1 BACKGROUND The radioactive waste disposal of a process known as a "performance assessment" (PA). The WIPP PA essentially consists of a series of computer

325

Kinematics of geodesic flows in stringy black hole backgrounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the kinematics of timelike geodesic congruences in two and four dimensions in spacetime geometries representing stringy black holes. The Raychaudhuri equations for the kinematical quantities (namely, expansion, shear and rotation) characterising such geodesic flows are written down and subsequently solved analytically (in two dimensions) and numerically (in four dimensions) for specific geodesics flows. We compare between geodesic flows in dual (electric and magnetic) stringy black hole backgrounds in four dimensions, by showing the differences that arise in the corresponding evolutions of the kinematic variables. The crucial role of initial conditions and the spacetime curvature on the evolution of the kinematical variables is illustrated. Some novel general conclusions on geodesic focusing are obtained from the analytical and numerical findings. We also propose new quantifiers in terms of (a) the time (affine parameter) of approach to a singularity and (b) the location of extrema in the functional evolution of the kinematic variables, which may be used to distinguish between flows in different geometries. In summary, our quantitative findings bring out hitherto unknown features of the kinematics of geodesic flows, which, otherwise, would have remained overlooked, if we confined ourselves to only a qualitative analysis.

Anirvan Dasgupta; Hemwati Nandan; Sayan Kar

2009-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

326

Overcoming High Energy Backgrounds at Pulsed Spallation Sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Instrument backgrounds at neutron scattering facilities directly affect the quality and the efficiency of the scientific measurements that users perform. Part of the background at pulsed spallation neutron sources is caused by, and time-correlated with, the emission of high energy particles when the proton beam strikes the spallation target. This prompt pulse ultimately produces a signal, which can be highly problematic for a subset of instruments and measurements due to the time-correlated properties, and different to that from reactor sources. Measurements of this background have been made at both SNS (ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN, USA) and SINQ (PSI, Villigen, Switzerland). The background levels were generally found to be low compared to natural background. However, very low intensities of high-energy particles have been found to be detrimental to instrument performance in some conditions. Given that instrument performance is typically characterised by S/N, improvements in backgrounds can both improve instrument pe...

Cherkashyna, Nataliia; DiJulio, Douglas D; Khaplanov, Anton; Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Scherzinger, Julius; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P; Fissum, Kevin G; Ansell, Stuart; Iverson, Erik B; Ehlers, Georg; Gallmeier, Franz X; Panzner, Tobias; Rantsiou, Emmanouela; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Filges, Uwe; Kittelmann, Thomas; Extegarai, Maddi; Santoro, Valentina; Kirstein, Oliver; Bentley, Phillip M

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Sky maps without anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are a better fit to WMAP's uncalibrated time ordered data than the official sky maps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The purpose of this reanalysis of the WMAP uncalibrated time ordered data (TOD) was two fold. The first was to reassess the reliability of the detection of the anisotropies in the official WMAP sky maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The second was to assess the performance of a proposed criterion in avoiding systematic error in detecting a signal of interest. The criterion was implemented by testing the null hypothesis that the uncalibrated TOD was consistent with no anisotropies when WMAP's hourly calibration parameters were allowed to vary. It was shown independently for all 20 WMAP channels that sky maps with no anisotropies were a better fit to the TOD than those from the official analysis. The recently launched Planck satellite should help sort out this perplexing result.

Keith S. Cover

2009-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

328

Geothermal industry assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An assessment of the geothermal industry is presented, focusing on industry structure, corporate activities and strategies, and detailed analysis of the technological, economic, financial, and institutional issues important to government policy formulation. The study is based principally on confidential interviews with executives of 75 companies active in the field. (MHR)

Not Available

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Technology Assessment  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Roll to Roll (R2R) Processing 1 Technology Assessment 2 3 Contents 4 1. Introduction to the TechnologySystem ......

330

Wind Resource Assessment in Europe Using Emergy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of wind turbine assessment based on energy, exergy, LCA andLCA and emergy) in the case of sustainability assessment of windLCA does. In emergy analysis, direct and indirect inputs of wind

Paudel, Subodh; Santarelli, Massimo; Martin, Viktoria; Lacarriere, Bruno; Le Corre, Olivier

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

The impact of non-Planckian effects on radio cosmological backgrounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Non-Planckian (NP) spectral modifications of the CMB radiation spectrum can be produced due to the existence of a non-zero value of the plasma frequency at the recombination epoch. We present here an analysis of NP effects on the radio cosmological background and we derive, for the first time, predictions of their amplitude on three different observables: the CMB spectrum, the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in cosmic structures, and the 21-cm background temperature brightness change. We find that NP effect can manifest in the CMB spectrum at $\

Colafrancesco, Sergio; Marchegiani, Paolo

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

ESnet supports Sandia and APNIC IPv6 Background Radiation research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

supports Sandia and APNIC IPv6 Background Radiation research Engineering Services The Network OSCARS Fasterdata IPv6 Network IPv6 Implementation Checklist ESnet IPv6 Mirror Servers...

333

Backgrounds and Projected Limits from Dark Matter Direct Detection Experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A simple formula is introduced which indicates the amount by which projections of dark matter direct detection experiments are expected to be degraded due to backgrounds.

Scott Dodelson

2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

334

Consequence Assessment  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This volume focuses on the process of performing timely initial assessments necessary to support critical first decisions and the continuous process of refining those initial assessments as more information and resources become available. Canceled by DOE G 151.1-4.

1997-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

335

A COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND LENSING MASS MAP AND ITS CORRELATION WITH THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We use a temperature map of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) obtained using the South Pole Telescope at 150 GHz to construct a map of the gravitational convergence to z {approx} 1100, revealing the fluctuations in the projected mass density. This map shows individual features that are significant at the {approx}4{sigma} level, providing the first image of CMB lensing convergence. We cross-correlate this map with Herschel/SPIRE maps covering 90 deg{sup 2} at wavelengths of 500, 350, and 250 {mu}m. We show that these submillimeter (submm) wavelength maps are strongly correlated with the lensing convergence map, with detection significances in each of the three submm bands ranging from 6.7{sigma} to 8.8{sigma}. We fit the measurement of the cross power spectrum assuming a simple constant bias model and infer bias factors of b = 1.3-1.8, with a statistical uncertainty of 15%, depending on the assumed model for the redshift distribution of the dusty galaxies that are contributing to the Herschel/SPIRE maps.

Holder, G. P.; De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dudley, J. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Viero, M. P.; Bock, J. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Zahn, O. [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, Department of Physics, University of California, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Aird, K. A. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Benson, B. A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Cho, H-M. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); George, E. M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Halverson, N. W. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); and others

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Invited Article: Characterization of background sources in space-based time-of-flight mass spectrometers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For instruments that use time-of-flight techniques to measure space plasma, there are common sources of background signals that evidence themselves in the data. The background from these sources may increase the complexity of data analysis and reduce the signal-to-noise response of the instrument, thereby diminishing the science value or usefulness of the data. This paper reviews several sources of background commonly found in time-of-flight mass spectrometers and illustrates their effect in actual data using examples from ACE-SWICS and MESSENGER-FIPS. Sources include penetrating particles and radiation, UV photons, energy straggling and angular scattering, electron stimulated desorption of ions, ion-induced electron emission, accidental coincidence events, and noise signatures from instrument electronics. Data signatures of these sources are shown, as well as mitigation strategies and design considerations for future instruments.

Gilbert, J. A.; Gershman, D. J.; Gloeckler, G.; Lundgren, R. A.; Zurbuchen, T. H. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Orlando, T. M.; McLain, J. [Georgia Institute of Technology, 225 North Ave NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Steiger, R. von [International Space Science Institute, Hallerstrasse 6, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland and Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

337

Influence of suprathermal background electrons on strong auroral double layers: Observations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study examines the properties and evolution of strong, laminar double layers in the downward current region of the aurora and present several previously unpublished events from the Fast Auroral SnapshoT (FAST) satellite. Analysis of an event is presented for which the FAST satellite appears to have dwelled on the high-potential side (high-altitude side) of a double layer for an extended period, suggesting that a small (few percent of density) background of suprathermal electrons can strongly influence the structure and stability of double layers. From these observations, it is inferred that the accelerated electrons can be accelerated by either of two classes of double layers: (1) self-regulated double layers (varying field-aligned potential, with weak or no suprathermal electron background) or (2) externally regulated double layers (less variable field-aligned potential, with significant suprathermal electron background). Elements of the interpretation presented here are supported by numerical simulations, as reported in two accompanying papers.

Andersson, L. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Newman, D. L.; Goldman, M. V. [Center for Integrated Plasma Studies, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Ergun, R. E. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Carlson, C. W.; McFadden, J. P. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94729 (United States)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

338

Non Thermal Features in the Cosmic Neutrino Background  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I review some of the basic information on the Cosmic Neutrino Background momentum distribution. In particular, I discuss how present data from several cosmological observables such as Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure power spectrum constrain possible deviations from a standard Fermi-Dirac thermal distribution.

G. Mangano

2006-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

339

Background Long history of research and education in "nuclear  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Degradation Nuclear Materials · Multi physics modelling · Severe nuclear accidents · Non destructive testing#12;Background · Long history of research and education in "nuclear engineering" at Chalmers. · "Nuclear engineering" = multi-disciplinary research area. #12;Background Establishment of the Sustainable

Lemurell, Stefan

340

Revised January 2013 Peabody CollegeBackgroundClearance Office  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

personnel will receive a photo ID badge certifying that they have passed a TBI/FBI background check by the BCO office when your file contains the completed/signed consent AND the cleared TBI/FBI report. Non There are no exemptions. Process Once an individual has been granted clearance based off their TBI/FBI background check

Palmeri, Thomas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment background analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

An electronic radiation of blackbody: Cosmic electron background  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Universe owns the electronic radiation of blackbody at temperature 2.725 K, which we call the cosmic electron background. We calculate its radiation spectrum. The energy distribution of number density of electrons in the cosmic electron background becomes zero as energy goes to both zero and infinity. It has one maximum peak near the energy level of 10**(-23) J.

Jian-Miin Liu

2008-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

342

cognitive backgroundCIS4140-2 1 administrivia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cognitive background human-computer interaction understand computer workings (reasonably well) how about humans? once part of psychology now considered cognitive science may also need some sociology later #12;cognitive backgroundCIS4140-2 4 perceptual 2 perceptions considered for UI auditory visual new interfaces

Damon, Craig A.

343

Observations of the Isotropic Diffuse Gamma-ray Background with the EGRET Telescope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Isotropic Diffuse Gamma-Ray Background (IDGRB) in the spectral range 30-10,000 MeV was first reported in the early 1970's using measurements made by the SAS-2 instrument. Data recorded by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) over the last 4 years are analysed in order to extract the best measurement yet made of the IDGRB. Extensive analysis of the EGRET instrumental background is presented in order to demonstrate that an uncontaminated data set can be extracted from the EGRET data. A model of the high latitude galactic diffuse foreground emission is presented and the existence of an IDGRB is confirmed. Spatial and spectral analysis of this background is presented. In addition, point source analysis at high galactic latitudes is performed to reveal the existence of a population of extragalactic sources. The characteristics of this population are examined and models of its flux distribution are reported. The question of whether the IDGRB is composed of unresolved point sources is addressed using fluctuation analysis. Finally, possible future directions for gamma ray astronomy are examined through simulations of a future gamma ray telescope: the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). The GLAST baseline design is described and its scientific performance is evaluated. The ability of this telescope to detect 1,000-10,000 new extragalactic sources is demonstrated and the likely impact on the study of the IDGRB is considered.

T. D. Willis

2002-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

344

Project plan for the background soils project for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Background Soils Project for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (BSPP) will determine the background concentration levels of selected naturally occurring metals, other inorganics, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated areas in proximity to the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. The data will be used for comparison with characterization and compliance data for soils, with significant differences being indicative of contamination. All data collected as part of this project will be in addition to other background databases established for the PGDP. The BSPP will address the variability of surface and near-surface concentration levels with respect to (1) soil taxonomical types (series) and (2) soil sampling depths within a specific soil profile. The BSPP will also address the variability of concentration levels in deeper geologic formations by collecting samples of geologic materials. The BSPP will establish a database, with recommendations on how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide data to estimate the potential human and health and ecological risk associated with background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. BSPP data will be used or applied as follows.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Alpha Backgrounds for HPGe Detectors in Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Majorana Experiment will use arrays of enriched HPGe detectors to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge. Such a decay, if found, would show lepton-number violation and confirm the Majorana nature of the neutrino. Searches for such rare events are hindered by obscuring backgrounds which must be understood and mitigated as much as possible. A potentially important background contribution to this and other double-beta decay experiments could come from decays of alpha-emitting isotopes in the 232Th and 238U decay chains on or near the surfaces of the detectors. An alpha particle emitted external to an HPGe crystal can lose energy before entering the active region of the detector, either in some external-bulk material or within the dead region of the crystal. The measured energy of the event will only correspond to a partial amount of the total kinetic energy of the alpha and might obscure the signal from neutrinoless double-beta decay. A test stand was built and measurements were performed to quantitatively assess this background. We present results from these measurements and compare them to simulations using Geant4. These results are then used to measure the alpha backgrounds in an underground detector in situ. We also make estimates of surface contamination tolerances for double-beta decay experiments using solid-state detectors.

R. A. Johnson; T. H. Burritt; S. R. Elliott; V. M. Gehman; V. E. Guiseppe; J. F. Wilkerson

2011-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

346

Alpha Backgrounds for HPGe Detectors in Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Majorana Experiment will use arrays of enriched HPGe detectors to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge. Such a decay, if found, would show lepton-number violation and confirm the Majorana nature of the neutrino. Searches for such rare events are hindered by obscuring backgrounds which must be understood and mitigated as much as possible. A potentially important background contribution to this and other double-beta decay experiments could come from decays of alpha-emitting isotopes in the 232Th and 238U decay chains on or near the surfaces of the detectors. An alpha particle emitted external to an HPGe crystal can lose energy before entering the active region of the detector, either in some external-bulk material or within the dead region of the crystal. The measured energy of the event will only correspond to a partial amount of the total kinetic energy of the alpha and might obscure the signal from neutrinoless double-beta decay. A test stand was built and measurements were performed to quantitatively assess this background. We present results from these measurements and compare them to simulations using Geant4. These results are then used to measure the alpha backgrounds in an underground detector in situ. We also make estimates of surface contamination tolerances for double-beta decay experiments using solid-state detectors.

Johnson, R. A. [University of Washington, Seattle; Burritt, T. H. [University of Washington, Seattle; Elliott, S. R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Gehman, V. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Guiseppe, V.E. [University of South Dakota; Wilkerson, J. F. [UNC/Triangle Univ. Nucl. Lab, Durham, NC/ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Measurement of Neutron Background at the Pyhasalmi mine for CUPP Project, Finland  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A natural neutron flux is one of significant kind of background in high-sensitive underground experiments. Therefore, when scheduling a delicate underground measurements one needs to measure neutron background. Deep underground the most significant source of neutrons are the U-Th natural radioactive chains giving a fission spectrum with the temperature of 2-3 MeV. Another source is the U-Th alpha-reactions on light nuclei of mine rock giving neutrons with different spectra in the 1-15 MeV energy region. Normal basalt mine rocks contain 1 ppm g/g of U-238 and less. Deep underground those rocks produce natural neutron fluxes of 10^{-7} - 10^{-6} cm^{-2}s^{-1} above 1 MeV. To measure such a background one needs a special techniques. In the Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow, the neutron spectrometer was developed and built which is sensitive to such a low neutron fluxes. At the end of 2001 the collection of neutron data at the Pyhasalmi mine was started for the CUPP project. During 2002 the background and rough energy spectra of neutron at underground levels 410, 660, 990 and 1410 m were measured. The result of the measurement of the neutron background at different levels of the Pyhasalmi mine is presented and discussed. Data analysis is performed in different energy ranges from thermal neutrons up to 25 MeV and above.

J. N. Abdurashitov; V. N. Gavrin; V. L. Matushko; A. A. Shikhin; V. E. Yants; J. Peltoniemi; T. Keranen

2006-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

348

Risk Assessment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A set of issues that state and local governments should carefully consider, with the goal of helping them assess and anticipate solutions for some worst case or unfortunate case scenarios as they...

349

Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment - Preliminary Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Preliminary Assessment draft report will present the results of a literature search and preliminary assessment of the body of research, analysis methods, models and data deemed to be relevant to the Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment research. This report will provide: 1) a description of the problem space and the kinds of information pertinent to the problem space, 2) a discussion of key relevant or representative literature, 3) a discussion of models and modeling approaches judged to be potentially useful to the research, and 4) the next steps of this research that will be pursued based on this preliminary assessment. This draft report represents a technical deliverable for the NA-22 Simulations, Algorithms, and Modeling (SAM) program. Specifically this draft report is the Task 1 deliverable for project PL09-UtilSocial-PD06, Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment. This project investigates non-traditional use of social and cultural information to improve nuclear proliferation assessment, including nonproliferation assessment, proliferation resistance assessments, safeguards assessments and other related studies. These assessments often use and create technical information about the State’s posture towards proliferation, the vulnerability of a nuclear energy system to an undesired event, and the effectiveness of safeguards. This project will find and fuse social and technical information by explicitly considering the role of cultural, social and behavioral factors relevant to proliferation. The aim of this research is to describe and demonstrate if and how social science modeling has utility in proliferation assessment.

Coles, Garill A.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Brothers, Alan J.; Thompson, Sandra E.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Environmental analysis and data report prepared for the environmental assessment of remedial action at the Lowman uranium mill tailings site near Lowman, Idaho. [Urnanium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document contains information and data gathered in support of the preparation of the environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed remedial action at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Lowman, Idaho. The Lowman EA was prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which requires Federal agencies to assess the effects of their actions on the environment. It examines the short-term and the long-term effects of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) proposed remedial action for the Lowman site as well as the no action alternative. The DOE will use the information and analyses presented in the EA to determine whether the proposed action would have a significant impact on the environment. If the impacts are determined to be significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the impacts are not judged to be significant, the DOE may issue a Finding of No Significant Impact and implement the proposed action. The information and data presented in this environmental analyses and data report are for background purposes only and are not required as part of the NEPA decision-making process.

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Lessons learned: Needs for improving human health risk assessment at USDOE Sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Realistic health risk assessments were performed in a pilot study of three U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites. These assessments, covering a broad spectrum of data and methods, were used to identify needs for improving future health risk assessments at USDOE sites. Topics receiving specific recommendations for additional research include: choice of distributions for Monte Carlo simulation; estimation of risk reduction; analysis of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Database on food and nutrient intakes; investigations on effects of food processing on contaminant levels; background food and environmental concentrations of contaminants; method for handling exposures to groundwater plumes, methods for analyzing less than lifetime exposure to carcinogens; and improvement of bioaccumulation factors.

Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Rowe, M.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Spinning Test Particle in Kalb-Ramond background  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work we explore the geodesic deviations of spinning test particles in a string inspired Einstein-Kalb Ramond background. Such a background is known to be equivalent to a spacetime geometry with torsion. We have shown here that the antisymmetric Kalb-Ramond field has significant effect on the geodesic deviation of a spinning test particle. A search for an observational evidence of such an effect in astrophysical experiments may lead to a better undestanding of the geometry of the background spacetime.

Debaprasad Maity; Soumitra SenGupta; Sourav Sur

2005-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

353

Muon-induced backgrounds in the CUORICINO experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To better understand the contribution of cosmic ray muons to the CUORICINO background, ten plastic scintillator detectors were installed at the CUORICINO site and operated during 3 months of the CUORICINO experiment. From these measurements, an upper limit of 0.0021 counts/keV {center_dot} kg {center_dot} yr (95% C.L.) was obtained on the cosmic ray induced background in the neutrinoless double beta decay region of interest. The measurements were compared to Geant4 simulations, which are similar to those that will be used to estimate the backgrounds in CUORE.

Andreotti, E; Arnaboldi, C; Avignone, F T; Balata, M; Bandac, I; Barucci, M; Beeman, J W; Bellini, F; Bloxham, T; Brofferio, C; Bryant, A; Bucci, C; Canonica, L; Capelli, S; Carbone, L; Carrettoni, M; Clemenza, M; Cremonesi, O; Creswick, R J; Domizio, S D; Dolinski, M J; Ejzak, L; Faccini, R; Farach, H A; Ferri, E; Ferroni, F; Firoini, E; Foggetta, L; Giachero, A; Gironi, L; Giuliani, A; Gorla, P; Guardincerri, E; Gutierrez, T D; Haller, E E; Kadel, R; Kazkaz, K; Kraft, S; Kogler, L; Kolomensky, Y G; Maiano, C; Maruyama, R H; Martinez, C; Martinez, M; Mizouni, L; Morganti, S; Nisi, S; Nones, C; Norman, E B; Nucciotti, A; Orio, F; Pallavicini, M; Palmieri, V; Pattavina, L; Pavan, M; Pedretti, M; Pessina, G; Pirro, S; Previtali, E; Risegari, L; Rosenfeld, C; Rusconi, C; Salvioni, C; Sangiorgio, S; Schaeffer, D; Scielzo, N D; Sisti, M; Smith, A R; Tomei, C; Ventura, G; Vignati, M

2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

354

Flavor singlet physics in lattice QCD with background fields  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We show that hadronic matrix elements can be extracted from lattice simulations with background fields that arise from operator exponentiation. Importantly, flavor-singlet matrix elements can be evaluated without requiring the computation of disconnected diagrams, thus facilitating a calculation of the quark contribution to the spin of the proton and the singlet axial coupling, g{sub A}{sup 0}. In the two-nucleon sector, a background field approach will allow calculation of the magnetic and quadrupole moments of the deuteron and an investigation of the EMC effect directly from lattice QCD. Matrix elements between states of differing momenta are also analyzed in the presence of background fields.

Detmold, W. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Box 351560, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Alternative treaty monitoring approaches using ultra-low background measurement technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty includes a network of stations and laboratories for collection and analysis of radioactive aerosols. Alternative approaches to IMS operations are considered as a method of enhancing treaty verification. Ultra-low background (ULB) detection promises the possibility of improvements to IMS minimum detectable activities (MDAs) well below the current approach, requiring MDAp30 mBq/m3 of air for 140Ba, or about 106 fissions per daily sample.

Miley, Harry S.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Fast, James E.; Hayes, James C.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Seifert, Allen

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Quantum mechanics of a charged particle in a background magnetic field interacting with linearized gravitational waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the dynamics of a charged particle interacting with background electromagnetic field under the influence of linearized gravitational waves in the long wave-length and low-velocity limit. Following the prescription in \\cite{speli}, the system is quantized and the Hamiltonian is then solved by using standard algebraic iterative methods. The solution is in conformity with the classical analysis and shows the possibility of tuning the frequency by changing the magnetic field to set up resonance.

Sunandan Gangopadhyay; Anirban Saha

2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

357

Measurement of low radioactivity background in a high voltage cable by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The measurement of naturally occurring low level radioactivity background in a high voltage (HV) cable by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR ICP MS) is presented in this work. The measurements were performed at the Chemistry Service of the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. The contributions to the radioactive background coming from the different components of the heterogeneous material were separated. Based on the mass fraction of the cable, the whole contamination was calculated. The HR ICP MS results were cross-checked by gamma ray spectroscopy analysis that was performed at the low background facility STELLA (Sub Terranean Low Level Assay) of the LNGS underground lab using HPGe detectors.

Vacri, M. L. di; Nisi, S.; Balata, M. [Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Chemistry Service, SS 17bis km 18.910, 67100 Assergi (Aq) (Italy)] [Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Chemistry Service, SS 17bis km 18.910, 67100 Assergi (Aq) (Italy)

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

358

Background and Derivation of ANS-5.4 Standard Fission Product Release Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This background report describes the technical basis for the newly proposed American Nuclear Society (ANS) 5.4 standard, Methods for Calculating the Fractional Release of Volatile Fission Products from Oxide Fuels. The proposed ANS 5.4 standard provides a methodology for determining the radioactive fission product releases from the fuel for use in assessing radiological consequences of postulated accidents that do not involve abrupt power transients. When coupled with isotopic yields, this method establishes the 'gap activity,' which is the inventory of volatile fission products that are released from the fuel rod if the cladding are breached.

Beyer, Carl E.; Turnbull, Andrew J.

2010-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

359

Reduction of background clutter in structured lighting systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for segmenting the reflected light of an illumination source having a characteristic wavelength from background illumination (i.e. clutter) in structured lighting systems can comprise pulsing the light source used to illuminate a scene, pulsing the light source synchronously with the opening of a shutter in an imaging device, estimating the contribution of background clutter by interpolation of images of the scene collected at multiple spectral bands not including the characteristic wavelength and subtracting the estimated background contribution from an image of the scene comprising the wavelength of the light source and, placing a polarizing filter between the imaging device and the scene, where the illumination source can be polarized in the same orientation as the polarizing filter. Apparatus for segmenting the light of an illumination source from background illumination can comprise an illuminator, an image receiver for receiving images of multiple spectral bands, a processor for calculations and interpolations, and a polarizing filter.

Carlson, Jeffrey J.; Giles, Michael K.; Padilla, Denise D.; Davidson Jr., Patrick A.; Novick, David K.; Wilson, Christopher W.

2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

360

Inductive Rules, Background Knowledge, and Skepticism Daniel Steel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inductive Rules, Background Knowledge, and Skepticism Daniel Steel Department of Philosophy 503 S. Kedzie Hall Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48823-1032 Email: steel@msu.edu #12;Abstract

Steel, Daniel

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment background analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

1 Mathematical Background 1 1.1 Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Contents 1 Mathematical Background 1 1.1 Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Computability Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.3 Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.4 Probability Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.5 Exercises and Problems

Goodman, James R.

362

1 Introduction 1 1.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Contents 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Our Goal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.3 ICSI's HMM/ANN Hybrid Speech Recognition System . . . . . . . . 2 1.4 What is Multi­band Processing

Mirghafori, N. Nikki

363

Higgs boson production at hadron colliders: Signal and background processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We review the theoretical status of signal and background calculations for Higgs boson production at hadron colliders. Particular emphasis is given to missing NLO results, which will play a crucial role for the Tevatron and the LHC.

David Rainwater; Michael Spira; Dieter Zeppenfeld

2004-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

364

Superluminal Velocity of Photons in a Gravitational Background  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The influence of radiative corrections on the photon propagation in a gravitational background is investigated without the low-frequency approximation $\\omega \\ll m$. The conclusion is made in this way that the velocity of light can exceed unity.

I. B. Khriplovich

1994-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

365

Modeling surface backgrounds from radon progeny plate-out  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The next generation low-background detectors operating deep underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. The surface deposition and subsequent implantation of radon progeny in detector materials will be a source of energetic background events. We investigate Monte Carlo and model-based simulations to understand the surface implantation profile of radon progeny. Depending on the material and region of interest of a rare event search, these partial energy depositions can be problematic. Motivated by the use of Ge crystals for the detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay, we wish to understand the detector response of surface backgrounds from radon progeny. We look at the simulation of surface decays using a validated implantation distribution based on nuclear recoils and a realistic surface texture. Results of the simulations and measured ? spectra are presented.

Perumpilly, G.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Snyder, N. [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 (United States)] [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 (United States)

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

366

The Cosmic Near Infrared Background: Remnant Light from Early Stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The redshifted ultraviolet light from early stars at z ~ 10 contributes to the cosmic near infrared background. We present detailed calculations of its spectrum with various assumptions about metallicity and mass spectrum of early stars. We show that if the near infrared background has a stellar origin, metal-free stars are not the only explanation of the excess near infrared background; stars with metals (e.g. Z=1/50 Z_sun) can produce the same amount of background intensity as the metal-free stars. We quantitatively show that the predicted average intensity at 1-2 microns is essentially determined by the efficiency of nuclear burning in stars, which is not very sensitive to metallicity. We predict \

Elizabeth Fernandez; Eiichiro Komatsu

2005-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

367

EXTRAGALACTIC VERY HIGH ENERGY GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the origin of the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background using the data from the Fermi telescope. To estimate the background level, we count photons at high Galactic latitudes |b| > 60 Degree-Sign . Subtracting photons associated with known sources and the residual cosmic-ray and Galactic diffuse backgrounds, we estimate the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) flux. We find that the spectrum of EGB in the very high energy band above 30 GeV follows the stacked spectrum of BL Lac objects. Large Area Telescope data reveal the positive (1 + z) {sup k}, 1 < k < 4 cosmological evolution of the BL Lac source population consistent with that of their parent population, Fanaroff-Riley type I radio galaxies. We show that EGB at E > 30 GeV could be completely explained by emission from unresolved BL Lac objects if k {approx_equal} 3.

Neronov, A. [ISDC Data Center for Astrophysics, Chemin d'Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Semikoz, D. V. [APC, 10 rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

368

Holographic superconductor developed in BTZ black hole background with backreactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We develop a holographic superconductor in BTZ black hole background with backreactions. We investigate the influence of the backreaction on the condensation of the scalar hair and the dynamics of perturbation in the background spacetime. When the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound is approached, we argue that only one of two possible operators can reflect the real property of the condensation in the holographic superconductor. This argument is supported by the investigation in dynamics.

Yunqi Liu; Qiyuan Pan; Bin Wang

2011-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

369

The X-ray background and the evolution of AGN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss the constraints on the AGN evolution from the cosmic X-ray background and source counts. A synthesis model to fit the X-ray background is presented. In the model, the spectrum of type 2 AGN has been modeled including Compton down--scattering within the absorbing material. Besides, we introduced a dependence on redshift of the relative number of obscured sources and found a decrease of the fraction of type 2 AGN at redshifts larger than 2.

Fulvio Pompilio; Fabio La Franca; Giorgio Matt

1999-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

370

Muon-induced backgrounds in the CUORICINO experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To better understand the contribution of cosmic ray muons to the CUORICINO background, ten plastic scintillator detectors were installed at the CUORICINO siteand operated during the final 3 months of the experiment. From these measurements, an upper limit of 0.0021 counts/(keV.kg.yr) (95percent c.l.) was obtained on the cosmicray induced background in the neutrinoless double beta decay region of interest. The measurements were also compared to Geant4 simulations.

Andreotti, E.; Arnaboldi, C.; Avignone III, F. T.; Balata, M.; Bandac, I.; Barucci, M.; Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Bloxham, T.; Brofferio, C.; Bryant, A.; Bucci, C.; Canonica, L.; Capelli, S.; Carbone, L.; Carrettoni, M.; Clemenza, M.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Domizio, S. Di; Dolinski, M. J.; Ejzak, L.; Faccini, R.; Farach, H. A.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Foggetta, L.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Guardincerri, E.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Kadel, R.; Kazkaz, K.; Kraft, S.; Kogler, L.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Maiano, C.; Maruyama, R. H.; Martinez, C.; Martinez, M.; Mizouni, L.; Morganti, S.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; Orio, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.; Risegari, L.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Salvioni, C.; Sangiorgio, S.; Schaeffer, D.; Scielzo, N. D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Tomei, C.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

371

Air fluidized balls in a background of smaller beads  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on quasi-two-dimensional granular systems in which either one or two large balls is fluidized by an upflow of air in the presence of a background of several hundred smaller beads. A single large ball is observed to propel ballistically in nearly circular orbits, in direct contrast to the Brownian behavior of a large ball fluidized in the absence of this background. Further, the large ball motion satisfies a Langevin equation with an additional speed-dependent force acting in the direction of motion. This results in a non-zero average speed of the large ball that is an order of magnitude faster than the root mean square speed of the background balls. Two large balls fluidized in the absence of the small-bead background experience a repulsive force depending only on the separation of the two balls. With the background beads present, by contrast, the ball-ball interaction becomes velocity-dependent and attractive. The attraction is long-ranged and inconsistent with a depletion model; instead, it is mediated by local fluctuations in the density of the background beads which depends on the large balls' motion.

M. E. Beverland; L. J. Daniels; D. J. Durian

2010-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

372

Decision Analysis for EGS | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Decision Analysis for EGS Decision Analysis for EGS Project objectives: DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYSIS TOOLS TO ASSESS: Uncertainties associated with exploration for EGS; Uncertainties...

373

Performance Oversight Group: Background and Guidelines for Presenters  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

as identified by the monthly POG meeting agenda. Present in agreed formats project performance assessments, indicators, trends, risks, and issues; identify any needed...

374

Background studies for NaI(Tl) detectors in the ANAIS dark matter project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several large NaI(Tl) detectors, produced by different companies, have been operated in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) in the frame of the ANAIS (Annual modulation with NaI Scintillators) project devoted to the direct detection of dark matter. A complete background model has been developed for a 9.6 kg detector (referred as ANAIS-0 prototype) after a long data taking at LSC. Activities from the natural chains of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K in the NaI(Tl) crystal were evaluated applying different methods: discrimination of alpha particles vs beta/gamma background by Pulse Shape Analysis for quantifying the content of the natural chains and coincidence techniques for {sup 40}K. Radioactive contaminations in the detector and shielding components were also determined by HPGe spectrometry. Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4 package were carried out to evaluate their contribution. At high energies, most of the measured background is nicely reproduced; at low energy some non-explained components are still present, although some plausible background sources have been analyzed. The {sup 40}K content of the NaI(Tl) crystal has been confirmed to be the dominant contributor to the measured background with this detector. In addition, preliminary results of the background characterization, presently underway at the LSC, of two recently produced NaI(Tl) detectors, with 12.5 kg mass each, will be presented: cosmogenic induced activity has been clearly observed and is being quantified, and {sup 40}K activity at a level ten times lower than in ANAIS-0 has been determined.

Amaré, J.; Borjabad, S.; Cebrián, S.; Cuesta, C.; Fortuño, D.; García, E.; Ginestra, C.; Gómez, H.; Martínez, M.; Oliván, M. A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Solórzano, A. Ortiz de; Pobes, C.; Puimedón, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Villar, J. A.; Villar, P. [Laboratorio de Física Nuclear y Astropartículas, Universidad de Zaragoza, Calle Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain and Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc, Paseo de los Ayerbe s/n, 22880 Canfranc Estación, Huesca (Spain)] [Laboratorio de Física Nuclear y Astropartículas, Universidad de Zaragoza, Calle Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain and Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc, Paseo de los Ayerbe s/n, 22880 Canfranc Estación, Huesca (Spain)

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

375

Integrated Environmental Assessment Part III: Exposure Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

issues such as life cycle assessment (LCA) fosters the needlife-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) process within in LCA is

McKone, Thomas E.; Small, Mitchell J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Statistical Design, Analysis and Graphics for the Guadalupe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Statistical Design, Analysis and Graphics for the Guadalupe River Assessment Technical Memoranda Science Center (2013). Statistical Design, Analysis and Graphics for the Guadalupe River Assessment

377

Astroparticle Physics with a Customized Low-Background Broad Energy Germanium Detector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The MAJORANA Collaboration is building the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, a 60 kg array of high purity germanium detectors housed in an ultra-low background shield at the Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, SD. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR will search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge while demonstrating the feasibility of a tonne-scale experiment. It may also carry out a dark matter search in the 1-10 GeV/c^2 mass range. We have found that customized Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors produced by Canberra have several desirable features for a neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment, including low electronic noise, excellent pulse shape analysis capabilities, and simple fabrication. We have deployed a customized BEGe, the MAJORANA Low-Background BEGe at Kimballton (MALBEK), in a low-background cryostat and shield at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility in Virginia. This paper will focus on the detector characteristics and measurements that can be performed with such a radiation detector in a low-background environment.

MAJORANA Collaboration; C. E. Aalseth; M. Amman; F. T. Avignone III; H. O. Back; A. S. Barabash; P. S. Barbeau; M. Bergevin; F. E. Bertrand; M. Boswell; V. Brudanin; W. Bugg; T. H. Burritt; M. Busch; G. Capps; Y-D. Chan; J. I. Collar; R. J. Cooper; R. Creswick; J. A. Detwiler; J. Diaz; P. J. Doe; Yu. Efremenko; V. Egorov; H. Ejiri; S. R. Elliott; J. Ely; J. Esterline; H. Farach; J. E. Fast; N. Fields; P. Finnerty; B. Fujikawa; E. Fuller; V. M. Gehman; G. K. Giovanetti; V. E. Guiseppe; K. Gusey; A. L. Hallin; G. C Harper; R. Hazama; R. Henning; A. Hime; E. W. Hoppe; T. W. Hossbach; M. A. Howe; R. A. Johnson; K. J. Keeter; M. Keillor; C. Keller; J. D. Kephart; M. F. Kidd; A. Knecht; O. Kochetov; S. I. Konovalov; R. T. Kouzes; L. Leviner; J. C. Loach; P. N. Luke; S. MacMullin; M. G. Marino; R. D. Martin; D. -M. Mei; H. S. Miley; M. L. Miller; L. Mizouni; A. W. Meyers; M. Nomachi; J. L. Orrell; D. Peterson; D. G. Phillips II; A. W. P. Poon; G. Prior; J. Qian; D. C. Radford; K. Rielage; R. G. H. Robertson; L. Rodriguez; K. P. Rykaczewski; H. Salazar; A. G. Schubert; T. Shima; M. Shirchenko; D. Steele; J. Strain; G. Swift; K. Thomas; V. Timkin; W. Tornow; T. D. Van Wechel; I. Vanyushin; R. L. Varner; K. Vetter; J. F. Wilkerson; B. A. Wolfe; W. Xiang; E. Yakushev; H. Yaver; A. R. Young; C. -H. Yu; V. Yumatov; C. Zhang; S. Zimmerman

2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

378

Astroparticle physics with a customized low-background broad energy Germanium detector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Majorana Collaboration is building the Majorana Demonstrator, a 60 kg array of high purity germanium detectors housed in an ultra-low background shield at the Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, SD. The Majorana Demonstrator will search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge while demonstrating the feasibility of a tonne-scale experiment. It may also carry out a dark matter search in the 1-10 GeV/c{sup 2} mass range. We have found that customized Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors produced by Canberra have several desirable features for a neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment, including low electronic noise, excellent pulse shape analysis capabilities, and simple fabrication. We have deployed a customized BEGe, the Majorana Low-Background BEGe at Kimballton (MALBEK), in a low-background cryostat and shield at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility in Virginia. This paper will focus on the detector characteristics and measurements that can be performed with such a radiation detector in a low-background environment.

Aalseth, Craig E.; Amman, M.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Barbeau, P. S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Bugg, William; Burritt, Tom H.; Busch, Matthew; Capps, Greg L.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, R. J.; Creswick, R.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Diaz, J.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Ely, James H.; Esterline, James H.; Farach, H. A.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fujikawa, Brian; Fuller, Erin S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Harper, Gregory; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Miley, Harry S.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Myers, Allan W.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Peterson, David; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Qian, J.; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rodriguez, Larry; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof P.; Salazar, Harold; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Swift, Gary; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Xiang, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, Harold; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.; Zimmerman, S.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Evaluation of ultra-low background materials for uranium and thorium using ICP-MS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An increasing number of physics experiments require low background materials for their construction. The presence of Uranium and Thorium and their progeny in these materials present a variety of unwanted background sources for these experiments. The sensitivity of the experiments continues to drive the necessary levels of detection ever lower as well. This requirement for greater sensitivity has rendered direct radioassay impractical in many cases requiring large quantities of material, frequently many kilograms, and prolonged counting times, often months. Other assay techniques have been employed such as Neutron Activation Analysis but this requires access to expensive facilities and instrumentation and can be further complicated and delayed by the formation of unwanted radionuclides. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a useful tool and recent advancements have increased the sensitivity particularly in the elemental high mass range of U and Th. Unlike direct radioassay, ICP-MS is a destructive technique since it requires the sample to be in liquid form which is aspirated into a high temperature plasma. But it benefits in that it usually requires a very small sample, typically about a gram. This paper discusses how a variety of low background materials such as copper, polymers, and fused silica are made amenable to ICP-MS assay and how the arduous task of maintaining low backgrounds of U and Th is achieved.

Hoppe, E. W.; Overman, N. R.; LaFerriere, B. D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

380

Evaluation of Ultra-Low Background Materials for Uranium and Thorium Using ICP-MS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An increasing number of physics experiments require low background materials for their construction. The presence of Uranium and Thorium and their progeny in these materials present a variety of unwanted background sources for these experiments. The sensitivity of the experiments continues to drive the necessary levels of detection ever lower as well. This requirement for greater sensitivity has rendered direct radioassay impractical in many cases requiring large quantities of material, frequently many kilograms, and prolonged counting times, often months. Other assay techniques have been employed such as Neutron Activation Analysis but this requires access to expensive facilities and instrumentation and can be further complicated and delayed by the formation of unwanted radionuclides. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a useful tool and recent advancements have increased the sensitivity particularly in the elemental high mass range of U and Th. Unlike direct radioassay, ICP-MS is a destructive technique since it requires the sample to be in liquid form which is aspirated into a high temperature plasma. But it benefits in that it usually requires a very small sample, typically about a gram. Here we will discuss how a variety of low background materials such as copper, polymers, and fused silica are made amenable to ICP-MS assay and how the arduous task of maintaining low backgrounds of U and Th is achieved.

Hoppe, Eric W.; Overman, Nicole R.; LaFerriere, Brian D.

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment background analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

The local potential approximation in the background field formalism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Working within the familiar local potential approximation, and concentrating on the example of a single scalar field in three dimensions, we show that the commonly used approximation method of identifying the total and background fields, leads to pathologies in the resulting fixed point structure and the associated spaces of eigenoperators. We then show how a consistent treatment of the background field through the corresponding modified shift Ward identity, can cure these pathologies, restoring universality of physical quantities with respect to the choice of dependence on the background field, even within the local potential approximation. Along the way we point out similarities to what has been previously found in the f(R) approximation in asymptotic safety for gravity.

I. Hamzaan Bridle; Juergen A. Dietz; Tim R. Morris

2014-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

382

Reducing backgrounds in the higgs factory muon collider detector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A preliminary design of the 125-GeV Higgs Factory (HF) Muon Collider (MC) has identified an enormous background loads on the HF detector. This is related to the twelve times higher muon decay probability at HF compared to that previously studied for the 1.5-TeV MC. As a result of MARS15 optimization studies, it is shown that with a carefully designed protection system in the interaction region, in the machine-detector interface and inside the detector one can reduce the background rates to a manageable level similar to that achieved for the optimized 1.5-TeV case. The main characteristics of the HF detector background are presented for the configuration found.

Mokhov, N. V.; Tropin, I. S.

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Reducing 68Ge Background in Dark Matter Experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental searches for dark matter include experiments with sub-0.5 keV-energy threshold high purity germanium detectors. Experimental efforts, in partnership with the CoGeNT Collaboration operating at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, are focusing on energy threshold reduction via noise abatement, reduction of backgrounds from cosmic ray generated isotopes, and ubiquitous environmental radioactive sources. The most significant cosmic ray produced radionuclide is 68Ge. This paper evaluates reducing this background by freshly mining and processing germanium ore. The most probable outcome is a reduction of the background by a factor of two, and at most a factor of four. A very cost effective alternative is to obtain processed Ge as soon as possible and store it underground for 18 months.

Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Direct Imaging of Exoplanets Without Background Subtraction: Implications for ELTs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ultra-high contrast capability required to form images of other solar systems is arguably the highest-profile challenge in astronomy today. The current high-contrast imaging efforts all require background subtraction to separate the planetary image from the image of the host star. Background estimation is difficult due to the presence of non-common path aberrations (NCPAs) that change with time. The only major source of information that is not being utilized by current efforts is the random encoding of the planetary image and the NCPAs by the atmosphere on millisecond time-scales. Here, a method that utilizes this information in order to avoid background subtraction altogether is proposed. This new paradigm will allow simultaneous estimation of the time-dependent NCPAs and the planetary image via rigorous statistical inference procedures. These procedures are fully compatible with other information sources, such as diurnal field rotation and spectral diversity. Given the open-ended nature of the backgroun...

Frazin, Richard A

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Analysis of methods and models for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes in the agricultural sector of the US economy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall purpose of this research was to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) in developing methods for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts due to the effects of increases in the ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/ on agricultural production. First, a comprehensive literature search was undertaken to determine what types of models and methods have been developed, which could be effectively used to conduct assessments of the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. Specific attention was focused upon models and methods for assessing the physical impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes on crop yields; national and multi-regional agricultural sector models; and macroeconomic models of the US economy. The second task involved a thorough investigation of the research efforts being conducted by other public and private sector organizations in order to determine how more recent analytical methods being developed outside of DOE could be effectively integrated into a more comprehensive analysis of the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. The third and final task involved synthesizing the information gathered in the first two tasks into a systematic framework for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes originating in the agricultural sector of the US economy. It is concluded that the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ on the agricultural sector and the indirect economic impacts caused by spillover effects from agriculture to other sectors of the economy will be pervasive; however, the direction and magnitude of these impacts on producers and consumers cannot be determined a priori.

Callaway, J.M.; Cronin, F.J.; Currie, J.W.; Tawil, J.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Radiative emission of neutrino pair free of quantum electrodynamic backgrounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A scheme of quantum electrodynamic (QED) background-free radiative emission of neutrino pair (RENP) is proposed in order to achieve precision determination of neutrino properties so far not accessible. The important point for the background rejection is the fact that the dispersion relation between wave vector along propagating direction in wave guide (and in a photonic-crystal type fiber) and frequency is modified by a discretized non-vanishing effective mass. This effective mass acts as a cutoff of allowed frequencies, and one may select the RENP photon energy region free of all macro-coherently amplified QED processes by choosing the cutoff larger than the mass of neutrinos.

M. Yoshimura; N. Sasao; M. Tanaka

2015-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

387

A Stable Magnetic Background in SU(2) QCD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Motivated by the instability of the Savvidy-Nielsen-Olesen (SNO) vacuum we make a systematic search for a stable magnetic background in pure SU(2) QCD. It is shown that Wu-Yang monopole-antimonopole pair is unstable under vacuum fluctuations. However, it is shown that a pair of axially symmetric monopole-antimonopole string configuration is stable, provided the distance between the two strings is small enough (less than a critical value). The existence of a stable monopole-antimonopole string background strongly supports that a magnetic condensation of monopole-antimonopole pairs can indeed generate a dynamical symmetry breaking, and thus a desired magnetic confinement of color, in QCD.

Y. M. Cho; D. G. Pak

2005-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

388

Technical background document for soil screening guidance. Review draft  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The document provides the technical background behind the development of the November 1994 Soil Screening Guidance for Superfund. These documents define the Soil Screening framework, a suite of methodologies for developing Soil Screening Levels (SSLs) for 107 chemicals commonly found at Superfund sites. The document is an updated version of the background document developed in support of the September 30, 1993, draft SSL guidance (PB93-963508). The document and the Guidance is available for public comment and is currently undergoing extensive peer review. Because the guidance is still under review, it and this document should not be used until they are finalized following this rigorous technical review and public comment.

Not Available

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Beam-Induced Backgrounds in the CLIC Detectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The beam parameters of the proposed CLIC linear electron-positron collider with a centre-of-mass energy of up to 3 TeV will lead to high rates of beam-induced background events. In this note simulation studies of ?? ? hadron interactions and of incoherent electron-positron pair production are presented. The CLIC detector concepts and their optimisation to reduce background occupancies are described. The characteristics of the events are discussed and resulting occupancies and energy deposits, as well as expected levels of both total ionising dose and displacement damage in the detectors are discussed.

Dannheim, D

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

The Cosmic Microwave Background: Beyond the Power Spectrum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Much recent work on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) has focussed on the angular power spectrum of temperature anisotropies and particularly on the recovery of cosmological parameters from acoustic peaks in the power spectrum. However, there is more that can conceivably be done with CMB measurements. Here I briefly survey a few such ideas: cross-correlation with other cosmic backgrounds as a probe of the density of the Universe; CMB polarization as a gravitational-wave detector; secondary anisotropies and the ionization history of the Universe; tests of alternative-gravity theories; polarization, the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, and cosmic variance; and tests for a neutrino mass.

Marc Kamionkowski

1998-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

391

Radiative emission of neutrino pair free of quantum electrodynamic backgrounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A scheme of quantum electrodynamic (QED) background-free radiative emission of neutrino pair (RENP) is proposed in order to achieve precision determination of neutrino properties so far not accessible. The important point for the background rejection is the fact that the dispersion relation between wave vector along propagating direction in wave guide (and in a photonic-crystal type fiber) and frequency is modified by a discretized non-vanishing effective mass. This effective mass acts as a cutoff of allowed frequencies, and one may select the RENP photon energy region free of all macro-coherently amplified QED processes by choosing the cutoff larger than the mass of neutrinos.

Yoshimura, M; Tanaka, M

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Financial Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We would like to thank everyone who helped us with this report, including but not limited to: John Bolduc, Steve Lenkauskas, George Fernandes, and the staff at the City of Cambridge and Danehy Park who helped shape this report and made on-site instrument installation and data collection possible. Mark Lipson, Jack Clarke and Jean Rogers for their guidance with the environmental and community impact assessment. Bob Paine and Scott Abbett for their thoughts and experiences with the Medford McGlynn School wind turbine. This preliminary assessment report investigates the wind resource available at Danehy Park in the City of Cambridge, providing estimated power generation figures as well as cost and revenue estimates and

Cy Chan; Pamela Silva; Chao Zhang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Guam Initial Technical Assessment Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under an interagency agreement, funded by the Department of Interior's (DOI) Office of Insular Affairs (OIA), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was tasked to deliver technical assistance to the island of Guam by conducting an island initial technical assessment that would lay out energy consumption and production data and establish a baseline. This assessment will be used to conduct future analysis and studies by NREL that will estimate energy efficiency and renewable energy potential for the island of Guam.

Baring-Gould, I.; Conrad, M.; Haase, S.; Hotchkiss, E.; McNutt, P.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Project Background Transportation projects can stall for a number of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Project Background Transportation projects can stall for a number of reasons. One reason is that those responsible for the project lack the skills to move beyond conflicts with resource agency staff work on a pilot program aimed at confronting these two causes. The project had these objectives

Minnesota, University of

395

II. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Since 1977 the University of Oregon Solar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2 II. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Since 1977 the University of Oregon Solar Monitoring Laboratory has operated a solar radiation monitoring network in the Pacific Northwest. The number of stations participat of utilities headed by the Eugene Water and Electric Board initiated the Re- gional Solar Radiation Monitoring

Oregon, University of

396

Power Systems Engineering Research Center PSERC Background Paper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Power Systems Engineering Research Center PSERC Background Paper Monitoring and Control of Power level control centers. However, there is little standardization of the monitoring process and data to the control center operators and security coordinators, or to the computers that can detect anomalous patterns

397

3.5 Nanowire Sensors 3.5.1 Background  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

117 3.5 Nanowire Sensors 3.5.1 Background Nanowires are solid, rod-like materials with diameters that similar commercial products will eventually be available. 3.5.2 Description Nanowire sensors have et al. 2003). A comprehensive review of current research activities on chemical sensors based

398

STRING LOOPS IN BACKGROUND FIELDS Scott Alan Yost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

excellent collaborators. They have made my stay at Princeton very productive and enjoyable. I thank E. LiebSTRING LOOPS IN BACKGROUND FIELDS Scott Alan Yost A dissertation presented to the faculty formalism. ii #12;Acknowledgements I would like to thank my advisor, Chiara Nappi, for her support, advice

Yost, Scott

399

ECONOMICS OF AGRICULTURE AND WILDLIFE A Background Report on the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a system of economic incentives and develop cost effective solutions to agricultural and wildlife issues#12;ECONOMICS OF AGRICULTURE AND WILDLIFE A Background Report on the Potential for Use of Economic and Associated Floodplains prepared by Richard M. Porter for Socio-Economic Section Sustainability Division

400

Amphibian Decline or Extinction? Current Declines Dwarf Background Extinction Rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the background amphibian extinction rate. If current estimates of amphibian species in imminent danger). Although it is thought that 35 species of amphibians have gone extinct since 1500, this number may). Another 1,896 species may be in imminent danger of extinction (IUCN et al., 2006). All of these estimates

McCallum, Malcolm

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment background analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Compressed Gas Cylinder Safety I. Background. Due to the nature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Compressed Gas Cylinder Safety I. Background. Due to the nature of gas cylinders hazards of a ruptured cylinder. There are almost 200 different types of materials in gas cylinders, there are several general procedures to follow for safe storage and handling of a compressed gas cylinder: II

Suzuki, Masatsugu

402

1 Background 1.1 Topic of research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Background 1.1 Topic of research Mathematical quantitative tools (like probabil- ity theory analyses on the basis of these meth- ods. 1.2 Academic and industrial con- text Interference in a security section 1.3). Applications of this work can be found in large scale, mission critical, security related

Hunt, Sebastian

403

Background Suppression in Near-Field Optical Imaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

irradiation of the optical antenna (e.g., tip or particle) also directly irradiates the sample and thereforeBackground Suppression in Near-Field Optical Imaging Christiane Ho¨ppener, Ryan Beams, and Lukas Novotny* Institute of Optics, UniVersity of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 Received December 25

Novotny, Lukas

404

Statistical Isotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Statistical Isotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy Amir Hajian #3; I.U.C.A.A., Pune to be statistically isotropic, i.e., statistical expectation values of the temperature #29;uctuations are preserved under rotations of the sky. Only under statistical isotropy does the widely used angular power spectrum

Souradeep, Tarun

405

Power Systems Engineering Research Center PSERC Background Paper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Power Systems Engineering Research Center PSERC Background Paper Power System Operations of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign September 10, 2003 Before the August 14th 2003 blackout most people gave little thought to the source of the power that comes out of the electric outlet. And why should they

406

Power Systems Engineering Research Center PSERC Background Paper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Power Systems Engineering Research Center PSERC Background Paper What is Reactive Power? Peter W-Champaign September 16, 2003 Engineering talk Reactive power is a quantity that is normally only defined time). In that sense, these are pulsating quantities. Because of this, the power being transmitted down

407

Low Background Radiation Experiment Yields Interesting Preliminary Results  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

CARLSBAD, N.M., May 18, 2011 – New Mexico State University?s Low Background Radiation Experiment (LBRE), which takes place 2,150 feet below the earth?s surface at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, recently released some results about the project?s first two years of experimentation.

408

Cosmic and Galactic Neutrino Backgrounds from Thermonuclear Sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We estimate energy spectra and fluxes at the Earth's surface of the cosmic and Galactic neutrino backgrounds produced by thermonuclear reactions in stars. The extra-galactic component is obtained by combining the most recent estimates of the cosmic star formation history and the stellar initial mass function with accurate theoretical predictions of the neutrino yields all over the thermonuclear lifetime of stars of different masses. Models of the structure and evolution of the Milky Way are used to derive maps of the expected flux generated by Galactic sources as a function of sky direction. The predicted neutrino backgrounds depend only slightly on model parameters. In the relevant 50 keV-10 MeV window, the total flux of cosmic neutrinos ranges between 20 and 65 particles per square cm per s. Neutrinos reaching the Earth today have been typically emitted at redshift z~2. Their energy spectrum peaks at E~0.1-0.3 MeV. The energy and entropy densities of the cosmic background are negligible with respect to the thermal contribution of relic neutrinos originated in the early universe. In every sky direction, the cosmic background is outnumbered by the Galactic one, whose integrated flux amounts to 300-1000 particles per square cm per s. The emission from stars in the Galactic disk contributes more than 95 per cent of the signal.

Cristiano Porciani; Silvia Petroni; Giovanni Fiorentini

2003-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

409

The prospects for polarized target materials with pure carbon background  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

None of the materials presently in common use for polarized proton targets has a pure carbon nuclear background. The alcohols and diols contain some oxygen, and the ammonia and amine-based materials contain nitrogen and/or other noncarbon species. In the latter cases the noncarbon nuclei are measurably polarized as a concomitant of the process used to polarize the hydrogen nuclei. The relative simplicity of a pure carbon background would be advantageous for most types of scattering experiments and perhaps crucial for some. In addition to simplifying the kinematics of background events, pure carbon is relatively easy to prepare as a ``dummy`` target for background subtraction. Also, in such a target material, {sup 13}C-enrichment would yield a clean polarized {sup 13}C material. In this note I explore the possibilities for such materials, touching upon only what I consider to be the ``high`` points. The subject matter is capable of nearly endless ramification and speculation. In fact, owing to a general lack of relevant experimental data, even this relatively brief note contains much that is speculative to some degree.

Hill, D.A.

1992-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

410

The prospects for polarized target materials with pure carbon background  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

None of the materials presently in common use for polarized proton targets has a pure carbon nuclear background. The alcohols and diols contain some oxygen, and the ammonia and amine-based materials contain nitrogen and/or other noncarbon species. In the latter cases the noncarbon nuclei are measurably polarized as a concomitant of the process used to polarize the hydrogen nuclei. The relative simplicity of a pure carbon background would be advantageous for most types of scattering experiments and perhaps crucial for some. In addition to simplifying the kinematics of background events, pure carbon is relatively easy to prepare as a dummy'' target for background subtraction. Also, in such a target material, [sup 13]C-enrichment would yield a clean polarized [sup 13]C material. In this note I explore the possibilities for such materials, touching upon only what I consider to be the high'' points. The subject matter is capable of nearly endless ramification and speculation. In fact, owing to a general lack of relevant experimental data, even this relatively brief note contains much that is speculative to some degree.

Hill, D.A.

1992-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

411

Rev. January 30, 2012 1 REFERENCE and BACKGROUND CHECK  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rev. January 30, 2012 1 REFERENCE and BACKGROUND CHECK PROCESS HUMAN RESOURCES Workforce Planning, as allowed by law, and consistent with the job described. The appropriate Workforce Planning Analyst the documentation. (Please note that the review will take place in Human Resources, under a Workforce Planning

Eirinaki, Magdalini

412

Power Systems Engineering Research Center PSERC Background Paper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Power Systems Engineering Research Center PSERC Background Paper The New Electric Power Business-tuned, economically efficient, and technically-reliable electric power system. The creation of new information system is outmoded and unprepared for the challenges of the new electric power business. A result

413

Seeing is Believing: It's All About the Background  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Seeing is Believing: It's All About the Background Thomas Meade Eileen Foell Chair in Cancer may promise for the experimental and clinical settings. Speaker Bio Thomas Meade, Ph.D., Received BS of Technology in the laboratory of Professor Harry B. Gray. In 1991 he joined the Division of Biology

Zanibbi, Richard

414

Topaz II preliminary safety assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

Marshall, A.C. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)); Standley, V. (Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87110 (United States)); Voss, S.S. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)); Haskin, E. (Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Institute for Nuclear Power Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87110 (United States))

1993-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

415

Topaz II preliminary safety assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 11 space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safely assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

Marshall, A.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Standley, V. (Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Voss, S.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Haskin, E. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

REVIEWING PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS SUPPORTING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Purpose: To summarize current NRC policy and guidance, which should assist in making informed decisions regarding land disposal of unique low-level radioactive waste streams, including disposal of significant quantities of depleted uranium until a new regulation is implemented. Background: In September 2009, NRC staff conducted two public workshops soliciting early public input on major issues associated with a potential rulemaking for land disposal of unique waste streams including, but not limited to, significant quantities of depleted uranium. During these workshops, a number of stakeholders expressed interest or concern with the review of performance assessments supporting land disposal of unique waste streams prior to completion of the rulemaking process. Discussion: The enclosure contains a summary of existing guidance for reviewing performance assessments with a focus on issues associated with the safe disposal of unique waste streams. NRC staff is providing this guidance to the Agreement States for their information, and for distribution to their licensees, as appropriate. If you have any questions regarding this correspondence, please contact me at 301-415-3340 or the individuals named below.

Robert J. Lewis

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

1 Copyright 2003 by ASME IMPROVING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT BY INCLUDING SPATIAL, DYNAMIC AND PLACE-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Drawing from the substantial body of literature on life cycle assessment / analysis (LCA), the article models is suggested as a means of improving the impact assessment phase of LCA. Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment, Life Cycle Analysis, Life Cycle Impact Assessment, LCA, Environmental Impact Assessment

418

Structural Assessment of Small Bore Feeder Piping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BACKGROUND Structural Assessment of Small Bore Feeder Piping Kathryn Tang, Janos Mann, Skerdi. Supervisor: A. N. Sinclair CASE ONE CANDU REACTORS HAVE 380+ SMALL BORE FEEDER PIPES. THE PIPES PIPES AND VALIDATE COMPUTATIONAL METHODS COMPARED TO FULL SCALE TESTS TO FAILURE. THE CLIENT CANDU

419

Wave breaking phenomenon of lower-hybrid oscillations induced by a background inhomogeneous magnetic field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a fluid description, we study space-time evolution of lower hybrid modes in a cold quasi-neutral homogeneous plasma in presence of a background inhomogeneous magnetic field. Within a linear analysis, a dispersion relation with inhomogeneous magnetic field shows 'phase mixing' of such oscillations. A manifestation of 'phase mixing' is shown in 'mode coupling.' By using Lagrangian variables, an exact solution is presented in parametric form of this nonlinear time dependent problem. It is demonstrated that initially excited lower hybrid modes always break via phase mixing phenomenon in presence of an inhomogeneous magnetic field. Breaking of such oscillations is revealed by the appearance of spikes in the plasma density profile.

Maity, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Sengupta, Sudip [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

420

Neutrino interaction with background matter in a noninertial frame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study Dirac neutrinos propagating in rotating background matter. First we derive the Dirac equation for a single massive neutrino in the noninertial frame, where matter is at rest. This equation is written in the effective curved space-time corresponding to the corotating frame. We find the exact solution of the Dirac equation. The neutrino energy levels for ultrarelativistic particles are obtained. Then we discuss several neutrino mass eigenstates, with a nonzero mixing between them, interacting with rotating background matter. We derive the effective Schr\\"{o}dinger equation governing neutrino flavor oscillations in rotating matter. The new resonance condition for neutrino oscillations is obtained. We also examine the correction to the resonance condition caused by the matter rotation.

Dvornikov, Maxim

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment background analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

A robust algorithm for sky background computation in CCD images  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we present a non-interactive algorithm to estimate a representative value for the sky background on CCD images. The method we have devised uses the mode as a robust estimator of the background brightness in sub-windows distributed across the input frame. The presence of contaminating objects is detected through the study of the local intensity distribution function and the perturbed areas are rejected using a statistical criterion which was derived from numerical simulations. The technique has been extensively tested on a large amount of images and it is suitable for fully automatic processing of large data volumes. The implementation we discuss here has been optimized for the ESO-FORS1 instrument, but it can be easily generalized to all CCD imagers with a sufficiently large field of view. The algorithm has been successfully used for the UBVRI ESO-Paranal night sky brightness survey (Patat 2003).

F. Patat

2003-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

422

Plane-parallel waves as duals of the flat background  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We give a classification of non-Abelian T-duals of the flat metric in D=4 dimensions with respect to the four-dimensional continuous subgroups of the Poincare group. After dualizing the flat background, we identify majority of dual models as conformal sigma models in plane-parallel wave backgrounds, most of them having torsion. We give their form in Brinkmann coordinates. We find, besides the plane-parallel waves, several diagonalizable curved metrics with nontrivial scalar curvature and torsion. Using the non-Abelian T-duality, we find general solution of the classical field equations for all the sigma models in terms of d'Alembert solutions of the wave equation.

Ladislav Hlavaty; Ivo Petr

2014-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

423

What are the galaxies contributing to the Cosmic Infrared Background ?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent optical observations have led to a significant progress in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. However, our view on the deep universe is currently limited to the starlight which directly escapes from high-redshift galaxies, since we so far ignore the fraction of luminosity absorbed by dust and released in the IR/submm wavelength range. A new constraint is set by the possible detection of the Cosmic Infrared Background. We briefly review the observations and use a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation and evolution to predict number counts consistent with the level of the background. It turns out that the predictions fairly accomodate preliminary data at 175 and 850 microns. This suggests that a significant fraction of star/galaxy formation at high z is hidden by dust.

B. Guiderdoni

1997-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

424

Radon induced surface contaminations in low background experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter searches, one of the main issues is to increase the experimental sensitivity through careful material selection and production, minimizing the background contributions. In order to achieve the required, extremely low, counting rates, very stringent requirements must be fulfilled in terms of bulk material radiopurity. As the experimental sensitivity increases, the bulk impurities in the detector components decrease, and surface contaminations start to play an increasingly significant role In fully active detectors, like cryogenic particle detectors, surface contaminations are a critical issue (as shown by the CUORICINO experiment). {sup 222}Rn is by far the most intense source of airborne radioactivity, and if a radio-pure material is exposed to environment where the Radon concentration is not minimized, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po contaminations can occur. The mechanisms and the dynamics of Radon-induced surface contaminations are reviewed, and specific solutions to prevent and to reject the induced background are presented.

Pattavina, L. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy)] [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy)

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

425

Backgrounds of squeezed relic photons and their spatial correlations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss the production of multi-photons squeezed states induced by the time variation of the (Abelian) gauge coupling constant in a string cosmological context. Within a fully quantum mechanical approach we solve the time evolution of the mean number of produced photons in terms of the squeezing parameters and in terms of the gauge coupling. We compute the first (amplitude interference) and second order (intensity interference) correlation functions of the magnetic part of the photon background. The photons produced thanks to the variation of the dilaton coupling are strongly bunched for the realistic case where the growth of the dilaton coupling is required to explain the presence of large scale magnetic fields and, possibly of a Faraday rotation of the Cosmic Microwave Background.

Massimo Giovannini

1999-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

426

Anisotropies in the gravitational-wave stochastic background  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We consider anisotropies in the stochastic background of gravitational-waves (SBGW) arising from random fluctuations in the number of gravitational-wave sources. We first develop the general formalism which can be applied to different cosmological or astrophysical scenarios. We then apply this formalism to calculate the anisotropies of SBGW associated with the fluctuations in the number of cosmic string loops, considering both cosmic string cusps and kinks. We calculate the anisotropies as a function of angle and frequency.

Ölmez, S.; Mandic, V. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Siemens, X., E-mail: olmez@physics.umn.edu, E-mail: mandic@physics.umn.edu, E-mail: siemens@gravity.phys.uwm.edu [Center for Gravitation and Cosmology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

RESOLVING THE RADIO SOURCE BACKGROUND: DEEPER UNDERSTANDING THROUGH CONFUSION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to image one primary beam area at 3 GHz with 8'' FWHM resolution and 1.0 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} rms noise near the pointing center. The P(D) distribution from the central 10 arcmin of this confusion-limited image constrains the count of discrete sources in the 1 < S({mu}Jy) < 10 range. At this level, the brightness-weighted differential count S {sup 2} n(S) is converging rapidly, as predicted by evolutionary models in which the faintest radio sources are star-forming galaxies; and Almost-Equal-To 96% of the background originating in galaxies has been resolved into discrete sources. About 63% of the radio background is produced by active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the remaining 37% comes from star-forming galaxies that obey the far-infrared (FIR)/radio correlation and account for most of the FIR background at {lambda} Almost-Equal-To 160 {mu}m. Our new data confirm that radio sources powered by AGNs and star formation evolve at about the same rate, a result consistent with AGN feedback and the rough correlation of black hole and stellar masses. The confusion at centimeter wavelengths is low enough that neither the planned Square Kilometre Array nor its pathfinder ASKAP EMU survey should be confusion limited, and the ultimate source detection limit imposed by 'natural' confusion is {<=}0.01 {mu}Jy at {nu} = 1.4 GHz. If discrete sources dominate the bright extragalactic background reported by ARCADE 2 at 3.3 GHz, they cannot be located in or near galaxies and most are {<=}0.03 {mu}Jy at 1.4 GHz.

Condon, J. J.; Cotton, W. D.; Fomalont, E. B.; Kellermann, K. I. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Miller, N. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Perley, R. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Scott, D.; Vernstrom, T.; Wall, J. V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1C1 (Canada)

2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

428

Design Considerations for Large Mass Ultra-Low Background Experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Summary The objective of this document is to present the designers of the next generation of large-mass, ultra-low background experiments with lessons learned and design strategies from previous experimental work. Design issues divided by topic into mechanical, thermal and electrical requirements are addressed. Large mass low-background experiments have been recognized by the scientific community as appropriate tools to aid in the refinement of the standard model. The design of these experiments is very costly and a rigorous engineering review is required for their success. The extreme conditions that the components of the experiment must withstand (heavy shielding, vacuum/pressure and temperature gradients), in combination with unprecedented noise levels, necessitate engineering guidance to support quality construction and safe operating conditions. Physical properties and analytical results of typical construction materials are presented. Design considerations for achieving ultra-low-noise data acquisition systems are addressed. Five large-mass, low-background conceptual designs for the one-tonne scale germanium experiment are proposed and analyzed. The result is a series of recommendations for future experiments engineering and for the Majorana simulation task group to evaluate the different design approaches.

Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Reid, Douglas J.; Fast, James E.; Orrell, John L.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Low-background tracker development for SuperNEMO  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The SuperNEMO experiment will search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0???) with a target sensitivity of T{sub 1/2}(0?) > 10{sup 26} years, corresponding to an effective neutrino mass of 50-100 meV. At its heart there is a low-background gaseous tracking detector which allows for extremely efficient background rejection and, if 0??? is observed, may provide important insights into the mechanism via which it may be mediated. Radon inside the tracker, which can mimic rare ?? events, is one of the most dangerous backgrounds for SuperNEMO. To reach the target sensitivity the radon concentration inside the tracking volume must be < 0.15 mBq/m{sup 3}. To reach this challengingly-low level of radon, a considerable program of R and D has been undertaken. This includes automation of the tracker-wiring process, development of a dedicated setup to measure radon diffusion and a 'radon concentration line' which will be able to measure levels of radon in the ?Bq/m{sup 3} range.

Mott, James [University College London, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)] [University College London, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Collaboration: SuperNEMO Collaboration; and others

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

430

Assessment for the extended uses of historic structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Restrooms Environmental Assessment: Site toxicity, Asbestos, Lead Paint, Containers 21 Collection Procedures Most of the data required for IAT analysis may be written documentation recorded by direct observation of the historic property. Descriptions...: Site Accessibility: Building Accessibility: Restroom Accessibility: Fire Extinguishing Systems: Exiting: Site Toxicity: Asbestos: Lead Paint: Containers: 46 Table 3. Assessment Summary ASSESSMENT SUMMARY ASSESSMENT for the ~ED USES...

Brune, Geoffrey John

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

431

anaesthetized rats-an assessment: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Websites Summary: technology analysis Noon Lunch 1:15 California off-shore wind technology assessment 1:45 Technical assessmentRESEARCH RESULTS FORUM FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY...

432

assess tumor-associated vasculature: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Websites Summary: technology analysis Noon Lunch 1:15 California off-shore wind technology assessment 1:45 Technical assessmentRESEARCH RESULTS FORUM FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY...

433

Real-Time Active Cosmic Neutron Background Reduction Methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Neutron counting using large arrays of pressurized 3He proportional counters from an aerial system or in a maritime environment suffers from the background counts from the primary cosmic neutrons and secondary neutrons caused by cosmic ray?induced mechanisms like spallation and charge-exchange reaction. This paper reports the work performed at the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Andrews (RSL-A) and results obtained when using two different methods to reduce the cosmic neutron background in real time. Both methods used shielding materials with a high concentration (up to 30% by weight) of neutron-absorbing materials, such as natural boron, to remove the low-energy neutron flux from the cosmic background as the first step of the background reduction process. Our first method was to design, prototype, and test an up-looking plastic scintillator (BC-400, manufactured by Saint Gobain Corporation) to tag the cosmic neutrons and then create a logic pulse of a fixed time duration (~120 ?s) to block the data taken by the neutron counter (pressurized 3He tubes running in a proportional counter mode). The second method examined the time correlation between the arrival of two successive neutron signals to the counting array and calculated the excess of variance (Feynman variance Y2F)1 in the neutron count distribution from Poisson distribution. The dilution of this variance from cosmic background values ideally would signal the presence of man-made neutrons.2 The first method has been technically successful in tagging the neutrons in the cosmic-ray flux and preventing them from being counted in the 3He tube array by electronic veto—field measurement work shows the efficiency of the electronic veto counter to be about 87%. The second method has successfully derived an empirical relationship between the percentile non-cosmic component in a neutron flux and the Y2F of the measured neutron count distribution. By using shielding materials alone, approximately 55% of the neutron flux from man-made sources like 252Cf or Am-Be was removed.

Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Wolff, Ronald; Mitchell, Stephen; Guss, Paul

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

An assessment of mercury emissions and health risks from a coal-fired power plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Title 3 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) mandated that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluate the need to regulate mercury emissions from electric utilities. In support of this forthcoming regulatory analysis the U.S. DOE, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the US MeHg is the predominant way of exposure to mercury originated in the atmosphere. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1,000 MW coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. This study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Even at these more elevated exposure levels, the attributable incidence in mild neurological symptoms was estimated to be quite small, especially when compared with the estimated background incidence in the population. The current paper summarizes the basic conclusions of this assessment and highlights issues dealing with emissions control and environmental transport.

Fthenakis, V.M.; Lipfert, F.; Moskowitz, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Analytical Sciences Div.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Flibe assessments.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An assessment of the issues on using flibe for fusion applications has been made. It is concluded that sufficient tritium breeding can be achieved for a flibe blanket, especially if a few cm of Be is include in the blanket design. A key issue is the control of the transmutation products such as TF and F{sub 2}. A REDOX (Reducing-Oxidation) reaction has to be demonstrated which is compatible to the blanket design. Also, MHD may have strong impact on heat transfer if the flow is perpendicular to the magnetic field. The issues associated with the REDOX reaction and the MHD issues have to be resolved by both experimental program and numerical solutions.

Sze, D. K.; McCarthy, K.; Sawan, M.; Tillack, M.; Ying, A.; Zinkle, S.

2000-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

436

Analysis of the Coal Sector under Carbon Constraints  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Application of the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model to assessment of the future

McFarland, James R.

437

Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies – Tasks 3 & 4 Report Economic, Energy, and Environmental Analysis of Hydrogen Production and Delivery Options in Select Alabama Markets: Preliminary Case Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents a set of case studies developed to estimate the cost of producing, storing, delivering, and dispensing hydrogen for light-duty vehicles for several scenarios involving metropolitan areas in Alabama. While the majority of the scenarios focused on centralized hydrogen production and pipeline delivery, alternative delivery modes were also examined. Although Alabama was used as the case study for this analysis, the results provide insights into the unique requirements for deploying hydrogen infrastructure in smaller urban and rural environments that lie outside the DOE’s high priority hydrogen deployment regions. Hydrogen production costs were estimated for three technologies – steam-methane reforming (SMR), coal gasification, and thermochemical water-splitting using advanced nuclear reactors. In all cases examined, SMR has the lowest production cost for the demands associated with metropolitan areas in Alabama. Although other production options may be less costly for larger hydrogen markets, these were not examined within the context of the case studies.

Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.; Gillette, Jerry; Elgowainy, Amgad; Mintz, Marianne

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Assessor Training Assessment Techniques  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NVLAP Assessor Training Assessment Techniques: Communication Skills and Conducting an Assessment listener ·Knowledgeable Assessor Training 2009: Assessment Techniques: Communication Skills & Conducting, truthful, sincere, discrete · Diplomatic · Decisive · Selfreliant Assessor Training 2009: Assessment

439

CARD No. 33 Consideration of Drilling Events in Performance Assessments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CARD No. 33 Consideration of Drilling Events in Performance Assessments 33.A.1 BACKGROUND have an effect on the disposal system (61 FR 5228). Section 194.33, "Consideration of drilling events in performance assessments," sets forth specific requirements for incorporation of human-initiated drilling

440

I. Introduction The Stock Assessment Improvement Plan (SAIP) is the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of fish- eries management systems. The resulting review (Appen- dix 7) contained ten recommendations are addressed in detail in Section II, along with other factors that define NMFS' stock assess- ment mandate. Section III provides background informa- tion on requirements for conducting assessments

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "assessment background analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Assessment of energetic costs of AhR activation by ?-naphthoflavone in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes using metabolic flux analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Exposure to environmental contaminants such as activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) leads to the induction of defense and detoxification mechanisms. While these mechanisms allow organisms to metabolize and excrete at least some of these environmental contaminants, it has been proposed that these mechanisms lead to significant energetic challenges. This study tests the hypothesis that activation of the AhR by the model agonist ?-naphthoflavone (?NF) results in increased energetic costs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. To address this hypothesis, we employed traditional biochemical approaches to examine energy allocation and metabolism including the adenylate energy charge (AEC), protein synthesis rates, Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity, and enzyme activities. Moreover, we have used for the first time in a fish cell preparation, metabolic flux analysis (MFA) an in silico approach for the estimation of intracellular metabolic fluxes. Exposure of trout hepatocytes to 1 ?M ?NF for 48 h did not alter hepatocyte AEC, protein synthesis, or Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity but did lead to sparing of glycogen reserves and changes in activities of alanine aminotransferase and citrate synthase suggesting altered metabolism. Conversely, MFA did not identify altered metabolic fluxes, although we do show that the dynamic metabolism of isolated trout hepatocytes poses a significant challenge for this type of approach which should be considered in future studies. - Highlights: • Energetic costs of AhR activation by ?NF was examined in rainbow trout hepatocytes. • Metabolic flux analysis was performed on a fish cell preparation for the first time. • Exposure to ?NF led to sparing of glycogen reserves and altered enzyme activities. • Adenylate energy charge was maintained despite temporal changes in metabolism.

Nault, Rance, E-mail: naultran@msu.edu [Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biology, Department of Biology and Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Abdul-Fattah, Hiba [Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biology, Department of Biology and Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Mironov, Gleb G.; Berezovski, Maxim V. [Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biology, Department of Biology and Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Moon, Thomas W. [Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biology, Department of Biology and Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

442

pn-CCDs in a Low-Background Environment: Detector Background of the CAST X-ray Telescope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The CAST experiment at CERN (European Organization of Nuclear Research) searches for axions from the sun. The axion is a pseudoscalar particle that was motivated by theory thirty years ago, with the intention to solve the strong CP problem. Together with the neutralino, the axion is one of the most promising dark matter candidates. The CAST experiment has been taking data during the last two years, setting an upper limit on the coupling of axions to photons more restrictive than from any other solar axion search in the mass range below 0.1 eV. In 2005 CAST will enter a new experimental phase extending the sensitivity of the experiment to higher axion masses. The CAST experiment strongly profits from technology developed for high energy physics and for X-ray astronomy: A superconducting prototype LHC magnet is used to convert potential axions to detectable X-rays in the 1-10 keV range via the inverse Primakoff effect. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a spin-off from space technology, a Wolter I type X-ray optics in combination with a prototype pn-CCD developed for ESA's XMM-Newton mission. As in other rare event searches, background suppression and a thorough shielding concept is essential to improve the sensitivity of the experiment to the best possible. In this context CAST offers the opportunity to study the background of pn-CCDs and its long term behavior in a terrestrial environment with possible implications for future space applications. We will present a systematic study of the detector background of the pn-CCD of CAST based on the data acquired since 2002 including preliminary results of our background simulations.

M. Kuster; S. Cebrian; A. Rodriquez; R. Kotthaus; H. Braeuninger; J. Franz; P. Friedrich; R. Hartmann; D. Kang; G. Lutz; L. Strueder

2005-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

443

Extending the Sensitivity to the Detection of WIMP Dark Matter with an Improved Understanding of the Limiting Neutron Backgrounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) uses position-sensitive Germanium and Silicon crystals in the direct detection of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) believed to constitute most of the dark matter in the Universe. WIMP interactions with matter being rare, identifying and eliminating known backgrounds is critical for detection. Event-by-event discrimination by the detectors rejects the predominant gamma and beta backgrounds while Monte Carlo simulations help estimate, and subtract, the contribution from the neutrons. This thesis describes the effort to understand neutron backgrounds as seen in the two stages of the CDMS search for WIMPs. The first stage of the experiment was at a shallow site at the Stanford Underground Facility where the limiting background came from high-energy neutrons produced by cosmic-ray muon interactions in the rock surrounding the cavern. Simulations of this background helped inform the analysis of data from an experimental run at this site and served as input for the background reduction techniques necessary to set new exclusion limits on the WIMP-nucleon cross-section, excluding new parameter space for WIMPs of masses 8-20 GeV/c{sup 2}. This thesis considers the simulation methods used as well as how various event populations in the data served as checks on the simulations to allow them to be used in the interpretation of the WIMP-search data. The studies also confirmed the presence of a limiting neutron background at the shallow site, necessitating the move to the 713-meter deep Soudan Underground Facility. Similar computer-based studies helped quantify the neutron background seen at the deeper site and informed the analysis of the data emerging from the first physics run of the experiment at Soudan. In conjunction with the WIMP-search and calibration data, the simulations confirmed that increased depth considerably reduced the neutron backgrounds seen, greatly improving the sensitivity to WIMP detection. The data run set an upper limit of 4 x 10{sup -43} on the WIMP-nucleon cross section for a WIMP mass of 60 GeV/c{sup 2} . Upper limits to the rate of background neutrons have also been determined.

Kamat, Sharmila; /Case Western Reserve U.; ,

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

First analysis stepsFirst analysis steps o quality control and optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

First analysis stepsFirst analysis steps o quality control and optimization o calibration and error intensities; · background intensities; · quality measures. R and G for each spot on the array. #12 by #12;What is (local) background? usual assumption: total brightness = background brightness (adjacent

Spang, Rainer

445

3 16.10.2013 Carsten Wemhoener Background of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

technology Assessment of suitability for new buildings and retrofit Summary of promising concepts be covered to a very significant extent by energy from renewable sources, including renewable energy produced production New renewable production capacity contractually linked to the building can be taken into account

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

446

BACKGROUND June 1999 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Health Fernald Risk Assessment Project ­ Draft Phase II Report Phase II: Screening Level Estimates of the Maximum Estimated Exposure to Radioactive Materials Released from the Fernald Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) The Fernald Nuclear Site The Fernald Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) near Ross

447

Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy in the presence of strong resonant signal from background molecules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical spectroscopy with broadband femtosecond laser pulses often involves simultaneous excitation of multiple molecular species with close resonance frequencies. Interpreting the collective optical response from molecular mixtures typically requires Fourier analysis of the detected time-resolved signal. We propose an alternative method of separating coherent optical responses from two molecular species with neighboring excitation resonances (here, vibrational modes of oxygen and carbon dioxide). We utilize ro-vibrational coupling as a mechanism of suppressing the strong vibrational response from the dominating molecular species (O$_{2}$). Coherent ro-vibrational dynamics lead to long "silence windows" of zero signal from oxygen molecules. In these silence windows, the detected signal stems solely from the minority species (CO$_{2}$) enabling background-free detection and characterization of the O$_2$/CO$_2$ mixing ratio. In comparison to a Fourier analysis, our technique does not require femtosecond time resolution or time-delay scanning.

Martin Bitter; Valery Milner

2012-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

448

Assessment 101: The Assessment Cycle, Clear and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessment 101: The Assessment Cycle, Clear and Simple October 1, 2014 Kellogg West Conference Center, Pomona, CA Resource Binder #12;2014-2015 WASC Senior College and University Commission is pleased expectations. Assessment 101: The Assessment Cycle, Clear and Simple October 1, 2014. Kellogg West, Pomona, CA

Su, Xiao

449

Risk assessment in environmental management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This book is a straightforward exposition of US EPA-based procedures for the risk assessment and risk management of contaminated land, interwoven with discussions on some of the key fundamentals on the fate and transport of chemicals in the environment and the toxic action of environmental chemicals. The book is logically structured, commencing with a general overview of the principles of risk assessment and the interface with environmental legislation. There follows an introduction to environmental fate and transport, modeling, toxicology and uncertainty analysis, and a discussion of the elements of a risk assessment (site characterization, exposure analysis, toxic action and risk characterization), intake of a chemical with its environmental concentration and activity-related parameters such as inhalation rate and exposure time. The book concludes with a discussion on the derivation of risk-based action levels and remediation goals.

Asante-Duah, D.K.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Instructions to obtain the FBI background check Long-Stay Valencia Students The FBI Background Check is the first step in a two-part process. The FBI Background Check takes 4-6  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Instructions to obtain the FBI background check Long-Stay Valencia Students The FBI Background Check is the first step in a two-part process. The FBI Background Check takes 4-6 weeks for processing form, fingerprint card and payment--to the following address: FBI CJIS Division ­ Record Request 1000

Hull, Elaine

451

Pairs Emission in a Uniform Background Field: an Algebraic Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A fully algebraic general approach is developed to treat the pairs emission and absorption in the presence of some uniform external background field. In particular, it is shown that the pairs production and annihilation operators, together with the pairs number operator, do actually fulfill the SU(2) functional Lie algebra. As an example of application, the celebrated Schwinger formula is consistently and nicely recovered, within this novel approach, for a Dirac spinor field in the presence of a constant and homogeneous electric field in four spacetime dimensions.

Roberto Soldati

2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

452

Translational invariance and the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Primordial quantum fluctuations produced by inflation are conventionally assumed to be statistically homogeneous, a consequence of translational invariance. In this paper we quantify the potentially observable effects of a small violation of translational invariance during inflation, as characterized by the presence of a preferred point, line, or plane. We explore the imprint such a violation would leave on the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, and provide explicit formulas for the expected amplitudes of the spherical-harmonic coefficients.

Carroll, Sean M.; Tseng, C.-Y.; Wise, Mark B. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

453

Technical background document for draft soil screening level guidance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The document provides technical details of the derivation of the September 30, 1993, draft Soil Screening Levels (SSLs) Guidance for Superfund (PB93-963508). The document is presented in two sections. Section I defines SSL and provides background information on the development of SSLs and their application and implementation at Superfund sites, including sampling schemes for measuring SSL attainment. It also provides draft SSLs developed for 30 chemicals. Section II provides the technical basis for the development of SSLs addressing direct ingestion of soil, inhalation of volatiles and fugitive dust, and the soil-to-ground-water exposure pathway, including the assumptions and theories used the their development.

Not Available

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z